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Evaluating Training Programs The Four Levels by Kirkpatrick

Sajid Mahsud Abdul Aziz


Upon completion of this presentation you will be able to:

State why evaluation of programs is critical to you and your organization. Apply Kirkpatricks four levels of evaluation to your programs. Use guidelines for developing evaluations. Implement various forms and approaches to evaluation

Why Evaluate?

Determine the effectiveness of the program design How the program was received by the participants How learners fared on assessment of their learning Determine what instructional strategies work presentation mode presentation methods. learning activities desired level of learning Program improvement

Why Evaluate?

Should the program be continued? How do you justify your existence? How do you determine the return on investment for the program? human capital individual competence social/economic benefit

Four Levels of Evaluation


During program evaluation

Level One Level Two Level Three Level Four

Reaction Learning Behavior Results

Post program evaluation

Reaction Level

A customer satisfaction measure

Were the participants pleased with the program Perception if they learned anything Likelihood of applying the content Effectiveness of particular strategies Effectiveness of the packaging of the course

Example of Level One

Using a number, how would you describe this program? (circle a number)
Terrible 1 Average 3 Outstanding 5

Intent: Provides quantitative feedback to determine average responses (descriptive data). Watch scale sets!

Example of Level One

How much did you know about this subject before taking this workshop?
Nothing 1 2 Some 3 4 A lot 5

How much do you know about this subject after participating in this workshop?
Nothing 1 2 Some 3 4 A lot 5

Intent - The question does not assess actual learning, it assesses perceived learning.

Example Level One

How likely are you to use some or all of the skills taught in this workshop in your work/community/ family?
Not Likely 1
Likely 3

Very Likely 5

Intent determine learners perceived relevance of the material. May correlate with the satisfaction learners feel.

Example of Level One

The best part of this program was The one thing that could be improved most .. Intent Qualitative feedback on the course and help prioritize work in a revision. Develop themes on exercises, pace of course, etc.


Guidelines for Evaluating Reaction

Decide what you want to find out. Design a form that will quantify reactions. Encourage written comments. Get 100% immediate response. Get honest responses. If desirable, get delayed reactions. Determine acceptable standards. Measure future reactions against the standard.


Learning Level

What did the participants learn in the program?

The extent to which participants change attitudes, increase knowledge, and/or increase skill. What exactly did the participant learn and not learn? Pretest Posttest


Learning Level

Requires developing specific learning objectives to be evaluated. Learning measures should be objective and quantifiable.

Paper pencil tests, performance on skills tests, simulations, role-plays, case study, etc.


Level Two Examples

Develop a written exam based on the desired learning objectives. Use the exam as a pretest Provide participants with a worksheet/activity sheet that will allow for tracking during the session. Emphasize and repeat key learning points during the session. Use the pretest exam as a posttest exam. Compute the posttest-pretest gain on the exam.


What makes a good test?

The only valid test questions emerge from the objectives. Consider writing main objectives and supporting objectives. Test questions usually test supporting objectives. Ask more than one question on each objective.


Level Two Strategies

Consider using scenarios, case studies, sample project evaluations, etc, rather than test questions. Develop a rubric of desired responses.

Develop between 3 and 10 questions or scenarios for each main objective.


Level Two Strategies

Provide instructor feedback during the learning activities.

Requires the instructor to actively monitor participants discussion, practice activities, and engagement. Provide learners feedback. Ask participants open ended questions (congruent with the learning objectives) during activities to test participant understanding.


Which of the following should be considered when evaluating at the Reaction Level? (more than one answer possible) ___Evaluate only the lesson content ___Obtain both subjective and objective responses ___Get 100% response from participants ___Honest responses are important ___Only the course instructor should review results.


Match the following to the choices below ___ Reaction Level ___ Learning Level A. Changes in performance at work B. Participant satisfaction C. Organizational Improvement D. What the participant learned in class


Scenario Example

An instructor would like to know the effectiveness of the course design and how much a participant has learned in a seminar. The instructor would like to achieve at least Level Two evaluation.

What techniques could the instructor use to achieve level two evaluation? Should the instructor also consider doing a level one evaluation? Why or why not?


Behavior Level

How the training affects performance. The extent to which change in behavior occurred. Was the learning transferred from the classroom to the real world. Transfer Transfer - Transfer


Conditions Necessary to Change

The person must:

have a desire to change. know what to do and how to do it. work in the right climate. be rewarded for changing.


Types of Climates

Preventing forbidden to use the learning. Discouraging changes in current way of doing things is not desired. Neutral learning is ignored. Encouraging receptive to applying new learning. Requiring change in behavior is mandated.


Guidelines for Evaluating Behavior

Measure on a before/after basis Allow time for behavior change (adaptation) to take place Survey or interview one or more who are in the best position to see change.

The participant/learner The supervisor/mentor Subordinates or peers Others familiar with the participants actions.


Guidelines for Evaluating Behavior

Get 100% response or a sample?

Depends on size of group. The more the better. Remember that other factors can influence behavior over time.

Repeat at appropriate times

Use a control group if practical Consider cost vs. benefits of the evaluation


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Level Three Examples

Observation Survey or Interview

Participant and/or others

Before and after Control group

Performance benchmarks

Evidence or Portfolio
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Results Level

Impact of education and training on the organization or community. The final results that occurred as a result of training. The ROI for training.


Examples of Level Four

How did the training save costs Did work output increase Was there a change in the quality of work Did the social condition improve Did the individual create an impact on the community Is there evidence that the organization or community has changed.


Guidelines for Evaluating Results

Measure before and after Allow time for change to take place Repeat at appropriate times Use a control group if practical Consider cost vs. benefits of doing Level Four Remember, other factors can affect results Be satisfied with Evidence if Proof is not possible.


Thank you
2007 Fall Extension Conference