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Chapter 8

Acquisition and Restructuring Strategies
Robert E. Hoskisson Michael A. Hitt R. Duane Ireland
©2004 by South-Western/Thomson Learning
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The Strategic Management Process
Strategic Thinking
Chapter 1 Introduction to Strategic Management Chapter 2 Strategic Leadership

Strategic Analysis

Chapter 3 The External Environment

Chapter 4 The Internal Organization

Strategic Intent Strategic Mission

Creating Competitive Advantage

Chapter 5 Business-Level Strategy Chapter 8 Acquisitionsand Acquisition and Restructuring Strategies

Chapter 6 Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics Chapter 9 International Strategy

Chapter 7 Corporate-Level Strategy

Chapter 10 Cooperative Strategy

Monitoring And Creating Entrepreneurial Opportunities

Chapter 11 Corporate Governance

Chapter 12 Strategic Entrepreneurship 2

Mergers, Acquisitions and Takeovers

Merger: a strategy through which two firms agree to integrate their operations on a relatively co-equal basis Acquisition: a strategy through which one firm
buys a controlling interest in another firm with the intent of making the acquired firm a subsidiary business within its own portfolio

Takeover: a special type of an acquisition
strategy wherein the target firm did not solicit the acquiring firm’s bid
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Reasons for Making Acquisitions
Learn and develop new capabilities Increase market power Reshape firm’s competitive scope

Overcome entry barriers

Acquisitions

Increase diversification

Cost of new product development

Increase speed to market

Lower risk compared to developing new products
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Reasons for Making Acquisitions:
Increased Market Power

Factors increasing market power
– when a firm is able to sell its goods or services above competitive levels or – when the costs of its primary or support activities are below those of its competitors – usually is derived from the size of the firm and its resources and capabilities to compete

Market power is increased by
– horizontal acquisitions – vertical acquisitions – related acquisitions

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Reasons for Making Acquisitions:
Overcome Barriers to Entry

Barriers to entry include
– economies of scale in established competitors – differentiated products by competitors – enduring relationships with customers that create product loyalties with competitors

acquisition of an established company
– may be more effective than entering the market as a competitor offering an unfamiliar good or service that is unfamiliar to current buyers

Cross-border acquisition
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Reasons for Making Acquisitions:
Cost of New Product Development and Increased Speed to Market

Significant investments of a firm’s resources are required to
– develop new products internally – introduce new products into the marketplace

Acquisition of a competitor may result in
– – – – – – lower risk compared to developing new products increased diversification reshaping the firm’s competitive scope learning and developing new capabilities faster market entry rapid access to new capabilities
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Reasons for Making Acquisitions:
Lower Risk Compared to Developing New Products
An acquisition’s outcomes can be estimated more easily and accurately compared to the outcomes of an internal product development process  Therefore managers may view acquisitions as lowering risk

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Reasons for Making Acquisitions:
Increased Diversification

It may be easier to develop and introduce new products in markets currently served by the firm  It may be difficult to develop new products for markets in which a firm lacks experience
– it is uncommon for a firm to develop new products internally to diversify its product lines – acquisitions are the quickest and easiest way to diversify a firm and change its portfolio of businesses
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Reasons for Making Acquisitions:
Reshaping the Firms’ Competitive Scope

Firms may use acquisitions to reduce their dependence on one or more products or markets  Reducing a company’s dependence on specific markets alters the firm’s competitive scope

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Reasons for Making Acquisitions:
Learning and Developing New Capabilities

Acquisitions may gain capabilities that the firm does not possess  Acquisitions may be used to
– acquire a special technological capability – broaden a firm’s knowledge base – reduce inertia

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Problems With Acquisitions
Integration difficulties

Resulting firm is too large

Inadequate evaluation of target

Acquisitions

Managers overly focused on acquisitions

Large or extraordinary debt Inability to achieve synergy

Too much diversification

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Problems With Acquisitions
Integration Difficulties

Integration challenges include
– melding two disparate corporate cultures – linking different financial and control systems – building effective working relationships (particularly when management styles differ) – resolving problems regarding the status of the newly acquired firm’s executives – loss of key personnel weakens the acquired firm’s capabilities and reduces its value

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Problems With Acquisitions
Inadequate Evaluation of Target

Evaluation requires that hundreds of issues be closely examined, including
– financing for the intended transaction – differences in cultures between the acquiring and target firm – tax consequences of the transaction – actions that would be necessary to successfully meld the two workforces

Ineffective due-diligence process may
– result in paying excessive premium for the target company
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Problems With Acquisitions
Large or Extraordinary Debt

Firm may take on significant debt to acquire a company  High debt can
– increase the likelihood of bankruptcy – lead to a downgrade in the firm’s credit rating – preclude needed investment in activities that contribute to the firm’s long-term success

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Problems With Acquisitions
Inability to Achieve Synergy

Synergy exists when assets are worth more when used in conjunction with each other than when they are used separately  Firms experience transaction costs (e.g., legal fees) when they use acquisition strategies to create synergy  Firms tend to underestimate indirect costs of integration when evaluating a potential acquisition
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Problems With Acquisitions
Too Much Diversification

Diversified firms must process more information of greater diversity  Scope created by diversification may cause managers to rely too much on financial rather than strategic controls to evaluate business units’ performances  Acquisitions may become substitutes for innovation

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Problems With Acquisitions
Managers Overly Focused on Acquisitions

Managers in target firms may operate in a state of virtual suspended animation during an acquisition  Executives may become hesitant to make decisions with long-term consequences until negotiations have been completed  Acquisition process can create a shortterm perspective and a greater aversion to risk among top-level executives in a target firm
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Problems With Acquisitions
Too Large

Additional costs may exceed the benefits of the economies of scale and additional market power  Larger size may lead to more bureaucratic controls  Formalized controls often lead to relatively rigid and standardized managerial behavior  Firm may produce less innovation
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Attributes of Effective Acquisitions
Attributes
Complementary Assets or Resources Friendly Acquisitions Careful Selection Process Maintain Financial Slack

Results
Buying firms with assets that meet current needs to build competitiveness Friendly deals make integration go more smoothly Deliberate evaluation and negotiations are more likely to lead to easy integration and building synergies Provide enough additional financial resources so that profitable projects would not be foregone 20

Attributes of Effective Acquisitions
Attributes
Low-to-Moderate Debt

Results
Merged firm maintains financial flexibility Continue to invest in R&D as part of the firm’s overall strategy Has experience at managing change and is flexible and adaptable

Sustain Emphasis on Innovation
Flexibility

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Restructuring Activities
 

Downsizing
– Wholesale reduction of employees

Downscoping
– Selectively divesting or closing non-core businesses – Reducing scope of operations – Leads to greater focus

Leveraged Buyout (LBO)
– A party buys a firm’s entire assets in order to take the firm private.
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Restructuring and Outcomes
Alternatives Short-Term Outcomes Long-Term Outcomes

Downsizing

Reduced labor costs Reduced debt costs Emphasis on strategic controls High debt costs

Loss of human capital
Lower performance Higher performance Higher risk
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Downscoping Leveraged buyout