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Naveen Patel

What is a Router ?

• Router is a device which provides communication
possible between two or more different networks.

• To allow communication between two or more
different networks present in the same geographical
location, what are the steps to be taken:

Answer : Configure a Software Router.

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Is communication possible ?
S0 S1
E0 E0

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7


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the hosts will look for the Destination within the LAN and does not forward the request to the Default Gateway (Router).Is communication possible ? As both the Networks have the same Network ID. Hence the communication is not possible. Naveen Patel .

Router Manufacturers Cisco Nortel Multicom Cyclades Juniper Dlink Linksys Etc. But Cisco is having monopoly in the market of Routers Naveen Patel .

Cisco’s Hierarchical Design Model Three Layers: Core Layer Distribution Layer Access Layer Naveen Patel .

2600. 1700. 1800. 1600. Router Series : 800. 2500.Access Layer Routers • Routers which are used by the Small Organization and are also known as Access Layer Routers. Cisco 800 Cisco 1700 Cisco 1760 Naveen Patel .

3800. 3700.3600.Distribution Layer Router • Routers which are used by the ISPs and are also known as ISP Layer Routers Router Series : 2800 . Cisco 3600 Cisco 3700 Naveen Patel Cisco 2600XM/2691 .

7200. 7500.Core Layer Router • Routers which are used by the Global ISPs and are also known as Backbone Routers Router Series : 6400. 10000. 12000 Cisco 7000 Naveen Patel .

Example Modular Router Naveen Patel .

Fixed Router .Model 2501 AUI Attachment Unit Interface Serial Ports S0 and S1 Power Switch E0 Chassis Console Auxiliary Power Con 0 Aux 0 Supply Naveen Patel .

i.e. • It is used for connecting LAN to the Router. • It is known as Ethernet Port or LAN port or Default Gateway. RJ45 to 15 pin converter.Attachment Unit Interface • AUI pin configuration is 15 pin female. Naveen Patel . • Transceiver is used for converting 8 wires to 15 wires.

Transceiver Naveen Patel .

168.3 1.168.1/24 Straight Cable 1.4 LAN .192.0/24 Naveen Patel .1.2 1. E0 Straight Cable 192. LAN.Attachment Unit Interface An An IPIP address address needs needs to to be be assigned assigned to to this this interface interfaceand andititshould shouldbe beininthe thesame samenetwork networkas as of ofthe theLAN.1.

2 LAN .Attachment Unit Interface If If you you connect connect Router Router AUI AUI to to directly directly to to PC PC LAN LAN Card Card then then You You Cross Cable have havetotouse useCross CrossCable Cable 1.192.0/24 Naveen Patel .1.168.

Hub to Router 1 1 12345678 2 2 12345678 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 Naveen Patel . Switch to PC. Hub to PC.Crimping of Twisted pair Cable • Straight cable It is used between unlike device (dissimilar devices) e.g.

Hub to HUB.g. HUB to Switch. PC to Router 1 1 12345678 2 2 12345678 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 Naveen Patel . PC to PC.Crimping of Twisted pair Cable • Cross cable It is used between like device (Similar devices) e. Switch to Switch.

Crimping of Twisted pair Cable • Rollover Cable It is used for connecting Router Console Port to PC Com Ports or Serial ports. 1 1 12345678 2 2 12345678 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 Naveen Patel .

• It is known as WAN Port • It is used for connecting to Remote Locations • V. Naveen Patel .Serial Port • Serial pin configuration is 60 pin configuration female (i.35 cable is having 60 pin configuration male at one end and on the other end 18 pin configuration male. 15 pins and 4 rows) and Smart Serial pin configuration is 26 pin configuration female.e.

35 Cable Naveen Patel .V.

35 Smart Cable Naveen Patel . V. EXCHANGE G.2.35 V.0/24 LAN .35 E0 Modem Modem HYDERABAD CHENNAI MUX MUX Naveen Patel Fiber Optic Cable .1 2 pair of Copper Wire LAN .0/24 HYDERABAD CHENNAI OFFICE OFFICE G.192.1 Cable Cable 192.2.192. V.35 Modem E0 V.

Password Recovery and Local Administration of the Router. So make less use of the Console Port. Naveen Patel .Console Port • It is known as Local Administrative Port • It is generally used for Initial Configuration. It is RJ45 Port • IMP : It is the most delicate port on the Router.

Console Connectivity Naveen Patel .

Console Connectivity • Connect a rollover cable to the router console port (RJ-45 connector). • Connect the other end of the rollover cable to the RJ-45 to DB-9 converter • Attach the female DB-9 converter to a PC Serial Port. • Open Emulation Software Naveen Patel .

DB9 Converter Naveen Patel .

Auxiliary Port • It is known as Remote Administrative Port. Naveen Patel . • Used for remote administration • Its an RJ-45 port • A console or a rollover cable is to be used.

Auxiliary Connectivity Naveen Patel .

It is a RJ45 Port. • 10 Base T Port It is a RJ45 Port and used for connecting LAN to the Router. Its function is same as the AUI Port but there is no need for a Transceiver. It is available on 2520 model router. Naveen Patel . It is available on 2503 and 2520 model router.Other Ports • BRI Port Basic Rate Interface used to connect ISDN to the Router.

2601 Model Router Naveen Patel .

Local Auxiliary – RJ45 . S1 etc) – 60 pin/26 pin(smart serial) ISDN interface(BRI0 etc) – RJ45 LAN interfaces .Brief Overview WAN interfaces Serial interface (S0.Remote Naveen Patel .Ethernet AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) (E0)– 15 pin 10baseT – RJ45 Administration interfaces Console – RJ45 .

0 Flash Internetwork Operating System (IOS) developed by Cisco is stored here. It is same as the BIOS of the PC. Bootstrap program current version is 11.Internal Components ROM A bootstrap program is located here. IOS is Command line interface. Naveen Patel .

similar to Hard Disk It is also known as Permanent Storage or Startup Configuration. Generally size of NVRAM is 32 KB. The size of RAM is greater than NVRAM in the Router.Internal Components NVRAM Non volatile RAM. RAM It is also known as Temporary Storage or running Configuration. Processor Motorola Processor 70 Mhz. RISC based processor (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Naveen Patel . Minimum size of RAM is 2MB.

Boot sequence POST ROM Power Power onon Self Self Test Test (verifies) (verifies) the the hardware hardware Contact the ROM FLASH Contact the ROM Loads Loads the the Bootstrap Bootstrap Program Program & & Search Search where where IOS IOS is is located located NVRAM IOS IOS found found in in Flash Flash Loading Loading IOSIOS RAM Flash Flash contacts contacts the the NVRAM NVRAM For For Configuration Configuration File File NVRAM NVRAM configuration configuration copied copied into into RAM RAM Naveen Patel .