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Naveen Patel

What is a Router ?

• Router is a device which provides communication
possible between two or more different networks.

• To allow communication between two or more
different networks present in the same geographical
location, what are the steps to be taken:

Answer : Configure a Software Router.

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Is communication possible ?

10.0.0.1/8 10.0.0.2/8
S0 S1
HYD CHE
E0
192.168.1.1/24 E0
192.168.1.2/24

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

LAN 192.168.1.0/24 LAN 192.168.1.0/24

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Is communication possible ? As both the Networks have the same Network ID. the hosts will look for the Destination within the LAN and does not forward the request to the Default Gateway (Router). Hence the communication is not possible. Naveen Patel .

Router Manufacturers Cisco Nortel Multicom Cyclades Juniper Dlink Linksys Etc. But Cisco is having monopoly in the market of Routers Naveen Patel .

Cisco’s Hierarchical Design Model Three Layers: Core Layer Distribution Layer Access Layer Naveen Patel .

2500. Router Series : 800. 1600.Access Layer Routers • Routers which are used by the Small Organization and are also known as Access Layer Routers.2600. 1800. 1700. Cisco 800 Cisco 1700 Cisco 1760 Naveen Patel .

3700. Cisco 3600 Cisco 3700 Naveen Patel Cisco 2600XM/2691 .3600. 3800.Distribution Layer Router • Routers which are used by the ISPs and are also known as ISP Layer Routers Router Series : 2800 .

7200. 7500. 12000 Cisco 7000 Naveen Patel .Core Layer Router • Routers which are used by the Global ISPs and are also known as Backbone Routers Router Series : 6400. 10000.

Example Modular Router Naveen Patel .

Fixed Router .Model 2501 AUI Attachment Unit Interface Serial Ports S0 and S1 Power Switch E0 Chassis Console Auxiliary Power Con 0 Aux 0 Supply Naveen Patel .

Attachment Unit Interface • AUI pin configuration is 15 pin female. RJ45 to 15 pin converter. • It is known as Ethernet Port or LAN port or Default Gateway. Naveen Patel . • Transceiver is used for converting 8 wires to 15 wires. • It is used for connecting LAN to the Router. i.e.

Transceiver Naveen Patel .

E0 Straight Cable 192.Attachment Unit Interface An An IPIP address address needs needs to to be be assigned assigned to to this this interface interfaceand andititshould shouldbe beininthe thesame samenetwork networkas as of ofthe theLAN.192.1.168. LAN.4 LAN .1/24 Straight Cable 1.2 1.168.0/24 Naveen Patel .3 1.1.

Attachment Unit Interface If If you you connect connect Router Router AUI AUI to to directly directly to to PC PC LAN LAN Card Card then then You You Cross Cable have havetotouse useCross CrossCable Cable 1.2 LAN .1.168.0/24 Naveen Patel .192.

Switch to PC. Hub to Router 1 1 12345678 2 2 12345678 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 Naveen Patel . Hub to PC.g.Crimping of Twisted pair Cable • Straight cable It is used between unlike device (dissimilar devices) e.

PC to Router 1 1 12345678 2 2 12345678 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 Naveen Patel . PC to PC. HUB to Switch.g. Hub to HUB.Crimping of Twisted pair Cable • Cross cable It is used between like device (Similar devices) e. Switch to Switch.

Crimping of Twisted pair Cable • Rollover Cable It is used for connecting Router Console Port to PC Com Ports or Serial ports. 1 1 12345678 2 2 12345678 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 Naveen Patel .

e. • It is known as WAN Port • It is used for connecting to Remote Locations • V.Serial Port • Serial pin configuration is 60 pin configuration female (i. Naveen Patel . 15 pins and 4 rows) and Smart Serial pin configuration is 26 pin configuration female.35 cable is having 60 pin configuration male at one end and on the other end 18 pin configuration male.

V.35 Cable Naveen Patel .

V.35 Smart Cable Naveen Patel .

703 EXCHANGE G.1 Cable Cable 192.192.0/24 HYDERABAD CHENNAI OFFICE OFFICE G.703 Modem Modem HYDERABAD CHENNAI MUX MUX Naveen Patel Fiber Optic Cable .0/24 LAN .2.168.168.168.192.35 Modem E0 V.168.1.2.35 V. V.1.1 2 pair of Copper Wire LAN .35 E0 192.

So make less use of the Console Port.Console Port • It is known as Local Administrative Port • It is generally used for Initial Configuration. It is RJ45 Port • IMP : It is the most delicate port on the Router. Naveen Patel . Password Recovery and Local Administration of the Router.

Console Connectivity Naveen Patel .

• Connect the other end of the rollover cable to the RJ-45 to DB-9 converter • Attach the female DB-9 converter to a PC Serial Port.Console Connectivity • Connect a rollover cable to the router console port (RJ-45 connector). • Open Emulation Software Naveen Patel .

DB9 Converter Naveen Patel .

• Used for remote administration • Its an RJ-45 port • A console or a rollover cable is to be used.Auxiliary Port • It is known as Remote Administrative Port. Naveen Patel .

Auxiliary Connectivity Naveen Patel .

It is available on 2503 and 2520 model router. Naveen Patel . • 10 Base T Port It is a RJ45 Port and used for connecting LAN to the Router. It is a RJ45 Port.Other Ports • BRI Port Basic Rate Interface used to connect ISDN to the Router. Its function is same as the AUI Port but there is no need for a Transceiver. It is available on 2520 model router.

2601 Model Router Naveen Patel .

Remote Naveen Patel .Ethernet AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) (E0)– 15 pin 10baseT – RJ45 Administration interfaces Console – RJ45 .Brief Overview WAN interfaces Serial interface (S0.Local Auxiliary – RJ45 . S1 etc) – 60 pin/26 pin(smart serial) ISDN interface(BRI0 etc) – RJ45 LAN interfaces .

It is same as the BIOS of the PC.0 Flash Internetwork Operating System (IOS) developed by Cisco is stored here.Internal Components ROM A bootstrap program is located here. Bootstrap program current version is 11. Naveen Patel . IOS is Command line interface.

similar to Hard Disk It is also known as Permanent Storage or Startup Configuration. Minimum size of RAM is 2MB. RAM It is also known as Temporary Storage or running Configuration. Generally size of NVRAM is 32 KB. The size of RAM is greater than NVRAM in the Router. Processor Motorola Processor 70 Mhz.Internal Components NVRAM Non volatile RAM. RISC based processor (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Naveen Patel .

Boot sequence POST ROM Power Power onon Self Self Test Test (verifies) (verifies) the the hardware hardware Contact the ROM FLASH Contact the ROM Loads Loads the the Bootstrap Bootstrap Program Program & & Search Search where where IOS IOS is is located located NVRAM IOS IOS found found in in Flash Flash Loading Loading IOSIOS RAM Flash Flash contacts contacts the the NVRAM NVRAM For For Configuration Configuration File File NVRAM NVRAM configuration configuration copied copied into into RAM RAM Naveen Patel .