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Lesson 4


Nonverbal Symbols
■ Neither spoken nor written
■ Do not include words
■ Include vocal elements and visual elements

Functions of Nonverbal Symbols .

Functions of Nonverbal Symbols • Simply repeat the message of verbal symbols • Complements the verbal symbol by clarifying or explaining • Serve as a means of accent • Substitute for the message • Contradict with verbal symbols .

Two Types of Nonverbal Symbols .


we should start with the organs of speech. .VOCAL ELEMENTS Articulati .formation of discrete speech sounds on To have the correct production of sounds.

movable organs of the vocal tract which is involved in articulation Example: Tongue and lower lip Points of Articulation .Parts of the vocal tract which cannot move but which are involved in articulation Example: Teeth .VOCAL ELEMENTS ORGANS OF SPEECH Articulators .

VOCAL ELEMENTS Other parts of the vocal tract include the following: RESONANCE CHAMBER .Acts as resonance chamber for vocal sound produced in larynx • Oral cavity • Nasal cavity VOICE .Part of the vocal tract that connects the larynx with the oral cavity .where the quality of the vocal sound is modified • Pharynx .

Point of Articulation 3.Voicing 2.Speech sound caused by stoppage or hindrance of the voiced or voiceless breath Classification of Consonants: 1.VOCAL ELEMENTS CONSONANTS .Manner of Articulation .

.May be voiced or voiceless Voiced – the vocal folds are set in vibration by the outgoing breath stream. Voiceless – the vocal folds do not vibrate. and the resultant sound is composed exclusively of the noise of friction.VOCAL ELEMENTS Voicing .

s.VOCAL ELEMENTS Point of articulation . but not touching them 4) Alveolars – produced with the tip of the tongue near the alveolar ridge (t. b) 2) Labio-dentals – produced with the lower lip near the upper teeth (f. v) 3) Interdentals – produced with tongue tip between the upper and lower teeth. n.Tells where the sound is produced 1) Bilabials – produced with the lower lip or against the upper lip (p. z. d. l) 5) Alveo-palatals – produced with the front of the tongue near the hard palate 6) Retroflex – produced with the tip of the tongue going upward and backward towards the hard palate (r) 7) Prepalatal – produced with the dorsum or upper surface of the tongue near velum (y) .

r) 6) Lateral – produced with the tip of the tongue pressed lightly against the upper teeth (l) .Tells how the sound is produced 1) Stops – produced by closing and opening the mouth with an explosion (p.VOCAL ELEMENTS Manner of articulation . z. v. g) 2) Nasals – produced by the explosion of the vocalized breath stream through the nose (m. t. s.n) 3) Fricatives – produced by forcing the air in a continuous stream through a restricted passage way (f. k. b. d. h) 4) Affricates – produced when the articulatory mechanism combines the movements for the stop and fricative so rapidly that two sounds are heard as a single unit 5) Semi – vowels – produced by a smooth but marked and rapid movement of the articulators during the production of the sound (w. y.

k /  A sound is aspirated when accompanied by a strong puff of air .VOCAL ELEMENTS Voiceless Aspirated Stops / p. t.

Shape of the lips 4.shape is determined largely by the position of the lips and that of the tongue Classification of Vowels 1.represent voice modified in various ways by the shape of the oral cavity .Height of the tongue 3.VOCAL ELEMENTS VOWELS .Section of the tongue 2.Articulatory muscle quality .

High Vowels. Mid Vowels.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively high level b. Central Vowels. Front Vowels.neither the front nor the back of the tongue is raised c. Back Vowels. Low Vowels.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively middle level d.back of the tongue is higher than the other parts of the tongue Height of the tongue a.part of the tongue is kept low .VOCAL ELEMENTS Section of the tongue a.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively lowerhigh level c. Lower-high Vowels.front of the tongue is higher than the other parts of the tongue b.

both upper and lower lips are not so positioned as to form a circular opening Articulatory muscle quality a. Rounded Vowels. Tense Vowels.both upper and lower lops are so positioned that they may form a circular or somewhat circular opening b.VOCAL ELEMENTS Shape of the lips a. Lax Vowels. Unrounded Vowels.muscles of the tongue and neck are relaxed .muscles of the tongue and neck are taut b.


VOCAL ELEMENTS Paralanguage .sound of the voice Pitch. rate of speech that exist alongside the formal language structure . volume.Refers to those extra linguistic elements such as voice quality.loudness or softness of a voice fast or slowly a person talks .highness or lowness of a voice Volume.Goes beyond words Voice Quality. pitch.

Closed Focus. asides 2. Inner-closed Focus.VOCAL ELEMENTS The Use of Focus in Oral (Offstage Interpretation Focus) 1.ideally towards the back-wall Ex: Address to muses. Semi-closed Focus. inanimate object or absent person .directly to the audience Ex: Narration.towards. dramatic monologues 3. god.directly to the defined characters Ex: Dialogues. Open Focus. but not directly to the audience Ex: Soliloquies 4.


VISUAL ELEMENTS KINESICS - Communicating through our looks and gestures - Coined by Ray L. Birdwhistell Facial Expression Hand Gesture Head Movement Posture Facial Expression and Gesture .

Hall - HAPTICS Expressing a tremendous range of feeling through touching CHRONEMICS - Study of time in communication .VISUAL ELEMENTS OCULESICS - Study of how eyes and eye movements can communicate PROXEMICS - Study of how people use space and distance for purposes of communication - Coined by Edward T.

glasses. and other artifacts that have communicative potential ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS How physical environments reveal the characteristics of the owner of the place and affect one’s way of communication - PHYSICAL APPEARANCE - Communicating through a person’s clothing . jewelry.VISUAL ELEMENTS OBJECTICS - display of ornaments.