Lesson 4

Symbol
Systems:
Nonverbal

Nonverbal Symbols
■ Neither spoken nor written
■ Do not include words
■ Include vocal elements and visual elements

Functions of Nonverbal Symbols .

Functions of Nonverbal Symbols • Simply repeat the message of verbal symbols • Complements the verbal symbol by clarifying or explaining • Serve as a means of accent • Substitute for the message • Contradict with verbal symbols .

Two Types of Nonverbal Symbols .

VOCAL ELEMEN TS .

.formation of discrete speech sounds on To have the correct production of sounds. we should start with the organs of speech.VOCAL ELEMENTS Articulati .

Parts of the vocal tract which cannot move but which are involved in articulation Example: Teeth .movable organs of the vocal tract which is involved in articulation Example: Tongue and lower lip Points of Articulation .VOCAL ELEMENTS ORGANS OF SPEECH Articulators .

VOCAL ELEMENTS Other parts of the vocal tract include the following: RESONANCE CHAMBER .where the quality of the vocal sound is modified • Pharynx .Part of the vocal tract that connects the larynx with the oral cavity .Acts as resonance chamber for vocal sound produced in larynx • Oral cavity • Nasal cavity VOICE .

Voicing 2.Speech sound caused by stoppage or hindrance of the voiced or voiceless breath Classification of Consonants: 1.VOCAL ELEMENTS CONSONANTS .Point of Articulation 3.Manner of Articulation .

VOCAL ELEMENTS Voicing . .May be voiced or voiceless Voiced – the vocal folds are set in vibration by the outgoing breath stream. and the resultant sound is composed exclusively of the noise of friction. Voiceless – the vocal folds do not vibrate.

z. but not touching them 4) Alveolars – produced with the tip of the tongue near the alveolar ridge (t. s. b) 2) Labio-dentals – produced with the lower lip near the upper teeth (f. v) 3) Interdentals – produced with tongue tip between the upper and lower teeth. l) 5) Alveo-palatals – produced with the front of the tongue near the hard palate 6) Retroflex – produced with the tip of the tongue going upward and backward towards the hard palate (r) 7) Prepalatal – produced with the dorsum or upper surface of the tongue near velum (y) . n.Tells where the sound is produced 1) Bilabials – produced with the lower lip or against the upper lip (p.VOCAL ELEMENTS Point of articulation . d.

r) 6) Lateral – produced with the tip of the tongue pressed lightly against the upper teeth (l) . z. y. t. d. b.Tells how the sound is produced 1) Stops – produced by closing and opening the mouth with an explosion (p.n) 3) Fricatives – produced by forcing the air in a continuous stream through a restricted passage way (f.VOCAL ELEMENTS Manner of articulation . s. h) 4) Affricates – produced when the articulatory mechanism combines the movements for the stop and fricative so rapidly that two sounds are heard as a single unit 5) Semi – vowels – produced by a smooth but marked and rapid movement of the articulators during the production of the sound (w. g) 2) Nasals – produced by the explosion of the vocalized breath stream through the nose (m. v. k.

k /  A sound is aspirated when accompanied by a strong puff of air . t.VOCAL ELEMENTS Voiceless Aspirated Stops / p.

Section of the tongue 2.VOCAL ELEMENTS VOWELS .Articulatory muscle quality .represent voice modified in various ways by the shape of the oral cavity .Height of the tongue 3.shape is determined largely by the position of the lips and that of the tongue Classification of Vowels 1.Shape of the lips 4.

Lower-high Vowels.VOCAL ELEMENTS Section of the tongue a.front of the tongue is higher than the other parts of the tongue b. Central Vowels.part of the tongue is kept low .part of the tongue is raised at a relatively lowerhigh level c. Front Vowels. Mid Vowels.back of the tongue is higher than the other parts of the tongue Height of the tongue a.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively high level b.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively middle level d. High Vowels. Back Vowels. Low Vowels.neither the front nor the back of the tongue is raised c.

muscles of the tongue and neck are relaxed .both upper and lower lips are not so positioned as to form a circular opening Articulatory muscle quality a.muscles of the tongue and neck are taut b. Lax Vowels. Tense Vowels. Unrounded Vowels.VOCAL ELEMENTS Shape of the lips a.both upper and lower lops are so positioned that they may form a circular or somewhat circular opening b. Rounded Vowels.

VOCAL ELEMENTS ORAL INTERPRETATION .

Goes beyond words Voice Quality.sound of the voice Pitch.loudness or softness of a voice Rate.Refers to those extra linguistic elements such as voice quality. rate of speech that exist alongside the formal language structure .highness or lowness of a voice Volume.VOCAL ELEMENTS Paralanguage .how fast or slowly a person talks . volume. pitch.

VOCAL ELEMENTS The Use of Focus in Oral (Offstage Interpretation Focus) 1. dramatic monologues 3.towards. Semi-closed Focus. Closed Focus. asides 2.ideally towards the back-wall Ex: Address to muses. inanimate object or absent person . Inner-closed Focus. god.directly to the defined characters Ex: Dialogues.directly to the audience Ex: Narration. but not directly to the audience Ex: Soliloquies 4. Open Focus.

VISUAL ELEMENT .

Birdwhistell Facial Expression Hand Gesture Head Movement Posture Facial Expression and Gesture .VISUAL ELEMENTS KINESICS - Communicating through our looks and gestures - Coined by Ray L.

Hall - HAPTICS Expressing a tremendous range of feeling through touching CHRONEMICS - Study of time in communication .VISUAL ELEMENTS OCULESICS - Study of how eyes and eye movements can communicate PROXEMICS - Study of how people use space and distance for purposes of communication - Coined by Edward T.

and other artifacts that have communicative potential ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS How physical environments reveal the characteristics of the owner of the place and affect one’s way of communication - PHYSICAL APPEARANCE - Communicating through a person’s clothing . jewelry.VISUAL ELEMENTS OBJECTICS - display of ornaments. glasses.