You are on page 1of 24

Lesson 4


Nonverbal Symbols
■ Neither spoken nor written
■ Do not include words
■ Include vocal elements and visual elements

Functions of Nonverbal Symbols .

Functions of Nonverbal Symbols • Simply repeat the message of verbal symbols • Complements the verbal symbol by clarifying or explaining • Serve as a means of accent • Substitute for the message • Contradict with verbal symbols .

Two Types of Nonverbal Symbols .


formation of discrete speech sounds on To have the correct production of sounds.VOCAL ELEMENTS Articulati . we should start with the organs of speech. .

Parts of the vocal tract which cannot move but which are involved in articulation Example: Teeth .movable organs of the vocal tract which is involved in articulation Example: Tongue and lower lip Points of Articulation .VOCAL ELEMENTS ORGANS OF SPEECH Articulators .

Part of the vocal tract that connects the larynx with the oral cavity .VOCAL ELEMENTS Other parts of the vocal tract include the following: RESONANCE CHAMBER .Acts as resonance chamber for vocal sound produced in larynx • Oral cavity • Nasal cavity VOICE .where the quality of the vocal sound is modified • Pharynx .

Speech sound caused by stoppage or hindrance of the voiced or voiceless breath Classification of Consonants: 1.VOCAL ELEMENTS CONSONANTS .Point of Articulation 3.Voicing 2.Manner of Articulation .

and the resultant sound is composed exclusively of the noise of friction. .VOCAL ELEMENTS Voicing .May be voiced or voiceless Voiced – the vocal folds are set in vibration by the outgoing breath stream. Voiceless – the vocal folds do not vibrate.

b) 2) Labio-dentals – produced with the lower lip near the upper teeth (f. s. d. v) 3) Interdentals – produced with tongue tip between the upper and lower teeth.Tells where the sound is produced 1) Bilabials – produced with the lower lip or against the upper lip (p.VOCAL ELEMENTS Point of articulation . n. z. but not touching them 4) Alveolars – produced with the tip of the tongue near the alveolar ridge (t. l) 5) Alveo-palatals – produced with the front of the tongue near the hard palate 6) Retroflex – produced with the tip of the tongue going upward and backward towards the hard palate (r) 7) Prepalatal – produced with the dorsum or upper surface of the tongue near velum (y) .

r) 6) Lateral – produced with the tip of the tongue pressed lightly against the upper teeth (l) . d.n) 3) Fricatives – produced by forcing the air in a continuous stream through a restricted passage way (f. z.VOCAL ELEMENTS Manner of articulation . h) 4) Affricates – produced when the articulatory mechanism combines the movements for the stop and fricative so rapidly that two sounds are heard as a single unit 5) Semi – vowels – produced by a smooth but marked and rapid movement of the articulators during the production of the sound (w.Tells how the sound is produced 1) Stops – produced by closing and opening the mouth with an explosion (p. s. v. y. g) 2) Nasals – produced by the explosion of the vocalized breath stream through the nose (m. k. b. t.

VOCAL ELEMENTS Voiceless Aspirated Stops / p. k /  A sound is aspirated when accompanied by a strong puff of air . t.

VOCAL ELEMENTS VOWELS .represent voice modified in various ways by the shape of the oral cavity .Height of the tongue 3.shape is determined largely by the position of the lips and that of the tongue Classification of Vowels 1.Articulatory muscle quality .Shape of the lips 4.Section of the tongue 2.

Lower-high Vowels. Low Vowels. Back Vowels. High Vowels.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively lowerhigh level c.part of the tongue is kept low .VOCAL ELEMENTS Section of the tongue a. Central Vowels. Front Vowels. Mid Vowels.neither the front nor the back of the tongue is raised c.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively high level b.front of the tongue is higher than the other parts of the tongue b.back of the tongue is higher than the other parts of the tongue Height of the tongue a.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively middle level d.

Rounded Vowels. Lax Vowels. Unrounded Vowels. Tense Vowels.muscles of the tongue and neck are taut b.muscles of the tongue and neck are relaxed .both upper and lower lips are not so positioned as to form a circular opening Articulatory muscle quality a.VOCAL ELEMENTS Shape of the lips a.both upper and lower lops are so positioned that they may form a circular or somewhat circular opening b.


highness or lowness of a voice Volume. rate of speech that exist alongside the formal language structure .VOCAL ELEMENTS Paralanguage .Goes beyond words Voice Quality.Refers to those extra linguistic elements such as voice quality.sound of the voice Pitch. pitch. fast or slowly a person talks .loudness or softness of a voice Rate.

Closed Focus. asides 2. Open Focus. Semi-closed Focus. dramatic monologues 3.directly to the defined characters Ex: Dialogues. Inner-closed Focus. god.VOCAL ELEMENTS The Use of Focus in Oral (Offstage Interpretation Focus) 1.directly to the audience Ex: Narration.ideally towards the back-wall Ex: Address to muses. but not directly to the audience Ex: Soliloquies 4.towards. inanimate object or absent person .


Birdwhistell Facial Expression Hand Gesture Head Movement Posture Facial Expression and Gesture .VISUAL ELEMENTS KINESICS - Communicating through our looks and gestures - Coined by Ray L.

Hall - HAPTICS Expressing a tremendous range of feeling through touching CHRONEMICS - Study of time in communication .VISUAL ELEMENTS OCULESICS - Study of how eyes and eye movements can communicate PROXEMICS - Study of how people use space and distance for purposes of communication - Coined by Edward T.

and other artifacts that have communicative potential ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS How physical environments reveal the characteristics of the owner of the place and affect one’s way of communication - PHYSICAL APPEARANCE - Communicating through a person’s clothing .VISUAL ELEMENTS OBJECTICS - display of ornaments. jewelry. glasses.