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ENVIRONMENTAL EGINEERING

BFC 32403

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

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Introduction

Firman Allah

“Berlakulah kerosakan (bencana) di
daratan dan di lautan oleh kerana
usaha manusia sendiri, sehingga
Allah menimpakan pada mereka
sebahagian azab daripada
perbuatan mereka itu, agar mereka
kembali ke jalan yang benar
(bertaubat).”
(Surah Ar Rum ayat
41)

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ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING

Environmental engineering is manifest by sound
engineering thought and practice in the solution of
problems of environmental sanitation (cleanliness),
particularly in the provision of safe, palatable
(pleasant), and ample of environmental fields.
Environmental Engineering is the
integration of science and engineering
principles to improve the natural
environment, to provide healthy
water, air, and land for human
habitation and for other organisms,
and to remediate pollution sites.
Wikipedia
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Environmental Scientists and
Engineers

Environmental Science
– Identify and quantify pollution problem
Environmental Engineering
– Solve pollution problem
Environmental Scientist
1. Evaluate source and nature of pollution problem
2. Evaluate environmental impact
Environmental Engineer
1. Evaluate possible solutions
2. Design, build and operate pollution control systems
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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND TO THE EMERGENCE
OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
Major Global Meetings

Issues

1972 Stockholm United Nations
Conference on the Human Environment

Pollution, rates of depletion of non
renewable fossil fuels and population
growth

1987 World Commission on Environment
and Development (WCED), Brundtland
report: Our Common Future
1987 Montreal Protocol

Idea of sustainable development

1992 Rio Summit in Brazil (Earth Summit):
Agenda 21

Ozone depletion, tropical deforestation,
loss of biodiversity, and global warming

1997 Kyoto Protocol

Controlling the emissions of greenhouse
gases

2001 Johannesburg Earth Summit

Energy, freshwater, food security and
health

Substances that deplete the ozone layer

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ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
AIR
SOILS

WATER

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTE

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Human Activities = Impacts

Global warming

Air ,water & land
pollution

Resource depletion

Ozone depletion

Loss of
biodiversity

Population increase
Economic growth

WHAT IS GLOBAL CHANGE ?

Global change includes
natural and human- induced
changes in the Earth's
environment .

Global change can be
defined as changes in the
global environment
(including alterations in
climate, land productivity,
oceans or other water
resources, atmospheric
chemistry, and ecological
systems) that may alter the
capacity of the Earth to
sustain life.

Human Population Growth

Population growth is the
central cause of the
environmental crisis.
It also depends on the
nature and degree of
industrialization.
The world’s population
presently grows by about
250,000 people per day.
Latest official current world
population estimate, for
mid-year 2011, is estimated
at 6,928,198,253.

Year

Population

1960

3 billion

1

200 million

1965

3.3 billion

1000

275 million

1970

3.7 billion

1500

450 million

1975

4 billion

1650

500 million

1980

4.5 billion

1985

4.85 billion

1750

700 million

1990

5.3 billion

1804

1 billion

1995

5.7 billion

1850

1.2 billion

1999

6 billion

1900

1.6 billion

2006

6.5 billion

1927

2 billion

2009

6.8 billion

1950

2.55 billion

2011

7 billion

1955

2.8 billion

2025

8 billion

2043

9 billion

1960

3 billion

2083

10 billion

Over-population leads to:

Resource
depletion

Resource
degradation

Pollution

Loss of
biodiversity

Impact of Over Population

Environmental Pollution

Pollution : A Silent Killer
People are exposed to harmful
pollutants in the air they breathe, the
liquids they drink, the food they eat,
the surface they touch, and the
products they use.

When the environment can not process the
load of pollutants , pollution takes place.
Every environmental system has a
carrying capacity.

Water Pollution

Over 1 billion people lack access to safe water
supplies, while 2.6 billion people lack adequate
sanitation.

Water-associated infectious diseases kills 3.2
million lives each year, approximately 6% of all
deaths globally.

The burden of disease from inadequate water,
sanitation, and hygiene totals 1.8 million deaths.

Water Pollutants
 Industrial

Effluents

 Mining

and Agricultural
Wastes

 Agricultural

pesticides,
fertilizers and
herbicides

 Sewage

Disposal and
Domestic Wastes

Impact of Water Pollution

Nutrient loading may lead to eutrophication .

Organic wastes cause oxygen depletion.

Industrial discharges contain heavy metals ,
organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids.

Discharges from power stations can also have
thermal effects, and these too reduce the available
oxygen.

Impact of Water Pollution

Heavy metals cause immune suppression,
reproductive failure or acute poisoning.

Organic pollutants deplete DO and mass fish-kills.

Suspended particles reduce quality of drinking
water, amount of light penetration and growth of
photosynthetic plants and microorganisms.

Risk to swim, drink in polluted
lake?
SIGNPOST WARNING :
“Lake water contains
high level of arsenic.
Public is strongly
advised not to fish,
swim and bathe in the
lake or to use lake
water for drinking or
other purposes”
(Lembaga Sumber Air dan Persekitaran
Sarawak)
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AIR POLLUTION

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Causes of Air Pollution
Anthropogenic (man-made) sources:
 Stationary Sources include smoke stacks of power
plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste
incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuelburning heating devices. In developing and poor countries,
traditional biomass burning is the major source of air
pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste
and dung.
 Mobile Sources include motor vehicles
 Chemicals, dust and controlled burned practices in
agriculture and forest management.
 Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol spray and
other solvents
 Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane.
 Military resources, such as nuclear weapons, toxic
gases, germ warfare and rockets
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Causes of Air Pollution
Natural sources:



Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land
with few or no vegetation
Methane emitted by the digestion of food by animals,
for example cattle
Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth’s
crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally
occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the
decay of radium. It is considered to be a health hazard.
Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in
buildings, especially in confined areas such as the
basement and it is the second most frequent cause of
lung cancer, after cigarette smoking.
Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires
Volcanic activity, which produces sulfur, chlorine, and
ash particulates
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Green House Gases
Carbon Dioxide

Nitrous oxide

GHGs
Chlorofluorocarbons
(CFC) (e.g. Freon)
A refrigerant

Methane

Halons (halocarbons)
Fire-extinguisher

Greenhouse Gases..

One of the first things scientists learned is that
there are several greenhouse gases responsible
for warming, and humans emit them in a variety
of ways.
Most come from the combustion of fossil fuels
in cars, factories and electricity production.
The gas responsible for the most warming is
carbon dioxide, CO2.
Other contributors include methane released
from landfills and agriculture (especially from
the digestive systems of grazing animals),
nitrous oxide from fertilizers, gases used for
refrigeration and industrial processes, and
the loss of forests that would otherwise store
CO2.
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Green House Gases


Different greenhouse gases have very different
heat-trapping abilities.
Some of them can even trap more heat than CO2. A
molecule of methane produces more than 20
times the warming of a molecule of CO2.
Nitrous oxide is 300 times more powerful than
CO2.
Other gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (which
have been banned in much of the world because
they also degrade the ozone layer), have heattrapping potential thousands of times greater
than CO2. But because their concentrations are
much lower than CO2, none of these gases adds as
much warmth to the atmosphere as CO2 does.
Heat trapping cause GLOBAL WARMING!!!!!!!!
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Global Warming

maya@kuittho.edu.my, copyright 2007

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maya@kuittho.edu.my, copyright 2007

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Global Warming

maya@kuittho.edu.my, copyright 2007

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Impact of Air Pollution



Visibility reduction - airborne
particles
Material damage - damage to
rubber goods and textiles
Agricultural damage – damages all
kinds of crops
Psychological effects –
psychosomatic diseases (such as
stress)
Physiological and health effects –
respiratory / cardiovascular
diseases and lung cancer

Impacts…



Some impacts from increasing temperatures are
already happening.
Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earth’s
poles. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets
covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic
sea ice.
Researcher Bill Fraser has tracked the decline of the
Adélie penguins on Antarctica, where their numbers
have fallen from 32,000 breeding pairs to 11,000 in 30
years.
Sea level rise became faster over the last century.
Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have moved
farther north or to higher, cooler areas.
Precipitation (rain and snowfall) has increased across
the globe, on average.
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Other effects could happen later
this century, if warming
continues….
Sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 23 inches
(18 and 59 centimeters) by the end of the century, and
continued melting at the poles could add between 4 and 8
inches (10 to 20 centimeters).
 storms are likely to become stronger.
 Floods and droughts will become more common. Rainfall
in Ethiopia, where droughts are already common, could
decline by 10 percent over the next 50 years.
 Ecosystems will change—some species will move farther
north or become more successful; others won’t be able to
move and could become extinct. Wildlife research
scientist Martyn Obbard has found that since the mid1980s, with less ice on which to live and fish for food,
polar bears have gotten considerably skinnier.

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Acid Rain

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Acid Rain

Impact of Acid Rain on the
Environment
Contamination of lakes and forests.
Reducing the populations of small invertebrates and
decomposers.
Reducing agricultural yields.
Causing extensive structural damage by corroding
marble, metal, and stonework.
Degrading water supplies by leaching heavy metals from
the soil.
Increasing lung cancer and colon cancer.

Impact of Acid Rain

Trees killed by acid rain in
Republic Czech

Acid rain had also impacted Taj
Mahal, the historical grand
monument

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Health Effects of PollutionOverview

GREEN PEACE

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GREENPEACE

Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental
organization with offices in over forty countries and with an
international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of
the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity” and focuses its
campaigning on world wide issues such as global
warming, deforestation, overfishing, commercial
whaling, genetic engineering, and anti-nuclearissues.

Greenpeace uses direct action, lobbying and research to
achieve its goals.

The global organization does not accept funding from
governments, corporations or political parties, relying on 2.9
million individual supporters and foundation grants.

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High cancer
rates in Malaysia
“Almost 20% of the population
would suffer from at least one
form of cancer, the first
National Cancer Registry
report revealed today.”
Probably due to:
 Contaminated food & water
 Polluted environment
 Lifestyle

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END

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