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CNAP Semester 3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing

The Saigon CTT

Module 5

SWITCHES

Cisco Regional Networking Academy
mailto: info@saigonctt.com
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Version 3.0

Objectives
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• Understand the design issues associated with the

Layer 1, 2, and 3 LAN structure, or topology • Understanding the role of each layer and then choosing the switches best suited for that layer ensures the best network performance for LAN users.

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Table of Content
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LAN design LAN switches

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LAN DESIGN

LAN design goals
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• The first step in designing a LAN is to establish and document the goals of the design:
– Functionality – Scalability – Adaptability – Manageability

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LAN design considerations
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• The function and placement of servers

• Collision detection issues
• Segmentation issues • Broadcast domain issues

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LAN Segmentation
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• Segmentation is the process of splitting a single collision domain into two or more collision domains. • Layer 2 devices such as bridges and switches reduce the size of a collision domain. • Routers reduce the size of the collision domain and the size of the broadcast domain at Layer 3.

LAN design methodology
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1. Gather requirements and expectations 2. Analyze requirements and data

3. Design the Layer 1, 2, and 3 LAN structure, or topology
4. Document the logical and physical network implementation

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LAN topology

Layer 1 design
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• Choose cable type. • Identify work area and HCC. • Identify MDF, IDF, HCC, VCC and POP. • Choose Ethernet or Fast Ethernet.

• Documentation and physical diagrams

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Example: Wiring closet location
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Example: Wiring closet layout
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3.50m.

4.00m.
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Rack 1

Example: Rack layout
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HDSL
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Backbone and Server Farm Class Room 1

POWERFAULT DATA ALARM

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PIX Firewall
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Class Room 2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

Router 3662

Class Room 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

C2924XL - Wg1 C2924XL - Wg2 Mail Server

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Example: User location
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5.00m. 6.00m. 4.00m. 5.00m.

7.00m.

1.40m.

3.00m.

1.80m.
1.80m.

3.50m.

6.20m.
7.00m.

1.40m.

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2.00m.

7.00m.

Example: Cable run
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UTP UTP

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Rack

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UTP

UTP

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UTP

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UTP

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UTP

UTP

UTP

UTP

UTP

UTP

UTP UTP UTP UTP

UTP

UTP UTP UTP UTP

UTP

UTP

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UTP

UTP

UTP

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UTP UTP UTP UTP

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UTP

Example: Logical Diagram
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Example: Cable documentation
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Layer 2 design
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• The purpose of Layer 2 devices in the network is to provide flow control, error detection, error correction, and to reduce congestion in the network. • Another important characteristic of a LAN switch is how it can allocate bandwidth on a per-port basis, thus allowing more bandwidth to vertical cabling, uplinks, and servers.

The size of collision domains
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• Determine how many hosts are physically connected to any single port on the switch. • Determine how much network bandwidth is available to any host.

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Bandwidth domains
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Bandwidth everage
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HUB placement
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• Shared-media hubs are generally used in a LAN switch environment to create more connection points at the end of the horizontal cable runs. • This is an acceptable solution, but you must ensure that:
– Collision domains are kept small. – Bandwidth requirements to the host are accomplished.

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Layer 3 design
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• Allows for segmentation of the LAN into unique physical and logical networks. • Allow for connectivity to wide-area networks (WANs), such as the Internet. • Layer 3 determines traffic flow between unique physical network segments based on Layer 3 addressing.

VLAN and broadcast domains
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• By using VLANs, you can limit broadcast traffic to within a VLAN and thus create smaller broadcast domains. • VLANs can also be used to provide security by creating the VLAN groups according to function.

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VLAN implementation
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LAN SWITCHES

Hierarchical design model
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Core Layer2/Layer3 switching

Distribution Layer3 switching

Access Layer2 switching

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Switched LANs, access layer overview
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• Shared bandwidth

• Switched bandwidth
• MAC layer filtering • Microsegment

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Access layer switches
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Catalyst 1912

• Catalyst 1900 series • Catalyst 2820 series

• Catalyst 2950 series
• Catalyst 4000 series • Catalyst 5000 series

Catalyst 4000

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Distribution layer overview
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• Aggregation of the wiring closet connections • Broadcast/multicast domain definition • Virtual LAN (VLAN) routing • Any media transitions that need to occur

• Security

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Distribution layer switches
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• Catalyst 2926G • Catalyst 5000 family • Catalyst 6000 family

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Core layer overview
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• The core layer is a high-speed switching backbone.
• This layer of the network design should not perform any packet manipulation.

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Core layer switches
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Catalyst 8540

• Catalyst 6500 series

• Catalyst 8500 series
• IGX 8400 series • Lightstream 1010
Catalyst 1010

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Summary
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• Design issues associated with Layers 1, 2, and 3 • The functions of each layer in the three-layer model • Cisco access layer switches and their features • Cisco distribution layer switches and their features • Cisco core layer switches and their features

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Q&A

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