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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

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Bridging & Switching

The following publication, CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0, was developed by Internetwork Expert, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of Internetwork Expert, Inc. Cisco®, Cisco® Systems, CCIE, and Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert, are registered trademarks of Cisco® Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and certain countries. All other products and company names are the trademarks, registered trademarks, and service marks of the respective owners. Throughout this manual, Internetwork Expert, Inc. has used its best efforts to distinguish proprietary trademarks from descriptive names by following the capitalization styles used by the manufacturer.

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 Disclaimer

Bridging & Switching

The following publication, CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0, is designed to assist candidates in the preparation for Cisco Systems’ CCIE Routing & Switching Lab Exam. While every effort has been made to ensure that all material is as complete and accurate as possible, the enclosed material is presented on an “as is” basis. Neither the authors nor Internetwork Expert, Inc. assume any liability or responsibility to any person or entity with respect to loss or damages incurred from the information contained in this workbook. This workbook was developed by Internetwork Expert, Inc. and is an original work of the aforementioned authors. Any similarities between material presented in this workbook and actual CCIE lab material is completely coincidental.

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0

Bridging & Switching

Table of Contents
Bridging & Switching .......................................................................... 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 Layer 2 Access Switchports ............................................................1 Layer 2 Dynamic Switchports ..........................................................1 ISL Trunking ....................................................................................1 802.1q Trunking ..............................................................................1 802.1q Native VLAN ........................................................................1 Disabling DTP Negotiation .............................................................. 2 Router-On-A-Stick ...........................................................................2 VTP .................................................................................................2 VTP Transparent .............................................................................2 VTP Pruning ....................................................................................3 VTP Prune-Eligible List....................................................................3 Layer 2 EtherChannel......................................................................3 Layer 2 EtherChannel with PAgP ....................................................3 Layer 2 EtherChannel with LACP ....................................................3 Layer 3 EtherChannel......................................................................4 802.1q Tunneling.............................................................................4 EtherChannel over 802.1q Tunneling .............................................. 5 STP Root Bridge Election................................................................ 5 STP Load Balancing with Port Cost.................................................6 STP Load Balancing with Port Priority.............................................6 Tuning STP Convergence Timers ...................................................6 STP PortFast ...................................................................................6 STP PortFast Default.......................................................................6 STP UplinkFast ...............................................................................7 STP BackboneFast..........................................................................7 STP BPDU Guard............................................................................7 STP BPDU Guard Default ...............................................................7 STP BPDU Filter..............................................................................7 STP BPDU Filter Default .................................................................8 STP Root Guard ..............................................................................8 STP Loop Guard .............................................................................8 Unidirectional Link Detection ...........................................................8 MST Root Bridge Election ............................................................... 9 MST Load Balancing with Port Cost ................................................9 MST Load Balancing with Port Priority ............................................9 MST and Rapid Spanning Tree ..................................................... 10 Protected Ports..............................................................................10 Storm Control ................................................................................10 MAC-Address Table Static Entries & Aging................................... 10 SPAN.............................................................................................10 RSPAN ..........................................................................................11 Voice VLAN ...................................................................................11 www.InternetworkExpert.com iii

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36

Bridging & Switching

IP Phone Trust and CoS Extend ................................................... 11 Smartport Macros .......................................................................... 12 Flex Links ......................................................................................12 Fallback Bridging ...........................................................................12 Private VLANs ...............................................................................13 PPP ...............................................................................................13 PPP AAA Authentication ............................................................... 13 PPPoE...........................................................................................14 Layer 2 Access Switchports .......................................................... 15 Layer 2 Dynamic Switchports ........................................................ 20 ISL Trunking ..................................................................................23 802.1q Trunking ............................................................................25 802.1q Native VLAN ...................................................................... 27 Disabling DTP Negotiation ............................................................ 29 Router-On-A-Stick .........................................................................32 VTP ...............................................................................................34 VTP Transparent ...........................................................................40 VTP Pruning ..................................................................................42 VTP Prune-Eligible List..................................................................45 Layer 2 EtherChannel....................................................................48 Layer 2 EtherChannel with PAgP .................................................. 56 Layer 2 EtherChannel with LACP .................................................. 62 Layer 3 EtherChannel....................................................................68 802.1q Tunneling...........................................................................71 EtherChannel over 802.1q Tunneling ............................................ 77 STP Root Bridge Election.............................................................. 82 STP Load Balancing with Port Cost............................................... 91 STP Load Balancing with Port Priority........................................... 93 Tuning STP Convergence Timers ................................................. 98 STP PortFast ...............................................................................100 STP PortFast Default................................................................... 102 STP UplinkFast ........................................................................... 104 STP BackboneFast......................................................................106 STP BPDU Guard........................................................................108 STP BPDU Guard Default ........................................................... 110 STP BPDU Filter.......................................................................... 111 STP BPDU Filter Default ............................................................. 114 STP Root Guard .......................................................................... 116 STP Loop Guard ......................................................................... 118 Unidirectional Link Detection ....................................................... 121 MST Root Bridge Election ........................................................... 125 MST Load Balancing with Port Cost ............................................ 134 MST Load Balancing with Port Priority ........................................ 138 MST and Rapid Spanning Tree ................................................... 141 www.InternetworkExpert.com iv

Bridging & Switching Solutions......................................................... 15

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50

Bridging & Switching

Protected Ports............................................................................ 143 Storm Control .............................................................................. 145 MAC-Address Table Static Entries & Aging................................. 146 SPAN........................................................................................... 149 RSPAN ........................................................................................151 Voice VLAN .................................................................................154 IP Phone Trust and CoS Extend ................................................. 157 Smartport Macros ........................................................................ 159 Flex Links ....................................................................................162 Fallback Bridging ......................................................................... 167 Private VLANs .............................................................................170 PPP .............................................................................................176 PPP AAA Authentication ............................................................. 182 PPPoE.........................................................................................189

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0

Bridging & Switching

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0

Bridging & Switching

Bridging & Switching
Note
Load the Basic IP Addressing initial configurations prior to starting.

1.1

Layer 2 Access Switchports
Using the diagram for reference configure access VLAN assignments on SW1, SW2, SW3, and SW4 to obtain basic connectivity between the devices with Ethernet segments with the exception of R6. Do not use VTP to accomplish this.

1.2
• • •

Layer 2 Dynamic Switchports
Configure all inter-switch links on SW2, SW3, and SW4 to be in dynamic auto state. Configure all inter-switch links on SW1 to be in dynamic desirable state. Using the CAM table verify that all layer 2 traffic between devices in the same VLAN, but not attached to the same switch, is transiting SW1.

1.3
• •

ISL Trunking
Statically set the trunking encapsulation of SW1's inter-switch links to ISL. Verify that SW2, SW3, & SW4 are negotiating ISL as the trunking encapsulation to SW1, and that SW1 is not negotiating ISL to SW2, SW3, and SW4.

1.4
• •

802.1q Trunking
Change the trunking encapsulation on SW1’s inter-switch links from static ISL to static 802.1q. Verify that SW2, SW3, & SW4 are negotiating 802.1q as the trunking encapsulation to SW1, and that SW1 is not negotiating 802.1q to SW2, SW3, and SW4.

1.5

802.1q Native VLAN
Modify the native VLAN on the 802.1q trunks of SW1 so that traffic between devices in VLAN 146 is not tagged when sent over the trunk links. www.INE.com 1

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0

Bridging & Switching

1.6
• •

Disabling DTP Negotiation
Disable Dynamic Trunking Protocol on the trunk links of SW1. Verify that trunking is still occurring between SW1 & SW2, SW1 & SW3, and SW1 & SW4 without the use of DTP.

1.7
• • •

Router-On-A-Stick
Configure the link between SW2 and R6 as an 802.1q trunk link. Using the subinterfaces listed in the diagram configure R6 to route traffic for both VLANs 67 and 146 on its Ethernet link. Verify that R6 has reachability to devices both on VLAN 67 and 146.

Note
Erase and reload SW1, SW2, SW3, & SW4, and load the Basic IP Addressing initial configurations before continuing.

1.8
• • • • • • •

VTP
Configure all inter-switch links on SW2, SW3, and SW4 to be in dynamic auto state. Configure all inter-switch links on SW1 to be in dynamic desirable state. Configure SW2 as a VTP server in the domain CCIE. Configure SW1, SW3, and SW4 as VTP clients in the domain CCIE. Configure necessary VLAN definitions on SW2 using the diagram for reference. Configure access VLAN assignments on SW1, SW2, SW3, and SW4 to obtain basic connectivity between the devices with Ethernet segments. Configure router-on-a-stick between SW2 and R6 per the diagram so R6 has reachability to devices on VLANs 67 and 146.

1.9
• •

VTP Transparent
Configure SW1 in VTP transparent mode and remove all previous VLAN definitions on it. Configure SW1 with only the VLAN definitions necessary to obtain basic connectivity between the devices with Ethernet segments.

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14 Layer 2 EtherChannel with LACP • • Modify the previous EtherChannel configuration to use LACP for dynamic negotiation. SW1 should initiate negotiation and the other devices should respond. SW3. SW1 & SW3. Configure all inter-switch links on SW2.13 Layer 2 EtherChannel with PAgP • • Modify the previous EtherChannel configuration to use PAgP for dynamic negotiation. Use Port-Channel numbers 12. 1.com .12 Layer 2 EtherChannel • • • • • • Remove all previous configurations on the links connecting SW1. and SW1 & SW4. and 14 respectively. SW3. Verify this configuration is functional through the show interface trunk output.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. and SW4 to be in dynamic auto state. Configure all inter-switch links on SW1 to be in dynamic desirable state. SW1 should initiate negotiation and the other devices should respond. and SW4.INE. SW2. Configure Layer 2 EtherChannels on all inter-switch links between SW1 & SW2.11 VTP Prune-Eligible List • • Edit the prune-eligible list to ensure that traffic for VLAN 7 is carried on all active trunk links in the layer 2 network. 1. Enable VTP pruning in the layer 2 network so that inter-switch broadcast replication is minimized. Verify this configuration is functional through the show interface trunk output. 1.0 Bridging & Switching 1.10 VTP Pruning • • • Configure SW1 in VTP client mode. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 3 www. 1. 13. These links should not use dynamic EtherChannel negotiation.

SW2’s interface Fa0/16 & SW3’s interface Fa0/16. Using VLAN 100 configure an 802. Use Port-Channel number 24 and the subnet 155. R1 and R4 should appear to be directly connected when viewing the show cdp neighbor output.1/24 and 41.16 802.X.0 Bridging & Switching 1.com . SW3.0.0/24 per the diagram. Configure two Ethernet subinterfaces on R1 with the IP addresses 14.0. SW2.108. and SW3’s interface Fa0/19 & SW4’s interface Fa0/19.0.4/24 and 41.0.1q Tunneling • Configure 802. 1.15 Layer 3 EtherChannel • • • Configure links Fa0/16 & Fa0/17 on SW4 and links Fa0/19 & Fa0/20 on SW2 to be bound together as a Layer 3 EtherChannel.1q trunk links between SW1 & SW2’s interfaces Fa0/13. Configure two Ethernet subinterfaces on R4’s second Ethernet interface1 with the IP addresses 14.0. & SW4 before continuing.0. Note Erase and reload SW1.INE. Ensure IP reachability is obtained between these devices over the segment.1/24 using VLANs 14 and 41 respectively.4/24 using VLANs 14 and 41 respectively.1q tunnel between SW1 and SW4 to connect R1 and R4.0. • • • • • Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 4 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Disable all other inter-switch links.0.

If SW1 goes down SW4 should take over as the STP Root Bridge for all active VLANs. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 5 www.com . SW2. and load the Basic IP Addressing initial configurations before continuing. and SW3 & SW4 as 802. Fa0/14. Configure interfaces Fa0/19. Fa0/20. 1.17 EtherChannel over 802. SW2 & SW4.1q trunk links.1q trunk link between SW2 and SW3. and 300.1q Tunneling • • • • • • • Remove the previous trunking and tunneling configuration. Configure SW2 and SW3 to tunnel the EtherChannel link between SW1 and SW4 using VLANs 100. 200. Configure VLAN assignments per the diagram.INE. SW1 & SW3. SW2. • • Note Erase and reload SW1. Configure SW1 as the STP Root Bridge for all active VLANs. Configure interfaces Fa0/13. Configure an 802.1q trunk link over this EtherChannel. SW3. SW1 and SW4 should form an 802.0 Bridging & Switching 1. Tunnel Spanning-Tree Protocol along with CDP over these links so that SW1 and SW4 appear to be directly connected when viewing the show cdp neighbor output. and SW3 as its clients. To verify this configure SW1 and SW4's links to R1 and R4 in VLAN 146 per the diagram and ensure connectivity between R1 and R4. Disable all other inter-switch links on SW1 and SW4. and Fa0/15 on SW1 as a layer 2 EtherChannel using PAgP for negotiation. and Fa0/21 on SW4 as a layer 2 EtherChannel using PAgP for negotiation. Configure SW4 as a VTP server using the domain name CCIE with SW1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. & SW4.18 STP Root Bridge Election • • • • • • Configure the inter-switch links between SW1 & SW2. Disable all other inter-switch links.

19 STP Load Balancing with Port Cost • Using Spanning-Tree cost modify the layer 2 transit network so that traffic for all active VLANs from SW2 to SW1 uses the last link between SW2 and SW4. • 1. • Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 6 www. Do not use any global Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this.INE.21 Tuning STP Convergence Timers • • • • Configure the switches so that they broadcast Spanning-Tree hello packets every three seconds.22 STP PortFast • Configure Spanning-Tree PortFast on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not have to wait for the Spanning-Tree listening and learning phases to begin forwarding. Do not use any interface level Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this. • 1. Configure Spanning-Tree PortFast on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not have to wait for the Spanning-Tree listening and learning phases to begin forwarding. 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. If this link goes down traffic should fall over to the second link between SW3 and SW4. If this link goes down traffic should fall over to the second link between SW2 and SW4. If the switches do not hear a configuration message within ten seconds they should attempt reconfiguration. When a new port becomes active it should wait twenty seconds before transitioning to the forwarding state.com .20 STP Load Balancing with Port Priority • Using Spanning-Tree priority modify the layer 2 transit network so that traffic for all active VLANs from SW4 to SW1 uses the last link between SW3 and SW4.0 Bridging & Switching 1. • 1. This configuration should impact all currently active VLANs and any additional VLANs created in the future.23 STP PortFast Default • • Remove the previous PortFast configuration.

27 STP BPDU Guard Default • • Remove the previous BPDU Guard configuration. Do not use the global portfast command to accomplish this.25 STP BackboneFast • Configure Spanning-Tree BackboneFast such that if the links between SW3 and SW4 go down SW2 immediately expires its maxage timer and begins Spanning-Tree reconvergence. Configure Spanning-Tree PortFast on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not have to wait for the Spanning-Tree listening and learning phases to begin forwarding. and SW4 with Spanning-Tree UplinkFast such that if their root port is lost they immediately reconverge to an alternate connection to their upstream bridge. Verify this by shutting down the root port of SW2. • • 1.28 STP BPDU Filter • • • Remove the previous BPDU Guard configuration. Configure Spanning-Tree BPDU Guard so that if a Spanning-Tree BPDU is detected on any of these ports they are disabled. Do not use any interface level Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this. SW3.0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. 1. • • 1.INE.com . Do not use any global Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this.24 STP UplinkFast • Configure SW2.26 STP BPDU Guard • Configure Spanning-Tree BPDU Guard on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers are disabled if a SpanningTree BPDU is detected. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 7 www. Configure the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not send Spanning-Tree packets sent out them. • 1. Once disabled the switches should attempt to re-enable the ports after two minutes.

Do not use any interface level Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this. Configure Spanning-Tree BPDU Filter on the switches so that the PortFast enabled ports are reverted out of PortFast state if a Spanning-Tree packet is received in them. Configure Spanning-Tree PortFast on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not have to wait for the Spanning-Tree listening and learning phases to begin forwarding.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 Bridging & Switching 1. • • 1. or SW4 is elected the Spanning-Tree Root Bridge for any VLAN. SW3.32 Unidirectional Link Detection • • Remove the previous Loop Guard configuration. 1.31 STP Loop Guard • Configure Spanning-Tree Loop Guard to prevent unidirectional links from forming on any of the inter-switch links in the layer 2 network.com . Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 8 www.INE. Configure UDLD to prevent unidirectional links from forming on any of the inter-switch links in the layer 2 network. 1.30 STP Root Guard • Configure SW1 so that the links to either SW2 or SW3 are disabled if either SW2.29 STP BPDU Filter Default • • Remove the previous BPDU Filter configuration.

SW2 & SW4.0 Bridging & Switching Note Erase and reload SW1. Configure VLAN assignments per the diagram.com 9 • Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert . SW3. Instance 3 should service all other VLANs.100.33 MST Root Bridge Election • • • • • • • • • • • • Configure the inter-switch links between SW1 & SW2. If SW1 goes down SW2 should take over as the STP Root Bridge for instance 1. Configure Multiple Spanning-Tree on the switches. and SW3 & SW4 as 802.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. SW2. SW2. & SW4. and SW3 as its clients. Instance 1 should service VLANs 1 . If this link goes down traffic should fall over to the second link between SW2 and SW4. Configure SW4 as a VTP server using the domain name CCIE with SW1. If SW4 goes down SW3 should take over as the STP Root Bridge for instance 2.000. and load the Basic IP Addressing initial configurations before continuing.200. • 1. SW1 & SW3. Instance 2 should service VLANs 101 . Configure SW1 as the STP Root Bridge for instance 1.INE. 1. Using Spanning-Tree priority modify the layer 2 transit network so that traffic for MST instance 1 from SW4 to SW1 uses the last link between SW3 and SW4. Configure SW4 as the STP Root Bridge for instance 2. Disable all other inter-switch links.34 MST Load Balancing with Port Cost • Using Spanning-Tree cost modify the layer 2 transit network so that traffic for MST instance 1 from SW2 to SW1 uses the last link between SW2 and SW4. www. Set the cost for MST instance 1 on SW3’s links to SW1 to be 100. If this link goes down traffic should fall over to the second link between SW3 and SW4. 1.35 MST Load Balancing with Port Priority • • • Remove the previous STP cost modifications.1q trunk links.

1. • 1.8/24. Configure static CAM entry for that MAC address of R6’s connection to VLAN 146 to ensure that this address is not allowed to roam.36 MST and Rapid Spanning Tree • Configure Rapid Spanning-Tree on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers immediately begin forwarding when enabled.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.X.40 SPAN • • Configure SW1 so that all traffic transiting VLAN 146 is redirected to a host located on port Fa0/24. but not R4. but can communicate with SW2’s VLAN22 interface.37 Protected Ports • • Create a new SVI for VLAN22 on SW2 and assign it the IP address 192. Configure SW1 to limit broadcast traffic received from R4 to 1Mbps using a relative percentage of the interface bandwidth. where X is your rack number. Configure port protection on SW2 so that R2 and BB2 cannot directly communicate with each other. Configure SW4 so that all traffic coming from and going to R4’s connection to VLAN 146 is redirected to a host located on port Fa0/24.com .0 Bridging & Switching 1. 1.10. and R6. R4. 1. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 10 www. Configure a static CAM entry on SW4 so that frames destined to the MAC address of R4’s interface connected to VLAN 146 are dropped. Configure SW1 to limit broadcast traffic received from R6 to 10Mbps.38 Storm Control • • • Configure SW1 to limit unicast traffic received from R1 to 100 pps.39 MAC-Address Table Static Entries & Aging • • Ensure reachability on VLAN 146 between R1. Inbound traffic from the Linux host should be placed into VLAN 146. once complete R1 and R6 should have reachability to each other.INE.

Configure port Fa0/4 as an 802. 1. SW1 should enforce a CoS value of 1 to any appliance connected to the second port of the IP phone. Fa0/4. Configure port Fa0/2 with an access VLAN assignment of 146 and a voice VLAN assignment of 600.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Configure SW1 to receive traffic from the RSPAN VLAN and redirect it to a host connected to port Fa0/24.43 IP Phone Trust and CoS Extend • • • • Enable MLS QoS globally on SW1.0 Bridging & Switching 1. Configure VLAN 146 as the native VLAN for this port and so that VLAN 600 is advertised as the voice VLAN via CDP. Configure SW2 so that traffic received from and sent to R4’s connection to VLAN 43 is redirected to the RSPAN VLAN. This trust should only occur if the Cisco IP phone is present and advertises itself via CDP.41 RSPAN • • • • • Disable the trunk links between SW1 and SW2.42 Voice VLAN • • • • • Ports Fa0/2. Create VLAN 500 as an RSPAN VLAN on all switches in the topology. Inbound traffic on the link connected to this host should be placed in VLAN 146.com . Configure SW1 so that only VLANs 146 and 600 are permitted on this switchport. and so that the interface runs in STP portfast mode.INE. Configure port Fa0/6 with an access VLAN assignment of 146. so that STP BPDUs received on the port are filtered out. Configure SW1 to trust the CoS of frames received on the ports connected to the IP phones.1q trunk link. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 11 www. Enable Spanning-Tree portfast on this link and ensure that CDP is enabled. and Fa0/6 on SW1 will be connected to Cisco IP phones in the near future. and for voice VLAN frames to use dot1p tagging. • • 1.

0.0. Enable RIPv2 on all of these links.1q trunked EtherChannel.0.0. Apply this macro to ports Fa0/7 and Fa0/8 on the switch. Configure R1’s Ethernet interface with the IP address 10. If the EtherChannel goes down traffic should immediately switch over to use the link between SW1 and SW3. Configure R6’s second Ethernet interface with the IP address 106.0.10/24. and with the IPv6 address 2001::6/24.1q trunk.0.0.com . Configure fallback bridging on SW4 to bridge the IPv6 subnet of R4 and R6 together.44 Smartport Macros • Configure a macro on SW1 named VLAN_146 that when applied to an interface will set it to be an access switchport.1q trunk.0.3/24. Configure interface VLAN104 on SW4 with the IP address 104. Configure flex links on SW1 so that traffic from R1 to R3 uses the EtherChannel to SW2.0 Bridging & Switching 1. and configure interface Fa0/4 in VLAN 104. and filter Spanning-Tree BPDUs. and R3’s second Ethernet interface with the IP address 10.46 Fallback Bridging • • • • • • Configure R4’s second Ethernet interface with the IP address 104.0. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 12 www. Configure link Fa0/16 on SW1 and Fa0/13 on SW3 as an 802. Disable all other inter-switch links. • • • 1.0.2/24.6/24.0.0.0.INE.1/24.0. R2’s Ethernet interface with the IP address 10. Configure links Fa0/13 & Fa0/14 between SW1 and SW2 as an 802.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. If the EtherChannel and all its members comes back up traffic should forward back over this link after 20 seconds.10/24. and with the IPv6 address 2001::4/24. • Note Erase and reload all devices to a blank configuration before continuing.4/24. 1. apply VLAN 146 as the access vlan. Configure interface Fa0/6 on SW4 with the IP address 106.45 Flex Links • • • • • Configure links Fa0/16 between SW2 and SW3 as an 802.

R2. R3.100. 1. Configure the primary VLAN 100 to service private VLANs 1000.X.146. In case if the remote AAA servers fail both R4 and R5 should use the local users database for authentication. R4.200. VLANs 1000 and 2000 should be community VLANs.0. where Y is the device number. www.com 13 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert . 2000. Configure the first inter-switch link between SW1 and SW2 as a trunk. and R6 with IP addresses 100. Use the name R5PPP and the password of CISCO to accomplish this. The link connecting to R1 should be a promiscuous port. VLAN 2000 to the links connecting to R4 & R5.45. R5 should refuse PAP authentication and use CHAP. and R4 can reach R5.49 PPP AAA Authentication • • • • Reconfigure R4 so that it attempts to authenticate R5 against the RADIUS server at the IP address 155. R4 should use the name R4PPP and the password of CISCO.Y/24.INE. No other connectivity should be allowed within this topology. Ensure that R1 can reach all devices.0/24 for this link R4 should attempt to authenticate R5 using PAP and than CHAP.X. Make sure R4 uses an alternate CHAP hostname R4CHAP.0. R5 should authenticate R4 using PAP only.47 Private VLANs • • • • • • • • Configure the first Ethernet interfaces of R1. 1. while VLAN 3000 should be an isolated VLAN.48 PPP • • • • • Enable PPP encapsulation for the Serial link connecting R4 and R5 and use the IP subnet 155.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Use the password value of CISCO to authenticate with the remote servers. R5. 1. R2 can reach R3. Reconfigure R5 so that it attempts to authenticate R4 against the TACACS+ server at the IP address 155.X.146. Assign VLAN 1000 to the links connecting to R2 & R3. and VLAN 3000 to R6.0 Bridging & Switching Note Erase and reload all devices to a blank configuration before continuing. and 3000.

You are allowed to create an additional VLAN 54 for this task. 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 • Bridging & Switching Do not use global configuration commands to define a RADIUS server in R4. Use R3’s interface Fa0/1 and R5’s sub-interface Fa0/1. R5 should allocate an IP address to R3 from the local DHCP pool for the subnet 155.54 to accomplish this. R5 should block any host attempting to initiate more than 10 sessions in a minute for 5 minutes.INE.0.35.50 PPPoE • • • • • • • Configure R3 as a PPPoE client and R5 as the PPPoE server.com .X.X. R5 should authenticate R3 using CHAP and the password value of CISCO.3 from the pool. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 14 www.35. Make sure R3 is assigned the IP address 155.

67.9.0 Bridging & Switching Bridging & Switching Solutions 1.58.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.43.79. • Configuration SW1: vlan 7.1 • Layer 2 Access Switchports Using the diagram for reference configure access VLAN assignments on SW1.com . SW2.146 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 146 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 15 www.146 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport access vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 58 SW2: vlan 8.43. SW3.22.58 ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport access vlan 22 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 43 ! interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport access vlan 22 SW3: vlan 5. Do not use VTP to accomplish this. and SW4 to obtain basic connectivity between the devices with Ethernet segments with the exception of R6.INE.79 ! interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 5 ! interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport access vlan 43 SW4: vlan 10.

Sending 5. Sending 5. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5). which implies that the switches in the transit path for the VLAN need to know about it in the VLAN database.67. does not have an STP instance created for VLAN 5. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/4/9 ms Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 16 www.com . per the show interface status or show vlan output.9. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).22. such as R1 and R4. Note that in this solution the VLANs created on the switches are not identical. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155.1.43.79.1. Since trunking is preconfigured between all switches in the initial configurations.9.1.79. The functional difference is that SW4 for example. An STP instance is automatically created on the Catalyst 3550 and 3560 platforms for a VLAN when the VLAN is created. the final verification is to ensure that the VLANs are assigned correctly. but in this design it is accomplished simply by issuing the vlan command on all switches that need to know about it.3 Type escape sequence to abort. The same connectivity result can be achieved by simply configuring the command vlan 5.8. who does not need VLAN 5.37. In many production designs these considerations must be taken into account as all platforms have a maximum limitation of the amount of VLANs and STP instances they can support.10.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note For hosts connected to different physical switches but in the same VLAN.146 on all devices. Rack1SW1#ping 155.7.79. to get IP connectivity to each other Spanning-Tree Protocol must be forwarding end-to-end between the hosts. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/9 ms Rack1SW1#ping 155. end-to-end transport is achieved.3.58.37. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155.1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. and that end-to-end connectivity exists. Instead only the minimum number of necessary VLANs are created. In either case for this example however.INE.9 Type escape sequence to abort. In most designs this is accomplished through VTP.

1.10.1. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/8 ms Rack1R1#ping 155.5 Bridging & Switching Type escape sequence to abort. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5). 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).12.146.254.254 Type escape sequence to abort.INE. Sending 5. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 204.58.0 Rack1SW2#ping 155. round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/8 ms Rack1R4#ping 204.1.4 Type escape sequence to abort.4.58.12.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).1. round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/8 ms Rack1SW1#show interface status Port Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4 Fa0/5 Fa0/6 Fa0/7 Fa0/8 Fa0/9 Fa0/10 Fa0/11 Fa0/12 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Fa0/22 Fa0/23 Fa0/24 Gi0/1 Gi0/2 Name Status connected notconnect connected notconnect connected notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect Vlan 146 1 routed 1 58 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk 1 1 1 1 1 Duplex a-full auto a-half auto a-half auto auto auto auto auto auto auto a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full auto auto auto auto auto Speed a-100 auto a-10 auto a-10 auto auto auto auto auto auto auto a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 auto auto auto auto auto Type 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX Not Present Not Present Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 17 www. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).1. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms Rack1R2#ping 192. Sending 5. Sending 5. Sending 5.10.5.com .254 Type escape sequence to abort.1.146.254.1.

com .0 Rack1SW2#show interface status Port Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4 Fa0/5 Fa0/6 Fa0/7 Fa0/8 Fa0/9 Fa0/10 Fa0/11 Fa0/12 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Fa0/22 Fa0/23 Fa0/24 Gi0/1 Gi0/2 Name Status notconnect connected notconnect connected notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected notconnect notconnect connected notconnect notconnect Vlan 1 22 1 43 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk 1 1 22 1 1 Bridging & Switching Duplex auto a-full auto a-half auto auto auto auto auto auto auto auto a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full auto auto a-half auto auto Speed auto a-100 auto a-10 auto auto auto auto auto auto auto auto a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 auto auto a-10 auto auto Type 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX Not Present Not Present Rack1SW3#show interface status Port Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4 Fa0/5 Fa0/6 Fa0/7 Fa0/8 Fa0/9 Fa0/10 Fa0/11 Fa0/12 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Fa0/22 Fa0/23 Fa0/24 Gi0/1 Gi0/2 Name Status notconnect notconnect connected notconnect connected notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected notconnect notconnect connected notconnect notconnect Vlan 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk 1 1 43 1 1 Duplex auto auto a-half auto a-half auto auto auto auto auto auto auto a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full auto auto a-half auto auto Speed auto auto a-10 auto a-10 auto auto auto auto auto auto auto a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 auto auto a-10 auto auto Type 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX Not Present Not Present Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 18 www.INE.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE.0 SW4#show interface status Port Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4 Fa0/5 Fa0/6 Fa0/7 Fa0/8 Fa0/9 Fa0/10 Fa0/11 Fa0/12 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Fa0/22 Fa0/23 Fa0/24 Gi0/1 Gi0/2 Name Status notconnect notconnect notconnect connected notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected connected notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect notconnect Vlan 1 1 1 146 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk trunk 1 1 1 1 1 Bridging & Switching Duplex auto auto auto a-half auto auto auto auto auto auto auto auto a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full a-full auto auto auto auto auto Speed auto auto auto a-10 auto auto auto auto auto auto auto auto a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 a-100 auto auto auto auto auto Type 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX 10/100BaseTX unknown unknown Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 19 www.com .

2031.146. Configure all inter-switch links on SW1 to be in dynamic desirable state.1.4461 000f.146. Using the CAM table verify that all layer 2 traffic between devices in the same VLAN. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155.6.24da.0 Bridging & Switching 1.1.4 155. but not attached to the same switch. SW3.6 Type escape sequence to abort.21 switchport mode dynamic auto Verification Note This verification is performed after R6’s router-on-a-stick configuration is completed. is transiting SW1. Sending 5.6 Age (min) 0 Hardware Addr 0011.2 • • • Layer 2 Dynamic Switchports Configure all inter-switch links on SW2.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. and SW4 to be in dynamic auto state.21 switchport mode dynamic auto SW3: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .146. Rack1R4#ping 155. Configuration SW1: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .1. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/4 ms Rack1R4#show arp Protocol Internet Internet Address 155.INE.21 switchport mode dynamic auto SW4: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .146. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).com .2220 Type Interface ARPA FastEthernet0/1 ARPA FastEthernet0/1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 20 www.1.21 switchport mode dynamic desirable SW2: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .

2220 Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports ------------------------1 000f.2220 DYNAMIC Fa0/6 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 2 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 21 www.24da.24da.2031. SW3.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.4461 DYNAMIC Fa0/4 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 1 R6’s port Fa0/0 is connected to SW2’s port Fa0/6. SW1 to SW3.INE. This is because SW1 initiates trunking negotiation through DTP (desirable).0 Bridging & Switching With SW1’s inter-switch links in dynamic desirable state. and SW4 only respond to DTP negotiation requests (auto).4461 Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports ------------------------146 0011. and all other switches inter-switch links in dynamic auto state. Rack1SW2#show mac-address-table dynamic address 000f.24da.2220 DYNAMIC Fa0/6 146 000f. trunks will only be formed from SW1 to SW2.2031. and SW1 to SW4.com . Rack1SW4#show mac-address-table dynamic address 0011. The result of this is indirectly verified by correlating the MAC addresses of R4 and R6 to the CAM table. R4’s port Fa0/1 is connected to SW4’s port Fa0/4. and SW2.

2031. traffic would forward between their connected ports for VLAN 146.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.4461 Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports ------------------------146 0011.2220 Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports ------------------------146 000f. and SW4 sees R6’s MAC address reachable via port Fa0/13 to SW1. The CAM table.2031. which is built from the result of STP forwarding and blocking.24da. Rack1SW2#show mac-address-table dynamic address 0011.24da.INE.com . Instead SW2 sees R4’s MAC address reachable via port Fa0/13 to SW1.0 Bridging & Switching If SW2 and SW4 were trunking directly. is the final layer 2 verification of how traffic is actually forwarded through the switched network.2220 DYNAMIC Fa0/13 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 22 www.4461 DYNAMIC Fa0/13 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 1 Rack1SW4#show mac-address-table dynamic address 000f.

3 • • ISL Trunking Statically set the trunking encapsulation of SW1's inter-switch links to ISL. Rack1SW1#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Mode desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable Encapsulation isl isl isl isl isl isl isl isl isl Status trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <output omitted> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 23 www. Verify that SW2.com .21 switchport trunk encapsulation isl Verification Note SW1’s inter-switch links are running in DTP desirable mode (initiating trunking) with ISL encapsulation statically set. Configuration SW1: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .INE. These can be seen under the Mode and Encapsulation columns from the show interface trunk output. SW3.0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. & SW4 are negotiating ISL as the trunking encapsulation to SW1. and SW4. SW3. and that SW1 is not negotiating ISL to SW2.

INE.0 Bridging & Switching SW2.com . SW2. SW3. and SW4 must agree to this or DTP negotiation will fail. Successful negotiation can be seen in this output since the encapsulation is n-isl. Rack1SW2#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode auto auto auto Encapsulation n-isl n-isl n-isl Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 <output omitted> Rack1SW3#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode auto auto auto Encapsulation n-isl n-isl n-isl Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 <output omitted> Rack1SW4#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode auto auto auto Encapsulation n-isl n-isl n-isl Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 <output omitted> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 24 www. SW3.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. for negotiated ISL. and SW4’s inter-switch links are in DTP auto mode. Since SW1 is statically set to ISL encapsulation. which means they will accept negotiation in from the other side but not initiate it.

Rack1SW1#show interface trunk Port Mode Fa0/13 desirable Fa0/14 desirable Fa0/15 desirable Fa0/16 desirable Fa0/17 desirable Fa0/18 desirable Fa0/19 desirable Fa0/20 desirable Fa0/21 desirable <output omitted> Encapsulation 802.1q to SW2. SW3.0 Bridging & Switching 1.4 • • 802.com . and that SW1 is not negotiating 802.1q 802.1q 802.21 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Verification Note Similar to the previous case.1q.1q. & SW4 are negotiating 802.1q 802. and SW4.1q as the trunking encapsulation to SW1.1q 802. SW3.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE. Verify that SW2.1q Status trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 25 www.1q 802. Configuration SW1: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .1q Trunking Change the trunking encapsulation on SW1’s inter-switch links from static ISL to static 802.1q 802. but now has its trunking encapsulation statically set to 802.1q 802.1q 802. SW1 is running in DTP desirable mode.

as seen in the n802.1q n-802.1q output. SW3.1q n-802.1q n-802.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1SW2#show interface trunk Port Mode Fa0/13 auto Fa0/14 auto Fa0/15 auto <output omitted> Encapsulation n-802. for negotiated dot1q.0 Bridging & Switching SW2.1q n-802.1q Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 26 www.com .1q n-802.1q Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 Rack1SW3#show interface trunk Port Mode Fa0/13 auto Fa0/14 auto Fa0/15 auto <output omitted> Encapsulation n-802.INE.1q n-802.1q Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 Rack1SW4#show interface trunk Port Mode Fa0/13 auto Fa0/14 auto Fa0/15 auto <output omitted> Encapsulation n-802. and SW4 must now agree to using dot1q trunking.

com .1q trunks of SW1 so that traffic between devices in VLAN 146 is not tagged when sent over the trunk links. Configuration SW1: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE.1q encapsulation that does not have an 802. otherwise traffic can unexpectedly leak between broadcast domain boundaries. In this case the native VLAN is modified to 146 on both ends of the link. When the switch receives a frame on an interface running 802. When the switch sends a frame that belongs to the native VLAN. The native VLAN defaults to 1 unless modified.15 switchport trunk native vlan 146 SW4: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .21 switchport trunk native vlan 146 SW2: interface range FastEthernet0/13 . Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 27 www.1q trunk link must agree on what the native VLAN is.0 Bridging & Switching 1.1q was not configured.15 switchport trunk native vlan 146 SW3: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .15 switchport trunk native vlan 146 Verification Note The IEEE 802. it is sent the same as if 802.1q trunking encapsulation standard defines the term native VLAN to describe traffic sent and received on an interface running 802.1q Native VLAN Modify the native VLAN on the 802.5 • 802.1q tag actually inserted. For this reason the switches on both ends of an 802. it assumes it is part of the native VLAN.1q that does not have a tag.

1q 802.com .1q n-802.1q 802.1q 802.1q Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 146 146 146 <output omitted> Rack1SW3#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode auto auto auto Encapsulation n-802.1q 802.0 Rack1SW1#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Mode desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable desirable Encapsulation 802.1q 802.1q 802.1q n-802.1q n-802.1q n-802.1q Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 146 146 146 <output omitted> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 28 www.1q n-802.INE.1q Status trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking Bridging & Switching Native vlan 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 <output omitted> Rack1SW2#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode auto auto auto Encapsulation n-802.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1q 802.1q Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 146 146 146 <output omitted> Rack1SW4#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode auto auto auto Encapsulation n-802.1q 802.1q n-802.

0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com . Configuration SW1: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .15 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk switchport nonegotiate SW3: interface range FastEthernet0/13 . SW1 & SW3.6 • • Disabling DTP Negotiation Disable Dynamic Trunking Protocol on the trunk links of SW1.INE. and SW1 & SW4 without the use of DTP.15 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk switchport nonegotiate Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 29 www.21 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk switchport nonegotiate SW2: interface range FastEthernet0/13 .15 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk switchport nonegotiate SW4: interface range FastEthernet0/13 . Verify that trunking is still occurring between SW1 & SW2.

1q 802. but DTP is disabled. or with the switchport nonegotiate command.INE.1q 802.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note DTP negotiation can be disabled two ways.1q Status trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 <output omitted> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 30 www.1q 802.1q 802. This design is most commonly used when a switch is trunking to a device that does not support DTP.1q 802.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1q 802.1q 802.com .1q 802. with the switchport mode access command. such as an IOS router’s routed Ethernet interface (not an EtherSwitch interface). If trunking is needed. or a server’s NIC card. it must be statically configured with the switchport mode trunk command. Rack1SW1#show interface fa0/13 switchport | include Negotiation Negotiation of Trunking: Off Rack1SW1#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Mode on on on on on on on on on Encapsulation 802.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com .1q Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 146 146 146 <output omitted> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 31 www.INE.1q 802.0 Rack1SW2#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode on on on Encapsulation 802.1q 802.1q 802.1q Status trunking trunking trunking Bridging & Switching Native vlan 146 146 146 <output omitted> Rack1SW3#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode on on on Encapsulation 802.1q 802.1q 802.1q 802.1q Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 146 146 146 <output omitted> Rack1SW4#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Mode on on on Encapsulation 802.

Also to minimize the amount of broadcast traffic that the router receives the switch should ideally edit the allowed list of the trunk going to the router to only allow the VLANs that the router is encapsulating. This is generally necessary since the router does not support VTP pruning on its routed trunk interface.com .6 255.255.255.1.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/0.146 encapsulation dot1q 146 ip address 155. and sends the packet back to the switch. In router-on-a-stick a layer 2 switch trunks multiple VLANs to a router. Using the subinterfaces listed in the diagram configure R6 to route traffic for both VLANs 67 and 146 on its Ethernet link. categorizes it based on the VLAN tag. rebuilds the layer 2 frame.255. the attached switch must issue the switchport mode trunk command.255.146 ! interface FastEthernet0/6 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk R6: interface FastEthernet0/0.7 • • • Router-On-A-Stick Configure the link between SW2 and R6 as an 802.1.146. The switchport nonegotiate command.1q trunk link.0 Bridging & Switching 1. Configuration SW2: vlan 67.6 255. while recommended.INE.67 encapsulation dot1q 67 ip address 155. Note that since the router does not support DTP negotiation on its routed Ethernet interface. Verify that R6 has reachability to devices both on VLAN 67 and 146.67. the router accepts a layer 2 packet in the physical interface. is not required on the switch.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. which is typically replaced in most designs now with layer 3 Switch Virtual Interfaces (SVIs) on layer 3 switches. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 32 www.0 Verification Note Router-on-a-stick is the legacy implementation of inter-VLAN routing.

7 Bridging & Switching Type escape sequence to abort.26.1q Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1-6.67.1.100.26. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155.22. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155.67.INE.8.com .8. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms Rack1SW2#show interface fa0/6 trunk Port Fa0/6 Port Fa0/6 Port Fa0/6 Port Fa0/6 Mode on Encapsulation 802. Sending 5.43.146 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 33 www.1.1.43.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.146.58. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/5 ms Rack1R6#ping 155.58.1.0 Rack1R6#ping 155.22.67.4 Type escape sequence to abort. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5). Sending 5.100.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1-6.4. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).67.7.146.

1. and SW4 to be in dynamic auto state.7. Configure SW2 as a VTP server in the domain CCIE. Configure necessary VLAN definitions on SW4 using the diagram for reference.0 Bridging & Switching 1. and SW4 as VTP clients in the domain CCIE.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/0.79.9. Configure access VLAN assignments on SW1.8. Configure all inter-switch links on SW1 to be in dynamic desirable state.0 SW1: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! interface range FastEthernet0/13 .6 255.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.58.1. SW3.8 • • • • • • • VTP Configure all inter-switch links on SW2.INE.10.67 encapsulation dot1q 67 ip address 155.255.21 switchport mode dynamic desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport access vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 58 SW2: vtp domain CCIE vlan 5. and SW4 to obtain basic connectivity between the devices with Ethernet segments. SW3.146 ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport access vlan 22 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 43 ! interface FastEthernet0/6 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 34 www.146.6 255.com .22. SW2.255.67.146 encapsulation dot1q 146 ip address 155. SW3. Configure SW1.43. Configure router-on-a-stick between SW2 and R6 per the diagram so R6 has reachability to devices on VLANs 67 and 146. Configuration R6: interface FastEthernet0/0.67.255.255.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport access vlan 22 ! interface range FastEthernet0/13 .21 switchport mode dynamic auto SW4: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 146 ! interface range FastEthernet0/13 .com .INE.21 switchport mode dynamic auto Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 35 www.21 switchport mode dynamic auto SW3: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 5 ! interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport access vlan 43 ! interface range FastEthernet0/13 .

INE.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) can be used in the Ethernet domain to simplify the creation and management of VLANs. and the Configuration Revision Number all match. Next. however it does not dictate the traffic flow of VLANs or the actual assignments.10.10. If the domain name. Lastly on the VTP server the VLAN definitions are created.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. The first step in running VTP is to ensure that the switches are trunking with each other.10 at 5-20-08 07:55:18 Rack1SW2#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 1 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 16 VTP Operating Mode : Server VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x7C 0x80 0x15 0x50 0xA2 0x06 0x41 0x6A Configuration last modified by 150. the number of existing VLANs.1. Rack1SW1#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 1 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 16 VTP Operating Mode : Client VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x7C 0x80 0x15 0x50 0xA2 0x06 0x41 0x6A Configuration last modified by 150. the domain is converged.10 at 5-20-08 07:55:18 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 36 www.1.com . To verify this configuration compare the output of the show vtp status command on all devices in the domain. If authentication is configured the MD5 digest field should be compared as well. and all other switches without domain names configured inherit this. the VTP domain name is configured.

INE.0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW3#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 1 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 16 VTP Operating Mode : Client VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x7C 0x80 0x15 0x50 0xA2 0x06 0x41 0x6A Configuration last modified by 150.10 at 5-20-08 07:55:18 Local updater ID is 155.1.com .10 at 5-20-08 07:55:18 Rack1SW4#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 1 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 16 VTP Operating Mode : Client VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x7C 0x80 0x15 0x50 0xA2 0x06 0x41 0x6A Configuration last modified by 150.10 on interface Vl10 (lowest numbered VLAN interface found) Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 37 www.1.10.10.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1.10.

Fa0/16.--------. Fa0/20. Fa0/6. Fa0/10.-------------------------------. Fa0/11 Fa0/12.0 Bridging & Switching show vlan or show vlan brief can also be compared to ensure that the VLAN numbers and names properly propagated throughout the VTP domain.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Fa0/22. Gi0/1. Fa0/10. Gi0/2 5 VLAN0005 active 7 VLAN0007 active 8 VLAN0008 active 9 VLAN0009 active 10 VLAN0010 active 22 VLAN0022 active 43 VLAN0043 active 58 VLAN0058 active Fa0/5 67 VLAN0067 active 79 VLAN0079 active 146 VLAN0146 active Fa0/1 1002 fddi-default act/unsup 1003 token-ring-default act/unsup 1004 fddinet-default act/unsup 1005 trnet-default act/unsup Rack1SW2#show vlan brief VLAN Name Status Ports ---. Fa0/18 Fa0/19. Fa0/7 Fa0/8. Fa0/7 Fa0/8. Fa0/9.------------------------------1 default active Fa0/1. Gi0/2 5 VLAN0005 active 7 VLAN0007 active 8 VLAN0008 active 9 VLAN0009 active 10 VLAN0010 active 22 VLAN0022 active Fa0/2. Fa0/24 Gi0/1. Fa0/5.------------------------------1 default active Fa0/2. Fa0/3.-------------------------------. Rack1SW1#show vlan brief VLAN Name Status Ports ---.--------. Fa0/4.com . Fa0/24 43 VLAN0043 active Fa0/4 58 VLAN0058 active 67 VLAN0067 active 79 VLAN0079 active 146 VLAN0146 active 1002 fddi-default act/unsup 1003 token-ring-default act/unsup 1004 fddinet-default act/unsup 1005 trnet-default act/unsup Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 38 www. Fa0/22 Fa0/23. Fa0/11 Fa0/12. Fa0/23. Fa0/21. Fa0/17.INE. Fa0/9.

0 Rack1SW3#show vlan brief Bridging & Switching VLAN Name Status Ports ---. Fa0/20 Fa0/21. Fa0/18. Gi0/1 Gi0/2 5 VLAN0005 active Fa0/5 7 VLAN0007 active 8 VLAN0008 active 9 VLAN0009 active 10 VLAN0010 active 22 VLAN0022 active 43 VLAN0043 active Fa0/24 58 VLAN0058 active 67 VLAN0067 active 79 VLAN0079 active 146 VLAN0146 active 1002 fddi-default act/unsup 1003 token-ring-default act/unsup 1004 fddinet-default act/unsup 1005 trnet-default act/unsup Rack1SW4#show vlan brief VLAN Name Status Ports ---.--------. Fa0/5 Fa0/6.INE. Fa0/22. Fa0/19. Fa0/12. Fa0/20 Fa0/21.com . Fa0/16 Fa0/17. Fa0/23.--------. Fa0/19.------------------------------1 default active Fa0/1. Fa0/7. Fa0/23. Fa0/8.------------------------------1 default active Fa0/1. Fa0/7. Fa0/18. Gi0/2 5 VLAN0005 active 7 VLAN0007 active 8 VLAN0008 active 9 VLAN0009 active 10 VLAN0010 active 22 VLAN0022 active 43 VLAN0043 active 58 VLAN0058 active 67 VLAN0067 active 79 VLAN0079 active 146 VLAN0146 active Fa0/4 1002 fddi-default act/unsup 1003 token-ring-default act/unsup 1004 fddinet-default act/unsup 1005 trnet-default act/unsup Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 39 www. Fa0/24 Gi0/1.-------------------------------. Fa0/4 Fa0/6. Fa0/9 Fa0/10. Fa0/8. Fa0/12. Fa0/3. Fa0/11.-------------------------------. Fa0/16 Fa0/17. Fa0/2. Fa0/2. Fa0/9 Fa0/10.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Fa0/22. Fa0/3. Fa0/11.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0

Bridging & Switching

1.9
• •

VTP Transparent
Configure SW1 in VTP transparent mode and remove all previous VLAN definitions on it. Configure SW1 with only the VLAN definitions necessary to obtain basic connectivity between the devices with Ethernet segments.

Configuration
SW1: vtp mode transparent no vlan 2-1000 vlan 7,43,58,67,79,146

Verification

Note
VTP devices running in transparent mode do not install VTP updates received, but will continue to forward them on unmodified if the domain name matches its locally configured domain. The configuration revision number of zero indicates that it is not participating in the update sequence of the rest of the domain.

Rack1SW1#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 0 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 11 VTP Operating Mode : Transparent VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x4D 0xD1 0x7E 0x5F 0xE4 0x00 0xB6 0x86 Configuration last modified by 155.1.37.7 at 5-20-08 07:55:18

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Bridging & Switching

Since VTP does not directly relate to STP forwarding, traffic from the server/client or from an entirely different VTP domain can be in the same broadcast domain as the transparent switches ports as long as STP is forwarding end to end. In this particular case SW1 does not have VLANs 7, 43, 67, or 79 locally assigned, but it is in the physical layer 2 transit path for these. This implies that these VLANs must be created, otherwise traffic will be received inbound but not forwarded outbound as there will be no STP instance associated with the VLAN.
Rack1SW1#show vlan brief VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1 default active Fa0/2, Fa0/4, Fa0/6, Fa0/7 Fa0/8, Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11 Fa0/12, Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24 Gi0/1, Gi0/2 7 VLAN0007 active 43 VLAN0043 active 58 VLAN0058 active Fa0/5 67 VLAN0067 active 79 VLAN0079 active 146 VLAN0146 active Fa0/1 1002 fddi-default act/unsup 1003 token-ring-default act/unsup 1004 fddinet-default act/unsup 1005 trnet-default act/unsup

Changes in the rest of the VTP domain, such as VLAN adds or removes, do not affect the transparent switches.
Rack1SW2#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. Rack1SW2(config)#vlan 123 Rack1SW2(config-vlan)#end Rack1SW2#
Rack1SW2#show vlan | include ^123 123 VLAN0123 123 enet 100123 1500 Rack1SW3#show vlan | include ^123 123 VLAN0123 123 enet 100123 1500 Rack1SW1#show vlan | include ^123 active -

End with CNTL/Z.

-

-

-

0

0

-

active -

-

-

0

0

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0

Bridging & Switching

1.10 VTP Pruning
• • • Configure SW1 in VTP client mode. Enable VTP pruning in the layer 2 network so that inter-switch broadcast replication is minimized. Verify this configuration is functional through the show interface trunk output.

Configuration
SW2: vtp pruning

Verification

Note
VTP pruning eliminates the need to statically remove VLANs from the allowed trunking list of a port by having the switches automatically communicate to each other which VLANs they have locally assigned or are in the transit path for. The show interface pruning command indicates what traffic the local switch told its neighbor that it needs, via the VLAN traffic requested of neighbor field. These VLANs are either ones locally assigned or those that the local switch is in the layer 2 transit path for. The Vlans pruned for lack of request by neighbor field indicates the VLANs that the upstream neighbor did not request. In the below output this means that SW1 is not forwarding VLAN 7 to SW3, because SW3 did not request it. This output can be confusing because what SW1 sees as pruned for lack of request is the opposite of what SW3 sees as requested.

Rack1SW1#show interface fa0/16 pruning Port Fa0/16 Port Fa0/16 Vlans pruned for lack of request by neighbor 7-8,10,22,58,67,146 Vlan traffic requested of neighbor 1,5,7-10,22,43,58,67,79,146

Rack1SW3#show interface fa0/13 pruning Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Vlans pruned for lack of request by neighbor none Vlan traffic requested of neighbor 1,5,9,43,79

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CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0

Bridging & Switching

If the network is converged all devices in the VTP domain should agree that pruning is enabled, as seen in the below show vtp status output. Note that transparent switches cannot participate in pruning because they do not read the payload of the VTP updates they are receiving from their adjacent neighbors.
Rack1SW1#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 6 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 16 VTP Operating Mode : Client VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Enabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x4F 0x03 0x83 0x1F 0x24 0xE1 0x01 0x45 Configuration last modified by 155.1.8.8 at 5-20-08 08:27:49 Rack1SW2#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 6 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 16 VTP Operating Mode : Server VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Enabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x4F 0x03 0x83 0x1F 0x24 0xE1 0x01 0x45 Configuration last modified by 155.1.8.8 at 5-20-08 08:27:49 Local updater ID is 155.1.8.8 on interface Vl8 (lowest numbered VLAN interface found) Rack1SW3#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 6 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 16 VTP Operating Mode : Client VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Enabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x4F 0x03 0x83 0x1F 0x24 0xE1 0x01 0x45 Configuration last modified by 155.1.8.8 at 5-20-08 08:27:49

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146 Fa0/13 5. is allowed on the link.5.1.5.7-10.43.58. The final field of Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned means that the VLAN is created.22.8.67.7-10.58.79.67.1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.43.146 Fa0/14 1 Fa0/15 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 44 www.67.58.7-10.43.0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW4#show vtp status VTP Version : 2 Configuration Revision : 6 Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005 Number of existing VLANs : 16 VTP Operating Mode : Server VTP Domain Name : CCIE VTP Pruning Mode : Enabled VTP V2 Mode : Disabled VTP Traps Generation : Disabled MD5 digest : 0x4F 0x03 0x83 0x1F 0x24 0xE1 0x01 0x45 Configuration last modified by 155.7.146 Fa0/14 none Fa0/15 none Rack1SW3#show interface trunk | begin pruned Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned Fa0/13 1.com .7-10.43.146 Fa0/14 1 Fa0/15 1 Fa0/16 1. is running STP.79.5.8 at 5-20-08 08:27:49 Local updater ID is 155.43.43.22.9.58.5.58.67.146 Fa0/20 none Fa0/21 none Rack1SW2#show interface trunk | begin pruned Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned Fa0/6 1.10 on interface Vl10 (lowest numbered VLAN interface found) To quickly view what traffic is not being pruned.INE.5. and hence actually forwarded.22.146 Fa0/14 1 Fa0/15 1 Rack1SW4#show interface trunk | begin pruned Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned Fa0/13 1. and is not pruned. issue the show interface trunk command.10.67.9-10.79.79 Fa0/17 none Fa0/18 none Fa0/19 10.22.79.79. Rack1SW1#show interface trunk | begin pruned Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned Fa0/13 1.

8-1001 2-6.8-1001 2-6.0 Bridging & Switching 1. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk pruning vlan ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk pruning vlan ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk pruning vlan ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk pruning vlan ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport trunk pruning vlan ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport trunk pruning vlan ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk pruning vlan ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport trunk pruning vlan ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.8-1001 2-6.8-1001 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 45 www.8-1001 2-6.11 VTP Prune-Eligible List • • Edit the prune-eligible list to ensure that traffic for VLAN 7 is carried on all active trunk links in the layer 2 network.8-1001 ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.com .8-1001 ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.8-1001 2-6.8-1001 2-6.8-1001 SW2: interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.8-1001 2-6. Verify this configuration is functional through the show interface trunk output.INE.8-1001 2-6.

8-1001 SW4: interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.8-1001 ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.8-1001 ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.8-1001 Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 46 www.com .0 SW3: interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE.8-1001 ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.8-1001 ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk pruning vlan 2-6.

67.146 Fa0/13 5.58.5.79.43. if VLAN 7 is removed from the prune eligible list.7-10.22. and the traffic cannot be pruned.7.com .7 Rack1SW4#show interface trunk | begin pruned Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned Fa0/13 1.146 Fa0/14 1.79.146 Fa0/14 1.7-10. This can be seen in the change of the output below.79 Fa0/17 none Fa0/18 none Fa0/19 7. it can tell its adjacent switches not to send it VLAN 7 traffic.43.79. This means that if the switch does not have VLAN 7 assigned.67.58.9-10.67.7-10.7 Fa0/16 1.146 Fa0/14 none Fa0/15 none Rack1SW3#show interface trunk | begin pruned Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned Fa0/13 1. where SW1 sends VLAN 7 traffic over all links that are forwarding for STP.58.22.22.9. However.7.43.146 Fa0/14 1 Fa0/15 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 47 www. which is controlled by the switchport trunk pruning vlan command.43.146 Fa0/20 7 Fa0/21 7 Rack1SW2#show interface trunk | begin pruned Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned Fa0/6 1.7-10.43.5.7 Fa0/15 1.5.5. even though the devices on the other end of the link don’t actually need VLAN 7.79.67.7 Fa0/15 1.43. the switch must report that it does need VLAN 7.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note The implementation of the prune eligible list.79.22.67. is commonly confusing because it is essentially the opposite of the editing the allowed list of the trunk.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.10.58.58. and is not in the transit path for VLAN 7. Rack1SW1#show interface trunk | begin pruned Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned Fa0/13 1.INE. By default all VLANs 2-1001 (not the default or extended VLANs) can be pruned off of a trunk link.5.

Configure all inter-switch links on SW1 to be in dynamic desirable state. Configure all inter-switch links on SW2.INE. SW2. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode on Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 48 www.com .12 Layer 2 EtherChannel • • • • • • Remove all previous configurations on the links connecting SW1. and SW4 to be in dynamic auto state.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Use Port-Channel numbers 12. SW3. 13. and SW4. Configure Layer 2 EtherChannels on all inter-switch links between SW1 & SW2. These links should not use dynamic EtherChannel negotiation. SW3. and 14 respectively. and SW1 & SW4.0 Bridging & Switching 1. SW1 & SW3.

0 SW2: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 12 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 12 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 12 mode on SW3: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 13 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 13 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 13 mode on SW4: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 14 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 14 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 14 mode on Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 49 www.com .INE.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

Rack1SW1#show etherchannel summary Flags: D I H R U u w d - down P .0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note For an EtherChannel to form all member interfaces must agree on the same configuration.INE. and the members Ports are in the (P) state.suspended Hot-standby (LACP only) Layer3 S . and both ends of the channel must agree on the same negotiation protocol. which is in the port-channel. In the below show etherchannel summary output the Protocol field is null.in port-channel stand-alone s .failed to allocate aggregator unsuitable for bundling waiting to be aggregated default port Number of channel-groups in use: 3 Number of aggregators: 3 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------12 Po12(SU) Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) 13 Po13(SU) Fa0/16(P) Fa0/17(P) Fa0/18(P) 14 Po14(SU) Fa0/19(P) Fa0/20(P) Fa0/21(P) Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 50 www.com . This comes from the on mode of the channel-group command. This output also shows that the Portchannel is in the (SU) state. which means layer 2 switchport that is up.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. which means that no negotiation was used.Layer2 in use f .

43.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.5.10.79.79.67.22.5.7-10.0 Bridging & Switching Since SW1’s member interfaces were dynamic desirable switchports. the PortChannel interfaces that are spawned from them inherit these attributes.146 1.67.5.58.67. and the other channels on SW2.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.67.58.79.22.79 1.22.58.5.7-10.5.146 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 51 www.9.43. This means that the channel interfaces on SW1 will initiate negotiation.7-10.43.INE.79. Rack1SW1#show interface trunk Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Mode desirable desirable desirable Encapsulation n-isl n-isl n-isl Status trunking trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 1-4094 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.146 1.58. SW3.com . and SW4 should respond.22.7-10.146 1.43.43.

unsuitable for bundling w .stand-alone s .Hot-standby (LACP only) R .failed to allocate aggregator u .7c00 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Root Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD Cost --------9 9 9 Prio.suspended H .160 128. but with channeling they are all forwarding.in use f . and some blocking.d490.in port-channel I .waiting to be aggregated d . Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.down P .com . This is due to the fact that without channeling some member interfaces would be in the STP forwarding state.3045.Layer3 S .default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------12 Po12(SU) Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 52 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.4180 Cost 9 Port 168 (Port-channel13) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.0 Bridging & Switching An additional way to verify that a layer 2 channel is working correctly is to view the spanning-tree topology. If STP sees the single port-channel interface running one instance of STP.Layer2 U .Nbr -------128.INE.168 128.176 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Po12 Po13 Po14 Rack1SW2#show etherchannel summary Flags: D . channeling has occurred properly.

8 128.79.43.58.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.7-10.160 Type -------------------------P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/6 Po12 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 53 www.79.5.67.79.146 Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.ec80 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Root Sts --FWD FWD Cost --------19 9 Prio.0 Rack1SW2#show interface trunk Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Mode on auto Encapsulation 802.Nbr -------128.com .43.5.58.67.43.3045.43.INE.7-10.146 1.5.9-10.1q n-isl Status trunking trunking Bridging & Switching Native vlan 1 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.4180 Cost 18 Port 160 (Port-channel12) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.22.7.22.79.5.7-10.d4df.146 1.22.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.58.58.67.67.

in use f .com .Layer2 U .22.43.4180 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.5.unsuitable for bundling w .43.--------.58.5.---.4180 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.67.7-10.-------.3045.22.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .79.failed to allocate aggregator u .INE.58.7-10.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.146 Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.3045.-------------------------Po13 Desg FWD 9 128.default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------13 Po13(SU) Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Rack1SW3#show interface trunk Port Po13 Port Po13 Port Po13 Port Po13 Mode auto Encapsulation n-isl Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.67.66 P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 54 www.waiting to be aggregated d .0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW3#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .--.in port-channel I .suspended H .79.Nbr Type ---------------.stand-alone s .Layer3 S .down P .

146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.waiting to be aggregated d .Layer3 S .4180 Cost 18 Port 65 (Port-channel14) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.5.in use f .Layer2 U .--------.7-10.com .58.43.default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------14 Po14(SU) Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Rack1SW4#show interface trunk Port Po14 Port Po14 Port Po14 Port Po14 Mode auto Encapsulation n-isl Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.Nbr Type ---------------.d600 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.down P .3045.79.in port-channel I .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.suspended H .Hot-standby (LACP only) R .-------------------------Po14 Root FWD 9 128.---.79.58.unsuitable for bundling w .stand-alone s .43.146 Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.--.7-10.67.22.67.INE.5.3045.22.-------.65 P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 55 www.0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW4#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .failed to allocate aggregator u .

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. SW1 should initiate negotiation and the other devices should respond. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode desirable SW2: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 12 mode auto ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 12 mode auto ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 12 mode auto Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 56 www.com .13 Layer 2 EtherChannel with PAgP • • Modify the previous EtherChannel configuration to use PAgP for dynamic negotiation.0 Bridging & Switching 1.INE.

down P . but both sides running auto will not.0 SW3: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 13 mode auto ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 13 mode auto ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 13 mode auto SW4: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 14 mode auto ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 14 mode auto ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 14 mode auto Bridging & Switching Verification Note Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP) is a Cisco proprietary negotiation protocol for EtherChannel links.stand-alone s .Layer2 U . is used to initiate negotiation. like DTP. while the auto mode is used to listen for negotiation.waiting to be aggregated d .Layer3 S .unsuitable for bundling w .default port Number of channel-groups in use: 3 Number of aggregators: 3 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------12 Po12(SU) PAgP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) 13 Po13(SU) PAgP Fa0/16(P) Fa0/17(P) Fa0/18(P) 14 Po14(SU) PAgP Fa0/19(P) Fa0/20(P) Fa0/21(P) Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 57 www.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .suspended H .in use f .in port-channel I . Rack1SW1#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .failed to allocate aggregator u . This implies that one side running desirable with the other side running desirable or auto will result in a channel.INE.com . The desirable mode of PAgP.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

Nbr -------128.146 1.176 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Po12 Po13 Po14 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 58 www.7-10.67.67.7-10.5.7-10.67.com .22.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.146 Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.22.79.146 1.d490.160 128.43.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.5.22.22.79.43.79.58.58.4180 Cost 9 Port 168 (Port-channel13) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.168 128.79 1.79.7-10.43.5.9.7c00 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Root Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD Cost --------9 9 9 Prio.5.0 Rack1SW1#show interface trunk Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Mode desirable desirable desirable Encapsulation n-isl n-isl n-isl Status trunking trunking trunking Bridging & Switching Native vlan 1 1 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 1-4094 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.67.5.10.INE.58.58.43.43.146 1.3045.

160 Type -------------------------P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/6 Po12 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 59 www.79.43.default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------12 Po12(SU) PAgP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Rack1SW2#show interface trunk Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Mode on auto Encapsulation 802.1q n-isl Status trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.67.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.79.4180 Cost 18 Port 160 (Port-channel12) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.ec80 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Root Sts --FWD FWD Cost --------19 9 Prio.22.67.67.22.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.7-10.0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW2#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .7-10.Nbr -------128.8 128.in use f .INE.Layer3 S .58.22.down P .146 Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.146 1.in port-channel I .failed to allocate aggregator u .43.5.79.9-10.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .com .58.5.Layer2 U .43.waiting to be aggregated d .stand-alone s .67.58.unsuitable for bundling w .146 1.5.7.43.suspended H .79.58.3045.d4df.7-10.5.

58.stand-alone s .INE.in use f .Layer2 U .0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW3#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .5.down P .-------------------------Po13 Desg FWD 9 128.-------.--------.4180 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.3045.unsuitable for bundling w .79.66 P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 60 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.Nbr Type ---------------.7-10.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .67.146 Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.--.4180 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.---.22.67.suspended H .Layer3 S .7-10.failed to allocate aggregator u .com .in port-channel I .146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.waiting to be aggregated d .3045.5.58.43.default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------13 Po13(SU) PAgP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Rack1SW3#show interface trunk Port Po13 Port Po13 Port Po13 Port Po13 Mode desirable Encapsulation n-isl Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.22.79.43.

7-10.suspended H .79.5.5.22.Layer2 U .failed to allocate aggregator u .-------------------------Po14 Root FWD 9 128.com .default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------14 Po14(SU) PAgP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Rack1SW4#show interface trunk Port Po14 Port Po14 Port Po14 Port Po14 Mode desirable Encapsulation n-isl Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.22.-------.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.65 P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 61 www.58.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .in use f .--------.unsuitable for bundling w .7-10.43.Nbr Type ---------------.down P .67.--.79.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.146 Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW4#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .3045.INE.in port-channel I .---.Layer3 S .43.d600 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.58.stand-alone s .4180 Cost 18 Port 65 (Port-channel14) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.67.3045.waiting to be aggregated d .

0 Bridging & Switching 1.14 Layer 2 EtherChannel with LACP • • Modify the previous EtherChannel configuration to use LACP for dynamic negotiation. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 12 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 13 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport mode dynamic desirable channel-group 14 mode active SW2: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 12 mode passive ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 12 mode passive ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 12 mode passive Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 62 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com . SW1 should initiate negotiation and the other devices should respond.INE.

3ad. is used to initiate LACP negotiation.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .com . SW3.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.Layer2 U .INE. and SW4.default port Number of channel-groups in use: 3 Number of aggregators: 3 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------12 Po12(SU) LACP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) 13 Po13(SU) LACP Fa0/16(P) Fa0/17(P) Fa0/18(P) 14 Po14(SU) LACP Fa0/19(P) Fa0/20(P) Fa0/21(P) Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 63 www. while the passive most is used to only respond to negotiation. LACP is an open standard defined in IEEE 802.down P .unsuitable for bundling w . Like PAgP this implies that a channel will form via LACP if one side is active and the other side is active or passive.suspended H .0 SW3: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 13 mode passive ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 13 mode passive ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 13 mode passive SW4: interface FastEthernet0/13 channel-group 14 mode passive ! interface FastEthernet0/14 channel-group 14 mode passive ! interface FastEthernet0/15 channel-group 14 mode passive Bridging & Switching Verification Note Similar to the previous variation of EtherChannel.failed to allocate aggregator u .Layer3 S .in port-channel I . like the desirable mode of PAgP.stand-alone s . Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is used to negotiate the formation of the channels from SW1 to SW2. Rack1SW1#show etherchannel summary Flags: D . but a channel will not form if both sides are passive.in use f .waiting to be aggregated d . The active mode of LACP.

79.5.67.146 1.3045.43.79.5.176 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Po12 Po13 Po14 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 64 www.67.7-10.146 Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.22.58.7-10.67.43.79 1.67.58.43.7-10.160 128.22.5.Nbr -------128.5.79.22.168 128.146 1.146 1.7c00 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Role ---Desg Root Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD Cost --------9 9 9 Prio.4180 Cost 9 Port 168 (Port-channel13) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.9.79.5.10.58.58.d490.43.com .146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.22.INE.0 Rack1SW1#show interface trunk Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Port Po12 Po13 Po14 Mode desirable desirable desirable Encapsulation n-isl n-isl n-isl Status trunking trunking trunking Bridging & Switching Native vlan 1 1 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 1-4094 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.7-10.43.

43.INE.146 1.suspended H .Layer2 U .79.com .d4df.79.5.5.7-10.146 Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.58.waiting to be aggregated d .67.stand-alone s .58.failed to allocate aggregator u .Hot-standby (LACP only) R .7-10.3045.Nbr -------128.4180 Cost 18 Port 160 (Port-channel12) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW2#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------12 Po12(SU) LACP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Rack1SW2#show interface trunk Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Port Fa0/6 Po12 Mode on auto Encapsulation 802.1q n-isl Status trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.146 1.unsuitable for bundling w .22.43.67.7.43.in use f .down P .22.43.5.ec80 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Role ---Desg Root Sts --FWD FWD Cost --------19 9 Prio.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.79.in port-channel I .22.7-10.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.Layer3 S .8 128.5.58.9-10.67.79.67.58.160 Type -------------------------P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/6 Po12 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 65 www.

---.146 Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.unsuitable for bundling w .79.--------.-------------------------Po13 Desg FWD 9 128.in port-channel I .failed to allocate aggregator u .3045.INE.-------.43.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .67.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.waiting to be aggregated d .7-10.146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.stand-alone s .0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW3#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .58.suspended H .5.5.43.4180 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.7-10.Layer3 S .default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------13 Po13(SU) LACP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Rack1SW3#show interface trunk Port Po13 Port Po13 Port Po13 Port Po13 Mode desirable Encapsulation n-isl Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.down P .79.66 P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 66 www.Nbr Type ---------------.--.com .22.in use f .22.67.3045.Layer2 U .4180 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.58.

down P .58.79.unsuitable for bundling w .146 Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 000c.Layer3 S .146 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.5.-------------------------Po14 Root FWD 9 128.stand-alone s .--------.3045.5.waiting to be aggregated d .com .d600 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.-------.---.4180 Cost 18 Port 65 (Port-channel14) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.suspended H .58.0 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW4#show etherchannel summary Flags: D .3045.--.7-10.79.INE.default port Number of channel-groups in use: 1 Number of aggregators: 1 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------14 Po14(SU) LACP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) Rack1SW4#show interface trunk Port Po14 Port Po14 Port Po14 Port Po14 Mode desirable Encapsulation n-isl Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.43.7-10.Nbr Type ---------------.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .in use f .43.22.67.in port-channel I .65 P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 67 www.22.Layer2 U .failed to allocate aggregator u .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.67.

10 255.255.1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 Bridging & Switching 1.255. Use Port-Channel number 24 and the subnet 155. Configuration SW2: interface Port-channel24 no switchport ip address 155.108.com .INE.108.255.255.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/19 no switchport channel-group 24 mode passive ! interface FastEthernet0/20 no switchport channel-group 24 mode passive SW4: interface Port-channel24 no switchport ip address 155. Ensure IP reachability is obtained between these devices over the segment.X.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/16 no switchport channel-group 24 mode active ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no switchport channel-group 24 mode active Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 68 www.108.0/24 per the diagram.8 255.1.15 Layer 3 EtherChannel • • • Configure links Fa0/16 & Fa0/17 on SW4 and links Fa0/19 & Fa0/20 on SW2 to be bound together as a Layer 3 EtherChannel.

INE.stand-alone s .waiting to be aggregated d . the attributes of the member interfaces are immediately inherited by the Port-Channel interface.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Pitfall One common problem with forming layer 3 EtherChannel links is the order of operations.default port Number of channel-groups in use: 2 Number of aggregators: 2 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------24 Po24(RU) LACP Fa0/19(P) Fa0/20(P) Rack1SW2#ping 155.suspended H .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.Layer3 S .failed to allocate aggregator u .1. The important point to remember is that when the channel-group command is issued. This means that if the channel-group command is issued before the no switchport command.1.Hot-standby (LACP only) R . the channel interface will be layer 2 and the member interfaces will be layer 3.108. To resolve this problem simply issue the no switchport command before the channelgroup command.down P . A subsequent attempt to issue the channel-group command will generate an error message saying that the channel interface and the members are not compatible.com .in use f . Rack1SW2#show etherchannel 24 summary Flags: D .10 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 69 www.in port-channel I . Note If configured properly the state of the Port-channel from the show etherchannel summary command should show (RU) for routed and in use.10. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).unsuitable for bundling w .Layer2 U .108.

static.IS-IS inter area.OSPF external type 2.suspended H . L2 .0 is directly connected. Rack1SW2#show ip route Codes: C .0.1.IS-IS level-1.ODR.8. Vlan58 C C C C 155. B . Vlan8 155.default port Number of channel-groups in use: 2 Number of aggregators: 2 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+-------------------------------------24 Po24(RU) LACP Fa0/16(P) Fa0/17(P) Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 70 www. E2 .58.Layer2 U . 1 subnets 150.OSPF inter area N1 .waiting to be aggregated d .0 is directly connected. one per line.EIGRP.1.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 155. Rack1SW2#conf t Enter configuration commands.com .0 Bridging & Switching The Port-Channel interface should show up as a normal layer 3 routed interface in the IP routing table.OSPF.BGP D .EIGRP external. P .1.108.RIP. N2 .connected. Port-channel24 150.0/24 is subnetted. * . E .OSPF NSSA external type 1.failed to allocate aggregator u .mobile.unsuitable for bundling w .0/24 is subnetted. L1 . su . Rack1SW2(config)#ip routing Rack1SW2(config)#end End with CNTL/Z.1.0.per-user static route o . O .IS-IS summary.Hot-standby (LACP only) R .1.candidate default.1. 3 subnets 155. R .in use f . IA .8. M .IS-IS level-2 ia .INE.stand-alone s .Layer3 S .IS-IS. S .EGP i . U .OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.down P . EX . Loopback0 Rack1SW4#show etherchannel 24 summary Flags: D .0 is directly connected.0 is directly connected.OSPF external type 1.in port-channel I .

255.INE.0.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1 255.0 Bridging & Switching 1.0.0.1/24 using VLANs 14 and 41 respectively.1q tunnel between SW1 and SW4 to connect R1 and R4.0.0.255.1 255.14 encapsulation dot1Q 14 ip address 14. Configure two Ethernet subinterfaces on R4’s second Ethernet interface1 with the IP addresses 14.0.0.0.14 encapsulation dot1Q 14 ip address 14.4 255.0.0.41 encapsulation dot1Q 41 ip address 41.1q trunk links between SW1 & SW2’s interfaces Fa0/13.1/24 and 41. and SW3’s interface Fa0/19 & SW4’s interface Fa0/19.0.0.1q Tunneling • Configure 802. • • • • • Configuration R1: interface FastEthernet0/0 no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/0. R1 and R4 should appear to be directly connected when viewing the show cdp neighbor output. Disable all other inter-switch links.255.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/0.255.4/24 using VLANs 14 and 41 respectively.0.255.16 802.255.4 255.4/24 and 41.0.0.0 R4: interface FastEthernet0/1 no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1.com .255.0 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 71 www.255.0.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/1. Using VLAN 100 configure an 802.41 encapsulation dot1Q 41 ip address 41. SW2’s interface Fa0/16 & SW3’s interface Fa0/16. Configure two Ethernet subinterfaces on R1 with the IP addresses 14.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE.0 SW1: system mtu 1504 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport access vlan 100 switchport mode dot1q-tunnel l2protocol-tunnel cdp no cdp enable ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk SW2: system mtu 1504 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk SW3: system mtu 1504 ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk SW4: system mtu 1504 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 100 switchport mode dot1q-tunnel l2protocol-tunnel cdp no cdp enable ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 72 www.com .

Repeater Device ID Rack1R1 Local Intrfce Fas 0/1 Holdtme 125 Capability R S I Platform 2610XM Port ID Fas 0/0 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 73 www. Dot1q tunneling works by simply taking all traffic received by the customer.Router. as even though they are not connected CDP thinks that they are. or QinQ tunneling.Trans Bridge. is commonly used by Metro Ethernet providers to offer a transparent layer 2 VPN to end customers. In this example VLAN 100 is used as the metro tag. Combined with the layer 2 tunneling feature protocols such as CDP.com . This metro tag is used as a unique identifier for the particular customer.Source Route Bridge S . H . or tunnel VLAN. the new tag of 100 is appended. This design has the distinct advantage over layer 3 MPLS tunnels. and VTP can be transparently transported between customer sites with no complex requirements in the customer network.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.IGMP.1q tunneling.Host. as the customer edge device does not have to run a routing protocol with the service provider. I . and appending a new Ethernet header with a new 802. This can be easily verified through the show cdp neighbor output on R1 or R4.INE.Switch. Rack1R4#show cdp neighbor Capability Codes: R . T . for the dot1q tunnel transport between R1 and R4.1q tag onto it. B . When R1 and R4 send traffic that is already dot1q tagged from their subinterfaces into the switch network.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note 802. and an advantage over layer 2 MPLS AToM or VPLS tunnels for the service provider as the equipment and platform requirements are very moderate. STP. r .

0 Bridging & Switching With the addition of the second 802. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 14 Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 14 does not exist. Sending 5.0.0.1q Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1. SW3. For this reason the system mtu command is adjusted on the layer 2 switches to allow for frames of this size.0. they are still able to transport these as they are encapsulated inside VLAN 100.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 41 Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 41 does not exist.1 size 1500 df-bit Type escape sequence to abort.100 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 74 www. round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/8 ms Rack1R4#ping 41.0.100 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1. SW2. and SW4 do not know about the customer’s VLANs of 14 and 41. timeout is 2 seconds: Packet sent with the DF bit set !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).1.1q encapsulation an Ethernet frame already at the normal MTU of 1500 bytes will be using 1504 bytes in the service provider transit path. round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/8 ms Although SW1.0.1. Note that a reload of the device is necessary before the MTU change actually goes into effect. Rack1SW1#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Mode on Encapsulation 802.com . Sending 5. Rack1R4#ping 14.1 size 1500 df-bit Type escape sequence to abort.0. 1500-byte ICMP Echos to 41.0.0. 1500-byte ICMP Echos to 14. timeout is 2 seconds: Packet sent with the DF bit set !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).

100 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 75 www. Rack1SW2#show interface trunk Port Fa0/13 Fa0/16 Port Fa0/13 Fa0/16 Port Fa0/13 Fa0/16 Port Fa0/13 Fa0/16 Mode on on Encapsulation 802.100 1.100 1.0 Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 14 Bridging & Switching Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 14 does not exist.com .100 Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree vlan 14 Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 14 does not exist.1q Status trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1. Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree vlan 41 Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 41 does not exist.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.100 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.100 1. Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 41 Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 41 does not exist.100 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1.INE.1q 802.1q Status trunking trunking Native vlan 1 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.100 1.1q 802. Rack1SW3#show interface trunk Port Fa0/16 Fa0/19 Port Fa0/16 Fa0/19 Port Fa0/16 Fa0/19 Port Fa0/16 Fa0/19 Mode on on Encapsulation 802.

com .INE.100 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1. Rack1SW4#show interface trunk Port Fa0/19 Port Fa0/19 Port Fa0/19 Port Fa0/19 Mode on Encapsulation 802.100 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 76 www.1q Status trunking Native vlan 1 Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1.0 Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 14 Bridging & Switching Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 14 does not exist.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 41 Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 41 does not exist.

1q Tunneling • • • • • • • Remove the previous trunking and tunneling configuration.146.0 Bridging & Switching 1.com . Tunnel Spanning-Tree Protocol along with CDP over these links so that SW1 and SW4 appear to be directly connected when viewing the show cdp neighbor output.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1. and 300.255. Configure interfaces Fa0/19. • • Configuration R1: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 155.4 255.1q trunk link over this EtherChannel. Configure an 802.0 SW1: vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport access vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk channel-group 14 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk channel-group 14 mode desirable ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk channel-group 14 mode desirable Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 77 www.17 EtherChannel over 802.1. Fa0/20.255. and Fa0/21 on SW4 as a layer 2 EtherChannel using PAgP for negotiation. and Fa0/15 on SW1 as a layer 2 EtherChannel using PAgP for negotiation.255. Disable all other inter-switch links on SW1 and SW4.255.1 255. Configure SW2 and SW3 to tunnel the EtherChannel link between SW1 and SW4 using VLANs 100. Configure interfaces Fa0/13. Fa0/14. 200.1q trunk link between SW2 and SW3. To verify this configure SW1 and SW4's links to R1 and R4 in VLAN 146 per the diagram and ensure connectivity between R1 and R4.146.INE. SW1 and SW4 should form an 802.0 R4: interface FastEthernet0/1 ip address 155.

INE.200.com .300 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport access vlan 100 switchport mode dot1q-tunnel l2protocol-tunnel cdp l2protocol-tunnel stp l2protocol-tunnel point-to-point pagp ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport access vlan 200 switchport mode dot1q-tunnel l2protocol-tunnel cdp l2protocol-tunnel stp l2protocol-tunnel point-to-point pagp ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport access vlan 300 switchport mode dot1q-tunnel l2protocol-tunnel cdp l2protocol-tunnel stp l2protocol-tunnel point-to-point pagp ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk SW3: vlan 100.0 SW2: vlan 100.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.200.300 ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport access vlan 100 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode dot1q-tunnel l2protocol-tunnel cdp l2protocol-tunnel stp l2protocol-tunnel point-to-point pagp ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport access vlan 200 switchport mode dot1q-tunnel l2protocol-tunnel cdp l2protocol-tunnel stp l2protocol-tunnel point-to-point pagp ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport access vlan 300 switchport mode dot1q-tunnel l2protocol-tunnel cdp l2protocol-tunnel stp l2protocol-tunnel point-to-point pagp Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 78 www.

1.INE. 1500-byte ICMP Echos to 155. Rack1R4#ping 155.146.1.1. Sending 5.0 SW4: vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk channel-group 14 mode auto ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk channel-group 14 mode auto ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk channel-group 14 mode auto Bridging & Switching Verification Note By creating separate point-to-point tunnels through the usage of separate metro tags an EtherChannel between two customer edge switches can be transparently tunneled over the service provider network.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.146. round-trip min/avg/max = 4/5/8 ms Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 79 www.com .1 size 1500 df-bit Type escape sequence to abort. timeout is 2 seconds: Packet sent with the DF bit set !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).

d490.3 128. sees the root port for VLAN 146 as the port-channel interface.Nbr -------128.7c00 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Root Sts --FWD FWD Cost --------19 9 Prio.3045. indicating that these two devices are in the same spanning-tree domain for this VLAN.0 Bridging & Switching SW1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 146 VLAN0146 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32914 Address 000c. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 146 VLAN0146 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32914 Address 000c.Nbr -------128.176 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Po14 SW4 agrees with this root bridge election for VLAN 146.d600 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32914 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 146) Address 000c. who is the customer edge device.65 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/4 Po14 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 80 www.d600 Cost 9 Port 176 (Port-channel14) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32914 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 146) Address 001b.d600 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD Cost --------19 9 Prio.com .d600.4 128. and the root bridge ID of 000c.3045.3045.INE.3045.

H . Rack1SW1#show etherchannel summary Flags: D I H R U u w d down P . I . r . Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 146 Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 146 does not exist.IGMP.com .Host.Repeater.Phone Device ID Rack1SW4 Rack1SW4 Rack1SW4 Rack1R1 Rack1R3 Rack1R5 Local Intrfce Fas 0/15 Fas 0/14 Fas 0/13 Fas 0/1 Fas 0/3 Fas 0/5 Holdtme 153 153 153 131 128 124 Capability S I S I S I R S I R S I R S I Platform Port ID WS-C3550-2Fas 0/21 WS-C3550-2Fas 0/20 WS-C3550-2Fas 0/19 2610XM Fas 0/0 2611XM Fas 0/0 2611XM Fas 0/0 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 81 www.failed to allocate aggregator unsuitable for bundling waiting to be aggregated default port Number of channel-groups in use: 3 Number of aggregators: 3 Group Port-channel Protocol Ports ------+-------------+-----------+---------------------------------------------14 Po14(SU) PAgP Fa0/13(P) Fa0/14(P) Fa0/15(P) SW1 and SW4 think that they are directly connected over these tunneled channel ports via CDP.Trans Bridge. and 300.Layer2 in use f .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1SW1#show cdp neighbor Capability Codes: R .Switch.0 Bridging & Switching SW2 and SW3 do not agree on the STP topology for VLAN 146 the same as SW1 and SW4. T .Source Route Bridge S . P . 200. Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree vlan 146 Spanning tree instance(s) for vlan 146 does not exist. because STP BPDUs received from SW1 and SW4 are transparently tunneled inside the metro VLAN tags of 100.INE.in port-channel stand-alone s . B .Router.suspended Hot-standby (LACP only) Layer3 S .

18 STP Root Bridge Election • • • • • • Configure the inter-switch links between SW1 & SW2.22. SW2 & SW4. SW2. Configure VLAN assignments per the diagram.1q trunk links. and SW3 & SW4 as 802.0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Configure SW4 as a VTP server using the domain name CCIE with SW1. Configure SW1 as the STP Root Bridge for all active VLANs. If SW1 goes down SW4 should take over as the STP Root Bridge for all active VLANs.58.79. SW1 & SW3.7-10.5. Disable all other inter-switch links.INE.43.67.146 priority 0 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport access vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 58 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/19 shutdown ! Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 82 www. and SW3 as its clients. Configuration SW1: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! spanning-tree vlan 1.com .

0 interface FastEthernet0/20 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/21 shutdown SW2: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport access vlan 22 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 43 ! interface FastEthernet0/6 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/16 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/17 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/18 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport access vlan 22 Bridging & Switching dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 83 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com .INE.

5.79.146 priority 4096 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/14 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/15 shutdown Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 84 www.43.79.67.146 ! spanning-tree vlan 1.7-10.43.58.9.22.67.8.com .7.58.INE.10.22.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 SW3: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 5 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/16 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/17 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/18 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk Bridging & Switching dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q SW4: vtp domain CCIE vlan 5.

0 ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk Bridging & Switching dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q Verification Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree This bridge is vlan 146 | include root the root vlan 1 | include root the root vlan 5 | include root the root vlan 7 | include root the root vlan 8 | include root the root vlan 9 | include root the root vlan 10 | include root the root vlan 22 | include root the root vlan 43 | include root the root vlan 58 | include root the root vlan 67 | include root the root vlan 79 | include root the root vlan 146 | include root the root Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 85 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com .INE.

Nbr -------128.001b. the configured priority of zero plus the system id extension (VLAN number). The device with the lowest priority value is elected the root.7c00. In this case SW1’s BID is 1.7c00 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 1 (priority 0 sys-id-ext 1) Address 001b.0 Bridging & Switching Note STP root bridge election is based on the priority and MAC address fields of the Bridge ID.17 128.20 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 86 www. The root bridge should show the same priority and MAC address for both the Root ID and the Bridge ID. SW1 with the local priority of one.15 128.d490.7c00 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio. and list all interfaces as Designated (downstream facing). Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 1 VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 1 Address 001b.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.16 128.18 128. If there is a tie in priority the device with the lowest MAC address is elected root.d490.19 128.com . shows that This bridge is the root.INE.d490.

22 128.16 128.d4df. SW2’s local BID is a priority of 32769.0 Bridging & Switching SW2 agrees that the device with the BID 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.7c00 Cost 19 Port 15 (FastEthernet0/13) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1) Address 001b.INE.17 128.21 128. and uses the port Fa0/13 with a total cost of 19 to reach it.d490.Nbr -------128.23 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/6 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 87 www.d490.7c00 is the root.001b.8 128.d4df.15 128. and the MAC address 001b.com . the default of 32768 plus the system id extension 1.ec80.ec80 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Root Altn Altn Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD BLK BLK FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio. Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 1 VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 1 Address 001b.

20 128.3045. SW3’s local BID is a priority of 32769.7c00 is the root. and the MAC address 000c.15 128.Nbr -------128.001b.0 Bridging & Switching SW3 agrees that the device with the BID 1.3045.com .4180. Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree vlan 1 VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 1 Address 001b.21 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 88 www.13 128. and uses the port Fa0/13 with a total cost of 19 to reach it.4180 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Root Altn Altn Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD BLK BLK FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio. the default of 32768 plus the system id extension 1.d490.14 128.INE.d490.19 128.7c00 Cost 19 Port 13 (FastEthernet0/13) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1) Address 000c.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

17 128.d600 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Altn Altn Altn Root Altn Altn Sts --BLK BLK BLK FWD BLK BLK Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio.16 128. This means that if the root bridge were to fail SW4 would be next in line to take over the root status. but SW4 has a lower priority than SW2 or SW3.21 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 89 www.0 Bridging & Switching Likewise SW4 agrees that the device with the BID 1.001b.INE.Nbr -------128.com .d490.18 128.20 128. Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 1 VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 1 Address 001b.d490.19 128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.7c00 is the root.3045.7c00 Cost 38 Port 19 (FastEthernet0/19) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 4097 (priority 4096 sys-id-ext 1) Address 000c.

Rack1SW1(config)#interface range fa0/13 .17 128.Nbr -------128.INE.0 Bridging & Switching When SW1’s trunk links are down SW4 should assume the role of the root bridge since it has the next lowest bridge priority value. End with CNTL/Z.3045.16 128.3045.20 128. Rack1SW1#conf t Enter configuration commands.d600 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --LIS LIS LIS FWD LIS LIS Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio.21 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 90 www. one per line.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.d600 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 4097 (priority 4096 sys-id-ext 1) Address 000c.19 128.18 128.18 Rack1SW1(config-if-range)#shut Rack1SW1(config-if-range)# Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 1 VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 4097 Address 000c.com .

If this link goes down traffic should fall over to the second link between SW2 and SW4.Nbr -------128.21 128.ec80 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Root Altn Altn Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD BLK BLK FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio.INE.d4df.19 STP Load Balancing with Port Cost • Using Spanning-Tree cost modify the layer 2 transit network so that traffic for all active VLANs from SW2 to SW1 uses the last link between SW2 and SW4.7c00 Cost 19 Port 15 (FastEthernet0/13) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.com .23 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 91 www.17 128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.d490.16 128. • Configuration SW2: interface FastEthernet0/13 spanning-tree cost 1000 ! interface FastEthernet0/14 spanning-tree cost 1000 ! interface FastEthernet0/15 spanning-tree cost 1000 ! interface FastEthernet0/20 spanning-tree cost 2 ! interface FastEthernet0/21 spanning-tree cost 1 Verification Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 10 Address 001b.0 Bridging & Switching 1.22 128.15 128.

17 128.ec80 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Role ---Altn Altn Altn Altn Altn Root Sts --BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK FWD Cost --------1000 1000 1000 19 2 1 Prio.INE. 19 from SW4 to SW3. Rack1SW2#conf t Enter configuration commands.d4df. which is the most preferred (1 to SW4.21 128.Nbr -------128. With the second to last link having a cost of 2.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1SW2(config)#interface range fa0/13 .15 Rack1SW2(config-if-range)#spanning-tree cost 1000 Rack1SW2(config-if-range)#interface fa0/21 % Command exited out of interface range and its sub-modes.22 128. one per line. By changing the last link to SW4 to a cost of 1 the end to end path cost on that link becomes 39.23 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 92 www. Not executing the command for second and later interfaces Rack1SW2(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 1 Rack1SW2(config-if-range)#interface fa0/20 Rack1SW2(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 2 Rack1SW2(config-if)#end Rack1SW2# Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 10 Address 001b.0 Bridging & Switching Note The default cost to the root bridge from SW2 before configuration changes is 19. 19 from SW3 to SW1).d490. the end to end path cost will be 40.7c00 Cost 39 Port 23 (FastEthernet0/21) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.16 128.com . By changing the links to SW1 to a cost of 1000 they are the least preferred path. End with CNTL/Z.15 128. and will therefore be the second most preferred link.

21 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 93 www.3045.17 128.INE.d490.18 128.com .20 128.16 128. If this link goes down traffic should fall over to the second link between SW3 and SW4.19 128.20 STP Load Balancing with Port Priority • Using Spanning-Tree priority modify the layer 2 transit network so that traffic for all active VLANs from SW4 to SW1 uses the last link between SW3 and SW4.7c00 Cost 38 Port 19 (FastEthernet0/19) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 15 sec Priority 4106 (priority 4096 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.0 Bridging & Switching 1.Nbr -------128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.d600 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Root Altn Altn Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD BLK BLK Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio. • Configuration SW3: interface FastEthernet0/20 spanning-tree port-priority 16 ! interface FastEthernet0/21 spanning-tree port-priority 0 Verification Note Before configuration changes: Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 10 Address 001b.

Port Identifier 128.d490.d600 Designated port id is 128. detected flag not set Number of topology changes 5 last change occurred 00:08:08 ago from FastEthernet0/16 Times: hold 1. address 001b. address 000c. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 266. forward delay 0. aging 300 Port 16 (FastEthernet0/16) of VLAN0010 is forwarding Port path cost 19. Designated root has priority 10. max age 20. address 001b. notification 0. address 001b. Port priority 128. designated path cost 38 Timers: message age 0. address 000c.d600 Designated port id is 128. received 118 Port 18 (FastEthernet0/18) of VLAN0010 is forwarding Port path cost 19.3045. address 000c. address 001b.0 Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 10 detail Bridging & Switching VLAN0010 is executing the ieee compatible Spanning Tree protocol Bridge Identifier has priority 4096.4180 Designated port id is 128.18.d490. max age 20.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 32778.d490.com . received 119 Port 17 (FastEthernet0/17) of VLAN0010 is forwarding Port path cost 19. topology change 35. address 001b. Port Identifier 128.18. Port priority 128.7c00 Root port is 19 (FastEthernet0/19). Port priority 128.17. Port Identifier 128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Designated root has priority 10. Designated root has priority 10.d490.16. Port Identifier 128.3045. topology change 0.17.3045. forward delay 15 Timers: hello 0.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 4106. forward delay 0.3045.d490.16. received 1126 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 94 www. forward delay 15 Current root has priority 10.d600 Designated port id is 128. forward delay 0.19.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 4106.INE.d600 Configured hello time 2. designated path cost 19 Timers: message age 2. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 71. sysid 10. notification 2 hello 2. received 119 Port 19 (FastEthernet0/19) of VLAN0010 is forwarding Port path cost 19. forward delay 0. address 000c. designated path cost 38 Timers: message age 0. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 266.3045. Designated root has priority 10. cost of root path is 38 Topology change flag not set. designated path cost 38 Timers: message age 0. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 266.19. address 000c.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 4106. Port priority 128.

Rack1SW3#conf t Enter configuration commands. Port Identifier 128.20.21.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 32778. and the designated (upstream) port id is compared.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 32778. one per line. If interface Fa0/21 on SW4 goes down it will compare the upstream priority of Fa0/20 (16) with the upstream priority of Fa0/19 (128). Port priority 128. address 000c. received 1125 Since interfaces Fa0/19 – 21 on SW4 all have the same end to end path cost of 38 the designated (upstream) bridge-id is compared. designated path cost 19 Timers: message age 3. Rack1SW3(config)#interface fa0/21 Rack1SW3(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0 Rack1SW3(config-if)#interface fa0/20 Rack1SW3(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 16 Rack1SW3(config-if)#end Rack1SW3# Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 95 www.4180 Designated port id is 128.20. Since SW4 is connected to SW3 out all three links. Since the upstream port number of Fa0/19 is 19. address 001b.INE. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 69. designated path cost 19 Timers: message age 3.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. forward delay 0. End with CNTL/Z. there is a tie in the designated bridge-id. address 001b.3045.3045.d490.21. SW4 prefers the port with the lowest designated port priority.com . Port priority 128. Fa0/19 is the root port on SW4. address 000c. By changing the upstream priority on SW3 on ports Fa0/20 and Fa0/21. received 1125 Port 21 (FastEthernet0/21) of VLAN0010 is blocking Port path cost 19. forward delay 0.0 Bridging & Switching Port 20 (FastEthernet0/20) of VLAN0010 is blocking Port path cost 19. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 69.4180 Designated port id is 128. Port Identifier 128.d490. and Fa0/20 will be chosen. Designated root has priority 10. versus 20 and 21. Designated root has priority 10.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0
Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 10 Address 001b.d490.7c00 Cost 38 Port 21 (FastEthernet0/21) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Bridging & Switching

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 4106 (priority 4096 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.3045.d600 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Altn Altn Root Sts --FWD FWD FWD BLK BLK LRN Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.16 128.17 128.18 128.19 128.20 128.21 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21

Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree vlan 10 detail VLAN0010 is executing the ieee compatible Spanning Tree protocol Bridge Identifier has priority 4096, sysid 10, address 000c.3045.d600 Configured hello time 2, max age 20, forward delay 15 Current root has priority 10, address 001b.d490.7c00 Root port is 21 (FastEthernet0/21), cost of root path is 38 Topology change flag set, detected flag not set Number of topology changes 6 last change occurred 00:00:19 ago from FastEthernet0/19 Times: hold 1, topology change 35, notification 2 hello 2, max age 20, forward delay 15 Timers: hello 0, topology change 0, notification 0, aging 15 Port 16 (FastEthernet0/16) of VLAN0010 is forwarding Port path cost 19, Port priority 128, Port Identifier 128.16. Designated root has priority 10, address 001b.d490.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 4106, address 000c.3045.d600 Designated port id is 128.16, designated path cost 38 Timers: message age 0, forward delay 0, hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 293, received 119 Port 17 (FastEthernet0/17) of VLAN0010 is forwarding Port path cost 19, Port priority 128, Port Identifier 128.17. Designated root has priority 10, address 001b.d490.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 4106, address 000c.3045.d600 Designated port id is 128.17, designated path cost 38 Timers: message age 0, forward delay 0, hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 294, received 118

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Port 18 (FastEthernet0/18) of VLAN0010 is forwarding Port path cost 19, Port priority 128, Port Identifier 128.18. Designated root has priority 10, address 001b.d490.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 4106, address 000c.3045.d600 Designated port id is 128.18, designated path cost 38 Timers: message age 0, forward delay 0, hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 294, received 119 Port 19 (FastEthernet0/19) of VLAN0010 is blocking Port path cost 19, Port priority 128, Port Identifier 128.19. Designated root has priority 10, address 001b.d490.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 32778, address 000c.3045.4180 Designated port id is 128.19, designated path cost 19 Timers: message age 3, forward delay 0, hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 71, received 1152 Port 20 (FastEthernet0/20) of VLAN0010 is blocking Port path cost 19, Port priority 128, Port Identifier 128.20. Designated root has priority 10, address 001b.d490.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 32778, address 000c.3045.4180 Designated port id is 16.20, designated path cost 19 Timers: message age 2, forward delay 0, hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 69, received 1152 Port 21 (FastEthernet0/21) of VLAN0010 is learning Port path cost 19, Port priority 128, Port Identifier 128.21. Designated root has priority 10, address 001b.d490.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 32778, address 000c.3045.4180 Designated port id is 0.21, designated path cost 19 Timers: message age 2, forward delay 7, hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default BPDU: sent 70, received 1153

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1.21 Tuning STP Convergence Timers
• • • • Configure the switches so that they broadcast Spanning-Tree hello packets every three seconds. When a new port becomes active it should wait twenty seconds before transitioning to the forwarding state. If the switches do not hear a configuration message within ten seconds they should attempt reconfiguration. This configuration should impact all currently active VLANs and any additional VLANs created in the future.

Configuration
SW1: spanning-tree vlan 1-4094 hello-time 3 spanning-tree vlan 1-4094 forward-time 10 spanning-tree vlan 1-4094 max-age 10

Verification
Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 10 Address 001b.d490.7c00 Cost 19 Port 13 (FastEthernet0/13) Hello Time 3 sec Max Age 10 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 10 sec

Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 000c.3045.4180 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Root Altn Altn Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD BLK BLK FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.13 128.14 128.15 128.19 16.20 0.21 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21

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Note
Downstream devices from the root bridge inherit the timers configured on the root. With a forward delay of 10 seconds configured on SW1 the downstream switches should take 10 seconds in each of the listening and learning phases during convergence. The below timestamps indicate that a new root port was elected at 04:56:40 on SW3 and transitions from blocking to listening. 10 seconds later, at 04:56:50, the port transitions from listening to learning. Finally 10 seconds after that, at 04:57:00, the port transitions into forwarding.

Rack1SW3#debug spanning-tree events Spanning Tree event debugging is on Rack1SW3#conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. Rack1SW3(config)#service timestamps log Rack1SW3(config)#logging console 7 Rack1SW3(config)#interface fa0/13 Rack1SW3(config-if)#shut 04:56:40: STP: VLAN0001 04:56:40: STP: VLAN0001 04:56:40: STP: VLAN0005 04:56:40: STP: VLAN0005 <output omitted> 04:56:43: STP: VLAN0001 04:56:43: STP: VLAN0005 <output omitted> 04:56:50: STP: VLAN0001 04:56:50: STP: VLAN0005 <output omitted> 04:57:00: STP: VLAN0001 04:57:00: STP: VLAN0001 04:57:00: STP: VLAN0005 04:57:00: STP: VLAN0005 <output omitted>

End with CNTL/Z.

new root port Fa0/14, cost 19 Fa0/14 -> listening new root port Fa0/14, cost 19 Fa0/14 -> listening sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 Fa0/14 -> learning Fa0/14 -> learning sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 Fa0/14 -> forwarding sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 Fa0/14 -> forwarding

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Do not use any global Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE.22 STP PortFast • Configure Spanning-Tree PortFast on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not have to wait for the Spanning-Tree listening and learning phases to begin forwarding. • Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/1 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree portfast SW2: interface FastEthernet0/2 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/6 spanning-tree portfast trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/24 spanning-tree portfast SW3: interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/24 spanning-tree portfast SW4: interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree portfast Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 100 www.com .0 Bridging & Switching 1.

0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note Portfast is used to override the listening and learning phases of spanning-tree.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. also called the forwarding delay. Rack1SW1(config-if)#no shutdown Rack1SW1(config-if)# 05:08:52: set portid: VLAN0146 Fa0/1: new port id 8003 05:08:52: STP: VLAN0146 Fa0/1 ->jump to forwarding from blocking Rack1SW1(config-if)# 05:08:53: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/1. changed state to up Rack1SW1(config-if)#end Rack1SW1# Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 101 www. changed state to administratively down 05:08:44: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. End with CNTL/Z. changed state to up 05:08:54: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1.INE. and transition immediately to forwarding. one per line. changed state to down When interface Fa0/1 is shutdown and subsequently brought back up it immediately transitions to the forwarding state. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree interface fa0/1 portfast VLAN0146 enabled Rack1SW1#debug spanning-tree event Spanning Tree event debugging is on Rack1SW1#conf t Enter configuration commands.com . Rack1SW1(config)#service timestamp log Rack1SW1(config)#logging console 7 Rack1SW1(config)#interface fa0/1 Rack1SW1(config-if)#shutdown 05:08:43: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/1.

Do not use any interface level Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this.0 Bridging & Switching 1.23 STP PortFast Default • • Remove the previous PortFast configuration.com . • Configuration SW1: spanning-tree portfast default SW2: spanning-tree portfast default SW3: spanning-tree portfast default SW4: spanning-tree portfast default Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 102 www. Configure Spanning-Tree PortFast on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not have to wait for the Spanning-Tree listening and learning phases to begin forwarding.INE.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.. changed state to administratively down 05:13:56: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. changed state to up Rack1SW1(config-if)# Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 103 www.. Rack1SW1#show run interface fa0/1 Building configuration. This command is the equivalent of issuing the spanning-tree portfast command under an interface range that encompasses all interfaces. however it is automatically enabled on all interfaces at the same time. End with CNTL/Z.com .0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note Portfast default has the same affect as the interface level portfast command.INE. Current configuration : 61 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport access vlan 146 end Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree interface fa0/1 portfast VLAN0146 enabled Rack1SW1#debug spanning-tree event Spanning Tree event debugging is on Rack1SW1#conf t Enter configuration commands. changed state to down Rack1SW1(config-if)#no shutdown Rack1SW1(config-if)# 05:14:03: set portid: VLAN0146 Fa0/1: new port id 8003 05:14:03: STP: VLAN0146 Fa0/1 ->jump to forwarding from blocking Rack1SW1(config-if)# 05:14:03: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/1. one per line. changed state to up 05:14:04: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. Rack1SW1(config)#interface fa0/1 Rack1SW1(config-if)#shutdown Rack1SW1(config-if)# 05:13:55: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/1.

8 128.0 Bridging & Switching 1.17 128.Nbr -------128. and SW4 with Spanning-Tree UplinkFast such that if their root port is lost they immediately reconverge to an alternate connection to their upstream bridge.7c00 Cost 4000 Port 15 (FastEthernet0/13) Hello Time 3 sec Max Age 10 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 10 sec Priority 49162 (priority 49152 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b. • Configuration SW2: spanning-tree uplinkfast SW3: spanning-tree uplinkfast SW4: spanning-tree uplinkfast Verification Note The Cisco proprietary UplinkFast feature is used to speed up convergence time when the direct failure of the local root port occurs.21 128. Verify this by shutting down the root port of SW2. In this particular design interface Fa0/13 on SW2 is the current root port.16 128.com .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.15 128.22 128.ec80 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Uplinkfast enabled Interface ---------------Fa0/6 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Role ---Desg Root Altn Altn Altn Altn Altn Sts --FWD FWD BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK Cost --------3019 4000 4000 4000 3019 3002 3001 Prio.24 STP UplinkFast • Configure SW2.d4df. SW3.INE.d490.23 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 104 www. Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 10 Address 001b.

cost 4000 05:16:42: %SPANTREE_FAST-7-PORT_FWD_UPLINK: VLAN0001 FastEthernet0/14 moved to Forwarding (UplinkFast).0 Bridging & Switching With the failure of the root port the next alternate port is immediately transitioned to the root port in forwarding state.com . changed state to administratively down 05:16:45: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/13. Rack1SW2(config)#service timestamp log Rack1SW2(config)#logging console 7 Rack1SW2(config)#interface fa0/13 Rack1SW2(config-if)#shut Rack1SW2(config-if)# 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0001 new root port Fa0/14. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0146 new root port Fa0/14. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0009 new root port Fa0/14. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0007 new root port Fa0/14. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0010 new root port Fa0/14. End with CNTL/Z. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0058 new root port Fa0/14. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0022 new root port Fa0/14. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0008 new root port Fa0/14.INE. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0067 new root port Fa0/14. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0043 new root port Fa0/14. Rack1SW2#debug spanning-tree event Spanning Tree event debugging is on Rack1SW2#conf t Enter configuration commands. and the CAM table is flooded out this new root port to expedite the learning phase of upstream neighbors. changed state to down 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0001 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0005 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0007 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0008 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0009 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0010 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0022 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0043 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0058 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0067 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0079 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:45: STP: VLAN0146 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/14 05:16:58: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 105 www. one per line. cost 4000 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0079 new root port Fa0/14. cost 4000 05:16:44: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/13.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. 05:16:42: STP: VLAN0005 new root port Fa0/14.

In this design SW2’s root port is towards SW4 on Fa0/21.com .d4df.22 128. Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 10 Address 001b.16 128.23 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Interface ---------------Fa0/6 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 106 www.21 128.8 128.INE.0 Bridging & Switching 1.Nbr -------128.7c00 Cost 39 Port 23 (FastEthernet0/21) Hello Time 3 sec Max Age 10 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 10 sec Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.d490.ec80 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 10 Role ---Desg Altn Altn Altn Altn Altn Root Sts --FWD BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK FWD Cost --------19 1000 1000 1000 19 2 1 Prio.25 STP BackboneFast • Configure Spanning-Tree BackboneFast such that if the links between SW3 and SW4 go down SW2 immediately expires its maxage timer and begins Spanning-Tree reconvergence.17 128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.15 128. Configuration SW1: spanning-tree backbonefast SW2: spanning-tree backbonefast SW3: spanning-tree backbonefast SW4: spanning-tree backbonefast Verification Note The Cisco proprietary BackboneFast feature is used to speed up convergence when an indirect failure occurs upstream in the network by immediately expiring the max_age timer.

STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/13 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/14 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/15 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/21 Vlan5 STP FAST: received inferior BPDU on VLAN0005 FastEthernet0/21. STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Faa0/13 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/14 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/15 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/20 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/21 Vlan5 STP FAST: received inferior BPDU on VLAN0005 FastEthernet0/20. STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/13 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/14 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/15 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/20 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/21 Vlan1 STP FAST: received inferior BPDU on VLAN0001 FastEthernet0/20. Rack1SW4#conf t Enter configuration commands. Rack1SW4(config)#interface range fa0/19 – 21 Rack1SW4(config-if)#shutdown Rack1SW4(config-if)# Rack1SW2#debug spanning-tree backbonefast Spanning Tree backbonefast general debugging is on Rack1SW2# STP FAST: received inferior BPDU on VLAN0001 FastEthernet0/19.com .0 Bridging & Switching SW4 loses its path to the root bridge causing it to send inferior BPDUs downstream to SW2. one per line. STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/13 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/14 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/15 Vlan1 STP FAST: received inferior BPDU on VLAN0005 FastEthernet0/19. STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/13 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/14 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/15 Vlan1 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0001(1) Fa0/21 Vlan1 STP FAST: received inferior BPDU on VLAN0001 FastEthernet0/21. Since BackboneFast is enabled. SW2 generates Root Link Query (RLQ) PDUs to check if it should expire max_age for its current BPDUs and begin reconvergence.INE.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. End with CNTL/Z. STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/13 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/14 Vlan5 STP FAST: sending RLQ request PDU on VLAN0005(5) Fa0/15 Vlan5 <output omitted> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 107 www.

Once disabled the switches should attempt to re-enable the ports after two minutes.26 STP BPDU Guard • Configure Spanning-Tree BPDU Guard on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers are disabled if a SpanningTree BPDU is detected. Do not use the global portfast command to accomplish this. • • Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/1 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! errdisable recovery cause bpduguard errdisable recovery interval 120 SW2: interface FastEthernet0/2 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! interface FastEthernet0/6 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! interface FastEthernet0/24 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! errdisable recovery cause bpduguard errdisable recovery interval 120 SW3: interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! interface FastEthernet0/24 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! errdisable recovery cause bpduguard errdisable recovery interval 120 SW4: interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree bpduguard enable ! errdisable recovery cause bpduguard errdisable recovery interval 120 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 108 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE.com .0 Bridging & Switching 1.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. putting Fa0/1 in err-disable state Rack1SW1#show interface fa0/1 status Port Fa0/1 Name Status Vlan err-disabled 146 Duplex auto Speed Type auto 10/100BaseTX Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 109 www. received 0 Rack1SW1# 09:00:09: %SPANTREE-2-BLOCK_BPDUGUARD: Received BPDU on port FastEthernet0/1 with BPDU Guard enabled. to perform a layer 2 man-in-the-middle (MiM) attack.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 146. 09:00:09: %PM-4-ERR_DISABLE: bpduguard error detected on Fa0/1. address 001b. Port priority 128.d490. forward delay 0. the errdisable recovery feature can then be used to bring the interface out of err-disable state automatically after a configured interval.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note The STP BPDU Guard feature is used to enforce access layer security on the termination of the STP domain. When an interface running BPDU Guard receives a BPDU (STP packet). Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree interface fa0/1 detail Port 3 (FastEthernet0/1) of VLAN0146 is forwarding Port path cost 19. the interface is transitioned into err-disable state. for example.com .INE. Disabling port.3. By configuring bridging on R1’s link to SW1. This ensures that unauthorized switches cannot be plugged into the network. Disabling port. 09:02:12: %PM-4-ERR_DISABLE: bpduguard error detected on Fa0/1. changed state to down 09:02:09: %PM-4-ERR_RECOVER: Attempting to recover from bpduguard err-disable state on Fa0/1 09:02:12: %SPANTREE-2-BLOCK_BPDUGUARD: Received BPDU on port FastEthernet0/1 with BPDU Guard enabled. If configured.3. Designated root has priority 146. Rack1R1#conf t Enter configuration commands. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default Bpdu guard is enabled BPDU: sent 4500.7c00 Designated port id is 128. one per line. Rack1R1(config)#bridge 1 protocol ieee Rack1R1(config)#interface fa0/0 Rack1R1(config-if)#bridge-group 1 End with CNTL/Z. STP BPDUs are generated and the link is sent to err-disable state.d490. address 001b. Port Identifier 128. putting Fa0/1 in err-disable state 09:00:10: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1. designated path cost 0 Timers: message age 0.

0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1R1#conf t Enter configuration commands. 09:07:57: %PM-4-ERR_DISABLE: bpduguard error detected on Fa0/1.27 STP BPDU Guard Default • • Remove the previous BPDU Guard configuration. putting Fa0/1 in err-disable state 09:07:57: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/1. Rack1SW1# 09:07:57: %SPANTREE-2-BLOCK_BPDUGUARD: Received BPDU on port FastEthernet0/1 with BPDU Guard enabled. changed state to down Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 110 www. Configure Spanning-Tree PortFast on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not have to wait for the Spanning-Tree listening and learning phases to begin forwarding. one per line.com . • • Configuration SW1: spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default spanning-tree portfast default SW2: spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default spanning-tree portfast default SW3: spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default spanning-tree portfast default SW4: spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default spanning-tree portfast default Verification Note The BPDU Guard default feature works in conjunction with Portfast default in order to automatically enable BPDU Guard on any interfaces in the Portfast state. Rack1R1(config)#bridge 1 protocol ieee Rack1R1(config)#interface fa0/0 Rack1R1(config-if)#bridge-group 1 End with CNTL/Z. Do not use any interface level Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this.INE. Configure Spanning-Tree BPDU Guard so that if a Spanning-Tree BPDU is detected on any of these ports they are disabled. Disabling port.

28 STP BPDU Filter • • • Remove the previous BPDU Guard configuration.com .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 Bridging & Switching 1.INE. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/1 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable ! interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable SW2: interface FastEthernet0/2 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable ! interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable ! interface FastEthernet0/6 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable ! interface FastEthernet0/24 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable SW3: interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable ! interface FastEthernet0/24 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable SW4: interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 111 www. Configure the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not send Spanning-Tree packets sent out them. Do not use any global Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this.

address 0011. topology change 12. Rack1R1#show spanning-tree 1 Bridge group 1 is executing the ieee compatible Spanning Tree protocol Bridge Identifier has priority 1. Unlike BPDU Guard the interface does not go into err-disable when a violation occurs.com .4. max age 20.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 0 BPDU: sent 2.INE. detected flag set Number of topology changes 3 last change occurred 00:00:23 ago from FastEthernet0/0 Times: hold 1.bbbd. forward delay 10.bbbd. Port Identifier 128.3bc0 Designated port id is 128.3bc0 Designated bridge has priority 1. designated path cost 0 Timers: message age 0.bbbd. aging 15 Port 4 (FastEthernet0/0) of Bridge group 1 is listening Port path cost 19. R1 is configured to bridge on the Fa0/0 interface and 2 BPDUs are sent. one per line. forward delay 15 Timers: hello 0. Port priority 128. The difference between them is that when configured at the interface level the BPDU Filter feature drops all inbound BPDUs and does not send BPDUs out the interface. received 0 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 112 www.3bc0 Configured hello time 2. Rack1R1#conf t Enter configuration commands.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note The BPDU Filter feature. max age 20. is used to terminate the STP domain. Designated root has priority 1.4. notification 0. address 0011. forward delay 15 We are the root of the spanning tree Topology change flag set. like the BPDU Guard feature. Rack1R1(config)#bridge 1 protocol ieee Rack1R1(config)#interface fa0/0 Rack1R1(config-if)#bridge-group 1 Rack1R1(config-if)#end End with CNTL/Z. address 0011. Other user traffic will continued to be forwarded inbound and outbound the port. notification 2 hello 2. topology change 35.

INE.d490.com .7c00 Designated port id is 128.3. received 0 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 113 www. address 001b.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default Bpdu filter is enabled BPDU: sent 0. address 001b. Port Identifier 128. forward delay 0.d490. Designated root has priority 146. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree interface fa0/1 detail Port 3 (FastEthernet0/1) of VLAN0146 is forwarding Port path cost 19.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 146. designated path cost 0 Timers: message age 0. Port priority 128.0 Bridging & Switching SW1 does not acknowledge that it received these BPDUs because BPDU Filter is configured.3.

Configure Spanning-Tree PortFast on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers do not have to wait for the Spanning-Tree listening and learning phases to begin forwarding.com . Do not use any interface level Spanning-Tree commands to accomplish this. Configure Spanning-Tree BPDU Filter on the switches so that the PortFast enabled ports are reverted out of PortFast state if a Spanning-Tree packet is received in them.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 Bridging & Switching 1. • • Configuration SW1: spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter default spanning-tree portfast default SW2: spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter default spanning-tree portfast default SW3: spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter default spanning-tree portfast default SW4: spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter default spanning-tree portfast default Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 114 www.INE.29 STP BPDU Filter Default • • Remove the previous BPDU Filter configuration.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. When both features are configured together all interfaces run in Portfast mode except those which are receiving BPDUs. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree interface fa0/1 portfast VLAN0146 disabled Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 115 www. Rack1R1(config)#bridge 1 protocol ieee Rack1R1(config)#interface fa0/0 Rack1R1(config-if)#bridge-group 1 Rack1R1(config-if)#end Rack1R1# End with CNTL/Z. Once bridging is enabled on R1’s link to SW1. SW1 detects that R1 is sending BPDUs and reverts the interface out of Portfast state.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note BPDU Filter Default works with Portfast default by allowing interfaces that should not have Portfast enabled on them to be automatically detected. one per line. In the below output we can see that Portfast is enabled on SW1’s link Fa0/1 to R1. Note that the interface can still forward traffic and is not sent into err-disable state.INE.com . Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree interface fa0/1 portfast VLAN0146 enabled Rack1R1#config t Enter configuration commands.

or SW4 is elected the Spanning-Tree Root Bridge for any VLAN.0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. SW3.30 STP Root Guard • Configure SW1 so that the links to either SW2 or SW3 are disabled if SW2.INE. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/13 spanning-tree guard root ! interface FastEthernet0/14 spanning-tree guard root ! interface FastEthernet0/15 spanning-tree guard root ! interface FastEthernet0/16 spanning-tree guard root ! interface FastEthernet0/17 spanning-tree guard root ! interface FastEthernet0/18 spanning-tree guard root Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 116 www.com .

7c00 Hello Time 3 sec Max Age 10 sec Forward Delay 10 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts Cost --.--------FWD 19 BKN*19 BKN*19 BKN*19 BKN*19 BKN*19 BKN*19 Prio.INE. The difference between them is that with Root Guard the interface is only disabled (via root inconsistent state) if a superior BPDU is received. End with CNTL/Z. Rack1SW4#conf t Enter configuration commands.com .20 Type -------------------------P2p P2p *ROOT_Inc P2p *ROOT_Inc P2p *ROOT_Inc P2p *ROOT_Inc P2p *ROOT_Inc P2p *ROOT_Inc Interface ---------------Fa0/5 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 117 www. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree vlan 1 VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 1 Address 001b. Rack1SW4(config)#spanning-tree vlan 1 priority 0 Rack1SW4(config)# Rack1SW1# 09:20:23: %SPANTREE-2-ROOTGUARD_BLOCK: Root guard blocking port FastEthernet0/13 on VLAN0001.19 128. one per line.7c00 This bridge is the root Hello Time 3 sec Max Age 10 sec Bridge ID Forward Delay 10 sec Priority 1 (priority 0 sys-id-ext 1) Address 001b.7 128. Therefore design-wise this feature is used to prevent a rogue device from announcing itself as the new root bridge and possibly implementing a layer 2 man-in-the-middle attack.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note Root Guard is similar to the BPDU Guard feature in the manner that it is used to detect STP packets and disable the interface they were received on. Once SW1 receives these announcements the forwarding of VLAN 1 is disabled on the links that these BPDUs were received.d490. In the below output SW4 starts announcing superior BPDUs to SW1 by lowering its bridge priority to zero.Nbr -------128. A superior BPDU indicates a better cost to the root bridge than what is currently installed.17 128.15 128.16 128.d490.18 128.

0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/13 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/14 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/15 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/16 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/17 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/18 spanning-tree guard loop SW2: interface FastEthernet0/13 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/14 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/15 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/19 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/20 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/21 spanning-tree guard loop SW3: interface FastEthernet0/13 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/14 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/15 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/19 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 118 www.INE.com .31 STP Loop Guard • Configure Spanning-Tree Loop Guard to prevent unidirectional links from forming on any of the inter-switch links in the layer 2 network.

0 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/20 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/21 spanning-tree guard loop SW4: interface FastEthernet0/16 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/17 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/18 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/19 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/20 spanning-tree guard loop ! interface FastEthernet0/21 spanning-tree guard loop Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 119 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE.com .

7c00 Designated port id is 128.d490.com . but it uses STP BPDU keepalives to determine if there is a unidirectional link. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default Loop guard is enabled on the port BPDU: sent 193.INE. a loop can occur.7c00 Designated bridge has priority 1. Loop guard prevents this by transitioning blocking ports into loop-inconsistent state instead of forwarding if BPDUs stop being received from the designated port.d490. forward delay 0.7c00 Designated port id is 128.15. address 001b. Port Identifier 128. In normal STP operation in a redundant topology some links will be designated forwarding while the other end will be blocking. address 001b. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree interface fa0/13 detail Port 15 (FastEthernet0/13) of VLAN0001 is blocking Port path cost 19. Designated root has priority 5.15.15. received 0 <ouput omitted> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 120 www.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note STP Loop Guard is used to prevent STP loops from occurring due to unidirectional links.d490. Specifically this can happen if there is a unidirectional link and the blocking port stops receiving the BPDUs that the designated port it sending. forward delay 0. Port Identifier 128.d490. Port priority 128. If one of these blocking links transitions to forwarding state erroneously. This feature is similar to Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD).7c00 Designated bridge has priority 5. address 001b.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.15. designated path cost 0 Timers: message age 0. designated path cost 0 Timers: message age 0. Designated root has priority 1. address 001b. Port priority 128. hold 0 Number of transitions to forwarding state: 1 Link type is point-to-point by default Loop guard is enabled on the port BPDU: sent 268. received 109 Port 15 (FastEthernet0/13) of VLAN0005 is forwarding Port path cost 19.

Configure UDLD to prevent unidirectional links from forming on any of the inter-switch links in the layer 2 network.0 Bridging & Switching 1. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/13 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/14 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/15 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/16 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/17 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/18 udld port aggressive SW2: interface FastEthernet0/13 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/14 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/15 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/19 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/20 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/21 udld port aggressive SW3: interface FastEthernet0/13 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/14 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/15 udld port aggressive Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 121 www.INE.32 Unidirectional Link Detection • • Remove the previous Loop Guard configuration.com .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

0 ! interface FastEthernet0/19 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/20 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/21 udld port aggressive SW4: interface FastEthernet0/16 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/17 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/18 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/19 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/20 udld port aggressive ! interface FastEthernet0/21 udld port aggressive Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 122 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com .INE.

Based on this the features can be configured at the same time to protect against all possible unidirectional link scenarios.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note UDLD. For example if a loop occurs due to a physical wiring problem. although much more rare. UDLD is a Cisco proprietary feature in which peers discover each other by exchanging frames sent to the well-known MAC address 01:00:0C:CC:CC:CC. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 123 www. Likewise if there is a unidirectional link due to a failure in the STP software itself. someone mistakenly mixes up the send and receive pairs of a fiber link.e. UDLD can detect this. If UDLD is set to “Aggressive” mode. while UDLD uses its own keepalive. and UDLD can not. What happens next depends on UDLD mode of operation. Additionally a switch echoes back the ID of its neighbor. but Loop Guard cannot. If no echo frame with the switch’s own ID has been seen from the peer for a certain amount of time. but Loop Guard cannot. Each switch sends its own device ID along with the originator port ID and timeout value to its peer. is used to prevent loops due to unidirectional links. and likewise ones that UDLD can prevent. i. once the switch loses its neighbor it actively tries to re-establish the relationship by sending a UDLD frames 8 times every 1 second. This mode of operation is informational and potentially less disruptive (though it does not prevent STP loops). and it continues to operate under its current STP status. the port is suspected to be unidirectional. In “Normal” mode if the physical state of port (as reported by Layer 1) is still up UDLD marks this port as “Undetermined”. The difference between the features is that Loop Guard uses STP BPDUs to detect these failures. If the neighbor does not respond after that the port is considered to be unidirectional and sent to err-disable state.com .INE. Loop Guard can detect this but UDLD cannot. In certain designs there are unidirectional links that Loop Guard can prevent.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. like Loop Guard. but does NOT shut down or disable the port.

0 Bridging & Switching Although in this design UDLD is configured on copper UTP interfaces.INE. this case is usually not needed in a real network design due to the Fast Link Pulse (FLP) signals that already track the interface status on wired interfaces. Instead UDLD is more commonly run on Fiber Optic interfaces.Single neighbor detected Message interval: 7 Time out interval: 5 Entry 1 --Expiration time: 45 Device ID: 1 Current neighbor state: Bidirectional Device name: FDO1118Z0P9 Port ID: Fa0/13 Neighbor echo 1 device: FDO1118Z0P6 Neighbor echo 1 port: Fa0/13 Message interval: 15 Time out interval: 5 CDP Device name: Rack1SW2 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 124 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1SW1#show udld fa0/13 Interface Fa0/13 --Port enable administrative configuration setting: Enabled / in aggressive mode Port enable operational state: Enabled / in aggressive mode Current bidirectional state: Bidirectional Current operational state: Advertisement .com .

0 Bridging & Switching 1. and SW3 & SW4 as 802.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1.255.0 SW1: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! spanning-tree mst configuration name MST1 revision 1 instance 1 vlan 1-100 instance 2 vlan 101-200 instance 3 vlan 201-4094 ! spanning-tree mst 1 priority 0 ! spanning-tree mode mst ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport access vlan 146 ! Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 125 www.146.255.100. Configure Multiple Spanning-Tree on the switches. Configuration R6: interface FastEthernet0/0.1q trunk links. If SW4 goes down SW3 should take over as the STP Root Bridge for instance 2. Configure SW4 as the STP Root Bridge for instance 2.200.67 encapsulation dot1q 67 ip address 155. Instance 2 should service VLANs 101 . SW2 & SW4. Configure SW1 as the STP Root Bridge for instance 1. SW2. Configure SW4 as a VTP server using the domain name CCIE with SW1. SW1 & SW3.33 MST Root Bridge Election • • • • • • • • • • • • Configure the inter-switch links between SW1 & SW2.com .255.6 255. and SW3 as its clients. Disable all other inter-switch links. If SW1 goes down SW2 should take over as the STP Root Bridge for instance 1. Configure VLAN assignments per the diagram.67. Instance 1 should service VLANs 1 .6 255.1.INE.255.146 encapsulation dot1q 146 ip address 155.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/0. Instance 3 should service all other VLANs.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 58 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/19 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/20 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/21 shutdown Bridging & Switching dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q SW2: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! spanning-tree mst configuration name MST1 revision 1 instance 1 vlan 1-100 instance 2 vlan 101-200 instance 3 vlan 201-4094 ! spanning-tree mst 1 priority 4096 ! spanning-tree mode mst ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport access vlan 22 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 43 ! Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 126 www.com .INE.

0 interface FastEthernet0/6 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/16 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/17 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/18 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport access vlan 22 Bridging & Switching dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q SW3: vtp domain CCIE vtp mode client ! spanning-tree mst configuration name MST1 revision 1 instance 1 vlan 1-100 instance 2 vlan 101-200 instance 3 vlan 201-4094 ! spanning-tree mst 2 priority 4096 ! spanning-tree mode mst ! interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 5 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 127 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com .INE.

9.79.com .10.INE.22.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.58.7.43.8.146 ! spanning-tree mst configuration name MST1 revision 1 instance 1 vlan 1-100 instance 2 vlan 101-200 instance 3 vlan 201-4094 ! spanning-tree mst 2 priority 0 ! spanning-tree mode mst ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 146 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/14 shutdown Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 128 www.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/16 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/17 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/18 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk Bridging & Switching dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q SW4: vtp domain CCIE vlan 5.67.

Rapid PVST+. MST essentially takes the best features of IEEE 802. In Common Spanning-Tree all 4094 VLANs would map to one instance.com . PVST. With MST three user-defined instances are created that map different portions of the VLAN space into separate instances with a similar forwarding path. MST can be used to eliminate the overhead of redundant STP instances in topologies where multiple VLANs.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/15 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk Bridging & Switching dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q Verification Note Multiple Spanning-Tree (MST) is an IEEE standard defined in 802. but not all VLANs. Unlike the Cisco proprietary Per-VLAN Spanning-Tree (PVST). AKA Common Spanning-Tree.1D Spanning-Tree. PVST+. With PVST there would be 4094 separate instances of STP.INE. For example in this design STP instances are created for VLANs 1 – 4094. This has very little overhead but does not allow for detailed traffic engineering. which allows for detailed traffic engineering but creates immense overhead. and allows user-defined STP instances to be mapped to multiple VLANs. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 129 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. and the Cisco extensions to STP. and combines them. follow the same layer 2 forwarding path.1s. while at the same time allowing for flexible failure domain separation and traffic engineering.

17 128. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 001b. SW1 is the root for instance 1 because it has a priority value of 1. In this case SW1 is the root for instance 1.Nbr -------128.18 128.15 128. MST uses the lowest Bridge-ID (BID) in the network to elect the Root Bridge. In PVST there is one root bridge election per VLAN.20 32770 (32768 sysid 2) 2 (0 sysid 2) 400000 rem hops 18 Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 130 www.7c00 priority address 000c. but in MST there is one election per user-defined instance.com . The lower priority wins the election. In MST the sysid field is the instance number.15 128.19 128.16 128.Nbr -------128.17 128. while SW4 is the root for instance 2. and how the root port election has occurred.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.7c00 this switch for MST1 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 priority 1 (0 sysid 1) Interface ---------------Fa0/5 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Prio. and if there is a tie in priority the lowest MAC address is the tie breaker. who the root bridge is.19 128. since there is one STP instance per VLAN. From the show spanning-tree mst output we can see which VLANs are mapped to the particular MST instance.INE.18 128. where as in PVST the sysid is the VLAN number.d490.20 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree mst 2 ##### MST2 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 101-200 address 001b.7 128.3 128.0 Bridging & Switching Like CST and PVST. The BID is made up of the priority value and the MAC address.3045. which is made up of the configured priority of 0 plus the sytemid extension of 1.d490.16 128.d600 priority port Fa0/16 cost Role ---Desg Altn Altn Altn Root Altn Altn Sts --FWD BLK BLK BLK FWD BLK BLK Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 Prio.

ec80 address 001b.3045.21 128.7c00 port Fa0/13 Role ---Desg Root Altn Altn Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD BLK BLK FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 2000000 priority priority cost Prio.22 128.14 128.21 128.15 128.com .26 4097 (4096 sysid 1) 1 (0 sysid 1) 200000 rem hops 19 Interface ---------------Fa0/2 Fa0/4 Fa0/6 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Fa0/24 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Shr Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree mst 2 ##### MST2 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 101-200 address 001b.4 128.Nbr -------128.8 128.6 128.d4df.5 128.21 128.19 128.8 128.d490.Nbr -------128.13 128.ec80 priority address 000c.16 128.INE.15 128.23 128.24 32769 (32768 sysid 1) 1 (0 sysid 1) 200000 rem hops 19 Interface ---------------Fa0/5 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Fa0/24 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Shr Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 131 www.17 128.d490.d4df.22 128.16 128.17 128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.7c00 port Fa0/13 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Root Altn Altn Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD BLK BLK FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 2000000 Bridging & Switching priority priority cost Prio.3045.20 128.23 32770 (32768 sysid 2) 2 (0 sysid 2) 200000 rem hops 19 Interface ---------------Fa0/6 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 000c.15 128.0 Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 001b.Nbr -------128.4180 address 001b.d600 priority port Fa0/19 cost Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Root Altn Altn Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD BLK BLK Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 Prio.

7c00 port Fa0/16 Role ---Root Altn Altn Altn Altn Altn Sts --FWD BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 priority priority cost Prio.15 128.3045.18 128.Nbr -------128.20 128.3045.com .14 128.INE.16 128.17 128.21 2 (0 sysid 2) Interface ---------------Fa0/4 Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 132 www.21 32769 (32768 sysid 1) 1 (0 sysid 1) 400000 rem hops 18 Interface ---------------Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree mst 2 ##### MST2 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 101-200 address 000c.21 Bridging & Switching 4098 (4096 sysid 2) 2 (0 sysid 2) 200000 rem hops 19 Interface ---------------Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 000c.3045.19 128.d600 priority port Fa0/19 cost Role ---Desg Desg Desg Root Altn Altn Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD BLK BLK Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 Prio.17 128.4 128.13 128.18 128.d600 address 001b.20 128.d600 priority this switch for MST2 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 Prio.20 128.0 Rack1SW3#show spanning-tree mst 2 ##### MST2 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 101-200 address 000c.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.Nbr -------128.4180 priority address 000c.3045.Nbr -------128.16 128.19 128.19 128.d490.

End with CNTL/Z.INE.com . one per line. Rack1SW1#conf t Enter configuration commands.4 128.21 128.0 Bridging & Switching For MST instance 1 SW1 has a priority of 1.23 128. When connectivity to SW1 is lost SW2 is promoted to the root bridge status.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.18 Rack1SW1(config-if-range)#shut Rack1SW1(config-if-range)# Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 001b.22 128.8 128.6 128. and SW2 is next in line with a priority of 4097. Rack1SW1(config)#interface range fa0/13 .ec80 this switch for MST1 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --BLK BLK BLK FWD FWD FWD BLK Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 2000000 priority 4097 (4096 sysid 1) Interface ---------------Fa0/2 Fa0/4 Fa0/6 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Fa0/24 Prio.Nbr -------128.d4df.26 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Shr Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 133 www.

• Configuration SW2: interface FastEthernet0/13 spanning-tree mst 1 cost 500000 ! interface FastEthernet0/14 spanning-tree mst 1 cost 500000 ! interface FastEthernet0/15 spanning-tree mst 1 cost 500000 ! interface FastEthernet0/20 spanning-tree mst 1 cost 2 ! interface FastEthernet0/21 spanning-tree mst 1 cost 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 134 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com .INE. If this link goes down traffic should fall over to the second link between SW2 and SW4.34 MST Load Balancing with Port Cost • Using Spanning-Tree cost modify the layer 2 transit network so that traffic for MST instance 1 from SW2 to SW1 uses the last link between SW2 and SW4.0 Bridging & Switching 1.

22 128. MST uses a cost value derived from the inverse bandwidth of the interface (higher bandwidth means lower cost). The show spanning-tree mst command shows the local cost values of the outgoing ports on the local switch.INE.d4df.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note Similar to CST and PVST.17 128.16 128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.21 128.8 128.7c00 port Fa0/21 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Altn Altn Altn Altn Altn Root Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK FWD FWD Cost --------200000 200000 200000 500000 500000 500000 200000 2 1 2000000 priority priority cost Prio.4 128.com . The root port is chosen based on the lowest end-to-end cost to the root bridge.15 128. Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 001b.Nbr -------128.ec80 address 001b.23 128.d490.6 128.26 4097 (4096 sysid 1) 1 (0 sysid 1) 400001 rem hops 17 Interface ---------------Fa0/2 Fa0/4 Fa0/6 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Fa0/21 Fa0/24 Type -------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Shr Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 135 www.

7c00 priority 1 cost 0 Designated bridge address 001b. and 200.15 Timers: message expires in 5 sec.ec80 address 001b.000 from SW3 to SW1.d490. 200.INE.d490.d490.7c00 priority 1 cost 0 Designated bridge address 001b. forward delay 0. The end-to-end cost is made up of the upstream (designated) cost.000 due to the manual cost change.3045.0 Bridging & Switching To see the entire end-to-end cost of a path the show spanning-tree mst detail command should be used.d490.7c00 priority 1 port id 128. forward delay 0.7c00 priority 1 port id 128.d4df.23 Designated root address 001b.22 priority 128 cost 2 Designated root address 001b.3045.16 Timers: message expires in 5 sec. forward transitions 3 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 1385.d600 priority priority priority 128 1 32769 cost cost port id 1 400000 128.001.17 Timers: message expires in 4 sec.d490. received 844 FastEthernet0/14 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128.17 Timers: message expires in 5 sec. Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree mst 1 detail ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 001b. forward delay 0.000 from SW4 to SW3. forward transitions 0 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 3965.000.d490.16 Timers: message expires in 4 sec.21 priority 128 cost 200000 Designated root address 001b. forward transitions 5 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 960. Fa0/20 has a total cost of 600.7c00 priority 1 port id 128.d600 priority 32769 port id 128.7c00 port Fa0/21 priority priority cost 4097 (4096 sysid 1) 1 (0 sysid 1) 400001 rem hops 17 <output omitted> FastEthernet0/13 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128.d490.000 to SW4.7c00 priority 1 cost 0 Designated bridge address 001b.15 priority 128 cost 500000 Designated root address 001b. and 200.7c00 priority 1 cost 400000 Designated bridge address 000c. forward transitions 0 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 3971. Fa0/21 wins the root port election since it has a total cost of 400.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.In this output the alternate ports Fa0/13 – Fa0/15 have a total cost of 500.000 from SW3 to SW1. received 4719 FastEthernet0/15 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128. which is 200. received 4725 FastEthernet0/19 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128. 200.3045. received 6086 FastEthernet0/21 of MST1 is root forwarding Port info port id 128.d490.002.000 from SW4 to SW3.7c00 priority 1 cost 400000 Designated bridge address 000c. which is 2 to SW4.17 priority 128 cost 500000 Designated root address 001b. forward delay 0.d600 priority 32769 port id 128.16 priority 128 cost 500000 Designated root address 001b. Fa0/20 has a total cost of 400.d490. plus the local port cost.d490.18 <output omitted> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 136 www. received 1011 FastEthernet0/20 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128. forward delay 0.com .7c00 Designated bridge address 000c. forward transitions 3 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 6085.

Nbr -------128.4 128.6 128. Rack1SW2#conf t Enter configuration commands. changed state to down Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 001b.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.7c00 port Fa0/20 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Altn Altn Altn Altn Root Sts --BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK BLK FWD Cost --------200000 200000 200000 500000 500000 500000 200000 2 priority priority cost Prio.d4df. Rack1SW2(config)#interface fa0/21 Rack1SW2(config-if)#shut Rack1SW2(config-if)#end Rack1SW2# 07:22:04: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/21. changed state to administratively down 07:22:04: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console 07:22:05: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/21. End with CNTL/Z.002 through Fa0/20.INE.15 128.com .22 4097 (4096 sysid 1) 1 (0 sysid 1) 400002 rem hops 17 Interface ---------------Fa0/2 Fa0/4 Fa0/6 Fa0/13 Fa0/14 Fa0/15 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 137 www.d490.16 128.21 128.17 128. one per line.ec80 address 001b.8 128.0 Bridging & Switching When SW2’s port Fa0/21 is down the next lowest cost path is 400.

20 P2p Fa0/21 Root FWD 200000 128.000.--.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. The show spanning-tree mst only shows the local portpriority. If this link goes down traffic should fall over to the second link between SW3 and SW4. • Configuration SW3: interface FastEthernet0/13 spanning-tree mst 1 cost 100000 ! interface FastEthernet0/14 spanning-tree mst 1 cost 100000 ! interface FastEthernet0/15 spanning-tree mst 1 cost 100000 ! interface FastEthernet0/20 spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 16 ! interface FastEthernet0/21 spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 0 Verification Note Like CST and PVST.16 P2p Fa0/17 Altn BLK 200000 128.---.19 P2p Fa0/20 Altn BLK 200000 128.46bf.0 Bridging & Switching 1. so the below output doesn’t tell us why Fa0/21 is chosen as the root port.fd00 priority 32769 (32768 sysid 1) address 001a.com .35 MST Load Balancing with Port Priority • • • Remove the previous STP cost modifications.INE.a20f.17 P2p Fa0/18 Altn BLK 200000 128.18 P2p Fa0/19 Altn BLK 200000 128.-------------------------------Fa0/16 Altn BLK 200000 128. Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 000b. Using Spanning-Tree priority modify the layer 2 transit network so that traffic for MST instance 1 from SW4 to SW1 uses the last link between SW3 and SW4.6d00 priority 1 (0 sysid 1) port Fa0/21 cost 300000 rem hops 18 Interface Role Sts Cost Prio. Set the cost for MST instance 1 on SW3’s links to SW1 to be 100.-------.Nbr Type ---------------. MST uses the designated (upstream) port-priority as a tie breaker if the end-to-end cost is the same on multiple ports to the same upstream switch.21 P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 138 www.--------.

a20f.6d00 priority 1 cost 200000 Designated bridge address 001a.21 priority 128 cost 200000 Designated root address 001a. Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree mst 1 detail ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 000b.6d00 priority 1 cost 100000 Designated bridge address 000d. versus Fa0/20’s 16.22 Timers: message expires in 5 sec.19 priority 128 cost 200000 Designated root address 001a.20 Timers: message expires in 5 sec. forward transitions 1 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 108.653a. forward transitions 0 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 632. forward delay 0.6d00 priority 1 cost 100000 Designated bridge address 000d.6d00 port Fa0/21 priority priority cost 32769 (32768 sysid 1) 1 (0 sysid 1) 300000 rem hops 18 FastEthernet0/16 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128.000 is equal on ports Fa0/19. forward transitions 0 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 631. and Fa0/21. received 686 FastEthernet0/18 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128.INE. forward delay 0.46bf.7780 priority 4097 port id 128.23 Timers: message expires in 5 sec. received 148 FastEthernet0/17 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128.2680 priority 32769 port id 0.653a. forward delay 0.18 priority 128 cost 200000 Designated root address 001a. received 622 FastEthernet0/21 of MST1 is root forwarding Port info port id 128.a256. received 507 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 139 www.a20f. forward delay 0.com .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. received 203 FastEthernet0/20 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128.a256. forward delay 0.21.6d00 priority 1 cost 100000 Designated bridge address 000d.fd00 address 001a. forward delay 0.a20f.a20f. Fa0/21 has the lowest designated port-id of 0. forward transitions 1 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 713.19.0 Bridging & Switching The show spanning-tree mst detail shows that the lowest end-to-end cost of 300.19 Timers: message expires in 4 sec.20 priority 128 cost 200000 Designated root address 001a.6d00 priority 1 cost 200000 Designated bridge address 001a.a20f. forward transitions 1 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 109. Fa0/20.a256.a20f. Since all three of these ports share the same designated bridge-id.16 priority 128 cost 200000 Designated root address 001a. the designated port-id is checked. received 688 FastEthernet0/19 of MST1 is alternate blocking Port info port id 128.7780 priority 4097 port id 128.6d00 priority 1 cost 200000 Designated bridge address 001a.2680 priority 32769 port id 128. The port-id is made of the port-priority and the internally assigned port number.20 and Fa0/19’s 128.21 Timers: message expires in 5 sec.17 priority 128 cost 200000 Designated root address 001a.2680 priority 32769 port id 16.21 Timers: message expires in 5 sec.a20f.653a. forward transitions 1 Bpdus (MRecords) sent 599.7780 priority 4097 port id 128.

46bf.16 128.6d00 port Fa0/20 Role ---Altn Altn Altn Altn Root Sts --BLK BLK BLK BLK FWD Cost --------200000 200000 200000 200000 200000 priority priority cost Prio.19 128.com . End with CNTL/Z. Rack1SW4(config)#interface fa0/21 Rack1SW4(config-if)#shut Rack1SW4(config-if)#end Rack1SW4# 00:20:12: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console 00:20:13: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/21.Nbr -------128.20.a20f. changed state to administratively down 00:20:14: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/21.17 128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.fd00 address 001a.0 Bridging & Switching When SW4 loses its connection to SW3 via Fa0/21 the next port in line is Fa0/20 with the designated port-id of 16.20 32769 (32768 sysid 1) 1 (0 sysid 1) 300000 rem hops 18 Interface ---------------Fa0/16 Fa0/17 Fa0/18 Fa0/19 Fa0/20 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p P2p Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 140 www. changed state to down Rack1SW4#show spanning-tree mst 1 ##### MST1 Bridge Root vlans mapped: 1-100 address 000b. Rack1SW4#conf t Enter configuration commands. one per line.18 128.INE.

0 Bridging & Switching 1.36 MST and Rapid Spanning Tree • Configure Rapid Spanning-Tree on the switches so that ports connected to the internal and external routers immediately begin forwarding when enabled.INE. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/1 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree portfast SW2: interface FastEthernet0/2 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/6 spanning-tree portfast trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/24 spanning-tree portfast SW3: interface FastEthernet0/5 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/24 spanning-tree portfast SW4: interface FastEthernet0/4 spanning-tree portfast Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 141 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com .

8 Vlans mapped ------------------------------none 1-100 101-200 (default) (default) (default) Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 142 www. However. RSTP “edge” ports behave the same as PVST PortFast enabled ports.Nbr -------128.Nbr -------128. RSTP defines new port “roles” to automatically allow for the functionality built into Cisco proprietary features such as PortFast and UplinkFast. Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol (RSTP) is automatically enabled. RSTP is an IEEE standard defined in 802. received 0 Instance -------0 2 Role ---Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD Cost --------200000 200000 Prio.0 Verification Bridging & Switching When MST is enabled.3 128.8 128.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1SW1#show spanning-tree mst interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 of MST0 is designated forwarding Edge port: edge (enable) port guard : none Link type: point-to-point (auto) bpdu filter: disable Boundary : internal bpdu guard : disable Bpdus sent 260.com . Instead a port must be configured as an edge port with the spanning-tree portfast command. in order to maintain backwards compatible configurations Cisco’s implementation of RSTP does not automatically elect edge ports as the standard suggests. received 0 Instance -------0 1 2 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD Cost --------200000 200000 200000 Prio.INE.1w that speeds up convergence through a reliable handshaking process.8 128.3 Vlans mapped ------------------------------none 101-200 (default) (default) (default) Rack1SW2#show spanning-tree mst interface fa0/6 FastEthernet0/6 of MST0 is designated forwarding Edge port: edge (trunk) port guard : none Link type: point-to-point (auto) bpdu filter: disable Boundary : internal bpdu guard : disable Bpdus sent 30.

CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. but can communicate with SW2’s VLAN22 interface. Configure port protection on SW2 so that R2 and BB2 cannot directly communicate with each other. Configuration SW2: interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport protected ! interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport protected Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 143 www.com .8/24.INE.37 Protected Ports • • Create a new SVI for VLAN22 on SW2 and assign it the IP address 192.X.0 Bridging & Switching 1. where X is your rack number.10.

round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/8 ms Rack1R2#show arp Protocol Address Internet 192.254. Sending 5. however traffic received in a protected port can be sent out a non-protected port.254.1. and cannot span between multiple physical switches.1. Sending 5.com . 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192. Sending 5. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.INE.1. but R2 and BB2 cannot.1.1.. Traffic received in a protected port cannot be sent out another protected port.1.8 Internet 192.10.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note Protected ports are used to prevent traffic from being exchanged at layer 2 between two or more ports that are in the same VLAN.. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).f1c0 Type ARPA ARPA ARPA Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/0 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 144 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.10. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/8 ms Rack1SW2#ping 192.a256. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/4 ms Rack1SW2#ping 192. This feature is a much smaller subset of the Private VLAN feature.10.65c2.10.254 Internet 192.10.2 Age (min) 0 0 Hardware Addr Incomplete 001a. Success rate is 0 percent (0/5) Rack1R2#ping 192..10.2. Rack1R2#ping 192.2 Type escape sequence to abort.8.1.10. SW2 and BB2 can communicate. Sending 5.10. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192..10. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5). timeout is 2 seconds: . timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5). In this particular design the result of port protection is that R2 and SW2 can communicate.1.254 Type escape sequence to abort.1.1.10.8 Type escape sequence to abort.77c3 000d.10.254 Type escape sequence to abort.1.

Configure SW4 to limit broadcast traffic received from R4 to 1Mbps using a relative percentage of the interface bandwidth. or broadcast traffic received in a port.00 SW4: interface FastEthernet0/4 storm-control broadcast level bps 10m Verification Note Storm control is used to limit the amount of unicast.00% Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 145 www. multicast.0 Bridging & Switching 1. The most common application of this feature is to prevent broadcast storms.------------. or others. bits per second.00% Lower ----------10m bps Current ---------0 bps Lower ----------1. Configure SW2 to limit broadcast traffic received from R6 to 10Mbps. Make sure to use the question mark when implementing this command so that the units entered achieve the desired result.com .00% Current ---------0.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.38 Storm Control • • • Configure SW1 to limit unicast traffic received from R1 to 100 pps.INE. but it can also be used to police individual ports not to exceed a desired rate.------------. packets per second. Rack1SW2#show storm-control Interface Filter State Upper --------. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/1 storm-control unicast level pps 100 SW2: interface FastEthernet0/6 storm-control broadcast level 1.----------Fa0/4 Link Down 1.----------Fa0/6 Link Down 10m bps Rack1SW4#show storm-control Interface Filter State Upper --------. Depending on the version of IOS the storm-control command may take units in percentage.

Another static feature of the CAM table is the ability to Null route MAC addresses. Since static entries always override dynamically learned entries. or MAC address table. • Configuration SW2: mac-address-table static 000f. In certain circumstances this can be undesirable. R4. but not R4.39 MAC-Address Table Static Entries & Aging • • Ensure reachability on VLAN 146 between R1. once complete R1 and R6 should have reachability to each other. by flooding unknown frames everywhere in the VLAN they were received in and by looking at the source MAC address of frames received in its ports. A simple way to prevent these types of attacks is to statically hard-code which MAC addresses are reachable via which ports.INE.e640 vlan 146 interface FastEthernet0/6 SW4: mac-address-table static 000a. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 146 www.0 Bridging & Switching 1. if the drop keyword or an unused interface is used in the mac-address-table static command traffic destined to that MAC address will be dropped.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.23f4. Configure static CAM entry for that MAC address of R6’s connection to VLAN 146 to ensure that this address is not allowed to roam. Configure a static CAM entry on SW4 so that frames destined to the MAC address of R4’s interface connected to VLAN 146 are dropped.f4b0. and R6.cfc2 vlan 146 drop Verification Note Normally switches populate the CAM table. such as when someone attempts to do a layer 2 MAC address spoofing attack.com .

com .1. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms Rack1R1#ping 155. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms Rack1R4# Rack1SW4#show mac-address-table dynamic interface fa0/4 Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan Mac Address Type Ports ------------------------146 000a. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5). Sending 5.f4b0. Sending 5.6.1.1.0 Bridging & Switching In this particular design R1.146.f4b0.146. Sending 5. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155. dynamically learns R4’s MAC address 000a.4 Type escape sequence to abort.146. R4. Rack1R1#ping 155.1.4. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms Rack1R4#ping 155.1.INE.6 Type escape sequence to abort. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155. and R6 exchange traffic on VLAN 146.cfc2 in port Fa0/4. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).cfc2 DYNAMIC Fa0/4 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 147 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155.146.146.146.1. who is connected to R4’s port Fa0/1. SW4.6. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).6 Type escape sequence to abort.

23f4.. Rack1SW4(config)#mac-address-table static 000a.4 Type escape sequence to abort..1.6.146.1.146.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.f4b0. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).e640 Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---1 146 Mac Address ----------000f.cfc2 vlan 146 drop Rack1SW4(config)# Rack1R1#ping 155. such as the ICMP PING from R1. The result is that any traffic going to R4. End with CNTL/Z.e640 000f. the dynamically learned entry is overridden.INE.. Success rate is 0 percent (0/5) Likewise traffic going to R6 uses the static entry as opposed to the dynamically learned entry. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155. Sending 5. Rack1R1#ping 155.1.com . Rack1SW4#conf t Enter configuration commands. Sending 5.6 Type escape sequence to abort. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/3/4 ms Rack1SW2#show mac-address-table address 000f. one per line.0 Bridging & Switching When SW4 is configured with a static entry that matches this address with the keyword drop at the end.146. timeout is 2 seconds: ..e640 Type -------DYNAMIC STATIC Ports ----Fa0/6 Fa0/6 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 148 www. is dropped in the layer 2 transit path.4.23f4.23f4.146. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155.1.

40 SPAN • • Configure SW1 so that all traffic transiting VLAN 146 is redirected to a host located on port Fa0/24.com .0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE. Inbound traffic from the Linux host should be placed into VLAN 146. Configure SW4 so that all traffic coming from and going to R4’s connection to VLAN 146 is redirected to a host located on port Fa0/24. Configuration SW1: monitor session 1 source vlan 146 monitor session 1 destination interface Fa0/24 SW4: monitor session 1 source interface Fa0/4 monitor session 1 destination interface Fa0/24 ingress vlan 146 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 149 www.

The ingress keyword tells the switch which access VLAN inbound traffic on the destination port should belong to.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Rack1SW1#show monitor session 1 Session 1 --------Type : Local Session Source VLANs : Both : 146 Destination Ports : Fa0/24 Encapsulation : Native Ingress : Disabled Rack1SW4#show monitor session 1 Session 1 --------Type : Local Session Source Ports : Both : Fa0/4 Destination Ports : Fa0/24 Encapsulation : Native Ingress : Enabled. With Local SPAN.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note The Switchport Analyzer (SPAN) feature is used to redirect traffic from a port or VLAN onto another port for analysis by devices such as a packet sniffer or Intrusion Prevention Sensor (IPS). default VLAN = 146 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 150 www. or just SPAN. There are two variations of SPAN. as seen in this design SW4.com . or RSPAN.INE. Local SPAN. The source of traffic can also be a VLAN. and Remote SPAN. as seen on SW1.Normally when the SPAN feature is configured the switch drops all traffic coming back in the destination port. traffic coming from or going to a particular port is redirect to another local port.

Inbound traffic on the link connected to this host should be placed in VLAN 146.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Create VLAN 500 as an RSPAN VLAN on all switches in the topology. Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/13 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/14 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/15 shutdown ! monitor session 2 destination interface Fa0/24 ingress vlan 146 monitor session 2 source remote vlan 500 SW2: monitor session 2 source interface Fa0/4 monitor session 2 destination remote vlan 500 SW4: vlan 500 remote-span Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 151 www.0 Bridging & Switching 1.41 RSPAN • • • • • Disable the trunk links between SW1 and SW2.INE.com . Configure SW1 to receive traffic from the RSPAN VLAN and redirect it to a host connected to port Fa0/24. Configure SW2 so that traffic received from and sent to R4’s connection to VLAN 43 is redirected to the RSPAN VLAN.

In this case SW1 says that the source of the session is the remote vlan 500.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note The Remote SPAN. any traffic that SW1 receives in port Fa0/24 will be treated as if it belongs to VLAN 146. This means that all traffic that comes in port Fa0/4 will receive a new trunking header with a VLAN 500 tag and be sent out the trunk network. and know about the RSPAN VLAN that is used to encapsulate and transport the monitored traffic. This means that the switch wants to listen for all traffic received in the RSPAN VLAN. On SW1 therefore all traffic coming in a trunk link with a tag of 500 will be redirected out port Fa0/24. and the destination as the local port.com . Lastly the switch attached to the sniffer/sensor creates a SPAN session with the source as the RSPAN VLAN. in the case of SW2. The source of this span session. default VLAN = 146 Ingress encap : Untagged Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 152 www. Since the ingress keyword is also used. so only the VTP server SW4 needs to create the VLAN. or RSPAN. Next the switch attached to the source port or VLAN creates a SPAN session. The first step in configuring RSPAN is to ensure that the switches in the layer 2 transit path from the source port/VLAN to the destination port are trunking at layer 2. as this is a special attribute that affects how traffic is processed when it is received in this VLAN. Rack1SW1#show monitor session 2 Session 2 --------Type : Remote Destination Session Source RSPAN VLAN : 500 Destination Ports : Fa0/24 Encapsulation : Native Ingress : Enabled. is all traffic coming in port Fa0/4. and redirect it out a local port. The destination of the session is the RSPAN VLAN 500 itself. In this case VTP is used.INE.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. feature is used when the source port or VLAN that is being monitored is on a different physical switch than the destination sniffer or sensor. Note the remote-span keyword under the VLAN.

--------.------------------------------------------ Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 153 www. Gi0/1.------------------------------1 default active Fa0/1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Gi0/2 5 VLAN0005 active 7 VLAN0007 active 8 VLAN0008 active 9 VLAN0009 active 10 VLAN0010 active 22 VLAN0022 active Fa0/2. Fa0/18. Fa0/11 Fa0/12. Fa0/14. Fa0/9. Fa0/10. Fa0/15 Fa0/16.--------. Fa0/13. Fa0/3. Fa0/5. Fa0/22 Fa0/23.INE.-------------------------------.com .----------------.0 Rack1SW2#show monitor session 2 Session 2 --------Type : Remote Source Session Source Ports : Both : Fa0/4 Dest RSPAN VLAN : 500 Bridging & Switching Rack1SW2#show vlan VLAN Name Status Ports ---. Fa0/24 43 VLAN0043 active Fa0/4 58 VLAN0058 active 67 VLAN0067 active 79 VLAN0079 active 146 VLAN0146 active 500 VLAN0500 active 1002 fddi-default act/unsup 1003 token-ring-default act/unsup 1004 fddinet-default act/unsup 1005 trnet-default act/unsup VLAN ---1 5 7 8 9 10 22 43 58 67 79 146 500 1002 1003 1004 1005 Type ----enet enet enet enet enet enet enet enet enet enet enet enet enet fddi tr fdnet trnet SAID ---------100001 100005 100007 100008 100009 100010 100022 100043 100058 100067 100079 100146 100500 101002 101003 101004 101005 MTU ----1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 Parent -----RingNo -----BridgeNo -------Stp ---ieee ibm BrdgMode -------srb Trans1 -----0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Trans2 -----0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Remote SPAN VLANs -----------------------------------------------------------------------------500 Primary Secondary Type Ports ------. Fa0/17. Fa0/7 Fa0/8.

42 Voice VLAN • • • • • Ports Fa0/2. Fa0/4.INE. and for voice VLAN frames to use dot1p tagging. and Fa0/6 on SW1 will be connected to Cisco IP phones in the near future.1q trunk link. • • Configuration SW1: interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport access vlan 146 switchport voice vlan 600 spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport trunk native vlan 146 switchport trunk allowed vlan 146. Enable Spanning-Tree portfast on this link and ensure that CDP is enabled. Configure port Fa0/2 with an access VLAN assignment of 146 and a voice VLAN assignment of 600. Configure port Fa0/6 with an access VLAN assignment of 146.0 Bridging & Switching 1. and so that the interface runs in STP portfast mode.600 switchport mode trunk switchport voice vlan 600 spanning-tree portfast trunk spanning-tree bpdufilter enable ! interface FastEthernet0/6 switchport access vlan 146 switchport voice vlan dot1p SW4: vlan 600 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 154 www. Configure VLAN 146 as the native VLAN for this port and so that VLAN 600 is advertised as the voice VLAN via CDP.com . Configure port Fa0/4 as an 802. so that STP BPDUs received on the port are filtered out.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Configure SW1 so that only VLANs 146 and 600 are permitted on this switchport.

The IP Phone’s internal switch does not tag the frames and acts as a simple bridge. and the last port to connect to a desktop PC. The Catalyst switch accepts the frames with VLAN zero as if they are in the access VLAN. one port for the IP Phone itself. along with VoIP frames sent from the phone get a special 802. Data frames received from the PC on the phone. Option 1 is to separate the Data VLAN for the PC and the Voice VLAN for the IP Phone. The data frames are sent untagged and received by the upstream switch on the configured access VLAN. but also honors the CoS bits to calculate the switch’s internal QoS tag. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 155 www.1q header that carries a VLAN ID equal to zero and has the CoS field set to 5 for VoIP and the value instructed from the switch for data frames.1p CoS tag.INE. Option 2 is to use a single VLAN for Data and Voice. Additionally the internal switch can also use different 802. The connection between the IP Phone and the upstream switch is an access port. Option 3 is to use a single VLAN for Data and Voice. but to add an 802. The connection between the IP Phone and the upstream switch is an 802. Based on this there are three different options for connecting the IP Phone and the desktop PC to the Catalyst switches. The internal IP Phone switch will tag VoIP traffic with the respective VLAN number and apply a CoS value of 5.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note Many models of Cisco IP Phones have a built-in three-port switch.1q trunk with the native VLAN equal to the Data VLAN. The built-in switch is capable of separating the IP Phone and the desktop PC traffic using different VLANs.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. one port to connect to the upstream switch.1p markings in the Class of Service (CoS) field to distinguish the IP Phone and the desktop PC frames.com .

The switchport ASIC will automatically convert the port into a rudimentary trunk. If the command switchport voice vlan dot1p is configure on a switchport then the connected IP Phone’s switch is instructed to apply VLAN 0 to voice traffic along with the corresponding CoS bits. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 156 www. Both voice and data frames will share the same VLAN configured on the access port.0 Bridging & Switching For all three options the IP Phone’s built-in switch should be instructed which mode to use.INE. The command switchport voice vlan configured on an access port will communicate with the IP Phone via CDP and tell its internal switch which VLAN should be used for voice traffic. Note that there is no need to configure the port as an 802. The IP Phone’s internal switch will then apply the instructed VLAN tag to the voice traffic and will send the PC’s data untagged.1q trunk via the switchport mode trunk command. Both voice and data packets are received on the same VLAN (the access VLAN).CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. the spanning-tree portfast feature is automatically enabled. then Option 2 applies automatically. If no switchport voice vlan command is configured. Note that as soon as the switchport voice vlan command is applied to the port.com .

0 Bridging & Switching 1.43 IP Phone Trust and CoS Extend • • • • Enable MLS QoS globally on SW1. SW1 should enforce a CoS value of 1 to any appliance connected to the second port of the IP phone.INE. Configuration SW1: mls qos ! interface FastEthernet0/2 mls qos trust cos mls qos trust device cisco-phone switchport priority extend cos 1 ! interface FastEthernet0/4 mls qos trust cos mls qos trust device cisco-phone switchport priority extend cos 1 ! interface FastEthernet0/6 mls qos trust cos mls qos trust device cisco-phone switchport priority extend cos 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 157 www. Configure SW1 to trust the CoS of frames received on the ports connected to the IP phones. This trust should only occur if the Cisco IP phone is present and advertises itself via CDP.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.com .

If no Cisco device is detected on the port then the QoS markings are not trusted. In addition to enforcing markings at the switchport boundary. This feature particularly makes sense to be used with the dot1p Voice VLAN option. the switch may also instruct the IP Phone’s switch to apply specific CoS markings for frames received from the connected PC. The switch may either accept (trust) 802. even if the port is configured for trust.com . In this case these ports are configured to trust the QoS marking only if the presence of a Cisco IP Phone is sensed via CDP messages. Rack1SW1#show mls qos interface fa0/2 FastEthernet0/2 trust state: not trusted trust mode: trust cos trust enabled flag: dis COS override: dis default COS: 0 DSCP Mutation Map: Default DSCP Mutation Map Trust device: cisco-phone qos mode: port-based Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 158 www.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note The QoS trust state of the port determines if frames with a CoS value are maintained or remarked as they are received.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1p bits received from the attached PC or enforce the instructed value.INE. This option is enabled with the command mls qos trust device cisco-phone.

.INE. the switchport mode. apply VLAN 146 as the access vlan. Rack1SW1#config t Rack1SW1(config)#interface range fa0/7-8 Rack1SW1(config-if-range)#macro apply VLAN_146 Rack1SW1(config-if-range)#end 02:11:37: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console Rack1SW1#show run interface fa0/7 Building configuration. and have them share common configuration templates.. the access VLAN. with the addition of the macro description telling us which macro was applied. In this particular design the macro is used to apply three attributes to the interface. Apply this macro to ports Fa0/7 and Fa0/8 on the switch. and the BPDU Filter feature. This feature is useful in large switching environments where general categories of ports can be defined.com . The result seen from the show run output is identical to that which would be achieved by manually entering these commands on both interfaces.0 Bridging & Switching 1.44 Smartport Macros • Configure a macro on SW1 named VLAN_146 that when applied to an interface will set it to be an access switchport. and filter Spanning-Tree BPDUs. Current configuration : 146 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/7 switchport access vlan 146 switchport mode access macro description VLAN_146 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable end Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 159 www. uplink. • Configuration SW1: macro name VLAN_146 switchport mode access switchport access vlan 146 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable @ Verification Note Smartport Macros are used to define a well known template of configuration to apply onto multiple interfaces. such as access.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. server.

INE. Rack1SW1#show parser macro Total number of macros = 6 -------------------------------------------------------------Macro name : cisco-global Macro type : default global # Enable dynamic port error recovery for link state failures. errdisable recovery cause link-flap errdisable recovery interval 60 # Config Cos to DSCP mappings mls qos map cos-dscp 0 8 16 26 32 46 46 56 # Enable aggressive mode UDLD on all fiber uplinks udld aggressive # Enable Rapid PVST+ and Loopguard spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst spanning-tree loopguard default spanning-tree extend system-id -------------------------------------------------------------Macro name : cisco-desktop Macro type : default interface # macro keywords $access_vlan # Basic interface .that of desktop switchport port-security switchport port-security maximum 1 # Ensure port-security age is greater than one minute # and use inactivity timer switchport port-security violation restrict switchport port-security aging time 2 switchport port-security aging type inactivity # Configure port as an edge network port Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 160 www.Enable data VLAN only # Recommended value for access vlan should not be 1 switchport access vlan $access_vlan switchport mode access # Enable port security limiting port to a single # MAC address -.com . Current configuration : 146 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/8 switchport access vlan 146 switchport mode access macro description VLAN_146 spanning-tree bpdufilter enable end Bridging & Switching A number of default Smartport Macros exist in the switch.0 Rack1SW1#show run interface fa0/8 Building configuration. and can be seen by issuing the show parser macro command...CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

INE.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Current configuration : 34 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/10 end Rack1SW1#config t Enter configuration commands. one per line.... to this interface when portfast is enabled..0 Bridging & Switching spanning-tree portfast spanning-tree bpduguard enable -------------------------------------------------------------<output omitted> A default macro can be applied as follows. Connecting hubs. Rack1SW1(config-if)#end Rack1SW1#show run interface fa0/10 Building configuration. Rack1SW1#show run interface fa0/10 Building configuration. Rack1SW1(config)#interface fa0/10 Rack1SW1(config-if)#macro apply cisco-desktop $access_vlan 10 %Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a single host. can cause temporary bridging loops.. Current configuration : 332 bytes ! interface FastEthernet0/10 switchport access vlan 10 switchport mode access switchport port-security switchport port-security aging time 2 switchport port-security violation restrict switchport port-security aging type inactivity macro description cisco-desktop spanning-tree portfast spanning-tree bpduguard enable end Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 161 www.com . etc. concentrators. End with CNTL/Z. switches. bridges. Use with CAUTION %Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0/10 but will only have effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode..

255.0.0. Configure link Fa0/16 on SW1 and Fa0/13 on SW3 as an 802.0 R3: interface FastEthernet0/1 ip address 10. If the EtherChannel goes down traffic should immediately switch over to use the link between SW1 and SW3.0.0. R2’s Ethernet interface with the IP address 10.com . Disable all other inter-switch links.1q trunk.0.3 255.255.0.255.1q trunk.0 R2: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 10.2 255.255. and R3’s second Ethernet interface with the IP address 10.0.3/24.0 SW1: interface Port-channel1 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk switchport backup interface Fa0/16 switchport backup interface Fa0/16 preemption mode forced switchport backup interface Fa0/16 preemption delay 20 ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk channel-group 1 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk channel-group 1 mode on ! Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 162 www.255.1/24.0. • • • Configuration R1: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 10. If the EtherChannel and all its members comes back up traffic should forward back over this link after 20 seconds.0.2/24.INE. Configure links Fa0/13 & Fa0/14 between SW1 and SW2 as an 802. Configure flex links on SW1 so that traffic from R1 to R3 uses the EtherChannel to SW2.45 Flex Links • • • • • Configure links Fa0/16 between SW2 and SW3 as an 802.0. Configure R1’s Ethernet interface with the IP address 10.1q trunked EtherChannel.0.0 Bridging & Switching 1.255.0.1 255.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

com .0 interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk SW2: interface Port-channel1 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk channel-group 1 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk channel-group 1 mode on ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation switchport mode trunk Bridging & Switching dot1q dot1q dot1q dot1q SW3: interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 163 www.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.INE.

Rack1SW2#conf t Enter configuration commands.0.0. The backup link operates in standby mode. in which a layer 2 physical interface or Port-Channel is configured as the “active” link.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. the backup link becomes active and immediately starts forwarding.0. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. and waits for the line protocol of the active link to go down. and another layer 2 link is configured as the “backup”. STP is automatically disabled on both links when Flex Links are enabled. Sending 5000. the backup link goes back into standby state and stops forwarding traffic. changed state to administratively down %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/14.3. When the active link’s line protocol status comes back up. causing SW1’s link to go down. changed state to administratively down Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 164 www.0. End with CNTL/Z. Rack1SW2(config)#interface po1 Rack1SW2(config-if)#shut Rack1SW2(config-if)# %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Port-channel1. Flex Links work like the backup interface feature on the routers.com . changed state to down %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/13. Rack1SW1#show interfaces po1 switchport backup Switch Backup Interface Pairs: Active Interface Backup Interface State -----------------------------------------------------------------------Port-channel1 FastEthernet0/16 Active Up/Backup Standby Rack1R1#ping 10.0 Verification Bridging & Switching Note The Flex Links feature is used as an alternative to Spanning-Tree Protocol in environments where physical loops occur in the layer 2 network.3 repeat 5000 Type escape sequence to abort.INE. If the line protocol of the active link is down. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! <output omitted> SW2’s Port-Channel1 interface is shutdown. In this particular design SW1 has Port-Channel1 configured as the active link and FastEthernet0/16 configured as the backup. one per line.

This implies that the network converged in less than four seconds.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. state Down sw_backup_int: intf Fa0/16.INE. transition for event 0 sw_backup_int: Po1 is now Down BACKUP_INT: idb Po1. as the default timeout for a ping is two seconds. changed state to down BACKUP_INT: intf Po1. state up. Unscheduled %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/13. bandwidth 100000 Kbps BACKUP_INT: setting WB BACKUP_INT: clearing WB BACKUP_INT: Pair Po1 Fa0/16 mode bandwidth. Unscheduled Rack1SW1# %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/13. changed state to down %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/14. transition for event 1 sw_backup_int: Fa0/16 is now Up BACKUP_INT: intf Po1. state 1.. bandwidth 100000 Kbps BACKUP_INT: setting WB BACKUP_INT: clearing WB BACKUP_INT: Pair Po1 Fa0/16 mode bandwidth.0 Bridging & Switching SW1 detects this and immediately activates port Fa0/16. peer Fa0/16. ] <output omitted> !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Success rate is 99 percent (4999/5000). updating vtp pruning join bits BACKUP_INT: intf Po1. delay 20 seconds. dropped one packet out of 5000. state 2.. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/48 ms Rack1R1# Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 165 www. state down.com . who was sending traffic to R3 while the failure occurred. changed state to down %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Port-channel1. updating vtp pruning join bits BACKUP_INT: intf Fa0/16. [Resuming connection 1 to r1 . changed state to down %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Port-channel1. changed state to down %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/14. delay 20 seconds. changed state to down Rack1SW1#show interfaces po1 switchport backup Switch Backup Interface Pairs: Active Interface Backup Interface State -----------------------------------------------------------------------Port-channel1 FastEthernet0/16 Active Down/Backup Up R1. Rack1SW1#debug backup all Switch Backup Interface all debugging is on sw_backup_int: intf Po1.

peer Fa0/16. preemption mode is bandwidth <output omitted> Rack1SW1#show interfaces po1 switchport backup Switch Backup Interface Pairs: Active Interface Backup Interface State -----------------------------------------------------------------------Port-channel1 FastEthernet0/16 Active Up/Backup Standby Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 166 www. changed state to up %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/14. BI Fa0/16 bi_state 1 bi_bw 100000 %BACKUP_INTERFACE-5-PREEMPT: Preempting interface Fa0/16 in backup pair (Po1. Scheduled %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/13. state 1. bandwidth 200000 Kbps BACKUP_INT: setting WB BACKUP_INT: clearing WB BACKUP_INT: AI Po1 ai_state 2 ai_bw 200000. transition for event 6 sw_backup_int: Po1 is now Waiting for peer state BACKUP_INT: idb Po1. transition for event 2 sw_backup_int: Po1 is now Waiting to sync BACKUP_INT: idb Po1. Scheduled Rack1SW1# BACKUP_INT: AI Po1 ai_state 2 ai_bw 200000. state Waiting to sync sw_backup_int: intf Po1. the bandwidth of the Fa0/16 interface is compared with Po1 due to the preemption mode bandwidth command. state up. transition for event 5 BACKUP_INT: idb Fa0/16. Fa0/16). changed state to up %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/14. Since Po1 has a higher bandwidth value it preempts Fa0/16. state up. transition for event 3 sw_backup_int: Po1 is now Standby BACKUP_INT: intf Po1. BI Fa0/16 bi_state 1 bi_bw 100000 BACKUP_INT: Pair Po1 Fa0/16 mode bandwidth. BI Fa0/16 bi_state 1 bi_bw 100000 BACKUP_INT: Pair Po1 Fa0/16 mode bandwidth. peer Fa0/16. delay 20 seconds. state 3.INE. Rack1SW2(config)#int po1 Rack1SW2(config-if)#no shut Rack1SW1# %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/13. state Waiting for peer state sw_backup_int: intf Fa0/16.com . state Up sw_backup_int: intf Po1. changed state to up %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Port-channel1. changed state to up %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Port-channel1. bandwidth 200000 Kbps BACKUP_INT: setting WB BACKUP_INT: clearing WB BACKUP_INT: AI Po1 ai_state 2 ai_bw 200000.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. state 0. changed state to up BACKUP_INT: intf Po1. After the 20 second delay expires. state 4. changed state to up sw_backup_int: intf Po1. as configured with the preemption delay 20 command.0 Bridging & Switching When the Po1 interface of SW1 comes back up. delay 20 seconds. peer Po1. a preemption delay counter starts. and Fa0/16 goes into the standby state.

255.0. Configure interface Fa0/6 on SW4 with the IP address 106.0.0. and with the IPv6 address 2001::4/24.255.255.255.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0.0.0. Configure interface VLAN104 on SW4 with the IP address 104.0 ipv6 address 2001::6/64 ! router rip version 2 no auto-summary network 106. Enable RIPv2 on all of these links. Configuration R4: interface FastEthernet0/1 ip address 104.255.0.4 255.0 Bridging & Switching 1.6 255.0.10 255.4/24.0 SW4: vlan 104 ! bridge 1 protocol vlan-bridge ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport access vlan 104 ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no switchport ip address 106.0 ipv6 address 2001::4/64 ! router rip version 2 no auto-summary network 104.10/24.0. Configure fallback bridging on SW4 to bridge the IPv6 subnet of R4 and R6 together.0.0. Configure R6’s second Ethernet interface with the IP address 106.com .10 255.6/24. and configure interface Fa0/4 in VLAN 104.0.46 Fallback Bridging • • • • • • Configure R4’s second Ethernet interface with the IP address 104.0.0.255. and with the IPv6 address 2001::6/24.10/24.0.255.0.0.0.INE.0 bridge-group 1 ! interface Vlan104 ip address 104.0.0 bridge-group 1 ! Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 167 www.0.255.0 R6: interface FastEthernet0/1 ip address 106.

0.0 network 106.0 Bridging & Switching Verification Note The Fallback Bridging feature is used to bridge non-routed protocols between SVIs or native layer 3 routed interfaces. In this design the feature is tested by bridging IPv6 traffic between R4 and R6.0.1 and 20.0.com .0. VLAN 10 with the IP subnet 10.0 ip routing ! router rip version 2 no auto-summary network 104.0. 10.0. There are only two steps to implement this feature.0. but IPv6 can be bridged through fallback bridging.0.0.0.0. where one protocol stack is routed on an interface while another protocol stack is bridged.1 and 20.0.0/8.INE. traffic from host 10. which does not support IPv6 routing.1 is routed at layer 3. and apply it to the layer 3 interfaces with the bridge-group [num] command.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. and VLAN 20 with the IP subnet 20.0/8. but can be in the same IPX network and have their IPX traffic bridged together. This is done by configuring fallback bridging on SW4’s SVI interface VLAN104 connecting to R4 and the native layer 3 routed interface FastEthernet0/6 connecting to R6.0.2(25). This means that IPv4 will be routed. create the fallback bridge group with the bridge [num] protocol vlan-bridge command.0. In this topology SW4 is a 3550 running IOS 12.0.1 are in different IPv4 subnets.0. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 168 www. This feature is similar in theory to the Concurrent Routing and Bridging (CRB) and Integrated Routing and Bridging (IRB) features on the routers. For example if a Catalyst switch has two layer 3 interfaces configured. If fallback bridging is configured on the SVI interfaces of VLAN 10 and VLAN 20.

0. Tracing the route to 2001::6 1 2001::6 4 msec 0 msec 0 msec Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 169 www.0.0.com . the traffic is routed to SW4.0. and then sent to R6.0 Bridging & Switching We can see the result of this design is that when R4 does a traceroute to R6 via IPv4.6" Type escape sequence to abort.0. Tracing the route to 106. Rack1R4#traceroute 106.0.0. However when IPv6 traceroute is done between R4 and R6 they appear to be directly connected.0.6 0 msec * 0 msec Rack1R4#traceroute 2001::6 Type escape sequence to abort.INE.6 1 104.6 Translating "106.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.10 4 msec 0 msec 4 msec 2 106.0.0.

and 3000.INE.0.255.0. 2000. and R4 can reach R5.Y/24. The link connecting to R1 should be a promiscuous port. Configuration R1: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 100.0.255.255.0.0.0 R5: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 100. and VLAN 3000 to R6.0.0.255.255. VLANs 1000 and 2000 should be community VLANs. VLAN 2000 to the links connecting to R4 & R5.3 255.1 255. R2 can reach R3.255. R4.6 255.0 R6: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 100.255.0. Configure the first inter-switch link between SW1 and SW2 as a trunk.0.0 R4: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 100. No other connectivity should be allowed within this topology.4 255.0.255. R2.255.2 255. Assign VLAN 1000 to the links connecting to R2 & R3.0 R3: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 100.47 Private VLANs • • • • • • • • Configure the first Ethernet interfaces of R1.com .255.0 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 170 www.0 R2: interface FastEthernet0/0 ip address 100. while VLAN 3000 should be an isolated VLAN. Configure the primary VLAN 100 to service private VLANs 1000.0 Bridging & Switching 1.0. where Y is the device number.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. R3.5 255.255. and R6 with IP addresses 100.255. Ensure that R1 can reach all devices.0. R5.0.0.

3000 ! vlan 1000 private-vlan community ! vlan 2000 private-vlan community ! vlan 3000 private-vlan isolated ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport private-vlan host-association 100 1000 switchport mode private-vlan host ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport private-vlan host-association 100 2000 switchport mode private-vlan host Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 171 www.0 SW1: vtp domain PVLANS vtp mode transparent ! vlan 100 private-vlan primary private-vlan association 1000.2000.INE.2000.com .2000.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.3000 ! vlan 1000 private-vlan community ! vlan 2000 private-vlan community ! vlan 3000 private-vlan isolated ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport private-vlan mapping 100 1000.3000 switchport mode private-vlan promiscuous ! interface FastEthernet0/3 switchport private-vlan host-association 100 1000 switchport mode private-vlan host ! interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport private-vlan host-association 100 2000 switchport mode private-vlan host ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk SW2: vtp domain PVLANS vtp mode transparent ! vlan 100 private-vlan primary private-vlan association 1000.

or in Multiple Dwelling Units (MDUs) such as hotels or office buildings. into multiple isolated broadcast subdomains. Private VLANs expand this concept much further however. in which two or more ports can be in the same VLAN but cannot directly communicate at layer 2.0 ! interface FastEthernet0/6 switchport private-vlan host-association 100 3000 switchport mode private-vlan host ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk Bridging & Switching Verification Note The Private VLAN (PVLANs) feature is similar in theory to the Protected Ports feature. but should not communicate directly with each other. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 172 www. and allow very complex security policies that can span between multiple physical switches. Private VLANs split a single broadcast domain. In essence the feature allows us to configure VLANs inside a VLAN. where two hotel rooms or offices may be in the same subnet and VLAN but should not communicate directly. in which customers are on the same VLAN and same IP subnet.INE.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Pitfall The Private VLAN feature requires VTP to run in transparent mode.com . that is normally defined by a single VLAN. that are defined by primary VLAN and its secondary VLANs. Design-wise this feature is commonly used in environments like shared ISP colocation.

and 3000. Isolated ports are only allowed to talk to promiscuous ports. but not ports in different communities. community ports. 2000. and isolated ports. which means that it is a promiscuous port in the primary VLAN 100 and can talk to all ports in the secondary VLANs 1000. These are promiscuous ports. while the host option defines that the port role is either community or isolated. and one or more secondary VLANs.INE. and the syntax in which they are bound together. In this case the link to R1 has the command switchport private-vlan mapping 100 1000. and the secondary VLANs are associated with the primary VLAN. First the secondary VLANs are created. Next the command switchport mode private-vlan promiscuous or switchport mode private-vlan host is configured at the interface level. Configuration-wise the port roles are defined by the interface’s association to a primary VLAN. The link to R3 has the command switchport private-vlan hostassociation 100 1000 configured. and defined as either community or isolated. Community ports are allowed to talk to other ports in their own community.com . Since VLAN 1000 was defined as a community VLAN.2000. which defines what other ports it can talk to. and can talk to any promiscuous ports. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 173 www. which means that is it a member of the primary VLAN 100 and the secondary VLAN 1000. As you might guess the promiscuous option defines that the port role is promiscuous. this implies that R3 can talk to all other ports in VLAN 1000 and any promiscuous ports belonging to VLAN 100. First we must define the different port roles used in PVLANs.3000 configured. Next the primary VLAN is defined.0 Bridging & Switching Note While the theory of PVLANs is relatively straight forward. the implementation can be confusing due to the different terms that Cisco uses to describe VLANs and ports. Promiscuous ports are allowed to talk to all other ports within the VLAN. Lastly the port is assigned to both the primary and secondary VLANs.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

0.INE.255.0 Rack1SW1#show vlan private-vlan Primary ------100 100 100 Secondary --------1000 2000 3000 Type ----------------community community isolated Bridging & Switching Ports ----------------------------------Fa0/1.0.0.255 from all devices. 100.0. timeout is 2 seconds: Reply to request 0 from 100. 4 ms Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 174 www.0. Rack1R2#ping 255. Rack1R1#ping 255.255. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 255.3.255. Fa0/5 Fa0/1 Rack1SW2#show vlan private-vlan Primary ------100 100 100 Secondary --------1000 2000 3000 Type ----------------community community isolated Ports ----------------------------------Fa0/2 Fa0/4 Fa0/6 Final verification for this configuration can be obtained by sending traffic to the broadcast address of 255.6.0.5.4.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort. who is in the same community. 4 ms Reply to request 0 from 100. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 255.2.com .1. 100.3. since it is a promiscuous port. Sending 1.255. Sending 1.255.255.255.255.0. 100.255.255. and R1 who is a promiscuous port.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0.0.0. As defined in the requirements R1 can talk to all routers.255. 4 4 4 4 4 ms ms ms ms ms R2 can talk to R3.0. 100. timeout is 2 seconds: Reply Reply Reply Reply Reply to to to to to request request request request request 0 0 0 0 0 from from from from from 100.255.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort. Fa0/3 Fa0/1.0.0.0.

R1. 4 ms Since R6 is an isolated port it can only talk to the promiscuous port. timeout is 2 seconds: Reply to request 0 from 100. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 255. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 255. Rack1R5#ping 255. timeout is 2 seconds: Reply to request 0 from 100.0.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 1. 4 ms R5 can talk to R4.255.0.255.255.0.255.255.5.255.255.255.255. 4 ms Reply to request 0 from 100. 4 ms Reply to request 0 from 100.255. Sending 1. who is in the same community. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 255. and R1 who is a promiscuous port. 4 ms Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 175 www. Rack1R3#ping 255.2. who is in the same community.4. and R1 who is a promiscuous port.0.0.255.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 255. Rack1R6#ping 255.1.0. Sending 1.0. and R1 who is a promiscuous port.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort. timeout is 2 seconds: Reply to request 0 from 100. 4 ms R4 can talk to R5.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort.0.0. 4 ms Reply to request 0 from 100.1.255.0.0.0. Rack1R4#ping 255.255.255. who is in the same community.1. Sending 1.255.255.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort.INE.com .255.255.255.0.255.1.0 Bridging & Switching R3 can talk to R2.0. timeout is 2 seconds: Reply to request 0 from 100.

Make sure R4 uses an alternate CHAP hostname R4CHAP. There are two common methods of authenticating (i. many PPP configuration steps remain the same.45. PPPoA and L2TPv3 or PPTP even allow for running PPP across an IP cloud) and provide rich auto-configuration services. the authenticator simply waits for the remote node to send a username and password pair in cleartext.0/24 for this link R4 should attempt to authenticate R5 using PAP and than CHAP.0 Bridging & Switching 1.com . 2) Using CHAP. PPP is also a very widely adopted VPN solution. In this scenario. point to point) links. serial and other types of WAN links. PPPoE. This allows the remote end to pick up the proper Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 176 www. The framing format has been derived from simpler HDLC but they main feature of PPP are two protocols LCP (link control protocol) and NCP (network control protocol). encryption and so on. Those two features made PPP a very popular protocol for dialup. If the pair matches the locally configured credentials. the routers should agree on the authentication protocol using configuration requests.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. In any case. During the LCP phase. the authenticator declares the link to be authenticated. NCP allows for running any layer 3 protocol on top of PPP by embedding the protocol’s parameter negotiation into PPP.g.e. R5 should refuse PAP authentication and use CHAP. we’ll discuss one important aspect of LCP – link authentication. callback. These two allow for flexible link configuration and protocol extension. which is an optional feature that occurs after the link has been established via LCP by no L3 protocols have been negotiated via NCP. Use the name R5PPP and the password of CISCO to accomplish this. Ethernet segments (PPPoE) or other Frame-Relay (PPPoFR). verifying the identity) of a remote endpoint – PAP (password authentication protocol) and CHAP (challenge and response protocol).e.X. R5 should authenticate R4 using PAP only. link compression procedure. the authenticator prompts the remote node with a “challenge” strings and its own hostname. Within the scope of CCIE R&S lab you may have to deal with PPP being run on top of dedicated Serial links. Here is how PAP and CHAP work: 1) Using PAP.INE. as it could be tunneled over any other L2 or L3 protocol (e. R4 should use the name R4PPP and the password of CISCO. Configuration Note PPP (point-to-point protocol) is the universal layer 2 encapsulation method for Serial (i.48 PPP • • • • • Enable PPP encapsulation for the Serial link connecting R4 and R5 and use the IP subnet 155. For example LCP could be used to negotiate an authentication scheme.

After that.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. and respond to the authenticator using the hash function calculated over the challenge string and the authentication key matching the authenticator. enable PPP encapsulation on the interface and use the command ppp authentication: R4: interface Serial 0/1/0 encapsulation ppp ppp authentication pap chap The command above means that R4 will offer PAP authentication and if the remote end rejects it will offer CHAP authentication. This command should be configured on the “authenticating” end. based on the incoming hostname. You may configure an endpoint to reject a particular authentication method offered using the command ppp {pap|chap} refuse. the authenticating end should be configured for PAP or CHAP credentials using either of two methods: 1) Using the global command username <AUTHEN_NAME> password <PASSWORD> which specifies a name/password pair matching the PPP ID of the authenticator router (it’s the hostname).com . This is the only way to configure multiple CHAP credentials. Notice that the above configuration should be performed on the authenticator only.g. This allows for secure authentication over unencrypted links. not to match the incoming. Next. 2) Using the interface-level command ppp sent-username <NAME> password <PWD> to send outgoing PAP credentials when PAP is negotiated. Notice the reverse logic – the username database is being inspected for outgoing credentials. For responding to incoming CHAP challenges. This is the only way to define outgoing PAP credentials for the local end of the connection. The similarly looking command ppp chap hostname <NAME> defines an alternate CHAP hostname to be used in CHAP challenges or responses instead of the regular hostname. This command defines the default password matching any incoming CHAP challenge or sent when there is no password found in the list of local usernames. e. you may use the interface-level command ppp chap password <PWD>. To configure the router as a PPP authenticator. the authenticator performs the same hash calculation (keyed with the password value) and compares it to the response.0 Bridging & Switching authentication key. Notice that the authenticating host also includes its own hostname in the response as well so the authenticator may find the right key as well. the one that is being offered an authentication method. Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 177 www. the remote node is declared to be authenticated. This method only works for CHAP as it’s the method that is being initiated by the authenticator (see above). matching multiple remote hostnames. If they match.INE.

com .0 ppp authentication pap chap ppp pap sent-username R4PPP password CISCO ppp chap hostname R4CHAP ! username R5CHAP password CISCO ! R5: default interface Serial 0/1/0 interface Serial 0/1/0 clock rate 128000 encapsulation ppp ip address 155.1. In our scenario.45.4 255.255.0 ppp authentication pap ppp pap refuse ppp chap hostname R5CHAP ! username R4PPP password CISCO username R4CHAP password CISCO Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 178 www. R4: default interface Serial 0/1/0 interface Serial 0/1/0 clock rate 128000 encapsulation ppp ip address 155.INE.5 255.255.255.45.0 Bridging & Switching Here is an example of configuring R5 for outgoing PAP credentials and a name/password pair for CHAP request: R5: username R4PPP password CISCO ! interface Serial 0/1/0 ppp pap sent-username R5PPP password CISCO Keep in mind that a PPP endpoint could be configured as both the authenticator and the authenticating endpoint. both R4 and R5 authenticate each other.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.1.255. with R4 using CHAP to authenticate R5 and R5 using PAP to authenticate R4.

com . including authentication.0 Bridging & Switching Verification Note Enable PPP debugging and bring the Serial link down then back up. changed state to up Se0/1/0 PPP: Using default call direction Se0/1/0 PPP: Treating connection as a dedicated line Se0/1/0 PPP: Session handle[2B000026] Session id[77] PPP starts LCP trying to establish the link. Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is ESTABLISHING. The remote end then ofers CHAP and the local end agrees. RSRack1R5#debug ppp negotiation PPP protocol negotiation debugging is on RSRack1R5#debug ppp authentication PPP authentication debugging is on RSRack1R5#debug aaa authentication AAA Authentication debugging is on RSRack1R5#conf t RSRack1R5(config)#interface serial 0/1/0 RSRack1R5(config-if)#no shutdown RSRack1R5(config-if)# Se0/1/0 PPP: Outbound cdp packet dropped RSRack1R5(config-if)# %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0/1/0.INE. Active Open PPP: Authorization required LCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 2 len 14 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) LCP: MagicNumber 0x1854B341 (0x05061854B341) Incoming request for PAP gets rejected by the local end. CHAP is suggested instead. Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 LCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 11 len 14 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) LCP: MagicNumber 0x1A9C8EC2 (0x05061A9C8EC2) LCP: O CONFNAK [REQsent] id 11 len 9 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) LCP: I CONFACK [REQsent] id 2 len 14 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) LCP: MagicNumber 0x1854B341 (0x05061854B341) LCP: I CONFREQ [ACKrcvd] id 12 len 15 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 179 www. You may see a series of CONF REQUESTS and CONF ACK or NACKS flowing down.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. negotiating various link options.

INE. not the LCP Authentication phase begins. This allows R5 to select the local key from the list of the usernames: Se0/1/0 CHAP: I CHALLENGE id 5 len 27 from "R4CHAP" AAA/AUTHEN/PPP (0000004B): Pick method list 'Permanent Local' Se0/1/0 PPP: Received LOGIN Response PASS Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is FORWARDING.0 Se0/1/0 LCP: Bridging & Switching MagicNumber 0x1A9C8EC2 (0x05061A9C8EC2) Se0/1/0 LCP: O CONFACK [ACKrcvd] id 12 len 15 Se0/1/0 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) Se0/1/0 LCP: MagicNumber 0x1A9C8EC2 (0x05061A9C8EC2) Link has been established. Notice that both ends perform authentication (AUTHENTICATING. Authenticated User Se0/1/0 PPP: Sent LCP AUTHOR Request Se0/1/0 PPP: Sent IPCP AUTHOR Request R5 finds the local key and prepares a CHAP response. by both). Next you may see I AUTH-REQ from R4 which means R4 starts sending its name and password continuously: Se0/1/0 LCP: State is Open Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING. Se0/1/0 PAP: O AUTH-ACK id 1 len 5 Se0/1/0 CHAP: I SUCCESS id 5 len 4 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 180 www. Unauthenticated User AAA/AUTHEN/PPP (0000004B): Pick method list 'Permanent Local' Se0/1/0 PPP: Sent PAP LOGIN Request At the same time. Attempting Forward Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING. The hostname in the response is taken from the interface configuraiton command. R4 attempts to authenticate R5 by sending a CHAP challenge with its alternate hostname. by both Se0/1/0 PAP: I AUTH-REQ id 1 len 16 from "R4PPP" Se0/1/0 PAP: Authenticating peer R4PPP Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is FORWARDING. R4 responds back that teh response to CHAP challenge was correct.com . Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 CHAP: Using hostname from interface CHAP CHAP: Using password from AAA CHAP: O RESPONSE id 5 len 27 from "R5CHAP" LCP: Received AAA AUTHOR Response PASS IPCP: Received AAA AUTHOR Response PASS R5 confirms R4’s PAP credentials and authenticates R4. Attempting Forward Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. At the same time.

0 AAA/AUTHOR/IPCP: Done.4.1.45.1.45.45.45.com .45.1. we want PPP: Sent IPCP AUTHOR Request CDPCP: I CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 4 AAA/AUTHOR/IPCP: Reject 155. we want 0.4 CDPCP: I CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 4 CDPCP: I CONFREQ [ACKrcvd] id 2 len 4 CDPCP: O CONFACK [ACKrcvd] id 2 len 4 CDPCP: State is Open Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 181 www.0.5 (0x03069B012D05) IPCP: State is Open CDPCP: Received AAA AUTHOR Response PASS CDPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 4 IPCP: Install route to 155.0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is UP IPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155. Her address 155.45.4. using 0.0.4 (0x03069B012D04) IPCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155.1.4.0 IPCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155.1.0.45. Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 0. and the NCP phase (IPCP) starts.0.5 (0x03069B012D05) PPP: Sent CDPCP AUTHOR Request PPP: Process pending ncp packets IPCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155. Her address 155.1.1.INE.4 (0x03069B012D04) AAA/AUTHOR/IPCP: Start.0.45.1.0.0 Bridging & Switching At this point the link is authenticated.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

This particular scenario calls for creating of an AAA group. To configure an AAA group use the command aaa group server {radius|tacacs+} <NAME>. Reconfigure R5 so that it attempts to authenticate R4 against the TACACS+ server at the IP address 155. In order to configure a particular Serial interface to use a non-default PPP authentication or authorization group. We are not going to cover AAA framework in depth here. In case if the remote AAA servers fail both R4 and R5 should use the local user database for authentication. When populating the group.The other router. accessible only under the particular group.com .146. as it mentions that the AAA server should not be configured globally.0 Bridging & Switching 1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. The only significant difference is the fact that there is no real RADIUS or TACACS+ server in the CCIE R&S lab exam. Do not use global configuration commands to define a RADIUS server in R4.INE. Therefore.49 PPP AAA Authentication • • • • • Reconfigure R4 so that it attempts to authenticate R5 against the RADIUS server at the IP address 155. as you can read about it referring to the Security section of this workbook. every method you configured for PPP should be configured to fall back to local authentication or any other backup method. use the interface-level command ppp authentication {pap|chap} <AAA_GROUP>.X.100. Configure AAA authentication for PPP is no different than configuring any other service authentication or authorization. Configuration Note Using remote AAA servers for PPP authentication is common in large-scale deployments. is configured using the standard global RADIUS server configuration. so you have to deal with imaginary situation. You may then reference the group when creating an AAA list using the command similar to aaa authentication ppp <AAA_GROUP> group <SERVER_GROUP>.200.X. Notice that in most situations you may just resort to using the default AAA list for PPP configured using the command aaa authentication ppp default {<SERVER_GROUP> Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 182 www.146. Use the password value of CISCO to authenticate with the remote servers. R5. use the command server to refer a globally configured RADIUS or TACACS+ server or the command server-private to refer to the locally configured server.

You may want to use name lists when you have to use different AAA servers for multiple interfaces connected to the same router.1.146. R4: aaa new-model aaa authentication login CONSOLE none aaa authentication ppp PPPAUTH group MYRADIUS local ! aaa group server radius MYRADIUS server-private 155.0 Bridging & Switching |radius|tacacs+}. Pay attention to the special configuration needed to make sure the console line is not authenticated. the globally configured servers will be used in sequence they have been configured.100 key CISCO ! interface Serial 0/1/0 ppp authentication pap chap PPPAUTH ! line console 0 login authentication CONSOLE R5: aaa new-model aaa authentication login CONSOLE none aaa authentication ppp default group tacacs local ! tacacs-server host 155.1.INE. When you specify just the radius or tacacs+ keywords.146.200 key CISCO ! line console 0 login authentication CONSOLE Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 183 www.com . By default enabling AAA will switch the console authentication mode to local authentication and might lock you out of the router.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

45.0 Bridging & Switching Verification Note Enable RADIUS debugging in R4 in addition to the regular PPP debugging commands.com .1. changed state to up Se0/1/0 PPP: Using default call direction Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 184 www. changed state to down RSRack1R4(config-if)#no shutdown RSRack1R4(config-if)# Se0/1/0 PPP: Outbound cdp packet dropped RSRack1R4(config-if)# %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0/1/0. RSRack1R4#debug radius Radius protocol debugging is on Radius protocol brief debugging is off Radius protocol verbose debugging is off Radius packet hex dump debugging is off Radius packet protocol debugging is on Radius elog debugging debugging is off Radius packet retransmission debugging is off Radius server fail-over debugging is off Radius elog debugging debugging is off RSRack1R4#debug ppp negotiation PPP protocol negotiation debugging is on RSRack1R4#debug ppp authentication PPP authentication debugging is on RSRack1R4#debug radius Radius protocol debugging is on Radius protocol brief debugging is off Radius protocol verbose debugging is off Radius packet hex dump debugging is off Radius packet protocol debugging is on Radius elog debugging debugging is off Radius packet retransmission debugging is off Radius server fail-over debugging is off Radius elog debugging debugging is off Bounce R4’s Serial interface and observe the flow of the debugging messages: Se0/1/0 PPP: Sending Acct Event[Down] id[4C] Se0/1/0 CDPCP: State is Closed Se0/1/0 IPCP: State is Closed Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is TERMINATING Se0/1/0 LCP: State is Closed Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is DOWN Se0/1/0 IPCP: Remove route to 155.INE.5 %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/1/0.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.

1.0.0 RADIUS/ENCODE(0000004D): acct_session_id: 74 RADIUS(0000004D): sending RADIUS/ENCODE: Best Local IP-Address 155. len 90 RADIUS: authenticator F5 24 28 26 F5 46 99 F6 .com .45.100:1645 id 1645/1.100 RADIUS(0000004D): Send Access-Request to 155.146. component type = PPP RADIUS: AAA Unsupported Attr: interface [175] 11 RADIUS: 53 65 72 69 61 6C 30 2F 31 [Serial0/1] RADIUS(0000004D): Config NAS IP: 0.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 PPP: PPP: PPP: PPP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: LCP: Bridging & Switching Treating connection as a dedicated line Session handle[B400003C] Session id[78] Phase is ESTABLISHING.2B B5 BD 5A 64 B8 7C F9 RADIUS: Framed-Protocol [7] 6 PPP [1] Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 185 www.0. Active Open Authorization NOT required O CONFREQ [Closed] id 15 len 14 AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) MagicNumber 0x1AE0862A (0x05061AE0862A) I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 4 len 14 AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) MagicNumber 0x1898AA5B (0x05061898AA5B) O CONFACK [REQsent] id 4 len 14 AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) MagicNumber 0x1898AA5B (0x05061898AA5B) I CONFNAK [ACKsent] id 15 len 9 AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) O CONFREQ [ACKsent] id 16 len 15 AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) MagicNumber 0x1AE0862A (0x05061AE0862A) I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 16 len 15 AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) MagicNumber 0x1AE0862A (0x05061AE0862A) State is Open This is where authentication phase starts. RADIUS/ENCODE(0000004D):Orig.146.1. Attempting Forward PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING.INE. Next we see RADIUS packets being sent to the server.1. by both PAP: Using hostname from interface PAP PAP: Using password from interface PAP PAP: O AUTH-REQ id 3 len 16 from "R4PPP" CHAP: O CHALLENGE id 7 len 27 from "R4CHAP" PAP: I AUTH-ACK id 3 len 5 CHAP: I RESPONSE id 7 len 27 from "R5CHAP" PPP: Phase is FORWARDING. Unauthenticated User PPP: Sent CHAP LOGIN Request From the above output we can see that R4 sends CHAP challenge and receives CHAP response.4 for Radius-Server 155. Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING.

1. Authenticated User CHAP: O SUCCESS id 7 len 4 PPP: Phase is UP IPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155. FAIL Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 PPP: Received LOGIN Response PASS PPP: Phase is FORWARDING. FAIL RADIUS/DECODE: Case error(no response/ bad packet/ op decode).1646) for id 1645/1 RADIUS/DECODE: No response from radius-server.1.5 (0x03069B012D05) CDPCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 4 CDPCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 4 IPCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155.146.com .45. RADIUS: RADIUS: Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Retransmit to (155.1.5 CDPCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 4 CDPCP: State is Open Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 186 www.INE.1.1646) for id 1645/1 RADIUS: No response from (155.5 (0x03069B012D05) IPCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155. Attempting Forward PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING.1.1646) for id 1645/1 Retransmit to (155.45.4 Bridging & Switching [1] [2] The router keeps retransmitting the packets until it declares the server dead and switches back to local authentication.100:1645.1.146.1.45.100:1645.4 (0x03069B012D04) IPCP: State is Open IPCP: Install route to 155.0 RADIUS: RADIUS: RADIUS: RADIUS: RADIUS: RADIUS: RADIUS: User-Name CHAP-Password NAS-Port NAS-Port-Id NAS-Port-Type Service-Type NAS-IP-Address [1] [3] [5] [87] [61] [6] [4] 8 19 6 13 6 6 6 "R5CHAP" * 10000 "Serial0/1/0" Sync Framed 155. parse response.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.4 (0x03069B012D04) CDPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 4 PPP: Process pending ncp packets IPCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155.45.parse response.100:1645.1.146.1.100:1645.1.45.45.1646) for id 1645/1 CHAP: I RESPONSE id 7 len 27 from "R5CHAP" CHAP: Ignoring Additional Response AUTH: Timeout 1 RADIUS: Retransmit to (155.146.

0 Bridging & Switching Now observe the fallback from TACACS+ authentication to the local database in R5: RSRack1R5#debug ppp authentication PPP authentication debugging is on RSRack1R5#debug ppp negotiation PPP protocol negotiation debugging is on RSRack1R5#debug aaa authentication AAA Authentication debugging is on RSRack1R5#debug tacacs TACACS access control debugging is on RSRack1R5#debug tacacs packet TACACS+ packets debugging is on AAA/BIND(0000004E): Bind i/f Serial0/1/0 Se0/1/0 PPP: Using default call direction Se0/1/0 PPP: Treating connection as a dedicated line Se0/1/0 PPP: Session handle[FD000029] Session id[80] Se0/1/0 PPP: Phase is ESTABLISHING.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 PPP: PAP: PAP: PPP: PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING. by both I AUTH-REQ id 4 len 16 from "R4PPP" Authenticating peer R4PPP Phase is FORWARDING. Active Open Se0/1/0 PPP: Authorization NOT required Se0/1/0 LCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 5 len 14 Se0/1/0 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) Se0/1/0 LCP: MagicNumber 0x18A58BB5 (0x050618A58BB5) Se0/1/0 LCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 17 len 14 Se0/1/0 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) Se0/1/0 LCP: MagicNumber 0x1AED6797 (0x05061AED6797) Se0/1/0 LCP: O CONFNAK [REQsent] id 17 len 9 Se0/1/0 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) Se0/1/0 LCP: I CONFACK [REQsent] id 5 len 14 Se0/1/0 LCP: AuthProto PAP (0x0304C023) Se0/1/0 LCP: MagicNumber 0x18A58BB5 (0x050618A58BB5) Se0/1/0 LCP: I CONFREQ [ACKrcvd] id 18 len 15 Se0/1/0 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) Se0/1/0 LCP: MagicNumber 0x1AED6797 (0x05061AED6797) Se0/1/0 LCP: O CONFACK [ACKrcvd] id 18 len 15 Se0/1/0 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) Se0/1/0 LCP: MagicNumber 0x1AED6797 (0x05061AED6797) Se0/1/0 LCP: State is Open Authentication starts here. R4 sends loging credentials for PAP and R5 attempts to contact the TACACS+ server.INE.com . Unauthenticated User Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 187 www. The server is not accessible and thus R5 falls back to local authentication. Attempting Forward Phase is AUTHENTICATING.

Authenticated User PAP: O AUTH-ACK id 4 len 5 AUTH: Timeout 1 CHAP: Using hostname from interface CHAP CHAP: Using password from AAA CHAP: O RESPONSE id 8 len 27 from "R5CHAP" CHAP: I SUCCESS id 8 len 4 PPP: Phase is UP IPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155.200 TPLUS(0000004E)/0: Connect Error No route to host Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 Se0/1/0 PPP: Received LOGIN Response PASS PPP: Phase is FORWARDING.146.1.4 (0x03069B012D04) IPCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155.1.1.45.com .5 (0x03069B012D05) IPCP: State is Open IPCP: Install route to 155.1.0 Bridging & Switching AAA/AUTHEN/PPP (0000004E): Pick method list 'default' Se0/1/0 PPP: Sent PAP LOGIN Request TPLUS: Queuing AAA Authentication request 78 for processing Se0/1/0 CHAP: I CHALLENGE id 8 len 27 from "R4CHAP" AAA/AUTHEN/PPP (0000004E): Pick method list 'default' TPLUS: processing authentication start request id 78 TPLUS: Authentication start packet created for 78(R4PPP) TPLUS: Using server 155.45.4 CDPCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 4 CDPCP: State is Open Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 188 www.5 (0x03069B012D05) CDPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 4 PPP: Process pending ncp packets IPCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155.45.INE.1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.200 TPLUS(0000004E)/0: Connect Error No route to host TPLUS: Queuing AAA Authentication request 78 for processing TPLUS: processing authentication start request id 78 TPLUS: Authentication start packet created for 78(R4CHAP) TPLUS: Using server 155.1.4 (0x03069B012D04) CDPCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 4 CDPCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 4 IPCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 10 IPCP: Address 155.45.45.1. Attempting Forward CHAP: Using hostname from interface CHAP CHAP: Using password from AAA CHAP: O RESPONSE id 8 len 27 from "R5CHAP" PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING.146.

If the server agrees to the request. When a PPPoE client starts. R5 should allocate an IP address to R3 from the local DHCP pool for the subnet 155. In the older IOS versions configuring PPPoE server would require using vpdn (virtual prviaten dialin network) commands. You are allowed to create an additional VLAN 54 for this task.54 to accomplish this.3 from the pool. You may limit the amount of incoming PPPoE sessions per Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 189 www. Since PPP as a point-to-point protocol and Ethernet is a multiple-access segment. an extension is needed to discover the server willing to terminate the PPP link. R5 should block any host attempting to initiate more than 10 sessions in a minute for 5 minutes. The recent IOS versions introduced new syntax just for PPPoE configuration using the command mode bba-group which stands for broadband aggregation group.0 Bridging & Switching 1. Essentially it’s just a PPP session being run on top of Ethernet segment inside the regular frames. which greatly simplifies deployment as it allows for reusing the existing billing systems and expertise. You may configure the default BBA group – the global one which applies to all interfaces configured for PPPoE termination or created named groups tuned for various settings and applied to different interfaces.35. The most common broadband PPP implementation is PPP over Ethernet or PPPoE. If there is a PPPoE server on the segment it responds with a PADO (PPPoE Active Discovery Offer Packet) to the MAC address of the client initiating the session.com .INE. it enters the discovery phase by sending out a broadcast PADI (PPPoE Active Discovery Initiation) packet.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.35. it sends out a Request packet (much like during DHCP negotiation) to the server requesting the PPP service. it responds with a PADS (Session-confirmation) packet and the client and server start exchanging PPP packets inside Ethernet frames performing normal PPP session negotiation.50 PPPoE • • • • • • • Configure R3 as a PPPoE client and R5 as the PPPoE server.X.X. Make sure R3 is assigned the IP address 155. PPP allows for replicating the single-user/single-session paradigm on multiple-access networks. R5 should authenticate R3 using CHAP and the password value of CISCO. used in DSL and cable networks. Configuration Note One of the widest uses for PPP is broadcast access.0. Use R3’s interface Fa0/1 and R5’s sub-interface Fa0/1. If the client accepts the offer.

com . Pay attention to the special “trick” we’re using to allocate the IP address to the connecting client via DHCP. The default Ethernet MTU is 1500 and the PPPoE header adds extra 8 bytes to PPP frames encapsulated inside Ethernet frames.g. which is not needed with DHCP. configure it for PPP and addressing and bind it to a physical interface using dialer pool. However.g. You may see the example in the solution below. a client host like PC would account for the overhead and properly set the MSS option in outgoing TCP connections. The virtual-template is used to clone the actual virtual-access interfaces for every connecting user. Since PPP is being run over Ethernet.0 Bridging & Switching interface/sub-interface using the command pppoe max-sessions. You may define PPP authentication settings and other native PPP options under the virtual-template interface. The DHCP pool is configured with an exclusion to allocate only a single desired IP address. Normally. Notice that only the client is configured with the statement ip address dhcp – there is no need to configure any peer default ip address settings in the server interface. Aside from the optional features.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. This could be fixed using the command ip tcp adjust-mss 1452 (or lower) on the virtual interface (e. MTU limitations arise. as this engages IPCP address allocation mechanism. 2) PMTU discovery may fail due to firewall filtering and TCP sessions may not work properly. This could be fixed using the command ip ospf mtuignore with OSPF or by setting the MTU value manually at both endpoints. the following issues may arise: 1) Some IGP protocols e.INE. The PPPoE client configuration in the IOS router is straightforward – you define a dialer interface. if a router is used as a PPPoE client. there is probably just one mandatory configuration settings – configuring a virtual-template interface and associating it with the bba-group. on the dialer) in the client router. R3: interface Dialer1 ip address dhcp encapsulation ppp dialer pool 1 ppp chap hostname R3PPP ppp chap password CISCO ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address no shutdown pppoe enable pppoe-client dial-pool-number 1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 190 www. OSPF may fail to negotiate across the virtual link due to MTU mismatch.

1.1.1.1 255.INE.0 255.35.com .0 R5: aaa authentication ppp PPPOE local username R3PPP password CISCO ! ip dhcp excluded-address 155.255.255.4 155.1.35 encapsulation dot1Q 35 pppoe enable group PPPOE Bridging & Switching ! ! Define per-MAC throttling settings under the BBA group ! bba-group pppoe PPPOE virtual-template 1 sessions per-mac throttle 10 60 300 ! interface Virtual-Template 1 encapsulation ppp ip address 155.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5. RSRack1R3#debug pppoe packets PPPoE control packets debugging is on RSRack1R3#debug pppoe events PPPoE protocol events debugging is on Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 191 www.1.35.35. After this.1 155.2 ip dhcp excluded-address 155.1.255.0 ppp authentication chap PPPOE SW3: vlan 35 ! interface fastEthernet 0/3 switchport host switchport access vlan 35 ! interface FastEthernet 0/5 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk spanning-tree portfast trunk Verification Note Debug PPPoE packets exchange along with the PPP session packets in R4.35.35.35.0 ! interface FastEthernet 0/1 no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1. clear the active PPPoE sessions.255.254 ! ip dhcp pool PPPOE network 155.

1a68. RSRack1R3# %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Virtual-Access1..1.2093..b04d L:0011..1a68.b04d L:0011.e561 Fa0/1 00 11 20 93 E5 61 00 13 1A 68 B0 4D 88 63 11 07 00 00 00 2D 01 01 00 00 01 03 00 04 84 4F 7E 70 .0 RSRack1R3#debug ppp negotiation PPP protocol negotiation debugging is on RSRack1R3#clear pppoe all RSRack1R3# Bridging & Switching The session is being terminated using PADT packet: Vi1 PPP: Outbound cdp packet dropped [0]PPPoE 16: O PADT R:0013.e561 Fa0/1 00 13 1A 68 B0 4D 00 11 20 93 E5 61 88 63 11 A7 00 10 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 .35. changed state to down RSRack1R3# Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 PPP: Sending Acct Event[Down] id[3] CDPCP: State is Closed IPCP: State is Closed PPP: Unlocked by [0x10] Still Locked by [0x2] PPP: Phase is TERMINATING LCP: State is Closed PPP: Phase is DOWN PPP SSS: Send DISCONNECT to mgr_hdl[BA000001] PPP: Unlocked by [0x2] Still Locked by [0x0] PPP: Free previously blocked vaccess The server responds with an offer and the client requests a session. Vi1 IPCP: Remove link info for cef entry 155.1. %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Virtual-Access1.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5..2093.e561 Fa0/1 PPPoE: Returning Vaccess Virtual-Access1 Vi1 PPP: Block vaccess from being freed [0x10] Di1 IPCP: Remove route to 155.2093. changed state to down Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 192 www.b04d L:0011.35..1a68.1 The router sends initial PADI packet out: Sending PADI: Interface = FastEthernet0/1 pppoe_send_padi: FF FF FF FF FF FF 00 11 20 93 E5 61 88 63 11 09 00 00 00 0C 01 01 00 00 01 03 00 04 84 4F 7E 70 .1 %DIALER-6-UNBIND: Interface Vi1 unbound from profile Di1 [0]PPPoE 16: Destroying R:0013.com .INE.. The server finally confirms the session: PPPoE 0: I PADO R:0013.

1a68. Active Open Vi1 PPP: No remote authentication for call-out Vi1 LCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 10 Vi1 LCP: MagicNumber 0x170E8640 (0x0506170E8640) %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Virtual-Access1.2093.INE. PPPoE : encap string prepared [0]PPPoE 17: data path set to Virtual Acess Vi1 PPP: Phase is DOWN.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.0 Bridging & Switching OUT PADR from PPPoE Session 00 13 1A 68 B0 4D 00 11 20 93 E5 61 88 63 11 19 00 00 00 2D 01 01 00 00 01 03 00 04 84 4F 7E 70 . PPPoE 17: I PADS R:0013. Vi1 PPP: Phase is ESTABLISHING. Notice one special configuration request of MRU (maximum receive unit) of 1492 which is because of the PPPoE header of 8 bytes.. The server still suggests MRU of 1500 because it does not account for PPPoE overhead.. by the peer CHAP: I CHALLENGE id 1 len 30 from "RSRack1R5" CHAP: Using hostname from interface CHAP CHAP: Using password from interface CHAP CHAP: O RESPONSE id 1 len 26 from "R3PPP" Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 193 www. Setup Vi1 PPP: Using dialer call direction Vi1 PPP: Treating connection as a callout Vi1 PPP: Session handle[8E000008] Session id[0] Now the regular PPP session starts..b04d L:0011. changed state to up Vi1 LCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 19 Vi1 LCP: MRU 1492 (0x010405D4) Vi1 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) Vi1 LCP: MagicNumber 0x190C2819 (0x0506190C2819) Vi1 LCP: O CONFNAK [REQsent] id 1 len 8 Vi1 LCP: MRU 1500 (0x010405DC) Vi1 LCP: I CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 10 Vi1 LCP: MagicNumber 0x170E8640 (0x0506170E8640) Vi1 LCP: I CONFREQ [ACKrcvd] id 2 len 19 Vi1 LCP: MRU 1500 (0x010405DC) Vi1 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) Vi1 LCP: MagicNumber 0x190C2819 (0x0506190C2819) Vi1 LCP: O CONFACK [ACKrcvd] id 2 len 19 Vi1 LCP: MRU 1500 (0x010405DC) Vi1 LCP: AuthProto CHAP (0x0305C22305) Vi1 LCP: MagicNumber 0x190C2819 (0x0506190C2819) Vi1 LCP: State is Open This is where R5 authenticates R3 using CHAP: Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 Vi1 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING.e561 Fa0/1 00 11 20 93 E5 61 00 13 1A 68 B0 4D 88 63 11 65 00 11 00 2D 01 01 00 00 01 03 00 04 84 4F 7E 70 .com .. IN PADS from PPPoE Session %DIALER-6-BIND: Interface Vi1 bound to profile Di1 PPPoE: Virtual Access interface obtained.

35.1 (0x03069B012301) Vi1 IPCP: O CONFACK [REQsent] id 1 len 10 Vi1 IPCP: Address 155.1.b04d Port Source VA VA-st Vi1 Fa0/1 Di1 RSRack1R5#show pppoe session 1 session in LOCALLY_TERMINATED (PTA) State 1 session total Uniq ID State 98 PTA 0013.CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.2093.35.3 (0x03069B012303) Vi1 CDPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 4 Vi1 PPP: Process pending ncp packets Vi1 IPCP: Redirect packet to Vi1 Vi1 IPCP: I CONFREQ [REQsent] id 1 len 10 Vi1 IPCP: Address 155. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/2/4 ms VLAN :35 UP PPPoE SID 17 RemMAC LocMAC 0011.e561 UP PPPoE SID 17 RemMAC LocMAC 0013. Sending 5.1 Fa0/1.1 Vi1 IPCP: Add link info for cef entry 155.1.3 (0x03069B012303) Vi1 IPCP: State is Open Di1 IPCP: Install route to 155.35.35.e561 Port Source VA VA-st Vi1.1.1 [0]PPPoE 17: Vi1 O FS Check the session status in R3 and R5 after everything has been established: RSRack1R3#show pppoe session 1 client session Uniq ID State N/A UP 0011.b04d RSRack1R5#ping 155.1. Attempting Forward Vi1 PPP: Queue IPCP code[1] id[1] Vi1 PPP SSS: Receive SSS-Mgr Connect-Local Vi1 PPP: Phase is ESTABLISHING.1a68. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 155.1.35 Vt1 Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 194 www.35. timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5). Finish LCP Vi1 PPP: Phase is UP Vi1 IPCP: O CONFREQ [Closed] id 1 len 10 Vi1 IPCP: Address 155.1.1.3 Type escape sequence to abort.1.INE.1 (0x03069B012301) Vi1 LCP: I PROTREJ [Open] id 3 len 10 protocol CDPCP (0x820701010004) Vi1 CDPCP: State is Closed Vi1 CDPCP: State is Listen Vi1 IPCP: I CONFACK [ACKsent] id 1 len 10 Vi1 IPCP: Address 155.1a68.2093.35.3.com .35.35.0 Bridging & Switching Vi1 CHAP: I SUCCESS id 1 len 4 Vi1 PPP: Phase is FORWARDING.

0 Bridging & Switching Copyright © 2008 Internetwork Expert 195 www.INE.com .CCIE R&S Lab Workbook Volume I Version 5.