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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and their Replies

Q. 1.

What are breeder, foundation and certified seeds

Answer 1: Breeder seed: Breeder seed is seed or vegetative propagating material directly controlled by the originating or sponsoring plant breeder of the breeding programme or institution and/ or seed whose production is personally supervised by a qualified plant breeder and which provides the source for the initial and recurring increase of foundation seed. Breeder seed shall be genetically so pure as to guarantee that in the subsequent generation i.e. certified foundation seed class shall confirm to the prescribed standards of genetic purity. The other quality factors of breeder seed such as physical purity, inert matter, germination etc. shall be indicated on the label on actual basis. Foundation seed: Foundation seed shall be the progeny of Breeder seed or be produced from foundation seed, which can be clearly traced to Breeder seed. Thus foundation seed can even be produced from foundation seed during the production of Foundation Seed the minimum seed certification standard shall be the same for both foundation seed stage-I and II. The certification tag shall be white colour for both foundation seed stage-I and II. The production of foundation seed stage I and II shall be supervised and approved by the certification agency and be so handled as to maintain specific genetic identity and genetic purity and shall be required to confirm to certification standards specified for the crop / variety being certified. Certified Seed: Certified seed shall be the progeny of foundation seed and its production shall be so handled as to maintain specific genetic identity and purity according to the standards prescribed for the crop being

one of which is male sterile. 1966. 4 What is process and procedure of certification of seeds? Answer 4:   receipt and scrutiny of application. Q. At present there are 21 state Seed Certification Agencies in the country. Hybrid(certified) seed is the first generation resulting from the cross of two approved inbred lines or parents .2 What is hybrid seed? Answer 2 : The first generation resulting from crossing of two varieties or parents.     Q. class and other requirements of the seed used for raising the seed crop. Seed sampling and analysis. if any. verification of seed source. Certified seed may be the progeny of certified seed provided this reproduction does not exceed three generations beyond foundation seed stage-I. and Grant of certificate and certification tags. such seed sold in the market has to be labelled as prescribed under Section 6(a) and (b) of the Seeds Act Such seed is called Labelled Seed.certified. 5 Which are the agencies authorised for certification of seeds? Answer 5 : Agencies (State Governments or Autonomous Bodies). Q. 6 Which are the agencies that can produce certified seeds? . 3 What is Labelled Seed? Answer 3: The seed notified under Section 5 of the Seeds Act. in order to verify conformity to the prescribed standards. field inspections to verify conformity to the prescribed field standards. Supervision of post-harvest stages including processing and packaging. Q. Q. tagging and sealing. including genetic purity test and/or seed health test. which are notified under Section 8 of the Seeds Act are authorized for certification of seeds.

9 What are the present Seed Replacement Rate for different crops? Answer 9: For the year 2003-04. Rapeseed and mustard: 66.Answer 6 : Anybody willing to come forward to produce certified seed can produce certified seed.02%.16%. Foundation and Certified Seed Type of Seeds Unit 2000 – 01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Target Anticipated 2005-06 4554 4842 6048 5100 5200 Breeder Seed production MT Foundation Seed production MT 59100 54400 61400 65000 70000 74000 4269 MT Certified / Quality seedDistribution 862700 918000 980300 1083900 1274000 1385000 (709200) (756500) Q. 8 what is Seed Replacement Rate? Answer 8: Seed Replacement Rate is the percentage of area sown out of total area of crop planted in the season by using certified/quality seeds other than the farm saved seed. Gram: 7. of certified/quality seed has been made available in the country.09%. Urd: 20.71%. 65000 MT of foundation seed has been produced and 124 lakh qtls. Production of Breeder. foundation and certified seed in the country? Answer 7 : During the year 2003-04 6048 MT of breeder seed. Cooperatives and individual farmers are producing certified seed. Paddy: 19. Q. Statewise details are: .5%. State Farm Corporation of India. Arhar: 13. Q.96%. 7 What is the position of breeder. Jowar: 26.48%.60%. Private Companies.41%. Moong: 19. Sunflower: 19. Soybean: 15.25%. At present State Seeds Corporations. Jute: 68.58%. Cotton: 37.61%.48%. State Departments of Agriculture. National Seeds Corporation. Seed Replacement Rate for Wheat: 13%.49% for the country. Maize: 24. Bajra: 51. Groundnut: 5.

cotton.e.S. Implementation of PVP Legislation. 10 What are the major schemes of Government of India in the Seed Sector? Answer 10 : 1. Swaminathan have recommended the following: . Apart from the above.Q. The main objectives of the legislation are to (a) stimulate investments for research and development both in the public and the private sectors for the development of new plant varieties by ensuring appropriate returns on such investments. the Task Force appointed by the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation under the Chairmanship of Dr. 2. Q 12. cold and salinity condition c) Nutrition enhancement d) Post harvest quality e) Value addition. transgenic crop/ seed? Answer 11: Genetically Modified seed is developed by application of biotechnology wherein a specific gene from other genus is inserted by genetic manipulation to make it resistant against certain characteristics like insect pest resistance. How are the IPR issues being dealt in India with respect to Seeds Sector? Answer 11: The department has enacted legislation known as Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act.11 What are Genetically Modified. PVP & Farmer’s authority is being set up. 3. Quality Control arrangement on Seed and Establishment of National Seed Research & Training Centre Q. for example in the Bt. Bacillus thirugenesis which make it resistant against the attack of boll worm. Transport subsidy on movement of seeds to northeastern states. and (b) facilitate the growth of seed industry in the country through domestic and foreign investment which will ensure the availability of high quality seeds and planting material to Indian farmers. M. 13 What are the areas of application of Biotechnology in Agriculture? Answer 13: Biotechnology is a tool that has been widely accepted worldwide for improvement of cultivars with regard to a) Insect pest resistance b) Tolerance to drought. Q. 4. Cry1 AC gene has been incorporated in the cotton seed from a soil bacteria i. 2001 to protect plant breeder’s rights. Establishment and maintenance of Seed Bank.

and b) in the event of such person having been previously convicted of an offence under this section. tomato are also under various stages of testing and trials. The Seeds Bill. . 16 . Both rDNA and non-r-DNA applications such as fermentation. Q 17. 1966 and to take into account the changes that have happened in the seeds sector and Indian economy. Rasi Seeds Pvt. 2004 has been introduced in Rajya Sabha on 9th December 2004 so as to overcome certain deficiencies of the present Seeds Act. Under EXIM Policy. MECH-12. Q 15. What are the GM crops approved in India? Answer 15: So far. four Bt. Q. brinjal. MP. with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months. bio-processing. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. MECH-162 and Bt. or with both.14: Is there a proposal to make a new Seeds Act and why? Answer 14 : Yes. biopesticides. Bt. bio-fertilizers. Ltd. MECH-184 are of M/s. Bt. These hybrids are being cultivated in six states. MOEF. What are the rules for export and import of seeds? Answer 17 : Export/import are governed by EXIM Policy of 2002-07 issued by Ministry of Commerce. or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees. 2003 and amendments made thereon. Maharashtra. on conviction be punishable: a) for the first offence with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees. namely Gujarat. North India likely to be released during 2005 However. transgenic mustard. micro-propagation and related technological components which are important for Indian agriculture including animal husbandry and fisheries should be viewed as integral components of the planning and promotion of biotechnological applications in agriculture. 1988 read with Plant Quarantine Order. tissue-culture. What are the penalty provisions for sale of spurious seed? Answer 16: If any person contravenes any provisions of the Seeds Act/Rules. AP. cotton hybrids have been approved for commercial cultivation by GEAC. Out of four hybrids approved so far.“Biotechnological applications should be viewed comprehensively.” Q. For restricted items the EXIM committee of DAC is empowered to take decision of import/export. corn. provision is made to import which governed by the New Policy on Seed Development. Mahyco – Monsanto and RCH 2 Bt of M/s.

was established in the year 1963 under the Companies Act. Over the passage of time keeping in view the economic viability of these farms only 6 farms have been retained and others were returned to State Governments since land was taken on lease for a prescribed period of time. The PPV & FR Authority is being established shortly. 18. Q. What are the crops covered under the PPV & FR Act for the protection of crop/varieties? . Q 19. floods. What are the legal instruments for regulation of seeds? Answer 18: The Seeds Act – 1966.22 Whether the PPV & FR Act is under enforcement? Answer 22: The Department has notified the PPV & FR Rules in September 2003 in accordance with the PPV&FR Act 2001 vide No 52 of 2001 dated 30th Oct 2001 in the gazette of India. a Public Sector Undertaking under the administrative control of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation. 1956 with the objective of producing and distributing Seeds of high quality to the farmers.Q. The Implementation of the Act will be possible after establishment of the PPV & FR Authority and National Test Guidelines for DUS testing for the crops to be covered under the scheme. The scheme is being implemented through NSC. however. SFCI and 13 State Seeds Corporations in the country. What is Seed Bank Scheme? Answer 21: The main objective of “Establishment & Maintenance of Seed Bank” Scheme is to make available quality seeds of such crops/varieties at a contingency planning due to natural calamities like droughts. Q 23. etc. Q 20. Q 21. NSC is dealing with about 560 varieties in 79 crops. The Corporation undertakes the production of seeds through Contract Growers.(NSC). Government of India Undertaking operates Central State Farms in different states. Seeds Rules –1968 and Seeds (Control) Order – 1983. What is NSC? Answer 19: The National Seeds Corporation Ltd. State Farm Corporation of India. Does Government of India have its own farm to produce seeds? Answer 20: Government of India does not have its own farm for production of seed. SFCI was set up in 1969 under Companies Act to take quality seed production in Central State Farms.

brinjal. Q. mungbean. sesame. pearl millet.26 What is DUS Testing ? Answer 26: DUS stands for Distinctness. groundnut. chickpea.Answer 23: Initially 35 crops are covered such as rice.25 Is there any facility for the farmer to get the seed tested before sowing? Answer 25: Seed users and seed producers could get the seed sample tested in the State Seed Testing Laboratories with the minimum fee prescribed to obtain the result to be used as information for seeding.N R/ AR UT M SOY SU COTT JU A. castor. Q. selling or labeling purposes. To whom the farmers have to approach when the seed fail to perform? Answer 24: Director of Agriculture/Joint Director of Agriculture/Seed Inspector of the areas concerned. Balance 5 is under finalization. urdbean. sunflower. maize. potato. soybean. Uniformity and Stability. Q24. sorghum. STATE-WISE REPLACEMENT RATE INCREASE OF IMPORTANT CROPS T = TARGET FIGURES IN PERCENTAGE (%) WH EAT PAD DY MAI ZE V Hyd JO WA R V Hyd BAJ RA V Hyd GR AM UR D MO ONG ARH G. garlic. safflower. The DUS test guidelines have been prepared for all the 35 crops. cabbage. Out of 35 crops DUS test guidelines for 30 crops are already prepared. field pea. okra. sugarcane. onion. rapeseed mustard. cotton. rajmash. The formulation of National test guidelines for DUS testing has been entrusted to ICAR. linseed. lentil.NFL ON TE BEA OW ER N V V H yd STATE YE AR . rose and chrysanthemum. berseem. cauliflower. pigeon pea. wheat. jute. DUS test will be used as main criteria for deciding the novelty of a variety. tomato. lucerne. This is a criteria on the basis of which the Plant Breeders’ Rights will be granted to a variety by the Authority.

00 20.0/ 100 6.0 0 12.5 0 13.0 0 25. 00 10.00 100 100 / 1.00 91 / 100 53 / 100 28 / 100 38 / 100 13 / 100 17 / 100 20 / 100 22 / 100 6.5 0 4.0 0 13.0 0 6.0 0 22.0/ 60.0/ 100 97.0 0 2.0 0 4.0/ - 13.00 100 - - - - RAJAS THAN 2004 40.0/ 15.6 4 7.0/ 100 20. 12 - 77.0/ 100 23. 00 41.0 0 24.0/ 100 21.6 1 /99.0/ 15.0/ 100 18.2 0 25.2 5 19.0 0 0.0 0 24.0/ . 00 21. 00 7. 00 14.0/ 50. 45 10. 00 25.3 - /1 00 .0 0 22.0 0 37.0/ 8.0 0 17. 00 51.00 20. 12.0/ 100 84. 00 6.0 0 5. 40 16.8 0 2.0 0 11.4 6 12. 80 17.0 0 8. 78 - 7.2 8 - 33.0/ 100 26.8 0 23.5 0 - 42.1 5 22.0 / 6.0/ 100 83.0 8 5.0/ 100 14. 50 18.0/ 100 9. 00 16.0/ 50. 00 10. 00 42.0 .2 5 0.0 /3 0.0/ 100 85.00 20.67 10.0/ 75.00 12.0 / 6.7 /1.0 0 16. 00 45.0 0 9.0 /2 9.0/ 100 87.0 0 12./ 30.0/ 100 78./ 100 .54 /3. 50 3.0/ 100 22.0/ 100 91. 00 0.0 0 8. 00 59.0 0 12.0 0 19.0 0 25. 00 13. 12. 13 10. 00 1.0 0 18.0 5 4. 50 12.0/ 8.0 0 5.0 0 18.0 / 4.0 0 6.7 5 71. 00 44.2 1 19./ 100 .58 - - .0/ 8. 00 13.0 0 20.0/ 59. 41 8.0 0 20. 00 6.0 0 17.0/ 50.8 4 6.0/ 100 21.0 0 5.0 0 8.0/ 100 18.0/ 100 20.0 0 22.5 50 0 12. 00 21.0/ 100 10.0/ 100 74 0/100 47. 00 44.7 5 0. 13.0/ 100 - - - - - - - - - MAHARAS 20 HTRA 01 20 02 20 03 25.0 0 10.0 0 29.0 0 10. 50 12.0 / - 44.1 01 6 20 02 21.0 0 20.0 0 5. 00 20.7 3 20. 00 20.0 0 15.0/ 100 3.77 -/ 15.0/ 100 15.0 0 7.0 0 17. 30 7.0 0 20.00 20.3 7 6. 00 45. 40 14. 00 76.0 / 6.41 48 / 100 62 / 100 38 / 100 50 / 100 . 00 10. 50 12.0/ 100 23. 00 13.A.0 0 62.0/ 100 69. 0 3 91 -/ 12.4 /32.0/ 100 15. 00 65.0 0 2.0 0 10. 00 17.0 0 8.7 0 13.0 0 6.0/ 100 50.8 0 26. 82 95./ 100 15.0 / 33.00 100 -/ 14. 00 3.PRA DESH KARNA TAKA TAMILN ADU KERAL A GUJAR AT 20 01 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 20 01 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 20 01 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 20 01 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 20 01 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 6.0 30 6.0/ 31.00 19.0 0 65.0 0 6. 68.0 0 7.7 50 0 12.0/ 100 6.0 0 25./ 100 .00 20.0 0 62./ 100 .0/ 100 14. 00 14.0/ 100 /61.8 /58. 50 12.0 0 19. 50 14. 00 45. 00 14.0/ 100 21. 00 8.6 0 23.0 0 20.4 2 4.0 0 18. 00 4.0 0 18.0/ 12. 00 15. 00 2.0/ 100 80.0 0 5.0/ 60. 00 13. 44 68.0 0 17.4 9 19. 95 90.0 0 14. 00 18.0 - - -/ 14.0 / /10 0 /10 0 /10 0 /10 0 72.0 (T) 0 20 11.5 50 0 20. 00 - 22.5 50 0 12.0 / 6. 00 - Hyd 81. 12.00 6.0/ 100 26.7 8 1. 00 20./ 100 / 10 0 / 10 0 / 10 0 -/ 53.7 2 /2 8.1 6 1. 00 5./ 100 8.0 / 6.0 0 3.3 5 - 14.00 17.0/ 100 82.0 0 12.00 6.

0/ 100 10.0/ 100 .89 /5.0 0 5.8 0 0.5 6 5. 00 6.0/ 00 100 .0 0 13. 00 17.0 0 25.25. 00 21.0/ 100 78.4 /43.10 4.02 2004 6.0/ 00 V H yd STATE YE AR A.4 6 12.9 3 27./ 100 .0/ - 91 / 100 53 / 100 28 / 100 38 / 100 13 / 100 17 / 100 20 / 100 22 / 100 6.0 0 6.7 0 13.0/ 00 100 .4 3 2 3.1 9 0.0/ 100 69.0/ 8.0 0 8.90 - - STATE-WISE REPLACEMENT RATE INCREASE OF IMPORTANT CROPS T = TARGET FIGURES IN PERCENTAGE (%) WH EAT PAD DY MAI ZE V Hyd JO WA R V Hyd BAJ RA V Hyd GR AM UR D MO ONG ARH G. 91.76.0/ 100 23.8 5 4.0 0 11. 50.5 /10.0/ 100 22.5 0 12.N R/ AR UT M SOY SU COTT JU A. 00 18.20.15/1 00 - 4.5 0 - 3.0 0 16.0 0 15.65 - 5.7 0 12.20. 00 17./ 100 .0 0 65. 9 3 89 -/ 12.13.0/ 00 100 .40 (T) 4.0/ 100 21. 00 21.0 0 18. 6 1 30 / 8. 6 1 71 / 8. 81.0/ 100 15.1 4 2.PRA DESH KARNA TAKA TAMILN ADU 20 01 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 20 01 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 20 01 20 02 20 03 6.64 3.00 19.0 4 2.01 9.0 0 14./ 100 . 00 8.00 17.8 5 7.0 0 12. 50 12.0 4 0.20. 00 20.0/ 00 .49 /4. 83 7 8.0 0 8.80/1 00 7.59.0 4 10. 31 10.91 6.0 0 62.16. 00 7.0 0 5.3 9 4.0/ 00 100 .0 0 - 42.9 7 1.67 5. 52 5.0/ 100 6. 97.3 5 0.24 /56.0/ 00 100 .0/ 00 100 . 00 0.0/ 100 6.5 8 5.3 9 5.0 00 7.2 9 2.0 0 48 / 100 62 / 100 38 / 100 50 / 100 .2/0/1 00 6.0/ 100 18.0 0 62.1 9 6 .0 0 8.51 3.0 /5.5 0 12.0 0 5. 5 9 17 / 7.3 5 6.13. 18. 14. 50 14.40/1 15.0 0 5.0 / 6. 50 12.9 /35.0/ - - .9 /10.0 / - 3. 50.30 6.NFL ON TE BEA OW ER N V Hyd .0/ 100 26.2 3 6.0 0 20.0 0 12.20 03 2004 (T) MADH YA PRA.77.1 5 10. 5 10 / 8.0/ 100 9. 20 01 20 02 20 03 14.0 3 0.0/ 00 100 ./ 100 8.0 0 13.0 0 18.0 0 13.0 0 22.00 20. 00 51.4 9 0. 00 14. 80 6.0/ 00 .2 0 55.0 / 4.9 /35.62 - - 5. 84. 58 2.0/ 15.0/ 100 21. 50 18.7 8 3.0 0 25.0/ 12.47 7.0/ 100 23./ 3.0 0 12.0 / 6.0/ 8. 50 12. 00 5.2 6 2. 50.5 0 4.3 /58. 50 22. 8 73 -/ 11.0 /8. 15. 00 15.0 0 25.1 3 5.9 /31.0 0 7.65.8 6 9.9 /45.0 0 7.0/ 100 87.03 1.0 / - 44. 00 2.0/ 100 14.0 0 6.0 0 17.0 0 12. 50 12.0 / 6.00 6.00 6.0 9 5. 50 6.22 79 /34.2 - 1.

8 3 -/ 12.0/ 100 26.0 4 - 5.47 7.3 5 0. 00 41. 80 6.0 0 9.0 0 6.62 - - 2004 6. 00 14.0 01 0 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 19. 89 12.5 8 5.2 5 0.0 0 24.89 /5.90 - - .8 5 4. 00 10.0 3 0. 50 3.2 3 6. 83 /2 8.0 9 - - 33. 30 7.00 20.8 0 23.8 0 2.0/ 60.7 8 1. 00 14.67 10.0/ 100 74 0/100 47.4 6 1 / 8.3 - /1 00 .30 1. 17 /31.0 0 10.8 6 22. 71 /45.0 0 8.0/ 100 20.2 9 2. 00 10.51 3. 30 /43.00 20.0 0 0.0 0 18.1 6 1.7 /1.0 /3 0. 00 - 50.1 9 6 ./ 100 .0 0 20.0 0 24.4 9 0. 00 42. 12.0 - - -/ 14.91 4.6 4 7.80/1 00 7.0 /5.9 9 3 - - - - RAJAS THAN 2004 40.0/ .1 9 0.0 0 29.49 /4. 00 45. 41 8. 78 55.0 /8.1 5 10.8 0 0.6 1 /99.4 9 19. 12 - 20.0 0 17.0 0 22. 00 45.5 0 - 68.0 /2 9.3 2 /58.0 4 2.0/ 100 83.0 4 10. 40 16.0 0 10.54 /3. 40 14.2/0/1 00 6.77 7.8 4 14.8 5 7. 00 13. 52 - - 6.0/ 15.40/1 15.24 - - MADH YA PRA.0/ 31. 00 10.41 8.7 8 3.00 20. 20 01 20 02 20 03 5.0/ 100 /32. 10 /35. 00 6.4 8 -/ 11.3 9 4.1 01 6 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 21.2 0 71.0/ 60.0 0 18.40 (T) 4. 80 17.0 0 6.5 0 13.0 0 2.02 5.0/ 100 82.00 100 / 1.2 7 /56.0 30 9.0 00 7.9 7 1. 13 10.0 / 33. 79 /34. 00 1.3 7 6.0 0 4.0 / /10 0 /10 0 /10 0 /10 0 72.0 0 19./ 30. 58 2.9 3 27.2 5 19. 44 68.5 50 0 20.64 3.0/ 100 - - - - - - - - - MAHARAS 20 HTRA 01 20 02 20 03 25.4 0 3 -/ 12.00 100 -/ 15.5 /10. 50 12.7 2 5.9 5 / 8. 82 95.0 0 37.3 9 5. 00 44.01 - - 1. 00 45.2 8 3.10 4.1 5 5.1 3 5.9 /10.0 0 20.0/ 100 75.KERAL A GUJAR AT 2004 (T) 20 01 20 02 20 03 2004 (T) 20 20.1 4 2.0 0 22. 31 10./ 100 / 10 0 / 10 0 / 10 0 -/ 53. 00 44./ 3. 95 90.0 0 10. 00 4.0/ 100 21.00 12.0 (T) 0 20 11. 00 3.0 / - 6.4 2 4. 73 /35.3 5 - 14.65 - 6.6 0 23.2 1 19.00 100 -/ 14.9 5 9 / 7.0 8 5.0 5 4.0 0 20.3 5 6.0/ 59.5 6 5.58 - - 3.7 3 20.0/ 100 /61.5 0 - 17. 91 /58.9 6 1 / 8.0 0 2.15/1 00 - 6.7 5 0./ 100 15.2 6 2.8 0 26.7 5 0.0/ 100 80.67 8.00 6.22 5. 45 10.0 0 3.0 .2 0 25.03 9.0/ 100 85. 00 13.

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