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ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE About the Author The Author is currently employed as lecturer at the Institute of Vocational Studies, New Delhi (Affiliated to GGSIP University, Delhi). She has obtained B.Sc. (Hons).in Botany from Delhi University, Delhi in 1995 and acquired M.Sc degree in Botany from Jamia Hamdard, Delhi in 1997 with distinction. She has acquired B.Ed & M.Ed degrees from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi in the year 1999 & 2000 respectively. She was awarded Doctor of Philosophy in Education by Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi in the year 2005. The author has four year of teaching experience as Lecturer in Education.

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Chapter 1 ENVIRONMENT AND EDUCATION CRITICAL CONCERNS AND EMERGING FOCUS “Whatever we take from the earth may that have quick growth again “0” purifier may we not injure they vital or thy heart”.` The Atharva Veda Mother Earth is the home of all mankind animal kingdom and plant life. It is incumbent on man to take from earth what he can give back to it quickly by planting, growing, rearing supplying, what he had taken from it. Again it is man’s duty to keep the earth, which is his eternal home, clean and purify what he had already polluted. Man must not injure the vitals, he cannot replenish, as God has not gifted man with the power to create stock, even to the slightest extent. So, protection and conservation of environment for posterity is the bounden duty of the present and future generation of mankind. Man has become guardian of the earth. His prerogative to use natural resources should be balanced by his responsibility to cherish them, protect them and use them carefully. Man is far more than a producer and consumer; life is not merely production and consumption. It is protection and conservation also. The relationship between man and environment is based upon the principle of action and reaction. An aggressive approach to environment is bound to backlash. The mad rat race among the nations over the globe for development jeopardized the health of man itself. Progress in agriculture and industry is taken as general criterion of development of any country. Competition and technology has paved the way for scientific development accompanied which natural destruction. Man’s understanding of environment in the recent years especially with reference to greenhouse effect, global warming, deforestation, desertification has proved that environment however, vast it may appear to be cannot be taken for granted. As the great Buddha States, “ Desire is the cause of sorrow and we are reaping the big harvest of sorrow caused by our insatiable desire”. A brief outline of the dimensions and causes of environmental problems has been discussed as under. (A) Four Major Dimension of Environment Problems Human “Success stories” are marked by struggle to control and thereby interfere with the environment to wrist a good living from it. Human influence in most cases creates ecological imbalance with deleterious effects. These unwanted effects result in serious environmental problems which, in the long run, may lesh back and cause the deterioration of human well being. In recent conferences on environmental education, four dimensions of environmental problems in the contemporary society have been identified. These are Physical, Economic and Social Consequences, Geographical Scale, Time Scale and Socioeconomic System. (UNESCO),

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(1) The Physical, Economic and Social Consequences of Environmental Problems . Many human activities, particularly the poorly planned developmental programmes have detrimental and irreversible. Consequences. These consequences may consist of resource deterioration, biological pollution, chemical pollution and physical disruption. • Resource deterioration involves a reduction in the quality and /or quantity of resources. Examples are deforestation, desertification and indiscriminate destruction of flora and fauna, depletion of mineral resources. • Biological pollution occurs when diseases or pest spread. Malaria and Diarrhoea often result from irrigation and other water resources projects. Inappropriate agricultural practices encourage the spread of pest. • Chemicals pollution refers to the release of chemical substances into the environment resulting in the deterioration of soil, air, water or food. The chemical pollutants are often traced back to industrialization, urbanization, transportation, energy production and consumption etc. A poison that finds its way into the diet through a food chain and the subtle interaction of some chemicals with the human body are examples which encompasses this type of pollution. • Physical disruption is either an encroachment or depletion effect on the physical environment. Encroachment refers to interference with the levels of productivity upon the social, mental or physical well being of humankind and other living things. Depletion inVolves the reduction of the future availability of resources. Wasteful use and lifestyles of people may cause the depletion of our precious resources. The exploration of water, soil, air or flora and fauna may bring in cash profits but its unwise utilization will deplete the quality of resources and have deleterious impact an human health. (2) The Geographical scale of Environmental Problems • Environmental problems range from local to global. Global environmental problems call for worldwide action and management based on international conventions. Examples include threats to ozone layer, global warming, disastrous impact of nuclear radiations, impact of climatic change, extinction of flora and fauna. • Environmental problems at the regional level requires agreement of the affected countries on a plan of action in solving problems of common concern. These problems may include the destruction of rain forest, natural calamities, the pollution of regional lakes or seas and the spread of diseases. • Environmental problems at national level may be solved by a nationwide action that considers the country’s economic capability and cultural tradition. For example, the human settlement problems are solved in different ways by different types of societies.

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• Environmental problems that occur at the regional or local level require the concerted action of groups of people within a state to solve them. Examples of these problems are several polluted streams from different areas polluting a river in another area or the destruction of many woodlands may lead to the adjoining plains being turned into deserts (3) The Time scale of Environmental problems The impact of human activities upon the environment may be felt immediately or may take time before their effects become apparent. Some impacts have both a short term and a long term effect. An example is Smog. Smog affects the environment immediately but its effects on human health take a longer time to be felt. It is, therefore, essential that solutions to such problems consider the future risk and present environmental risk. (4) • The socioeconomic systems affected by environment al problems Developing countries throughout the world are confronted with problems which arise in the course of development. Environmental problems resulting during the course of development are poor conditions of human settlements, loss of productivity through disease and malnutrition, vulnerability to natural disasters such as earthquake and loss of natural resources. For instance, forest destruction and soil erosion, yet developing countries also suffer in the process of development. The conceived development projects may result in tradeoff with equally undesirable or worse effects. For example, Large scale mining can yield quick profits accompanied with fast depletion of resources and alarming increase in pollution. • Industrialised and Developed countries are faced with more complex environment problems . These problems may arise from the intensive application of science and technology resulting in industrial pollution, high rates of resource use because of abundance and socio cultural problems of living in larger cities. (B) Major Causes of Environmental Problems Human activities since time immemorial have always resulted in changes in the environment. Yet, it was only in the last few decades that the impact of human activities became accelerated and more pronounced. Pressure from raised population growth, uncontrolled and lavish consumption, industrialization, urbanization, science technological reVolution has accelerated the rate of environmental destruction. Environmental problems affect not only a certain locality or a certain type of society but also the people throughout the world of developed as well as developing countries. The major causes of environmental problems are • • • • Pollution Population Explosion Urbanisation Scientific and technological problems .

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The world is confronted with changes in the composition of air, water and soil on world wide scale leading to pollution of abiotic factors which disturbs the dynamic equilibrium of the environment and in this process biotic component is the worst sufferer. In the subsequent paragraph environmental pollution problems ,its types, its sources, its impact on environment including remedial solution to combat the pollution problems has been discussed. POLLUTIONANDGLOBALENVIRONMENTALCHANGE Environmental Pollution Environmental pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristic or air, water and soil that may harmfully affect the life or create a potential health hazard of any living organism. Pollution is this direct or indirect change in any component of the biosphere that is harmful to living component (s) and in particular undesirable for man, affecting adversely the industrial progress, cultural and natural assets or general environment. (Environmental Protection Act, 1986) Environmental Pollutants Any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to the environment. A pollutant may thus include any chemical or geochemical substance, biotic component or its product, or physical factor that is released intentionally by man into the environment in such a concentration that may nave adverse, harmful or unpleasant effects. (Environmental Protection Act, 1986)

Kindsof Pollution Pollution can be classified in many ways. On the basis of part of environment where it occurs most (atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere), it can be classified as air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution. In terms of origin, pollution may be natural (e.g., Volcanic eruptions which add tons of toxic gases and particulate matter in the environment), or anthropogenic (man-made, such as industrial pollulion, agricultural pollution, etc.). According to the physical nature of the pollutants, the categories include : gases, particulate matter, temperature, noise, radioactivity, solid waste etc. These categories can be named as gaseous pollution, dust pollution, thermal pollution, noise pollution, radioactive pollution, etc. From the ecosystem viewpoint, pollutants can be categorised into non-biodegradable and biodegradable pollutants. Non-biodegradable materials, such as chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides (dichloro diphenyl trichloro ethane or DDT, benzene hexachloride or BHC, etc.), waste plastic bottles, polyethylene bags, used soft-drink cans, etc. are either not degraded, or degraded only very slowly by

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decomposers in the nature. Therefore, non-biodegradable pollutants are difficult to manage, and in most cases there is no treatment process to handle the anthropogenic input of such materials in the ecosystem. Biodegradable pollutants, such as market garbage, livestock wastes, municipal sewage, etc., on the other hand, can be decomposed efficiently by the decomposers. Therefore, biodegradable pollutants are easily manageable by natural processes or in engineered systems such as the waste treatment. If managed properly, biodegradable wastes can be turned into useful resources. AIR POLLUTION Any substance that adds to or subtracts from the usual constituents of Air altering its physical and chemical properties sufficiently enough to produce measurable adverse effect on man, other animals, vegetation and materials can be regarded as air pollution. (Environmental Protection Act 1986) Degradation of a i r q u a l i t y and natural atmospheric conditions

constitute air pollution. An air pollutant may be a gas or particulate matter (i.e., suspended aerosols composed of solids and liquids). Concentrations of atmospheric pollutants depend mainly on the total mass emitted into the atmosphere, and t h e atmospheric conditions that affect their fate and transport. Most of the air we breathe is elemental O2 and N2. About 1 per cent is composed of other constituents, such as CO., and water vapour. A small part of this 1 per cent may, however, be air pollutants, including gases and p a r t i c u l a t e harmful to life and property. Natural sources of air pollution include pollen, dust and smoke (from forest fires and Volcanic ash) which are e m i t t e d into t h e atmosphere. Anthropogenic air pollutants enter the atmosphere from fixed and mobile sources. Fixed sources include large factories, electrical power plants, mineral smelters and different small-scale industries, while mobile sources include all sorts of transport vehicles moving by road, rail or air. Air pollutants can be classified into two categories, viz.. primary and secondary air pollutants. Primary pollutants enter the atmosphere directly from various sources. Secondary pollutants are formed during chemical reactions between primary air pollutants and other atmospheric constituents, s u c h as water vapour. Generally, these reactions occur in the presence of sunlight. matter. Even such a small concentration may be cxt remely

Primary Air Pollutants and their Effects Amongst the primary air pollutants, most important are particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO).

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Particulate matter comprises solid particles or liquid droplets (aerosols) small enough to remain suspended in air; examples are soot, smoke, dust, asbestos fibres. pesticides, some metals (including Hg, Pb, Cu and Fe), and also biological agents like tiny dust mites and flower pollen. Atmospheric particles having diameter > 10  generally settle out in less than a day, whereas particles with diameters 1 m or less can m, remain suspended in air for weeks. Suspended particulate matter in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) causes and aggravates human respiratory illness, l i k e t h e r a d i a t i o n a n d asthma, chronic bronchitis, etc. When t h e r m a l budgets of the accumulated in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere), particulate matter may significantly a l t e r atmosphere, lowering the temperature at the earth’s surface. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Nearly 50 per cent of all CO emission originates from automobiles. It is also present in cigarette smoke. CO is short-lived in the atmosphere and gets oxidised to CO2. Carbon monoxide is highly poisonous to most animals. When inhaled, CO reduces t h e Oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

Hydrocarbons (HCs) or Volatile organic carbon (VOCs) are compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon. HCs are produced naturally during decomposition of organic matter and by certain types of plants (e.g.. pine trees). Methane (CH 4 ) i s most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, is eVolved from soil in flooded rice fields and swamps. Benzene and its derivatives, such as formaldehyde are carcinogenic (substance t h a t causes cancer). Formaldehyde e m i t t e d from indoor sources, such as newly-manufactured carpeting, causes indoor pollution. Some relatively reactive HCs contribute to the generation of secondary pollutants. HCs are also generated during the burning of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum). Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) is t h e major constituent in the emission when sulphurcontaining coal is burnt. Ore smelters and oil refineries also emit significant amounts of SO2. A high concentration of SO2 in ambient air causes severe respiratory problems . Exposure to high SO 2concentration is also harmful to plants. Nitrogen oxide (NO2) are formed mainly from N2 and O2 during combustion of fossil fuels at high temperature in automobile engines NO2 stands for an indeterminate mixture of NO and NO2. Nitrogen oxides cause the reddish-brown haze (brown air) in traffic-congested city air, which contributes to heart and lung problems and may be carcinogenic. Nitrogen oxides also contribute to acid rain because they combine with water droplets to produce nitric acid (HNO3) and other acids. Secondary Air Pollutants and their Effects

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Photochemical smog : The classical example of secondary pollutant, photochemical smog is formed in traffic_congested metropolitan cities where warm conditions and intense solar radiation are present (Figs 1 (a) and (b)]. Photochemical smog is composed m a i n l y of ozone (O 3 ), peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and NO2. It is often called brown air where solar radiation is intense. In areas or seasons of lesser solar radiation, smog formation is incomplete and the air is referred to as grey air. Automobile exhaust contains HC and NO and these play an important role in O3 and PAN formation in urban environment. A simplified set of the photochemical reactions involved in smog formation is as follows : Reaction occurring inside engine . N2 + O2  2NO Reactions occurring in atmosphere : 2NO + O2 –  2NO2

NO2 UV radiation NO + O O+O2 O3 NO + O3  NO2 + O2 HC + NO + O2  NO2 + PAN Smog ozone may damage plant as well as animal life. In plants the main damage occurs in leaf. Ozone aggravates lung diseases in humans. Ozone an effective oxidant, corrodes the heritage building surface and damages marble status and other cultural assets. Several plant species are also very susceptible to PAN in smog. PAN damages chloroplasts and thus, the photosynthetic efficiency and growth of plants are reduced. It also inhibits electron transport system and interferes with enzyme systems that play important role in cellular metabolism. In humans, PAN causes acute irritation of eyes. Acid rain : In a broad sense, acid rain refers to several ways in which acids from the atmosphere are deposited on the earth. Acid deposition includes wet and dry deposition. Wet deposition refers to acidicwater received through rain, fog, and snow. Dry deposition relates to the wind blown acidic gases and particles in the atmosphere, which settle down on the ground. About half of the acidity in the atmosphere is transferred to earth through dry deposition. Dry deposited gases and particles can also be washed from trees and other surfaces by rainfall. Nitrogen oxides (NOX), VOCs and SO2, are produced during the combustion of coal (in industry) and petroleum (in automobile). Lightning in sky also produces NOX naturally. These gases are highly reactive in air. They rapidly oxidise to acids (sulphuric or nitric), which quickly dissolve in water and are washed

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out to the ground as acid rain. Normally, rainwater is slightly acidic (pH 5.6-6.5) because water and CO2 combine in air to fonn a weak acid. The pH of acid rain is less than 5.6, and could be as low as 4 or below. Acid rain damages building materials and furnishing fabrics. Our heritage monuments (such as Taj Mahal at Agra) are threatened by the corrosive action of acid deposition. Acid rain adversely affects terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. Most plankters, molluscs and fish fry cannot tolerate water having pH below 5.0. Low pH conditions also damage soil microbial community. CONTROLOFAIRPOLLUTION. Important preventive strategies to control air pollution are : (1) suitable fuel selection (e.g., fuel with low sulphur content) and its efficient utilisation to reduce pollutant level in emission; (ii) modifications in industrial processes and/or equipments to reduce emissions; (iii) correct selection of manufacturing site and zoning for industrial set-up to disperse pollution sources. The most common methods of eliminating or reducing p o l l u t a n t s escape into the atmosphere. Control of Particulate Matter Principally, two devices remove particulate air pollutants, viz arresters (used ideally to separate particulate matters from contaminated air) and scrubbers (used to clean air for both dusts and gases by passing it through a dry or wet packing material). Particulate matter arresters may be of different kinds. Cyclonic separators and trajectory separators are commonly used to separate out particulate matters from industrial emissions with minimum moisture content. These separators work on the principle of dust separation by centrifugal force and are efficient for coarser ,dust particles. Filters are usually used to collect extremery fine particulate matters. Different types of filter materials are available to suit different quality and size of the particulate matters. However, electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) is the most effective device to remove particulate pollutants. ESP works on the principle of electrical charging o f t h e dust particles and collecting it on a differently emissions, as this device is best charged platform. Both dry and wet type scrubbers are also used for dust separation. however, scrubber is the least used device for separating particulate matters from t h e suited for the removal of gaseous pollutants. Control of Gaseous Pollutants Combustion, a b s o r p t i o n a n d adsorption techniques are to an acceptable level include destroying the pollutant by thermal or catalytic combustion, changing the pollutant to a less toxic form, or collecting the pollutant by use of equipment to prevent its

used to control gaseous pollutants. In combustion process, oxidisable gaseous pollutants are completely burnt at a high temperature. Petro-chemical. fertiliser, paints and varnish industries use combustion control of gaseous pollutants. In absorption technique, gaseous pollutants are absorbed in suitable absorbent materials.

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Adsorption technique is applied to control toxic gases, vapours and inflammable compounds that could not be efficiently removed or transferred by the aforesaid techniques. Such air pollutants are adsorbed on large solid surfaces. Control of Automobile Exhaust Efficient engine (for example, multi-point fuel injection engine) can reduce the unburnt HC in auto-emissions. Catalytic converter filters in the vehicle can convert NOX to nitrogen, reducing potential hazards of NOX. Good quality automobile fuels can also drastically reduce the toxic contaminants in exhaust. Lead-free petrol can reduce the load of lead in the exhaust. Automobile engines operated with compressed natural gas (CNG) have significantly lowered toxic contaminants in exhaust. WATERPOLLUTION waterpollutioncanbe defined as any aquatic contamination ranging between two extremesvigorously highly enriched over productive water body and one made injurious by chemicals, petrochemicals,metal, industrual effluents, radioactivematerial, diseases possing pathogenseetc. whichmayeliminate many living organisms or even excludeallformsof life (Environmental Protection Act,1986) Sources of Water Pollution On the basis of their origin, the sources of water pollutants can be broadly categorised into : (i) point sources, where the effluent discharge occurs at a specific site; for example, sewage outlet of a municipal area or effluent outlet of a factory; and (ii) non-point sources, where inflow of pollutants occurs over a large area; for example, city storm water flow, agricultural runoff, etc. Point source pollution can be effectively checked with appropriate technology. Non-point source pollution is difficult to control and needs application of control measures on a large scale. Water pollutants can be : (i) biological (pathogens, such as viruses, b a c t e r i a , protozoa, algae and helminths), (ii) chemical (organic chemicals like biocides, polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs; inorganic chemicals, like phosphates, nitrates, fluoride, etc.; also heavy metals like As, Pb, Cd, Hg, etc.), and (iii) physical (hot water from industries, oil spills from oil carriers, etc.). These pollutants are generated by different sources and activities, which are briefly described below. Municipal wastewater : Liquid wastes from domestic activities such as kitchen, toilet and other household wastewaters are, in most cases, discharged directly into a river or into a large water body nearby. Many rivers in India, including the river Ganga, are polluted by indiscriminate discharge of wastewaters. The famous Dal Lake in Kashmir is also heavily polluted by domestic sewage. Domestic effluents mostly carry organic wastes, which are biodegradable. Excess input of nutrients occurs from detergent residues (e.g., phosphates) and organic remains (e.g., nitrates).

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Industrial wastewater : Both small-scale and large industrial activities produce wastewaters contaminated by a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants. Almost all the rivers of India, at least in certain stretches, are heavily polluted by the discharge of industrial wastewater. Even the marine environment is not spared, and most of the coastal waters are threatened by pollution from the effluents of coastal prawn-culture farms and fish processing industries. Most components of industrial effluents are toxic to ecological systems even at- low concentrations, and many are non-biodegradable. Hot water is another notable pollutant from the industries. Many industries, including power plants and oil refineries, use water as c o o l a n t for the machinery. Release of hot wastewater, having 8 to 10°C higher temperature than the intake water, causes thermal pollution in the water body. Surface runoff from land : Pollutants in surface runoff (and storm water) vary according to the nature of land over which it flows. The runoff from agricultural land is contaminated with pesticide residues and residues of inorganic fertilisers. The runoff from urban areas mainly contains biodegradable organic pollutants. Industrial sites may contribute to varied types of pollutants, like heavy metals, acids and various inorganic compounds. All these pollutants in the runoff heavily contaminate our surface water and groundwater resources. Oil spills : An oil spill is the accidental discharge of petroleum in oceans or estuaries. Capsized oil tankers, offshore oil mining and oil exploration operations and oil refineries mainly contribute to oil pollution of marine ecosystem. In addition to unpleasant aesthetic impact of oil-covered coastal region, the death of plankton, fish and marine birds is a significant ecological effect of oil spills. Oil spills are also immensely harmful to coral reef and can drastically damage the marine local biodiversity. Effects of Water Pollution Water pollutants adversely affect the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the a q u a t i c ecosystems and t h e q u a l i t y of groundwater. Effects on Aquatic Ecosystem. : Organic and inorganic wastes decrease the dissolved O2 (DO) content of water bodies. Water having DO content below 8.0 mg L –1 may be considered as contaminated. Heavily polluted waters have DO content below 4.0 mg L–1. DO content of water is important for the survival of aquatic organisms. The surface turbulence, .photosynthetic activity, O2 consumption by organisms and decomposition of organic matter are the factors which determine the amount of DO present in water. Higher amounts of organic waste increase the rates of decomposition and O 2 consumption, thereby causing a drop in DO content of water. The demand for O2 is directly related to increasing input of organic wastes and is expressed as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of water. BOD is a measure of oxygen required by aerobic decomposers for the biochemical degradation of organic materials (i.e., biodegradable materials) in water. Higher the BOD, lower would be the DO. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is another measure of pollution load in water. COD is the measure of oxygen equivalent of the requirement for oxidation of total organic matter (biodegradable + non-biodegradable) present in water.

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Therefore. contamination of water bodies by pollutants will reduce DO content, and sensitive organisms, like plankton, molluscs, and fish etc. will be eliminated. Only a few tolerant species, like annelid worm Tubifex and some insect larvae may survive in highly polluted, low DO water, and they may be recognised as indicator species for polluted waters. Biocide residues, PCBs and heavy metals, such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, As, etc. can directly eliminate different species of organisms. Higher the temperature of water, lower is the rate of dissolution of O2 in water. Hence, hot wastewaters discharged from industries, when added to water bodies, also lower its DO content. Biological magnification : The phenomenon through which certain pollutants get accumulated in tissues in increasing concentrations along the food chain, is called biological magnification. Such pollutants, e.g., DDT are non-biodegradable, i.e., once they are absorbed by an organism, they cannot be metabolised and broken down or excreted out. These pollutants generally get accumulated in fat-containing tissues of t h e organism. The classic example of biological magnification is that of DDT, an insecticide which is sprayed on water bodies to check the growth of mosquitoes. In an island in USA. after regular DDT spraying for few years, the populations of fish-eating birds began to decline. Later, it was found that the concentration of DDT had increased about 800 times in the phytoplankton relative to the concentration in water. Zooplankton contained about five times greater DDT than phytoplankton. In different fish, the DDT concentration increased 9 to 40 times, relative to the concentration in zooplankton. Birds showed about 25 times greater DDT concentration relative to that in fish. Many other persistent pesticides and radio nuclides also show biological magnification. Eutrophication : Besides inorganic nutrient input with the inflow of wastewater, decomposition of organic wastes too, increases the nutrient content of the water bodies. Availability of excess nutrients causes profuse growth of algae (algal bloom), especially the blue-green algae. Such algal blooms may totally cover the water surface, often release toxins in water, and sometimes cause deficiency of oxygen in the water. Thus, in bloom-infested water body the, growth of other algae may be inhibited due to toxins, and aquatic animals (e.g., fish) may die to toxicity or lack of oxygen. The process of nutrient enrichment of water, and consequent loss of species diversity is referred to as eutrophication. Effects on human health : Domestic-sewage contains pathogens like virus, bacteria, parasitic protozoa and worms. Contaminated water, therefore, can carry the germs of water-borne diseases like jaundice, cholera, typhoid, amoebiasis, etc. Such contamination may make the water unfit or drinking, bathing, and swimming, and even for irrigation. Heavy metal contamination of water can cause serious health problems . Mercury poisoning (Minamata disease) due to consumption of fish captured from Hg-contaminated Minamata Bay in Japan, was detected in 1952. Mercury compounds in wastewater are converted by bacterial action into extremely toxic methyl mercury, which can cause numbness of limbs, lips and tongue, deafness, blurring of vision, mental

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derangement. Cadmium pollution can cause itai-itai disease (ouch-ouch disease, a painful disease of bones and joints) and cancer of liver and lung. Groundwaterpollution: In India, at many places the groundwater is threatened with contamination due to seepage from industrial and municipal wastes and effluents, sewerage channels and agricultural runoff. For example, excess nitrate in drinking water is dangerous for human health and may be fatal for infants. It reacts with haemoglobin and forms nonfunctional methaemoglobin that impairs oxygen transport. This is called methaemoglobinemia or blue-baby syndrome. Excess fluoride in drinking water causes teeth deformity, hardened bones and stiff and painful joints (skeletal fluorosis). At many places in India, groundwater is contaminated with arsenic, mainly from naturally occurring arsenic in bedrocks. Overexploitation of groundwater may possibly initiate leaching of arsenic from soil and rock sources and contaminate groundwater. Chronic exposure to arsenic causes black-foot disease. Arsenic causes diarrhoea, peripheral neuritis, and hyperkeratosis, and also lung and skin cancers.
I P O I GW T RQ A I Y M R VN A E U LT

The industrial and municipal wastewaters are treated in Effluent Treatment Plant prior to disposal in water bodies. Generally, the following treatments are given in ETP : (i) Primary treatment : This physical process involves the separation of large debris, followed by sedimentation in tanks or clarifiers. (ii) Secondary treatment : This is a biological process and is carried out by microorganisms. In this treatment, the wastewater is pumped in shallow stabilisation or oxidation ponds, where the microbes oxidise its organic matter. The process results in release of CO 2 and formation of sludge or biosolid. The sludge is continuously aerated to further its oxidation. Algae grown in the upper lighted zone of the wastewater provide aeration by generating O2. (iii) Tertiary treatment : This physico-chemical process removes turbidity in wastewater caused by the presence of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.), dissolved organic matter, metals or pathogens. This step inVolves chemical oxidation of wastewater by strong oxidising agents, such as chlorine gas, perchlorate salts, ozone gas and UV radiation. After tertiary treatment, t h e natural waters or used for irrigation. NOISEPOLLUTION Sources and Effects Noise pollution can be defined as the loud disturbing sound dumped into the ambient atmosphere without regard to the adverse effects it may have. Sound travels in pressure waves and affects our eardrums. The intensity of a sound wave is the average rate per unit area at which energy is transferred by the wave onto the surface (expressed as W m2). The sound level is the logarithm of ratio of the ambient wastewater can be discharged into

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intensity to the reference intensity (usually considered 10–12 W m–2). The unit of sound level is decibel (dB), a name that was chosen to recognise the work of Alexander Graham Bell. When the ambient sound intensity is equal to the reference intensity, the sound or noise level is 0 dB. Noise level can range from 0 to more than 120 dB, at which point physical discomfort starts. In view of the logarithmic nature of scale, 10, 20 and 100 decibels represent 10 times, 100 times and 1010 times the threshold intensity, respectively. Effects of Noise on Human Health Man-made noise originates from industrial machines, transport vehicles, sound amplifiers, cracker blasting, industrial and mini site detonation, etc. Jet aircraft landing and take-off create a lot of noise pollution to the inhabitants near the busy airports. Noise has many ill effects on human physiological functions. Noise seriously affects heartbeat, peripheral circulation, and breathing pattern. Persistent noisy environment can c a u s e annoyance, irritability, headache, and sleeplessness, a n d may seriously affect productive performance of humans. Exposure to levels of noise over a long time causes harmful physiological effects. The detrimental effects of noise depend not only on its frequency (loudness), but also on the total duration of exposure and the age, general health and susceptibility of the individual. High frequency noise is more harmful than low frequency noise of the same level. Intermittent noise could be more harmful then continuous noise. The impacts of increased noise stress on human responses can be classified into. Auditory effects such as noise induced hearing loss temporary / permanent and Non- auditory effects such as increased heart beat, indigestion, tension, anxiety, emotional imbalances, spasm, fatigue, etc. Impacts of increased noise stress on human responses causes hearing impairment such as temporary / permanent and Tinnitus. It also causes physiological impacts such as cardiovascular constriction (High blood pressure, heart attack, heart beat increase), Gastro-intestinal modification (ulcers), Endocrine stimulation, Respiratory modification, Skin resistance alternation, Headache, Muscular tension, Neurological disorder, Dilation of pupil, Paling of skin, Blinking. It leads to communication interference either face to face / telephonic and task interference such as reduced work efficiency increased proneness to accidents. It also leads to sleep interference, awakening, medication, sleep stage alternation. It also interferes with personal behaviour causing annoyance, fear, anxiety, nervousness, misfeasance, fatigue, startled response.

Control of Noise Pollution Soundproof insulating jackets or filters are used to reduce noise from machines. Industrial workers and runway traffic control personnel may use earrmuffs to protect themselves from unwanted noise exposure. Acoustic zoning to prevent noise propagation may also be helpful. A ‘silent zone’ around 100

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meters of hospitals or schools can give comfort to ailing patients or help students to concentrate in studies. Forests and dense hedge of p l a n t s c a n effectively act as noise barrier. Sound must be considered as a potentially harmful pollutant around us and should be treated with no less importance than the other pollutants of our environment. Efforts must be made to increase awareness among people about the perils of noise in our surroundings. Noise Standards A) For Industrial Noise The damage risk criteria for hearing as enforced by CPCB (1975) stipulates that noise level upto 90 dBA are acceptable for 8 hours exposure per day ie. 90 dBA is the maximum sound level to which an employee can be exposed for 8 hrs on a given working day. B) For community Noise The Noise Pollution Regulation and Control Rules( 2000) prescribed the ambient noise quality standards with respect to noise in industrial, commercial, residential and silent zones areas as follows. Table: National Ambient Noise Level Zone Wise. Zone Industry Commercial Residential; Silent zone Day (6.0-2 1 hr) 75 dB 65 dB 55 dB 50 dB Night (2 1.00- 6.00 hr) 70dB 55 dB 45 dB 40 dB

Besides the these the following measures could be adopted to minimize noise pollution at source. • Control of exposure time. • Job rotation • Provision of quite working areas for some time • Regular audible monitoring of the hearing levels of personnel. • Provision of noise barriers close to the receiver. B) For community Noise (i) Industrial Area

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• Various machines in the industry should not be allowed to generate more noise by proper designing,

maintenance and providing partition • Residences should not be allowed to grow Ed industrial areas, and Commercial areas (ii) for commercial Area • The traffic Volume should be reduced by diversion of traffic. Parking of vehicles should be restricted to one place only. • The noise generating sources like music system from shops should be preferably kept at low Volume. • Generates where used should be provided by acoustic hoods. • Unnecessary honking of horns should be banned (iii) for Residential areas • Movement of vehicles on the inner colony roads should be banned • There should be restriction n the use of homs by vehicles passing by the residential areas • There should be plenty of trees and bushes in open spaces; houses and lanes. (iv) for Silent Zones Areas upto 100 meters around certain premise like hospitals, educational institution and court may be declared as silent zones by the competent authority. The noise control measures are: • Plying of heavy vehicles should be banned near the silent zone area • Use of horn should be banned. The central pollution control board has set up the national committee on noise pollution. National Commission on Noise Pollution Control (NCNPC) has recently decided to bring out a legislation with the provision of making it binding on the machinery manufacturer to display the level of noise produced by their appliance(s) from mixers to bulldozer. The committee has set the upper limit for the noise that can be created by crackers used in celebrations and these standards have been communicated to the crackers manufacturer. American technologist have developed a hydrogen powered fuel cell engine which replaces internal combustion engines of cars and will be cleaner and quieter Scientist of Cambridge university, U.K have gone a step further by breaking ordinary petrol into hydrogen as a built in device in the car engine itself so that bulk (weight) of the fuel that would have been needed is reduced had the hydrogen fuel cell were carried separately. The whole device is regulated by a computer. The central pollution control board has set up the national committee on noise pollution. National Commission on Noise Pollution Control (NCNPC) has recently decided bring out a legislation with the provision of making it binding on the machinery manufacturer to display the level of

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noise produced by their appliance(s) from mixers to bulldozer. The committee has set the upper limit for the noise that can be created by crackers used in celebrations and these standards have been communicated to the cracker manufacturer.American technologist have developed a hydrogen powered fuel cell engine which replaces internal combustion engines of cars and will be cleaner and quieter.Scientist of Cambridge university, U.K have gone a step further by breaking ordinary petrol into hydrogen as a built in device in the car engine itself so that bulk (weight) of the fuel that would have been needed is reduced had the hydrogen fuel cell were carried seperatiely. The whole device is regulated by a computer. GLOBALENVIRONMENTALCHANGE The human activities that are transforming the biosphere include land use changes, industrial development, energy production from fossil fuels and urbanisation. The conversion of a forest to agrazing land or a cropland through deforestation causes loss of carbon stored in soil and vegetation to the atmosphere, and affects the global carbon cycle. Biomass burning associated with agricultural practices also releases CO2 into the atmosphere. In recent times, due to domestic and industrial coal burning, huge amount of CO2 is being pumped into the atmosphere. Similarly, the concentrations of gases like methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are increasing in the lower atmosphere. These gases (CO2 CH4, N2O and CFCs) are radiatively active gases (also called greenhouse gases) because they can absorb long wave infrared radiation. The increased amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are affecting the global climate and this phenomenon is now recognised as Global Change. Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming The atmospheric cover around the earth acts like a window glass pane. It allows most of the solar radiation to enter right up to the earth’s surface, but does not allow a substantial amount of the long-wave radiation emitted by the earth to escape in space. The outgoing longwave infrared radiation is absorbed by the greenhouse gases normally present in the atmosphere. The atmosphere radiates part of this energy back to the earth. This downward flux of radiation, called greenhouse flux, keeps the earth warm. Thus, the atmospheric greenhouse gases forming a blanket over the earth, control the escape of heat from the earth’s surface to outer space so as to keep it warm and hospitable. This phenomenon is referred to as greenhouse effect. The name is derived from the fact that inside a glass-enclosed greenhouse temperature is warmer than outside. Such greenhouses are used for growing plants t h a t require higher temperatures for growth. The mean annual temperature of the earth is about 15°C; however, in the absence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the earth’s mean temperature would drop sharply to about -20°C. This capacity of the atmosphere to keep the earth warm depends upon the concentration of greenhouse gases. The excessive increase in concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere would retain more and more of the infrared radiation, resulting in enhanced greenhouse effect. The consequent increase in the global mean temperature is referred to as global warming. The Intelgovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) periodically makes an assessment of the atmospheric abundance of

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greenhouse gases and its possible impact on climate and related issues. Much of what you will read in this section is based on IPCC assessment reports. The trends in the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases since pre-industrial times are briefly described below : Carbon dioxide: CO2 is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The level of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased from the pre-industrial level of 280 ppm to about 368 ppm in 2000. This has been largely the r e s u l t of fossil fuel burning, deforestauon and change in land use.

Methane : Methane concentration. in atmosphere has more than doubled (1750 ppb) than its concentration during the pre-industrial times. Methane is largely a product of incomplete decomposition and is produced by a group of bacteria called methanogens, under anaerobic conditions. The major sources of methane include : freshwater wetlands, enteric fermentation in cattle, and flooded rice fields. Biomass burning also produces methane. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) : CFCs are non-toxic and non-flammable, highly stable and synthetic gaseous compounds of carbon and halogens. Although these compounds were synthesised during the 20th century, t h e i r concentration in the atmosphere has increased. For example, the concentration of CFC- 11 and HFC-23 in the air is about 282 ppt. Major sources of CFCs are l e a k i n g a i r conditioners, refrigeration u n i t s a n d evaporation of i n d u s t r i a l solvents, a n d production of plastic foams and propellants in oxide in t h e

aerosol spray cans. The CFCs persist for 45 to 260 years or more in the atmosphere. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) : The concentration of n i t r o u s

atmosphere has increased from about 270 ppb in pre-industrial t i m e to about 316 ppb in recent t i m e s . The main sources of N 2 are agriculture, biomass burning and industrial processes. N2O is produced d u r i n g nylon production, burning of nitrogen-rich fuels, livestock waste, breakdown of nitrogen-rich fertilisers in soil and nitrate-contaminated ground water. It is estimated that CO2 contributes about 60 per cent of the total global warming. The share of CH, and CFCs is 20 per cent and 14 per cent, respectively. A smaller contribution to global warming is made by N2O 6 per cent. The increasing abundance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has the following possible effects : (i) CO2 fertilisation (ii) Global warming (iii) Depletion of ozone layer in t h e USA have shown t h a t stratosphere.

CO2 Fertilisation Effect on Plants The measurements made at Mauna Loa Observatory in atmospheric CO2 concentration has been rapidly rising since 1959. If

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this rising trend continues, it is expected that the atmospheric CO2 concentration shall increase to a level between 540 and 970 ppm by the end of the 21 SI century. With a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration, the growth of many plants, particularly the C3 species, under favourable conditions of water, nutrients, light and. temperature, could increase by about 30 per cent on average, in the short-term (i.e., up to a few years). The response of plants to elevated concentrations of CO2 is known as the Carbon dioxide fertilisation effect. Due to increased CO2 concentration, the rate of photosynthesis will increase and the stomatal conductance will decrease (due to partial closure of stomata). Thus, the transpiration rate may be reduced and consequently, water-use efficiency will increase. This may allow many species to grow successfully in regions of water scarcity. Under higher atmospheric CO 2 conditions, plants shall allocate a greater proportion of photosynthate to roots. Greater r o o t production is expected to enhance mycorrhizal development and fixation of N2 in root nodules, thereby enabling the plants to grow in nutrient-poor soils. However, under natural conditions, the beneficial effects of increased CO 2 may not be actually realised because of negative effects of global wanning. Possible Effects of Global Warming The predicted global warming in near future has the potential to affect the weather and climate, sea level, and the distribution and phenology of organisms, food production and fishery resources in the oceans. Let us study some of these effects. Effects on weather and climate : The global mean temperature has increased by approximately 0.6°C in the 20th century. The average temperature of the earth may increase by 1.4 to 5.8°C by the year 2100 from the 1990 level. Temperature changes are expected to be most marked in regions of middle and higher latitudes. Warming of atmosphere will considerably increase its moisture carrying capacity. While the troposphere warms up, the stratosphere will cool down. This would cause widespread changes in precipitation patterns due to changed pattern of air-mass movements. Precipitation is expected to increase at higher latitudes in both summer and winter and in southern and eastern Asia in summer. Winter precipitation may decrease at lower latitudes. Besides, the frequency of extreme events (e.g., droughts, floods, etc.) is expected to increase substantially. The climate change will increase threats to human health, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries, due to change in ranges of disease vectors, water-borne pathogens, etc. Sea level change : Sea level has been raised by 1 to 2 mm per year during the 20th century. It is predicted that by the year 2100, the global mean sea level can increase up to 0.88 m over the 1990 level. The global warming may contribute to sea level rise due to the thermal expansion of ocean as it warms, and melting of glaciers and Greenland ice sheets. A rise of even half a meter in sea level would profoundly affect human population, one-third of which lives within 60 km of a coastline. Many of the world’s important cities and coastal areas will come under the threat of flood. Several low-lying islands may be submerged. I n u n d a t i o n of coastal salt marshes and estuaries may deprive many important birds and fish their breeding grounds, forcing their extinction. Thus, sea-level rise is projected to have negative

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impacts on human settlements, tourism, freshwater supplies, fisheries, exposed infrastructure, agricultural and dry lands, and wetlands. Effects on range of species distribution : Each plant or animal species occurs within a specific range of temperature. The global warming is likely to shift the temperature ranges and, therefore, would affect altitudinal and latitudinal distribution pattern of organisms. With increasing global warming many species are expected to shift slowly poleward, or towards high elevations in mountain areas. For example, with a global temperature rise by 2 to 5ºC during the 21 st century, the temperate region vegetation may extend 250-600 km poleward. Since trees are sensitive to temperature stress, a rapid rise in temperature may cause large scale death of trees and t h e i r replacement by s c r u b vegetation. Many species may not be able to migrate fast enough to track temperature changes and may disappear. Food production : Increased temperature will cause eruption of plant diseases and pests, explosive growth of weeds and increased basal rate of respiration of plants. A combination of all these factors will decrease the crop production. Small temperature increase may slightly enhance crop productivity in temperate regions, but larger temperature changes will reduce crop productivity there. In all tropical and sub-tropical regions, even a small temperature rise will have detrimental effect on crop productivity. Rice yield alone, in southeast Asia, will reduce by 5 per cent for each 1°C increase in temperature. Despite beneficial CO2 fertilisation effect, the overall world crop productivity will, in all probabilities, decline considerably due to projected global warming. This will have alarming consequences on world food supply. Approaches to Deal with Global Warming Some of the strategies that could reduce the warming by global stabilising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases include : (i) Reducing the greenhouse gas emissions by limiting the use of fossil fuels, and by developing alternative renewable sources of energy (e.g., wind energy, solar energy, etc.). (ii) Increasing the vegetation cover, particularly the forests, for photosynthelic utilisation of CO2. (iii) Minimizing the use of nitrogen fertilisers in agriculture for reducing N2O emissions. (iv) Developing substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons. Apart from the above mitigation strategies, adaptations to address localised impacts of climate change will be necessary. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Stratospheric O3 layer : In t h e stratosphere, UV-radiation causes photodissociation of ozone into O2 and O. But O2 and O quickly recombine to form O3. This ozone dynamics dissipates the energy of UV as heat. An equilibrium is established between generation and destruction of O3 leading to a

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steady state concentration of ozone layer in the stratosphere between 20 and 26 km above the sea level. The thickness of the vertical column of stratospheric O3 layer, condensed to standard temperature and pressure, averages 0.29 cm above the equator and may exceed 0.40 cm above the poles at the end of the winter season. This layer acts as the ozone shield protecting the earth biota frorrTharmful effects of strong UV-radiation. Absorption of UV-radiation by ozone layer increases exponentially with its thickness. Therefore, maximum amount of UV-radiation passing through the atmosphere reaches the earth surface in the tropics (i.e., near the equator), and this amount decreases towards the poles. The concentration of O3., in the stratosphere changes with seasons, the concentration being highest during the period February-April (spring season) and lowest d u r i n g J u l y - October (fall season).

Ozone hole : During the period 1956-1970, the spring-time O3., layer thickness above Antarctica varied from 280 to 325 Dobson Unit (1 DU = 1 ppb). The thickness was sharply reduced to 225 DU in 1979 and to 136 DU in 1985. Later, the O3 layer thickness continued to decline to about 94 DU in 1994. The decline in springtime ozone layer thickness is termed Ozone hole. The ozone hole was f i r s t discovered in 1985 over Antarctica. The existence of ozone hole was also confirmed above Arctic in 1990. The globalaverage total column ozone amount for the period 1997-2001 was about 3 per cent below the pre-1980 average values. CFCs, CH4 and N2O escape into t h e stratosphere and cause destruction of O3 there. Most

damaging is the effect of CFCs, which produce “active chlorine” (Cl and CIO radicals) in the presence of UVradiation. These radicals catalytically destroy ozone, converting it into oxygen. CH 4 and N2O also cause ozone destruction through a complicated series of reactions. For making these discoveries related to O3 destruction, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina, along with Paul Crutzen, were honoured with Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1995. Effect of ozone depletion: The thinning or the ozone layer results in an increase in the UV-B radiation reaching the earth surface. A 5 per cent loss of ozone results in a 10 per cent increase in UV-B radiation. In humans, the increased UV-radiation increases the incidence of cataract, and skin cancer (including melanoma) and diminishes the functioning of immune system. Elevated levels of UV-B radiation affect photosynthesis, as well as damage nucleic acids in living organisms. UV-B radiation inhibits photosynthesis in most phytoplankton as it penetrates through the clear open ocean waters. This, in turn, can affect the whole food chain of organisms that depend on phytoplankton.

INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVE FOR MITIGATING GLOBAL CHANGE The long term change of stabilising the aimospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases requires that global emissions be significantly lowered than what they are today. In l987, 27 industrialised countries signed the Montreal Protocol, a landmark international agreement to protect the stratospheric ozone by agreeing to

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limit the production and use of ozone-depleting substances, phasing out of ozone-depleting substances and helping the developing countries to implement use of alternatives to CFCs. To-date, more than 175 countries have signed t h e e s t a b l i s h e d Montreal Protocol. The United Nations Conference on t h e principles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to a Environment and Development (UNCED, Eath Summit held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992 level at least 5 percent below the 1990 level by the commitment period 2008-2012. The world is confronted with changes in the composition of air, water and soil on world wide scale leading to pollution of abiotic factors which disturbs the dynamic equillibrium of the environment and in this process biotic component is the worst sufferer. In the subsequent paragraph environmental pollution problems, its types, its sources ,its impact on environment including remedial solution to combat the pollution problems has been discussed. Environmental Pollution Environmental pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristic of air, water and soil that may harmfully affect the life or create a potential health hazard of any living organism. Pollution is this direct or indirect change in any component of the biosphere that is harmful to living component (s) and in particular undesirable for man, affecting adversely the industrial progress, cultural and natural assets or general environment. (Environmental Protection Act, 1986) Environmental Pollutants Any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to the environment. A pollutant may thus include any chemical or geochemical substance, biotic component or its product or physical factor that is released intentionally by man into the environment in such a concentration that may have adverse, harmful or unpleasant effects. Types of Pollution There are two types of pollution: • Natural Pollution: They are produced by pollutants generated in nature by natural processors and (Environmental Protection Act, 1986)

phenomenon example such as methane produced by anaerobic decay of organic matter Volatile terpenes produced by some plants, Volcanic gases and ash, solar radiations, oxides of sulpher in the atmospere. • Artificial Pollution: They are produced by human activities such as production of CO 2 and CO) by consumption of fossil fuels, use of pesticides, motor vehicles exhaust. Entitled pollutants (oxides of N,S, lead etc.), municipal and industrial effluents and so on. Air Pollution

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Any Substance that adds to or substracts from the usual constituents of air altering its physical and chemical properties sufficiently enough to produce measurable adverse effects on man, other animals ,vegetation and materials can be regarded as air pollution. (Environment Protection Act, 1986) Types of Air pollutants • Primary Air Pollutants: These are pollutants which originate directly from sources such as

hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, oxides of carbon,sulphur dioxide. • Secondary Air Pollutants: These are pollutants formed in the atmosphere by chemical

interaction amongst the primary pollutants and the atmospheric constituents such as sulphuric acid and ozone. The Air Pollutants, Its Sources and Its Impact on Environment The air pollutants, its sources and its impact on environment are presented as under. Soil Pollution Soil is one of the major and most precious natural resource has been built slowly over thousands of years. They got stabilized under the protective cover of plants and the soil binding property of their roots. With the cultural eVolution of man, soil segment became the first causality. Forest were cleared for raising crops. The naturally rich soil yielded bumper crops for only a few years and in absence of adequate replenishment of litter and protective plant cover, the fertility gradually decreased forcing the human population to shift to newer areas. The principal factors of soil pollution are use of fertilizers and pesticides, solid waste disposal, desertification, deforestation, soil erosion. Soil is not as abundant as it is appears. About 20 percent of the total land area of the globe has no soil cover and the increasing population is always placing great demand on soil. At the sametime, degradation of soil is taking place at a rapid rate due to indiscriminate human activities. The main categories of soil degradation are as follows: • Soil erosion: It can be caused by wind, running water, oceans waves and glaciers. Forest cover plant roots act as binding material for soil. Deforestation, overgrazing, overcropping, makes soil vulnerable to wind and water erosion. Erosion caused by running water may result in surface erosion, gully erosion or stream erosion. Soil erosion also causes frequent floods and silting of river beds, dams and canals. • Desertification: Removal of vegetation cover by overgrazing, deforestation or poor mode of cultivation are the biggest cause of desertification. • Shifting cultivation: It is an example of soil resource mismanagement. The harmful practice is still in use globally. This method usually restricted to one crop, can lead to the depletion of some minerals and it takes twenty year or more for the soil to regain its fertility.

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• Deforestation: It is estimated that forests are disappearing at the rate often million hectares annually.

Overgrazing, logging and indiscriminate destruction of trees are the main reason of deforestation. • Artificial fertilizers: Increased use of chemical fertilizers, flood watering, pesticides, insecticides and multiple cropping have changed the soil ecology and have degraded it so much that it has lost its basic elements which maintain the soil fertility and the natural soil structure. This phenomenon is known as soil pollution. Modern agriculture rely heavily on wide range of synthetic chemicals which include different types of fertilizers and biocides (pesticides, herbicides, weedicides). These chemicals along with waste and wash off lands through irrigation, rainfall drainage etc. reaches into the rivers, lakes, streams where they disturb the natural ecosystem. How dangerous are they ? Are they harmful? Do they benefit? Are they safe? What to use? Which to use? Artificial fertilizers crowd out useful mineral naturally present in the top soil. The microbes (bacteria, fungi, worms) in top soil enrich the humus and help to produce nutrients to be taken up by the plants and later by animals but fertilizer enriched soil cannot support microbial life and hence there is less humus and less nutrients in the soil. The soil is subjected to the process of qualitiative and quantitative degradation. The artificial fertilizers can be of two types mentioned as under : • Chemical fertilizers: They are made up of only few minerals. Thus they impede the uptake of other minerals and imbalance the whole minerals pattern of plant body. Many crops today lack potassium due to excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers. Excessive potash treatment decreases valuable nutrients in foods, such as ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and carotene. Liming can prevent the release and uptake of cobalt, nickel, manganese and zinc by the plants. Superphosphate may lead to a copper and zinc deficiency. Plants also become less resistant to disease .Nitrogenous fertilisers increase the total crop yield (carbohydrates) but at the expense of protein. Corn and wheat grown on soil fertilized with N,P and K showed a 20-25% decline in protein content and increase in carbohydrate content. Fertilizers based product (fruits and vegetables) are oversized, more prone to insects and other pests. According to H.H. Koepf, an eminent soil chemist, modern agriculture can honestly claim two notable crops “Disease and Pest”. To this we can add a third-poison (as nitrites, nitrates). Nitrate fertile izers used in soil enter wells and ponds and pollutes water. These waters thus are very rich in nitrates. These nitrates are converted to nitrites by microbial flora of human intestine when water is taken by

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us. These nitrites combine with heaemoglobin of blood to form methaemoglobin, which interferes with oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. The disease produced is caused methamoglobinaemia, which in turn damages respiratory, vascular system, causes blue coloured skin and even cancer. It also pollutes marine ecosystem and suffocates fishes to death by depleting oxygen from water. • Pesticide and Biocides Pesticides are the chemicals used for killing the plant and animals pests. It is a general term that includes bactericides, fungicides, nematicides, insecticides and also the herbicides and weedicides. Since weeds are not pests likes bacteria, fungi, algae, insects so, the spectrum of the activity of these chemicals is extended beyond the pests and thus a broader term biocide is used to include herbicides etc. There is a wide range of chemicals used as biocides but the most harmful are those which are non biodegradable or degrade very slowly in nature. Those chemical substances are hazardous substances or toxicants. These are highly potent chemicals that enter our food chain and then begin to increase in thin concentration at successive trophic level in the food chain. Some of the most toxic biocides are DDT (dichloro- diphenyl- trichloro ethane), Aldrin etc. Indiscriminate use of the biocides could make them an integral part of our biological, geological and chemical cycles of the earth. They are everywhere in same form. Measurable amount of DDT residues may be found in air, water, soil and at several thousand of kms from the point where it had originally entered the ecosystem. For instance, if DDT enters a pond, lake, it is taken as such by the plants of the pond, then reaches to zooplankton feeding on plants, then to microbes eating the zooplanktons, then fish which eat the microbes and finally in the body of birds who eat the fish. Not only DDT as such in its original form keeps on moving from water to different living components of the pond system but most threatening is that DDT concentration continuously increases in successive trophic levels in a food chain. This phenomenon is known as biomagnification. This is the reason that the pesticides has concentrated in plant bodies and can’t be removed by washing or any other method. From plants it reaches animals and human being where the concentration further increases. Alarming quantities of biocides were found in plants, fish, frogs, planktons and birds and its impact on them were shocking. SOILPOLLUTION Soil pollution usually results from different human activities, like waste dumping, use of agrochemicals, mining operations and urbanisation. Waste Dumps Land gets polluted by dumping of industrial wastes, municipal wastes, and medical or hospital wastes. Industrial solid wastes and sludge are the major sources of soil pollution by toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds and heavy metals. The fall out from industrial emissions, for example, the fly-ash emitted by thermal power plants, can pollute surrounding land. We must keep in mind that the particulates of the

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industrial emissions from the tall chimneys always come back to the earth’s surface sooner or later. Radioactive wastes from nuclear testing laboratories and nuclear power plants and the radioactive fall out from nuclear explosions also contaminate the soil. Radioactive materials thrive in the soil for long periods because they usually have a long half-life. Strontium-90, for example, has a half-life of 28 years, and half-life of caesium-137 is 30 years. Municipal Wastes Municipal wastes mainly include domestic and kitchen wastes, market wastes, hospital wastes, livestock and poultry wastes, slaughterhouse wastes, waste metals, arid glass and ceramic wastes, etc. Nonbiodegradable materials like used polyethylene carry-bags, waste plastic sheets, pet-bottles, etc. persist in soil for long periods. Hospital wastes contain organic materials, chemicals, metal needles, plastic and glass bottles, vials, etc. Dumping of domestic sewage and hospital organic wastes contaminate the environment with a variety of pathogens that can seriously affect human health. Agrochemicals Pesticides and weedicides are being increasingly applied to control pests and weeds in agricultural systems. Excess inorganic fertilisers and biocide residues are contaminating the soil as well as surface and groundwater resources. Inorganic nutrients, like phosphate and nitrate are washed out to aquatic ecosystems and accelerate eutrophication there. Nitrate can also pollute drinking water. Inorganic fertilisers and pesticide residues change the chemical properties of soil and can adversely affect soil organisms. Mining Operations Opencast mining (a process where the surface of the earth is dug open to bring out the underground mineral deposits) completely devastates the topsoil and contaminates the area with toxic metals and chemicals. Control of Soil Pollution Control measures for soil pollution and land degradation inVolve safer land use, planned urbanisation, controlled developmental activities, safe disposal and management of solid wastes from industries and human habitations. Management of solid wastes inVolves : (i) collection and categorisation of wastes, (ii) recovery of resources like scrap metals, plastics, etc., for recycling and reuse, and (iii) safe disposal with minimum environmental hazards. Sewage sludge and industrial solid wastes are used as landfills. Toxic chemicals and hazardous metalcontaining wastes are used as bedding material for road construction. Fly-ash is also used for similar purposes. Flyash bricks are also being used for b u i l d i n g constructions. Other notable methods to get rid of the solid wastes are incineration (burning in presence of oxygen) and pyrolysis (combustion

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in the absence of oxygen). Municipal solid wastes containing biodegradable organic wastes, can be transformed into organic manure for agriculture. Solid Waste Pollution Solid waste can be been defined as a “resource out of place”. In other words, something that was an item of resource only a short time ago, becomes a waste after it losses its utility. Solid waste includes commercial and residential waste generated from a community (Gazzette of India, 1999). Types of solid waste Solid waste are two types. (i) Biodegradable: The materials which degrades naturally by microbial action and are cycled in the ecosystem. (ii) Non Biodegradable : These are materials that either do not degrade or degrade only very slowly in nature. They are not cycled in ecosystem naturally. They not only accumulate but are often biologically magnified with their subsequent movement in food chains and biogeochemical cycle: (a) Combustible: The non biodegradable waste which can be burned such as paper, wooden cloth leather etc: (b) Non Combustible: The non biodegradable waste which cannot be burned such as metals, glass, ceramics, etc. Sources of solid waste The sources of solid waste are households, resturants, institutions, market, hospitals, factories, treatment plants, industries hotels, breweries and distillaries, pharmaceuticals, textile mills, laundries etc. Management of Solid Waste The management of solid waste is carried out by two ways (i)Revitalization of solid waste includes the following methods: Recovery of useful material: All solid waste contain some amount of useful material such as paper, glassware, plastic goods, rubber can, aluminum cans which could be sorted out ,purified, refined ,molded and recast into useful article . Use of municipal waste as fuel: Solid waste treatment plant convert municipal waste into combustible solid fuel or manure. Production of biogas : Solid waste generated by printing press and meat animals can be subjected to anaerobic digestion to produce methane gas which can be used for cooking , heating, industrial operation etc. Pyrolisis : The solid waste are heated up to 6500 C in a closed anaerobic chamber. Solid waste are broken down into liquid like tar, water soluble distillate into gas like Co, Co2, CH4 and solid tar. Incineration: multiple hearth chambers are used and solid waste is exposed to it .Solid part is seperated from gaseous part by water sprays and the clean gas is let out as fuel gas .The solid part is burnt and converted into ash. (ii) Disposal of solid waste includes the following methods:

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Open dumping: Solid waste is dumped in open which is then collected by the rag pickers or municipality or left at an appropriate place from where the garbage truck pick it up Sanitary land filling: Here the garbage is spread into thin layers in dug out land and then compacted by bull dozers. It is then covered with a thin layer of clean earth and compacted again. It causes no air pollution and minimizes spread of diseases due to open dumping of garbage.. Ocean dumping : Solid waste is dumped into the ocean.Incineration: Multiple hearth chambers are used and solid waste is exposed to it. Solid part is separated from gaseous part by water sprays and the clean gas is let out as fuel gas. The solid part is burnt and converted into ash. Composting: Solid waste is subjected to fermentation which produces compost. Compost provides humus for conditioning of solids. Humus makes soil porous .Compost is achieved by heaping the refuse moistening it and letting it ferment for about 6 months.

Radioactive pollution “Radioactive pollution of the environment is the increase in natural background radiation emerging from the activities of man involving the use of naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactive material.” (Sharma, 1995) Common man suddenly became aware of the tremendous destructive power of nuclear energy when two atom bombs were exploded on Nagasaki and Hiroshima in August 1945. This had brought about the end of World War II. The explosions released radioactive radiations that continued to harm man and all other life for a long time after the explosions. Man also became aware of the tremendous potentiality of harnessing nuclear energy for generation of electricity and many other diverse peaceful and profitable purposes. Sources of Radioactive Pollution The sources of radioactive pollution are mentioned as under. Sources of Radioactive Pollution Sources of radioactive pollution could be natural and artificial. Natural sources of radioactive includes sunlight radiations (such as UV rays, and long radio waves), cosmic radiations ( such as high energy charged particles mostly protons), terrestrial radiations (such as radioactive isotopes buried under earth crust for example 238U, and 232Th etc), isotopes in our body (such as 238U, 232Th etc.). Artificial sources of radiations includes radiations from X Rays and radiopharmaceuticals, radio active fallouts, occupational exposure in nuclear labs and industries, miscellaneous such as TV picture tubes and nuclear power plants. Types of Radiation There are two major types of radiations released by nuclear disintegration or man made devices mentioned as under:.

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Types of Radiations Types of Radiations Radiations arises from a spontaneous rearrangement of the nucleus of an atom.while some nuclei are stable many are not and these can undergo a change ,losing mass or energy in the form of radiation.Some unstable nuclei are naturally occuring while others are produced synthetically.The most common of these are alpha particles,beta particles and gamma rays. (i) Alpha Particles consists of two pprotons and two neutrons bound together and so are identicle to helium nuclei.They have a mass number of 4 and a charge of +2.They are large and heavy so they travel very slowly and can be stopped easily.Their ability to penetrate living tissue is limited and damage occors only when alpha emmitting isotopes are ingested or inhaled. ii) Beta particles are simply electrons emitted by the nucleus during the changeof a neutron into a proton.They have minimum mass and high velocity and a charge of -1.They may penetrate through skin or surface cells into tissues and may then pass close to the electron orbital of the tissue atom where the repulsion of the two negative particles may force the orbital electrons out of the atoms ,ionising the tissue and forming radicals. iii) Gamma raysis very short wavelength electromagnetic radiation.It travels at the spped of light ,is uncharged,but is highly energetic and so has considerable penetrating power.As it passes through biological tissue ,the electric field surrounding gamma rays may eject orbital electrons form atoms and can cause ionisation of tissue and formation of radicals on its path. Impact of Radiation Radioactive fallout – A number of nuclear explosive have already been made during recent push in different parts of the world. The radioactive dust that falls to the earth after atomic explosion is called radio active fallout. Two of the most dangerous materials in radio active fallout from nuclear tests are strontium-99 and Cesium-137. They both contaminate environment for many years. Nuclear weapon testing has added greatly to radioactivity. A powerful hydrogen bomb test produces huge cloud of nuclear material that reaches the stratosphere and there to any other part of world over a period of time and hundreds of such tests were carried out in part which have showed effects much later and very far off places. The major Contributions are C-14, Strontium – 90 and Cesium-137. Carbon-14 is taken up by plants. The Strontium – 90 and Cesium –137 became concentrated in human body, the last in food chain. Strontium – 90 reaches dairy products. Sr-90 was found in new mother’s milk which passed to the body. In humans, most Strontium – 90 because concentrated in bones, where damage to bone cells and bone marrow blood cell producing tissues occurs. Iodine – 131 produced by nuclear tests, passes to vegetation and then appears in milk of cattle that consume the contaminated vegetation which in turn consumed by humans. Iodine - 131 causes serious damage to thy roid gland. Generally, majors proportion of fallout enters environment. In nutrient rich environment due to high exchange and storage capacity of soil or sediments, fallout is very much diluted and relatively little reaches to the plants.

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Impact of Radioactive waste from unclean power plant The radioactive waste from nuclear power plants may be in the form of gases, liquids or solids. The power plants are designed in a way that there is no leakage of radioactive materials in any form. However no plant is leakage proof. The Mile Island nuclear power plant in USA in 1979 and ‘melt down’ of Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR in 1986 are the examples of nuclear plant accidents causing escape of radio nuclides in atmosphere. These substances are eventually conveyed to humans from water supplies to food chain through watering of livestock or through uptake by plants from irrigation water. Thus radioactive effluents from nuclear power plant are affecting all forms of life on earth. Biological effects of radiation Radioactive substances are among the most toxic substances known. Biological importants of radiations became known in 1895 when Wilhelm Roentgen placed his hand between x-ray tube and a flusoscent screen. The bones cast deep shadow than flesh. The following year, Antonie Bacquerel discovered radioactivity in a various compound such as potassium sulphate. Radioactive radiations bring about most dangerous effects than other toxicants. There effect may contrive in subsequent generation and bring about following two types of undesirable effects in organisms.

Somatic effects – These are the direct results of action of radiation on the body cells and the tissue. Radiologists, uranium workers, and painters of radium dials suffer most. The somatic effects may be immediate or delay ed.

High radiation exposure have much acute toxicity and can kill a an animal quickly. The victims declines in vitality and dies from anemia infection and hemorrhage. The parts of body differs in sensitivity. The most sensitive tissues from acute doses are intestines, lymophonodes, spleen and bone marrow. The radiation destroys the body’s immune response. The effects of low penetrating radiation are less severe than the high penetrating radiations. In delayed effects the patient may survive for months or years. Delayed effects of radiation include eye cataracts, leukemia, malignant tumors, cardio vascular dissorders, premature ageing and reduced life span.

Genetic Effects – Most genetic effect are brought about by man made radiations. Most important of these are exposures during medicare and exposure from nuclear power plant. People in industry, research and medicine using radio nuclides are very much directly exposed to radiations for large periods than other people. People suffer from vomiting, nausea, loss of hair, bone marrow is affected, immune system is weakend. When exposed to higher irradiation, the result is damage of tissues of heart, brain etc. offspring. Among the delayed effects are cancer of different types. Irradiation can also cause genetic defects on ovary and deformation of produced

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Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal An inevitable consequnce of man's use of radioactivity is that radioactrive waste material is produced which must then be disposed of.Radioactive waste on the basis of its activity content could be categorised as low,intermediate and high level. Low Level Waste : These are produced in large volumes by various ,medical,industrial,scientific and military applications of radioactivity.They include contaminated solutions and solids,protective cleaning and deconmtamination materials,laboratory ware and other equipment.Theyalso include gases and liquids operationally discharged from power stations and other facilites.Much low level waste is currently disposed off by shallow burial in landfill sites, often with the co-disposal of other, non radioactive controled wastes ,or by discharge into surface water in rivers, lakes,estuaries,or coastal areas or by discharge into the atmosphere.Low and medium activity waste are passed through incinerators after removing explosives ,non combustible fragments and harmful solids.Incineration is done at 1000-1100 celcius temperature. The gases are passed through the cooling towers and cleaned by wet and dry process .The left out substance consists of very light intensity radioactive material .

Intermediate Level Waste: These are sufficiently active to prevent their direct discharge into the environment . They comprise much of the solid and liquid waste generated during fuel reprocessing ,residues from power station effluent plants ,and waste produced by the decommissioning of nuclear facilities.Very large quantities of intermediate level waste have been disposed off by dumping in deep ocean waters . High Level Waste : It manily consists of spent fuel and its residues and very active liquid generated during fuel reprocessing .No such repository yet exists but deep mines and boreholes on land and sea as well as other more exotic solutions including extra terrestrial disposal.The first step is to separate the unfissioned Uranium from the fissioned products and then allowed to cool for three and half months and treated to hot nitric acid .Uranium oxide get dissolved and leached down The left over solid is put in drums and buried deep under the grounds.

After understanding the environmental pollution problems in detail, it can be concluded that the hazards of pollution are the outcome of industrial development. Step by step, the precious gift of nature is being destroyed and the human life is being shortened by the polluted air we breathe and unhealthy water we drink (Brown , 1994). In would not be wrong to say that we are living in the age of environmental crisis. Issues which were viewed largely as the domestic problems are now viewed as challenges for all nations because of their impact upon climatology and biology of earth. An immediate measure is needed to readjust our ecosystem before it becomes irreparable.

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Environmental problems is a global problems and needs combined human efforts. We can cope up with the problems by creating awareness among people at all levels i.e. farmers, educationists, industrialists, politicians and bureaucrats; so that they should take environment into account in their decision making process. EVolution of Environmental Education Education is an instrument of social change and the most organized means of conservation and transmission of social thinking and ideologies. It is the high time to recall Chinese perception about education that “If you plan for one year, plant rice, if you plan for ten years, plant trees but if you plan for 100 years, educate the people.” If individuals are educated about environment, the society and the Government are automatically educated, because the later is the extention of an individual. The only blue print for survival is to transform prevailing mindsets to recognize the long term limits that nature imposes and the need to “nurture rather than jeopardize” the ecological systems that supports our activities. Education for the Environment, Education about the Environment, Education through the Environment is the only alternative to bring compatibility between quality of life and quality of environment. Environmental Education has emerged as a new dimension in the educational sphere Recently, perhaps in the history of education, no other single movement has progressed so fast with as much acceptance in such a short time. Only 25 years ago, the term environmental education was relatively unknown and poorly understood. But now, it has grown into a world wide movement. The development of environmental education constitutes a fascinating subject of research within the history of education. A study of the development of environment education reveals that its explosive growth is due to its strong connections to basic human needs and emotions. The awareness, knowledge approach and methods have gradually been acquired from other streams of education and now environmental education has become an enterprise with a multifacet personality of its own. Its growth is largely due to reVolutionary changes in environmental conditions, our intellectual response to those changes, and the various international and national activities which began in the 1960’s and continues today.

International Level Man is a creature of his environment but the degree of this perception in the environment has varied. His attitude towards environment have always been determined first by his contemporary perception and degree of knowledge and secondly by the type of consciously felt interactions which have existed between man and the environment in different ages. Kirk (1985) has tried to analyze how two separate movement, namely, the conservation nature study movement and the outdoor education movement have acted as the foundation of modern environmental

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education. He described a few major chronological phases. Developments in each phase have contributed to the eVolution of the next phase. The four phases and a brief description of each phase is as follows. • Awareness phase (1860-1890) - This was the initial phase in which various powerful

writers awakened many to recognize that man was not a single and solitary figure above all living and non living systems, but rather an integral part of the system. • Preservation phase (1890-1910) - In this phase, several writer popularized a need for conservation of natural resources. Forest were considered not merely as resources for their products, but also resources for creations, relaxation, research, and study. • Nature Study phase (1910-1932) - In this phase, efforts were made to develop an

understanding and appreciation of the beauty and mystery of nature. Valuable materials were also prepared which served as a tool guide for teachers and aspiring naturalists. • Education phase (1937-50) - In this latest phase, the young people had an opportunity to learn the value of forests and woodlands. People became more aware of the importance of learning about the interrelationships and interactions between living and nonliving things. Efforts were made to train teachers in the use of natural areas as an extension of their classrooms. Several conservation agencies were established which began to publish educational materials for the conservation of forests, wildlife, and soil. Environmental education began to emerge in its present form due to the enormous technological growth which has embraced every field of human knowledge. Examples of this include nuclear physics, with its devastating capacity and potential for long term pollution. Agriculture which uses pesticides and fertilizers indiscriminately. Medical science whose live saving drugs have reduced the mortality rate and produced a consequent rise in population. These areas along with a change in the outlook of the social sciences have all contributed to a drastic transformation of the human environment. In the developed and the developing countries, a few isolated groups of educators started facing these problems . A stunning blow came in 1962 with the publication of Rachael Carson’s famous book, Silent Spring. It made western countries sit up and review their position in regard to the human environment. The commission, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCNR) to educate people about the conservation of natural resources was established in 1949. This organization is concerned with the promotion of environmental conservation education. The IUCNR has produced a number of significant publications. • Symposia on Conservation Education — Switzerland (1966) • Conference on Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources- Argentina (1968). • Conference on Environmental Education- Nevcda (1970)

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• European Conference on Environmental Conservation Education. - Switzerland (1971) • International Workshop on Environmental Studies in Higher Education and Teacher Training at London and Canada(1971). On June 5, 1972 the first United Nations Conference on Human Environment was held at Stockholm. The conference was attended by 113 nations, UN agencies, and Non- Governmental organizations. The conference discussed the various aspects of environmental problems, adopted the declaration on human environment, and approved a wide range of action plan. The role of education in environmental matters for both young and adults was also acknowledged as being of great importance. The efforts of the Stockholm Conference was materialized in the form of UNEP. An international workshop on environmental education was held at Belgrade in 1975 which resulted into the formation of IEEP (International Environmental Education Prorgamme). Much of the multidirectional development in the field of environmental education was due to the constant efforts of IEEP. Their major activities include... • setting up pilot projects on environmental communication system. • the publication of a newsletter, connect (in five languages) which reaches thousands of individuals and organizations . • conducting a world wide study of needs and priorities in environmental education. • studying trends in environmental education. • the study, trial and development of innovations in environmental education. The Tibilisi Conference (1977) was the climax of the initial phase for development in environmental education. It gave a global thrust to environmental education recommending further identification and expansion of environmental education. It endorsed the goals and objectives formulated by the Belgrade Workshop. On the basis of regional and sub regional meetings, the guidelines for environmental education Were expanded and reinforced. The conference also charted an action plan at national and international level for the promotion and development of environmental education. Important developments which followed from the Tibilisi conference included intensive and extensive actions on the part of IEEP, and the emergence of district entities of environment education in different countries. The IEEP intensified and expanded its multidirectional efforts for the promotion of environmental education through. • systematic integration of an environment dimension into national Educational policies. • promotion of interdisciplinary and institutional co-operation.

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• approaches. • incorporation of environmental education in pre and in service teachers and other educational functionaries. • development of multimedia programmes for all. • research on all aspects of educational process and dissemination. • reinforcement of international, national and regional co-operation among Government and NonGovernment organizations. • financial and technical support for a number of national training activities of key personnel in various reorientation of curricula and educational materials by injecting interdisciplinary problems solving

regions. (UNSECO, 1982). The Stockholm- Belgrade- Tibillisi (1972-77) Phase is neither the beginning nor the end of environmental education or of a concern for the environment but surely this is a crucial catalytic phase in both these areas concern for and knowledge of the environment have gained both momentum and expansion over years since intensive efforts both at national, international, and individual levels have produced a mass of literature, reinforcing contemporary knowledge about various local and global environmental issues and their implications. National Level A concern for nature and natural resources is not at all a new conception for Indians. Indian literature and scriptures reflect the environment consciousness of our ancestors. The rock edicts of Ashoka are probably the first ever Governmental direction towards environmental protection in recorded history. However inspite of such an impressive beginning, conservation movement in India is less than two decades old. In the formal system of education the importance of integrating environmental concepts was recognized much earlier. The movement of Basic Education (1937) launched by Gandhiji was perhaps the first serious attempt at relating education in the schools to local environmental needs. Kothari Commission (1964-66) realized the importance of environmental education and recommended, “Environmental activities will lead to the study of physical sciences, natural science, history, civics and geography; construction and creative skills will serve as the simple basis of art and craft and practice of healthy living will serve as the foundation of environmental education. NCERT in 1975 revised the curriculum of schools and introduced environmental education at primary level. At secondary and higher secondary level, few chapters on environmental aspects were included in Geography and Biology. NPE (1986) discussed and concluded than there is a paramount need to create a consciousness of the environment. It must premature all ages and all sections of society.

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NCERT National curriculum Framework (2000) emphasized on the understanding environment in its totality, interaction of natural and social environment, ways and means to preserve environment. The Honorable Supreme Court of India (2004) realized the intensity of the situation and has directed NCERT, AICTE and UGC to frame model syllabus for environmental education at school ,college and university level respectively. According to chapter IV A and Article 51 A of the Indian constitution, one of the fundamental duties of the Indian citizen is ‘to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to have compassion for living creatures.’ Fortunately, in the school curriculum although environmental science has not been made a separate school subject yet its concern permeate appropriately at all stages of school curriculum. School text book of Languages, Science and Social Science contain environmental concepts. The NCERT study on environment in the school curriculum has shown that environmental concerns have been introduced sequentially from local to global in its text book for the primary and upper primary stages. The findings of NCERT was confirmed by Bharti Vidypeeth Institute of Environment and Research, Pune after conducting a research study on influence of environment concepts in the school curriculam. Maharashtra state conducted a research work to analyse the content of science text book from I to Xth standard and concluded that the textbooks contain environment related concern. The detailed scrutiny of the textbook revealed than the treatment of concepts can be improved by contextualising the learning material and by improving the illustrations. Although the importance of introducing environmental education has almost universally been accepted as a policy, its real impact in schools remains to be seen. There is a persistent and genuine feeling that inspite of international efforts, the environmentalization of school curriculum has been far from satisfactory. There can be many reasons for it but the most important factor is the inadequacy of personnel trained in environmental education. This lack of personnel exists even in countries in which policy makers and planners are sympathetic to environmental education and teacher educators are enlightened. Unfortunately, it is also a fact that in many countries these groups are blissfully unaware of both the lEEP’s efforts and a need for teacher training in environmental education. There needs to be more intensive effort to reach these countries. Where we lose out is that inspite of the constitutional concern in reality, the teaching - learning tends to be mechanical because only few teacher knows in letter and spirit what is expected from them to teach and how to teach. The problems can be traced to the teacher education program which remained static inspite of the fact that the school curricula has undergone changes during the past 25 years. In the teaching learning process no factor other than the curriculum is more important than that of the teacher. The instructor is the sole aribtrator of curriculum and the central figure in the classroom. Teachers are important

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professionals and like any other group of professionals, they require a proper background in the subject, alongwith necessary training and commitment to effectively impact desired skills and on the learner. Special training and commitment is also important is bringing environment thrust to education and for this, a new focus which requires specific awareness, knowledge and skills, along with an attitude which might not have been developed in the rest of their educational career. A great need for both teacher and teacher educators trained in environmental education has been felt in both developed and developing countries. The Tibillisi conference considered the training of personnel, including pre service and in service teachers and others connected with education and environmentally linked matter as a priority activity. The conference report requested that states should establish national level programme of action, whose purpose should be to familiarize teachers, educational administrators and planners with the different aspects and problems of the environment (UNESCO, 1978). These programmes should also provide individuals with a basic level of training, both inservice and preservice, enabling them to incorporate environmental education effectively in their respective sphere of activities. The Tibilisi conference considering the need for all teachers to understand the importance of environmental emphasis in their teaching recommended: • • • environmental science and environmental education to be included in the curricula for the staff of teacher education institution be associated in this respect. teachers should get appropriate environmental training related to the area, either urban or

preservice teachers.

rural, where they are going to work. The conference also recognized that a great majority of existing teachers had graduated from teacher training colleges at a time when the importance of environmental education was not so apparent. Then the training courses were also deficient in environmental issues and the methodology of environment education. In view of the above, the conference recommended: • in service training in environmental education available to all who need it. • the implementation and development of inservice training, including practical training in environmental education be made in close cooperation with professional organization of teachers, both at the international and national levels. • inservice training take into account of the area, either urban or rural, where the teachers are working. • teachers and learners should be inVolved in preparation and adaptation of instructional

materials for environmental education .

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• teacher training should be given an understanding of the widest possible range of educational materials and aids, with special reference to low cost materials and to opportunities for adoption and improvisation according to local circumstances (UNESCO, 1978). The need for professional training of educators further arises from the fact that even topics related to the environment which are covered in present subject curricula, both in schools and teacher training programmes do not place a real emphasis on environmental education, at best they may lead to more environmental literacy. Definitely knowledge about personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, water pollution, energy, material resources, forestry, climate, weather and population are topics related to environment of education but environment of education is all these and a great deal more. It is not enough to cite problems , realistic solutions must also be attempted. Environmental education can offer answers to some of these concerns from both a local and global perspective. In must also be understood that environmental education seeks to achieve a great change in formal education by adapting a new approach. This approach not only gives a few pieces of information on environmental concern but also bring both, new personal and individualized behavior based on a global ethic which can be realized only through the enlightenment and training of education professional. Intensive teacher education, not merely orientation, is essential if the present fragmented approaches of traditional education are to be transcended in favour of a holistic, global approach. Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary treatment of issues would require a thorough change in both, the outlook and content preparation of teachers and teacher educators. This task is far more complex than putting environmental content into existing curricula. A need for the development of environmental education policy at local, national and international level is also needed and has been accepted in many cases. But policy is only a guideline or blue print for action, to create effective changes, large scale preservice and inservice teacher training programme in environmental education must be organized. Need of the Study Gandhiji Said, “There is enough in the nature for man’s need but not enough for man’s greed.” The whole world attention is now focussed on the state of environment degradation brought about by developments in science and technology and the need to satisfy the demands of the growing population. Despite considerable global efforts made by representatives from all the sections of society, the conservation of natural resources has failed to keep pace with environmental degradation. The latest information furnished by Earth II summit, September 2002 reveals a planet still in the need of intensive care. Every nation has right to develop enrich its economy but that should not be at the cost of environment. There should be compatibility between economy and ecology. The development should be sustainable where utilization and conservation of resources should be

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simultaneous. Poverty, Population and Pollution are the three P’s pressurizing planets life support system by creating environmental crisis globally threatening our ability to achieve sustainable development. The action of an individual or society that has an impact on other societies contributes to global environmental issues. The basic question underlying all the global environmental issues is a question of awareness and attitude. It is fundamentally concerned with the kind of people we are, our awareness about environment and the attitude we hold towards environment to make world a better place to live in. (Willard et al 1976). A tenet of environmental education is that humans use ecosystem, exists in complex interactions with ecosystems, are affected by ecosystem, and are ultimately accountable for their effect on ecosystem (Willard 1976).In the name of development we have started distancing ourselves from nature. Due to rapid mdustrialization and urbanization, we have lost our relationship with environment. At this juncture, when the nature is fighting a lost battle against its degradation and experiencing broken relationship with mankind, what on earth are we doing by being a part of it? We can remove this revive this relationship by environmental education. Environmental education to mind is not just awareness, it is far more. It is development of the attitude to make world a better place to live in, to be aware of what is happening around and above all to act without fear. A primary goal of environmental education is the development of responsible environmental behaviour in citizens, both as in individuals and as societal groups (Ramsey and Hunger ford, 1989). The Supreme Court of India (2004) directed all the states and educational agencies in the country to introduce environment as a compulsory subject in all classes in schools upto higher secondary level for the Academic Session (2004-2005) with the help of Central Pollution Control Board . NCTE discussion document (2004) emphasized on the importance of environmental education for preservice teachers and inservice teachers and its inclusion in the teacher training program. The need of the hour is to prepare future citizens to lead a sustainable life style and place ecosystem concepts as the intellectual centre of all disciplines (Disinger, 1993). Though sustainable development is a national and international issue, it becomes locally defined through actions and decisions within cities, neighbourhood and communities which falls under the realm of society .School is the epitome of society. Quality environmental education in schools depends more on the qualifications, , teaching experience and preparation of the teachers than it does on the school curricula. (Filho and O’ lean, 1996). The key to successful environmental education infinite class room is the teacher. If teachers do not have the awareness, skills, commitment and an attitude environmnentalise their curriculum, it is unlikely that environmentally literate students will be produced. (Wilke, 1985).

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School and teacher training colleges plays an important role in environmental education and the effectiveness of such education depends upon teachers. Unfortunately there is dearth of teachers and teacher educators in our country to handle environmental problems as they lack awareness, expertise and perfect training in environmental education. For imparting sound environmental education, the teacher should not only be aware of environmental problems but must possess basic knowledge of Ecology is...the environmental science of survival. A revamping of education system is required to produce environmentally conscious citizens through research and teaching at various levels to make environmental education a life long process with awareness and attitude as its key component. Such a challenge has to be taken by educational institution and among these teacher training institution will have to show the leadership by producing teachers who posses a chemistry of awareness of environmental problems and desirable attitude towards environmental conservation in their persona. If we want to secure the future of our environment, we have to create awareness about environment and an attitude of caring and sharing of natural resources in the mind of those who are the future of our nation. As rightly said by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru that the future of india in shaped in her class room, where teacher is the central figure. Teachers are the pillars on whom the future of nation lies by precept and example. The Tibilisi conference rightly identified teacher as a key factor in the education of people about environmental problems . Teachers behavior do have an impact upon students classroom behaviour. It is highly probable that teacher influence extends beyond the classroom. Therefore it is implicit in all activities aiming for changed students behavior that teachers be the model of desired behavior by action or by word. “Whatever we want to achieve emotionally in our pupils should already be present in the teachers” (Harbrich and Kohler, 1981). With the above statement, the role of teachers becomes manifold cutting across all the boundries of discipline, qualifications and specializations. They should be able to discharge the role of Green Educators in today’s scenario to spread Green Message to everybody especially young be broadened in its scope to encompass problems that falls under the realm of environment thus exposing the children to the wholistic picture of environment and sensitizing them with the slogan of conserve or perish (UNESCO 1998). Hence in this study the investigator has made an attempt to find out the awareness and attitude of pre-service, inservice teachers and teacher educators towards environmental problems . Title of the study Awareness and Attitude of Preservice Teachers, Inservice Teachers and Teacher Educators Towards Environmental Problems . Objectives

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General Objectives 1) To study and compare the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers with respect to a) b) c) d) interaction between group, discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate/ graduate) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities) group (preservice and inservice)

2) To study and compare the attitude towards environmental pollution problems among preseryice and inservice teachers with respect to a) b) c) d) interaction between group, discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate / graduate). discipline (science/ social science/ humanities) group (preservice and inservice)

3) To study the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators with respect to a) b) c) interaction between discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate/ Ph. D) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities).

4) To study the attitude towards environmental poilttttoTffproblems among teacher educators with respect to a) b) c) interaction between discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate/ Ph. D). discipline (science/ social science/ humanities).

5) To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems. Specific Objectives 1 . To study the awareness of environmental problems among preservice, inservice teachers & teacher educators. 2. To study the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice, inservice teachers & teacher educators.

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3. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the awareness of

environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 4. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the attitude towards

environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 5. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the awareness of

environmental problems among teacher educators. 6. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interactions on the attitude towards

environmental problems among teacher educators. 7. teachers. 8. To compare the attitude towards environmental problems between preservice and inservice teacher. 9. To study the interaction effect of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice) their To compare the awareness of environmental problems between preservice and inservice

discipline and qualification on the awareness of environmental problems. 10. To study the interaction effect of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems. 11. To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental pralhiiipn problems. Definition of the Term • Awareness: It can be defined as the knowledge of different types of pollution, its sources and impact of it on environment including remedial measures to minimize the pollution problems. • Attitude: It is the tendency to act for or against something in an environment which

becomes thereby a positive or negative value. • Environmental Problems: It encompasses problems which are natural or manmade in origin, local or global in nature, having short term or long term impact upon the climatology and biology of earth such as pollution, population explosion, energy crisis, landslides, earth quakes, floods, droughts etc. Delimitation • The study was confined to the preservice teachers pursuing one year full time B.Ed. Program from the

teacher training institution of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GSSIP University. • The study was delimited to the teacher educators teaching B.Ed program in the teacher training institution of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP. University.

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• It was confined to the inservice teacher teaching at secondary and senior secondary level in the schools of Delhi Government • It was confined to environmental pollution problems only.

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH TRENDS Introduction “A familiarity with the literature in any problems area helps the student to discover what is already known, what others have attempted to find out, what methods of attack have been promising and disappointing and what problems remain to be solved.” (Best, 1 999). A literature review is a written summary of articles, books and other documents that describes the past and current state of knowledge about a topic. Researchers conduct a literature review as one element in the research process. This review documents the importance of research problems in a study, cites useful explanations or theories to be tested, foreshadows the major questions in a study and provides explanation for results or findings. Thus the review of the literature suggest some area for further study. The researcher might find some gaps while reviewing the literature related to a particular area and therefore may consider that for research. This chapter presents a glimpse of the research work conducted at national and international level. The total number of studies reviewed in environmental education were twenty one and can be broadly classified as under: • • • • studies related to knowledge, awareness and attitude studies related to experimentation studies related to curriculum studies related to innovations

Majority of these studies used questionnaire , opinionnaire and interview schedule as a tool for gathering data. Four studies followed experimental design. The following trebd emerges from review of the related literature: • Research in environmental education started at international level in early eighties and at national level in early nineties • Heavy concentration of exploratory studies inVolving knowledge attitude and perception of students and teachers were seen

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• Most of these studies used small purposive sample except few studies which were conducted on random sample. • Majority of the studies used survey method and very few studies followed experimental design. • Variables studied were age ,gender, locality and academic background. • Data in most of these studies were presented in simple percentage and no effort was made to subject the data to rigorous statistical analysis. • Studies related to curriculum development showed that curriculum were developed without the benefit of first finding out the level of students knowledge, content needs, their readiness to receive environmental education topics etc. • Not even a single study was conducted on the inculcation of values through environmental education at any level of education.

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Studies Related to Awareness and Attitude Barathi & Swatantra Devi (2004). Students the environmental awareness among the higher secondary students. The findings were (a) The first year higher secondary students had high environmental awareness. (b) The girls school and the co-ed schools differed in their environment awareness, in favour of girls (c) Private and Govt. school differed in their environment awareness, in favour of private schools (d) The urban and and rural school students differed in their environmental awareness, in favour of urban school students (e) There was no difference in the environmental awareness of school students on the basis of sex (f) The environmental awareness of students whose parents were graduate were more then the students whose parents were not graduate. Ramakrishna. A (2003) conducted a study on environmental awareness among secondary school students. He found that children exposed to the co-cumcular activities instill appropriate behaviors. The activities are not exhaustive. It is only suggestive. Many significance activities are proposed in class IXth because of the environmental biased content and also of the highly receptive nature of the cognitive stage of development i.e., formal operations where the child is capable of experimenting with the concepts learned in the previous stage. These children as they grow develop sustainable lifestyle and participate in solving real life problems with a practical bias of ensuring a healthy environment all around. Das (2002) studied the development of environmental awareness through the study of life science in the secondary schools of West Bengal. The finding revealed a hetero qeneity among three groups in terms of perception about environmental awareness. Sunnetha (2002) took up a study to examine the status of basic under standing in environmental education and attitude towards environmental is issues among the upper primary school students of Mysore. The findings were (a) multidisciplinary approval were more effective as composed to infusion approach in teaching of environmental education (b) supplementary curricular program is more favorable in generating parities attitude towards environment among school children. Sahoo and Gupta (1997) studied the effect of scholastic achievement and scientific attitude on environmental awareness of +2 students of Rajasthan. The major findings were (a) scholastic achievement had significant effect on scientific attitude on three dimensions viz., health and nutrition, forest, agriculture and nutrition, forest and agriculture and population growth. In case of rest of the three dimensions of EA viz on pollution, water pollution and ecosystem, there was no significant effect of scholastic achievement on scientific attitude. It shows that achievement does not have equal level of effect on different dimension of EA. (b) Scientific attitudes hold significant and positve effect on most of the components of environmental awareness viz health and nutrition, forest and agriculture and population growth. (c)In the case of air pollution, water pollution and ecosystem;

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components of SA had no significant effect on EA. (d) Trainees also has its effect on the knowledge and understanding of facts and concepts relating to different aspects of environmental problems, (e) The subject background of the trainees also has an effect on the knowledge and understanding of facts and concepts relating to different aspects of environmental problems. Bhattacharya G.C (1996) studied environmental awareness among primary grade boys and girl students and their parents in Varanasi. The findings were (a) Among the primary girl students studying in grade III, only 44% were in the above average, 48.89% was in the below average, 6.67% was in the low category and none was there in the high category . (b) Among the girl students studying in grade V, only 57.30% was in the above average, 37% was in the below average and 5.62% was in the low category and none was found in the high category, (c) Among the parents of grade III girl student, only 11.11% was in high, 67.78% was in the above average , 8.89% was in the above average,8.89% below average and 2.22% was in low category, (d) Among parents of grade V girl students, 7.87% was in high, 42.69% above average ,47.19% below average, 2-25% in low category (e) No sex differences was found in case of grade II and V students in terms of their environment awareness, (f) No sex difference was found in case of grade VI & V students in terms of orientation, attitude and responsibility factors of environmental awareness, (g) Coefficient of Correlation was significant in case of environmental awareness of the grades III and V girl students and their parents. Sidana and Pareek (1996) studied the environmental awareness among secondary school students. The Findings were (a) The secondary school students possessed high level of environmental awareness, (b) There was significant difference in the environment awareness of urban and rural students, (c) There was no significant difference in the environmental awareness of students on the basis of sex. Padahan, Gopal Chandra (1995) studied environmental awareness among teacher trainees. There is no difference among the pupil teachers in environmental awareness on the basis of sex (b) The pupil teachers who were science post graduate were more environmentally aware followed by social science postgraduate and humanities postgraduate pupil teachers (c) The graduate science pupil teachers were more environmentally aware followed by social science and humanities graduate teachers (d) The pupil teacher with master degree and urban area were more environmentally aware than pupil teachers with masters and bachelor degree of rural area. (e) variation in environmental awareness between the urban and the rural teacher trainees, where the former group was significantly higher than the later, (f) The master degree holder exhibited higher environmental awareness compared to the bachelor degree holders indicating that higher the educational qualification better the awareness of environment problems. (g) The subject background of the trainees also has an effect on the knowledge and understanding of facts

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and concepts relating to different aspects of environmental problems. The science teacher trainees surpassed social science followed by humanities teacher trainees in their environments awarenes. Sabhlok (1995) studied the awareness and attitude of teacher and students of high school towards environmental education. The findings were (a) The boys and girl students differ significantly in the awareness about environment, in favour of boys, (b) The rural and urban students different significantly in their awareness of environment, in favour of urban students, (c) The boys and girl students differ significantly in their attitude towards environment,in favour of girls, (d) The rural and urban teachers differed significantly in their awareness and attitude towards environment, in favour of urban teachers, (e) The male and female teachers differ significantly in awareness and attitude towards environment, in favour of female teachers, (f) The rural and urban students differ in their attitude towards environment, in favour of urban students. Ayishabi (1995) studied environmental attitude and literacy among science and non science students at degree level. The findings were (a) Science students surpassed non science students in environmental literacy and attitude towards environment. (b) Students of biology and chemistry were alike in their attitude and literacy of environment, (c) English students surpassed history students and commerce students in their attitude and literacy of environment. Raj Kumari and R.R. Singh (1995) studied the attitude of teachers towards environmental education. He found that (a) teachers selected as representative sample had favourable attitude towards environmental education, (b) there was no significant difference in the attitude of primary and secondary school teachers towards environmental education. Prahraj. B (1991) studied environmental knowledge, attitude and perception regarding environmental education among pre service and in service secondary school teacher. He found (a) low environmental knowledge among preservice teachers, although conceptual knowledge was moderate, (b) Among the inservice teachers, environmental knowledge was moderate and factual knowledge about the environment was low. (c)There was a moderate correlation between environmental knowledge and environment attitude. (d) Teachers perceived that environmental education could be a core part of social science and science, (e) There was a significant difference in the attitude of pre service and inservice teachers towards environmental education, in favour of inservice teachers. (f)There was no significant difference in the attitude of primary and secondary school teachers towards environmental education. Mosathiwane et al (1991) studied knowledge and attitude of preservice teachers towards environmental education in Botswana. The findings were (a) The knowledge of preservice teachers about environmental education was moderate, (b) Forty two percent preservice teachers had positive attitude towards environmental education. Shahnawaj (1990) studied environmental awareness and attitude of secondary and higher secondary school teachers and students. It was found that (a) 95% teachers and 94% students possessed positive environmental attitudes. (b) The teachers and the students did not differ in their attitude towards environment, (c)

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Teachers surpassed students in awareness about environment. (d) Trained and untrained teachers did not differ in environmental awareness. (e) Girls surpassed boys in the awareness about environment. (f) Teachers were above average and students were average in their awareness about environment. Chang (1990) conducted a study on the knowledge of and attitude towards environment among preservice elementary teachers in Taiwan. The findings were (a) Preservice elementary teachers had moderate level of knowledge about environment, (b) Fifty percent of preservice elementary teachers had positive attitude towards environment. Studies Related to Innovations and Experimentation Prajapat (1996) conducted a research to assess the effect of program in developing awareness towards environment among the pupils of standard IV. The findings were (a) a significant difference in the environmental awareness of experimental and control group was found. (b) The program was successful in developing awareness of environment among the pupils of standard IV. (c) There was no significant difference in the environmental awareness of students on the basis of sex. Gopalakrishnan, Sarojini, (1992) studied the impact of environmental education on primary school children.The study addresses the problems of environmental education and its impact on primary school children of standard V selected at random from the schools of Nilgiris , Madras and Coimbatore. The Findings were (a) The distribution the total Environment Education Test Scores of the entire sample approached the normal form which implied that environmental education had a very good impact on the children, (b) Analysis of the Environmental Education Test Score area wise reveals that the children of Madras scored better when compared to that of the Coimbatore and the Nilgiris, and that could be due to better exposure of Madras Children . (c) The study showed that the participatory learning approach could bring about a better impact, (d) Teachers in general felt that there was not sufficient time to give importance to learner centred activities. Gilbertson et al (1990) studied the effect of environmental awareness training program on the knowledge and attitude of 2nd standard students in Minnesota. The findings were (a) There was a significant difference in the environmental knowledge of experimental and control group, (b) There was no significant difference in the environmental attitude of experimental and control group. Rajput J.S (1988) conducted research for the identification of teaching skills and training strategies for implementing the environmental approach at primary level. The findings were (a) The mean scores of the environmental awareness for the experimental and the control groups at pre test and post test level indicated that out of fourteen comparison groups in seven schools; nine groups had no significant difference and the remaining five groups had a significant difference as a result of the treatment, (b) The results of comparison between the groups indicated that out of fourteen groups, five had no significant differences in both the cases, (c) The significant differences obtained in some groups did not follow any uniform pattern.

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Studies Related to Curriculum Smita Bhawalkar (2003) analysed the school syllabus in context of environmental education. The findings were (a) The magnitude and the nature of the content related to environmental education was found suitable with reference to the age group of the learners and teaching objectives in the syllabus of class I, II, III IV and V. (b) In case of all the three subjects ie. . . Hindi, Science and Social Science; the environmental values are highly emphasized in class VIII as compared to class VI and class VII in the present syllabus, (c) The environmental content are found to have the lowest value in the Hindi subject in comparison to science. The agriculture section in Social Science found to be highly devoted to environmental values in case of class VI and class VII in present syllabus, (d) It was found that not all but majority of the teachers accepted the occurrence of content related to environmental education and necessity of environmental education in school syllabus and suitability of not only science but other subjects also to teach environmental education . (e) All the teachers of the sample were of the same view regarding the importance of environmental education as a part of content of different school subject while teaching, (f) Most of the teachers agree that they can persuade the students to play responsible role towards environment, (g) Majority of the teachers considered environmental awareness as a part of moral values. Sahoo, K .C (1992) conducted a research to renovate the concept of environmental education. The findings were (a) The concept of the environment is broadly divided as natural and man made types . (b) Flora and Fauna constitute the biotic environment, (c) The atmosphere hydrosphere and lithosphere constitute the abiotic environment . (d) Man made environment are of different types such as social, economic, political, cultural, aesthetic, historical, geographical psychological, religious and academic, (e) The relationship between man and environment is symbiotic in nature, (f) Gradually man’s domination over the environment has created complexities in the man environment relationship, (g) Efforts are continuing with regard to environment management, with focus on unity of life, sustainable development, human welfare, futuristic and cultural program, (h) Self management is perceived as the best form of good environmental management. (i) Several bodies, committees and workshops at national and international level has thrown light on the conceptual analysis of environmental education. Kidwai Zeenat (1991) developed environmentally centered curriculum in Geography at secondary stage. The outcome of the study was a suggested framework for an environmentally oriented Geography curriculum at secondary stage. Mutaqui et al (1981) developed a curriculum in Biology for secondary school of Bangladesh. The findings were (a) The curriculum was effective in developing knowledge of environment among students of all the grades under study. (b) The curriculum was effective in developing positive attitude among students of VI, VII, VIII grade towards environment. (c) There was a very low correlation between knowledge and attitude towards environment.

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Studies related to innovations Educators conducted studies to assess the effect of outdoor education programmes on environmental awareness, knowledge, sensitivity, consciousness, attitudinal change and environmental behaviour of people. Dunlop and Hepperman (1975), Bryant and Hungerford (1977), Geisler et al., (1977), Crompton and Seller (1981), Jaus ( 1 984), Spepard and Spcelman (1986), Howeand Disinger (1998), Van Matre( 1990), Dresner and Gill (1994) made attempts to study the effect of outdoor educational programmes on attitude and awareness about environment of the students. Researchers found a significant effect of these programmes on the environmental attitude and awareness of the students. Chelliah (1982) also indicated positive impact of outdoor activities such as nature work ,camping and hiking trips on children’s knowledge of environmental issues. Driver and Johnson (1984) studied the long-term benefits of the youth conservation programme, which combines outdoor work opportunities and environmental education for youths. In the study, the youths indicated that they had become more environmentally aware as a result of the Youth Conservation Corps Programme. Van Liere and Noe ( 1 98 1 ) and Howe and Disinger (1998) concluded that outdoor experiences made a significant impact on students’ attitudes. Khoshoo (1991) and Mathews and Riley (1995) suggested that the instruction in the general area of environment couldn’t be confined to the class-room, but more importantly, field or out-of-school activities. Dutt (1998) also suggested that to impart environmental education to students, the outdoor activities such as visit to nearby cities and township, industrial sides and visit of canals and river sides etc., should be arranged by the teachers in schools. Bonger (1998) studied the influence of short-term outdoor ecology education programme on long-term variables of environmental perspective. The results indicated that five day outdoor programme explicitly provoked favourable shifts in individual behaviour. Palm berg and Kuru (2000) concluded that nature experience develops pupils’ self-confidence and feeling of safety, in particular, which in turn increases their willingness to participate in environmental outdoor activities. Patankar (2000) suggested that field trips and outdoor studies are very much educative and they develop curiosity in students. The selected places for field trips should include the areas related to various environmental problems . In field trips and outdoor studies, the students can visit and study village river or lake, seashore, sanctuary and industries. In their visit they may observe, different types of nests, ecosystems, food webs and the biodiversity etc. Some investigators have conducted t h e i r researches to find out the effect of

Audio / video programmes on environmental awareness and attitude of the students. Kalimutthu (1991) found that the higher secondary students taught through the video programme learnt more of the concept on environmental pollution than those who were taught by the lecture method. The higher secondary students improved their achievement on environmental pollution after viewing the video programme. Singh (1995) made an attempt to study the impact of video-instructional package on the environmental awareness of school going children of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The researcher found that the video - instructional package was found significantly

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effective for the students of classes VII and VIII. The majority of the students liked and enjoyed learning through video -instructional package. Rastogi et al (1999) made an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of audiotape a n d transparencies on the environmental awareness of undergraduate students. The researchers revealed that the use of audiotape and transparencies was highly effective in raising the level of awareness of students. Chetan (1996) reported positive effect of video-aided instructional programmes on the achievements of students in selected concepts of science. Chandra and Pandey (1996) and Karandhikar (1997) also reported a positive impact of videofilms on the achievement of students. Patankar(2000) suggested the films, video cassettes on tiger projects. The different types of birds may be shown to the students to develop in them an interest for the environmental conservation. Gihar (2002). Kukreti et al., (2002), Kukreti et al., (2004) and Kukreti & Gihar (2004) in their studies also found significant and positive effect of video- programmes on the environmental knowledge. consciousness, awareness, attitude and sense of responsibility towards environmental protection and conservation. Patel (1997) investigated the effect of environmental multimedia package on the sample of 110 students, studying in IX class. The findings of the study indicate a significant relationship between multimedia package and environmental awareness of the students. The researcher also concluded that the multimedia package was found more effective than the traditional lecture method in creating environmental awareness in students. Sibley (1974) studied the effect of simulation games on environmental attitude of six graders. Study revealed that the simulation games based on environmental components, positively affected the attitude of students towards environment. Similarly, Kaswekar (1996) studied the effectiveness of multimedia package in the development of population awareness among perspective primary teachers. The investigator reported that for developing population awareness teaching through multimedia package was found significantly effective. Bryant and Hunger Ford (1977) conducted a study in which they presented an instructional programme to Kindergarten students on environmental problems. They asked the students to describe their own and others’ responsibilities as a way of measuring students verbal commitment to action. The researchers found that students appeared more environmentally conscious after the presentation of instructional programme. Sharma (1979), Sultan (1979) and Bhargava (1981) studied the effect of instructional material on developing environmental attitude of the students. All these researchers found a significant and positive co-relationship between instructional material and environmental attitude of the students. Jaus (1984) assessed the short and long term impact of environmental instructional programmes on the attitudes of the third graders. The researcher found that in comparison to pre-test scores the group of students scored 30% higher scores in the post-test. Dutt (1998) revealed that to create awarenes? interest in students regarding

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environmental i; planned instructional material with specific lean,.., b goals should be prepared and given to the students in schools. Desh Bandhu etal., (1982), Seneviratne (1982), Rahardjo (1982), Khoshoo (1991), Kukreti (1993), Swamy (1998) and Kukreti et al (2004) etc have recognized the effective role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in creating environmental awareness among masses. Desh Bandhu et al (1982) revealed that NGOs have a vital role to play in creating environmental awareness at all levels. Chelliah (1982) indicated that in Malaysia, there are several NGOs in the country whose interest in environmental issues and action oriented programmes are effective well established and recognized. Khoshoo (1991) expressed that the role of NGOs is indeed considerable as also critical to the success in the area of environmental education. NGOs can play a very distinctive role in sensitizing people about environment. Similarly, Kukreti (1993) indicated that Voluntary organizations are in the best position in creating environmental awareness, understanding and values among the masses because these agencies are familiar with the local environmental problems and they are very much close to local people. He also suggested that the Voluntary organization which shows the best results in expansion of environmental education should be motivated by the government through providing rewards. Kukreti and Gihar (2002) also expressed that NGOs can play a significant role in creating environmental awareness among students by making video programmes on different aspects of environment. Some educationalist and eminent persons have suggested that mass media could be used as an effective tool to spread environmental awareness among people (Kwik. 1982; Rathore, 1982; Chelliah. 1982; Sekar. 1982; Kukreti, 1993; Neelima, and Nair, 2001). Rathore (1982) suggested that mass media could play a useful and effective role in global propagation of environmental metaphysics. Chunkao (1982) suggested that in Thailand, radio and T.V. programs, newspapers, poster exhibition and demonstration, movies and slide shoots and publications are widely being used as the tools of informal environmental education. Kwik (1982) stated that cartoon and documentary films on the environment, specially designed for children could be used to create environmental awareness and consciousness in the children not enrolled in formal education. Desh Bandhu and Ramanathan (1982) reported that in the International Conference on Environmental Education organized by Indian Environmental society (1981), the masscommunication media was recognized as a powerful and active tool for spreading information about environment. Brothers et al (1991) assessed the impact of TV news programmes on the p u b l i c environmental knowledge and found positive results of the programme. Kukreti (1993) indicated that mass media such as radio, TV, newspapers periodicals, feature films, and documentaries etc could be used effectively in the extension of environmental education among masses. Further the researcher also revealed that in the remote and backward areas where the formal and non-formal education is not widely spread, the environmental education could be imparted through environmental programmes telecasted and broadcasted on TV and radio. Singh (2004) in her study suggested that the programmes of UGC countrywide classroom, related to

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environment might play a significant role in enriching environmental awareness of students. The teachers should motivate the students to watch such E TV programmes. Chelliah (1982), Rahardjo (1982), Swamy (1998), Thakur (1999) and Vyas (2003) etc., emphasized the vital role of science clubs/forums and science exhibition in creating environmental awareness. Rashid (1982) suggested that “school nurseries” program particularly in rural areas may be very effective in creating the feeling of love for trees among the school children. Some special programmes like-nature education programme (Rashid, 1982), earth education programme (Van Mitre, 1990), lectures, talks and discussions on environmental issues (Chelliah, 1982; Patankar, 2000; and Vyas, 2003), projects (Mohd, 1982; Patel, 1986; Patankar, 2000; saxena, 2003 and Pardiwala, 2005), special refresher programmes (Desh Bandhu et al., 1982), learning-by-doing rather than being taught (Pardiwala, 2005), environmental short-term or long-term training programmes (Musa, 1982; Mohd, 1982; Vyas, 2003), readings and debates (Patankar,2000), seminar, conferences, and symposium on environmental issues (Chunkao,1982), nature walk (Chelliah, 1982), slide and film shows (Kwik, 1982; Chellaih,1982; and Patankar, 2000), nature and community awareness programmes (Pardiwala, 2005), environmental games (Kwik, 1982; Mohd,1982; Patankar, 2000), rural child-to-child programme (Pardiwala, 2005) and mass environmental literacy programme, environmental conservation campaigns, nature oriented co-curricular programmes in schools (Bhattacharya,1982; Vyas, 2003; Pandey,2003) etc., were also suggested by the eminent persons, environmentalists and educationist for generating environmental awareness and consciousness. Osb (1982), Desh Bandhu (1982), Swami (1998) have emphasized the mass movements on environmental issues as effective tool for enhancing environmental awareness among people. Armstrong and Impara (1992) found positive impact of environmental education programmes on knowledge and attitude of the students. Patel et al., (1995) indicated that the administration of the special Environmental Awareness Programme (EAP) on secondary school teachers was found significantly effective in enriching their environmental awareness. Dutt (1998) revealed that for inculcating awareness of environmental issues, among students, an album on nature could be prepared with the help of students, which emphasi/.es the beauty and wonders of nature. Fatma (2004) suggested that nearby the cities and township special environmental education centers should be established in which environmental education might be given to people in natural conditions. Pardiwala (2005) revealed that, “unfortunately, the much- needed bonding between people and nature can not be taught or learned through a text book within the four walls of a class-room. Human beings must be taught the art of living environmentally sustainable lives right from early childhood”. Conclusion

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After reviewing thesis, dissertations periodicals, journals, surveys on education from the library of NCERT, NIEPA, Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi University, Jawaharlal Nehru University, ICSSR and ERIC data base, the investigator found that no research work has been done exactly on the same topic in India and abroad. Therefore, the present study to the best of the investigator knowledge is a first step towards finding out the awareness and attitude of preservice, inservice teachers and teacher educators towards environmental problems.

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CHAPTER3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Designof theStudy Introduction “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner than aims to combine the relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure to support or refute a knowledge claim.” (Mertens, 1998) Research design is the blue print of procedure with the help of which the researcher carry out the research work. It is a plan of action, a plan for collecting and analyzing data in an economic, efficient and relevant manner. A research design could be constructed either to test a hypothesis or to study the cause and effect relationship in a situation. Adequately planned and executed design helps in permitting us to rely on both our observation and inferences. In other words, research design is a logical model of proof that allows the researcher to draw influences concerning causal relations among variables under investigation. It also tells us whether the obtained interpretation can be generalised to larger population or to different situation. Selection of a particular design is based upon the purpose of research, the type of variables to be manipulated and the limiting factor under which it is conducted. This chapter furnishes a brief outline of the research design followed in the present study. Objectives General Objectives 1) To study and compare the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers with respect to a) interaction between group, discipline and qualification b) qualification (postgraduate/ graduate) c) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities) d) group (preservice and inservice) 2) To study and compare the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers with respect to a) interaction between group, discipline and qualification b) qualification (postgraduate / graduate).

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c) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities) d) group (preservice and inservice) 3) To study the awareness or environmental problems among teacher educators with respect to a) interaction between discipline and qualification b) qualification (postgraduate/ Ph.D) c) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities). 4) To study the attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators with respect to a) interaction between discipline and qualification b) qualification (postgraduate/ Ph.D). c) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities). 5) To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems. Specific Objectives 1 . To study the awareness of environmental problems among preservice, inservice teachers & teacher educators. 2. To study the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice, inservice teachers & teacher educators. 3. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the awareness of

environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 4. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the attitude towards

environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 5. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the awareness of

environmental problems among teacher educators. 6. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interactions on the attitude towards

environmental problems among teacher educators. 7. To compare the awareness of environmental problems between preservice and inservice teachers. 8. To compare the attitude towards environmental problems between preservice and inservice teachers. 9. To study the interaction effect of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice) their

discipline and qualification on the awareness of environmental problems.

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10. To study the interaction effect of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems. 11. To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems. Null Hypothesis 1) There is no significant effect of interaction between discipline and qualification on the mean awareness

performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test. 2) There is no significant effect of discipline on the mean awareness performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test. 3) There is no significant effect of qualification on the mean awareness performance of

preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test. 4) There is no significant effect of interaction between discipline and qualification on the mean attitude

performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale. 5) There is no significant effect of discipline on the mean attitude performance of preservice and inservice

teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale. 6) There is no significant effect of qualification on the mean attitude performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale. 7) There is no significant effect of interaction between discipline and qualification on the mean awareness

performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution awareness test. 8) There is no significant effect of discipline on the mean awareness performance of teachers educators in

environmental pollution awareness test. 9) There is no significant effect of qualification on the mean awareness performance of

teachers educators in environmental pollution awareness test. 10) There is no significant effect of interaction between discipline and qualification on the mean attitude performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution attitude scale. 11) There is no significant effect of discipline on the mean attitude performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution attitude scale. 12) There is no significant effect of qualification on the mean attitude performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution attitude scale. 13) There is no significant difference between the mean awareness performance of

preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test.

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14) There is no significant difference between the mean attitude performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale. 15) There is no significant interaction effect of the type of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the awareness of environmental problems. 16) There is no significant interaction effect of the type of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems. 17) There is no significant relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems .

Sample Preservice Teachers Three hundred preservice teachers pursuing one year full time B.Ed program were selected from the teacher training institution of Delhi university, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP university in the following manner. • Delhi University : Hundred pre service teachers (34 from Science, 33 from Social Science & 33 from

Humanities )were selected. • IASE, Jamia Millia Islamia: Hundred preservice teachers (33 from Science, 34 from Social Science and 33 from Humanities) were selected. • GGSIP University: Hundred preservice teachers( 34 from Humanities.33 from science and 33 from Social Science) were selected from 3 teacher training institutions under GGSIP University. Inservice Teachers Three Hundred inservice teachers teaching at the secondary and senior secondary level in the schools of Delhi Government were selected for the present study in the following manner. There are elevens districts and twenty eight zones in Delhi .Out of eleven districts, five districts were selected randomly ie North ,North East, South, South West and Central Delhi .From each district ,one zone was selected randomly. From each zone, ten schools were selected randomly and from each selected school, six teachers were selected purposefully out of which two teachers each from science, social science and humanities were selected. Teacher Educators All the teacher educators teaching one year full time B.Ed, program in the teacher training institutions of Delhi University, GGSIP University and Jamila Millia Islamia were selected for the study. Tools Used The tools used in the study are mentioned as under:

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a) Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale b) Environmental Pollution Awareness Test a) Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale To study the attitude of the selected group, the investigator used Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale developed, designed, validated by Dr. M. Rajamanicam and published by Institute of Community Guidance and Research, Chennai, India in 1998. Introduction of the scale The environmental pollution attitude scale was originally designed, developed and validated in 1995 for assessing an individual’s or a group’s attitude towards environmental pollution. It has 30 statement dealing with all possible forms of environmental pollution. It is a five point scale having five response categories. The score ranges from 30 (lowest) to 150 (highest). The highest score indicates favourable attitude and the lowest score indicates unfavourable attitude towards environmental pollution. The reliability of the scale is 0.84 and the validity of the scale is 0.92. The test was standardized on 465 individuals between the age group of 20 to 55 years belonging to student and employed categories. Description of the scale The EPAS consist of 30 statements referring to some aspects of environmental pollution. There are 15 positive statements towards the environmental pollution and 15 negative statements against the environmental pollution.The positive statement indicates that there is environmental pollution and the negative statements express that there is no environmental pollution. In every statement, one idea either in favour of or against environmental pollution is expressed. Under each statement five response such as strongly agree, agree, unable to decide, disagree and strongly disagree are provided. The participant has to express his opinion about the idea given in each statement by underlining only one of the five responses with which he/ she agrees. The responses may be assigned with scores according to the procedure given in the key. The total score of all the statements constitutes the individual score. The high score indicates the favourable and the low score indicates the unfavourable attitude towards environmental pollution. Administration of the scale The EPAS can be administered on an individual or on a group at the same time, thus serving the purpose of individual / group test .The total time limit for recording all the responses is 25 to 30 minutes . Method of Scoring The EPAS scale items can be scored with the help of scoring key in the follows manner. Table 3.1

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Method of Scoring the Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale Statements Positive Statement Response Strongly Agree Agree Unable to decide Disagree Strongly disagree Negative Statement Strongly agree Agree Unable to decide Disagree Strongly disagree Score i5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

The total score of all items constitute the individual’s score in this scale. The highest Possible score in this scale is 150 and the lowest possible score is 30. The highest and the lowest score indicates the favorable and unfavorable attitude towards environmental pollution respectively. The scores in between the highest and the lowest indicates various degrees of favorable and unfavorable attitude towards environmental pollution. Range of Scores and Norms The scores of Environmental pollution Attitude Scale lies between 30 to 150. The range of scores and norms of Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale are mentioned in the table as under: Table 3. 2 Range of Scores and Norms Environmental pollution Attitude Scale S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Ranges of Scores 136-150 106-135 76-105 46-75 30-45 Nature of Attitude Extremely Favorable Attitude Moderately Favorable Attitude Neutral Attitude Moderately Unfavorable Attitude Extremely Unfavorable Attitude Weight age 5 4 3 2 1

b) Environmental Pollution Awareness Test A test is a context designed to elicit predecided response which can be classified by acceptable or otherwise with reference to some accepted standard or absolute criteria (Mertens,1998).

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Content of the test After exploring the contemporary literature on environmental pollution from various sources such as Books, Journals, Articles,Central Pollution Control Board reports, national newspapers and leading dailies, T.V. reports; the investigator prepared a blue Print of the test content to present the status of test items before and after pre try out has been mentioned as under: Table 3.3 Blue Print of Environmental Pollution Awareness Test Content of test Types of Pollution its sources, impact on environment and remedial solution Air Pollution Water pollution Soil Pollution Noise Pollution Radio active pollution Solid waste Pollution Environmental Law Total Status of Test Items

Before Pre try out 25 9 7 7 9 9 9 75

After pre try out 14 8 4 4 4 6 Nil 40

The investigator keeping in view the nature of the topic, the objective of test and the sample group decided to construct the multiple choice type test. The investigator consulted books on measurement and evaluation to gather information related to construction of multiple choice type questions, its advantages and limitations. To study the environmental awareness, eighty multiple choice test items were framed on the basis of information from various sources such as books, journals, articles, central pollution control board reports, newspapers and the contemporary literature were also explored in collecting the ideas for constructing the items of environmental pollution awareness test. These test items were cyclostyled in the form of booklet and sent to thirty experts belonging to the field of education, environmental science, measurement and evaluation. They were requested to review the test items keeping into consideration the principle’s of measurement and evaluation, subject matter and editorial quality.

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On the basis of experts comment, some test items were dropped and some of them were modified to avoid any ambiguity. After experts comment, the investigator again reviewed the test item by following Harper’s check list (1990) for reviewing and editing of multiple choice test items which is mentioned below. A) General criteria 1. Is the items measuring significant context 2. Can the item be attempted correctly by about half (30% to 80%) of the candidate 3. Can the answer be deduced by means of clues 4. Is the item culturally neutral. 5. Is the item overloaded with words 6. Is the item dependent on other items in the test. 7. Is it a track or catch questions. B) Checking the options 1. Can individual guess the answer from the options alone. 2. Are all options clearly exclusive. 3. Is there repetition of words in options, which can be included in the stem. 4. Is essential difference between options clear 5. Are options written in logical order. C) Check the stem 1. Is the task or problems well set in the stem 2. Can the stem be worked more concisely and clearly. 3. Is the stem worded positively. If not is the negative word capitalized or underlined for emphasis. D) Check the key 1. Is there any one correct or best answer 2. Is the key distinct or partially correct 3. Can the key be improved to make it more clear or correct E) Check the distractors 1. Are all the distracters completely incorrect or partially correct

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2. Can any distractor be taken as right best answer 3. Are certain words like all, never, always etc. are used which clearly indicated that it is wrong or cannot be the correct answer. 4. Is there any error in the wording that make it obviously unlikely answer According to Vaughan (1966), the number of test items which should be constructed for try out is always larger than the number needed for the finished test. After self reviewing of the test items as well as experts comment on the test, the investigator finalized 75 test items for pre try out. Scoring A test item is a scoring unit (Ebel, 1950). A scoring key was also prepared by the investigator to score responses on the master sheet. Weight age and the Range of Scores A weight age of one mark was assigned to each correct response and zero to each incorrect response. The minimum score in the test will be 0 and the maximum score in the test will be 40 as The Environmental Pollution Awareness Test consist of forty items so the scores for Environmental Pollution Awareness Test will be in between (0 to 40). Sample for Pre Tryout The test before pre try out was designed in the form of booklet with covering letter and answer sheet attached to it. The covering letter explained the respondent the \ purpose of research, the importance of their participation in it and an assurance to maintain their confidentiality throughout the research work. The answer sheet included two pages. The first page explained the complete set of instructions to attempt the test and directions to mark the responses. The second page of the answer sheet had number of questions from one to seventy five and against each question number, four responses were indicated out of which one was correct and others were the distractors. The respondents were asked to tick or blacken the response (any one) which they feel is the correct or the best. The test was administrated on a sample of sixty preservice and sixty inservice teachers in an informal atmosphere. The respondents were free to clarify their confusion related to the test, its items and the directions. Pre try out was conducted on the sample of sixty preservice teachers and sixty inservice teachers selected in the following manner: • Pre service teachers : Sixty preservice teachers(20 from Science ,20 from Social Science and 20 from

Humanities discipline ) pursuing one year full time B.Ed program were selected from the teacher training institutions of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP University • Inservice teachers: Sixty inservice teachers teaching at secondary and senior secondary

level in the schools of Delhi Government were selected in the following manner. Out of eleven districts, five districts

64
were chosen randomly. Out of five districts ,one zone in each district was chosen randomly. From each zone.two schools were chosen randomly and from each school, six teachers were selected purposefully ,two each from Science, Social Science and Humanities. After pre tryout on a sample of 120, the raw data’s were subjected to item analysis to study the item difficulty, item discrimination value, reliability and validity of the test and analysis of the distractors. Item Analysis According to Grounlund and Linn (1990), item analysis is conducted to ensure. • the level of difficulty of the items is appropriate. • the test is reliable. • the clarity of the task of each item • the straight forwardness of the test • the cultural fairness of each item where the influence of other item of the test is minimized and where successful completion of one item is not dependent on successful completion of another item. It is a statistical technique which is used for selecting and rejecting the items of a test on the basis of their difficulty value and discriminative power. Item analysis is concerned with the two characteristic of an item. a) b) a) Difficulty value The difficulty value of an item is defined as the proportion or percentage of the examinees who have answered the item correctly (Guilford, 1954). The acceptable limit of difficulty index is 25% to 75%.It can be calculated by the following method H+L/2N x 100 where , H = number of correct responses in high achievers group. L= number of correct responses in low achievers group. N= number of students in higher/ lower group (A group) Difficulty value Discrimination power

b) Discriminative power

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Index of discrimination is that ability of an item on the basis of which the discrimination is made between the superior and inferiors (Blood, 1972).The acceptable limit of discrimination index is 0.20.8. It can be calculated by the following method. H-L/N where , H = number of correct responses in high achievers group (usually 27% of the total cases). L= number of correct responses in low achievers group (usually 27% of the total cases). N= number of students in higher/ lower (a group). Discriminative power is of two types (i) (ii) (i) Item reliability Item validity Item reliability:

It is the degree to which an item distinguishes between high and low groups on the basis of the same test scores (Loveinger, 1954). It is taken as point biserial correlation between an item and the total test score multiplied by item standard deviation. (ii) Item validity

It is the degree to which an item distinguishes between high and low groups on the basis of some other criterion test scores other than the test prepared (Loveinger, 1954).It is taken as point biserial correlation between an item and a criterion score multiplied by the item standard deviation. Item analysis by point biserial technique It is used when one variable is on continuous scale and other on the discrete scale-right or wrong. It item analysis the subject scores are on continuous scale and item scores are right or wrong on the other scale and item scores are right and wrong on the other scale. For the right response, one mark is assigned and for the wrong response zero mark is given. In item analysis, scoring is done in two ways of the same answer sheets. Subject wise scoring on continuous scale and item wise scoring on true dichotomy i.e. right and wrong ( 1 or 0) The formula for the point biserial correlation is
r

pbis = Mp – Mq /  √pq) ×

(point biserial r is a coefficient of correlation). Where, Mp = mean of the subjects scores who have answered the item correctly.

66
Mq = mean of the subjects scores who have answered the item correctly or wrongly. p = proportion of the subject who have answered the item correctly. q = (1-p) is proportion of the subjects who have answered the item correctly or wrongly  = Standard deviation of total scores of the subject The point biserial technique directly provides difficulty and discrimination index of an item. Distractor Analysis Distractors are the stuff of multiple choice test items, where incorrect alternatives are offered and students have to select the correct alternatives. Here a simple frequency count of the number of times a particular alternative is selected will provide information on the effectiveness of the distractor. If it is selected many times then it is working effectively. If it is seldom or never selected then it is not working effectively and it should be replaced. In the present research study, item analysis was performed by point biserial technique to study the difficulty value and discrimination power of the test items. The difficulty index ranges from 25-75% and the index of discrimination ranges from 0.2-0.8. Most of the items selected were in between the range of 0.4 to 0.6 as index of discrimination and with difficulty value between 40% to 60% . Reliability Reliability means consistency of scores obtained by same individual when re-examined with the test an different sets of equivalent items or under other variable existing conditions. (Anastasi 1968). Reliability of the test was calculated by using split half method. In this method the whole test is split into two halves taking even numbered items in one halve and odd numbered items in second halve. The scoring of each item of the test is done separately for these two halves and coefficient of correlation is calculated which indicates the reliability of the half test. The reliability of the whole test is calculated by using Spearman- Brown formula. FORMULA
r

tt = 2rhh

1+rhh
Where rhh = Correlation Between two halves of the test.

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The reliability of Environmental Pollution Awareness Test was calculated in the following manner. The test items were numbered from 1 to 40. The odd numbered items were made into a scale and the even numbered items were made into another scale. Thus twenty items in one scale and twenty items in the other scale.The scores of the items were correlated. Reliability of the test was worked out by using split half method and calculated by Spearman Brown Formula. The reliability value of test is 0.68. Validity It is extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure (Chronbach,I970) The validity of the tool is another prerequisite for a measuring instrument apart from the reliability. Validity is inferred from the test score. It is generally referring to the appropriatness of inferences from the test scores. The question is how faithfully the scores represent the area of measurement and also to which extent it is related to another or some other test of similar type. Therefore the validity is determined with the extensity of the test in measuring a variable to the level of another test which measures the same variable significantly. The is supposed to reveal the characteristic that a person is presumed to possess. Content validity of the test was done by sending the test items it to thirty experts in the area of measurement and evaluation, environmental studies, education, environmental education. Out of eighty test items framed by the investigator, seventy five were finalised after experts judgement with modifications for pre try out. After pre try out, the raw datas were subjected to item analysis. After item analysis, forty test items out of seventy five were finalized for the final try out. Data Collection In the presen^ research there were three categories of sample and the procedure of data collection was different for different categories. Preservice Teachers The investigator took permission from head of the concerned institutes and obtained a list of preservice teachers from the office. The preservice teachers were briefed about the research work and one week was fixed for data collection. The tools were administered on the selected sample on fixed schedule.AH the necessary instructions were given to them and doubts were clarified for recording of the responses. Inservice Teachers The investigator took permission from the Directorate of Education, old secretariat, shamnath marg and collected a school master list containing information about educational districts, zones and schools for data collection from teachers teaching at secondary and senior secondary level in the schools of Delhi

68
Government. The educational districts, zones and schools were selected randomly but the teachers from each school were selected purposefully . Tools were administered on the selected sample of inservice teachers. It was not possible to collect data from inservice teachers on one fixed day even in one school so, the data collection process streached for a long period. All the doubts and the instructions related to the tools were made clear to the sample by the investigator and test was administered in an informal atmosphere. Teacher Educators The investigator took permission from Head of the concerned institute and obtained a list of teacher educators from the office. The tools were administered on the sample as Per fixed schedule with them. The investigator clarified all the doubts related to the tool and all the instructions were given to them for recording of the responses. Delimitation 1. The study was confined to the preservice teachers pursuing one year full time B.Ed, program from the teacher training institutions of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP University, Delhi. 2. The study was delimited to the teacher educators teaching one year full time B.Ed program in the teacher training institutions of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP University. 3. The study was confined to the inservice teachers teaching at secondary and senior

secondary level in the schools of Delhi Government. 4. The study was confined to environmental pollution problems only

CHAPTER 4 STATISTICAL MEASURES Analysis and Interpretations Introduction The mass of data collected through the administration of tools on the selected sample as such has no meaning unless these are analysed and interpreted for drawing sound conclusion and generalizations. Data Analysis means studying the tabulated material in order to determine the inherent facts. It inVolves breaking up the facts, breaking up of complex factors into simpler parts and putting them into new arrangements for the purpose of interaction.The first step in the data analysis is its organization. Organization of data includes editing, classifying and tabulating the information. Editing implies checking of gathered data for accuracy and usefulness. Classification refers to divisions of data into different categories. Tabulations denotes the recording of the classified categories.(Cresswell & Cresswell,2002)

69
The statistical measures used in the present study were Mean, SD, t test, F test (2 and 3 Way ANOVA), Coefficient of Correlation. Mean (X) It is a measure of the central tendency or of the average numerical value of a set of scores. It is calculated by adding all scores and dividing the sum by the number of scores. It is calculated by the following formula: For ungrouped scores (X) = x

N

Where

(X)  X N

= = = =

Mean Sum of Scores in a distribution Number of Scores

For grouped scores X = fx

N

Where

(X)  X N

= = = =

Mean Sum of Scores in a distribution Number of Scores

fx = Total Frequency

Standard Deviation It is a measure of variability, dispersion or spread of a set of scores around their mean value. Mathematically, the standard deviation is the square root of the mean of the squared deviations of the scores from the mean of the distribution of scores. The more closely the scores in a distribution cluster about the mean, the smaller the standard deviation. It is denoted by the letter  of the Greek alphabet and was first suggested by Karl Pearson as a measure of dispersion in 1893, The formula for  when scores are ungrouped is
σ = ∑Χ2

N

The formula for a when data are grouped into a frequency distribution is

70
σ = ∑ fΧ2

N

t test The t lest is used to determine whether two means are significantly different at a selected probability level. In other words, for a given sample size the t indicates how often a difference (x1 – x2) as large or larger would be found when there is no true population difference. The strategy of the t-test is to compare the actual mean difference observed (x1 – x2) with the difference expected by chance. The t test involves forming the ratio of these two values. In other words, the numerator for a t test is the difference between the sample means (x1 – x2) and be expected if the null hypothesis were true - the standard error of the difference between the means. The denominator is a function of both sample size and group variance. The t- ratio determines whether the observed difference is sufficiently larger than a difference which would be expected by chance. The formula for t - test is as follows: t= (x1 – x2)

S1 S2 + 2 N1 N2
x1= M e a n s a m p l e x2 = Mean of control sample o f e x p e r i m e n t a l

2

N1 = No. of cases in experimental sample N2 = No. of cases in control sample S12 S22 = Variance of experimental sample = Variance of control sample.

The calculated t value is compared with the table t value to determine the degree of significance. F test (ANOVA) Analysis of variance is used to determine whether there is a significant difference between two or means at a selected probability level .The concept underlying ANOVA is that the total variation or

N variance of scores can be attributed to two sources variance between groups and variance within groups. It
forms F ratio with group differences as the numerator and an error terms as the denominator. F ratio = variance between the groups /variance within the groups The calculated F value is compared with the table F value to determine the degree of significance.

71
Factorial Design Many experiments are concerned with the influence of two or more independent variables, usually called factor, on a dependent variable. The number of ways in which a factor is varied is called the number of levels of the factor. Thus, a factor which is varied in two ways would be said to have two levels and a factor which is varied in three ways would be said to have three levels. With two or more factors each with two or more levels, a treatment consists of a combination of one level for each factor. When the treatment consist of all possible different combinations of one level from each factor, and we have an equal number of observations for each treatment, the experiment is described as complete factorial experiment with equal replications. In the present research. ANOVA (3 and 2 Way) has been performed to study the interactions between the variables under consideration. Correlation Whenever two variables of the same group are so related that the increase or decrease of one variable corresponds to the increase or decrease to another or conversely, they are said to be correlated. Types of Correlations • Positive Correlation: It means that the increase of one variable corresponds to the increase of another variable, or the decrease of one variable corresponds to the decrease of another variable. A perfect positive correlation is +1.00. • Negative Correlation: It means that the increase of one variable corresponds to the decrease of another or the decrease of one variable corresponds to the increase of another variable. A perfect negative correlation is-1.00. • Zero correlation: When the relationship between two sets of variable is a pure chance relationship. A complete lack of relationship is 0. Co-efficient of Correlation Correlation is the relationship between two or more paired variables or two or more sets of data. The degree of relationship is measured and represented by the coefficient of correlation. Correlation can be calculated by the following methods • Karl Pearson Method • Rank Correlation Method

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• • • Coefficient of contingency method. Phi-Coefficient method. Karl pearson coefficient of correlation has been used in the present study to find out

relationship between the variables. The coefficient of correlation can be calculated by the formula.

r=
Where

Ν ∑ ΧΥ − ∑ Χ ∑ Υ [ Ν ∑ Χ − ( ∑ Χ) 2 ][ Ν ∑ Υ2 − ( ∑ Υ) 2 ]
2

r x y  N X2 Y2 XY

= = = = = = = =

coefficient of correlation Sum of X scores Sum of Y scores sum of Number of paired scores Sum of squared X scores Sum of squared Y scores Sum of the products of paired X and Y scores.

Objectives General Objectives 1) To study and compare the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers with respect to a) interaction between group, discipline and qualification b) qualification (postgraduate/graduate) c) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities) d) group (preservice and inservice) 2) To study and compare the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers with respect to a) b) c) d) interaction between group, discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate / graduate). discipline (science/ social science/ humanities) group (preservice and inservice)

73
3) To study the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators with respect to a) b) c) interaction between discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate/ Ph.D) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities).

4) To study the attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators with respect to a) b) c) interaction between discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate/ Ph.D). discipline (science/ social science/ humanities).

5) To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems. Specific Objectives 1. To study the awareness of environmental problems among preservice, inservicc teachers & teacher educators. 2. To study the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice, inservice teachers & teacher educators. 3. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the awareness of

environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 4. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the attitude towards

environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 5. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the awareness of

environmental problems among teacher educators. 6. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interactions on the attitude towards

environmental problems among teacher educators. 7. To compare the awareness of environmental problems between preservice and inservice teachers. 8. To compare the attitude towards environmental problems between preservice and inservice teacher. 9. To study the interaction effect of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice) their

discipline and qualification on the awareness of environmental problems. 10. To study the interaction effect of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems. 11. To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems

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Objective 1: To study the awareness of environmental problems teachers, inservice teacher and teacher educators. Table 4.1 The Mean Performance of Preservice, Inservice Teachers and Teacher Educators in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test Teachers Preservice Teachers Inservice Teachers Teacher Educators N 300 300 90 Mean 16.94 15.36 11.21 SD 7.62 6.47 2.38 among preservice

To achieve the above objectives, the mean and SD were computed by using the scores of preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators. According to table 4.1 the mean and SD of preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators were 16.94 and 7.62, 15.36 and 6.47, 11.21 and 2.38 respectively.The mean score of preservice teachers , inservice teachers and teacher educators were (M= 16.94), (M = 15.36) and (M= 11.21) respectively in the environmental pollution awareness test and does not reached the average environmental awareness (M = 20) as the total test items were forty with a scoring of 0,1 so it can be concluded that preservice teachers , inservice teachers and teacher educators were below average in their awareness of environmental problems . Objective 2: To study the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators. Table 4.2 The Mean Performance of Preservice, Inservice Teachers and Teacher Educators in Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale. Teachers Preservice Teachers Inservice Teachers Teacher Educators N 300 300 90 Mean 100.31 97.95 92.28 SD 19.33 19.31 12.40

To achieve the above objectives, the mean and SD were computed by using the scores of preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators. According to table 4.2 , the mean and SD of preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators were 100.31 and 19.33, 97.95 and 19.31, 92.28 and 12.40 respectively. The mean score of preservice teachers (M= 100.31), inservice teachers (M= 97.95) and teachers educators (M = 92.28) fell in the score range (76-105) of environmental pollution attitude scale which represented neutral attitude towards

75
environmental problems . It can be concluded that preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators were neutral in their attitude towards environmental problems . Objective 3: To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. Null Hypothesis 1) There is no significant effect of interaction between discipline and qualification on the

mean awareness performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test. 2) There is no significant effect of discipline on the mean awareness performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test. 3) There is no significant effect of qualification on the mean awareness performance of

preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test. Table 4.3 The Effect of Discipline, Qualification and their Interaction on the Mean Performance of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test. Summary of 3 x 2 way ANO VA Sources of Variance Interaction between discipline and qualification (3 x 2) Discipline (3) qualification (2) significant at 0.01 level = 6.69 To achieve the above objective 2 x 3 way ANOVA was performed The F ratio was computed on the Sum of Squares 118.101 55.297 620.40 Mean Square 59.050 27.649 620.401 df 2 2 1 F ratio 1.19 0.56 12.58**

basis of preservice and inservice teachers scores discipline and qualification wise. 3a) The table 4.3 reflects than there was no significant interaction between discipline and qualification in the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers as the F ratio (1.19) was less than the F table value (4.65) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 1 was accepted at 0.05 level of significance and it can be concluded that discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to make an impact on the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. The observed interaction can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. However Padhan (1995) found an interaction between discipline and qualification in the environmental awareness of preservice teacher trainees of teacher training institutions located in Bhopal.

76
3b) The table 4.3 reveals that there was no significant effect of discipline on the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers as the F ratio (0.56) was less than the F table value (4.65) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 2 was accepted at 0.05 level of significance. The mean value of science teachers (M = 17.28) was higher than social science teachers (M= 15.75) followed by humanities teachers (M = 15.49) but was not statistically significant. Hence, it can be concluded that difference in the subject background did not made any difference in the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers and the observed difference can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. The above findings were similar to the findings of Nwosu (1986) and Cortes (1985) who found that difference in the subject background did not made any difference in the environmental awareness of teacher trainees of Nigeria and Phillipines but in discord with the findings of Ayishabi (1995) who found that subject background made a difference in the environmental awareness of science and non science students^ of degree level. It was supported by Padhan (1995) who found that difference in the subject background made a difference in the environmental awareness of preservice teachers. 3c) The table 4.3 reflects that there was a significant effect of qualification on the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers as the F ratio (12.58) was higher than the F table value (6.69) at 0.01 level of significance. The null hypothesis 3 was untenable at 0.01 level. Therefore it can be concluded that difference in the qualification made a difference in the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 3.c.i) Comparison of the awareness of environmental problems between preservice graduate and preservice postgraduate teachers. Null Hypothesis 3.c.i) There is no significant difference between the mean awareness performance of preservice graduate and preservice postgraduate teachers in environmental pollution awareness test. Table 4.4 Comparison between the Mean Performance of Preservice Graduate and Preservice Post Graduate Teachers in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test. Qualification Postgraduate Teachers 298 Graduate 170 15.99 7.81 1.98* N 130 Mean 17.72 SD 7.47 df t

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Teachers  Significant at 0.05 level = 1.97 To achieve the above objective mean and SD were calculated on the basis of preservice teachers score qualification wise. The mean and SD of graduate and postgraduate preservice teachers were 17.72 and 7.47, 15.99 and 7.81 respectively. The t test was computed to compare the mean performance of preservice graduate and postgraduate teachers. The table 4.4 reflects that there was a significant difference between the awareness of preservice graduate and postgraduate teachers about environmental problems . As the t value (1.98) was higher than the t table value (1.97) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 3.c.i was rejected at 0.05 level of significance. The preservice teachers differed in their awareness of environmental problems qualification wise. The postgraduate preservice teachers (M= 17.72) surpassed graduate preservice teachers (M= 15.99) in their awareness and it can be concluded that the higher the qualification the better was the awareness of environmental problems among preservice teachers. The above findings was supported by Padhan (1995) who reported that preservice postgraduate teachers surpassed preservice graduate teachers in their environmental awareness. 3.c.ii) Comparison of the awareness of environmental problems between inservice graduate and inservice postgraduate teachers. Null Hypothesis 3.c.ii) There is no significant difference between the mean awareness performance of inservice graduate and inservice postgraduate teachers in environmental pollution awareness test. Table 4.5 Comparison between the Mean Awareness Performance of In service Graduate and In service Post Graduate Teachers in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test. Qualification Postgraduate Teachers 298 Graduate Teachers ** significant at 0.01 level = 2.59 To achieve the above objective mean and SD were calculated on the basis of inservice teachers score qualification wise. The mean and SD of graduate and postgraduate inservice teachers were 13.82 and 5.58, 16.03 and 6.82 respectively. The t test was computed to compare the mean performance of inservice graduate and 89 13.82 5.58 2.70** N 211 Mean 16.03 SD 6.82 df t

78
inservice postgraduate teachers. The table 4.5 reflects that there was a significant difference between the awareness of inservice graduate and postgraduate teachers about environmental problems . As the t value (2.70) was higher than the t table value (2.59) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 3.C.ii was rejected at 0.05 level of significance. The inservice teachers differed in their awareness of environmental problems qualification wise. The postgraduate inservice teachers (M=16.03) surpassed graduate inservice teachers (M= 13.82) in their awareness and it can be concluded that the higher the qualification the better was the awareness of environmental problems among inservice teachers. The above findings was supported by Padhan (1995) who reported that preservice postgraduate teachers surpassed preservice graduate teachers in their environmental awareness. 3.c.iii) Comparison of the awareness of environmental problems between presevice graduate and inservice graduate teachers Null Hypothesis 3.c.iii) There is no significant difference between the mean awareness performance of presevice graduate and inservice graduate teachers in environmental pollution awareness test, Table 4.6 Comparisons of the Mean Awareness Performance of Preservice and Inservice Graduate Teachers in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test. Graduate Preservice Teachers 257 2.61** N 170 Mean 15.99 SD 7.81 df t

Inservice Teachers

89

13.82

5.58

** Significant at 0.01 level = 2.59 To achieve the above objective, t test was computed on the basis of the mean and SD value of preservice and inservice graduate teachers. The table 4.6 reveals that there was a significant difference between the preservice graduate and inservice graduate teachers in their awareness of environmental problems as the t value (2.61) was higher than the t table value (2.59) at 0.01 level. The null hypothesis 3.c.iii was untenable at 0.01 level. It can be concluded that preservice graduate teachers (M=15.99) surpassed inservice graduate teachers (M=13.82) in their awareness. It can further be interpreted, the graduate teachers before service were most aware of the environmental

79
problems than the inservice graduate teachers.There was no previous finding in support of or in contrast with the above findings. 3.c.iv) Comparison of the awareness of environmental problems between inservice post graduate and preservice post graduate teachers. Null Hypotheses 3.c.iv )There is no significant difference between the mean awareness performance of inservice postgraduate and preservice postgraduate teachers in environmental pollution awareness test Table 4.7 Comparison of the Mean Awareness Performance of Preservice and Inservice Post Graduate Teachers in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test. Postgraduate t Preservice Teachers 339 2.11* 130 17.72 7.47 N Mean SD df

Inservice Teachers

211

16.03

6.82

* Significant at 0.05 level= 1.97 To achieve the above objective t test was computed on the basis of mean and SD value of preservice postgraduate and inservice postgraduate teachers. The table 4.7 reveals that there was a significant difference between preservice postgraduate and inservice postgraduate teachers in their awareness of environmental problems as the t value (2.11) was higher than the t table value (1.97) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 3.c.iv was untenable at 0.05 level. It can be concluded that preservice postgraduate teachers (M = 17.72) surpassed inservice postgraduate teachers (M=16.03) in their awareness and it can further be interpreted that postgraduate teachers before service were more aware of environmental problems than inservice postgraduate teachers. There was no previous findings in support of or in contrast with the above findings.

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Objective 4: To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the attitude towards environment problems among preservice and inservice teachers. Null hypothesis 4) There is no significant effect of interaction between discipline and qualification on

the mean attitude performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale 5) There is no significant effect of discipline on the mean attitude performance of

preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale 6) There is no significant effect of qualification on the mean attitude performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale Table 4.8 The Effect of Discipline, Qualification and their Interaction on the Mean Performance of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale Summary of 3x2 way ANOVA Sources of Variation Sum of squares Interaction between discipline and qualification (3x2) Discipline (3) Qualification (2) * Significant at 0.05 level = 3.86 To achieve the above objectives 2 x 3 way ANOVA was performed. The F ratio was computed on 415.834 1781.101 207.917 1781.101 2 1 0.62 5.36* 1002.81 Mean squares 501.090 2 1.50 df F ratio

the basis of preservice and inservice teachers score discipline and qualification wise. 4a) The table 4.8 reflects that there was no significant effect of interaction between discipline and qualification on the attitude of preservice and inservice teachers towards environmental problems as the F ratio (1.50) was less than the F table value (3.01) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis 4 was rejected at 0.05 level and it can be concluded that discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to make a significant impact on the attitude of preservice and inservice teachers towards environment prablems. The observed interaction effect can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. There were no previous findings to support or in discord with the above findings.

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4b) The table 4.8 reveals that there was no significant effect of discipline on the attitude of preservice and inservice teacher towards environmental problems as the F ratio (0.62) was less than the F table value (3.01) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 5 was accepted at 0.05 level. The mean value of science teachers (M= 100.32) was higher than the social science teachers (M = 99.38) followed by humanities teachers (M= 97.68) but was not statistically significant. Subject background did not made any difference in the attitude of preservice and inservice teachers towards environmental problems . The observed effect can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. The above findings was in contrast with the findings of Ayishabi (1995) who reported that science students had positive and non science students had neutral attitude towards environmental problems studying at degree level. 4c) It can be interpreted from table 4.8 that there was a significant effect of qualification on the attitude of preservice and inservice teachers towards environmental problems as the F ratio (5.36) was higher than the F table value (3.86) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis 6 was untenable at 0.05 level. It can be concluded that difference in the qualification made a difference in the attitude of preservice and inservice teachers towards environmental problems. 4.c.i) Comparison of the attitude of preservice graduate and pre service postgraduate teachers towards environmental problems. Null Hypothesis 4.c.i) There is no significant difference between the mean attitude performance of preservice graduate and pre service postgraduate teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale. Table 4.9 Comparison between the Mean Attitude Performance of Preservice Graduate and Preservice Post Graduate Teachers in Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale Qualification t Postgraduate 1.98* Graduate *Significant at 0.05 level = 1.97 To achieve the above objective mean and SD were computed on the basis of preservice teachers score qualification wise. According to table 4.9 ,the mean and SD of preservice graduate and postgraduate teachers were 97.56 and 23.26, 101.46 and 13.66 respectively. The t test was applied to compare the mean 170 97.56 23.26 130 101.46 13.66 298 N Mean SD df

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performance of two groups. There was a significant difference between the mean performance of preservice graduate and postgraduate teachers as the t value (1.98) was higher than the t table value (1.97) at 0.05 level. The preservice postgraduate teachers (M= 101.46) surpassed preservice graduate teachers (M = 97.56) in their attitude towards environmental problems. The null hypothesis 4.c.i was untenable at 0.05 level and it can be concluded that higher the qualification the better was the attitude of preservice teachers towards environmental problems. 4.c.ii) Comparison of the attitude of inservice graduate and inservice postgraduate teachers towards environmental problems . Null Hypothesis 4.c.ii) There is no significant difference between the mean attitude performance of inservice of inservice graduate and inservice postgraduate teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale. To achieve the above objective mean and SD were computed on the basis of inservice teachers score qualification wise. The mean and SD of inservice postgraduate and graduate teachers were 99.20 and 17.56, 96.34 and 21.42 respectively. For the comparison of mean performance between the two groups, t test was computed. Table 4.10 Comparison between the Mean Performance of In service Graduate and In service Post Graduate Teachers in Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale Qualification t Postgraduate 1.28 Graduate 89 96.34 21.42 211 99.20 17.56 298 N Mean SD df

The table 4.10 reflects that there was no significant difference between the attitude of inservice postgraduate and graduate teachers towards environmental problems as the t value (1.28) was less than the t table value (1.97) at 0.05 level .The null hypothesis 4.c.ii was accepted at 0.05 level of significance. The Mean value of inservice postgraduate teachers (M= 99.20) was higher than the inservice graduate teachers (M= 96.34) but was not statistically significant. It can be concluded that difference in the qualification did not made any difference in the attitude of inservice teachers towards environmental problems . 4.c.iii) Comparison of the attitude of inservice graduate and preservice graduate teachers towards environmental problems. Null Hypothesis

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4.c.iii) There is no significant difference between the mean attitude performance of inservice graduate and preservice graduate teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale. Table 4.11 Comparison between the Mean Performance of Pre service Graduate and In service Graduate Teachers in Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale Graduate t Preservice Teachers 257 0.53 Inservice Teachers To achieve the above objective mean and SD of inservice graduate and preservice graduate teachers were used to compute t test. The table 4.11 reveals that there was no significant difference between the attitude of preservice graduate and inservice graduate teachers towards environmental problems as the t value (0.53) was less than the t table value (2.59) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 4.c.iii was accepted at 0.05 level. The mean value of preservice graduate teachers (M= 97.56) were greater than inservice graduate teachers (M = 96.34) but was not statistically significant. It can be concluded that the attitude of graduate teachers before service did not differed from the attiude of inservice graduate teachers towards environmental pollution problems . There was no previous finding in support of or in contrast with the above findings. 4.c.iv) Comparison of the attitude of inservice postgraduate and preservice postgraduate teachers towards environmental problems . Null Hypothesis 4.c.iv) There is no significant difference between the mean attitude performance of inservice postgraduate and preservice postgraduate teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale. Table 4.12 89 96.34 21.42 170 97.56 23.26 N Mean SD df

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Comparison between the Mean Performance of Pre service PostGraduate and In service PostGraduate Teachers in Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale Post Graduate t Preservice Teachers 1.32 Inservice Teachers The table 4.12 reflects that there was no significant difference between the attitude of preservice postgraduate and inservice postgraduate teachers towards environmental problems as the t value (1.32) was less than the t table value (2.59) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 4.c.iv was accepted at 0.05 level. The mean value of preservice postgraduate teachers (M=101.46) were greater than inservice graduate teachers (M = 99.20) but was not statistically significant. It can be concluded that the attitude of postgraduate teachers before service did not differed from the attitude of inservice postgraduate teachers towards environmental problems . There was no previous finding in support of or in contrast with the above findings. Objective 5: To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interactions on the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators. Null Hypothesis 7) There is no significant effect of Interaction beftveen discipline and qualification on the mean awareness performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution awareness test 8) There is no significant effect of discipline on the mean awareness performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution awareness test 9) There is no significant effect of qualification on the mean awareness performance of 211 99.20 17.56 130 101.46 13.66 339 N Mean SD df

teachers educators in environmental pollution awareness test Table 4.13 The Effect of Discipline, Qualification and their interaction on the Mean Performance of Teachers Educators in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test. Summary ofANOVA

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Sources of Variance Discipline x qualification (3x2) Discipline (3) Qualification (2) ** Significant at 0.01 level = 4.85 To achieve the above objective the F ratio was computed on the basis of teacher educators mean score discipline and qualification wise. 5a) The table 4.13 reveals that there was no interaction between discipline and qualification in the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators as the F ratio (0.52) was less than the F table value (3.11) at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis 7 was accepted at 0.05 level and it can be concluded that discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to make asignificant impact on the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators. The observed interaction effect can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. The above finding was in contrast with the findings of padhan’s study (1995) which revealed that discipline and qualification interacted with each other to have an impact on the environmental awareness of preservice teachers. The preservice postgraduate science teachers surpassed social science graduate and post-graduate teachers followed by humanities graduate and postgraduate teachers in their environmental awareness. 5b) The table 4.13 reflects that the teacher educators belonging to science, social science and humanities discipline did not differed in their awareness of environmental problems as the F value (0.24) was less than the F table value (3.10) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 8 was accepted at 0.05 level. Although the mean value of teacher educators of science discipline (M = 11.36) was higher than teacher educators of social science discipline (M = 11.31) followed by teacher educators of humanities discipline (M = 11.27) but these mean differences were not significant statistically. Hence, it can be concluded than difference in the subject background did not made any difference in the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators. The observed difference can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. The above finding was supported by the findings of Nwosu (1983) and Cortes (1987) study on preservice teacher trainees of Nigeria and Phillipines ,where subject background did not made any difference in the environmental awareness among preservice teachers. But the findings of padhan (1995) and Ayishabi (1995) were in contrast with the above finding. Padhan (1995) found than preservice teacher trainees differed in their environmental awareness discipline wise. Ayishabi (1995) reported than science students were more aware of environment than social science students followed by students of literature studying at degree level. 2.735 33.051 1.367 33.051 2 1 0.24 5.88** Sum 5.916 of squaresMean square 2.958 df 2 F ratio 0.52

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5c) The table 4.13 reflects that the teacher educators differed in their awareness of environmental problems qualification wise as the F value (5.88) was higher than the F table value (4.85) at 0.01 level of significance. The null hypothesis 9 was rendered untenable at 0.01 level and it can be concluded that qualification had a significant effect on the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators. 5.c.i) Comparison of the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators holding Ph.D degree and postgraduate teacher educators. Null Hypothesis 5.c.i) There is no significant difference between the mean awareness performance of teachers educators holding Ph.D degree and post graduate teacher educators in environmental pollution awareness test. Table 4.14 Comparison between the Mean Performance of Teachers Educators holding Ph.D Degree and Post Graduate Teachers Educators in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test. Teacher t Educators Ph.D 31 11.66 2.20 88 2.42* Post graduate * Significant at 0.05 level= 1.98 To achieve the above objective mean and SD of teachers educators holding Ph.D degree and post graduate teacher educators were calculated .The mean and SD of teacher educators were 11.66 and 2.20, 10.35 and 2.57 respectively. The t test was computed on the basis of above scores for group awareness comparison. The table 4.14 reflects that the teacher educators holding Ph.D degree (M = 11.66) surpassed postgraduate teacher educators (M = 10.35) in their awareness of environmental problems as the t value (2.42) was higher than the t table value (1.98) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 5.c.i was rejected at 0.05 level. It can be concluded that difference in the qualification made a difference in the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators and the higher the qualification the better was the awareness of 59 10.35 2.57 N Mean SD df

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environmental problems. The above findings was supported by padhan (1995) who reported that postgraduate preservice teachers surpassed graduate preservice teachers in their environmental awareness. Objective 6: To study the effect of qualification ,discipline and their various interaction on the attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators. Null Hypothesis 10) There is no significant effect of interaction between discipline and qualification on the mean attitude performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution attitude scale 11) There is no significant effect of discipline on the mean attitude performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution attitude scale 12) There is no significant effect of qualification on the mean attitude performance of teachers educators in environmental pollution attitude scale Table 4. 15 The Effect of Discipline, Qualification and their Interaction on the Mean Performance of Teachers Educators in Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale . Summary of ANOVA Sources of variance Interaction between discipline & qualification (2 x 3) Discipline (3) Qualification (2) 394.719 513.944 197.360 513.944 2 1 1.34 3.50 Sum of Squares 292.485 Mean square 146.243 df 2 F ratio 0.99

To achieve the above objective 3x2 way ANOVA was performed and the F ratio was computed on the basis of teacher educators score discipline and qualification wise. 6a) The table 4.15 reflects that there was no interaction between discipline and qualification to make a significant effect on the attitude of teacher educators towards environmental problems as the F ratio (0.99) was less than the F table value (3.11) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 10 was accepted at 0.05 level.. The observed interaction effect can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. There was no previous findings in support of or in discord with the above findings. 6b) From the table 4.15, it can be interpreted that teacher educators do not differed in their attitude towards environmental problems discipline wise as the F ratio (1.34) was less than the F table value (3.11) at 0.05

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level. The null hypothesis 11 was accepted at 0.05 level. Although the mean value of teacher educators belonging to science discipline (M = 95.26) was higher than teacher educators of social science discipline (M = 92.63) followed by humanities background teacher educators (M = 90.96) but this was not statistically significant. It can be concluded that difference in the subject background did not made any difference in the attitude of teacher educators towards environmental problems . The observed difference can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error.The above findings was in contrast with the findings of Ayishabi (1995) where students of science discipline had favourbale attitude and non science students were neutral in their attitude towards environmental issues studying at degree college. 6c) The table 4.15 reflects that the teacher educators did not differred in their attitude towards environmental problems qualification wise as the F ratio (1.34) was less than the F table value (3.50) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 12 was accepted at 0.05 level. The mean value of teacher educators holding Ph.D degree (M = 94.33) was higher than postgraduate teacher educators (M = 90.38) but the difference was not statistically significant and it can be concluded that difference in the qualification did not made any difference in the attitude of teacher educators towards environmental problems . The observed difference can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. No previous findings was available in support of or in discord with the above findings. Objective 7: To compare the awareness of environmental problems between preservice and inservice teachers. Null Hypothesis: 13) There is no significant difference beftveen the mean awareness performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test Table 4.16 Comparison between the Mean Performance of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Environmental Pollution Awareness Test. Teachers Preservice Inservice N 300 300 Mean 16.94 15.36 df 598 t 2.76**

** Significant at 0.01 level = 2.58 To achieve the above objective t test was applied. The mean value of preservice and inservice teachers were used to compute t test. The table 4.16 reflects that there was a significant difference between the mean performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution awareness test as the t value (2.76) was higher than the t table value (2.58) at 0.01 level. The null hypothesis 13 was untenable at 0.01 level. Hence it can be concluded that there was a significant difference between preservice and inservice teachers in their

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awareness of environmental problems and it can further be interpreted that preservice teachers (M = 16.94) surpassed inservice teachers in their awareness of environmental problems. The above findings was in contrast with the findings of Prahraj (1991) who reported that inservice teachers surpassed preservice teachers in the awareness of environmental problems. Objective 8: To compare the attitude towards environmental problems between preservice and inservice teachers. Null Hypothesis 14) There is no significant difference between the mean attitude performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale Table 4.17 Comparison between the Mean Performance of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale. Teachers Preservice Inservice N 300 300 Mean 99.24 97.40 df 598 t 1.20

To achieve the above objectives t test was applied, the mean value of preservice and inservice teachers were used to compute t test. The table 4.17 reflects that there was no significant difference between the mean performance of preservice and inservice teachers in environmental pollution attitude scale as the t value (1.20) was less than the t table value (2.97) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 14 was accepted at 0.05 level. The mean value of preservice teachers (M = 99.24) was higher than the mean value of inservice teachers (M = 97.40) but was not statistically significant. Hence it can be concluded that there was no significant difference between the attitude of preservice and inservice teachers towards environmental problems and the observed difference can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. The above findings was supported by Prahraj (1991) who reported no difference in the attitude of preservice and inservice teachers towards environmental pollution problems . Objective 9: To study the interaction effects of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the awareness of environmental problems. Null Hypothesis 15) There is no significant interaction effect of the type of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the awareness of environmental problems Table 4.18

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The Interaction Effect of the Type of Teachers (Preservice and Inservice), their Discipline and Qualification on the Awareness of Environmental Problems. Summary of ANOVA Source of variation Interaction between Group (2) x discipline (3) x qualification (2) Sum of squares 253.099 Mean squares 126.549 df 2 F ratio 2.56

To achieve the above objective 2x3x2 way ANOVA was performed’The F ratio was computed on the basis of preservice and inservice teachers mean score discipline and qualification wise. The table 4.18 reflects that there was no interaction between the type of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification to make a significant effect on the awareness of environmental problems as the F ratio (2.56) was less than the F table value (3.01) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 15 w a s accepted at 0.05 level and it can be concluded that the type of teachers, their discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to make an impact on the awareness of environmental problems. The observed interaction effect can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. However, Padhan (1995) found an interaction between discipline and qualification. The preservice science postgraduate teachers surpassed preservice science graduate, social science post graduate and humanities graduate and postgraduate teachers in their environmental awareness. This was in discord with the findings of present study. Objective 10: To study the interaction effects of the type of teachers (preservice and inservice teachers), this discipline and qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems. Null Hypothesis 16) There is no significant interaction effect of the type of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the attitude towards en vironmental problems Table 4.19 The Interaction Effect of the Type of Teachers (Preservice and Inservice), their Discipline and Qualification on the Attitude towards Environmental Problems. Summary of ANOVA Source of variation Sum of squares Interaction between Group(2) x discipline (3) x qualification (2) 939.402 Mean squares 469.701 2 1.41 df F ratio

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To achieve the above objective 2x3x2 way ANOVA was performed. The F ratio was computed on the basis of preservice and inservice teachers score discipline and qualification wise. It is reflected from table 4.19 that there was no interaction between the type of teachers (preservice and inservice teachers), their discipline and qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems as the F ratio (1.41) was less than the F table value (3.01) at 0.05 level. The null hypothesis 16 was accepted at 0.05 level and it can be concluded that the type of teachers (preservice and inservice teachers), discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to make a significant impact on the attitude towards environmental problems. The observed interaction effect can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. There was no previous findings in support of or in discord with the above findings. Objective 11: To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environment problems. Null Hypothesis 17a) There is no significant relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among preservice teachers. 17b) There is no significant relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among inservice teachers. 17c) There is no significant relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators. 17 d) There is no significant relationship between awareness and attitude towards en viron mental problems. Table 4.20 The Relationship between Awareness and Attitude towards Environmental Pollution Problems Group Preservice Teachers Inservice Teachers Teacher Educators Total N 300 300 90 690 r 0.37 0.17 0.16 0.29 Significance 0.01 0.01 0.12 0.01

For the above objective coefficient of correlation was computed by applying Karl Pearson method. The score of preservice, inservice teachers and teacher educators were used to find out the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems.

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a) The table 4.20 reflects that there was a positive and significant correlation between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among preservice teachers as the correlation coefficient (r = 0.37) was significant at 0.01 level thus rejecting the null hypothesis 17 a. b) The table 4.20 reflects that there was positive and significant correlation between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among inservice teachers as the correlation coefficient (r = 0.17) was significant at 0.01 level thus rejecting the null hypothesis 17 b. c) The table 4.20 reflects that there was a correlation between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators but the correlation coefficient (r = 0.16) was not statistically significant at 0.05 level thus accepting the null hypothesis 17 c. The observed relationship can be attributed to the chance factor or the sampling error. d) The table 4.20 reflects that the correlation coefficient between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems was computed on the basis of preservice ,inservice teachers and teacher educators score and a significant and positive correlation between awareness and attitude was found .The null hypothesis 17d was rejected at 0.01 level as the coefficient of correlation (r = 0.29) was significant at 0.01 level. It can be concluded that awareness and attitude were related and dependent upon each other and the awareness of environmental problems have positively influenced the attitude of perservice teachers, inservice teachers and teachers educators. The preservice, inservice teachers and teacher educators were below average in their environmental awareness which might have lead to their neutral attitude towards environmental problems .The above findings supported the previous findings of Prahraj (1991) who found a positive and moderate correlation between environmental knowledge and environmental attitude among preservcie teachers and inservice teachers teaching at secondary level. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY (CONCLUSION, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION & SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH) Introduction “Whatever we take from the earth may that have quick growth again :o: purifier may we not injure thy vital or thy heart.” Atharva Veda Mother earth is the home of all mankind, animal kingdom and plant life. It is incumbent on man to take from earth what he can give back to it quickly by planting, growing, rearing & supplying, what he had taken from it .Again it is man’s duty to keep the earth, which is his eternal home, clean and purify what he had already polluted. Man must not injure the vitals he cannot replenish as God has not gifted man with the

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power to create stock even to the slightest extent. So, protection of flora and fauna for posterity is the bounden duty of the present and future generation of mankind. The mad rat race among the nations over the globe for development jeopardized the health of man itself .Progress in agriculture and industry is taken as general criterion of development of any country. Competition and technology has paved the way for scientific development accompanied with natural destruction. Man’s understanding of environment in the recent years specially with reference to green house effect, global warming, deforestation, desertification has proved that environment, however vast it may appear to be cannot be taken for granted. “Ironically the hazards of pollution are the outcome of industrial development. Step by step, the precious gift of nature is being destroyed and the human life is being shortened by the polluted air we breathe and unhealthy water we drink.” (Brown, 1994).It would not be wrong to say that we are living in the age of environmental crisis. Environmental problems which were once viewed largely as the domestic problems are now viewed as challenges for all nations because of their impact upon climatology and biology of earth. Hence, immediate measure is needed to readjust our ecosystem before it becomes irreparable. Environmental problems is a global problems and needs combined human effort. We can cope up with the problems by creating environmental awareness among people at all levels ie..farmers,educationists, industrialists,politicians and bureaucrats so that they should take environment into account in their decision making process. Education is essential for generating widespread awareness of environmental problems & provide the new paradigm of thoughts that human welfare and survival now requires. Without proper educational effort, the awareness - action - analysis chain will not move effectively and smoothly. Educationist realized their responsibility towards environment and took up the matter in early sixties.The term environmental education was for the first time used in the environmental conference held at Keele university, Britain in 1965. Since then educational front at national and international level is being utilized to deal with environmental problems . International level Stockholm Conference (1971) ,Belgrade Workshop (1975),TibiIisi Conference (1977)

focused on the environmentalisation of education at all levels. These conferences considered the training of personnel, including pre service, in service teachers and all others connected with education & environmentally linked matter as a priority activity so as not to create economic, social & ecological debts for future generation. National level A concern for environment is not at all a new concept for Indians . Indian literature and scriptures reflects the environment consciousness of our ancestors. The rock edicts of Ashoka are the first ever governmental direction

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towards environmental protection in the recorded history. In the formal system 01 of education, Basic Education launched by Gandhiji was perhaps the first serious attempt at relating school education to local environmental needs. Kothari commission (1964), NCERT (1975) ,NPE (1986),NCERT (NCFSE, 2000) focused on the understanding of environment in totality and tried to infuse the environmental concerns in various subjects at different levels of education. The Supreme Court of India (2004) directed all the states and educational agencies in the country to introduce environment as a compulsory subject in all classes in schools upto higher secondary level from the Academic Session (2004-2005) with the help of Central Pollution Control Board . NCTE discussion document (2004) emphasized on the importance of environmental education for preservice teachers and inservice teachers and its inclusion in the teacher training program. Although the importance of introducing environmental education has been accepted as a policy, its real impact in the schools and the teacher training colleges remains to be seen. There is a genuine feeling that inspite of international and national efforts, the environmentalisation of school curriculum and teacher training program has been far from satisfactory. There may be constellation of factors operating behind it but the most important factor is the inadequacy of personnel trained in EE. In the teaching learning process, teacher is the sole arbitrator of curriculum and the central figure in the classroom. School and teacher training colleges plays an important role in environmental education and the effectiveness of such education depends upon teachers .Unfortunately there is dearth of teachers and teacher educators in our country to handle environmental problems as they lack awareness, expertise and perfect training in environmental education. For imparting sound environmental education, the teacher should not only be aware of environmental problems but must possess basic knowledge of Ecology ie.. .the environmental science of survival. Need of the Study Gandhiji said, “There is enough in the nature for man’s need but not enough for man’s greed.” The whole world attention is now focused on the state of environment .Despite considerable global efforts made by representatives from all the sections of the society,the conservation of natural resources has failed to keep pace with the environmental degradation. The latest information splashed in the Earth II Summit report reveals a planet still in the need of intensive care. Every nation has right to develop, enrich its economy but that should not be at the cost of environment. There should be compatibility between economy and ecology. Poverty, Population and Pollution are the three p’s pressurizing planets life support system by creating environmental crisis globally threatening our ability to achieve sustainable development.The action of an individual or society that has an impact on other societies contribute to global environmental issues. The basic question

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underlying all the global environmental issues is a question of awareness and attitude. It is fundamentally concerned with the kind of people we are ,our awareness about environment and the attitude we hold towards environment to make world a better place to live in . In the name of development we have started distancing ourselves from nature .Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization we have lost our relationship with environment .At this juncture when the nature is fighting a lost battle against its degradation and experiencing a broken relationship with mankind, what on earth are we doing by being a part of it? We can revive this relationship through environmental education. Environmental education to mind is not just awareness; it is far more. lt is development of attitude to make world a better place to live in,to be aware of what is happening around and above all to act without fear. The need of hour is to prepare future citizens to lead sustainable lifestyle and place ecosystem concepts as the intellectual centre of all disciplines (Disinger, 1993).Though sustainable development is a national international issue, it becomes locally defined through actions and decisions within cities, neighborhood and communities which falls under the realm of society. School is the epitome of society. If we want to secure the future of our environment, we have to create awareness in the mind of those who are the future of our nation. As rightly said by Late Pandit Jawaharla! Nehru that the future of India is shaped in her classrooms where teacher is the central figure. Teachers are the pillars on whom the future of nation lies by precept and example. The Tibilisi conference identified teacher as the key factor in the education of people about environmental problems .Teachers behavior do have an impact on students classroom behavior. It is highly probable that teachers influence extends beyond the classroom .Therefore it is implicit in activities aiming for changed students behavior that teachers be the model of desired behavior by action or by word. “Whatever we want to achieve emotionally in our pupils should already be present in our teachers”. (Habrich & kohler,1981). With the above statement the role of the teachers becomes manifold cutting across all the boundaries of qualifications, discipline and specializations .They should be able to discharge the role of Green Educator in today’s scenario to spread Green Message to everybody especially young be broadened in its scope to encompass problems that falls under the realm of environment thus exposing the children to the holistic picture of environment and sensitizing them with the slogan of conserve or perish. Hence in this study the investigator has made an attempt to find out the awareness and attitude of pre service, in service teachers and teacher educators towards environmental problems . Title of the study “Awareness and Attitude of Preservice Teachers, Inservice Teachers and Teacher Educators towards Environmental Problems ”.

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Objectives General Objectives 1) To study and compare the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers with respect to a) b) c) d) interaction between group, discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate/ graduate) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities) group (preservice and inservice)

2) To study and compare the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers with respect to a) interaction between group, discipline and qualification b) qualification (postgraduate / graduate). c) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities) d) Group (preservice and inservice) 3) To study the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators with respect to a) interaction between discipline and qualification b) qualification (postgraduate/ Ph. D) c) discipline (science/ social science/ humanities). 4) To study the attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators with respect to a) b) c) interaction between discipline and qualification qualification (postgraduate/ Ph. D). discipline (science/ social science/ humanities).

5) To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems. Specific Objectives 1. educators. 2. To study the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice, inservice teachers & teacher educators. To study the awareness of environmental problems among preservice, inservice teachers & teacher

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3. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the awareness of

environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 4. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the attitude towards

environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 5. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interaction on the awareness of

environmental problems among teacher educators. 6. To study the effect of discipline, qualification and their various interactions on the attitude towards

environmental problems among teacher educators. 7. To compare the awareness of environmental problems between preservice and inservice teachers. 8. To compare the attitude towards environmental problems between preservice and inservice teacher. 9. To study the interaction effect of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice) their discipline and qualification on the awareness of environmental problems. 10. To study the interaction effect of the types of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems. 11. To study the relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems. Sample Preservice Teachers Three hundred preservice teachers pursuing one year full time B.Ed program were selected from the teacher training institution of Delhi university, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP university in the following manner. • Delhi University : Hundred pre service teachers (34 from Science, 33 from Social Science & 33 from

Humanities )were selected. • IASE, Jamia Millia Islamia: Hundred preservice teachers (33 from Science, 34 from Social Science and 33 from Humanities) were selected. • GGSIP University: Hundred preservice teachers( 34 from Humanities,33 from science and 33 from Social Science) were selected from 3 teacher training institutions under GGSIP University. Inservice Teachers Three Hundred inservice teachers teaching at the secondary and senior secondary level in the schools of Delhi Government were selected for the present study in the following manner. There are elevens districts and twenty eight zones in Delhi .Out of eleven districts, five districts were selected randomly ie North ,North East, South, South West

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and Central Delhi. From each district, one zone was selected randomly. From each zone, ten schools were selected randomly and from each selected school, six teachers were selected purposefully out of which two teachers each from science, social science and humanities were selected. Teacher Educators All the teacher educators teaching one year full time B.Ed, program in the teacher training institutions of Delhi University, GGSIP University and Jamila Millia Islamia were selected for the study. Tools Used The tools used in the study are mentioned as under: a) Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale b) Environmental Pollution Awareness Test a) Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale To study the attitude of the selected group, the investigator used Environmental Pollution Attitude Scale developed, designed, validated by Dr. M. Rajamanicam and published by Institute of Community Guidance and Research, Chennai, India in 1998. Introduction of the scale The environmental pollution attitude scale was originally designed, developed and validated in 1995 for assessing an individual’s or a group’s attitude toward environmental pollution. It has 30 statement dealing with all possible forms of environmental pollution. It is a five point scale having five response categories. The score ranges from 30 (lowest) to 150 (highest). The highest score indicates favourable attitude and the lowest score indicates unfavourable attitude towards environmental pollution. The reliability of the scale is 0.84 and the validity of the scale is 0.92. The test was standardized on 465 individuals between the age group of 20 to 55 year belonging to student and employed categories. b) Environmental Pollution Awareness Test Introduction of the Test After exploring the contemporary literature on environmental pollution from various sources such as Books, Journals, Articles, Central Pollution Control Board Reports, national newspapers and leading dailies, T.V. reports; the investigator constructed the test items on different types of pollution, its sources, its impact on environment and the remedial solution to combat the environmental pollution problems . The Environmental Pollution Awareness Test consist of a total of forty items with four alternatives out of which one is the correct response and others are distractors. The test has content validity and reliability value of 0.68 calculated by split half method using Spearman Brown Formula .A weight age of one mark was assigned to each correct response and zero to each

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incorrect response. The minimum score in the test is 0 and the maximum score in the test is 40 as the environmental pollution awareness test consist of forty items so the range of scores for environmental pollution awareness test will be in between ( 0 to 40 ). Data Collection In the present research there were three categories of sample and the procedure of data collection was different for different categories. Preservice Teachers The investigator took permission from head of the concerned institutes and obtained a list of preservice teachers from the office. The preservice teachers were briefed about the research work and one week was fixed for data collection. The tools were administered to the selected sample on fixed schedule.All the necessary instructions were given to them and doubts were clarified for recording of the responses. Inservice Teachers The investigator took permission from the Directorate of Education, old secretariat, Shamnath Marg and collected a school master list containing information about educational districts, zones and schools for data collection from teachers teaching at secondary and senior secondary level in the schools of Delhi Government. The educational districts, zones and schools were selected randomly but the teachers from each school were selected purposefully . Tools were administered on the selected sample of inservice teachers. It was not possible to collect data from inservice teachers on one fixed day even in one school so, the data collection process streached for a long period. All the doubts and the instructions related to the tools were made clear to the sample by the investigator and test was administered in an informal atmosphere. Teacher Educators The investigator took permission from Head of the concerned institute and obtained a list of teacher educators from the office. The tools were administered on the sample as per fixed schedule with them. The investigator clarified all the doubts related to the tool and all the instructions were given to them for recording of the responses. Delimitation • University. • The study was delimited to the teacher educators teaching B.Ed program in the teacher The study was confined to the preservice teachers pursuing one year full time B.Ed.

Program from the teacher training institutions of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP

training institutions of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP University, Delhi.

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• It was confined to the inservice teachers teaching at secondary and senior secondary level in

the schools of Delhi Government • It was confined to environmental pollution problems only. Data Analysis The statistical measures used in present study were Mean, SD, t test, F test (2 and 3 Way ANOVA ), Coefficient of Correlation . Major Findings 1) The preservice teachers (M=16.94), inservice teachers (M=15.36) and teacher educators (M=11.21) were below average in their awareness of environmental problems. 2) The preservice teachers (M=100.31), inservice teachers (M=97.95), teacher educators (M=92.28) were neutral in their attitude towards environmental problems. 3) The discipline and qualification does not interacted with each other to have a significant effect on the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 4) The discipline had no significant effect on the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. The mean value of science teachers ( M= 17.28) was higher than social science teachers (M= 15.75) followed by humanities teachers (M= 15.49) but was not statistically significant. 5) There was a significant effect of qualification on the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. The postgraduate teachers (M=16.39) surpassed graduate teachers (M=16.01) in their awareness of environmental problems. The preservice postgraduate teachers (M-17.72) surpassed preservice graduate teachers (M=15.99), the inservice postgraduate teachers (M=16.03) surpassed inservice graduate teachers (M=13.82) ,the preservice postgraduate teachers (M= 17.72) surpassed inservice postgraduate teachers (M=16.03) and preservice graduate teachers (M=15.99) surpassed inservice graduate teachers (M=13.82) in their awareness of environmental problems . 6) The discipline and qualification does not interacted with each other to have a significant effect on the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. 7) The discipline had no significant effect on the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. The mean value of science teachers (M= 100.32) was higher than social science teachers (M= 99.38) followed by humanities teachers (M= 97.68) but not statistically significant. 8) There was a significant effect of qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. The preservice postgraduate teachers (M= 101.46) surpassed preservice grduaute teachers (M=97.56) in their attitude towards environmental problems but the inservice

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postgraduate teachers (M=99.20) and inservice graduate teachers (M=96.34), preservice graduate teachers (M=97.56) and inservice graduate teachers (M=96.31), preservice postgraduate teachers (M=101.46) and inservice postgraduate teachers (M=99.20) do not differed in their attitude towards environmental problems. 9) The discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to have a significant effect on the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators. 10) The discipline did not have a significant effect on the awareness of environmental problems among teacher educators. The Mean value of teacher educators belonging to science discipline (M= 11.36) was greater than teacher educators of social science discipline (M=11.31) followed by teacher educators from humanities discipline(M= 11.27) but not significant statistically. 11) There was a significant effect on qualification on the awareness of environmental problems among teachers educators. The teacher educators holding Ph.D degree (M=11.66) surpassed postgraduate teachers educators (M=10.35) in their awareness of environmental problems. 12) The discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to have a significant effect on the attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators. 13) The discipline did not have a significant effect on the attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators. The mean value of teacher educators belonging to science discipline (M=95.26) was greater than teacher educators of social science discipline (M=92.63) followed by teacher educators from humanities disciplined (M= 90.96) but not significant statistically. 14) There was no significant effect of qualification on the attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators. The mean value of teacher educators holding Ph.D Degree (M=94.33) was greater than post graduate teacher educators (M=90.38) but not significant statistically. 15) The preservice teachers (M=16.94) surpassed inservice teachers (M=15.36) in their awareness of environmental problems. 16) The preservice teachers (M=99.24) do not differed from inservice teachers (M=97.40) in their attitude towards environmental problems. 17) The type of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to make a significant effect on the awareness of environmental problems. 18) The type of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to make a significant effect on the attitude towards environmental problems. 19) There was a positive and significant relationship (r = 0.37) between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among preservice teachers. There was a positive and significant relationship ( r = 0.17)

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between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among inservice teachers. There was no significant relationship ( r = 0.16) between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators. However, there was a positive and significant relationship ( r = 0.29) between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems when preservice, inservice teachers and teacher educators were studied together. Conclusion 1) The preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators were below average in their awareness and had neutral attitude towards environmental problems. 2) The discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to have a significant effect on the awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among preserve and inservice teachers. 3) The discipline had no significant effect on the awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. The difference in the subject background made no difference in the awareness and attitude of preservice and inservice teachers towards environmental problems. The preservice and inservice teachers belonging to science, social science and humanities discipline do not differed in their awareness and attitude towards environmental problems. 4) The qualification had a significant effect on the awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers. The preservice postgraduate teachers were more aware than preservice graduate teachers, the inservice postgraduate teachers were more aware than inservice graduate teachers about environmental problems. It can be concluded that the higher the qualification the better was the awareness of environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers.The preservice graduate teachers were more aware than inservice graduate teachers, the preservice postgraduate teachers were more aware than inservice postgraduate teachers about environment problems. It can be concluded that graduate teachers before service were more aware than inservice graduate teachers about environment problems.The preservice postgraduate teachers surpassed preservice graduate teachers in their attitude but inservice graduate and inservice postgraduate teachers, preservice graduate and inservice graduate teachers , preservice postgraduate and inservice postgraduate teachers do not differed in their attitude towards environmental problems. 5) The discipline and qualification did not interacted with each other to make significant impact on the awareness and attitude among teacher educators towards environmental problems. 6) The discipline had no significant effect on the awareness and attitude among teacher educators towards environmental problems. The teacher educators belonging to science, social science and humanities discipline do not differed in their awareness and attitude towards environmental problems. 7) The qualification had significant effect on the awareness and attitude among teacher educators towards environmental problems. The teacher educators holding Ph.D degree were more aware than

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postgraduate teachers educators in their awareness which indicated that the higher the qualification the better was the awareness of teacher educators about environmental problems. However, teacher educators do not differed in their attitude towards environmental problems qualification wise. 8) The type of teachers (preservice and inservice), their discipline and qualification do not interacted with each other to make significant effect on the awareness and attitude towards environmental problems . 9) There was a positive and significant relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among preservice and inservice teachers but no significant relationship was found between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among teacher educators. When studied together (preservice, inservice teachers and teacher educators), a positive and significant relationship between awareness and attitude towards environmental problems was found. The awareness and attitude were interdependent and positively influenced each other. The preservice ,inservice teachers and teacher educators were below average in their awareness which might have lead to their neutral attitude towards environmental problems. Recommendations The preservice teachers and inservice teachers and teacher educators under study were below average in their environmental awareness and had neutral attitude towards environmental problems . The supreme court of India has given a visionary direction that environment as a compulsory subject should be taught at all levels of education from the Academic Session (2004-2005 ) in our country (The Hindu, 2003). The NCERT for the school level, the UGC for the college level and the AICTE for the professional level have been assigned the task of preparing a syllabus. Keeping the findings of the present research and directions of The supreme court of India into consideration the overhauling of the entire education system in general and teacher education in particular is recommended and there is an immediate need to set up environment information system and environmental education resource centre which can work in association with the teacher training institutions for giving an environmental dimension to the teacher training programs for preservice teachers , inservice teachers and teacher educators to promote the environmental awareness in them and shape their attitude desirable for protection and conservation of environment Environment Information System and Environmental Education Resource Centre The Department of Environment through its constituents Environment and Ecology programme, Wild life Preservation and Protection of Wild Birds and Animals, Botanical Survey of India, Water and Air Pollution Prevention Programmes, Biosphere Reserve Programme can promote awareness and development of attitude for protection and conservation of environment and the Department can be a parent resource center for environmental education programmes in schools and teacher training institution. On these lines, environmental education

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resource centre could be generated at apex educational agencies at national , state and district level teacher training institution and curriculum development centers. Networking There is an isolation of school system and teacher education from system of higher learning. NCERT has done some exemplary work in the area of environmental education in terms of preparing content, text books, teacher guides, training packages incorporating the latest knowledge in a field as well as eVolving suitable pedagogies in the latest decade. Yet its outreach is relatively limited in this area. They have made a dealt through their Regional Colleges of Education or some State Council of Educational Research and Training or State Institute of Education, but they have not reached all teacher educators, pre service and in service teachers. The role of national level agencies handling curriculum development and doing research, training and extension in teacher education has to be expanded with multi-tier net working to reach every teacher through multiple strategies i.e. pre service, inservice teachers and teacher educators. In all, in India alone, environmental education if it has to become a national movement, a national training movement of all educational personnel has to be considered a top priority including preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators. This training strategy has to be based on a multichannel communication model with free flow of information, initiative and ideas from top to bottom and vice versa both within the educational tiers and administrative ladder with suitable horizontal co-ordination within education (among peers, teacher organization, teacher resources centers) and with other local and national agencies working in the area of environmental education. While there are no formal opportunities to share the philosophical and pedagogical approaches endemic to environmental education, the presence of center of environmental education as a part of the college of education can be of immense importance.The center of environmental education can set goals for training preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators in environmental education. The set goals should expose the inservice teachers and teacher educators to current information regarding environmental concerns and preservice teachers to environmental education approaches as a part of their curriculum. In order to accomplish this goal, the center for environmental education can strive to provide an intense training program to orient preservice teachers to curriculum and inservice teachers, teachers educators to activities as well as personnel to support multiple role of a teacher as an individual, a class room practitioner, a member of the school community and a member of society by following ways. • infusing environmental education content and teachniques in the teacher education program • supporting the teacher education program with abundant resources available to pre service teachers,

inservice teachers and teacher educators. Preservice Teacher Training Programme

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The preservice teachers pursuing one year full time B.Ed program from the teacher training institutions of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP University were below average in their awareness and neutral in their attitude towards environmental problems . It is the responsibility of the teacher training institutions offering one year full time B.Ed program under Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP University to enhance the environmental awareness and shape the attitude of preservice teachers desirable for environmental conservation. The NCTE discussion document (2004) has incorporated environmental education as one of the objectives of secondary level preservice teacher education but it is just a blue print of policy.The vital issue which needs immediate attention is how the message of environmental conservation can be translated into the curriculum and how the curriculum can be transacted to achieve the desirable awareness and attitude among preservice teacher towards environmental problems . A glance at the curriculum of preservice teacher education at secondary level (B.Ed) followed by Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP University reveals a very little space for environmental education. Here are few suggestions for the environmentalisation of curriculum and teaching learning strategies to be adopted for enhancing the environmental awareness and shape the attitude of preservice teachers desirable for environmental conservation. Suggestions for Environmentalisation of B.Ed Curriculum and Its Transactional Strategies i) Environmentalisation of B.Ed Curriculum Environmental education should be made compulsory at secondary level preservice teacher education program( B.Ed ) and this can be done by environmentalisation of B.Ed curriculum. The curriculum of secondary level preservice teacher education program( B.Ed ) should be amended and should be based on the following three components which are inter linked (Palmer and Neal, 1994). i) Education about the environment as it is concerned with the knowledge of environment ii) Education for the environment which is concerned with attitude and values for the environment iii) Education through the environment using the environment as a resource for learning Based on the above components either of these three approaches to the curriculum can be applied: a) infusion into the existing curricula b) insertion of new course into study. c) Framing a third alternative can be specially effective in learning about global issues. a) Infusion (multidisciplinary) In the infusion approach the component of environmental education is infused into various,existing disciplines like biology, chemistry, physics, geography, economics, political science, Hindi ,english etc. In the infusion

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approach ,the content and skills are integrated into existing courses so as to focus on that content without losing the integrity of the courses themselves. For example an elementary mathematics pupil teacher class might calculate the amount of solid waste that 30 students produce in a year or the issue of air borne toxins can be used when studying about prevailing winds in an earth science class. Infusion is visible at elementary level but becomes less towards secondary and higher secondary level where classes are departmentalised and topically related. A class might choose the global issue of global warming and focussing then the study on the changes in their own neighbourhood which have caused the decreased rainfall and influenced the climatic change. (Ramsey & Volk , 1992) b) Insertion (interdisciplinary) In Insertion approach, relevent component of many disciplines are drawn to create a unit of environmental education .A course in global issues or environmental issues which is developed on the issue investigation skills format is an example of insertion. This approach with the teacher educator acting as the facilitator and adviser is more effective at developing awareness and fostering positive attitude towards environmental conservations. (Ramsey & Volk , 1990) c) Framing Framing moves beyond the arbitrary boundaries of traditional disciplines by creating a framework which allows learning to be related and integrated within a student’s life. Using this approach, educators and pupil teacher can investigate, interpret, explore, discovers and make decision about global issues. ScienceTechnology Society Schools and Environmental School are approaches that embrace such change through using traditional disciplinary skills to define technological, scientific and societal aspects of real environmental problems . Examples of such projects include project WILD, PLT (Project learning tree) and other short term programs which usually evoke very positive responses from both teachers and learners. 2) Transactional Strategies Curricular Activities • There are certain opportunities for environmental education in all subjects. There are occasions when the subject educators can be explicitly environmental in their emphasis and in their contribution to learning.. When teacher work as a scientist, mathematician or historian, they if willing can also venture out in other disciplines that have also got a contribution to make to the things related to the environment. Teachers recognize the boundaries of what they can do from their particular expertise, but they can also recognize and acknowledge in their teaching, the contributions that the history teachers, the math teacher, the social studies teacher etc could also make to those same environmental issues. When this recognition exists and there is a good will in colleagues and in the institutional administration, there is an opportunity to organize environmental junctions. An environmental junction is when there is a meeting of people from different disciplines that relate to an environmental

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issue. So when a science class invites a history teacher or a math teacher to give their comments on the issue it has been considering or when teachers from different discipline team teach or when a class sets out to present their learning on an issue to another group in the institution, environmental junction is occurring. • Lecture and Lecture Demonstration Method, Group Discussion , Role Play , Field Studies, Problems Solving ,Workshops,Survey Projects,Biizz Sessions , Brainstorming etc can be used as transactional strategies. These methods can be used for free exchange of knowledge, ideas and opinions among trainer and trainees. It can be used to examine issues in depth, explore alternative opinions and develop communication skills, enhance improvement of knowledge, changing attitude and forming opinions. • The field of environmental education out of teacher education institution is broad and eclectic.

Environmental education out of TTI education is usually defined as education that occurs in parks museum, forest, sanctuaries, camps, communities and home when the experiences are not of a formal institution based program. It also includes mass media including television, radio, newspaper and magazines which can be used at these sites. Educators can provide students opportunity to participate in outdoor pursuits classes and program which can provide opportunity to all for challenge, adventure and excitement. Perhaps most of all, the outdoor experience offers all of us a chance to explore and shape attitude towards environment. • Research studies suggest that attitudes of individuals are frequently modeled after the attitude of others.

Since in most of the teacher training institution; the students are expected to stay back for 6 to 7 hours a day a coordinated institutional environmental program that focuses on preventing and solving environmental problems at the institution site can provide an excellent model of attitudes for students to emulate. Elements that should be include in the program include (a) set of policies (b) procedure for identification of problems (c) action plants to alleviate problems (d) plans for monitoring actions (e) evaluation policies. Co-Curricular A ctivities • Environmental Education aims at making learner aware of the interrelationship between man and

environment and inculcating in them the rational attitude towards environmental pollution problems . CCA plays a very important role in conveying the elements of education and environmental education is not an exception. As we are aware that it takes a long time for any new educational concern to become an integral part of institutional syllabi and text books and also all the components of environmental education could not be integrated in the textbook of various subjects taught in the teacher education program because of the limitations of subjects concerned. For the transaction of those leftover components ,CCA has been an effective medium and even those components which are there in the textbook, can be communicated much more effectively through CCA.

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Suggested list of CCA Activities under different categories to be conducted at Teacher Training Institution as a Component of Environmental Education . Literary 1 ) Essay Writing 2) Debate Environment 3) Collage Magazine/ Newspaper 4)Story Telling/Writing 5)Poem 4)Environmental Recitation 6) Thought of the Day 5)Community Service Week Suggestions for Training Program of Inservice Teachers and Teacher Educators The inservice teachers teaching at secondary and senior secondary level in the schools of Delhi Government and teacher educators teaching one year full time B.Ed program in the teacher training institutions of Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia and GGSIP University were below average in their awareness and were neutral in their attitude towards environmental problems . 1) The Governing bodies , institutions and organizations inVolved in the inservice training of teachers and teacher educators cannot afford to sit silent at this juncture .It is the responsibility of the institutions such as NCERT, SCERT, NIEPA, Academic Staff Colleges and Department of Education in the Universities to promote environmental awareness and shape the attitude of inservice teachers and teacher educators desirable for environmental conservation. The above objective can be achieved by establishing the coordination and association with Government established Centre of Excellence and other organizations engazed in environmental education such as Centre for Environmental Education (CEE); Ahmedabad, CPR Environmental Education Centre, Chennai., Centre for Ecological Science; Bangalore, Centre for Environmental Management; Delhi, Salim Ali Centre for Art and Craft 1 )Drawing/Painting Dramatics and Music 1 )Drama Specific l)Vi!lage/Block /District/ State Level Field Survey on Environmental Problems . 2)ECOLOGY Laboratory/Club 5)Group Singing Education Week Projects 1) World Day 2) Exhibition 2) One Act Play 3)Puppet Show 4)FoIk Dance 2) Wild Life Week 3) World Earth Day

Celebration Days/ Week

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Ornithology and Natural History; Coimbatorc (SACON), Centre for Mining Environment (CME);Dhanbad etc.

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2) Modalities of Training For in-service teacher training both independent and integrated approach can be used to train various categories of teachers and teacher educators. The training activities of inservice teachers and teacher educators can be conducted by adopting two broad modalitiesi) Independent; and ii) Integrated i) Independent

Independent training programmes exclusively for environmental education can be organized at national and state level. These training programmes can be of three different categories- (a) single- period, (b) multi-period, and (c) school- complex/ school based. a) Single-period This training modality organizes programmes for specific group of teachers of the entire state within singleperiod. A large number of teachers can be trained at different centers within the fixed time frame. The most striking feature of this modality is that educational infrastructure of the entire state along with the relevant agencies inVolved in environmental programmes can be associated with the training programmes at the lower levels. The Panchayati Raj institution and members of local communities can be also inVolved and media can be widely used throughout the state. b) Multi-Period This modality can organize training programmes for different categories of teachers throughout the year at multiple points of time. c) School- Complex /School based This modality can organize training programmes for Principals/ Headmasters of selected schools and they in turn orient the teachers of the school complex or of the particular schools. ii). Integrated Under this modality efforts can be made to make the training in environmental education an integral part of the on-going teacher training programme. It can be done in two ways (a) Teacher Training Programmes Based By Teacher Training Programmes based means that any training programme organized by SCERT or SIE, NCERT, NCTE should have component of environmental education.

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(b) Teacher Training Institution Based By Teacher Training Institution based means related institutions should incorporate the components of environmental educational in their on-going programmes. 3) Training Strategies Before the trainees actually arrive at the training center, it is imperative that the training strategies have been fully worked out. It is equally necessary to consider the levels at which the training takesplace-national, regional or local levels as this will influence the choice of training modalities and the duration and timing of training. The way adults learn also varies quite a lot. Trainers should also take into consideration the institutional setting in deciding what methodology to employ. Thus, in deciding which methodology/ methodologies to use, one can consider several factors as described below. • Socio- economic background of teachers. • Academic background of teachers. • Current level of awareness and attitude with reference to environmental problems . • The urban or rural environment to which the target group belongs. • Exploring the availability of resource persons or experts or educators for training. • Assessment of resource available.where the teacher generally work and also the resources available outside the place of work. • Availability of the relevant instructional and reference material. A range of modalities has been discussed here for training the teachers in environmental education and it is upto the university to select a modality or a combination of modalities for effective training, i) Face-to-face Training In this mode, training is given face-to-face either independently or in an integrated way. Under independent category, the training programmes are organized for varied duration exclusively in environmental education, whereas under the integrated category, the training programmes are dovetailed to the existing teacher training programmes. Under his modality, if training is organized for different levels of functionaries in the descending order of hierarchy and, therefore, is also called hierarchical face to- face training. Different strategies such as one tier or more than one tier are used for training the teacher educators and teachers. Under integrated face-to-face training, environmental education is made an integral part of the on going teacher training programme, being organized by any other institution.

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ii) Peer Group In this modality, the principals or subject heads or coordinators in each secondary school are trained through face-to-face modality and they, in turn, are given the responsibility for training teachers in their own schools. Peer training also inVolves a pattern wherein the trainer and trainees are both teachers at the same level. Each school is provided with training material and it prepare its own schedule of training the teachers. Under this modality, supervisory team also visits the school and provides on the spot assistance, guidance as well as evaluation of the programme. iii) Mobile Training In this modality, a mobile team consisting of trained, competent and experienced trainers conduct teacher training programme in schools. These teams are equipped with a variety of instructional materials, teaching aids, and equipments. The team member can be rotated during the course of the training. Thus, minimizing the absence of members from respective posts for a long period. iv) Module or Self- Learning Model In this modality, the training material/modules are prepared at a central place and are provided to teachers for independent and direct training. Being self- contained learning package, modular learning requires minimum supervision, easy to administer and require the trainee to manage his or her own learning. The crucial need in using the modular approach is to ensure teacher’s motivation. It can be supplemented with peer group training modality. v) Training via Correspondence Under this modality, lessons and other learning materials are sent to the trainees through postal service. A correspondence phase is supplemented with some kind of face-to-face training sessions, by the peer or by the head of the institution. vi) Training through Radio and Television In this model, specific educational/ instructional programmes are developed for

radio/television transmission. These programmes are transmitted regularly on predetermined schedules, indicating time and date. The schools are provided through radio and TV programmes and teachers are expected to listen/ view the programme. The model can be supplemented with a peer training model and modular training model. There are also other modalities like field base preparation, team work, inviting teachers in workshops and seminars. During such activities, teachers are exposed to environmental education. It is evident that the modalities of training teachers vary in terms of approach, tasks and subtasks, supportive services, teaching learning instruments, managerial efforts, cost and coverage of target group and expected intensity of

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learning. A survey of literature reveals that countries are using one or a combination of more than one modalities for training teachers in environmental education. In some case under one modality, different strategies are adopted. For example, under face-to-face training modality in China, strategies like independent training, integrated training, massive orientation, tier system, etc. are used. Suggestions for Curriculum of Preservice Teacher Educators 1) NCTE discussion document (2004 ) must include environmental education as one of the objectives of education for preservice teacher educators and their curriculum must explore the areas where the environmental education can be infused along with the transactional strategies appropriate for it. The environmental education should be compulsory for all the preservice teacher educators so that environmentally literate teacher educators can be produced in future .The following ways and means can incorporate environment education in the training of pre service teacher educators. • A separate subject on environmental education may be offered in the post graduate

programme in education for teacher educators. This course may be taught by using the approach of content cum methodology. The concepts of various units may be discussed by using appropriate techniques of teaching such as observation, demonstration, experimentation, discussion etc.The related higher concepts of environmental education may also be discussed in the course teaching. • Various concepts of environmental education may be integrated with various subject areas offered in the courses meant for teacher educators. Suggestions for Further Research The investigator after completing the research felt that the domain of environmental education is vast and more work remains to be done. Efforts needs to be extended to encourage each component of the broad educational system to accept as parts, of its mission the fostering of environmental education. The investigator considers the following areas for further research: • A study can be conducted on the awareness of and attitude towards environmental problems among

preservice, inservice teachers and teacher educators of teacher training colleges located outside Delhi. • The present study was delimited to the preservice and inservice teachers of secondary

level teacher education program.A Study can be conducted on the awareness of and attitude towards environmental problems among preservice, inservice teacher and teacher educators of elementary level teacher education program. • A study can be conducted on the awareness of an attitude towards environmental problems among the teachers and students of primary ,secondary and higher secondary level.

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• A study can also be conducted on the awareness of and attitude towards environmental

problems among the teacher and students of urban and rural schools. • area. • A study can also be conducted on the awareness of and attitude towards environmental A study can also be conducted on the awareness and attitude towards environmental problems among

preservice teachers, inservice teachers and teacher educators of teacher training colleges located in urban and rural

problems among educational planners and administrators. Research can also be conducted in other areas of environmental education suggested as under: • A study can also be conducted on the trends and issues related to the preparation of teachers for

environmental education. • A research work can also be conducted on the strategies to integrate environmental education into teacher education programme. • A critical study of constraints, approaches and course design in pre service

environmental teacher education can also be conducted. • A study on reorienting environmental education for sustainable development in teacher education:

constraints and opportunities in India can also be conducted. • A critical study on constraints and approaches in inservice environmental teacher education can also be conducted. • A critical analysis of the environmental education curriculum often of a comparative nature can be done. • Development of new curriculum material reflecting an interdisciplinary approach in environmental

education can also be done. • A study on the use education technology with special reference to the effect of slide preparation or VTR in environmental education can also be conducted. • A study can also be conducted on the inservice needs of teachers inVolved in environmental education. •A study can also be conducted on the values taught through environmental education.

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