Introduction to IPv6 IPv4 to IPv6 TRANSFORMATION

phd. student Nikolay Milovanov CCIE SP #20094 http://niau.org

Agenda
Introduction to IPv6

Slides are taken by Bianor’s presentation on gogo6.com

IPv6 pros and cons 4TO6TRANS concepts and objectives
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Solution Architecture Framework Components Transformation Automation

4TO6TRANS status
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Project Support Project Funding Project popularization
4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010

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Introduction to IPv6

04.IPv4 and IPv6 Headers IPv4 Header IPv6 Header 4 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .

04.2010 .IPv6 Address Syntax IPv6 address in binary form: 00100000000000010000000000000000001101000101011000 00000000000000000000000000000011110001111000001010 1011110011010000100110000111 The 128-bit address is divided along 16-bit boundaries: 0010000000000001 0000000000000000 0011010001010110 0000000000000000 0000000000000000 1111000111100000 1010101111001101 0000100110000111 Each 16-bit block is converted to hexadecimal and delimited with colons: 2001:0000:3456:0000:0000:F1E0:ABCD:0987 5 4TO6TRANS 08.

04.Compressing zeros Leading zeros within each 16-bit block can be compressed: 2001:0000:3456:0000:0000:F1E0:ABCD:0987 becomes 2001:0:3456:0:0:F1E0:ABCD:987 Successive fields of 0 can be represented as “::” 2001:0:3456:0:0:F1E0:ABCD:987 becomes 2001:0:3456::F1E0:ABCD:987 – FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 becomes FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 – FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 becomes FF02::2 – 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 becomes ::1 – 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 becomes :: A double colon is allowed only once in an IPv6 address! – 2001:0:3456:0:0:F1E0:ABCD:987 does not become 2001::3456::F1E0:ABCD:987 – 6 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .

7 4TO6TRANS 08. A subnet mask is not used for IPv6. Also known as Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation for IPv4.IPv6 Address Prefixes Indicates the bits that have fixed values or are the bits of the subnet prefix.2010 .04. An IPv6 prefix is written in address/prefix-length notation. – – – 2001:DB8:0:2F3B::/64 is a subnet prefix for a subnet 2001:DB8::/48 is an address prefix for a summarized route FF00::/8 is an address prefix for an address range IPv4 uses a dotted decimal representation of the network prefix known as the subnet mask.

04.Literal IPv6 addresses in URIs In a URI the IPv6 address is enclosed in brackets Examples: – – – https://[fd00::a00:cd24]/ https://[fd00::a00:cd24]:443/ https://[fd00::0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0a00:cd 24]:443/ 8 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .

IPv6 supported browsers MS IE6 doesn’t support IPv6 MS IE7 supports IPv6 Safari supports IPv6 Mozilla Firefox supports IPv6 Google Chrome Supports IPv6 9 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

04.Types of IPv6 Addresses Unicast – – Identifies a single interface Delivery to single interface Identifies a set of interfaces that typically belong to different nodes Delivery to a single “nearest” interface in the set Identifies a set of interfaces Delivery to all interfaces in the set Anycast – – Multicast – – No more broadcast addresses 10 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .

2010 .Unicast IPv6 addresses Global addresses Link-local addresses Site-local addresses Unique local addresses (ULA’s) IPv4 mapped IPv6 addresses Special unicast addresses 11 4TO6TRANS 08.04.

04.2010 .Global unicast addresses Address scope is the whole IPv6 Internet Equivalent to public IPv4 addresses Defined in RFC 3587 2001:DB8::/32 – documentation-only prefix Currently the following format under the 2000::/3 prefix is delegated by the IANA and recommended in RFC 3177: 12 4TO6TRANS 08.

2010 . routerless configurations Neighbor Discovery processes Router Discovery processes Stateless Autoconfiguration process Zone ID is required to identify a specific link 13 4TO6TRANS 08.04.Link-local addresses Automatically configured on an interface Address scope is limited to the local link Usage – – Single subnet.

FEF New implementations must treat them as Global Unicast 14 4TO6TRANS 08.Site-local addresses Address scope is a single site – Equivalent to private IPv4 addresses Zone ID are required to identify a specific site Site-local unicast addresses are deprecated (RFC 3879) Replaced by unique-local unicast addresses Starts with FEC. FED.04. FEE.2010 .

04. no zone ID required Defined in RFC 4193 15 4TO6TRANS 08.Unique local addresses Globally unique and are intended for local communications Not routable on global Internet. routable within organization Replaced the site-local addresses Global scope.2010 .

04.189 = ::FFFF:c0a8:bd 16 4TO6TRANS 08.168.IPv4 mapped IPv6 address Used by IPv6 only application to be able to deal with IPv4 requests Requires dual stack configured on the host Defined in RFC 4291 Example: – IPv4-mapped IPv6 address for the IPv4 address 192.189 is: 0:0:0:0:0:FFFF: 192.0.0.168.2010 .

Special unicast addresses
Loopback unicast address – 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 = ::1
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Similar to IPv4 address 127.0.0.1 Used by a node to send an IPv6 packet to itself Should not be assigned to any physical interface

Unspecified unicast address – 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 = ::
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Similar to the IPv4 address 0.0.0.0 Indicates the absence of an address

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Anycast IPv6 addresses
Syntactically the same as a interface unicast address on the link with the interface identifier set to zero A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to one of the interfaces identified by that address - the "nearest" one, according to the routing protocol's measure Should be assigned to IPv6 routers only Defined in RFC 4291

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Multicast IPv6 addresses
An identifier for a set of interfaces (typically on different nodes) Defined in RFC 4291 Some reserved multicast addresses:
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FF02::1 (link-local scope, all nodes on the link) FF02::2 (link-local scope, all routers on the link) FF05::2 (site-local scope, all routers in the site) FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFXX:XXXX (Solicited-node multicast address)

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Solicited-node multicast address Used by IPv6 Neighbor Discovery protocol A multicast address to which Neighbor Solicitation messages are sent Formed by taking the low-order 24 bits of an address (unicast or anycast) and appending those bits to the prefix FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00::/104 – FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFXX:XXXX Computed for each unicast and anycast addresses that have been configured for the node's interfaces Example: – For IPv6 unicast address FD00::abcd:1234:5678 .2010 20 .04. the corresponding Solicited-node address is FF02::1:FF34:5678 4TO6TRANS 08.

network operators will be able to identify their multicast addresses without needing to run an inter-domain allocation protocol.2010 .Unicast-Prefix-based Multicast IPv6 addresses Make multicast addresses unique between two subnets By delegating multicast addresses at the same time as unicast prefixes.04. the corresponding unicast-prefix-based multicast prefix with link-local scope is FF32:0040:FD00:0000:0000:abcd/96 * “plen” (prefix length) indicates the number of bits in the network prefix field 21 4TO6TRANS 08. Defined in RFC 3306 See RFC3307 on how to allocate Group IDs Example – – For IPv6 unicast prefix FD00:0:0:abcd::/64.

Obtaining interface identifier for IPv6 address from MAC (IEEE 802) address Host A has the MAC address of 00-0D-5D-03-F9-CC Convert MAC address to EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier) format: – – – – – – 00-0D-5D-FF-FE-03-F9-CC The first byte in binary form is 00000000. it becomes 00000010 (0x02).2010 . When the seventh bit is complemented.04. 02-0D-5D-FF-FE-03-F9-CC ::020D:5DFF:FE03:F9CC FE80::020D:5DFF:FE03:F9CC FE02::1:FF03:F9CC Complement the seventh bit of first byte: Convert to colon hexadecimal notation The link-local address for the host is: The solicited-node address is: 22 4TO6TRANS 08.

2010 . host configuration parameters.04. and onlink prefixes Inform hosts of a better next-hop address (redirect) Used by hosts Used by routers 23 4TO6TRANS 08.Neighbor Discovery Protocol Replaces ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Used by nodes (hosts and routers) – – – – – – – In address resolution process (to determine link-layer addresses) In neighbor unreachability detection Duplicate address detection In router discovery process In stateless address autoconfiguration process Advertise their presence.

ICMPv6 packet types used in Neighbor Discovery (1) Router Solicitation – – – – Send by host when an interface is enabled to request routers to generate Router Advertisements immediately rather than at their next scheduled time Source address is the link-local address of the host Destination address is FF02::2 Send by routers periodically or in response to a Router Solicitation message in order to notify their presence and provide information such as: host configuration parameters and on-link prefixes Source address is the link-local address of the sending router Destination address is the unicast address of a node that sent a Router Solicitation or FF02::1 Send by routers to inform hosts of a better first hop for a destination Router Advertisement – – Redirect – 24 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

or the target address Also used for Duplicate Address Detection The Target Address field in the Neighbor Solicitation message is set to the IPv6 address for which duplication is being detected The Source Address is set to the unspecified address (::) Neighbor Advertisement – – – Send by a node in response to a Neighbor Solicitation message A node may also send unsolicited Neighbor Advertisements to announce a link-layer address change Also used for Duplicate Address Detection The Destination Address is set to the link-local scope all-nodes multicast address (FF02::1) 25 4TO6TRANS 08.ICMPv6 packet types used in Neighbor Discovery (2) Neighbor Solicitation – – – – Sent by a node to determine the link-layer address of a neighbor. or to verify that a neighbor is still reachable via a cached link-layer address Source address is the link-local address of the node Destination address is the solicited-node multicast address corresponding to the target address.2010 .04.

IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration Stateless autoconfiguration – – – – No manual configuration of hosts is required Hosts can generate their own address by appending its 48 bits MAC address in EUI-64 bits format to the 64 bits of the local link prefix advertised by the router Router advertisement messages contain also lifetime information for each prefix in the advertisement Duplicate address detection Stateful autoconfiguration – Configuration information is provided to a host by a server such as DHCPv6 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 26 .04.

2010 . – – – – – Configuration parameters Stateless addresses and on-link prefixes Perform duplicate address detection for stateless addresses Whether to use stateful address configuration Specific routes ...04.. 27 4TO6TRANS 08.IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration Process Configure Link-local address – Perform duplicate address detection Perform router discovery by sending router solicitation messages Use Router Advertisement message contents to determine the following items.

but not forbidden Invalid – An address from which unicast traffic can no longer be sent and received Valid Tentative Preferred Preferred Lifetime Valid Lifetime Deprecated Invalid time 28 4TO6TRANS 08.Autoconfiguration address states Tentative – Accepts only Neighbor Discovery packets related to Duplicate Address Detection for the tentative address Valid – An address from which unicast traffic can be sent and received – Preferred state .2010 .04. unrestricted use – Deprecated state – its use is discouraged.uniqueness has been verified.

Manually configure an IPv6 On Windows client: – netsh interface ipv6 install/uninstall IPv6 is installed and enabled by default on Windows Vista and Windows 2008 Server – netsh interface ipv6 add address "Local Area Connection" fd00::c0a8:64 On Linux client: – ip -6 addr add dev eth0 fd00::c0a8:c7/64 On Mac OS X client: – ifconfig en0 inet6 add fd00::c0a8:101 prefixlen 64 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 29 .04.

#advertise at least every 30 seconds MinRtrAdvInterval 10. AdvValidLifetime 120.IP Auto Configuration Router Advertisement Daemon – radvd /etc/init. #but not less than every 10 seconds AdvReachableTime 60000. # in seconds (default is 30 days) AdvPreferredLifetime 60. #needs to be set to “on” in order the router to send periodic router # advertisements and to respond to router solicitations AdvDefaultLifetime 90.conf interface eth0 { AdvSendAdvert on. 30 4TO6TRANS 08. #in seconds (default is 7 days) }. }.d/radvd start|stop|restart /etc/sysconfig/network IPV6FORWARDING=yes /etc/radvd.04. #in seconds MaxRtrAdvInterval 30.2010 . #in milliseconds prefix fd00:0:0:15::/64 { AdvAutonomous on.

8.ip6.0.0.c.c.net 31 4TO6TRANS 08.0.d.0.0.0.04.0.test.0.ARPA Uses the following format to store IPv6 addresses: 4.2.0.0.0.2010 .0.d.0.arpa IN PTR host-ipv6.DNS support AAAA record – – – – Maps host name to IPv6 address Equivalent to A record in IPv4 Uses the following format: host-ipv6 IN AAAA fd00::c0a8:cd24 PTR record – – – Maps IPv6 address to host name New reverse domain called IP6.f.0.0.a.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.

IPv6 Pros and Cons .

2010 .04.Why shall we deploy IPv6? (1) 33 4TO6TRANS 08.

7% left free).04. etc.2010 34 . IPv6 deployment enables BUSINESS CONTINUITY. It is about the fundamental IP network layer model developed for end-to-end services and network transparency. With the exhaustion of the IPv4 free pool (only about 8. multicast. security. IPv6 is NOT a feature. The technology itself is not a 'market driver'. Auto configuration (plug & play) No NAT ☺ 4TO6TRANS 08. Least but not last IPv6 provides new features – – – – virtually unlimited addressing space native support for mobility.Why shall we deploy IPv6? (2) IPv6 technology is an 'enabler' of new business opportunities.

2010 35 .Why shall we not go towards IPv6 IPv4 Networks are already too complex There are still devices and applications that does not support IPv6.. IPv4 and IPv6 do not interoperate: – – IPv4 applications do not work with IPv6 IPv4 nodes can not communicate with IPv6 nodes Security. Those services might be – – – – – – Internet Access VoIP Business VPN data connectivity Remote Access IPTV And many others …. Only the IP address or the IP addressing pool of the NAT device.04. There are no tools able to reconfigure the Network services that we already use in controlled and automated fashion. So such transition might be a huge mess. Currently we use NAT and the outside hosts does not see the IP addresses of the inside hosts. 4TO6TRANS 08.

Coexistence It is likely that IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for a long period of time: How to enable communications among IPv6 islands isolated in the IPv4 world? How to enable communications between the existing IPv4 world and the new IPv6 world? 36 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

2010 . Internet) two types of tunneling: configured and automatic IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling – – NAT-PT 37 4TO6TRANS 08.04.g.Basic transition mechanisms Dual IP Stack – provision of complete support for both IPv4 and IPv6 in hosts and routers encapsulation of IPv6 packets within IPv4 headers to carry them over an IPv4 network (e.

4TO6TRANS concepts and objectives .

2010 .4TO6TRANS project Goals The project target is performing the process of transforming IPv4 to an IPv6 service provider infrastructures.04. To go beyond the state of art of the current Operation Support Systems 39 4TO6TRANS 08.

IPv4 based Service Provider Network will be transformed …. 40 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

To an IPv6 based 41 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

4TO6TRANS project Target Creation of 4TO6TRANS framework: – – – having the power and ability to model the current services to “communicate” with the network devices via CLI and SNMP to follow certain business logic during the transformation process A similar network migration task being extremely complex. 4TO6TRANS promote the idea of an open framework instead of closed platform. the.2010 . 42 4TO6TRANS 08. The framework architecture will consist of several Application Programmable Interfaces build on technologies beyond the current state of art.04. That is the only way to handle/have control on the variety and complexity of the current IP networks.

Fulfillment.04. Assurance and Billing (FAB) model Best practice for ISP OSS architecture recommended by TMFORM part of the OSS eTOM model.2010 . 43 4TO6TRANS 08.

Solution Architecture Transformation inputs BTL APIs Inventory API Service transformation Network Layer 44 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .04.

SQL or preferable XML format It shall contain the input data needed for the successful service transformation The BTL shall take that input and perform the transformation It shall be able to give an intermediate status of the order and also a final result once the transformation process is finished 45 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .Transformation Input Layer Service transformation orders may come from different sources The most common source will be the Service provider CRM system The transformation request might be in HTTP.04.

their physical and logical structure.2010 .Network Inventory Contains a logical data model of the network Has to be able to model the network devices. the services running on them and the subscribers using those services Has to be flexible enough to respond to network changes.04. extensions and replacements The data inside shall be populated in a dynamic and automated way 46 4TO6TRANS 08.

Inventory data Logical Model Real device 47 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

04. To speedup this process two additional functionalities will be developed – – Device Discoveries Automated Uploads of the discovered devices 48 4TO6TRANS 08. One of the most time consuming steps in that process is filling the inventory with real data from the network.Inventory Automation One of the main goals of the project is to automate the fulfillment process.2010 .

04. Once the initial device is analyzed and identified the algorithm will discover it’s immediate neighbors of analyzing various network protocols (MPLS LDP. Discovery STOP criteria has to be defined – – Already discovered devices shall be distinguished by the discovery algorithm. The discovery algorithm needs initial object or IP address to start with. Discovery might stop if the discovered node is certain type. 49 4TO6TRANS 08. routing protocols etc) Once certain device is discovered it will be uploaded into the inventory and its neighbors will be also analyzed by the discovery algorithm. For example is MPLS Backbone Router or is Customer device.Device Discoveries Device discovery fulfills an algorithm able spread like a virus thought the network. CDP.2010 .

2010 . 50 4TO6TRANS 08. Upload Functionality polls the devices through the service transformation API in order to gather the data needed for feeding the Logical model.04.Device Uploads Through the Uploads the data will be filled in into the inventory database.

The algorithm will be driven by the BTL API 51 4TO6TRANS 08.Service Automation Once the inventory is populated with the logical model of the network The information will be used by the transformation process algorithm.2010 .04.

Business Transformation Logic Able to model the transformation process Able to represent the process in a GANT chart to the process operators 52 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

Common transformation algorithm Transformation algorithm building blocks – – – – – – – Log Transformation order Validation!!! Prepare service transformation bundle Process service transformation Resolve transformation errors Complete transformation Cancel transformation Available for transformation process designers 53 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .04.

automatic or semi-automatic Each task could to be processed/stopped controlled by an operator GANT chart representation 54 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .Algorithm execution Algorithm tasks could be manual.

Successful Transformation Once the transformation algorithm has finished If we have a successful transformation IPv4 services will be moved from the IPv4 service branch To the IPv6 service branch 55 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

4TO6TRANS project status .

04.Project Development The 4TO6TRANS is quite difficult project that needs people with various technical skills: – – – – Software Solution Architects Network Solution Architects Database Developers Java Developers It’s a job for 10 engineers for 3 years period of time… 57 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .

Project Funding Different funding schemas exists – – – – – FP7 ICT cooperation FP7 ICT ideas EUREKA's Eurostars Private funding Government funding 58 4TO6TRANS 08.2010 .04.

Subject Popularization Past/Current Projects with similar goals – – – 6INIT 6DISS 6DEPLOY None of them targets OSS provider infrastructures!!! The subject shall be made more popular 59 4TO6TRANS 08.04.2010 .

org .org http://niau.IPv4 to IPv6 TRANSFORMATION eng. Nikolay Milovanov CCIE SP# 20094 email: nmil@niau.