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Advanced SAN

Troubleshooting

Mike Frase
Session BRKSAN 3708

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Agenda
ƒ Fibre Channel & MDS Switch Basics
FC Operations Review
Addressing, FC Services
Domains, Zoning
ƒ MDS Serviceability Tools
FCanalyzer
SPAN & PAA (WireShark usage)
SAN/OS (Output analysis, debug, logs, Cores)
Performance Manager (Licensed part of Fabric Manager)
NTOP (Using Netflow and SPAN w/PAA)
ƒ Troubleshooting
Device connections
ISL’s
Zoning
IVR
NPV

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Simple to Complex - Troubleshooting at all Levels
ƒ Simple SAN – small port count
No Inter-switch links
Dual Fabric
Minimal SAN/OS feature use
ƒ Director Class collapsed CORE SAN – large port count
High availability Design
Port Channels, FSPF Routing
Multi San/OS feature use
ƒ Core Director SAN w/ Bladeserver & edge switches
Multi Domains
Interop
NPV - Top of Rack
ƒ Central SAN to Backup DR SAN
Inter VSAN Routing
Distant extended ISL’s, FCIP

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Fibre Channel Operations

ƒ Physical Layer basics
ƒ Understanding FC addressing
Needing to live within the limits of the standards
ƒ Fibre Channel Protocol Services & SAN/OS
Refreshers on FLOGI. PLOGI, standards operations as they relate to SAN/OS
The ISL connection
ƒ Domains - Operational understanding
ƒ Zoning – Basic & Enhanced operation
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Fibre Channel Layers
Structure Is Divided into Five Levels of Functionality

ƒ FC-0—defines the physical interface characteristics
Signaling rates, cables, connectors, distance capabilities, etc.
ƒ FC-1—defines how characters are encoded/decoded for transmission
Transmission characters are
given desirable characters
ƒ FC-2—defines how
information is transported FC-4s SCSI IP
Frames, sequences,
exchanges, login sessions FC-3 Common Services

ƒ FC-3—place holder for FC-2 Signaling Protocol
future functions FC-1 Transmission Code FC-PH
ƒ FC-4—defines how different FC-0 Physical Interface
protocols are mapped to use
Fiber Channel
SCSI, IP, Virtual Interface
Architecture, others

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Detailed SFP levels

This output of detailed
SFP transceiver only
available on new 4 Gig
& 10 gig qualified
Cisco SFP’s

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Fibre Channel Transmission Words: FC-1

ƒ Ordered sets are transmitted continuously to indicate
that specific conditions within the link
are encountered
ƒ Ordered sets transmitted while the condition exist
ƒ Four primitive sequences which can determine where
problem exist
Not Operational Sequence (NOS)
Offline Sequence (OLS)
Link Reset Sequence (LR)
Link Reset Response Sequence (LRR)

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Link Initialization Flow
Fibre Channel Layer 1 Protocol (FC-1)

Port A Port B
Link Failure Condition
AC AC
These Are All Special-Ordered Sets
of 8B/10B Coding:
NOS LF LF = Link Failure State
LF
NOS = Not Operational Sequence
OLS
OLS = Offline Sequence
LR
OL
OL = Offline State
LR
LRR LR = Link Reset
LR LRR = Link Reset Response
Idle
AC LR = Link Recovery State
Idle AC = Active State
AC

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Fibre Channel Port Issues
In Order for an F_Port to Come Up on an MDS Switch:
1. The switch port must first
acquire bit and word
synchronization with the N_Port
2. N_Port must issue a FLOGI to
the MDS

Primitive Sequences
Counters Can Determine
Layer 0–1 Problems

Tip:
Clear Counters and Monitor to Verify Active
Issues, Use Device Manager Monitor Tool to
Monitor Live; Set and Activate Threshold
Manager to Alert You;
MDS_Switch# clear counters interface fc 1/1

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Line Card Basics
ƒ Show module will display slot
locations and type
of card
ƒ General information in interface
and statistics can be gathered
from switch main-level prompt
ƒ More detailed gathering
of ASIC counters may be required
to troubleshoot difficult issues,
attach would then be required

Attach to Module with “Attach”
Command, All Modules Can Be
Attached to, Including Standby
Supervisor and IPS Blade

Exit to Detach

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Monitor Link Init State – Gen 1 LC
(Flow from Bottom to Top)
Attached to Mod 1 FC Port 1/2

module-1# show hardware internal fc-mac port 2 stateinfo

F-Port LINK: 052 022180c5 LR_RECEIVE(03) =>ACTIVE(01)
Point LINK: 051 022180c3 OLS_TRANSMIT(07) =>LR_RECEIVE(03)
to Point
LINK: 050 022180c1 SENTINAL(00) =>OLS_TRANSMIT(07)
Negotiated
LOOP: 049 022180c1 HW_ALPAS(0d) MASTER_LISA_WAIT(1f)=> OLD_PORT(3f)
LOOP: 048 022180c1 HW_ALPAS(0d) MASTER_LISA(1e)=> MASTER_LISA_WAIT(1f)
LOOP: 047 022180c1 HW_ALPAS(0d) MASTER_LIHA_WAIT(1d)=> MASTER_LISA(1e)
LOOP: 046 022180c1 HW_ALPAS(0d) MASTER_LIHA(1c)=> MASTER_LIHA_WAIT(1d)
LOOP: 045 022180c1 HW_ALPAS(0d) MASTER_LIPA_WAIT(1b)=> MASTER_LIHA(1c)
Port Tries LOOP: 044 022180c1 HW_ALPAS(0d) MASTER_LIPA(1a)=> MASTER_LIPA_WAIT(1b)
Loop First LOOP: 043 022180c1 HW_ALPAS(0d) MASTER_LIFA_WAIT(19)=> MASTER_LIPA(1a)
When Port Is LOOP: 042 022180c1 HW_ALPAS(0d) MASTER_LIFA(18)=> MASTER_LIFA_WAIT(19)
Set to Auto LOOP: 041 022180c1 HW_X_ARB(0c) MASTER_START(17)=> MASTER_LIFA(18)
LOOP: 040 022180c1 HW_LISM0(0a) OPEN_INIT_SELECT_MASTER(06)=> MASTER_START(17)
LOOP: 039 022180bf HW_R_LIP(09) OPEN_INIT_START(05)=> OPEN_INIT_SELECT_MASTER(06)
Interface Shut/ LOOP: 038 022180bf HW_X_LIP(08) NORMAL_INITIALIZE(04)=> OPEN_INIT_START(05)
No Shut via LOOP: 037 022180bf HW_R_LIP(09) LPSM_STARTED(01)=> NORMAL_INITIALIZE(04)
Configuration
LOOP: 036 022180b0 HW_OLDP(07) LPSM_DISABLED(00)=> LPSM_STARTED(01)
LINK: 035 022170e8 ACTIVE(01) =>SENTINAL(00)

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Monitor Link Init State - Gen-2 LC

The newer Generation-2 Line Cards (4 Gig) support a
different look to debugging the link events
Still requires attach to the module

module-7# show hardware internal fc-mac port 1 link-event

================= FCP Port#1 Link State Machine Event Log ==================

MMDDYY HHMMSS usecs Event Current State

LINK_ACTIVE
032907 014953 369768 (0000) E_LINK_IDLE LINK_LR_RX
032907 014953 368963 (0000) E_LINK_LR LINK_NOS_RX
032907 014953 365690 (0000) E_LINK_NOS LINK_OLS_TX
032907 014953 365593 (0001) E_LINK_MIN_OLS LINK_INIT
032907 014953 360463 (016D) E_LINK_LINK_INIT LINK_DIS
032907 014949 710690 (413C) E_LINK_CLEANUP LINK_ACTIVE

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N-Port Virtualization Operations
NPIV-NPV
NPV-Core Switch
w/NPIV configured

FLOGI (acc)
PLOGI (acc)
ACC PLOGI (acc)

F

NP NPV enabled switch
FLOGI PLOGI FDISC

F

N

FLOGI PLOGI PRLI

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Understanding FC
Addressing

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Addresses
From Fabric Manager
FCID Domain/Area/Host
Port World Wide Name 0b / 00 / 01
Vendor name derived
from standards assigned
OUI

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Addresses From CLI
Show fcns database
You will Require the Domain List <sh
fcdomain domain-list> from the Switches to
Know Where the Devices Are Physically
Connected on the SAN, Could Be IVR’ed
from Other VSAN

sh fcdomain domain-list vsan 2

Target or Initiator Passed
to Switch via Process
Login (PRLI) ACCEPT and
ACCEPT Frames During
Nameserver Login

OUI is Part of the PWWN and Is IEEE
Assigned. 00:e0:8b is Assigned to
Qlogic, 00:00:c9 is Assigned to Emulex,
and 00:04:cf is Assigned to Seagate,
Many Others

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Addresses
From Performance Manager

Capabilities to detach the
address list and import to xls for
reference when troubleshooting

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Fabric Services
FC Standards
ƒ FFFFFE—Well-known address of login server
Basic responsibility to assign FCID

ƒ FFFFFC—Well-known address of fabric directory name server
Basic responsibility registration of devices and distribution of database

ƒ FFFFFD—Well-known address of fabric controller
Basic duties responsible for managing fabric, initialization, FSPF routing,
responsible for RSCNs and listens for SCNs

FFFcxx—Cisco Specific, Representing Name Server in a
VSAN and Domain xx

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WireShark Uses
Wireshark (Once known as
Ethereal) is part of the
SAN/OS system image and
can be run directly on the
switch via ssh/telnet.
(FCAnalyzer command)

Wireshark on a PC with use
of Cisco SPAN and a Port
Analyzer Adaptor can be
used as a inline tool with no
disruption to traffic.

The combination of
Wireshark on a PC with a
PAA can give complete look
at the flow beyond the
FLOGI/PLOGI process

We will look more at
Wireshark best practice later
in this session

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FCP Login Fundamentals
Fabric Login to Login Server

Fabric ID assigned by Login Server
NOS, LOS,LR,LRR
FLOGI
Port Login to Fabric Nameserver
PLOGI
SCR
State Change Registration with
Fabric Controller
Query Nameserver for FC Type 4
devices (Storage)

PLOGI to storage

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Switch to switch ISL Communication
Fundamentals

ISL’s in the topology change the complexity of the SAN

ISL
• Common Fabric Parameters required
• Principal switch selection
• Domain ID’s unique across SAN / VSAN
• FSPF routing is activated
• Zone Merging must occur
• Possible VSAN trunking involved
• Possible Port Channeling involved

We will be looking at this in
greater detail in
troubleshooting section

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Domains

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The Domain ID
Domain IDs are assigned by the principal switch based on the
non-principal switch's requesting domain ID.

If it is available, the domain ID is assigned to that switch. If not, a domain ID
is picked from a "Least Recently Used" free list.

On a fresh switch, the search for the free domain starts from 239 and goes
in decreasing order.

Before a switch ever joins a fabric, each switch assigns itself a domain
ID based on its configured domain ID. If the configured domain ID type
is preferred and configured domain ID is 0, then it assigns itself a
random domain ID.

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Running Domains in a VSAN

Domain ID’s
Configured Domains in a VSAN

Choices for action
BF to configure the
RCF
Domain ID

Local is the switch
Duplicate Domain ID’s
I am connected to
but different VSAN’s
If a requirement to run
IVR between VSAN’s
with same ID’s then
IVR NAT would be
required

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Principal Switch Priority- Operation
MDS-switch(config)# fcdomain priority 2 vsan 10 Priority set per VSAN, Try to
MDS-switch(config)# do show fcdomain vsan 10 reserve priority 1 for reasons of
The local switch is a Subordinated Switch. capabilities to trump any switch,
Local switch run time information: lowest number always wins
State: Stable
Local switch WWN: 20:0a:00:05:30:01:97:43
Running fabric name: 20:0a:00:05:30:00:49:df Does not immediately
Running priority: 128 go into effect , Still at
Current domain ID: 0x4d(77) default 128
Local switch configuration information:
State: Enabled Configured priority
FCID persistence: Enabled
Auto-reconfiguration: Disabled
Contiguous-allocation: Disabled
Configured fabric name: 20:01:00:05:30:00:28:df
Optimize Mode: Disabled
Configured priority: 2 Priority of principal switch
Configured domain ID: 0x00(0) (preferred)

Principal switch run time information:
Running priority: 4 Must do a non-disruptive
(BF) restart
MDS-switch(config)# fcdomain restart vsan 10

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Domain ID - be in the know!
ƒ Per VSAN
It is per VSAN configuration

ƒ Build Fabric or Reconfigure Fabric
2 choices when defining a Domain ID per FC-SW standards
BF= non disruptive to complete Fabric, does force changes that could effect
logged in devices to re login.
RCF= Disruptive to Fabric, loss of complete path to a switch

ƒ Interop modes and effects on Domain ID
assignments
Depending on interop mode, range of domains may be limited to 97-127 due to
McData’s 31 DomainID limit

ƒ Planning, proper administration
Consider no duplicate domain ID’s across all VSAN’s if plan may include
someday IVR, then NAT will not be required
Most best practice is to configure core Domain ID’s and principle switch primary
& secondary

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Zoning

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Zoning – Basic operational
understanding

ƒ What can we Zone
ƒ RSCN’s and Zones
ƒ Zoning Standards – Basic vs. Enhanced
ƒ Zone Distribution, Export, Import, Merge

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Physical points for zone members
PWWN or FCID

1/8 VSAN 100
7/11 1/23

Domain 0x4 Domain 0x5
1/2
7/13 3/5

Zoning Choices
Switch FC Interface or Fabric Port WWN (FWWN)

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RSCNs and Zoning

ƒ Devices must register with MDS if they would like to
receive RSCN.
ƒ MDS generates local RSCN to devices within the
affected zone when a zoned member logs in or out of
the fabric.
ƒ Devices that log in or out of the fabric and are not part
of the zone, will not generate RSCNs to devices in the
zone.
ƒ SW_RSCNs will be sent to all switches, and they in turn
will decide if a local RSCN needs to be sent (based on
zoning and affected devices)

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Zone Server Modes

ƒ Zone server supports 2 different modes
Basic mode – represents the zone server behavior of
FC-GS3/FC-SW2 standard. All SAN-OS support basic
mode.
Enhanced mode – represents the zone server behavior
of FC-GS4/FC-SW3 standard. SAN-OS 2.0 and later
are required for enhanced mode.

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Activate Zoneset Flow Across ISLs
Zoneset Distribution Would Go to Every
Domain Within the VSAN
ACA—Acquire Change Auth
Lock the Fabric ACC

Move the Zone Data SFC—Stage Fabric Conf
to the Switches ACC

UFC—Update Fabric Conf
Trigger Switches to
ACC
Activate the New Zoneset
RCA—Release Change Auth
Unlock the Fabric ACC

ACK1 Frames Are Not Shown Here

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Enhanced Zoning

ƒ Enhanced zoning provides the following advantages
Disallow parallel configuration attempts
Standardized generation of RSCN
Reduced payload size of the SFC frame
Fabric-wide policy enforcement (default zone, merge control)
Enhanced error reporting
Distributing zonesets without activation
Unique Vendor Types
FWWN based member type standardized
Enhanced interop thru ESS (Exchange Switch Support) defined in SW-3

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Active only operation

•Only the active zone data is sent

•FCaliases, zones and zonesets that are not
part of the zoneset being activates are not
sent

•The running configuration on Switch
Fishfry will not show the active zoning
information.
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Full Zoneset active operation

• The complete zone data is sent

• FCaliases, zones and zonesets that are
not part of the zoneset being activated are
sent

• The running configuration on Fishfry will
show the active zoning information.
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Recommendations

ƒ If the SAN administrators wish to be able to manage
zones from any switch in the fabric, then configure all
switches/VSANs for ‘distribute full zone database’.
ƒ If the SAN administrator wishes to manage zone
changes from only 1 switch in the fabric, then they can
leave the default configuration of ‘distribute active zone
database only’.
ƒ Inconsistent zone distribution policies can cause
problems when a zoneset is modified on a switch that
may not have the most current information in it’s
configuration when the change was made.

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MDS9000 SAN Tools

ƒ FCanalyzer
ƒ SPAN & PAA (WireShark usage)
ƒ SAN/OS (Output analysis, debug, logs, Cores)
ƒ Performance Manager (Licensed part of Fabric Manager)
ƒ NTOP (Using Netflow and SPAN w/PAA)
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How Do We Troubleshoot the Network
SPAN (Port Monitor)
on Cisco L2 Switch

Run WireShark iSCSI.server1
iSCSI.server2
on IP Host

I

iS C
CS
iSCSIserver3

iS
FC Analyzer

SI
Local iSCSI.server4
Server2

Terminal Server3

PAA
Storage
Server1 Fabric Manager and
Device Manager
Ethernet
PC Out-of-Band
Management Network
Span FC Ports, Port
FC Analyzer Channels, iSCSI or
Debugs and Show FCIP Port to SD Port
Remote
Commands, Telnet or on MDS
Console Wireshark
PC
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Gathering Protocol Traces for Analysis

ƒ Using built-in FC Analyzer (CLI)
Linux version from Wireshark.com

ƒ Using Wireshark on PC (local and remote)
ƒ Using the MDS port analyzer adapter w/SPAN
ƒ Using an external FC Analyzer tester in line or with
SPAN

Non-Disruptive to Switch Operations and
Traffic on the SAN

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MDS FC Analyzer (SAN/OS Embedded)

ƒ Output is displayed to the console in readable sniffer-
like format
ƒ Is only used to monitor Fibre Channel traffic
to and from supervisor on the MDS9000
ƒ Traffic-like fabric logins, FSPF routing, switch-to-switch
control traffic
ƒ Output can go direct to your console screen or
to a workstation running WireShark program

Note: SPAN Is Used for FC Port to FC Port Monitoring

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FC Analyzer Options

ƒ Local or remote—Where to send the trace. Can be to
local devices or remote PAA attached to different MDS
switch.
ƒ Brief or detailed—Header information vs. full output of
frame including hex. Detail is default.
ƒ Limit-captured-frames—Number of frames to capture.
Default is FC analyzer will trace 100 frames. Specifying
zero is unlimited frame capture.
ƒ Limit-capture-size—Allows to capture N number of
bytes of frame. Useful for not capturing frame data
when it is not relevant to troubleshooting.

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Display-Filter Options
ƒ When not specified, FC analyzer will capture all traffic on
VSAN 1
Example: fcanalyzer local brief
ƒ To specify a different VSAN, use a display-filter and specify
the VSAN to be captured in hex or decimal
Example for 100 (note the two equal signs):
fcanalyzer local display-filter mdshdr.vsan==0x64 or
mdshdr.vsan==100
ƒ To capture for a specific address in VSAN 100:
Example:
fcanalyzer local brief display-filter ((fc.d_id==64.01.00)or(fc.s_id==64.01.00))

ƒ Recommend to use remote capture method for ease of filter
capabilities on the WireShark GUI

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Using Write Option for fcanalyzer
ƒ Using write option sends output of the fcanalyzer to a file on
the switch, directory called volatile. This trace file can be
then copied off MDS switch and viewed with WireShark app
on PC
Example: Capture 250 frames of all traffic on VSAN 200
fcanalyzer local display-filter mdshdr.vsan==0xc8 write
volatile:capture.trc limit-captured-frames 250
ƒ The file name on volatile: filesystem will have extra
characters appended. Issue following command to see
contents of filesystem and then copy the file via tftp/ftp
dir volatile:

copy volatile:capture_00001_20050321172628.trc tftp://<tftp
server ip addr>/capture.trc Added Characters
When File Is Written
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FCAnalyzer Local Brief
TOP-9216i# conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
TOP-9216i(config)# fcanalyzer local brief display-filter mdshdr.vsan==2
Capture Is Done in Warning: Couldn't obtain netmask info (eth2: no IPv4 address assigned).
Capturing on eth2
Configuration Mode
2.829871 00.00.00 -> ff.ff.fe 0x2288 0xffff FC ELS FLOGI
2.853261 ff.ff.fe -> 7e.01.00 0x2288 0xc728 FC ELS ACC (FLOGI)
2.853422 7e.01.00 -> ff.ff.fc 0x22a0 0xffff FC ELS PLOGI
2.853592 ff.ff.fc -> 7e.01.00 0x22a0 0xc729 FC ELS ACC (PLOGI)
Brief Option Used to get Single 2.853565 7e.01.00 -> ff.ff.fd 0x22b8 0xffff FC ELS SCR
Line Caption Along with a 2.859648 ff.fc.7e -> 7e.01.00 0xc72c 0xffff FC ELS PLOGI
2.860885 7e.01.00 -> ff.fc.7e 0xc72c 0x22d0 FC ELS ACC (PLOGI)
Display Filter to Narrow Output 2.861007 ff.fc.7e -> 7e.01.00 0xc72b 0xffff FC ELS PRLI
to only VSAN 2 2.861175 7e.01.00 -> ff.fc.7e 0xc72b 0x22e8 FC ELS ACC (PRLI)
2.862053 7e.01.00 -> ff.ff.fc 0x2300 0xffff dNS RFT_ID
2.865904 ff.fc.7e -> ff.fc.0a 0xc72e 0xffff SW_ILS SW_RSCN
Control-C Stops Trace Capture 2.865981 ff.fc.7e -> ff.fc.cb 0xc72f 0xffff SW_ILS SW_RSCN
2.866153 ff.fc.0a -> ff.fc.7e 0xc72e 0x77f9 FC Link Ctl, ACK1
2.866297 ff.fc.cb -> ff.fc.7e 0xc72f 0x77fa FC Link Ctl, ACK1
2.866445 ff.fc.0a -> ff.fc.7e 0xc72e 0x77f9 SW_ILS SW_ACC (SW_RSCN)
ƒ Display filters are a must for 2.866496
2.866615
ff.fc.7e -> ff.fc.0a
ff.ff.fd -> 7e.01.00
0xc72e 0x77f9 FC Link Ctl, ACK1
0x22b8 0xc72a FC ELS ACC (SCR)
narrowing output on a busy 2.868792
2.868857
ff.fc.cb -> ff.fc.7e
ff.fc.7e -> ff.fc.cb
0xc72f 0x77fa SW_ILS SW_ACC (SW_RSCN)
0xc72f 0x77fa FC Link Ctl, ACK1
network. See MDS Config Guide 2.871132
2.872013
ff.fc.7e -> 7e.01.00
7e.01.00 -> ff.fc.7e
0xc730 0xffff FC ELS LOGO
0xc730 0x2318 FC ELS ACC (LOGO)
2.872021 7e.01.00 -> ff.fc.7e 0x2318 0xffff FC ELS PLOGI
for other filter types. 2.872139 ff.fc.7e -> 7e.01.00 0x2318 0xc731 FC ELS LS_RJT (PLOGI)
2.872163 ff.fc.cb -> ff.fc.7e 0x77fb 0xffff dNS GE_ID
ƒ Capture is done by default to 2.872234
2.891239
ff.fc.7e -> ff.fc.cb
ff.fc.7e -> ff.fc.cb
0x77fb 0xc732 FC Link Ctl, ACK1
0x77fb 0xc732 dNS ACC (GE_ID)
2.891359 ff.ff.fc -> 7e.01.00 0x2300 0xc72d dNS ACC (RFT_ID)
console screen, so make sure you 2.891469 7e.01.00 -> ff.ff.fc 0x2330 0xffff dNS RFF_ID
2.891613 ff.fc.cb -> ff.fc.7e 0x77fb 0xc732 FC Link Ctl, ACK1
are able to save output to large 2.900160 ff.ff.fc -> 7e.01.00 0x2330 0xc733 dNS ACC (RFF_ID)
2.900394 7e.01.00 -> ff.ff.fc 0x2378 0xffff dNS RNN_ID
capture buffer or log with your 2.901916 ff.ff.fc -> 7e.01.00 0x2378 0xc734 dNS ACC (RNN_ID)
2.902151 7e.01.00 -> ff.ff.fc 0x23a8 0xffff dNS RSNN_NN
telnet application 2.908296 ff.ff.fc -> 7e.01.00 0x23a8 0xc735 dNS ACC (RSNN_NN)
2.908444 7e.01.00 -> ff.ff.fc 0x23c0 0xffff dNS GNN_FT
2.919880 ff.ff.fc -> 7e.01.00 0x23c0 0xc736 dNS ACC (GNN_FT)

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SPAN & PAA

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Use of SPAN Feature

ƒ Used for FC port to FC port analyzing
ƒ Same type of tool as used on Cisco Catalyst® products.
Cisco Catalyst uses port monitor.
ƒ Can be left configured on switch
ƒ Ingress and egress ports are sent to an FC-port setup
as a SPAN Destination (SD-port type)
ƒ No limits to where the ports are located on the
MDS switch network
ƒ Used to output to third-party test equipment or to Cisco
Port Analyzer Adapter

N Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47

FC Linecard

Best Practices using SPAN
ƒ MDS9500/9200
16 SPAN sessions, Multi Source & Destinations
ƒ MDS9124
Only 1 SPAN session, 1 Direction at a time
ƒ MDS9020 no SPAN capabilities
ƒ Try to design into the Fabric solution a SD port dedicated to for
SPAN usage. 1 per fabric (w/ remote SPAN) or 1 per switch (w/o remote
SPAN)
ƒ Bladeswitch ports can also be configured for SPAN
ƒ Use filters mnemonics with FCAnalyzer to limit capture
MDS9124
ƒ Learn to use WireShark

HP Blade IBM Blade

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SAN/OS Tools

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Command Line Debugging

ƒ Available debugs depend on features enabled
in SAN/OS
ƒ Many, many different options to select when turning on
debugs
ƒ Where is it output going?
Logfile—Data file in switch memory
Capture to direct to screen via console, telnet or SSH
ƒ Requires admin privileges to run debugs
ƒ Debugs can only be run from CLI
ƒ No debugging available from Fabric Manager or Device
Manager

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Debug Logging
1. TOP-9216i# debug logfile networkers_debugs size 5000
2. Display captured debug to screen
Tip: use show debug to see name of debug file
TOP-9216i# show debug logfile networkers_debug
3. Copy debug file off MDS to a server
TOP-9216i# copy log:networkers_debugs ftp:
Enter hostname for the ftp server: 10.91.42.166
Enter username: networkers
Password: networkers
To delete the debug logfile
TOP-9216i# clear debug-logfile networkers_debugs
Or
TOP-9216i# undebug all
Or
debug logfile will be cleared and over written when next debug logfile is
created, only one debug logfile is allowed by system

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51

Debugs to Direct Telnet Window

ƒ Use a telnet/SSH or console application that will
capture the expected output to buffer or file
ƒ Undebug all or no debug of specific debug command is
required to turn trace off
ƒ The debugs are not persistent across reboots
ƒ Most debugs are very readable and sensible to
understand, some not

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52

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Design for Troubleshooting

ƒ Leverage VSAN design to support troubleshooting
methodology
ƒ Have a SPAN port allocated in port count needs
ƒ Integrate a Cisco Port Analyzer Adapter (PAA) into
SAN design
ƒ Provision an Analyzer (Finisar, Agilent, other) in the
network, keep it operational with FTP access to extract
traces
ƒ Design for Syslog servers and scheduled configuration
saves (use CFS to simplify)

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53

Performance
Manager

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Fabric Manager Performance Manager

ƒ Licensed part of Fabric Manager
ƒ Requirement for proactive SCSI I/O performance
across the MDS Fabric
ƒ Accounting logs to Monitor Fabric Changes
ƒ Net Flow Tool
Create flows
Use for Setting Benchmarks for I/O use

ƒ Use to monitor Port Groups

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 55

Accounting

ƒ Web interface allows for simple accounting views

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PM Output – Monitor Port Groups
Port-group 3 on a 24 port LC

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PM- Monitor Netflows
Flow creation done with Flow Wizard

Historical look at Initiator to Target flow

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NTOP

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NTOP Network Traffic Probe http://www.ntop.org/

ƒ Use PAA-2 to SPAN selected critical paths or devices.
ƒ Set encapsulation on SD port to eisl to capture all
VSAN traffic
ƒ SPAN’ed Traffic can be dynamically SPAN
edited and changed as needed based
on issue at hand
PAA-2

SD

NTOP Web server (Linux Preferred)
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NTOP
Determining SCSI Latencies on the SAN

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61

Performance of I/O across Fabric

LUN 0 Traffic

Information in NTOP is referenced to
FCID’s. Many places in FM, DM and
CLI to reference to what FCID’s
belong to what.

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Troubleshooting with
the Tools

ƒ Device Connections
ƒ ISL’s
ƒ Zoning
ƒ IVR
ƒ NPV

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 63

MDS 9124

ƒ Simple SAN FC Device Operation
ƒ MDS 9124 – 1 SPAN session, look at Tx first then Rx
ƒ SPAN Host session to SD port so to see complete FC
login and monitor SCSI traffic

PAA
Ethernet

Fibre Channel
Wireshark
Application

Note: We saw CLI of FCAnalyzer
usage in slide 20
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Host Login Trace
Transmit side
of Trace
Decoded in
FC-GS
standard

Response Side
side of Trace

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Inter Switch Link
• VSAN 1 & 100 already configured up and Picture of VSAN 100
running in core production SAN
• Add new 9509 switch that has VSAN 1 &
100 configured on it
• New switch using default Domain settings
• No known conflicts with zonesets

VSAN 100 Domain ID’s
Add new Switch and
ISL to Fabric.

VSAN 1 Domain ID’s

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ISL Trace - TE Port SPAN to PAA
PAA
Ethernet

Fibre Channel Wireshark
Application

BEAR# sh span sess 3
Session 3 (active)
Destination is fc7/24
No session filters configured
Ingress (rx) sources are
fc1/2,
Egress (tx) sources are
fc1/2,

SPAN view from
Fabric Manager

SPAN view from
Device Manager

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 67

ISL Trace
ACK1 Filter Applied

Exchange Link Parameters

Exchange Switch Capabilities

Exchange Peer Parameters
(This Is Proprietary to MDS Only
to Determine if Connecting
Switch Is Another MDS)

Exchange Fabric Parameters

Build Fabric

Domain ID Assign by Existing
Principal Switch

Request Domain ID from
New Switch

Enhanced Zoning Merge Request
Resource Allocation (New in FC-
SW3 Standard)

Zone Merge Request
Break down of how the Domains were
selected and distributed on next slide
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Domain ID assignments & Distribution
VSAN 1 VSAN 100

Request for ID 113 Decimal
Request for ID 104 Decimal

EFP distributes to new switch
the list of where other
domains are found

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69

Debugging Zoning

ƒ Understanding what is Active
ƒ Fabric Manager / CLI
ƒ Basic/Enhanced
ƒ Zoneset activate failure?
ƒ Zoneset merge failure?
ƒ Members not able to communicate?
ƒ Host can not see storage?

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Show Zoneset Active
ƒ Shows the zoneset activated in
the fabric
ƒ An asterisk to left of device
indicates that device has
registered with the nameserver
ƒ Will not show if a zone has been
configured but changes have not
been activated
ƒ Zoneset and zone names are
case sensitive
ƒ Inter-VSAN routing zone added to
ZoneSet via IVR wizard if this
VSAN has member being zoned
to another VSAN

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71

Zoneset activate failure

ƒ Look at the messages on the seed switch to determine
what caused the activate to fail. ‘show logging log’
(seed is the switch where the change was initiated from)

ƒ For multi switch fabrics, check that the ISL or TE-ISL is
operational.
ƒ Show interface fcx/x or show interface port-channel x
ƒ Show interface trunk vsan x
ƒ Show fcdomain domain-list vsan x
ƒ Show zone internal

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Change event history
BEAR# show zone internal change event-history vsan 100
Change Protocol Event Log For VSAN: 100
>>>>FSM has 50 logged transitions<<<<
Command to view
46) Transition at Tue May 1 10:37:34 2007 change history for
Prev State: [ACA Sent] VSAN 100
Trig event: [RCVD_ACC] (Dom:5)
Next State: [ACA Sent]
47) Transition at Tue May 1 10:37:34 2007
Prev State: [ACA Sent] One event.
Trig event: [RCVD_ALL_ACC]
Time of event is noted
Next State: [ACA Complete] previous state, event, and
48) Transition at Tue May 1 10:37:34 2007 next state are shown.
Prev State: [ACA Complete]
Trig event: [SEND_RCA] Domain that initiated the
Next State: [RCA Sent] event is also seen
49) Transition at Tue May 1 10:37:34 2007
Prev State: [RCA Sent]
Trig event: [RCVD_ACC] (Dom:5)
Next State: [RCA Sent]
50) Transition at Tue May 1 10:37:34 2007
Prev State: [RCA Sent]
Trig event: [RCVD_ALL_ACC]
Next State: [Idle]
Curr state: [Idle]

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 73

Zone merge failure options

ƒ Confirm that there is a discrepancy in the zonesets on
opposite sides of the ISL or E-ISL that is isolated.
ƒ Determine which of the 2 fabrics contain the desired
active zoneset, then use the zoneset import/export
command. This command only works if the ISL/E-ISL
is isolated.
ƒ Prune the VSAN from the TE port, and add it back.
ƒ Edit one or the other zonesets and then shut/no shut
the ISL or E-ISL. This action will impact all VSANs on
the E-ISL even those that are not isolated.

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Host can’t see storage?
ƒ View ‘show zoneset active vsan x’ on each switch.
ƒ Look for * next to the affected device. The * indicates the device is
in the zone, and is active in the name server.
ƒ If the * is present, in each switch, then the zoning displays look as
good as they get. Verify the zone members are correct for the
devices that are affected. Correct PWWN and FCID displayed?
BEAR# show zoneset active vsan 100
zoneset name VS100_Zoneset vsan 100
zone name Net-2 vsan 100 Device is not active in the fabric
* fcid 0x0501e1 [pwwn 22:00:00:20:37:c5:36:f0] but is in the zone
* fcid 0x040001 [pwwn 10:00:00:00:c9:2f:99:3d] [DA-Net-2]

zone name Snipe vsan 100
* fcid 0x040100 [pwwn 21:01:00:e0:8b:25:a2:8f]
* fcid 0x050200 [pwwn 21:00:00:e0:8b:05:a2:8f] [Snipe]
* fcid 0x050300 [pwwn 20:04:00:a0:b8:0c:64:51] Device is active in the fabric
pwwn 20:05:00:a0:b8:0c:64:51 and in the zone
zone name Net-2-extrastor vsan 100
* fcid 0x0501e2 [pwwn 22:00:00:20:37:c5:22:de]
* fcid 0x040001 [pwwn 10:00:00:00:c9:2f:99:3d] [DA-Net-2]

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 75

See if the Switch can see the Storage but still
not the host
ƒ MDS has a pseudo initiator device that can log into
targets (if target accepts PLOGI from the switch PWWN)

LUNs Targets

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Zoneset activation - Trace
Activate zone in
VSAN 100, using
VSAN filter option
on the SPAN
session

BEAR# show span session 3
Session 3 (active)
Destination is fc7/24
Session filter vsans are 100
Ingress (rx) sources are
port-channel 1,
Egress (tx) sources are

port-channel 1,

Success

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 77

Recovering from Zone Issues
Zoneset import/export command
MDS_Switch# show int fc1/1
FC1/1 is trunking (Not all VSANs UP on the trunk)
Hardware is Fibre Channel, SFP is short wave laser w/o OFC (SN)
Port WWN is 20:c5:00:05:30:00:49:1e
Peer port WWN is 20:81:00:0d:ec:0f:b4:c0
Admin port mode is E, trunk mode is on
snmp traps are enabled
Port mode is TE
Port vsan is 1
Speed is 2 Gbps
Transmit B2B Credit is 255
Receive B2B Credit is 12 VSAN 10 is
isolated
Receive data field Size is 2112
Beacon is turned off
Trunk vsans (admin allowed and active) (1,10)
Trunk vsans (up) (1)
Trunk vsans (isolated) (10) Show Zoneset
that is deemed
MDS_Swich# show zoneset act v 10 undesirable
zoneset name z10 vsan 10
zone name duplicate vsan 10
pwwn 10:10:10:10:10:10:10:10 Command to bypass
merge checking and force
MDS_Switch# zoneset import interface fc1/1 vsan 10 import of zone data

<show port internal info> will give greater detail on merger failure reason
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Recovering from Zone Issues
Zoneset import/export command - After the import
MDS_Switch# show int fc1/1
Fc1/1 is trunking
Hardware is Fibre Channel, SFP is short wave laser w/o OFC (SN)
Port WWN is 20:c5:00:05:30:00:49:1e
Peer port WWN is 20:81:00:0d:ec:0f:b4:c0
Admin port mode is E, trunk mode is on
VSAN 10 is no
snmp traps are enabled longer isolated
Port mode is TE
Port vsan is 1
Speed is 2 Gbps
Transmit B2B Credit is 255
Receive B2B Credit is 12
Receive data field Size is 2112
Beacon is turned off VSAN 10 zoneset
Trunk vsans (admin allowed and active) (1,10) has been imported
Trunk vsans (up) (1,10)
Trunk vsans (isolated) ()
Trunk vsans (initializing) ()
Entry in the
accounting log
MDS_Switch# show zoneset act vsan 10 reflecting the
zoneset name v10 vsan 10 import action
zone name duplicate vsan 10
pwwn 21:00:00:20:37:a9:cd:6e

admin:Import option is set on interface fc1/1 on VSAN 10

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 79

Zone merge failure observations
Guernsey# show zoneset active vsan 1
zoneset name networkers vsan 1
zone name Networkers2007 vsan 1
pwwn 20:20:20:20:20:20:20:22

Different
Different Same zone member
switches name

BEAR# show zoneset active vsan 1
zoneset name networkers vsan 1
zone name Networkers2007 vsan 1
pwwn 20:20:20:20:20:20:20:11

BEAR %ZONE-2-ZS_MERGE_FAILED: %$VSAN 1%$ Zone merge failure, isolating interface fc1/2 error:
Member mismatch

Guernsey %ZONE-2-ZS_MERGE_FAILED: %$VSAN 1%$ Zone merge failure, isolating interface fc2/1 error:
Received rjt from adjacent switch

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Zone merge failure as seen on the ISL interface

BEAR# show interface fc1/2
fc1/2 is trunking (Not all VSANs UP on the trunk)
Hardware is Fibre Channel, SFP is short wave laser w/o OFC (SN) VSANs with no
Port WWN is 20:02:00:0c:85:67:b1:c0
Peer port WWN is 20:41:00:0d:ec:01:40:80 merge conflicts
Admin port mode is E, trunk mode is on
snmp link state traps are enabled
will show here.
Port mode is TE
Port vsan is 1
Speed is 2 Gbps
Transmit B2B Credit is 12
Receive B2B Credit is 255
VSAN 1 is
Receive data field Size is 2112 isolated
Beacon is turned off
Trunk vsans (admin allowed and active) (1,100)
Trunk vsans (up) (100)
Trunk vsans (isolated) (1)
Trunk vsans (initializing) ()

Show port internal info interface fc1/2

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BEAR# show span session 3
Session 3 (active)
Trace of Zone failure Destination is fc7/24
Session filter vsans are 1
Ingress (rx) sources are
fc1/2,
Egress (tx) sources are
fc1/2,

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MR (merge request) frame from < FCanalyzer detail >
FCID’s are the
Fabric Trace taken from
Controller config prompt on
switch
Capture to file if
MR
command
need be
code
Can use Wireshark
to also view and
analyze the captured
file

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 83

Enhanced Zone analysis

BEAR# show zone analysis ?
active Show active zoneset analysis analyze the active zoneset on a vsan
vsan Show analysis in the specified VSAN analyze the full database for a vsan
zoneset Show zoneset analysis analyze a specific zoneset for a vsan

BEAR# show zone analysis zoneset
VS100_Zoneset vsan 100
Zoning database analysis vsan 100
Zoneset analysis: VS100_Zoneset
Num zonesets: 1
Num zones: 3
SFC will be 580 bytes of the max 2048Kb
Num aliases: 6
Num attribute groups: 1
Formattted size: 580 bytes / 2048 Kb

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Troubleshooting Zone/ACL Issues
What to collect
On the Supervisor:

switch# show tech-support details
switch# show tech-support acltcam-soc
switch# show tech-support zbm // This is Zone Block Manager
switch# show tech-support zone

On the linecard (attach module 1):

module-1# show hardware internal packet-flow dropped
•check the port-stats for port P & acl-stats on the port-grp N where you see drops

module-1# show hardware internal fwd port <p> port-stats
module-1# show hardware internal fwd 0 port-group <n> acl-stats
module-1# show hardware internal errors
module-1# show hardware internal fwd 0 error-statistics

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 85

Best Practices

ƒ Make periodic backups of zoning database
ƒ Prior to any changes, make a backup of the current
zoning
ƒ Single initiator zones
ƒ Meaningful zone names
ƒ Default-zone set to deny
ƒ Distribute full zoneset
ƒ Use alias, device-alias preferred
ƒ Manage from designated seed switch or switches

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IVR
Inter VSAN Routing

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Reading IVR Where, What

Host on 9216i switch needs to get at Disk
on different VSAN on different switch

IVR only enabled where needed - only 9216i

VSAN10

No NAT required because
VSAN 200 Domain ID’s are unique

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CLI for IVR – Show Configuration

Showing IVR-VSAN Topology Configuration (should match in both switches)
switch# show ivr vsan-topology
AFID SWITCH WWN Active Cfg. VSANS
--------------------------------------------------------------
1 20:00:00:05:30:00:3c:5e yes yes 1,4
1 20:00:00:05:30:00:58:de yes yes 2,4

Showing IVR-Zone Configuration (should match in both switches)

switch# show ivr zoneset active
zoneset name ZoneSet1
zone name Zone_VSAN1-2
* pwwn 21:00:00:e0:8b:02:ca:4a vsan 1
* pwwn 21:00:00:20:37:c8:5c:6b vsan 2

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 89

IVR initiated distribution of information via
CFS (Cisco Fabric Services)

ƒ Information distribution initiated by IVR process, not by user
ƒ Events that alter the IVR topology database
ƒ VSAN creation
ƒ Link Shutdown
ƒ Must do IVR COMMIT to initiate distribution for config
changes

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Show IVR, what can I look at in 3.0?
Sunny# show ivr ?
fcdomain Display IVR persistent fcdomain database
internal Show ivr internal information
merge Show ivr merge status
pending Show ivr pending configuration
pending-diff Show ivr pending-diff
service-group Show IVR service groups
session Show ivr session status
tech-support Show information for IVR technical support staff
virtual-domains Show IVR virtual domains for all local VSANs
virtual-fcdomain-add-status Show IVR-virtual fcdomain status
virtual-switch-wwn Show IVR-virtual switch WWN
vsan-topology Show IVR VSAN topology
zone Inter vsan zone show commands
zoneset Inter vsan routing zoneset show commands
| Output modifiers.
> Output Redirection.
<cr> Carriage return.

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 91

Best Practices for IVR
ƒ Management
ƒ Configure IVR only in needed border switches
ƒ Configure/manage from Fabric Manager
ƒ Do not use IVR topology auto discovery in production (pre 3.0 SAN-OS, it adds every
VSAN to IVR)
ƒ Use transit VSANs for FCIP links or FCIP port channels

ƒ Domain ID’s & VSAN’s
ƒ Plan out your VSAN numbers and domain IDs
ƒ Use static domain IDs
ƒ Use RDI mode to reserve domain IDs

ƒ Zoning
ƒ Keep default zone policy at deny
ƒ Manage local zones from IVR enabled switch

ƒ Keep all IVR enabled switches at the same SAN OS version
ƒ Do not mix IVR NAT with FCIP write acceleration

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IVR Troubleshooting
Database checks Zone checks Miscellaneous Checks

Are devices logged into Use command line to Is it possible that a natted
their local VSAN? (show view active local zoneset FCID changed because of a
flogi database) (show zoneset active) reload causing AIX or HP-UX
to have target binding
issues?
Are devices exported Does the same IVR zone
into remote FCNS in show up in both local and
both directions? (show remote VSAN’s active
fcns database) zoneset? Ensure HBA is not
configured to time out
PLOGI to quickly. IVR NAT
Are FC Devices in the
native VSAN FCNS in Did IVR zoneset delays ACC to PLOGI for a
all switches in that activation succeed in all few seconds. Most HBAs
VSAN? (show fcns VSANs for the affected
devices? have a 10 second timeout.
database)

Do FC devices show Look for the * next to all
correctly in the Transit IVR’d devices in both Is the IVR VSAN topology
VSAN, if one is in use? VSANs local active exactly the same in every
zoneset IVR enabled switch in the
fabric? <show IVR VSAN
topology>
Does the device have a
valid PWWN and
NWWN? IVR checks
before exporting.

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 93

Debugging IVR – Internal Commands as of 3.0

Many internal commands
to assist Support in
narrowing issues

Most commands required
in request from support
only

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Upgrading & What to collect for Support

ƒ Upgrades need to be planned and well thought out
ƒ The mix of IVR1 (Non NAT) and IVR2 (NAT) can be tricky and confusing
to configure without introducing traffic disruption
ƒ Downgrades might require entire fabric to be downgraded

ƒ show tech-support IVR (on each IVR enabled switch)
ƒ show tech-support details (on the affected switches)
ƒ FM screen snap shots

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NPV Troubleshooting

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NPV: Internal Logins (FLOGIs)
ƒ When an NP port comes up NPV itself first FLOGIs into the core

NPV-Core Switch

npv-core# show fcns database detail
fwwn of Port P2 ------------------------
VSAN:1 FCID:0x010001
F P1 ------------------------
port-wwn (vendor) :20:02:00:0d:ec:2f:c1:40 (Cisco)
VSAN WWN of NPV node-wwn :20:01:00:0d:ec:2f:c1:41
class :2,3
NP IP Address of NPV node-ip-addr :172.20.150.38
ipa :ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
fc1/2 P2 fc4-types:fc4_features :npv
symbolic-port-name :para-3:fc1/2
Switch name of NPV & symbolic-node-name :para-3
port-type :N
Interface name of P2 port-ip-addr :0.0.0.0
fabric-port-wwn :20:02:00:0d:ec:04:99:40
NPV Switch hard-addr :0x000000
permanent-port-wwn (vendor) :20:02:00:0d:ec:2f:c1:40 (Cisco)

fwwn of Port P1

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NPV: Logins from End Devices (FDISCs)
ƒ An end port logs into the npv-core as follows:

NPV-Core Switch

VSAN:1 FCID:0x331e00
------------------------
port-wwn (vendor) :2f:ff:00:06:2b:10:c4:4c (LSI)
node-wwn :2f:ff:00:06:2b:10:c4:4c
class :3
node-ip-addr :0.0.0.0
ipa :ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
F P1 fc4-types:fc4_features :scsi-fcp:init
symbolic-port-name :LSI7404XP-LC BR A.1 03-01081-03A
FW:01.03.17 Port 0
symbolic-node-name :
NP port-type :N
fc1/2 P2 port-ip-addr :0.0.0.0
fabric-port-wwn :20:02:00:0d:ec:04:99:40
hard-addr :0x000000
NPV permanent-port-wwn (vendor) :20:02:00:0d:ec:2f:c1:40 (Cisco)

F P3
fc1/1 fwwn of Port P2
fwwn of Port P1
N P4

FCID 0X331e00 NPV converts FLOGI to FDISC
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NPV: Distribution of end Device Logins

An example of current mapping of ports
NPV-Core Switch

NP Port No. of mapped F ports

P1 5 (fc1/1, 1/5 ...)

P2 2 (fc1/7, fc1/21)

P3 9 (fc1/2, fc1/8, ...)
NP
Ports P1 P2 P3

NPV Switch F

FC
Next F port on NPV would be assigned to NP Port P2
(NP port with minimum number of mapped F ports)

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 99

NPV: What happens when an NP port goes down?

ƒ All F ports mapped to that NP port are re-initialized (shut Æ no shut)

ƒ These N ports would attempt re-login
ƒ If another NP port is available
N ports would be logged in via the available NP port(s)
Logins would be distributed as per the previous slide
ƒ If no NP port is available NP
Ports
P1 P2 P3
F ports would remain in down state waiting for an NP port
NPV
ƒ When the failed NP port comes back up F F F

The logins are NOT re-distributed (to avoid disruption)

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 100

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NPV: What happens when an F port goes down?

ƒ NPV sends a LOGO to NPV-core on behalf of the N port
If there were multiple FCIDs assigned to that N port
(NPIV-enabled host) then a LOGO is sent to the NPV-core
for each FCID

ƒ The F port is not allowed to come back up until the
LOGO(s) are completed
NP Ports P1 P2 P3

ƒ Conflict in Port-security F

DPVM or FC-SP configuration on NPV-code switch can logout
an FCID or prevent it from coming up FC

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 101

NPV Switch Logon –
Span of F-Port on Core MDS to an SD port with PAA attached

FLOGI From NPV MDS
switch to Core MDS
PLOGI of NPV Switch
to Core MDS
Other Plogi Parameter
exchanges much as a
HBA would do

FDISC- converted
FLOGI or connecting
host or storage device
on the NPV switch
PLOGI accept to the
real HBA on the MDS
NPV switch, FCID of
attached device is
0b0002
Remaining exchanges
are from device 0b0002
to the code MDS switch

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NPV Related Show Commands on NPV Switch

ƒ The following show commands can be used on the NPV switch to
display info. on the NPV devices
ƒ There is no familiar fcns or flogi database to view, for these services are
not running in a NPV enabled switch

show npv flogi-table
show npv status
show tech-support npv

show npv internal event-history { errors | events | ext-if-fsm [ <interface > ] |
flogi-fsm [ interface < interface > | pwwn <wwn> ] }
show npv internal event-history msgs
show npv internal event-history svr-if-fsm [ interface < interface > ]

show npv internal info
show npv internal info external-interface { all | < interface > }
show npv internal info global
show npv internal info interface { all | < interface > }
show npv internal info server-interface { all | < interface > }
show npv internal mem-stats [ detail ]
show npv internal pending-queue interface { all | < interface >

debug npv { all | erros | events | ... }
show debug npv

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 103

NPV Related Show Commands on NPV-Core Switch

ƒ The following show commands can be used in the NPV-core switch to display
information on the NPV devices. Since these outputs are based on the name
server information, this command can be run from any non-NPV MDS switch
running 3.2(1) or later release

show fcns database npv [ detail [ vsan <vsan range> ]]
show fcns database npv [ node_wwn <wwn> ] [ vsan <vsan range> ]

ƒ Example Outputs

npv# show fcns database npv

VSAN 1:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NPV NODE-NAME NPV IP_ADDR NPV IF CORE SWITCH WWN CORE IF
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
20:00:00:0d:ec:3d:62:80 10.1.96.24 fc1/20 20:00:00:0d:ec:2d:af:40 fc4/4
20:00:00:0d:ec:3d:62:80 10.1.96.24 fc1/19 20:00:00:0d:ec:2d:af:40 fc4/3
20:00:00:0d:ec:3d:62:80 10.1.96.24 fc1/17 20:00:00:0d:ec:2d:af:40 fc4/1
...

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NPV Related Commands on NPV-Core Switch

npv# show fcns database npv detail
------------------------------------------------------------
VSAN:1 NPV Node Name: 20:00:00:0d:ec:3d:62:80
------------------------------------------------------------
NPV Fabric Port-WWN :20:14:00:0d:ec:3d:62:80
class :2,3
NPV IP Address :10.1.96.24
ipa :ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff
fc4-types:fc4_features :npv
NPV Switch Name:Interface :sw24-gd96:fc1/20
port-type :N P
Core Switch fabric-port-wwn :20:c4:00:0d:ec:2d:af:40
permanent-port-wwn (vendor) :20:14:00:0d:ec:3d:62:80 (Cisco)

....

npv# show fcns database npv node_wwn 20:00:00:0d:ec:3d:42:40

VSAN 1:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
FCID TYPE PWWN (VENDOR) FC4-TYPE:FEATURE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
0x330f00 N 2f:ff:00:06:2b:10:c7:b2 (LSI) scsi-fcp:init
0x331000 N 2f:ff:00:06:2b:10:c7:b3 (LSI) scsi-fcp:init

Total number of npv-attached entries = 2

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 105

Wrap-up
ƒ Cornerstone to SAN network troubleshooting is to
understand Standards operation

ƒ Each SAN/OS feature has methods of troubleshooting,
Basic most seen issues were covered in this session
ƒ Familiarity with available tools in SAN/OS will narrow
time to resolution if either O/S bug or operational issues
ƒ Have other insight on HBA operations & firmware,
Array tools and Applications
ƒ Interop with Brocade/McData requires another skill set

ƒ Understandingarchitecture of Cisco Fabric Manager
deployments and best practices also a plus
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Appendix - Extras

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Necessary Network Settings

ƒ Switch Fabric clocks synchronized
Use NTP along with CFS to simplify job
Use fabric manager to set all clocks and time zones

ƒ Setup system logs, syslogd server
Use CFS to simplify

ƒ Save off switch configurations or even complete show
tech-support details regularly
Use CLI scheduler in SAN/OS to simplify process

ƒ Core Dumps

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Errors on Application Server Logs,
User Having Performance Problems

ƒ Use logging capabilities on switch to piece together
network issues
ƒ Put together:
1. What interfaces are on the fabric (up, down, flapping)
2. What was health of each interface
(virtual and physical interfaces)
3. Examine interface health
(FC protocol errors, physical layer errors)
4. Are effects being seen on the complete network fabric or
within the VSAN (RSCNs, Zones, ISLs, Errors on common
controllers)

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 109

Gathering Internal Counter Information for Unknown
Issues and Plaguing Connectivity Problems

ƒ Determine what ports on which switches you need to
examine, this is done by narrowing to physical switch,
VSAN, zone
ƒ Look at path through complete network, initiator and target-
side along with ISLs
ƒ One stop shopping on each switch for all the data:
Attach to Line Card Module that has the interface you need information
on

module-1# terminal length 0
Set scroll back buffer or log to file on telnet tool

module-1# show hardware internal debug-info interface fc1/2
Based on Line Card type proper information will be output

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Show system error
How to get information about device errors

Error message gleaned from logs
2007 Feb 4 17:05:27 BEAR %MODULE-2-MOD_DIAG_FAIL:
Module 1 (serial: JAB070507SB)

Reported failure on ports 1/5-1/8 (Fibre Channel) due to X-bar Interface ASIC Error in
device 5 (device error 0xc05006a3)

At command line on switch decode to error

BEAR# show system error-id 0xc05006a3

Error Description: Device Name:[U-frontier] Instance:[0] Error Type:[interrupt error]
code:[163]

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 111

Tidbits & Reasons

• Reason for shutdown 'bit error rate exceeded', we are following the FICON
specification

• By actively disabling a bad link, we can minimize the side effects on other
good links

• A bad link ends up link flapping on good links. This was because of error
handling mechanisms implemented in some storage systems.

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Short cut to find commands using pipe

MDS-Switch# which | include fcns
show fcns database fcid<FC ID> detail[o] vsan<VSAN INT>
show fcns database fcid<FC ID> vsan<VSAN INT>
show fcns database local
show fcns database local detail
show fcns database local detail vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
show fcns database local vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
clear fcns statistics vsan<VSAN INT RANGE> show fcns database vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
debug fcns all show fcns internal event-history
debug fcns all vsan[o]<VSAN INT>[o] show fcns internal event-log
debug fcns errors show fcns internal info
debug fcns errors vsan[o]<VSAN INT>[o] show fcns internal info vsan[o]<VSAN INT RANGE>[o]
debug fcns events mts show fcns internal reject-log vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
debug fcns events mts vsan[o]<VSAN INT>[o] show fcns statistics
debug fcns events query show fcns statistics detail[o]
debug fcns events query vsan[o]<VSAN INT>[o] show fcns statistics detail[o] vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
debug fcns events register show fcns statistics vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
debug fcns events register vsan[o]<VSAN INT>[o] show logging level fcns
show debug fcns show tech-support fcns
show fcns database show tech-support fcns vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
show fcns database detail[o]
show fcns database detail[o] vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
show fcns database domain<INTEGER>
show fcns database domain<INTEGER> detail[o]
show fcns database domain<INTEGER> detail[o] vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>
show fcns database domain<INTEGER> vsan<VSAN INT RANGE>

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 113

Clearing Asic Counters

The following command shows the device ID’s for
the various components:

module-1# clear asic-cnt list-all-devices

You can then clear all, which does not clear all

module-1# clear asic-cnt all
Cleared counters for asic type id = 4, name = 'luxor'
Cleared counters for asic type id = 5, name = 'U-frontier'
Cleared counters for asic type id = 6, name = 'D-frontier'
Cleared counters for asic type id = 7, name = 'aladdin'
Cleared counters for asic type id = 8, name = 'ssa’

In addition to the above asics, always clear riviera as well:

module-1# clear asic-cnt device-id 3
Clearing counters for devId = 3, name = 'riviera'

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 114

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Determining Link-Event reasons

Session 3708 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 115

Core Dumps
ƒ Show cores
Guernsey# sh cores
Module-num Process-name PID Core-create-time
----------------- --------------------- ---------- -----------------------
1 cimxmlserver 20029 Jul 18 08:39

ƒ Configure switch for core dumps
Switch# sh system cores
Cores are transferred to tftp://10.91.42.133/

Show process log will display cores dumped to server

Switch# sh processes log
Process PID Normal-exit Stack Core Log-create-time
---------------- -------- ------------------ ------- ------- --------------------------------
SystemHealth 27828 N Y N Tue Dec 7 19:08:09 2004
SystemHealth 27880 N Y N Tue Dec 7 19:08:20 2004
SystemHealth 27934 N Y N Tue Dec 7 19:08:30 2004
sme 2030 N Y N Sun Sep 23 18:47:15 2007
sme 2306 N Y N Sun Sep 23 18:47:17 2007
syslogd 2271 N N N Thu Sep 7 13:29:12 2006
syslogd 2442 N N N Thu Sep 7 13:30:12 2006
syslogd 2510 N N N Thu Sep 7 13:31:12 2006

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Q and A

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Recommended Reading

ƒ Continue your Cisco Live
learning experience with further
reading from Cisco Press
ƒ Check the Recommended
Reading flyer for suggested
books

Available Onsite at the Cisco Company Store
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