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I/O Consolidation
in the Data Center

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Agenda

ƒ Section 1: What is I/O Consolidation
ƒ Section 2: Enabling Technologies
ƒ Section 3: FCoE (Fibre Channel over Ethernet)
ƒ Section 4: I/O Consolidation Use Cases
ƒ Challenges
ƒ Closing Remarks

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Section 1
What Is I/O
Consolidation

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What Is I/O Consolidation

ƒ IT organizations operate multiple parallel networks
IP and other LAN protocols over an Ethernet network
SAN over a Fibre Channel network
HPC/IPC over an InfiniBand network

ƒ I/O consolidation supports all three types of traffic onto
a single network
ƒ Servers have a common interface adapter that supports
all three types of traffic

IPC: Inter-Process Communication
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I/O Consolidation in the Network

Processor Processor

Memory Memory

I/O I/O I/O I/O Subsystem
Storage

Storage
LAN
IPC

LAN
IPC

IPC: Inter-Process Communication
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I/O Consolidation in the Host

ƒ Fewer CNAs (Converged Network Adapters) instead
of NICs, HBAs, and HCAs
ƒ Limited number of interfaces for Blade Servers

FC HBA FC Traffic
FC HBA FC Traffic
CNA All Traffic
NIC Enet Traffic Goes over
10 GE
NIC Enet Traffic CNA

NIC Enet Traffic
HCA IPC Traffic
HCA IPC Traffic
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Cabling and I/O Consolidation

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I/O Consolidation: Benefits to Customers

FC Traffic
FC Traffic FCoE
FCoE SAN A
FCoE

Enet Traffic FCoE SAN B
Enet Traffic

FCoE SAN

Fewer CNAs and Cables Storage Keeps the Same
Management Model as Native FC

Display
FCoE
Adapter

FC Storage FC Switch FCoE Server
Switch

No Storage Gateway Less Power and Cooling

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Merging the Requirements

IPC
LAN/IP Storage (Inter-Process
Communication)

ƒ Must be Ethernet ƒ Must follow the ƒ Doesn’t care of
Too much
Fibre Channel the underlying
investment model network, provided
that:
Too many ƒ Losing frames is
applications that not an option It is cheap
assume Ethernet It is low latency
It supports APIs
like OFED, RDS,
MPI, sockets

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Why Has It Not Succeeded Yet?

ƒ Previous attempts
Fibre Channel
Never credible
InfiniBand
Not Ethernet
iSCSI
Not Fibre Channel

ƒ Before PCI-Express there was not enough I/O
bandwidth in the servers
ƒ It needs to be Ethernet, but…
1 GE didn’t have enough bandwidth
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PCI-Express

ƒ PCI Express (PCI-E or PCIe)
A computer expansion card interface format designed to
replace PCI, PCI-X, and AGP

ƒ PCIe 1.1
Serial links at 2.5 Gbps (2 Gbps at the Datalink)
Speeds from 2 Gbps (1x) to 32 Gbps (16x)
8x is required for 10 GE

ƒ PCIe 2.0 (aka PCIe Gen 2)
Doubles the bandwidth per serial link from 2 Gbit/s to 4 Gbit/s
Spec available since January 2007
Products are making their way into the market
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10 GE

ƒ 2008 will be the year of 10GE
ƒ 10 GE has enough bandwidth
ƒ Merging example
2 x 1 GE Ethernet NIC
1 x 4 Gbps FC (really 3.2 Gbps)
Total 5.2 Gbps over a 10 Gbps link

ƒ CNAs will all be dual-ported for HA
20 Gbps usable bandwidth per server with a single CNA

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Evolution of Ethernet Physical Media
Role of Transport in Enabling These Technologies

Mid-1980s Mid-1990s Early-2000s Late-2000s
SFP+ to SFP+
10 Mb 100 Mb 1SFP+
Gb Cu 10 Gb

UTP Cat 5 UTP Cat 5
SFP Fiber

Power Transceiver
Technology Cable Distance (Each Side) Latency (Link)

SFP+ CU
Twinax 10 m 0.1W 0.1 μs
Copper

SFP+ USR MM OM2 10 m
1W 0
Ultra Short Reach MM OM3 100 m

SFP+ SR MM 62.5 μm 82 m
Short Reach MM 50 μm 300 m 1W 0

Cat6 55 m 8W 2.5 μs
10GBASE-T Cat6a/7 100 m 8W 2.5 μs
Cat6a/7 30 m 4W 1.5 μs

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Twin-ax Copper Cable
ƒ Low power consumption SAN A LAN SAN B

ƒ Low cable cost
ƒ Low transceiver latency
Application Server

ƒ Low error rate (10–17) Application Server

Application Server

ƒ Thinner cable with higher Application Server

16x10 GE Cables

16x10 GE Cables
Application Server

bend radius Application Server

Application Server

ƒ Easier to manage cabling Application Server

Application Server
solution reduces Application Server

deployment time Application Server

Application Server

ƒ All copper cables are Application Server

Application Server

contained within rack Application Server

Application Server

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Drivers for 10GE to the Servers
Multicore CPU Architectures Allowing Bigger and
Multiple Workloads on the Same Machine

Server Virtualization Driving the Need for More
Bandwidth per Server Due to Server Consolidation

Growing Need for Network Storage Driving the
Demand for Higher Network Bandwidth to the Server

Multicore CPUs and Server Virtualization Driving the
Demand for Higher Bandwidth Network Connections

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Section 1
Enabling Technologies

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Three Challenges + One

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Why Are Frames Lost?

Transmission
Collision Congestion
Error

ƒ No longer present ƒ Very rare in the ƒ Most common
in full duplex data center cause
Ethernet
ƒ Congestion is a
switch issue, not a
link issue
A full duplex IEEE
802.3 link does not
lose frames
ƒ It must be dealt
with in the
bridge/switch
By IEEE 802.1

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Can Ethernet Be Lossless?

ƒ Yes, with Ethernet PAUSE Frame

Ethernet Link

STOP PAUSE Queue Full

Switch A Switch B

ƒ Defined in IEEE 802.3—Annex 31B
The PAUSE operation is used to inhibit transmission of
data frames for a specified period of time

ƒ Ethernet PAUSE transforms Ethernet into a
lossless fabric
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How PAUSE Works

Threshold

A B
PAUSE
Frame
Start
Stop Sending
Frames
FramesforAgain
This
Interval of Time
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Let’s Compare PAUSE with
FC Buffer to Buffer Credit

ƒ Eight credits preagreed

A B

R_RDY

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How PAUSE Propagates

Threshold

PAUSE PAUSE

S1 S2 S3

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PAUSE Frame Format
PAUSE Frame
ƒ A standard Ethernet frame, not
01:80:C2:00:00:01 tagged

Source Station MAC
ƒ EtherType = 0x8808 means MAC
Control Frame
EtherType = 0x8808
Opcode = 0x0001
Pause_Time
ƒ Opcode = 0x0101 means PAUSE
ƒ Pause_Time is the time the link
needs to remain paused in
Pad
Pause Quanta (512-bits time)
42 Bytes
ƒ There is a single Pause_Time for
the whole link

CRC

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Why Is PAUSE Not Widely Deployed?

ƒ Inconsistent implementations
Standard allows for asymmetric implementations
Easy to fix

ƒ PAUSE applies to the whole links
Single mechanism for all traffic classes

ƒ This may cause “traffic interference”
e.g., Storage traffic paused due to a congestion on IP traffic

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Priority Flow Control (PFC)
ƒ a.k.a. PPP (Per Priority Pause)
ƒ PFC enables PAUSE functionality per Ethernet priority
IEEE 802.1Q defines eight priorities
Traffic classes are mapped to different priorities:
No traffic interference
IP traffic may be paused while storage traffic is being forwarded
Or, vice versa
Requires independent resources per priority (buffers)
ƒ High level of industry support
Cisco distributed proposal
Standard track in IEEE 802.1Qb

16 3 1 12 Bits
EtherType = IEEE 802.1Q Priority CFI VLAN ID

IEEE 802.1Q Tag
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Priority Flow Control in Action

Transmit Queues Receive Queues
Ethernet Link
One One
Two Two
Three Three
Eight
Four Four Priorities
Five Five
Six STOP PAUSE Six
Seven Seven
Eight Eight

Switch A Switch B

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PFC Frame Format
Priority Flow Control
ƒ Similar to the PAUSE frame
01:80:C2:00:00:01
ƒ Opcode = 0x0101 is used to
Source Station MAC
distinguish PFC from PAUSE
EtherType = 0x8808 ƒ Class vector indicates for which
Opcode = 0x0101
Class Enable Vector priorities the frame carries valid
Time (Class 0)
Time (Class 1)
Pause information
Time (Class 2)
Time (Class 3) ƒ There are eight Time fields,
Time (Class 4)
Time (Class 5)
one per priority
Time (Class 6)
Time (class 7)
Pad
28 Bytes

CRC

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Is Lossless Better?

ƒ Frames are ƒ TCP relies on ƒ Congestion
not dropped losses spreading and
head of line
ƒ FC over lossless ƒ We can run it on
blocking
Ethernet works a priority where
well we do not enable
Pause

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Is Anything Else Required?

In Order to Build a Deployable I/O Consolidation
Solution, the Following Additional Components
Are Required:

ƒ Discovery protocol (DCBX)
ƒ Bandwidth manager
ƒ Congestion management

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Discovery Protocol

DCBX:
Data Center
Bridging eXchange
Data Center
Ethernet Links

DCBX Data Center Ethernet
Links with Partial
Enhancements

DCBX

Legacy Ethernet
Links
Data Center
Ethernet Cloud

XP
Legacy Ethernet
Network

BC
DC

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DCBX

ƒ Hop-by-hop negotiation for:
Priority Flow Control (PFC)
Bandwidth management
Congestion management (BCN/QCN)
Applications
Logical link-down

ƒ Based on LLDP (Link Level Discovery Protocol)
Added reliable transport

ƒ Allows either full configuration or configuration checking
Link partners can choose supported features and willingness to
accept configuration from peer
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Bandwidth Management

ƒ IEEE 802.1Q defines priorities, but not a simple,
effective, and consistent scheduling mechanism
ƒ Products typically implement some form of Deficit
Weighted Round Robin (DWRR)
Configuration and interworking is problematic

ƒ Proposal for HW-efficient, two-level DWRR with strict
priority support
Consistent behavior and configuration across network elements

ƒ Standard track in IEEE 802.1Qaz

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Priority Groups
Priority Groups
Are Then
Scheduled
LAN

Priorities Are
Assigned to
Individual SAN
Traffic Classes

IPC Final Link
Behavior
Priority
Groups

First Level of Scheduling
Inside Each Group
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Goals
ƒ BW assignment for each ƒ Cannot compromise low-
“Priority Group” latency application due
Example: 40% LAN, to convergence
40% SAN, 20% IPC Allow strict, high priority
scheduling of IPC (and
ƒ Should allow multiple traffic equivalent) traffic
classes within a “Priority
Group” ƒ Should provide
management infrastructure
Allow these traffic classes to
share BW without hard (MIBs)
configuration Defining scheduling algorithms
Example: VoIP and bulk traffic is too restrictive and not
to share 40% LAN BW necessary
Interoperability for
management is important

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Example of Link Bandwidth Allocation
Offered Traffic 10 GE Link Realized Traffic Utilization

3 Gbs 3 Gbs 2 Gbs (30%) HPC Traffic (20%)
(30%)

LAN Traffic
(30%) (50%)
3 Gbs 4 Gbs 6 Gbs (40%)

Storage Traffic
(30%) (30%)
3 Gbs 3 Gbs 3 Gbs (30%)

T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3

HPC Traffic—Priority Class “High”—20% Guaranteed Bandwidth
LAN Traffic—Priority Class “Medium”—50% Guaranteed Bandwidth
Storage Traffic—Priority Class “Medium-High”—30% Default Bandwidth
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Congestion Management

ƒ Layer 2, end-to-end congestion management
ƒ Standards track in IEEE 802.1Qau
ƒ a.k.a. BCN (Backward Congestion Notification) or
QCN (Quantized Congestion Notification)
Switch Switch

Switch

Transmit Queue
Thro
ttle Receive Buffer
Switch Switch

e
ottl
Thr

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Congestion Management Principles
ƒ Move congestion to network edges to avoid congestion
spreading
ƒ Use rate-limiters at the edge to shape flows causing
congestion
Tune rate-limiter parameters based on feedback coming from
congestion points
ƒ Inspired by:
TCP
AIMD (Additive Increase, Multiplicative Decrease) rate control
TCP window increases linearly in absence of congestion
Decreases exponentially (gets halved) at every congestion
indication (either implicit or explicit)
FCC (Fibre Channel Congestion Control)
A feature on Cisco MDS switches
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Congestion Point and Reaction Point

ƒ Roles and responsibilities
Reaction Points (RP) shape
traffic entering the network
RP
Congestion Points (CP)
indicate congested state
of queuing points
CP
RP

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DCB: Data Center Bridging

ƒ Industry consensus term to indicate
Priority flow control
Bandwidth management
Congestion management
Discovery (DCBX)

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DCE: Data Center Ethernet

ƒ Cisco term used to indicate Cisco switches that
implement the DCB features, plus
Layer 2 multipathing
Fibre Channel over Ethernet

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Layer 2 Multipathing

ƒ Increase bandwidth
of L2 networks via
multiple active links

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L2 Multipathing

ƒ Multiple paths are used, reclaiming network bandwidth
ƒ L3 multipathing is common in IP networks
ƒ Important when there is limited or no differentiation in
speed between access links and backbone links
ƒ Reduces latency
ƒ L2 multipathing
Eliminates Spanning Tree from the backbone
No packet flooding
Small forwarding tables

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Layer 2 Multipathing

ƒ Cisco DCE is:
A precursor of TRILL, an IETF project for Layer 2 multipath
Inspired to FSPF (Fibre Channel Shortest Path First)

ƒ Cisco DCE
9 Computes topology and forwarding via IS-IS
9 Provides optimal pair-wise unicast forwarding
9 Provides multipathing for unicast and multicast frames
9 Provides seamless interoperability with existing devices

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FCoE: Fibre Channel over Ethernet

ƒ FCoE is the protocol
used to carry Fibre
SAN LAN SAN
Channel over CEE/DCE
Allows storage
I/O consolidation
FCoE

ƒ It’s in an advanced state
of definition in INCITS
T11 FC-BB-5 WG

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Delayed Drop

ƒ Delayed Drop is a mechanism that:
Allows a switch buffer to virtually extend to previous hop
This reduces packet drop for transient congestions
Is enabled per priority

ƒ It is implemented by asserting PFC on the priority for
a short time
After that time, traffic can flow again or can be dropped

Delayed Drop Is a Means of Using PFC to Mitigate
the Effects of Short-Term Traffic Bursts While
Maintaining Packet Drop for Long-Term Congestion

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Delay Drop and Proxy Queue
Actual Queue
Traffic
Flow

PAUSE

Proxy Queue

UNPAUSE

ƒ During short-term congestion, both queues drain fast enough that
the actual queue releases the PAUSE on its own
ƒ During long-term congestion, the proxy queue fills to its high-water
mark, and it releases the PAUSE; the actual queue begins
dropping packets, and the congestion is managed through higher-
level protocols
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Section 3
FCoE: Fibre Channel
over Ethernet

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FCoE: FC over Ethernet

ƒ FCoE is I/O consolidation of FC storage traffic
over Ethernet
FC traffic shares Ethernet links with other traffics
Requires a lossless Ethernet fabric

Ethernet

Fibre Channel
Traffic

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FCoE Protocol Stack
ƒ From a Fibre Channel
standpoint, its FC connectivity
over a new type of cable
called an Ethernet cloud
ƒ From an Ethernet standpoint,
it’s yet another ULP (Upper
Layer Protocol) to be
transported

1, 10…Gbps

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FCoE Benefits

ƒ FCoE benefits are the same of any I/O consolidation
solution
Fewer cables
Both block I/O and Ethernet traffic coexist on same cable
Fewer adapters needed
Overall less power

ƒ Plus additional advantages of being FC
Seamless integration with existing FC SANs
No gateway

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FCoE Benefits
LAN SAN-A SAN-B LAN SAN-A SAN-B
4 4

2
2

Nearly Half
the Cables

16 Servers Enet FC Total 16 Servers Enet FC Total

Adapters 16 16 32 Adapters 16 0 16
Switches 2 2 4 Switches 2 0 2
Cables 36 36 72 Cables 36 4 40
Mgmt Pts 2 2 4 Mgmt Pts 2 0 2
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FCoE Is Fibre Channel
FCoE Is Fibre Channel at the Host and Switch Level

Easy to Completely Based
Understand on the FC Model
Same Host-to-Switch and
Same
Operational Model Switch-to-Switch Behavior
of FC
Same Techniques of e.g., in Order Delivery or
Traffic Management FSPF Load Balancing

Same Management WWNs, FC-IDs, Hard/Soft
and Security Models Zoning, DNS, RSCN

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Protocol Organization

FCoE Itself FIP
(FCoE Initialization Protocol)
ƒ Is the data plane protocol ƒ It is the control plane protocol
ƒ It is used to carry most of the ƒ It is used to discover the FC
FC frames and all the SCSI entities connected to an
traffic Ethernet cloud
ƒ It is also used to login to and
logout from the FC fabric

The Two Protocols Have:
ƒ Two different EtherTypes
ƒ Two different frame formats
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FCoE Frame Size
Ethernet
Header 12 Bytes (MAC Addresses) +
4 Bytes (802.1Q Tag)
FCoE
Header
16 Bytes
FC
Header

24 Bytes
Tota
l: 2180
FC Payload

Byte
Up to 2112 Bytes s

4 Bytes

1 Byte (EOF) + 3 Bytes (Padding)
CRC
EOF
FCS
4 Bytes
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FCoE Frame Format
Destination MAC Address

Source MAC Address
IEEE 802.1Q Tag
ET = FCoE Ver Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved SOF

Encapsulated FC Frame
(Including FC-CRC)

EOF Reserved
FCS
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ENode: Simplified Model

ƒ ENode (FCoE Node): a Fibre Channel HBA
implemented within an Ethernet NIC
a.k.a. CNA (Converged Network Adapter)

FC Node

FCoE FCoE

Enet Enet
Port Port

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FCoE Switch: Simplified Model

ƒ FCF (Fibre Channel Forwarder), the forwarding entity
inside an FCoE switch

FC
Port
FCoE Switch
FC
FCF Port
FCoE
FC
Port

Ethernet Bridge FC
Port

Eth Eth Eth Eth Eth Eth Eth Eth
Port Port Port Port Port Port Port Port

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FC-BB-5 Terminology

ƒ Unchanged from previous FC standard
VN_Port: Virtual N_Port
VF_Port: Virtual F_Port
VE_Port: Virtual E_Port

ƒ Added to support FCoE
FCoE_LEP (FCoE link endpoint): The data forwarding
component that handles FC frame encapsulation/decapsulation,
and transmission/reception of FCoE frames
FCoE Controller: the entity that implement the FIP protocol

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ENode: Complete Model

FC-3/FC-4s FC-3/FC-4s FC-3/FC-4s FC-3/FC-4s

FC FC FC FC
VN_Port VN_Port VN_Port VN_Port
Entity Entity Entity Entity

FCoE FCoE FCoE FCoE
FCoE_LEP FCoE_LEP FCoE_LEP FCoE_LEP
Entity Entity Entity Entity
FCoE FCoE
Controller Controller

Lossless Ethernet MAC Ethernet_Port Lossless Ethernet MAC Ethernet_Port

DISC
F FLOGI
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Means
FCoE Switch: Complete Model Optional

FC Fabric Interface E_Port E_Port E_Port F_Port F_Port F_Port

FC Switching Element

FC FC FC FC
VE_Port Entity VF_Port Entity VE_Port Entity VF_Port Entity

FCoE FCoE_LEP FCoE FCoE FCoE_LEP FCoE
FCoE_LEP Entity FCoE_LEP Entity FCoE_LEP Entity FCoE_LEP Entity
FCoE_LEP FCoE_LEP
FCoE FCoE
Controller Controller

Lossless Ethernet MAC Ethernet_Port Lossless Ethernet MAC Ethernet_Port

Ethernet_Port Ethernet_Port
Lossless Ethernet Lossless Ethernet
Bridging Element Bridging Element
Ethernet_Port Ethernet_Port Ethernet_Port Ethernet_Port Ethernet_Port Ethernet_Port Ethernet_Port Ethernet_Port

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FCoE: Initial Deployment
SAN A SAN B
10 GE
Backbone

VF_Ports

VN_Ports

10 GE
4/8 Gbps FC

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FCoE: Adding Blade Servers
SAN A SAN B
10 GE
Backbone

VF_Ports

VN_Ports
10 GE
4/8 Gbps FC

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FCoE: Adding Native FCoE Storage
SAN A SAN B
10 GE
Backbone

VN_Ports

VF_Ports

VN_Ports
10 GE
4/8 Gbps FC

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FCoE: Adding VE_Ports
SAN A SAN B
10 GE
Backbone

VE_Ports

VF_Ports

VN_Ports
10 GE
4/8 Gbps FC

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FCoE Addressing and Forwarding

ƒ FCoE frames have:
MAC addresses (hop-by-hop)
FC addresses (end-to-end)

FC Storage FCID 1.1.1
FC Domain 3 FC Domain 1 MAC C
FCID 7.1.1 FC Domain 7 MAC A MAC B
Ethernet Ethernet
Fabric Fabric
FC Fabric FC Fabric

Dest. = MAC B Dest. = MAC C
D_ID = FC-ID (1.1.1) D_ID = FC-ID (1.1.1) Srce. = MAC A Srce. = MAC B
S_ID = FC-ID (7.1.1) S_ID = FC-ID (7.1.1) FCoE
D_ID = FC-ID (1.1.1) D_ID = FC-ID (1.1.1)
S_ID = FC-ID (7.1.1) S_ID = FC-ID (7.1.1) Frame
FC Frame FC Frame

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FCoE MAC Addresses

ƒ VE_Ports and VF_Ports always use MAC addresses
derived from the switch pool
ƒ VN_Ports may use two types of MAC addresses
SPMA (Server Provided MAC Addresses)
FPMA (Fabric Provided MAC Addresses)

ƒ MAC Addresses are negotiated in FIP
ƒ Initial deployment will use FPMA only

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The Mapped MAC Addresses

ƒ A dedicated MAC address for each FC-ID
Assigned by the FC fabrics
Consistent with the FC model
OUIs with U/L = 1 (Local addressing), called FC-MAPs
Multiple FC-MAPs may be supported (one per FC fabric)

24 Bits 24 Bits
FC-MAP FC-ID
(ex 02-12-34) 7.8.9

MAC FC-MAP FC-ID
Address (ex 02-12-34) 7.8.9
48 Bits
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Initial Login Flow Ladder
ENode FCoE Switch
Solicitati
on
Discovery Discovery
Advertisement
FIP:
FCoE
Initialization
Protocol
FLOGI/FDISC FLOGI/FDISC Accept

FC Command FCOE
FC Command Responses Protocol

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FIP Frame: Contains FIP Operation

Destination MAC Address

Source MAC Address

IEEE 802.1Q Tag
ET = FIP Ver Reserved

Encapsulated FIP Operation
(Self-Describing Length)

PAD to Minimum Length or Mini-Jumbo Length
Ethernet FCS

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FIP Descriptors (1)
Type = 1 Len = 4 Reserved Priority

Type = 2 Len = 8
MAC Address

Type = 3 Len = 8 Reserved
FC-MAP

Type = 4 Len = 12 Reserved

Switch_Name

Type = 5 Len = 12 Reserved

Fabric_Name

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FIP Descriptors (2)
Type = 6 Len = 12 Reserved

Port_Name

Type = 7 Len = XX Reserved

FLOGI Request, FLOGI LS_ACC/LS_RJT
NPIV FDISC Request, FDISC LS_ACC/LS_RJT
Fabric LOGO Request, LOGO LS_ACC/LS_RJT
(No SOF/EOF / FC-CRC?)

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FIP
Multicast Solicitation from H2
MAC (H1) FCF-MAC (A)

H1 FCF A
Lossless
Ethernet FC
Bridge Fabric
H2
FCF A

MAC (H2) FCF-MAC (B)

All-MACs
ƒ Solicitation identifies VF_Port capable FCF-MACs
MAC(H2)
with compatible addressing capabilities
Solicitation (FIP)
ƒ Other parameters may include ENode’s
[F=0, S=0, MAC(H2),
Capability, Other]
Port_Name for optional duplicate MAC
address detection
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FIP
Unicast Advertisements from A and B
MAC (H1) FCF-MAC (A)

H1 FCF A
Lossless
Ethernet FC
Bridge Fabric
H2
FCF A

MAC (H2) FCF-MAC (B)

MAC(H2) MAC(H2)

FCF-MAC(A) FCF-MAC(B)
H2’s FCF list: ƒ FCF not meeting
Mini-jumbo Mini-jumbo
Advertisement (FIP) Advertisement (FIP) FCF-MAC(A) [J] capability of ENode
[S=1, F=1, Priority, FC-MAP, [S=1, F=1, Priority, FC-MAP, FCF-MAC(B) [J] does not reply
FCF-MAC(A), Switch_Name, FCF-MAC(B), Switch_Name,
Fabric_Name, Capability, Fabric_Name, Capability,
Other] Other]
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FIP
FLOGI Request
MAC (H1) FCF-MAC (A)

H1 FCF A
Lossless
Ethernet FC
Bridge Fabric
H2
FCF A

MAC (H2) FCF-MAC (B)

FCF-MAC(A) FCF-MAC(B)

MAC (H2) MAC(H2)
ƒ Capability agreed
FLOGI Request (FIP) FLOGI Request (FIP)
during discovery
[FC Header, FLOGI data, [FC Header, FLOGI data,
Proposed MAC’(H2)] Proposed MAC’’(H2)]

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FIP
FLOGI LS_ACC
MAC (H1) FCF-MAC (A)

H1 FCF A
Lossless
Ethernet FC
Bridge Fabric
H2
FCF A

MAC (H2) FCF-MAC (B)

MAC (H2) MAC(H2)

FCF-MAC(A) FCF-MAC(B)
ƒ ENode uses MAC address
in FIP FLOGI LS_ACC as the
FLOGI LS-ACC (FIP) FLOGI LS-ACC (FIP) VN_Port MAC address for the
[FC Header, LS_ACC data, [FC Header, LS_ACC data, FC-ID contained in the FLOGI data
Approved MAC(H2)’] Approved MAC(H2)’’] for subsequent FCoE frames

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FCoE
Data Transfer
MAC (H1) FCF-MAC (A)

H1 FCF A
Lossless
Ethernet FC
Bridge Fabric
H2
FCF A

MAC (H2)
MAC (H2)’ FCF-MAC (B)
MAC (H2)’’

FCF-MAC(A) FCF-MAC(B)
ƒ All subsequent FCoE frames use
MAC(H2)’ MAC(H2)’’ granted MAC address and assigned
Fibre Channel Frame Fibre Channel Frame FC-ID
(FCoE) (FCoE) FIP frames continue to use MAC(H2)
For SPMA, MAC(H2)’ = MAC(H2)’’ = MAC(H2)
[FC SOF, FC Header, FC [FC SOF, FC Header, FC For FPMA, MAC(H2)’ and MAC(H2)’’ use
Data, FC CRC FC EOF] Data, FC CRC, FC EOF] FC-IDs as low order 24 bits
and FC-MAP for upper 24 bits
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The Most Asked Question:
Is FCoE Routable?

FCoE

1, 2, 4, (8), 10 Gbps 1, 10 . . . Gbps 10, 20 Gbps

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Is FCoE Routable?
ƒ Most folks mean “Is FCoE IP-routable”
The answer is NO, there is no IP layer in FCoE
This was a design goal to keep FCoE simple
FC-BB-5 contains FCIP that is “IP-routable”

ƒ FCoE is FC-routable
FCoE switches may forward FC frames across different
Ethernet clouds
FCoE switches may forward FC frames over the Internet using FCIP

FCoE FCIP FCIP FCoE
IP Cloud

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CNA: Converged Network Adapter
LAN HBA CNA
10GbEE

10GbEE
10GbE
10GbE

HBA

HBA

Link Link Link
Fibre Channel

Fibre Channel
Ethernet

Ethernet

Ethernet

PCIe PCIe PCIe

Ethernet Fibre Channel Ethernet Fibre Channel
Drivers Drivers Drivers Drivers

Operating System Operating System
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View from Operating System
ƒ Standard drivers
ƒ Same management
ƒ Operating system sees:
Dual-port, 10 Gigabit
Ethernet adapter
Dual-port, 4 Gbps Fibre
Channel HBAs

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Open-FCoE Software
HBA FCoE

HBA Mgmt Plane FCoE Mgmt Plane

Linux Kernel Linux Kernel

File System layers File System layers

SCSI Layer
SCSI Layer

OpenFC Layer

HBA Driver FCoE Layer

Net Device
HBA Ethernet Driver
Ethernet

Fibre Server Ethernet Server

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Open-FCoE Software: How to Get It

ƒ Open source project
ƒ Open-FCoE.org—source Git trees
ƒ Or Open-FCoE source package—TBD
ƒ Install a Linux Red Hat EL5, Fedora Core 7,
or SuSE 10 distribution
ƒ Update kernel to 2.6.23 or later
ƒ Install: see Quick Start Guide at open-fcoe.org
ƒ Use switch, soft-target, or gateway

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Wireshark

ƒ Once known as Ethereal
ƒ Captures and displays network traffic
ƒ Available from: http://wireshark.org/
ƒ Sample trace file
/common/openfc/traces/fcoe-t11.cap

ƒ Use tcpdump to capture
tcpdump –i eth0 –s 0 –w /tmp/fcoe.cap

ƒ Screenshots/demo

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Wireshark Screenshot

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Section 4
Case Studies

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Current Data Center Environment

LAN Core
SAN-A SAN-B

Distribution
MDS 9500
4
Cisco Catalyst® 6509

4 x 4G FC 1 x 10 GE STP BLK

POD 1 POD N Access
MDS 9500
Cisco Catalyst 6509

NIC Teaming
Active/Standby

Discrete
1 GE NICs
and
FC HBA
Server Cabinet 1 Server Cabinet N Server Cabinet 1 Server Cabinet N

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Top-of-Rack Consolidated I/O
I/O Consolidation at Access

LAN Core
SAN-A SAN-B
8
Distribution
8 MDS 9500
Cisco Catalyst 6509

STP BLK

POD 1 POD N Access
Nexus 5000

Adapter: CNA
Converged
Network
Adapter
10 GE/FCoE

Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N

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Top-of-Rack Consolidated I/O
Ethernet Host Virtualizer

LAN Core
SAN-A SAN-B
8
Distribution
8 MDS 9500
Cisco Catalyst 6509

Ethernet Host Virtualizer
Active/Active

POD 1 POD N Access
Nexus 5000

Adapter: CNA
Converged
Network
Adapter
10 GE/FCoE

Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N

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Top-of-Rack Consolidated I/O
VSS Support at Aggregation

LAN Core
SAN-A SAN-B
8
VSS Distribution
MDS 9500
8
Cisco Catalyst 6509

VSS Support
at Aggregation

POD 1 POD N Access
Nexus 5000

Adapter: CNA
Converged
Network
Adapter
10 GE/FCoE

Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N

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Physical Topology—40 Servers, ToR
LAN SAN-A SAN-B

4x10 GE
Ports

4x10 GE 6x4 GFC
Ports 6x4 GFC

Nexus 5000

40x10 GE Ports
per Switch

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Physical Topology—200 Servers
40 4GFC
SAN-A SAN-B
LAN

4x10 GE
Ports 6x4 GFC

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Blade Servers with
Copper Pass-Through
DC Core
MDS MDS
SAN-Core SAN-Core
8

Distribution
MDS 9500
8 Cisco Catalyst 6509

POD 1 POD N Access
Nexus Family

Blade Server
Copper
Pass-Through

Adapter: CNA
Converged
Network
Adapter
10 GE/FCoE
Blade Server 1 Blade Server N Blade Server 1 Blade Server N
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Blade Servers with
Ethernet Switches
DC Core
MDS MDS
SAN-Core SAN-Core
8

Distribution
MDS 9500
8 Cisco Catalyst 6509

POD 1 POD N Access
Nexus Family

Blade Server
Ethernet-Only
Switch

Adapter: CNA
Converged
Network
Adapter
10 GE/FCoE
Blade Server 1 Blade Server 1 Blade Server 1 Blade Server 1
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Physical Topology—
20 Blade Server, ToR
LAN SAN-A SAN-B

2x10 GE
Ports

2x10 GE 4x4 GFC
Ports 4x4 GFC

Nexus 5000

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Topology—100 Blade Servers, ToR
LAN SAN-A SAN-B

4x10 GE
Ports

8x4 GFC
8x4 GFC
4x10 GE
Ports

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Access Nexus 5000
Distribution Nexus 7000
LAN Core
SAN-A SAN-B
8

Distribution
MDS 9500
8 Nexus 7000

Layer 2 Multipath

POD 1 POD N Access
Nexus 5000

Adapter: CNA
Converged
Network
Adapter
10 GE/FCoE

Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N

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Consolidation in the Distribution Layer
LAN Core
SAN-A SAN-B
8

Distribution
MDS 9500
8 Nexus 7000

Layer 2 Multipath

POD 1 POD N Access
Nexus 5000

Adapter: CNA
Converged
Network
Adapter
10 GE/FCoE

Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N Server Cabinet Pair 1 Server Cabinet Pair N

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Conclusions

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Challenges

ƒ FCoE redefines consolidated scenarios
Ethernet switch manufacturers will try to enter the FC
switching market
FC switch manufacturers will try to enter the Ethernet
switching market
HBA manufacturers will try to enter the NIC market
NIC manufacturers will try to enter the HBA market

ƒ Deep integration with virtualization will take some time

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Web Pointers
ƒ PCI Express
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pci_express

ƒ IEEE 802.3
http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/802.3.html

ƒ Improvements to Ethernet
http://www.nuovasystems.com/EthernetEnhancements-Final.pdf

ƒ IEEE 802.1 activities
http://www.ieee802.org/1/files/public/docs2007/new-cm-barrass-pause-proposal.pdf
http://www.ieee802.org/1/files/public/docs2007/new-cm-pelissier-enabling-block-storage-0705-v01.pdf
http://www.ieee802.org/1/files/public/docs2007/au-ko-fabric-convergence-0507.pdf
http://www.ieee802.org/1/pages/802.1au.html
http://www.ieee802.org/1/files/public/docs2008/az-wadekar-dcbcxp-overview-rev0.2.pdf

ƒ FCoE
http://www.fcoe.com/
http://www.t11.org/
http://www.open-fcoe.org/
http://www.fibrechannel.org/OVERVIEW/FCIA_SNW_FCoE_WP_Final.pdf

ƒ TRILL
http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/trill-charter.html
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Thank You

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Recommended Reading

ƒ Continue your Cisco Live
learning experience with further
reading from Cisco Press
ƒ Check the Recommended
Reading flyer for suggested
books

Available Onsite at the Cisco Company Store
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