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White Paper

Eclipse in the Mobile Network


Base stations that can connect devices at up to 50 Mbit/s or more will be operational within the next few years. For the backhaul network the extra capacity needed and the mix of services will require changes in the technology used – IP/Ethernet will become the transport technology of choice. This paper introduces the technologies for next generation backhaul networks, and the connection and management solutions provided by Eclipse Carrier Ethernet over Wireless platforms from Harris Stratex Networks.

Eclipse solutions are optimized for now and next generation mobile backhaul networks. The value-add node concept provides maximum performance with lowest cost and risk. • Data services will grow quickly to use more network capacity than voice. More network capacity translates to more backhaul capacity. Coupled with this is the recognition that Ethernet is the transport media of choice for expanded backhaul services. For many operators the introduction of Ethernet will be on the back of existing TDM network connections given their huge investment in its infrastructure. This will typically involve gradual migration using data overlay, with a decision at some future point to change to an all packetbased network. Other operators may elect to forgo migration and completely replace existing TDM networks using Ethernet. Pseudowires will be used to support legacy TDM connections. Whatever the direction, Eclipse provides optimized wireless backhaul solutions through its unique packet and circuit switched architecture. • The extended packet plane supports multiple GigE connections to 1.4 Gbit/s. Link capacities can be configured to 360 Mbit/s, 720 Mbit/s CCDP, or 1.4 Gbit/s CCDP/Quattro. The Liquid Bandwidth circuit plane supports native mixed mode operation with Super PDH capacities to 100xE1 and Ethernet to 200 Mbit/s. Services are split between TDM and Ethernet in 1xE1 / 2 Mbit/s steps to the maximums, to accommodate a lowrisk PDH now, and Ethernet tomorrow transport philosophy.

Assisting the upgrade route are Eclipse options for better spectrum efficiency. More capacity can be transported on existing channels using high-order modulation, adaptive modulation or co-channel operation. Similarly, carrier grade Ethernet performance is made possible via an intelligent layer 2 switch to ensure that the transport of Ethernet data is no less secure than for TDM. When coupled with advanced traffic prioritization, RWPR, link aggregation, pseudowires, network synchronization, MPLS, bandwidth optimization and traffic aggregation, there is a Harris Stratex solution for all network topologies. The backbone for this capability is the Eclipse INU where plug-in modules provide uniquely flexible and scalable platforms for lowest incremental cost and maximum value-add. Where the plug-in flexibility of the INUs is not required, such as at edge sites, Eclipse IDUs provide cost and performance optimized solutions for Ethernet with or without PDH. In most situations Eclipse eliminates the need for expensive external network devices. Finally, Eclipse comes with an assurance from Harris Stratex that value-adds will continue to become available to existing and new Eclipse customers to deliver more features and more performance. It is a promise of a low-risk and future-proof investment in Eclipse.

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there is a cost efficient solution using Eclipse. or do you move to an all-Ethernet solution? Whichever way is forward. or will be required to support multiple services and customers – not just cellular mobile. Hence operators must implement more cost-efficient solutions for delivering more network capacity. especially so where the backhaul networks are. given that operators will want to maximize investments in existing 2G/3G infrastructure. More Capacity The expected global growth of mobile broadband data services through EDGE/HSPA/LTE evolution will see data traffic exceeding voice within a relatively short period of time. . flexibility and QoS features needed to provide a complete solution – from the core MSC to the base stations. It provides the scalability. more intelligently. and more efficiently. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. For example. where their per-hop behaviour capabilities can provide new efficiencies in the transport of different types of traffic .5G base stations. where instead of current 2xE1 / 4 Mbit/s connections per 2G BTS. with some city sites as high as 50 Mbit/s. Figure 1. how do you upgrade wireless connections to deliver more capacity? Do you simply increase the capacity of current TDM links. the most cost effective backhaul technology to deliver more capacity. The mobile data evolution is precipitating massive changes in mobile network capabilities and infrastructure. the cost of mobile data to subscribers must be lower than for voice for the same data bandwidth. and not just one operator. It is also the ideal tecnology for use in MPLS or PBB-TE converged networks. new technologies and strategies are required.doc Page 2 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. This need for more capacity must be provided more intelligently. In networks where wireless provides the backhaul. For 4G/LTE. the 3G data revolution is expected to require from 10xE1 or 20 Mbit/s within 3 years.for different customers. Of special note is that one Eclipse node now supports up to six links. but with the data capacity needed for advanced 3G and 4G HSPA/LTE applications.White Paper Introduction Typically a small number of E1s has been sufficient to service 2G and 2. all rights reserved. which means operator revenues will be uncoupled from the traditionally linear returns on provisioning for voice growth. The Uncoupling of Voice and Data Revenues This need for more capacity brings pressure on the backhaul network. This projection assumes that the cost to access mobile data closely aligns with subscriber expectations for accessing data via wired or WiFi connections. There is also a need to ensure service continuity for old and new technologies. do you overlay with Ethernet to deliver the extra capacity. Certainly. these developments raise a number of issues. and a programmable total nodal throughput of over 1 Gbit/s Ethernet and up to 100xE1 or 2xSTM1. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. is Carrier Ethernet. figures as high as 100 Mbit/s have been forecast. Going forward.

More Intelligence We have mentioned the Ethernet benefits of cost. giving operators the choice of one or both technologies. there will be a mix of TDM and Ethernet in the backhaul. Mixed Mode Mixed mode is about side-by-side transport of TDM and native Ethernet data. . bandwidth optimization. However. traffic aggregation. all rights reserved. like mixed-mode. high priority voice data can be given right of way over lower priority and non-real-time data services. easy scalability. If bottlenecks occur. advantages of cost. national and international connections. Ethernet versus TDM It is as well to mention some general advantages of packet-based IP/Ethernet over that of circuit-switched TDM transport at this point. Others like MPLS and PBB-TE are particularly relevant to efficient and robust transportation in a converged network. In this section we introduce technologies that add intelligence to the way capacity is provided and managed in the network. MPLS / PBB-TE.doc Page 3 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. pseudowires and network synchronization are key considerations in migrating from TDM to Ethernet. and quality of service (QoS). and IP based OAM for end-to-end traffic and performance management.gone are the needs to consider PDH connections to an expensive SDH core. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.White Paper Base Station Readiness Base stations are now becoming available with TDM and Ethernet access interfaces. flexibility. flexibility and QoS. reliability and availability of Ethernet at least matches that on offer from traditional TDM transport technologies. Ethernet also supports easy convergence of mobile backhaul with other network applications on in-house or third-party networks. the overlaying of a TDM network with Ethernet. an all Ethernet backhaul is considered a must. Some. where Ethernet is used to meet the rapidly growing data demand. • QoS: Ethernet supports operator-friendly prioritization of traffic. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Ethernet delivers more cost-effective bandwidth than other technologies. • Cost: As the protocol of choice for Internet and business-based intranets. pseudowires.000s of individual services over local. In a backhaul network it means Ethernet can provide an end-to-end solution from the BTS to the network core . Carrier Ethernet is the technology for next generation backhaul networks. Ultimately. such as mixed mode. And with carrier-grade performance now on offer from some suppliers. it’s extremely wide usage means it is better supported by network operators and the manufacturing and support industries. meaning that for the medium term at least. with the roll-out of LTE. scalability. The bottom line is that Ethernet is considered the way forward for a data-driven expansion of the mobile backhaul network. • Flexibility: Ethernet supports speeds from 1 to 10 Gbit/s in 1 Mbit/s steps. • Scalability: Ethernet readily lends itself to servicing many 100. metro. in most networks it is expected that the rollout of Ethernet-capable base stations will complement an installed base of TDMonly base stations.

IEEE 1588v2. but at the same time support efficient migration to an allEthernet network when needed. Currently IEEE 1588v2 and synchronous Ethernet have the front running. GPS timing has also been promoted as a solution. Synchronization is also an issue.doc Page 4 of 17 Some features are subject to availability.existing TDM services are transported end-to-end in the network on pseudowires.White Paper More capacity must be provided more intelligently to maximize ROI and minimize disruption to existing services. Such a strategy has merit from the viewpoint of maximizing the use of existing TDM infrastructure. NTP. and proprietary pseudowire adaptive timing solutions. Mixed Mode All-Ethernet and Pseudowires Replacing existing backhaul infrastructure with an all Ethernet solution will invariably require accommodation of existing TDM network connections. Pseudowires do not support a robust solution for transporting the timing signals needed for base station synchronization. particularly so in converged networks where standardized operating practices and technologies are key requirements. it must represent a lower cost than a switch to all-Ethernet at the outset. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Figure 2. Industry feedback indicates that non-proprietary solutions are needed. Figure 3. but does have some 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. while minimizing the risk associated with introducing a new technology. Options include synchronous Ethernet (G. . The one proviso is that such a solution must be cost-efficient. Pseudowires Synchronization An IP/MPLS or all-Ethernet network should support transmission of the frequency and phase synchronization requirements for base stations to the standards expected for 4G implementations. all rights reserved.8262). This is where pseudowires provide an answer . which operate as virtual tunnels across provider network(s) to support legacy traffic. IEEE 1588v2 meets requirements for precision frequency and phase synchronization. But pseudowires do impose an overhead – typically an additional 10 to 20% % is needed over and above the native TDM bandwidth.

with PBB-TE in Metro and access networks. customer groupings. They are designed to speed up network traffic flow. traffic enters and exits an MPLS network via Provider Edge (PE) switch/routers. Ultimately the two may co-exist as merged solutions with. MPLS and PBB-TE are “traffic engineering” technologies for converged networks.MPLS Transport MPLS (T-MPLS) is an emerging subset of MPLS. though all-MPLS or all PBB-TE solutions will have their place depending on operator preferences. Its flexibility includes support for pt-to-pt. and mpt-to-mpt (any-to-any) Ethernet Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS).doc Page 5 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. MPLS and PBB-TE The merging of multiple networks. pt to mpt. They also provide improved resiliency with pre-defined failover scenarios. Figure 4. Synchronous Ethernet does not provide phase synchronization. and is directed (tunneled) through the MPLS network based on this label. It operates on similar lines to PBB-TE.White Paper traffic loading issues. congestion and differentiated (prioritized) services. Ingressing traffic is uniquely labeled (tagged) based on the desired destination and quality of service. At the PE egress point the MPLS label is stripped. and support superior management and control features. Essentially. Its operation involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets. Ethernet services are delivered transparently between customer LANs at sites A to E. Current consensus supports MPLS in core networks. . and Frame Relay network-layer protocols and over transport layers that include Ethernet. It operates with IP. for example. identified by a label placed in each packet. SDH and PDH. It is optimized for Metro Ethernet network applications to provide purely connection-oriented services for managed point-topoint connections. synchronous Ethernet in the core and IEEE 1588v2 in the Metro and access networks. and services onto one ‘converged’ network offers significant economies of scale. The label switches manage outages. but does provide frequency synchronization independent of traffic loading. MPLS MPLS is a mature ITU / IETF standard. IP/MPLS Virtual Private LAN Service T. It works with IP to support both layer 3 virtual private networks (VPNs) and layer 2 pseudowires. all rights reserved. Figure 4 illustrates Ethernet multipoint layer 2 VPN operation over an MPLS network using the VPLS function. ATM. technologies. As such. it is particularly suited to networks that carry different mixtures of traffic over different network connections for multiple users. make better use of network capacity with accommodation for a wide range of service types and bandwidth plans. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.

. Nonvalue data is removed for each voice channel. It has a flatter (layer 2 only) structure compared to MPLS. and protocol acceleration. more efficiently. An example is the use of packet and bandwidth optimization for GSM A. and more efficient use of existing infrastructure to eliminate or put back the need to update a network to deliver more capacity.bis BTS links. all rights reserved. When combined with data optimization techniques. For example separate 2G and/or 3G circuit-switched connections are converted to packet-based data and aggregated (multiplexed) using the traffic aggregation capabilities of a layer 2 Ethernet switch. Relevant OAM standards for Carrier Ethernet networks are ITU recommendation Y-1731 for the services layer (UNI to UNI).doc Page 6 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. such as in a Metro network. Operation. and switched. • The spectrum efficiencies offered with adaptive modulation and co-channel operation are described. diagnostics. more intelligently. The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) has also developed relevant standards and recommendations. performance monitoring. which acts to streamline data communications at the transport layer. Traffic Aggregation Traffic aggregation combines two or more data streams onto a common stream. Techniques include data compression based on the type of content. • The Eclipse platforms are described. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Benefits include improved latency. aggregated. In particular. Administration and Maintenance (OAM) OAM is about end-to-end network management capabilities for fault detection/recovery. overall improvements in bandwidth utilization can be as high as 4:1.1ag for the connectivity layer. and IEEE 802. Data Optimization Data optimization is about reducing or compressing data so that more data can be sent over a given bandwidth. data reduction that reduces the number of bits needed to be transmitted. Eclipse Wireless Backhaul Solutions This section introduces Eclipse and its solutions for more backhaul capacity. it introduces the unique switch-plane and packetplane capabilities of the Eclipse nodes that together optimize transport options for Ethernet and TDM.bis data is extracted and converted to a packet format to deliver overall bandwidth savings of up to 50%. maintenance and configuration. to provide cost optimized solutions where a large amount of connection-oriented traffic needs to be hubbed. and A.White Paper PBB-TE PBB-TE is an emerging standard for point-to-point connection-oriented services in Ethernet networks. and through packet statistical multiplexing achieves improvements in bandwidth utilization of about 50% over typical circuit usage. Data optimization and traffic aggregation techniques can provide significant improvements in bandwidth utilization. and the intelligence and capacity efficiencies offered for Core. Metro and access NGN technologies are introduced. and the migration of capacity from TDM to carriergrade Ethernet is explained.

Eclipse Super PDH Super PDHTM operates on the Eclipse circuit switch-plane of the INUs. Ethernet + PDH. They comprise the node-based INU/INUe. all rights reserved. The same plane also supports Ethernet migration from 10 to 200 Mbit/s. and terminal based IDUs. This represents a major performance improvement over the 63xE1 maximum on an STM1 (SDH) link. packet and circuit. a single technology is the logical choice where it provides a complete solution – especially so when it also provides significant cost and performance benefits over other options. SDH was generally adopted because of the limiting capacity and protection options offered by traditional PDH hardware .doc Page 7 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. delivers superior network flexibility and resilience. For GigE applications the IDU GE 20x provides up to 360 Mbit/s Ethernet throughput with up to 20xE1 tribs. • 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.SDH offered more capacity more robustly than PDH. or the typical 16xE1 or 20xE1 maximums of standard PDH links. to provide an unmatched range of options for capacity and channel efficiency. Eclipse Super PDH means that these reasons for installing an SDH core in a backhaul network are no longer valid for wireless. and as the name suggests. the INUe supports up to six links. IDU Terminals The IDUs support single-link 1+0 or 1+1 operation. Eclipse platforms are optimized for building networks. modulation rates range from QPSK to 256 QAM. If. Different models are available to support Ethernet. Super-PDH supports capacity migration from 5x to 100xE1 using the circuit switch plane. However. Eclipse INUs enable unique cost and performance efficiencies on wireless networks. This nodal concept dramatically reduces equipment. One Eclipse INU directly supports up to three links. now supported by two switch planes. or where simple IDU-to-IDU linking is required. Super PDH versus SDH In most wireless networks Eclipse Super PDH eliminates the need to have an SDH core. They are optimized for edge linking from an INU/INUe. it refers to the ability to transport up to 100xE1 over a wireless link.White Paper Eclipse Platform With packet switched GigE and circuit switched TDM on a common network node. Radio paths and customer interfaces are customized by plug-in cards. Solutions are provided for Ethernet. Depending on the capacity and bandwidth selected. Eclipse also delivers with link options of STM1 and 2xSTM1. cabling and rack space. . and minimizes costs. however. INUs for Nodes The INUs replace the traditional terminal or single-link based approach to networking with a nodal solution. and does so at a much lower cost when compared to an SDH+PDH solution. Super PDH provides a complete network solution for star and ring topologies all the way to the core. SDH is needed in the wireless backhaul. not just point-to-point links. PDH and SDH. PDH and SDH. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. • In a wireless backhaul network.

with the burgeoning data traffic on an Ethernet overlay. existing voice connections will be transported using legacy TDM links.4 Gbit/s. flexible and cost-efficient. When coupled with Eclipse adaptive modulation. there will be an expectation that the migration from TDM-only to TDM + Ethernet. the extended packet plane capability is introduced using plug-in cards. aggregation and CCDP capabilities. This is what Eclipse is about. all rights reserved. The circuit switch plane supports TDM and Ethernet. and ultimately to all-Ethernet.White Paper Eclipse Ethernet Eclipse links support native GigE or FastE Ethernet connections. adding Ethernet to a Super-PDH link simply requires installation of a GigE or FastE plug-in. • Links will be expected to transport both TDM and Ethernet traffic natively. Figure 5. Eclipse INU Packet and Circuit Switch Planes 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Figure 5 illustrates the packet and circuit switch plane architecture. • Links can be configured for PDH and Ethernet using Liquid Bandwidth. will be straight-forward. Then when more data capacity is needed. It means Ethernet can be activated when and where needed in the network with minimum disruption. Moreover. the packet switch plane is specific to Ethernet. operators are expected to overlay with Ethernet to provide the extra capacity needed to support data-based services. not the layer 1 bit-rate figures used by some vendors to inflate their specs to 400 Mbit/s and beyond. with or without legacy PDH circuits. Eclipse INUs enable optimized native mixed mode solutions. For example.doc Page 8 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. with or without companion TDM traffic for mixed mode requirements. Ethernet is supported on both the circuit and packet switch planes. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. • For many legacy PDH networks. RFC 2544 rated throughput figures. one Eclipse node supports multiple link connections with a combining capacity of more than 1. . • One Eclipse Node supports up to six links. • Links can be configured to 360 Mbit/s true Ethernet throughput. With both circuit and extended packet switch-planes. lowest cost and no risk. Note that Harris Stratex uses layer 2. at which point an operator can locally or remotely configure the capacity split between PDH and Ethernet in E1 or 2 Mbit/s steps using the Liquid Bandwidth feature on the circuit switch-plane.

the effectiveness of this gain can be magnified by the statistical multiplexing provided by traffic aggregation and data optimization options. Liquid Bandwidth means that the traffic over an Eclipse link can be user-assigned between PDH and Ethernet – from PDH-only to PDH+Ethernet. and modulation can also be selected from option menus. This is illustrated in Figure delivers industry-leading flexibility and performance. . all rights reserved. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks.doc Page 9 of 17 Some features are subject to availability.White Paper Eclipse Liquid Bandwidth for Seamless Scalability Liquid BandwidthTM is the Eclipse ability to seamlessly assign link capacity to Ethernet. • • The extended packet plane supports multiple GigE user interfaces with inter-card Ethernet bridging and aggregation. protection. each with a maximum aircapacity of 360 Mbit/s. The circuit plane supports the Liquid Bandwidth Ethernet and PDH connections. and ultimately to all-Ethernet. Furthermore. Liquid bandwidth supports easy migration from PDH to native Ethernet. channel bandwidth. and to companion PDH traffic for native mixed mode operation. It uses the Nx2 Mbit/s circuit switch plane to assign capacity in 2 Mbit/s / E1 steps to optimize throughput granularity for network planning purposes. Figure 6. This capability is backward compatible with installed INUs to provide exceptional value-add on Eclipse networks. One Eclipse node now supports up to six separate links. Eclipse Liquid Bandwidth Eclipse Wireless Packet Node The new Eclipse extended packet plane capability is unique . which indicates possible assignments to native Ethernet and to companion NxE1 capacity for a selected link capacity. One Eclipse Node is simply populated with the mix of cards needed at any time to provide the required throughput. • The packet switch plane supports up to six 1+0 links. It means the native capacity capabilities on existing INUs is increased five-fold. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. which for many requirements will require nothing more than a configuration change using the Portal craft tool. with each supporting native GigE to 360 Mbit/s. and aggregation of traffic. Or up to five GigE links and one Liquid Bandwidth link for Ethernet and PDH. Link capacity.

5 to 56 MHz. 360 Mbit/s in a 56 MHz channel. Examples include: • An industry-leading 190 Mbit/s or 93xE1 in a 28 MHz channel using the Liquid Bandwidth capability. 8. 200xE1 or 4xSTM1. High-order modulation is used to achieve maximum efficiency per channel. Eclipse options include co-channel dual polarization (CCDP) to support 720 Mbit/s. The combined packet and circuit planes represent a breakthrough in wireless backhaul connectivity. For even higher capacities there are Eclipse 4+4 quattro solutions. 9 illustrate some of the configurations made possible. Ring and Spur Node Link Capacity and Spectral Efficiency Eclipse link capacity options are achieved within standard ETSI channel bandwidths ranging from 3. Figure 7. • • Note that 1xSTM1 only supports a maximum 63xE1 . and the advanced L2 switch and TDM crossconnects support complex ring and aggregation network topologies. 1xSTM1 in a 28 MHz channel. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.doc Page 10 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. or 2xSTM1 in a 56 MHz channel. Ring/Mesh Node Figure 9. all rights reserved.White Paper Figures 7. 204 Mbit/s or 100xE1 is supported on 40 MHz or 56 MHz channels using 128 QAM and 32 QAM respectively. Figure 8. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Where more capacity is needed than can be provided over one link. Similarly. Ethernet and PDH Aggregation Node One Eclipse INU or INUe supports multiple links. .STM1 is less spectrally efficient when transporting E1 streams.

there must be the ability to meet carriergrade requirements for standardized services. • Flow Control. • VLAN (Tag) Prioritization. QoS and service management. as defined by the MEF. Prioritizes traffic on one port over another. and best-quality Operation. Carrier Grade Ethernet Carrier Ethernet. RWPR enhances industry-standard RSTP (802. networks must be able to detect and recover from incidents without impacting users.1D-2004) with a unique rapid failure detection (RFD) capability to provide carrierclass network reconvergence times on Eclipse GigE ring and mesh networks. • Q and Q-in-Q Tagging using the CoS/802. is the technology for next generation backhaul networks. Eclipse is compliant. Provides a mechanism to throttle back data from sending devices to reduce demands on available Ethernet bandwidth. Such networks may require support for traffic routing. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. prioritization. Ethernet traffic is prioritized on a frame-by-frame basis using the CoS (Class of Service) bits in the VLAN field of an Ethernet header. or the DSCP bits in the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) field of an IP header. • Harris Stratex Networks is a founding member of the MEF Mobile Backhaul Group. These include port and VLAN prioritization. reconvergence (service restoration) times are as low as 50 ms. using features that include advanced QoS options. It is especially relevant to wireless 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. with a traffic capacity that is the sum of the individual links.doc Page 11 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. Two or more links are combined into a single logical link. now and into the future. Tagging can be retained into an external network for downstream traffic management.1p prioritization bits. and link aggregation: • Port Prioritization. reliability. • This certification provides an assurance that Eclipse GigE links will interoperate with other carrier Ethernet devices. As determined by the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF). scalability. MEF 14 specifies the QoS (Quality of Service) parameters.White Paper Intelligent. • RWPRTM (Resilient Wireless Packet Ring). In the Q-in-Q (backbone provider bridge) mode Eclipse can aggregate up to 4 separate customer VLANs onto a common radio channel. outstanding reliability and scalability. aggregation and protection. Eclipse satisfies these requirements with features normally only found in advanced standalone switches. • Link Aggregation. . Additionally. Administration and Maintenance (OAM) in conjunction with the Harris Stratex ProvisionTM EMS. • Eclipse GigE radios are certified compliant with the MEF 9 and MEF 14 Carrier Ethernet standards. all rights reserved. For an Ethernet device to be considered carrier grade. it must have intelligence beyond the simple rule-based packet forwarding capabilities supported by basic L2 switches. Depending on the network topology. Eclipse Carrier Ethernet over Wireless has this capability. whose aim is to promote and define the use of Carrier Ethernet services for mobile/cellular networks Carrier-grade Performance The technology required to deliver MEF 9 and MEF 14 compliance requires an intelligent Ethernet switch. MEF 9 specifies the UNI (Universal Network Interface). VLAN Q and Q-in-Q tagging. Advanced QoS and Performance Options MEF specifies that support must be provided for Service Level Agreements (SLAs) to deliver end-to-end performance matching over converged networks. fastswitched RSTP (RWPR) operation.

Ethernet history.Layer 1 aggregation acts on the byte data stream. errors and discards.Layer 2 link aggregation (802. For example. If one link fails. and to effect changes when needed. circuit provisioning. Eclipse offers Layer 2 and Layer 1 link aggregation options.White Paper links when traffic capacities higher than the 300 to 360 Mbit/s maximums for a single link are required. With Eclipse. and maintenance. MEF) call for network-wide fault detection/recovery. the problem is easily diagnosed using common user-friendly interfaces. making it ideal for router-router applications.1ag. Unlike L2 link aggregation it provides optimum payload sharing regardless of the throughput demands of individual user connections. . Harris Stratex ProVision EMS provides networkwide E-Line and E-LAN OAM services. management of the radio and Ethernet functions is fully integrated to deliver maximum visibility to operators. where Ethernet performance is being affected by radio performance. all rights reserved. or links. performance monitoring. • Eclipse and its ProVision EMS provide these capabilities end-to-end for the radio and L2 switch functions: • Where external switches are used in a wireless Ethernet network there is usually no management synergy between the switch and the radios. Uniquely. its traffic is redirected onto the remaining link. Link aggregation also provides sub 50 ms redundancy. and performance monitoring at service (VLAN) and link levels.3ad) uses source and/or destination MAC address data in the Ethernet frame MAC/LLC header. ProVision additionally supports end-to-end network mapping. IEEE 802. each is supported on its own management system. QoS priority settings are used to ensure all higher priority traffic continues to get through. Figure 10. Example ProVision EMS Screens for Network Health and Bandwidth Utilization 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. and Ethernet datadashboards for throughput. . Two physical links are used for 720 Mbit/s.4 Gbit/s. Relevant Ethernet and radio error events are supported by probable-cause and remedial advice. diagnostics. Ethernet diagnostics include RMON performance data. Advanced OAM for End-to-End Management OAM standards (ITU Y-1731. . Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. This means every device in the network must be visible to a network operator to provide the tools needed to determine device and network status and performance. four for 1.doc Page 12 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. If the remaining link(s) do not have the capacity needed to avoid a traffic bottleneck.

but is only needed to protect the link against worst-case fades that may occur for just a few minutes in a year.doc Page 13 of 17 Some features are subject to availability.5 percent of the time. On a typical link this means higher capacity will be available for better than 99. • • • Figure 11 illustrates the modulation/capacity steps and the percent availability over time. It uses one of five automatically and dynamically switched modulations . . is used to support critical traffic with a 99. A link using robust QPSK modulation can have as much as 30 dB of fade margin. QPSK. with a guaranteed bandwidth provided all of the time. it dynamically changes the modulation so that the highest availability of capacity is provided at any given time. the highest modulation is typically available for better than 99. Highest capacity. Changing to a more efficient modulation scheme will provide more link capacity. This is the purpose of adaptive modulation. a three7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. or 256 QAM . 256 QAM throughput is typically available for 99. It interacts with other plug-ins to provide an end-to-end solution for Ethernet only.5% of the time. 128 QAM. Instead of using a fixed modulation rate to provide a guaranteed capacity and service availability under all path conditions. For a given RF channel bandwidth of 7. the available fade margin can be transformed into delivering more data throughput. as the most robust modulation. is increased when path conditions permit. When used in conjunction with QoS traffic prioritization. it can be configured to ensure all high priority traffic continues to get through when path conditions deteriorate. Adaptive Modulation Illustration With Eclipse.QPSK.999% availability under all path conditions. By using less robust but more efficient modulation schemes. all rights reserved. • Adaptive modulation refers to the dynamic adjustment of modulation rate to ensure maximum data bandwidth is provided most of the time. 14 or 28 MHz. Less critical traffic is assigned to the higher modulations. or a combination of Ethernet and TDM payloads.White Paper Adaptive Modulation In many instances spectrum availability is limited. but it will be at the expense of a lowered system gain. a twofold improvement in data throughput is provided for a change from QPSK to 16 QAM. 64 QAM. Wireless links are traditionally engineered to carry traffic with a 99. only low priority ‘best effort’ data is discarded. Most importantly. 16 QAM.999% availability. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. the modulation rate. This is where adaptive modulation provides a solution. and hence link availability. and hence capacity. For the rest of the year the margin is not used.5% of the time. Figure 11. TDM only. so changing to a wider channel bandwidth to achieve a higher link capacity is not an option. adaptive modulation simply requires installation of a plug-in card.selected by an adaptive modulation engine that can handle up to 100 dB/s fading fluctuations.

Note that in many instances the link parameters that supported the original system gain can be retained. a 7 MHz RF channel supports just 10 Mbit/s using QPSK. The CCDP option provides two parallel communication links on the same RF channel. During a change to a lower modulation. For example. E1 connections are dropped in user-specified order when link capacity is reduced.White Paper fold improvement to 64 QAM. and a four-fold improvement to 256 QAM.doc Page 14 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. Figure 12.5% of the time. and restored when capacity is restored. existing traffic is unaffected during a change to a higher modulation. this can be increased by a factor of 4:1 to provide an overall improvement of 8:1. Outside these conditions ‘best effort’ lower priority traffic. 720 Mbit/s Link Aggregated Mixed Mode CCDP Terminal 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Note that while adaptive modulation can also be used on PDH links and combined PDH and Ethernet links. and the service provisioning provided by any MPLS or PBB-TE network overlay. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. and Cross Polarized Interference Cancellation (XPIC) is used in the radios to ensure any interference between the channels is eliminated. Similarly. Modulation switching is hitless. Modulation switching is hitless for traffic that is not discarded. When coupled with adaptive modulation. For example. unlike Ethernet there is no QoS synergy on PDH connections. In situations where increasing the channel bandwidth and/or increasing the modulation rate. This typically means that on the original 10 Mbit/s link. such as email and file transfers. A single twin-feed dual polarized antenna is installed at each end of the link. All high priority traffic. One link uses the vertical polarization. It doubles wireless capacity over the same channel. all rights reserved. enjoy data bandwidths that can be up to four times the guaranteed bandwidth. 45 Mbit/s throughput is provided for 99. continues to get through when path conditions are poor. This has special significance on capacity extensions needed to support HSPA 3G and 4G base stations where figures in excess of 50 Mbit/s are forecasted for mid-city sites. the antenna sizes and Tx power used for an original QPSK link on a 7 MHz channel (10 Mbit/s / 5xE1) are unchanged when operated on 256 QAM using adaptive modulation. The adaptive modulation engine ensures that the highest throughput is always provided based on link quality. the other the horizontal. will not provide the capacity needed. An adaptive coding capability will provide options to trade off throughput against system gain. then doubles to 90 Mbit/s using CCDP. CCDP provides an answer. . such as voice and video. expands to 45 Mbit/s using 256 QAM adaptive modulation. • Co-Channel Dual Polarized Links (CCDP) Investments in existing channel plans can be maximized using Eclipse CCDP and adaptive modulation. • Ethernet connections enjoy real synergy through the QoS awareness on the GigE plug-in. remaining higher priority traffic is not affected.

two CCDP link pairs (four links in total) can support up to 1. or 4xSTM1. pseudowires will be needed where a PDH network is replaced by an Ethernet or IP/MPLS based network. For mobile backhaul networks. fixed or adaptive. three or four links can be installed.White Paper Figure 13.4 Gbit/s.doc Page 15 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. • • • • • • Eclipse CCDP configurations cover channel bandwidths from 7 to 56 MHz. or a mix of TDM and Ethernet (Liquid Bandwidth). . If both links are configured for Ethernet. but must retain support for legacy PDH interfaces at 2G and 3G base stations. For example. 200xE1. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. and the fitting of plug-in XPIC radio access cards. the two traffic streams can be L1or L2 linkaggregated onto a single user interface. Modulation options extend from QPSK to 256 QAM. Pseudowires Psuedowires are used to transport a native service over a packet switched network. or operated in a SuperPDH ring. Capacity maximums (both links) extend to 720 Mbit/s. CCDP links can be 1+1 protected (hot-standby or diversity). replacement of the existing antenna with a dual-pol antenna. TDM. all rights reserved. Where even higher capacity links are needed. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. 720 Mbit/s Link Aggregated RSTP CCDP Ring Node Adding CCDP operation to an existing Eclipse link simply requires installation of the parallel link. The capacity on each link can be used for Ethernet. The HSX pseudowire solutions comply with industry-standard IETF and MEF 8 PWE3 options for: • • • • • TDM over IP/MPLS (CESoPSN – structured E1) TDM over IP/MPLS (SAToP – unstructured E1) TDM over Ethernet (CESoETH – MEF 8) ATM pseudo wires (legacy R99 traffic) HDLC and PPP pseudo wires (CDMA market) An industry-standard solution is essential to ensure network-wide connectivity and interoperability.

and as these networks evolve it is being pushed further towards the network edges. and IEEE 1588 in the Metro and access portions of the network. E1s are used as the BTS clocking source to provide base station synchronization. For pseudowire-connected legacy base stations an external IEEE 1588v2 slave/translator is used to generate the clocking source. The resultant dynamic bandwidth allocation between the different aggregated services means maximum use is made of available capacity on the trunk. Optimization and IP/Ethernet conversion is available for Abis and lub (3G R99). Others have indicated that they will likely incorporate both. the bandwidth for data is dynamically backed off. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Within a PDH backhaul network. unlike MPLS. an alternative clocking source is required. with service priority issues handled by the QoS engine. • • IP/MPLS and PBB-TE The traffic engineering capabilities of IP/MPLS are well established. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. • Traffic aggregation is supported on the Eclipse Ethernet interfaces.5 Node Bs that incorporate an IEEE 1588v2 slave.White Paper Network Synchronization To ensure end-toend compatibility on converged networks. all rights reserved. It provides predicable and robust routing and QoS differentiators for multiple service levels and customer groups. A synchronous GigE option will be provided when the standard (G. when there are no voice calls. PBB-TE.Eclipse can be direct-connected to Ethernet-ready Rev. Harris Stratex solutions will support both options. synchronization options must be standardscompliant. and synchronous Ethernet. so is well positioned to support the evolution of mobile networks from mixed mode to all IP transport. with synchronous in the core. If replaced by an all-Ethernet backhaul network. including the adoption of pseudo wires.doc Page 16 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. Some operators have indicated intent to use IEEE 1588v2 or synchronous Ethernet.8262) is fully promulgated. which when aggregated with HSPA data can provide 4:1 bandwidth efficiency gains. It is the prominent core network protocol for converged networks. for example. they enable particularly cost effective gains on Ethernet or IP/MPLS networks where a common transmission pipe is shared for aggregated services. As the number of voice calls increases. . is optimized for Metro Ethernet networks. • While optimization and aggregation can apply on existing TDM network connections. Standards-compliant MPLS and PBB-TE solutions are available from Harris Stratex to ensure interoperability with those from leading core network vendors. and consequently offers less complex and lower cost traffic engineering solutions compared to MPLS. • Eclipse currently supports transparent transmission of IEEE 1588v2 frames . While it is apparent that operators will choose implementations based on their particular legacy infrastructure and future plans. for converged services the options most preferred are IEEE 1588v2 Precision Time Protocol (PTP). the full trunk bandwidth is available for data traffic. Bandwidth Optimization and Traffic Aggregation Optimization and aggregation and can provide dramatic capacity efficiencies on backhaul connections where. 2G and 3G circuit-switched connections are converted to packet-based data and aggregated (multiplexed) using the aggregation capabilities of a layer 2 Ethernet switch.

White Paper Glossary CCDP CE EDGE eLSR E-Line E-LAN EMS EVC HSPA HSDPA HSUPA LSR LTE MEF NGN PDH Phy QoS P node PE node RSTP RWPR SDH SFP SLA TDM UNI TM Co-channel dual polarized.52 Mbit/s (STM1) through to 10+ Gbit/s. Wireless Fidelity. Provider node in an MPLS network. Transmission rates range from 100. or 1000 Mbit/s. The physical port between the customer and service provider. Provider edge node in an MPLS network. VLAN VPLS VPN WiFi WiMAX XPIC 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.wi-fi. Denotes a multipoint or point-to-point Ethernet connection over a host network. Virtual private LAN service. Function is enabled on an eLSR. Denotes an Ethernet multipoint service. Service level agreement. Physical. layer 1 level/interface. Asynchronous multiplexing scheme in which multiple digital synchronous circuits run at slightly different clock rates. Resilient Wireless Packet Ring. High speed downlink packet access. Denotes an Ethernet point-to-point service. Cross-polarized interference cancellation. Ethernet virtual connection. High speed uplink packet access. Metro Ethernet Forum. An enhanced modulation technique designed to provide data rates up to 384 Kbps. and Ethernet Internet Access. Customer edge. Applicable to private lines. High speed packet access. virtual private lines. Universal network interface. Edge label switch router. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Quality of service. Applicable to multipoint L2 VPNs. Evolving standard for 4G mobile networks. Plesiosynchronous digital hierarchy. with each signal assigned a fixed time slot in a fixed rotation. IEEE 802. . Multiple low-speed signals are multiplexed to/from a high-speed channel. Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution. Interoperability brand behind the IEEE 802. Label switch router. or 10 Gbit/s Ethernet interface. Time division multiplexing. such as SDH. Element management system. Provides the edge function of MPLS label switching and functions as an MPLS Provider Edge (PE) node in an MPLS network.1Q tagging mechanism. Virtual LAN. It is always provided by the service provider. and transparent LAN services. Synchronous digital hierarchy. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Virtual private network. WiFi is a trademark of The Wi-Fi Alliance (www.doc Page 17 of 17 Some features are subject to availability.84 Mbit/s (STM0) and 155. Next generation network. Rapid spanning tree protocol. and in a carrier Ethernet Network is a physical 10. Long term evolution. Function is enabled on an LSR. Small-form-factor pluggable. Interface to the customer network in an MPLS network.16 Metropolitan Area Network standards. Provides the core function of MPLS label switching and functions as an MPLS Provider (P) node in an MPLS network. all rights reserved.