White Paper

Eclipse in the Mobile Network


Base stations that can connect devices at up to 50 Mbit/s or more will be operational within the next few years. For the backhaul network the extra capacity needed and the mix of services will require changes in the technology used – IP/Ethernet will become the transport technology of choice. This paper introduces the technologies for next generation backhaul networks, and the connection and management solutions provided by Eclipse Carrier Ethernet over Wireless platforms from Harris Stratex Networks.

Eclipse solutions are optimized for now and next generation mobile backhaul networks. The value-add node concept provides maximum performance with lowest cost and risk. • Data services will grow quickly to use more network capacity than voice. More network capacity translates to more backhaul capacity. Coupled with this is the recognition that Ethernet is the transport media of choice for expanded backhaul services. For many operators the introduction of Ethernet will be on the back of existing TDM network connections given their huge investment in its infrastructure. This will typically involve gradual migration using data overlay, with a decision at some future point to change to an all packetbased network. Other operators may elect to forgo migration and completely replace existing TDM networks using Ethernet. Pseudowires will be used to support legacy TDM connections. Whatever the direction, Eclipse provides optimized wireless backhaul solutions through its unique packet and circuit switched architecture. • The extended packet plane supports multiple GigE connections to 1.4 Gbit/s. Link capacities can be configured to 360 Mbit/s, 720 Mbit/s CCDP, or 1.4 Gbit/s CCDP/Quattro. The Liquid Bandwidth circuit plane supports native mixed mode operation with Super PDH capacities to 100xE1 and Ethernet to 200 Mbit/s. Services are split between TDM and Ethernet in 1xE1 / 2 Mbit/s steps to the maximums, to accommodate a lowrisk PDH now, and Ethernet tomorrow transport philosophy.

Assisting the upgrade route are Eclipse options for better spectrum efficiency. More capacity can be transported on existing channels using high-order modulation, adaptive modulation or co-channel operation. Similarly, carrier grade Ethernet performance is made possible via an intelligent layer 2 switch to ensure that the transport of Ethernet data is no less secure than for TDM. When coupled with advanced traffic prioritization, RWPR, link aggregation, pseudowires, network synchronization, MPLS, bandwidth optimization and traffic aggregation, there is a Harris Stratex solution for all network topologies. The backbone for this capability is the Eclipse INU where plug-in modules provide uniquely flexible and scalable platforms for lowest incremental cost and maximum value-add. Where the plug-in flexibility of the INUs is not required, such as at edge sites, Eclipse IDUs provide cost and performance optimized solutions for Ethernet with or without PDH. In most situations Eclipse eliminates the need for expensive external network devices. Finally, Eclipse comes with an assurance from Harris Stratex that value-adds will continue to become available to existing and new Eclipse customers to deliver more features and more performance. It is a promise of a low-risk and future-proof investment in Eclipse.

Headquarters Harris Stratex Networks, Inc. Research Triangle Park 637 Davis Drive Morrisville, North Carolina 27560 United States Tel: 919-767-3230 Fax: 919-767-3233 www.harrisstratex.com



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given that operators will want to maximize investments in existing 2G/3G infrastructure. This need for more capacity must be provided more intelligently. or will be required to support multiple services and customers – not just cellular mobile. where instead of current 2xE1 / 4 Mbit/s connections per 2G BTS. how do you upgrade wireless connections to deliver more capacity? Do you simply increase the capacity of current TDM links. or do you move to an all-Ethernet solution? Whichever way is forward. figures as high as 100 Mbit/s have been forecast.5G base stations. For 4G/LTE. Certainly. This projection assumes that the cost to access mobile data closely aligns with subscriber expectations for accessing data via wired or WiFi connections. these developments raise a number of issues. flexibility and QoS features needed to provide a complete solution – from the core MSC to the base stations. There is also a need to ensure service continuity for old and new technologies. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. The Uncoupling of Voice and Data Revenues This need for more capacity brings pressure on the backhaul network. Hence operators must implement more cost-efficient solutions for delivering more network capacity. the most cost effective backhaul technology to deliver more capacity. more intelligently. there is a cost efficient solution using Eclipse. but with the data capacity needed for advanced 3G and 4G HSPA/LTE applications. Going forward. It is also the ideal tecnology for use in MPLS or PBB-TE converged networks. the 3G data revolution is expected to require from 10xE1 or 20 Mbit/s within 3 years. which means operator revenues will be uncoupled from the traditionally linear returns on provisioning for voice growth. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Figure 1.doc Page 2 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. all rights reserved. In networks where wireless provides the backhaul. Of special note is that one Eclipse node now supports up to six links.White Paper Introduction Typically a small number of E1s has been sufficient to service 2G and 2. do you overlay with Ethernet to deliver the extra capacity. and not just one operator. new technologies and strategies are required. the cost of mobile data to subscribers must be lower than for voice for the same data bandwidth. The mobile data evolution is precipitating massive changes in mobile network capabilities and infrastructure. is Carrier Ethernet. More Capacity The expected global growth of mobile broadband data services through EDGE/HSPA/LTE evolution will see data traffic exceeding voice within a relatively short period of time. especially so where the backhaul networks are. with some city sites as high as 50 Mbit/s. For example. . where their per-hop behaviour capabilities can provide new efficiencies in the transport of different types of traffic . It provides the scalability. and a programmable total nodal throughput of over 1 Gbit/s Ethernet and up to 100xE1 or 2xSTM1.for different customers. and more efficiently.

The bottom line is that Ethernet is considered the way forward for a data-driven expansion of the mobile backhaul network. pseudowires and network synchronization are key considerations in migrating from TDM to Ethernet. If bottlenecks occur.000s of individual services over local. an all Ethernet backhaul is considered a must. giving operators the choice of one or both technologies. In this section we introduce technologies that add intelligence to the way capacity is provided and managed in the network. reliability and availability of Ethernet at least matches that on offer from traditional TDM transport technologies. flexibility. like mixed-mode. in most networks it is expected that the rollout of Ethernet-capable base stations will complement an installed base of TDMonly base stations. and quality of service (QoS).White Paper Base Station Readiness Base stations are now becoming available with TDM and Ethernet access interfaces. pseudowires. flexibility and QoS. MPLS / PBB-TE. bandwidth optimization. the overlaying of a TDM network with Ethernet. Ethernet delivers more cost-effective bandwidth than other technologies.gone are the needs to consider PDH connections to an expensive SDH core. • QoS: Ethernet supports operator-friendly prioritization of traffic. and IP based OAM for end-to-end traffic and performance management. with the roll-out of LTE. national and international connections. Mixed Mode Mixed mode is about side-by-side transport of TDM and native Ethernet data. metro. there will be a mix of TDM and Ethernet in the backhaul. Carrier Ethernet is the technology for next generation backhaul networks. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Ethernet also supports easy convergence of mobile backhaul with other network applications on in-house or third-party networks. meaning that for the medium term at least. it’s extremely wide usage means it is better supported by network operators and the manufacturing and support industries. where Ethernet is used to meet the rapidly growing data demand. scalability. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. In a backhaul network it means Ethernet can provide an end-to-end solution from the BTS to the network core . high priority voice data can be given right of way over lower priority and non-real-time data services. traffic aggregation. • Scalability: Ethernet readily lends itself to servicing many 100. easy scalability. More Intelligence We have mentioned the Ethernet benefits of cost. However. such as mixed mode. advantages of cost. Others like MPLS and PBB-TE are particularly relevant to efficient and robust transportation in a converged network. • Cost: As the protocol of choice for Internet and business-based intranets. Some. • Flexibility: Ethernet supports speeds from 1 to 10 Gbit/s in 1 Mbit/s steps. all rights reserved. . And with carrier-grade performance now on offer from some suppliers. Ultimately.doc Page 3 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. Ethernet versus TDM It is as well to mention some general advantages of packet-based IP/Ethernet over that of circuit-switched TDM transport at this point.

all rights reserved.8262). Currently IEEE 1588v2 and synchronous Ethernet have the front running. it must represent a lower cost than a switch to all-Ethernet at the outset. while minimizing the risk associated with introducing a new technology. but at the same time support efficient migration to an allEthernet network when needed.existing TDM services are transported end-to-end in the network on pseudowires. . Options include synchronous Ethernet (G. NTP. and proprietary pseudowire adaptive timing solutions. Figure 3. GPS timing has also been promoted as a solution. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks.doc Page 4 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. This is where pseudowires provide an answer . Industry feedback indicates that non-proprietary solutions are needed.White Paper More capacity must be provided more intelligently to maximize ROI and minimize disruption to existing services. Figure 2. The one proviso is that such a solution must be cost-efficient. Pseudowires do not support a robust solution for transporting the timing signals needed for base station synchronization. particularly so in converged networks where standardized operating practices and technologies are key requirements. Synchronization is also an issue. Pseudowires Synchronization An IP/MPLS or all-Ethernet network should support transmission of the frequency and phase synchronization requirements for base stations to the standards expected for 4G implementations. which operate as virtual tunnels across provider network(s) to support legacy traffic. IEEE 1588v2 meets requirements for precision frequency and phase synchronization. Such a strategy has merit from the viewpoint of maximizing the use of existing TDM infrastructure. IEEE 1588v2. Mixed Mode All-Ethernet and Pseudowires Replacing existing backhaul infrastructure with an all Ethernet solution will invariably require accommodation of existing TDM network connections. but does have some 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. But pseudowires do impose an overhead – typically an additional 10 to 20% % is needed over and above the native TDM bandwidth.

doc Page 5 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. At the PE egress point the MPLS label is stripped. Its operation involves setting up a specific path for a given sequence of packets. Essentially. Ultimately the two may co-exist as merged solutions with. customer groupings. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. but does provide frequency synchronization independent of traffic loading. and services onto one ‘converged’ network offers significant economies of scale. synchronous Ethernet in the core and IEEE 1588v2 in the Metro and access networks. It operates on similar lines to PBB-TE. though all-MPLS or all PBB-TE solutions will have their place depending on operator preferences. make better use of network capacity with accommodation for a wide range of service types and bandwidth plans. Ingressing traffic is uniquely labeled (tagged) based on the desired destination and quality of service. and Frame Relay network-layer protocols and over transport layers that include Ethernet. . Figure 4. congestion and differentiated (prioritized) services. It works with IP to support both layer 3 virtual private networks (VPNs) and layer 2 pseudowires. Synchronous Ethernet does not provide phase synchronization. MPLS and PBB-TE The merging of multiple networks. traffic enters and exits an MPLS network via Provider Edge (PE) switch/routers. SDH and PDH. for example. MPLS and PBB-TE are “traffic engineering” technologies for converged networks. As such. with PBB-TE in Metro and access networks. technologies. pt to mpt. MPLS MPLS is a mature ITU / IETF standard.White Paper traffic loading issues. The label switches manage outages. It operates with IP. They also provide improved resiliency with pre-defined failover scenarios. It is optimized for Metro Ethernet network applications to provide purely connection-oriented services for managed point-topoint connections. it is particularly suited to networks that carry different mixtures of traffic over different network connections for multiple users. Ethernet services are delivered transparently between customer LANs at sites A to E. all rights reserved.MPLS Transport MPLS (T-MPLS) is an emerging subset of MPLS. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. and mpt-to-mpt (any-to-any) Ethernet Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS). and is directed (tunneled) through the MPLS network based on this label. and support superior management and control features. ATM. Current consensus supports MPLS in core networks. Its flexibility includes support for pt-to-pt. IP/MPLS Virtual Private LAN Service T. Figure 4 illustrates Ethernet multipoint layer 2 VPN operation over an MPLS network using the VPLS function. They are designed to speed up network traffic flow. identified by a label placed in each packet.

and IEEE 802. The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) has also developed relevant standards and recommendations.doc Page 6 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. For example separate 2G and/or 3G circuit-switched connections are converted to packet-based data and aggregated (multiplexed) using the traffic aggregation capabilities of a layer 2 Ethernet switch. all rights reserved. Eclipse Wireless Backhaul Solutions This section introduces Eclipse and its solutions for more backhaul capacity. Metro and access NGN technologies are introduced. Data optimization and traffic aggregation techniques can provide significant improvements in bandwidth utilization. Traffic Aggregation Traffic aggregation combines two or more data streams onto a common stream. Data Optimization Data optimization is about reducing or compressing data so that more data can be sent over a given bandwidth. and the migration of capacity from TDM to carriergrade Ethernet is explained. • The spectrum efficiencies offered with adaptive modulation and co-channel operation are described. . more efficiently. Benefits include improved latency.1ag for the connectivity layer. and through packet statistical multiplexing achieves improvements in bandwidth utilization of about 50% over typical circuit usage. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. more intelligently. it introduces the unique switch-plane and packetplane capabilities of the Eclipse nodes that together optimize transport options for Ethernet and TDM.bis data is extracted and converted to a packet format to deliver overall bandwidth savings of up to 50%. It has a flatter (layer 2 only) structure compared to MPLS. diagnostics. When combined with data optimization techniques. • The Eclipse platforms are described. Administration and Maintenance (OAM) OAM is about end-to-end network management capabilities for fault detection/recovery. and the intelligence and capacity efficiencies offered for Core. and switched. data reduction that reduces the number of bits needed to be transmitted. In particular. maintenance and configuration. Nonvalue data is removed for each voice channel. performance monitoring. Operation. and more efficient use of existing infrastructure to eliminate or put back the need to update a network to deliver more capacity.bis BTS links. to provide cost optimized solutions where a large amount of connection-oriented traffic needs to be hubbed. such as in a Metro network. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. and protocol acceleration. and A. aggregated. Relevant OAM standards for Carrier Ethernet networks are ITU recommendation Y-1731 for the services layer (UNI to UNI). overall improvements in bandwidth utilization can be as high as 4:1. Techniques include data compression based on the type of content. An example is the use of packet and bandwidth optimization for GSM A.White Paper PBB-TE PBB-TE is an emerging standard for point-to-point connection-oriented services in Ethernet networks. which acts to streamline data communications at the transport layer.

SDH is needed in the wireless backhaul. Depending on the capacity and bandwidth selected. Super-PDH supports capacity migration from 5x to 100xE1 using the circuit switch plane.SDH offered more capacity more robustly than PDH. The same plane also supports Ethernet migration from 10 to 200 Mbit/s. Ethernet + PDH. IDU Terminals The IDUs support single-link 1+0 or 1+1 operation. delivers superior network flexibility and resilience. and does so at a much lower cost when compared to an SDH+PDH solution. the INUe supports up to six links. it refers to the ability to transport up to 100xE1 over a wireless link.White Paper Eclipse Platform With packet switched GigE and circuit switched TDM on a common network node. not just point-to-point links. and minimizes costs. packet and circuit. This represents a major performance improvement over the 63xE1 maximum on an STM1 (SDH) link. modulation rates range from QPSK to 256 QAM. Eclipse also delivers with link options of STM1 and 2xSTM1. However. . This nodal concept dramatically reduces equipment. a single technology is the logical choice where it provides a complete solution – especially so when it also provides significant cost and performance benefits over other options. INUs for Nodes The INUs replace the traditional terminal or single-link based approach to networking with a nodal solution. Eclipse INUs enable unique cost and performance efficiencies on wireless networks. now supported by two switch planes. Super PDH provides a complete network solution for star and ring topologies all the way to the core. SDH was generally adopted because of the limiting capacity and protection options offered by traditional PDH hardware . Eclipse platforms are optimized for building networks. They comprise the node-based INU/INUe. to provide an unmatched range of options for capacity and channel efficiency. or where simple IDU-to-IDU linking is required. and as the name suggests. • In a wireless backhaul network. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. PDH and SDH. Radio paths and customer interfaces are customized by plug-in cards. Different models are available to support Ethernet. If. PDH and SDH. and terminal based IDUs. all rights reserved. Eclipse Super PDH means that these reasons for installing an SDH core in a backhaul network are no longer valid for wireless. however. cabling and rack space. • 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Eclipse Super PDH Super PDHTM operates on the Eclipse circuit switch-plane of the INUs. or the typical 16xE1 or 20xE1 maximums of standard PDH links. Solutions are provided for Ethernet. One Eclipse INU directly supports up to three links.doc Page 7 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. For GigE applications the IDU GE 20x provides up to 360 Mbit/s Ethernet throughput with up to 20xE1 tribs. Super PDH versus SDH In most wireless networks Eclipse Super PDH eliminates the need to have an SDH core. They are optimized for edge linking from an INU/INUe.

one Eclipse node supports multiple link connections with a combining capacity of more than 1. With both circuit and extended packet switch-planes. the packet switch plane is specific to Ethernet. • Links can be configured to 360 Mbit/s true Ethernet throughput. there will be an expectation that the migration from TDM-only to TDM + Ethernet.White Paper Eclipse Ethernet Eclipse links support native GigE or FastE Ethernet connections. This is what Eclipse is about. all rights reserved. Figure 5. • Links will be expected to transport both TDM and Ethernet traffic natively. flexible and cost-efficient. lowest cost and no risk. with the burgeoning data traffic on an Ethernet overlay. . Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. and ultimately to all-Ethernet. Note that Harris Stratex uses layer 2. aggregation and CCDP capabilities. with or without legacy PDH circuits. the extended packet plane capability is introduced using plug-in cards. at which point an operator can locally or remotely configure the capacity split between PDH and Ethernet in E1 or 2 Mbit/s steps using the Liquid Bandwidth feature on the circuit switch-plane. will be straight-forward. • One Eclipse Node supports up to six links.doc Page 8 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. existing voice connections will be transported using legacy TDM links. Then when more data capacity is needed. Eclipse INU Packet and Circuit Switch Planes 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. It means Ethernet can be activated when and where needed in the network with minimum disruption. not the layer 1 bit-rate figures used by some vendors to inflate their specs to 400 Mbit/s and beyond. Eclipse INUs enable optimized native mixed mode solutions.4 Gbit/s. The circuit switch plane supports TDM and Ethernet. When coupled with Eclipse adaptive modulation. RFC 2544 rated throughput figures. • For many legacy PDH networks. adding Ethernet to a Super-PDH link simply requires installation of a GigE or FastE plug-in. Ethernet is supported on both the circuit and packet switch planes. Moreover. Figure 5 illustrates the packet and circuit switch plane architecture. operators are expected to overlay with Ethernet to provide the extra capacity needed to support data-based services. • Links can be configured for PDH and Ethernet using Liquid Bandwidth. with or without companion TDM traffic for mixed mode requirements. For example.

Eclipse Liquid Bandwidth Eclipse Wireless Packet Node The new Eclipse extended packet plane capability is unique . . the effectiveness of this gain can be magnified by the statistical multiplexing provided by traffic aggregation and data optimization options. One Eclipse node now supports up to six separate links. protection. Link capacity. This capability is backward compatible with installed INUs to provide exceptional value-add on Eclipse networks. Furthermore. which indicates possible assignments to native Ethernet and to companion NxE1 capacity for a selected link capacity. • • The extended packet plane supports multiple GigE user interfaces with inter-card Ethernet bridging and aggregation. with each supporting native GigE to 360 Mbit/s. all rights reserved. and ultimately to all-Ethernet.doc Page 9 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. Or up to five GigE links and one Liquid Bandwidth link for Ethernet and PDH.White Paper Eclipse Liquid Bandwidth for Seamless Scalability Liquid BandwidthTM is the Eclipse ability to seamlessly assign link capacity to Ethernet. It means the native capacity capabilities on existing INUs is increased five-fold. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Liquid Bandwidth means that the traffic over an Eclipse link can be user-assigned between PDH and Ethernet – from PDH-only to PDH+Ethernet. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. It uses the Nx2 Mbit/s circuit switch plane to assign capacity in 2 Mbit/s / E1 steps to optimize throughput granularity for network planning purposes. The circuit plane supports the Liquid Bandwidth Ethernet and PDH connections.it delivers industry-leading flexibility and performance. One Eclipse Node is simply populated with the mix of cards needed at any time to provide the required throughput. each with a maximum aircapacity of 360 Mbit/s. Liquid bandwidth supports easy migration from PDH to native Ethernet. and modulation can also be selected from option menus. This is illustrated in Figure 6. Figure 6. and to companion PDH traffic for native mixed mode operation. which for many requirements will require nothing more than a configuration change using the Portal craft tool. channel bandwidth. • The packet switch plane supports up to six 1+0 links. and aggregation of traffic.

and the advanced L2 switch and TDM crossconnects support complex ring and aggregation network topologies. Ring/Mesh Node Figure 9. Ring and Spur Node Link Capacity and Spectral Efficiency Eclipse link capacity options are achieved within standard ETSI channel bandwidths ranging from 3. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.STM1 is less spectrally efficient when transporting E1 streams. 360 Mbit/s in a 56 MHz channel. all rights reserved. 1xSTM1 in a 28 MHz channel. .5 to 56 MHz. Similarly. Ethernet and PDH Aggregation Node One Eclipse INU or INUe supports multiple links. 9 illustrate some of the configurations made possible. Eclipse options include co-channel dual polarization (CCDP) to support 720 Mbit/s. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Where more capacity is needed than can be provided over one link. or 2xSTM1 in a 56 MHz channel. Figure 7. High-order modulation is used to achieve maximum efficiency per channel.doc Page 10 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. Figure 8. The combined packet and circuit planes represent a breakthrough in wireless backhaul connectivity. For even higher capacities there are Eclipse 4+4 quattro solutions.White Paper Figures 7. Examples include: • An industry-leading 190 Mbit/s or 93xE1 in a 28 MHz channel using the Liquid Bandwidth capability. • • Note that 1xSTM1 only supports a maximum 63xE1 . 8. 204 Mbit/s or 100xE1 is supported on 40 MHz or 56 MHz channels using 128 QAM and 32 QAM respectively. 200xE1 or 4xSTM1.

Eclipse satisfies these requirements with features normally only found in advanced standalone switches. • Q and Q-in-Q Tagging using the CoS/802. using features that include advanced QoS options. MEF 9 specifies the UNI (Universal Network Interface). RWPR enhances industry-standard RSTP (802. Administration and Maintenance (OAM) in conjunction with the Harris Stratex ProvisionTM EMS. prioritization. Depending on the network topology. Provides a mechanism to throttle back data from sending devices to reduce demands on available Ethernet bandwidth. Such networks may require support for traffic routing. • Harris Stratex Networks is a founding member of the MEF Mobile Backhaul Group. In the Q-in-Q (backbone provider bridge) mode Eclipse can aggregate up to 4 separate customer VLANs onto a common radio channel. For an Ethernet device to be considered carrier grade. Two or more links are combined into a single logical link. whose aim is to promote and define the use of Carrier Ethernet services for mobile/cellular networks Carrier-grade Performance The technology required to deliver MEF 9 and MEF 14 compliance requires an intelligent Ethernet switch. • VLAN (Tag) Prioritization. and link aggregation: • Port Prioritization. with a traffic capacity that is the sum of the individual links. reliability. Carrier Grade Ethernet Carrier Ethernet. VLAN Q and Q-in-Q tagging. MEF 14 specifies the QoS (Quality of Service) parameters. • Link Aggregation. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Eclipse Carrier Ethernet over Wireless has this capability. Advanced QoS and Performance Options MEF specifies that support must be provided for Service Level Agreements (SLAs) to deliver end-to-end performance matching over converged networks. It is especially relevant to wireless 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.1p prioritization bits. QoS and service management. networks must be able to detect and recover from incidents without impacting users. now and into the future. reconvergence (service restoration) times are as low as 50 ms. . • RWPRTM (Resilient Wireless Packet Ring). as defined by the MEF. Prioritizes traffic on one port over another. or the DSCP bits in the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) field of an IP header. • Eclipse GigE radios are certified compliant with the MEF 9 and MEF 14 Carrier Ethernet standards. aggregation and protection. it must have intelligence beyond the simple rule-based packet forwarding capabilities supported by basic L2 switches. and best-quality Operation. Additionally. As determined by the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF). Ethernet traffic is prioritized on a frame-by-frame basis using the CoS (Class of Service) bits in the VLAN field of an Ethernet header. scalability. • This certification provides an assurance that Eclipse GigE links will interoperate with other carrier Ethernet devices. Eclipse is compliant.1D-2004) with a unique rapid failure detection (RFD) capability to provide carrierclass network reconvergence times on Eclipse GigE ring and mesh networks. Tagging can be retained into an external network for downstream traffic management. is the technology for next generation backhaul networks. These include port and VLAN prioritization. all rights reserved. • Flow Control.White Paper Intelligent.doc Page 11 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. there must be the ability to meet carriergrade requirements for standardized services. fastswitched RSTP (RWPR) operation. outstanding reliability and scalability.

Advanced OAM for End-to-End Management OAM standards (ITU Y-1731. .1ag. errors and discards. Figure 10. MEF) call for network-wide fault detection/recovery. and Ethernet datadashboards for throughput. and to effect changes when needed. This means every device in the network must be visible to a network operator to provide the tools needed to determine device and network status and performance. diagnostics. Two physical links are used for 720 Mbit/s. . and performance monitoring at service (VLAN) and link levels. Ethernet history. ProVision additionally supports end-to-end network mapping. four for 1. making it ideal for router-router applications. Example ProVision EMS Screens for Network Health and Bandwidth Utilization 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Ethernet diagnostics include RMON performance data. Link aggregation also provides sub 50 ms redundancy. If one link fails. management of the radio and Ethernet functions is fully integrated to deliver maximum visibility to operators. or links. all rights reserved.3ad) uses source and/or destination MAC address data in the Ethernet frame MAC/LLC header. With Eclipse.doc Page 12 of 17 Some features are subject to availability.4 Gbit/s. Unlike L2 link aggregation it provides optimum payload sharing regardless of the throughput demands of individual user connections. If the remaining link(s) do not have the capacity needed to avoid a traffic bottleneck. For example.Layer 2 link aggregation (802. QoS priority settings are used to ensure all higher priority traffic continues to get through. Relevant Ethernet and radio error events are supported by probable-cause and remedial advice.White Paper links when traffic capacities higher than the 300 to 360 Mbit/s maximums for a single link are required. IEEE 802. performance monitoring. and maintenance. where Ethernet performance is being affected by radio performance. each is supported on its own management system. Uniquely. .Layer 1 aggregation acts on the byte data stream. Harris Stratex ProVision EMS provides networkwide E-Line and E-LAN OAM services. Eclipse offers Layer 2 and Layer 1 link aggregation options. its traffic is redirected onto the remaining link. circuit provisioning. the problem is easily diagnosed using common user-friendly interfaces. • Eclipse and its ProVision EMS provide these capabilities end-to-end for the radio and L2 switch functions: • Where external switches are used in a wireless Ethernet network there is usually no management synergy between the switch and the radios.

14 or 28 MHz. 128 QAM. For a given RF channel bandwidth of 7. Most importantly. all rights reserved.999% availability under all path conditions. Less critical traffic is assigned to the higher modulations. only low priority ‘best effort’ data is discarded.selected by an adaptive modulation engine that can handle up to 100 dB/s fading fluctuations. For the rest of the year the margin is not used.doc Page 13 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. so changing to a wider channel bandwidth to achieve a higher link capacity is not an option. and hence link availability. 256 QAM throughput is typically available for 99. or 256 QAM . a three7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.5 percent of the time. or a combination of Ethernet and TDM payloads.White Paper Adaptive Modulation In many instances spectrum availability is limited. but is only needed to protect the link against worst-case fades that may occur for just a few minutes in a year. but it will be at the expense of a lowered system gain. It uses one of five automatically and dynamically switched modulations . QPSK. • Adaptive modulation refers to the dynamic adjustment of modulation rate to ensure maximum data bandwidth is provided most of the time. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. and hence capacity. with a guaranteed bandwidth provided all of the time. the available fade margin can be transformed into delivering more data throughput. Wireless links are traditionally engineered to carry traffic with a 99. is increased when path conditions permit. the modulation rate. Instead of using a fixed modulation rate to provide a guaranteed capacity and service availability under all path conditions. it can be configured to ensure all high priority traffic continues to get through when path conditions deteriorate. Adaptive Modulation Illustration With Eclipse. Changing to a more efficient modulation scheme will provide more link capacity.999% availability. it dynamically changes the modulation so that the highest availability of capacity is provided at any given time. a twofold improvement in data throughput is provided for a change from QPSK to 16 QAM. When used in conjunction with QoS traffic prioritization.5% of the time. 64 QAM. It interacts with other plug-ins to provide an end-to-end solution for Ethernet only. the highest modulation is typically available for better than 99. . On a typical link this means higher capacity will be available for better than 99. is used to support critical traffic with a 99. adaptive modulation simply requires installation of a plug-in card. A link using robust QPSK modulation can have as much as 30 dB of fade margin. as the most robust modulation. By using less robust but more efficient modulation schemes. This is the purpose of adaptive modulation.5% of the time. • • • Figure 11 illustrates the modulation/capacity steps and the percent availability over time. 16 QAM. Figure 11. Highest capacity. This is where adaptive modulation provides a solution. TDM only.QPSK.

For example. continues to get through when path conditions are poor. CCDP provides an answer. It doubles wireless capacity over the same channel. Note that in many instances the link parameters that supported the original system gain can be retained. the other the horizontal. Modulation switching is hitless. One link uses the vertical polarization. Note that while adaptive modulation can also be used on PDH links and combined PDH and Ethernet links. All high priority traffic. Modulation switching is hitless for traffic that is not discarded. Similarly.5% of the time. The CCDP option provides two parallel communication links on the same RF channel. Figure 12. will not provide the capacity needed.White Paper fold improvement to 64 QAM. expands to 45 Mbit/s using 256 QAM adaptive modulation. . and a four-fold improvement to 256 QAM. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. such as email and file transfers. A single twin-feed dual polarized antenna is installed at each end of the link. • Co-Channel Dual Polarized Links (CCDP) Investments in existing channel plans can be maximized using Eclipse CCDP and adaptive modulation. 720 Mbit/s Link Aggregated Mixed Mode CCDP Terminal 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. such as voice and video. Outside these conditions ‘best effort’ lower priority traffic. this can be increased by a factor of 4:1 to provide an overall improvement of 8:1. and Cross Polarized Interference Cancellation (XPIC) is used in the radios to ensure any interference between the channels is eliminated. E1 connections are dropped in user-specified order when link capacity is reduced. a 7 MHz RF channel supports just 10 Mbit/s using QPSK.doc Page 14 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. In situations where increasing the channel bandwidth and/or increasing the modulation rate. all rights reserved. existing traffic is unaffected during a change to a higher modulation. During a change to a lower modulation. and the service provisioning provided by any MPLS or PBB-TE network overlay. 45 Mbit/s throughput is provided for 99. then doubles to 90 Mbit/s using CCDP. and restored when capacity is restored. This typically means that on the original 10 Mbit/s link. the antenna sizes and Tx power used for an original QPSK link on a 7 MHz channel (10 Mbit/s / 5xE1) are unchanged when operated on 256 QAM using adaptive modulation. This has special significance on capacity extensions needed to support HSPA 3G and 4G base stations where figures in excess of 50 Mbit/s are forecasted for mid-city sites. When coupled with adaptive modulation. unlike Ethernet there is no QoS synergy on PDH connections. The adaptive modulation engine ensures that the highest throughput is always provided based on link quality. For example. • Ethernet connections enjoy real synergy through the QoS awareness on the GigE plug-in. enjoy data bandwidths that can be up to four times the guaranteed bandwidth. remaining higher priority traffic is not affected. An adaptive coding capability will provide options to trade off throughput against system gain.

three or four links can be installed.White Paper Figure 13. all rights reserved. • • • • • • Eclipse CCDP configurations cover channel bandwidths from 7 to 56 MHz. or a mix of TDM and Ethernet (Liquid Bandwidth). TDM. If both links are configured for Ethernet. The capacity on each link can be used for Ethernet. fixed or adaptive. The HSX pseudowire solutions comply with industry-standard IETF and MEF 8 PWE3 options for: • • • • • TDM over IP/MPLS (CESoPSN – structured E1) TDM over IP/MPLS (SAToP – unstructured E1) TDM over Ethernet (CESoETH – MEF 8) ATM pseudo wires (legacy R99 traffic) HDLC and PPP pseudo wires (CDMA market) An industry-standard solution is essential to ensure network-wide connectivity and interoperability. the two traffic streams can be L1or L2 linkaggregated onto a single user interface. or operated in a SuperPDH ring. Capacity maximums (both links) extend to 720 Mbit/s.doc Page 15 of 17 Some features are subject to availability.4 Gbit/s. and the fitting of plug-in XPIC radio access cards. replacement of the existing antenna with a dual-pol antenna. CCDP links can be 1+1 protected (hot-standby or diversity). Where even higher capacity links are needed. but must retain support for legacy PDH interfaces at 2G and 3G base stations. or 4xSTM1. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. two CCDP link pairs (four links in total) can support up to 1. Pseudowires Psuedowires are used to transport a native service over a packet switched network. 200xE1. For example. For mobile backhaul networks. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Modulation options extend from QPSK to 256 QAM. pseudowires will be needed where a PDH network is replaced by an Ethernet or IP/MPLS based network. 720 Mbit/s Link Aggregated RSTP CCDP Ring Node Adding CCDP operation to an existing Eclipse link simply requires installation of the parallel link. .

For pseudowire-connected legacy base stations an external IEEE 1588v2 slave/translator is used to generate the clocking source.8262) is fully promulgated. While it is apparent that operators will choose implementations based on their particular legacy infrastructure and future plans. The resultant dynamic bandwidth allocation between the different aggregated services means maximum use is made of available capacity on the trunk. • While optimization and aggregation can apply on existing TDM network connections. Optimization and IP/Ethernet conversion is available for Abis and lub (3G R99). and as these networks evolve it is being pushed further towards the network edges. • • IP/MPLS and PBB-TE The traffic engineering capabilities of IP/MPLS are well established. so is well positioned to support the evolution of mobile networks from mixed mode to all IP transport. A synchronous GigE option will be provided when the standard (G. . when there are no voice calls. As the number of voice calls increases. is optimized for Metro Ethernet networks. Bandwidth Optimization and Traffic Aggregation Optimization and aggregation and can provide dramatic capacity efficiencies on backhaul connections where. for converged services the options most preferred are IEEE 1588v2 Precision Time Protocol (PTP). and consequently offers less complex and lower cost traffic engineering solutions compared to MPLS. Harris Stratex solutions will support both options. they enable particularly cost effective gains on Ethernet or IP/MPLS networks where a common transmission pipe is shared for aggregated services. It is the prominent core network protocol for converged networks. which when aggregated with HSPA data can provide 4:1 bandwidth efficiency gains. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks.5 Node Bs that incorporate an IEEE 1588v2 slave. Others have indicated that they will likely incorporate both. Within a PDH backhaul network. the full trunk bandwidth is available for data traffic. an alternative clocking source is required.doc Page 16 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. • Traffic aggregation is supported on the Eclipse Ethernet interfaces. and synchronous Ethernet. with synchronous in the core. for example. unlike MPLS. all rights reserved. Standards-compliant MPLS and PBB-TE solutions are available from Harris Stratex to ensure interoperability with those from leading core network vendors. with service priority issues handled by the QoS engine. and IEEE 1588 in the Metro and access portions of the network. PBB-TE.Eclipse can be direct-connected to Ethernet-ready Rev. synchronization options must be standardscompliant. If replaced by an all-Ethernet backhaul network. Some operators have indicated intent to use IEEE 1588v2 or synchronous Ethernet. including the adoption of pseudo wires. • Eclipse currently supports transparent transmission of IEEE 1588v2 frames .White Paper Network Synchronization To ensure end-toend compatibility on converged networks. the bandwidth for data is dynamically backed off. 2G and 3G circuit-switched connections are converted to packet-based data and aggregated (multiplexed) using the aggregation capabilities of a layer 2 Ethernet switch. E1s are used as the BTS clocking source to provide base station synchronization. It provides predicable and robust routing and QoS differentiators for multiple service levels and customer groups. 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2.

doc Page 17 of 17 Some features are subject to availability. Service level agreement. Time division multiplexing. Transmission rates range from 51. The physical port between the customer and service provider. Provides the core function of MPLS label switching and functions as an MPLS Provider (P) node in an MPLS network. Customer edge. layer 1 level/interface. Rapid spanning tree protocol. Element management system. or 10 Gbit/s Ethernet interface. VLAN VPLS VPN WiFi WiMAX XPIC 7/25/2008 EclipseInTheMobileNetwork_ETSIv2. Virtual private network. Interface to the customer network in an MPLS network. or 1000 Mbit/s. Universal network interface. Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution. Function is enabled on an LSR. all rights reserved. Evolving standard for 4G mobile networks. and Ethernet Internet Access. Copyright © 2008 Harris Stratex Networks. Virtual private LAN service.wi-fi. Virtual LAN.White Paper Glossary CCDP CE EDGE eLSR E-Line E-LAN EMS EVC HSPA HSDPA HSUPA LSR LTE MEF NGN PDH Phy QoS P node PE node RSTP RWPR SDH SFP SLA TDM UNI TM Co-channel dual polarized. High speed downlink packet access. virtual private lines. with each signal assigned a fixed time slot in a fixed rotation.84 Mbit/s (STM0) and 155. and in a carrier Ethernet Network is a physical 10. Label switch router.16 Metropolitan Area Network standards. Resilient Wireless Packet Ring. Multiple low-speed signals are multiplexed to/from a high-speed channel. Denotes an Ethernet multipoint service. Asynchronous multiplexing scheme in which multiple digital synchronous circuits run at slightly different clock rates. Denotes an Ethernet point-to-point service. Applicable to private lines. Provides the edge function of MPLS label switching and functions as an MPLS Provider Edge (PE) node in an MPLS network. Edge label switch router. Synchronous digital hierarchy. WiFi is a trademark of The Wi-Fi Alliance (www. . Wireless Fidelity. Metro Ethernet Forum. 100. Provider edge node in an MPLS network. Long term evolution.52 Mbit/s (STM1) through to 10+ Gbit/s. Plesiosynchronous digital hierarchy.1Q tagging mechanism. Provider node in an MPLS network. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. High speed packet access. Interoperability brand behind the IEEE 802. Quality of service. High speed uplink packet access. Ethernet virtual connection.org). Cross-polarized interference cancellation. An enhanced modulation technique designed to provide data rates up to 384 Kbps. It is always provided by the service provider. and transparent LAN services. Small-form-factor pluggable. Function is enabled on an eLSR. Applicable to multipoint L2 VPNs. Denotes a multipoint or point-to-point Ethernet connection over a host network. IEEE 802. Physical. Next generation network. such as SDH.