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Discovery 3 - Chapter 3 Reading Organizer

After completion of this chapter, the student
should be able to:
• Compare the types of switches used in an enterprise
• Explain how Spanning Tree Protocol prevents switching
• Describe and configure VLANs on a Cisco switch
• Describe and configure trunking and Inter-VLAN routing.
• Maintain VLANs in an enterprise network.

1. Explain in detail what a content A CAM is a MAC address table maintained by a
addressable memory (CAM) is and switch and is recreated every time a switch is
1 activated.
how it is used by a switch.
There is no set standard for how long a switch
2. How often does a switch delete
holds entries the user specifies it with an
entries from the MAC address table?
aging timer.
3. As a unicast frame enters a port,
the switch finds the source MAC
address in the frame. It then searches
If the MAC address is not there it adds the
the MAC table, looking for an entry
address and port number to the aging timer
that matches the address. What
happens if the source MAC address is
not in the table?
Microsegmentation is a division of a network
4. Explain the term into smaller segments usually with the
microsegmentation. intention of increasing aggregate bandwidth
to network devices.
Asymmetric is when a function on a network
5. Switches can support either
takes a greater length of time than the
symmetric or asymmetric switching.
reverse function.
Explain each term as it relates to
Symmetric is when a function on a network
Symmetric -
takes an equal length of time then the reverse
Asymmetric -
6. List the differences between how Layer 2
routers and switches use different Hardware Based Switching
techniques for processing and Wire Speed Performance
forwarding traffic. High Speed Scalability
Layer 2 Switching - Low Latency
a. Uses MAC addresses
b. Low Cost
d. Layer 3
e. Software based packet forwarding
f. Higher Latency
Layer 3 Routing - Higher per interface cost
a. Uses IP addresses
b. Security
c. QoS


What basic security features should be applied to switches to ensure that only authorized people Physically secure devices access them? Use Secure Passwords a.forwards all packets without different cut-through methods of reading the CRC value switching. Disable unused ports e. Complete Lab Activity 3. more than one path between two switches. What is the advantage of store and It makes sure that frames aren’t damaged forward switching? 9. What advantages are gained by this redundancy between switches? Reduces congestion a. Monitor access and traffic c. Enable SSH Access b. Very high latency. Enable port security f. switching 12. What is the disadvantage of advantage of store and forward It introduces high latency switching? 10. h. Fragment Free. Disable telnet g. Balances load c. Explain the store and forward The frame is read and stored in memory method of switching in detail. 16. Which switching method do most today’s technology is as good as cut through Cisco Switches rely on? Explain why. Redundancy refers to having two 3.Chapter 3 Reading Organizer d. A switching loop happens when there is redundantly switched network. 17. e. It is possible for switches in a redundant network to learn the wrong information about the location of a 2 . f. Discovery 3 . Explain why physically securing networking devices is important and Physically securing them limits access to what steps can be taken to accomplish authorized network staff this goal. before being sent to the destination device 8. Fragment-free - Store and forward because the speed of 11. Disable HTTP Access d. How is redundancy into two ports on each accomplished with multiple switches? 15. different pathways to a particular You can connect switches together with two wires 2 destination. 7. Explain in detail the two Fast Forward. Supports availability b. Explain what switching loops are Causes duplicate frames to be sent throughout a and how they can create problems in a network.forwards a frame after the first Fast-forward – 64 bytes are received. 13. affect a network. Explain in detail how Multiple MFT’s destination hosts can receive multiple copies Frame Transmissions and MAC of frames and can waste: bandwidth CPU time and Database Instability can negatively potential duplication of transaction traffic.4 Remember to answer lab questions!!! 14.1.

appropriate standby path. If a loop exists. Value of the hello timer e. if the forwarding path becomes unavailable 21. Explain spanning tree protocol switched networks providing redundancy without (STP)? creating loops 19. Explain what is required to set up Cisco switches start looking for loops from the Spanning Tree protocol on a Cisco beginning when they start up switch? 20. one switch may associate the Transmissions . What are BPDUs? 22. As the port cycles through these states. What information is contained in a BPDU? Identity of the source switch a. 50 seconds How long does it take for this cycle to complete? 3 . MAC Database Instability - Complete Packet Tracer Activity Remember to answer lab questions!!! 3. Leaves other interfaces in a forwarding state b. 23. state a. destination MAC address with two separate ports.2.Chapter 3 Reading Organizer Multiple Frame host. Value of aging timers d. the LEDs on the switch change from flashing orange to steady green. Cumulative cost of path to root bridge c. Discovery 3 . Reconfigures the network by activating the c. The Root Bridge is the primary switch or focal point in the STP topology. The root bridge Network topology information sent to all other communicates with the other switches switches from another using Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). List what STP does to prevent Forces certain interfaces into a standby or blocked switching loops.1 STP is a protocol that disables redundant links in 18. Identity of the source port b.

Blinking Amber b. Blinking green Forwarding – Processes BPDU’s a. Complete the activity but DO NOT screen or hand in your results. Does not forward frames c. Blinking Amber Learning – Processes BPDU’s a. A fifth state. forwards traffic toward the root bridge but does not connect the least cost path 4 . For STP to function. Listens for BPDU’s c. each port cycles through a series of four states: blocking. d. and forwarding. Forwards frames c. The root The bridge is chosen based on BID values plus the bridge sends out BPDUs containing MAC addresses network topology information to all other switches. print 26. the switches in the network determine a switch that is the focal point in that network. Discovery 3 . Blocking – Listening a. designated ports. 27. Determines if switch has more than one turning Listening – port that might create a loop a. Steady Amber disabled. called forward delay 1. STP designates three types of Root Port. STP uses this focal point. -if no loop transitions to learning state c. Learns MAC addresses b. indicates that the Receives BPDU’s administrator has shut down the switch Discard Data Frames port. -if loop returns to the blocking state b. As a switch powers on.a designated port is a port that Root Port . Explain each: Designated Port.Chapter 3 Reading Organizer 24. Takes 15 seconds t transition to learning also d. listening. Learns MAC addresses from received traffic b. This information allows the network to reconfigure itself in the event of a failure.port that provides the lowest cost back ports: root ports. Blocking learning. and to the root bridge blocked ports. to determine which ports to block and which ports to put into forwarding state. 25. Learning e. List what takes place during each Does not learn addresses Takes up to 20 seconds to change to listening state of the first four states. called a root bridge or root switch. Explain how the root bridge is chosen. Doesn’t learn MAC Addresses e. Doesn’t forward frames d. 2. Takes 15 seconds to transition to forwarding d. e.

Displays STP f. They are: is wasted. As the number of devices connected to a switch increases. What is required to set up a static Assignment of ports from an administrator VLAN? 36. Discovery 3 .2.3 Remember to answer lab questions!!! 29. certain branch of a network 37. Complete Lab Activity 3.4 Remember to answer lab questions!!! 31. Explain in detail what a Dynamic it requires you to be in a VMPS server to connect VLAN membership is and how it you to the certain VLAN and it acts like you are in a operates. Every device that is attached to a switch can a. How often does STP send out Every 2 seconds BPDUs by default? show spanning-tree . broadcast traffic is generated and more bandwidth arrangement poses two significant 3 problems. What is required for traffic to move A layer 3 device from one VLAN to another? 35. Explain in detail why a network technician should plan and evaluate A network technician needs to plan the order so he the network in order to select the best can allow for optimal use even when he makes the switch to become the root of the network larger spanning tree. show spanning-tree summary show spanning-tree root . Hosts and servers that are Switches flood broadcasts out all ports.Displays blocked ports Complete Lab Activity 3. by project teams.Chapter 3 Reading Organizer Designated Port - Blocked Port. Complete Activity. device on that switch. and port states 30. 34. show spanning-tree interface – show spanning-tree interface .Displays the status and configuration of the root bridge – c.Displays detailed port d.2. summary of port states a. without regard to physical location of the users. or by networks (VLANs) created to do? applications. bridge ID. forward and receive frames from every other b. show spanning-tree detail – information e.Displays a tree operation. more of the same network segment. VLAN’s have two major functions. What is the purpose of the default It is used to access and configure the switch 5 . It allows an administrator to group together 32.Displays root ID. show spanning-tree root – show spanning-tree detail .forwards no traffic Blocked Port - 28. Contains broadcasts these are: a. List and briefly explain useful commands used to verify spanning show spanning-tree summary . What are virtual local area stations by logical function. 33. show spanning-tree interface status and configuration blockedports – show spanning-tree blockedports . 38. Groups devices b. which connected to Layer 2 switches are part consumes unnecessary bandwidth. This 3. show spanning-tree – b.

the router.2 Remember to answer lab questions!!! 44. Explain the following terms: create loops in a switched network Access Port . Switch - a. Complete Lab Activity 3. 43.a port on a switch or router that Trunk Port .4. Access Port. Trunk Port. show vlan id id_number Displays information pertaining to a specific VLAN. along with the ports associated with each one Displays STP statistics if configured on a per VLAN basis 39. Explain how does Frame tagging work? Identifies the VLAN a frame belongs to Complete Lab Activity 3. Configure subinterfaces that support 802. Logically group devices 4 b. Discovery 3 .1Q VLAN communication using encapsulation. based on ID number show vlan name vlan_name Displays information pertaining to a specific VLAN.1Q trunk requires a feature called subinterfaces.Chapter 3 Reading Organizer VLAN1? remotely and to exchange information with other network devices show vlan Displays a detailed list of all of the VLAN numbers and names currently active on the switch. Router - 6 . Explain in detail what a native Trunk links carry untagged traffic over the native VLAN is and how it operates. subinterfaces on both the switch and Configure one subinterface for each VLAN. connects a switch to another switch router or server 42. One method for providing Switch connectivity between different VLANs Configure the switch interface as an 802. based on name Complete Lab Activity 3. VLAN.2 Remember to answer lab questions!!! 40. Explain the purpose of the following commands. link. These are: Reduce Load 3. 100Mbps FastEthernet List what is required o support inter. VLANs and the ports associated with each one show vlan id id_number - show vlan name vlan_name . a. Displays a summarized list showing only the active show vlan brief . Subinterfaces logically divide one physical interface into multiple logical Router pathways.1 Remember to answer lab questions!!! Special VLAN that accommodates untagged traffic. A VLAN has three major functions. Minimize broadcast domains c.3.4. show vlan brief show vlan .pathway to a device that does not 41. Configure one pathway or Select a router interface with a minimum of a subinterface for each VLAN.

advertisement requests. VTP messages come in three Summary advertisements contain the current VTP varieties: summary advertisements. VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a provides a method for the distribution and 3. Sends VTP messages out all trunk ports c. config patterns for entire domain Server – Saves VLAN config in NVRAM a. Forwards VTP advertisements Transparent – Ignores information contained in the VTP message a. all switches are servers.2 7 . of its own VLAN database Client Client – Does not create modify or delete VLAN info a. With VTP. c. Discovery 3 . 50. b. d. Doesn’t send out an update that includes a change d.3 Remember to answer lab questions!!! 45. Revision b. and transparent. VLANS c. domain name and the configuration revision subset advertisements. Complete Lab Activity 3. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Reboot the switch. 49. Why is it a good practice to have at It is good to do so to provide backup and least two switches configured as redundancy servers on a network? 48. Messages Name include: Mode a. Transparent c.2. VTP has three modes: server. and number. Step 3: Complete Packet Tracer Activity Remember to answer lab questions!!! 3. Modifies its own database b.5.4. Advertisement requests are required if the switch Subset Advertisements – has been reset or the VTP domain name has been Advertisement Requests . client. changed. 47. updates c. By default. Does not modify its database when receiving b. each switch advertises messages on its trunk ports. information. Explain each A subset advertisement contains a list of VLAN in detail. Layer 2 messaging protocol. Sends VTP messages out all trunk ports b. What management of the VLAN database from a 5 does this provide? centralized server in a network segment. 46.Chapter 3 Reading Organizer a. List the Server Creates modifies and deletes VLAN and VLAN characteristics of each. Summary Advertisements . What are the steps involved in when adding a new switch to an Step 1: Configure VTP off-line (version 1) existing VTP domain? Step 2: Verify the VTP configuration.

Configuring VTP Domains d. Using VLAN Trunking Protocol c.3 Complete Packet Tracer Activity Remember to answer lab questions!!! 3. network f.Chapter 3 Reading Organizer Complete Packet Remember to answer lab questions!!! Tracer Activity 3. other than 1 b.5.2. Discovery 3 . Reboot any new switch entering an established e.5.3 51.4 8 . What are the recommended best practices for configuring VLANs in an Organizing server placement enterprise network? Disabling unused ports Configuring the management VLAN as a number a. Complete Packet Tracer Activity Remember to answer lab questions!!! 3.5.