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Knowledge Competency Examination Outline

4. History and Systems of Psychology
General Overview of the Competency Exams
Regardless of your specialty area, the faculty at Alliant believe that everyone earning a doctorate in psychology should know something about the core areas of the basic discipline of psychology. Each doctoral program in psychology at CSPP-SD and MGSM is required to demonstrate in some way that its students have mastered core knowledge in these basic areas. In addition, APA accreditation of clinical psychology programs requires that programs demonstrate that they have imparted this knowledge in some way. The COMPS provide one way to document that students have mastered key elements of this knowledge. Different programs ask students to demonstrate core knowledge in different ways. Some programs require that students take and pass a course, some that they take and pass a COMP, some that they do both. In addition, taking and passing a mastery exam (like a COMP) with specific content to be mastered requires that students learn material they may not have mastered in courses and to review material in new ways. Faculty members believe this process helps students to consolidate and expand their knowledge. Finally, the COMPS resemble the kind of national examination students must pass to be licensed as psychologists in most states. Faculty members believe that passing the COMPS is a relevant professional experience that helps students prepare for the licensing examination. Students who have traditionally done poorly on this type of objective test, for example, have the opportunity to practice taking mastery contentbased examinations and to improve their test-taking, study, and content-mastery skills. Are these exams reliable and valid? The Knowledge Competency Exams are appropriately categorized as mastery (criterion-referenced) tests, not norm-referenced tests. The psychometric requirements of mastery tests differ from the requirements of norm-based tests designed to illuminate individual differences. Content validity of mastery tests, not their internal consistency or predictive ability, is the relevant standard for the development and validation of such tests. We build content validity into the tests in several ways. First, we develop outlines that clearly specify the general content areas required by students to be mastered. Second, we make sure each item in our item pools fits with an area on the content outline. Third, each exam is created by selecting items from an extensive item pool created for the content area. Questions on each exam sample broadly from the range of content covered by the outline. A faculty member knowledgeable in the content area assessed by the exam creates each exam. Fourth, we try to ensure that more than one professor who has substantive knowledge in a content area reviews the questions to rephrase terminology that may be "professor specific." Finally, we periodically conduct formal reviews and updates of item content for each of the examinations. Although customary indicators of reliability, item difficulty statistics, and item discrimination statistics are not as relevant to mastery tests as they are to norm-based tests, we do use these indicators after each exam is given determine whether any items should be eliminated from individual exams. All students are given credit for any poorly-performing items that have been deleted from a specific test. In addition, the examination committee has in the past conducted several analyses relevant to the validity


sampling broadly from the content on the outline. Mind and body: Descartes 2 . On any given exam. and indicates which items you missed. The pre-enlightenment thinkers A. C or lower) received in the program. The general distribution of questions for each administration of this exam will be approximately as follows: I. After the exam. Trait and Type: 10-20% This distribution is based partly on the judgment of the faculty about the relative importance and relevance of the material in the various categories.e. The sampling is not random. mastery of the material is assessed by a sampling of questions. Nativism: Socrates and Plato 2. and others that have more. Remember: Each time an exam is given. You must achieve a score of 74% to pass each exam. Renaissance thinking 1. the Roman numeral) categories on the outline. Psychoanalytic: II.. you will receive a feedback sheet that identifies the portion of the outline to which each question was keyed. The purpose of the exams is to ensure that students have learned the broad range of material covered in the outline.of COMPS. Atomism: Democritus 4. Behavioral/Social Learning: 30-35% IV. Furthermore. MP. Information specific to this exam: For the outline of material in History and Systems of Psychology. Observation and induction: Aristotle 3. Content Outline for History and Systems of Psychology I. there were no gender or ethnic differences in rates of passing exams. You will not receive and will not be able to review your actual exam or the specific questions on it. 50 questions are drawn from the large pool of items for that test. Anatomy: Galen B. and partly upon the number of available questions in the pool. Existential: 30-35% 20-25% III. These analyses indicated that COMPS scores correlated positively with student’s reports of number of hours spent studying and correlated negatively with number of less-than-full-credit grades (NC. there are 12 large categories of material covered (the Roman numeral categories). but seeks to represent the broad (i. there may be some more specific areas that do not have many questions. rather than by covering every single area on each exam. The Greeks 1.

Heredity and measurement. Psychological experimentation. Enlightenment philosophers A. The beginnings of experimental psychology A.2. Memory.S. Berkeley B. Spinal Cord roots: Bell and Magendie D. Galton 2. the beginnings of psychophysics: Fechner. Broca IV. Locke 2. and Harvey II. statistics. Imageless thought and the beginnings of Gestalt psychology: Kulpe D. Physiological beginnings A. introspectionism. Hartley C. Laws of sensation. Hume 2. forgetting. Empiricism: 1. Functionalism: 3 . The beginnings of science: Galileo. British and American beginnings: The influence of Darwin A. Electrical nerve conduction: Galvani and Helmholtz E. Flourens. Specific nerve energies: Muller C. Newton. nonsense syllables: Ebbinghaus V. Nativism: Kant III. Brain localization: Gall. Spinal reflexes: Whytt B. the first laboratory: Wundt and Titchener B. Associationism: 1. Weber C. correlation 1. Mill 3. Cattell B. J.

James 2. Tolman 5. Thorndike 2. Ego psychologists/Developmental: Anna Freud. Hartmann E. Hull (and Spence. Sechenov 2. Winnicott. Conditioning theory 1. Skinner 3. Social: Adler C.1. Mahler. Learning theory 1. Psychoanalysis A. and Mowrer) 4. Kohut 4 . Dewey 4. Classic: Freud and Jung B. Object Relations. Early Behaviorism A. Gestalt Psychology – in Germany and America A. Angell 5. Hall 3. Miller. Thorndike VI. Bandura VIII. Bowlby. Guthrie 6. Wertheimer VII. Erickson. Kernberg. Kohler B. Watson B. Neo-Freudians :Fromm. Pavlov 3. Sullivan D. Koffka C. Fairbairn. Horney.

Humanistic and Existential therapies. Behavioral therapies. Psychological testing movement: Binet. Cognitive psychology (Bartlett. Rorschach. Integrative therapies F. Boulder and Vail training models C. Bruner. Twentieth century developments A. Psychotherapies: Psychoanalytic therapies. Dix. Lashley. Allport. Miller. Margaret Washburn. Kenneth Clark C. Family Systems (Whitaker. Kraepelin B. training D. von Frisch) XII. APA Division. Charcot. Clinical psychology in America: Witmer and psychological clinics. Burlingham & Freud. Minuchin. Beverly Prosser B. Sperry) E. Watson & Raynor. Piaget) C. Phenomenology. Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral therapies. Stern. Charles Thompson. Festinger) B. Vygotsky. Chomsky. Hebb. Minority groups in the history of psychology A. Gestalt: Perls D. Simon. Haley) D. Testing in WWI and WWII. History of Hispanic-American Psychology D. Child Guidance Movement. Satir. African-Americans: Francis Sumner. Bowen. History of Asian-American Psychology 5 .IX. Melanie Klein XI. Janet. Murray. Family systems therapies. Medical Antecedents: Tuke. Lewin. History of Clinical Psychology A. Yerkes. Lorenz. Psychological clinics. Pinel. Kanner. Existentialism: May C. Georgi X. Social psychology (Mead. Humanism: Rogers. Child psychology: Piaget. Humanism A. Women: Mary Calkins. Maslow B. Development of Professional Psychology: APA. licensing. Neuroscience ( Hubel & Wiesel. Holt E. Penfield. Ethology (Tinbergen. Goddard. Terman.

).M. General textbooks: Hothersall.Recommended Reading List Original materials Classics in the History of Psychology. & Evans. History and systems of psychology (6th ed. (1991). N. (1992). Englewood. A history of psychology in letters. New York: McGraw-Hill. Ludy T. ed. Harper Collins Brennan. J. Gardner. New York: McGraw-Hill. (2002).J. New York: Basic Books Benjamin. Watson. H. (2000). York University. and links to 100+ others. A history of clinical psychology (2nd ed. cognitive science after 1984. edited by Christopher D. S.). The mind's new science: a history of the cognitive revolution: with a new epilogue. The great psychologists: A history of psychological thought. (1987 ). On-line collection of dozens of historically influential psychological texts.). Robert I.). Rand B. (1991). Green. Jr. J. David (1995). New York: Hemisphere. Finger. (5th.: Prentice-Hall..yorku. History of psychology (3rd ed. Minds behind the brain: a history of the pioneers and their discoveries. New York: Oxford University Press. The web link is http://psychclassics.F. 6 .