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Testing System and Communicative Competence in English Language: a Study

at Secondary Level in Bangladesh

By
Mohammad Al Amin

A dissertation submitted to
Department of English
Bangladesh University of Business & Technology (BUBT)
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of
Bachelor of Arts in English

January, 2010

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Testing System and communicative Competence in English Language: a Study

at Secondary Level in Bangladesh

A dissertation submitted
By
Mohammad Al Amin
Student Id. 06071102001
Department of English
Bangladesh University of Business & Technology (BUBT)

Supervised By

Ms. Bipasha Binte Haque
Assistant Professor
Department of English
Bangladesh University of Business & Technology (BUBT)

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I am deeply indebted to my supervisor. I would also like to extend my special thanks to my friends and family members whose love and best wishes were a source of inspiration. listened to my anxieties and cordially suggested me the ways to overcome difficulties. . who read my draft copies. Finally. Acknowledgements First of all. I am extremely thankful to all the participants who provided me rich and Detail data for the study and lent breadth and value to the research findings. Almighty Allah. for giving me enough intellectual ability to carry out such a study and keeping me safe and sound throughout the period of the study. encouragement and motivation for me as I was successfully completing this study. Ms. 3 . Bipasha Binte Haque. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my creator.

The study concludes that the SSC English tests as a whole are deficient in both validity and reliability. the test takers and other stakeholders of SSC. The findings have raised important issues which concern the test designers and markers. The study involves a critical analysis of the current SSC English test. The findings of this study reveal that the SSC examination is not an effective test of communicative English and the existing question pattern demotivates the majority of the students leading to proficiency oriented learning. Some specific areas of improvements have been identified and recommendations have been made for improving assessment of communicative English at the SSC level. 4 . Abstract This study aims at investigating the inconsistency between present English language curriculum and prevailing English language testing system in the Secondary level in the expectation of revealing an uninvestigated relationship between testing system and students’ low communicative competence in English language learning.

....20 References………………………………………………………....……….………..TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction…………………………… …….14 Chapter Six: Recommendations and conclusion ………………...……………………......…......5 Chapter Four: Methodology …………………………………..21 Appendices………………………………………………………23 5 .1 Chapter Two: Background of the Study ....…12 Chapter five: Findings and discussions…………………………...3 Chapter Three: Literature Review......

For this purpose government also changed the teaching method in 1997 and decided to follow CLT approach (ibid). 2004). 2008). “Many of our students. the communicative competence level of the students in English language in Bangladesh is very low. “It is indeed bitter to notice that even though serious efforts have been made by the government and educationists for improving the state of affairs of English language teaching for the past few decades in Bangladesh. As a result. especially among the Secondary students” ( Hoque. The government is also very much concerned about the necessity of English and it made English language learning compulsory from the primary level to the higher secondary level in 1991( Hamid and Baldauf.2008). reading. Chapter-1 Introduction The present age is marked by a new phenomenon called globalization which aims at treating the whole world as a unit and English has already got the status of being lingua franca. English language teaching in Bangladesh has passed a long way. there is a growing demand of learning and using English as a foreign language in Bangladesh. who obtained 6 . a bad situation is still found to exist in the achievement of English among the students at all levels. But most of them showed good performance in the courses of their formal education which is measured by achievement tests based directly on those courses. As a former colony of British imperialism. and speaking English” (Islam. At present nearly a decade has been passed since communicative language teaching (CLT) was introduced in Bangladesh. “A huge part of the educated population at present is almost incapable of writing. Yet.

At the same time it also indicates that our language testing system is measuring something else rather than communicative competence. This study aims at investigating the inconsistency between present English language curriculum and prevailing English language testing system in the Secondary level in the expectation of revealing the still uninvestigated relationship between testing system and students’ low communicative competence in English language learning. are failing to manifest the expected level of proficiency in English at HSC level. This is a clear indication that our students are very much examination oriented rather than proficiency oriented in case of English language learning. even in all subjects. According to Haider (2008) “the aims and objectives of the communicative curriculum can never be achieved without a testing system that assesses the communicative ability of learners”. 7 .” (Islam and Ahsan. 2005).GPA 5 in SSC.

Chapter 2 Background of this study English language teaching (ELT) in Bangladesh has a long history. The spoken component of the language was not practiced.2004). It has also produced communicative textbooks for classes 6 to 12. At that time language studies were based on literature and grammar and the means of studies was the grammar- translation method. The emphasis was given on accuracy and full sentence. In 1997 the government of Bangladesh introduced Communicative Language teaching (CLT) method. The National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) designed a communicative syllabus for the secondary level. ( Haider. (Hamid and Baldauf. However.2008). 2008). the British models of teaching English continued to influence the ELT scenario of post-colonial Bengal even after the colonial rule was over in 1947. and encouraged the teachers to carry out the teaching according to the syllabus. “It was envisaged that CLT would develop learners’ ‘communicative competence’” (ibid). After the independent of Bangladesh in 1971 the same method was followed in Bangladesh up to 1997. “The changes were brought about through several means. After that. ( Hasan. published the guidelines to produce textbooks. The new curriculum stressed the need for students to learn to 8 . 2008). ( Haider. The beginning of ELT in Bangladesh can be traced back to the colonial era. the Government of Bangladesh started making changes in ELT policies to improve English language teaching in the country since it was clearly evident that students’ English language skill could not be improved with the existing ELT policies.

the pictures of English language classrooms still reflect the traditional teaching style. Teachers still stress the development of reading and writing skills for the purpose of getting good results in examinations (Hasan. it has revised the evaluation policy and developed several assessment tools and examination formats to help measure students' ability to use English in communication. 2004). the grammatical items and score in the final exams.” (Hasan. however.communicate in English rather than to just master the structure of the language. 9 . CLT approach is being followed for ELT in Bangladesh. Furthermore. But. 2004). It has been almost thirteen years since CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) was introduced in Bangladesh in replacement of the long-standing GT (Grammar-Translation) Method. has changed little. Therefore. But the focus of teaching and learning. it is a matter worth considering how far our existing English language teaching and testing systems are effective. gradually making the score obtained in the final examination of SSC and HSC potentially unreliable. Since then. for example. The teaching and learning process has again centered on the concrete and easily tangible end products. While GT Method was preoccupied with reading and writing skills only leaving listening and speaking almost neglected. CLT was supposed to emphasize on a balanced development of all the four basic skills.

a year’s work. Chapter 3 Literature Review Testing System Testing system can be defined as “any procedure for measuring for measuring ability. ( 1999: 26). “Naturally in the class and course final examinations achievement test is used” (ibid).2008) gives the definition of communicative language tests “Communicative tests are tests of communicative skills. such as placement test. be it specificity to context. as CLT prevails in the ELT situation in Bangladesh. In the arena of Language Testing different kinds of tests are used based on purposes. authenticity of materials or the simulation of real life performance. the English language test in SSC final examinations is a communicative language test. ( cited in Haider. Such tests often claim to operationalise theories of communicative competence. Davies et al. although the form they take will depend on which dimension they choose to emphasis. typically used in contradistinction to tests of grammatical knowledge. 10 . An achievement test in Andrew Harrison’s words (1983. So. Diagnostic test. Achievement test and proficiency test. cited in Akter. the test of English language in SSC final examinations in Bangladesh which is the central focus of this study is an achievement test. knowledge or performance” (Jack et al 1983. P. Again. or a whole course. or even a variety of different courses. 1999).it is intended to show the standard which the students have now reached in relation to other students at the same stage” (cited in ibid).7) “looks back over a longer period of learning for example.

135. 1999) “ it is much more a matter of partially pre-assembled patterns. 2002) a person who acquires ‘Communicative Competence’ acquires both knowledge and ability for language use with respect to – 1.Communicative Competence: The prominent applied linguist Dell Hymes coined this term. Adequate. 2002). successful in relation to a context in which it is used and evaluated. formulaic frame works. Widdowson notes (1989 P. actually performed. (cited in Richards and Rodgers. 3. on the other hand. sociolinguistic competence. discourse competence. and what its doing entails. and strategic competence. 2. and a kit of rules so to speak. happy. have identified four dimensions of “Communicative Competence” namely Grammatical Competence. cited in Akter. whether (and to what degree) something is appropriate. whether (and to what degree) something is in fact done. More specifically. (Hymes1972:281) Since Hymes’s introduction of ‘Communicative Competence’ the term has widely been elaborated and explained. and being able to apply these rules to make whatever adjustments are necessary according to contextual demands”. (cited in Richards and Rodgers. whether (and to what degree) something is feasible in virtue of the means of implementation available. In Hymes’s view. whether (and to what degree) something is formally possible. ‘Communicative Competence’ includes: 11 . Cannale and Swain (1980). 4.

no doubt. apologies. such as requests. From the high frequency of repetition. question patterns etc. Hasan(2004). Akter(1999) made an analysis of question pattern and test items set in the Higher Secondary level. On the other hand. thanks and invitations. Hoque (2005) suggested from their personal teaching experiences that our language testing system must be changed to improve the communicative competence level of our students. and Haider(2008) conducted systematic researches in the context of Bangladesh and showed that our existing language testing system ( testing items. Islam and Ahsan (2005). The selection of the test items confines to a number of limited topics for ages.1999) Relationship between Testing System and Communicative Competence: There is. There are a lot of empirical opinions that ensure this relationship. two basic skills speaking and listening are quite dropped. a close relationship between language testing system and the learners’ communicative competence in the target language as the first variable is designed to measure the second one. Islam (2004). but very few come from systematic research. it is perhaps not hard to predict the probable questions resulting memorization. He found that in our testing system in the HSC level. Akter (1999).” ( Akter.) can not measure the actual level of communicative competence of our students. He also comments that “our testing system is far 12 . (a) knowledge of the grammar and vocabulary of the language (b) knowledge of rules of speaking (c) Knowing how to use and respond to different types of speech acts.

Hasan(2004) conducted his research in a large scale on the English language curriculum at the secondary level in Bangladesh. which they are tended to do. In the sixth chapter of his research paper he made a thorough analysis of the existing testing system and evaluation policy of ELT in secondary level of Bangladesh and found that The general education boards and the schools affiliated under these boards adopted an examination format that matches the one provided in the NCTB curriculum guidelines. they should be new. Then he made some recommendation regarding examination question. 13 . As a result. But examination questions were mostly set from the set textbooks. 2. To him. Students will answer them using their knowledge of English. the students always had a chance to memorise the answers to questions before. our testing system must be in the line and not just a caricature of a test. Rather.away from being able to reflect communicative competence and more regretfully still. In examinations: 1. He concludes that if we want ‘communicative competence’ to be the goal of our learners. Questions should not be set from any notebooks or guidebooks available in the market. So. presently. the score of the testee is not the true reflection of his/her performance. these examinations failed to evaluate students' ability to use English in communication. Question format should go on changes each year so as to encourage students to read to learn instead of memorising the textbook-content.

Haider(2008) made an evaluation of the SSC English examination. It must be ensured that the test items test what they are intended to test. Then he has made the following recommendation: 1. A set of test specifications for SSC English can be developed in accordance with the curriculum goals. 3. and there is no analytic marking scheme to mark the subjective items. Many of the objective tasks such as true/false. 2. 4. The key findings of the analysis of the SSC test format are: the test is based on reading and writing skills only. multiple choice questions and gap-filling with clues do not serve any communicative purpose. there is little consistency between the curriculum goals and the test format. purpose and audience. the writing tasks do not often offer suitable communicative purposes. He also found typicality in selecting topics for writing test for which there is a chance that students may well predict the topics beforehand and might memorize the essays or paragraphs and reproduce them in examination halls. The current SSC examination partially tests communicative language skills. The test takers must be given some ideas about the situation in which the target 14 . An item intended to test candidates' communicative ability should not test something else such as memorization. there should be items on testing listening and speaking. The writing tasks in the SSC English papers should have meaningful context. Some specific areas of improvements have been identified and recommendations have been made for improving assessment of communicative English at the SSC level. guessing etc. The findings have raised important issues which concern the test designers and markers. the test takers and other stakeholders of SSC. The curriculum should be more specific about the purpose and objectives for English language use in Bangladesh.

15 . which had been. found that many of their students. Firstly. are failing to manifest the expected level of proficiency in English at HSC level. According to them. memorized by them earlier. Test takers should be informed about what genres of writing they are expected to produce and what aspects of their writing would be assessed. Islam and Ahsan (2005). from their professional experience of English language teaching. The SSC test format should be consistent with the sample questions given in the Teachers guides for English for Today textbooks. who obtained GPA 5 in SSC. There should be a marking scheme. “There can be various reasons behind this failure of the SSC and HSC marks scored to achieve reliability and to become the successful indicators of proficiency in English. Teachers' knowledge and skills: 8. our education system still has not so far been successful in effectively encouraging proficiency-oriented education in opposition to result-oriented education. 7. Disappointedly. even in all subjects.language is going to be used. Apart from these systematic researches. Teachers should use the newly written English for Today textbooks more extensively in the classroom to enhance students' communicative writing skills. 5. both for the objective as well as subjective writing items. Teachers and markers should be trained on language testing issues 9. 6. Secondary school English teachers should have a basic understanding of the communicative needs of their learners. they fail to produce correct phrases or sentences of their own without reproducing something.

“The students of Bangladesh generally memorize everything including grammar. our learners get naturally obsessed with obtaining it and they look for some shortcut to get that magic score without being concerned about the proficiency achieved. Even the students who obtain good marks in English in their public examinations cannot write compositions independently. Fourthly. speaking. our testing system at secondary and higher secondary level education itself encourages little to change the outlook of the learners and guardians. he experienced that many students who are otherwise good in their subject. applications. students follow the ready made guidebooks competitively available in the market. guardians of the learners also possess the same outlook. and reproduce them in the examination. composition. not only students but also the teachers become interested in teaching items that directly resemble question items in SSC and HSC. as a result. According to Islam (2004). This naturally gives scope to raise question what do our language examination test? 16 . It instructs to teach many things (e. The condition of spoken English is worse still. They can manage fairly will even without consulting the NCTB textbook. but the students cannot read them. letters. since scoring higher GPA in SSC and HSC increases and/or ensures admittance to reputed colleges and universities. ignoring the NCTB prescribed material. etcetera) that never appear in the final assessment and.” As a teacher in a university. there is a wide gap between the objectives of the curriculum and the assessment system. cannot write a single sentence in English correctly. essays.Secondly. paragraphs. Thirdly. Fifthly.g. They never learn the language. and so on. Most of the good books at the university level are written in English. To score well. listening items.

and yes). 35 English(part-1) question papers of SSC final examination prepared by 7 general education boards in the last five years were analyzed. neutral. to test the first hypothesis. The testing system and the topics of the questions discourage the students leading to proficiency oriented learning. The questions were close ended and the answer to each question had three options (no. The English test (part 1) of SSC examination is not designed in a communicative test. Chittagong. the following hypotheses were formulated for testing. Rajshahi. The boards were Dhaka. writing. Two skills (reading and writing) out of four (reading. Chapter 4 Methodology Research Hypotheses To carry out this study. Besides. 2. Instruments To conduct this research a questionnaire containing 12 questions was administered for collecting retrospective data. 17 . 1. listening and speaking) are tested in this test and the topics of the questions can not measure what these are supposed to measure.

final examination of five consecutive years (2005-2009). and Sylhet. Among the participants there were 22 female and 18 male. 40 students were selected who completed their secondary education within last five years.A. The participants completed their secondary education from 13 different education institutions and all of them were enrolled in B. Barisal. 18 .S.Jessore. Five question papers were taken from each board and the question papers were of S. The questionnaire was conducted among them in a class. Participants For the study. Comilla.C. The students were chosen from a private university named Bangladesh University of Business & Technology (BUBT). program of their university.B.

The following table (Table-1) shows from which unit and lesson the passages were copied in the last five year’s S. English (part-1) question papers were analyzed and it was found that each question paper was prepared in three sections. Unit-11. Lesson-3 Lesson-5 Lesson-5 Lesson-7 Lesson-6 Rajshahi Unit-15. Lesson-7 Lesson-6 Lesson-2 Lesson-1 Lesson-5 Comilla Unit-10. Unit-14. The second section was titled as ‘Vocabulary Test’ which contains 20 marks. Unit-7. Unit-11. Unit-18. English question papers of seven education board. Unit-11. Unit-14.C. Unit-22. 19 . Unit-15.S. Unit-19. 35 S. Lesson-7 Lesson-1 lesson-6 Lesson-1 Lesson-7 Chittagong Unit-8. Unit-15. Unit-14. But it was suggested in the syllabus of class 9-10 prepared by NCTB that the passages of the reading test will be reproduced on the S. Lesson-5 Lesson-5 Lesson-4 Lesson-5 Lesson-1 Barisal Unit-11. Unit-14. and the third section was titled as ‘Writing Test’ which carries 40 marks. Chapter-6 Findings and discussions To test the first hypothesis. question paper. Unit-11. Unit-22.S. Unit-10. there was no provision for listening or speaking skill.C.C. Board 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Dhaka Unit-11. Unit-10. Unit-15. Out of 100 marks. Unit-18. Unit-14. Unit-22. Unit-10. Unit-18. Then the passages of the reading test were scrutinized and it was found that all the passages were copied from the text book for class 9-10 titled ‘English for Today’ published by National Curriculum & Textbook Board ( NCTB).S. Lesson-3 Lesson-1 Lesson-7 Lesson-3 Lesson-5 Jessore Unit-18. The first one section was titled as ‘Reading Test’ which carries 40 marks out of total 100 marks. Unit-11.

and compositions set in the English test of S. Lesson-5 Lesson-7 Lesson-4 Lesson-2 Lesson-4 Sylhet Unit-17. It can reasonably be questioned that how far a student’s reading ability can be measured by these question papers. Table-4. Unit-15. Lesson-7 6 Unit-18. The following three tables (Table-3. Lesson-6 3 Table-2 The above table shows that out of 35 question papers. Units and lessons Frequency of Repetition Unit-10. 27 question papers were prepares based on only 7 passages. Unit-14. Lesson-1 5 Unit-15. Lesson-7 2 Unit-11. Lesson-1 Lesson-7 Lesson-5 Lesson-7 Lesson-1 Table-1 From the table it is seen that some passages were in repeated in the questions of other year.C. final examinations in the last five years’ questions ( 2005-09) in the above discussed seven boards. Lesson-5 6 Unit-14. Unit-15. Such forms of repetition are also found in the writing test sections.S. letters. Lesson-4 2 Unit-10. and Table-5) show the repeated topics of paragraphs. Topics of Paragraph Frequency of Repetition A book Fair 2 20 . For better understanding table -2 contains a list of repeated passages with frequencies. Unit-11. Such repetition tendency may encourage the learners going for memorization. It also questions the validity of the reading test. Lesson-5 3 Unit-22.

C.S. A letter to your pen-friend describing the foods 4 and food-habits of the people of Bangladesh.C.S. examination. 21 . it is not impossible for the students to predict the probable questions which may result in memorization. A bus Stand 2 A School Library 3 A School Magazine 3 A Tea Stall 3 Traffic Jam 5 Tree Plantation 2 Water pollution 2 Table-3 Issues of writing Letters Frequency of Repetition A letter to your friend congratulating her on 6 her brilliant success in the S. A letter to your friend telling about how to 3 improve English Table-4 Topics of composition Frequency of Repetition A Prize Giving Day at Your School 3 Tree Plantation 3 Your Childhood Memories 4 Your Hobby 4 A journey by Boat 2 Your Visit to a Place of Historical Interest 2 Table-5 From the high frequency of repetition in the writing section. A letter to your friend describing what you 5 intend to do after your S. examination.

To know how far it is possible to guess the probable questions. Question No. The result has been shown in the following Table. 7-10. To test the second hypothesis. a questionnaire (see appendix) of 13 questions were administered whose first ii questions relevant. No % Neutral % Yes % 22 . No. On the other hand. it can be supposed that such repetition tendency in preparing question paper destroys the validity of the tests which accepts the first hypothesis of this study. affirmative answers to first 6 questions and negative answers to next 4 questions indicate the students’ examination oriented learning which will favor the hypothesis. Among these questions.5% students think that it is possible to guess which passage is going to be set for reading comprehension in the SSC final examination while 10% can neither support nor deny the possibility and 17. In these circumstances. The following table (Table- 7) shows the participants response to the questions no.5% think that it is not possible. 80% students think that it is possible to guess the possible topics of writing for the SSC final examination. Question No. % Neutral % Yes % 11 7 17.5 4 10 29 72. the participants were asked in the question no.5 12 6 15 2 5 32 80 Table-6 The table shows that 72. 1-6 and the table-8 shows the participants response to the questions no. 11 and 12 of the questionnaire (See appendix).

63 6.5 1 2. Again 85% students follow suggestions for examination while 70% students admit that they learn English to do well in the examination.5 2.5% students are not interested to develop their these two skills. Regarding these two skills.67 2.25 5.33 5.5 2 5 29 72.5 4 10 9 22. on an average 77.S.83 31 77.5 Table-7 Question No.5 4 5 12.5 3 7.67 16.5% students are found examination oriented learners. all the students who confine their studies to a limited area like following only text book and memorizing writing items on some selected topics are somehow demotivated.5% students prepare themselves for writing test by memorization and 82.5 2 5 33 82.5% students read only their text book to prepare themselves for reading test in the S.5 2 5 Mean 31 77. if other two skills – listening and speaking.C.5 31 77. No % Neutral % Yes % 7 27 67. are considered. it is also found that 77. On the other hand.5 3 7. In fact. As a matter of fact these students are demotivated due to the testing system and question patterns with repetition tendency as shown earlier. 1 9 22.75 16. It is a clear indication that majority of the secondary level learners do 23 .5 5 3 7.5 2 6 15 3 7.5 34 85 6 11 27.5 31 77.5 8 24 60 2 5 14 35 9 38 95 0 0 2 5 10 35 87.5 3 6 15 3 7.5% students take preparation for writing test on some selected topics. examination while 77.88 Table-8 Table-7 shows that 72.5 28 70 Mean 6.

In this regard there leaves a scope for studying the teachers teaching behavior due to such an invalid testing system. The theme may be same but the language must change. the passages should be reproduced as prescribed in the syllabus. real life happenings should be given preference. 2. 24 . 1. there is a scope to carry out this study in the higher secondary level. Passages for the reading test should not be copied from the text. Chapter-7 Recommendations and conclusion The findings of the study give some scopes for the following recommendations. a portion of total marks may be allotted for these skills so that students become compelled to develop these two skills. Besides. In a word. letters. In conclusion it can be said that this study has successfully been able to investigate the cause effect relationship between testing system and students low communicative competence though the study has not investigated all the related aspects of students’ low communicative competence due to testing system. In selecting topics for paragraphs. There must have some provisions for testing the students listening and speaking skills. At the same time repetition tendency must be ceased. or compositions. For these purpose.not go for proficiency oriented learning rather they devote themselves to examination oriented learning. 3.

25 . Will CLT bail out the bogged down ELT in Bangladesh? Hasan(2004). English: Looking for the lost language. Internet Edition. Language in India.References Richards J. Proficiency oriented learning. Published in Collected Papers by British council and NCTB.English Language Testing System in Bangladesh and Communicative Competence: An Investigation.A linguistic study of English language curriculum at the secondary level in Bangladesh . (1999).a communicative approach to curriculum development. Dhaka.html Islam M. 5 Num 110 Akter. C. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press Hamid & Baldauf (2008). 5 Num 110. & Rodgers T S.htm. A. Z. The Daily Independent Bangladesh. The Daily Star Web Edition Vol. Volume 4: 8 August 2004 Islam & Ahsan (2005).(2004).

Z. English For Today: For Class 9 –10 NCTB. Dhaka Panjeree Publications(2009).( 04-01-2005) Haider. The Independent.(2005). NCTB (2001). Internet Edition. Bangladesh Education Journal. Suggestions on improving English language teaching: Primary and secondary level. 7. M. Vol. Number 2. Assessing "Communicative" Writing Skills: An Evaluation of the SSC English Examination. 26 .S. Test Papers.Hoque M S. (2008). Panjeree S.C.

C. Appendix Questionnaire 1. Did you memorize compositions and paragraphs for the examination and write from your memory? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 4. S. final examination? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 2. Did you follow only English for Today to get prepared for comprehension test for S. Did you follow any suggestion to prepare yourself for the English test in the SSC final examination? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 27 . Did you memorize letters and applications for the examination and write from your memory? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 3. Did you take preparation for composition and paragraph by memorizing on some selected topics for the final examination? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 5.

Did you sit for any test on listening skill in your secondary level? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 11. Do you think it is possible to guess the possible topics of writing for the SSC final examination? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 28 .6. Did you make any effort to develop your speaking skill? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 9. Do you think that you learnt English Language in the secondary level only for doing well in the examination? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 7. Did you sit for any test on speaking skill in your secondary level? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 10. Do you think it is possible to guess which passage is going to be set for reading comprehension in the SSC final examination? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 12. Did you make any effort to develop your listening skill? a) No b) Neutral c) Yes 8.