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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD

International Open Access Journal |

ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | Volume - 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep – Oct 2018

eering Surveying Course Taught to Civil Engineering Students
in KSA Universities
Universities: A Case
ase Study of Albaha University
Dr. Nagi Zomrawi Mohammed
Associate Professor of Surveying and Digital Mapping
Sudan University of Science an
andd Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

Surveying course is one of the fundamental subjects Keyword: Academic plan, Albaha University,
that involved in academic plan of most civil Correlation, Examination criteria, GIS, GPS,
engineering programs. It generally covers topic that Surveying 1, Surveying 2.
concerned with mapping, setting out, earthwork, and
design. The course title differs from one program to I. INTRODUCTION
nother. It may appear under the name of surveying, Extensional revolution in university education in
mapping techniques or geomatic. Surveying is Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) depended largely on
applicable in almost all branches of civil engineering foreign teaching staff whereas, recently, the national
whether structure, highways or hydraulic engineering. staff appeared to put their own finger print in
universities teaching track.
In surveying courses, some educational problems ma may
face both students and lecturers because of the nature Foreign teaching staffss always comment on lowly
of the subject that consists of practical side and field academic level of students but, no one make scientific
work applications; and communication complicity of study to proof that. Knowing that, the general trend of
knowledge transfer between the two the sides. In academic level of students goes globally in decreasing
addition to student society in which the ccourse manner because of ease of modern technology usage
presented. as some of them justified.

This research work tried to study analyze and evaluate There has been a significant decline of surveying
examination results of surveying course taught to civil education in civil engineering programs across the
engineering student in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia nation. Based on a study by Gillins, Olsen, and
(KSA) taking faculty of engineering in Albaha Schultz (2016), which evaluated 239 accredited
university as a case study. bachelor's programs in civil engineering in the
th United
States, 35.5% of the bachelor's programs in civil
oth courses; surveying 1 and surveying 2 were taken engineering do not require students to take any
into consideration. Results showed that a great chance courses in surveying. This study also found 27.6% of
is available for students to pass the course and only those civil engineering programs do not even list
about 7% of students are expected to fail the course. surveying as an elective for civil engineering students.
In addition, it was stated that the average number of
About 19% of student can successfully have grades A required semester credits in surveying required within
to A+ where, grades D to D+ represent the dominant civil engineering curricula in the United States has
grades. Beside that the general trend line of course significantly decreased [7].
results tend to be normally distributed.
Nature of surveying subject in an undergraduate civil
Moreover, analysis showed that both subject results of engineering curriculum needs a substantial amount of
surveying 1 and surveying 2 were highly ccorrelated. hands-on
on training to obtain adequate learning
outcomes. A lecture-only
only mode of delivery does not

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct
Oct 2018 Page: 797
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
provide the adequate surveying skills needed by an were allocated in budgets for higher education. Now
engineering student. In 2009, workshops were (2018) The number of Higher education institutions in
introducedd for the Civil Engineering Drawing and KSA has registered 26 government universities,
univ 10
Surveying unit at Curtin University, Australia, with private universities, and 41 private colleges. These
the aim of offering students hands-on on training in universities and colleges have scientific and applied
surveying to enhance their learning. That study results majors in different areas. The ministry of Higher
indicate that students were satisfied with the Education has also adopted modern approaches for
workshops and recognized/perceived them to scientific research, and future planning.
contribute to the development of the learning
attributes they need to acquire [8]. In 2015, the ministries of education and higher
education were merged into one entity, the ministry of
Governmental education in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
(KSA) started by establishment of the directorate of III. ALBAHA UNIVERSITY
knowledge in 1925marked the launch of the first Albaha University is a university in Albaha city, the
regular educational system in the KSA and was the capital of Albaha province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
bench mark of the boys' educational System in the It is a governmental
overnmental university that was established in
country. 2006 with three faculties; Engineering, Science and
Applied Medical Sciences. At the present, the main
The first Council for knowledge was established in campus of the university located at Alaqiqtown about
1927 with an aim to develop an educational system 25 km away from Albaha city [4]. The other campuses
that would monitor education in the Hijaz Region. are
re in Almikhwah, Almandaq, and
Baljurashiprovinces. The main campus in Alaqiq
In 1951, the ministry of knowledge was established in occupies about 6.7 km2 including seven colleges of
the reign of King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz. It was the the university. The university emphasizes public
expanded and developed form of the directorate of services in all of its disciplines. The university
knowledge. Its functions were to plan, and monitor consists of 11 faculties:
boys' government education in primary, preparatory, 1. The faculty of Medicine
and secondary schools. King Fahd Bin Abdul Aziz 2. The faculty of Engineering
was the first minister of knowledge. 3. The faculty of Applied Medical Sciences
4. The faculty of Administrative and Financial
In 1960 the general presidency for girls’ education, Sciences
was established the reign of king Faisal Bin Abdul 5. The faculty of Science
Aziz. The presidency was responsible for 15 primary 6. The faculty of Education
schools and one female teachers’ intermediate 7. The faculty of Arts and Humanities
institute. 8. College of Science and Arts in Almikhwah
9. College of Science and Arts in Almandaq
As education evolved, a royal decree was issued in 10. College of Science and Arts in Baljurashi
2002 to annex the general presidency for girls’ 11. Community College
education, under the ministry of knowledge. Then
ministry of knowledge, was renamed the ministry of In the past, faculty of engineering was belonging to
education in 2003. Umalqora University then, it was independent in 2006
with the establishment of Albaha University to be one
The ministry of higher education was established in of its first founded faculties [3].
1975 to execute the Kingdom's policy on higher
education. The minister of education is responsible for The faculty was started with three programs; civil,
the implementation of the government's educational architecture, and electrical engineering. Computer
policy. engineering program was added as the fourth program
in 2011.
Higher education has received enormous
governmental support; new universities, scientific and The faculty
lty include now about 1500 students coming
applied colleges were established and huge funds from different regions of the country.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct
Oct 2018 Page: 798
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
IV. COURSE DESCRIPTION AND D. Matching questions that sometimes appeared as
EXAMINATION CRITERIA table or fill-in-the-blank.
Academic plan 2010 (1432 Hijri) of civil engineering E. True/false questions that only composed of a
program described Surveying 1(32011303)to statement. Students respond to the questions by
introduce students to surveying, tapping,
pping, levelling and indicating whether the statement is true or false.
traversing through teaching students the basic concept Although this types of question were used to be b
of surveying and its applications in tapping, levelling given but, some student fail to answer correctly.
and coordinates calculation. Engineering mathematic
was conditioned to be a prerequisite course for V. DATA AND ANALYSIS
surveying 1. According to exam regulations in Albaha university,
the evaluation of each student in a particular course
On the other
er hand the same academic plan stated the subjected to the following graduation table:
objectives of Surveying 2(32011304) course is to
teach students the basic principles of engineering Table 1: University exam grading system.
surveying, principles of GPS and photogrammetric. Grade Marks Code Points
The course description includes horizontal and Exceptional 95-100
100 A+ 4.00
vertical curves, methods of setting out, area and Excellent 90-94
94 A 3.75
volume computation, introduction to GPS and photogr Superior 85-89
89 B+ 3.50
ammetry. The prerequisite course of surveying 2, was Very good 80-84
84 B 3.00
surveying 1, where, surveying 2 itself represent a Above average 75-79
79 C+ 2.5
prerequisite course for both Geographic Informatio
Information Good 70-74
74 C 2.00
System (GIS) applications and Global Positioning High pass 65-69
69 D+ 1.5
System (GPS) Applications [1]. Pass 60-64
64 D 1.00
Fail Less than 60 F 0.00
Both courses evaluation divided into two main In-progress - IP -
components; course work and final exam. Course
To simplify and summarize analysis for this study,
work have 60% weight including attendance,
five graduation categories were suggested. These
laboratory, mid-semester exam, quizzes,s, exercises and
graduations are; A, B, C, D and F. Where, A included
homework’s. Where, the remaining 40% left for the
A to A+and soon according to the following table.
final exam. By this evaluation, great chance for the
student to pass the course and have advance grades.
Table 2: Summarized graduation system.
Exam code Summarized code
Examiner used to prepare quizzes and examinations
A to A+ A
that proportional to students capabilities
abilities taking into
B to B+ B
account the mathematical background and secondary +
school educational level that students came from. C to C C
Although these examinations were not so difficult, D to D+ D
they were also not simple as well and students success F F
to gain good marks.
Data for this research work was extracted from
Types of examination questions used were of the university examination records during the period of
following types: study through academic years 2015 up to 2018.
A. Direct computational questions that require
students to perform calculations in order to solve Registered students for both subjects surveying 1 and
for an answer. surveying 2 were found to be as arranged in table (3)
B. Short answer questions which composed of a brief below.
prompt that demands a written answer of few Table 3: Registered students for surveying.
sentences testing the basic knowledge of key facts Registered student
Academic Year
and terms of the syllabus. Surveying 1 Surveying 2
C. Multiple choice questions composed of one 2015/2016 66 48
question with multiple possible answers, including 2016/2017 46 49
the correct answer. 2017/2018 56 61

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct
Oct 2018 Page: 799
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Final results of student evaluation for surveying 1
during the study period were extracted
extracted. Percentages
were calculated for each grade. Then, Average
percentage grades were calculated for the three
academic years as shown in table (4) hereunder.

Table 4: Results of surveying 1.
Percentage grade
Academic year
2015/2016 23 23 15 27 12
2016/2017 11 20 24 36 9 Fig 2: Average grades in surveying 2
2017/2018 15 26 31 25 3
Average 16 23 23 30 8 From the figure it could be noted that student’s
achievement in surveying 2 was improved compared
Figure (1) below illustrates the average grade of with surveying1. Though, 95% of students success to
student results of surveying 1. pass the subject and 21% of them had grade A.

Again, grade D was the highest grade with 25% of the
total number of students.

Correlation between average grade of both surveying
1 and surveying 2 can be calculated as 0.9 that means
the two subjects are highly correlated.

Average grade for both surveying 1 and surveying 2
can be reduced as a final result as presented in table
(6) hereunder.

Table 6: Final results.
Fig 1: Average grades in surveying 1 Grade A B C D F
Average 18.5 24.5 23 27.5 6.5
It can be noted that 92% of students success to pass
the subject and 16% of them had grade A. in opposite, Again, the final result can be shown in a bar graph as
grade D appeared as the highest grade. illustrated in figure (3).
Student’s results in surveying 2 were also collected
and arranged similarly as presented in table (5). Again
average grades were calculated.

Table5: Results of surveying 2.
Percentage grades
Academic year
2015/2016 21 22 25 25 7
2016/2017 12 25 22 39 2
2017/2018 30 30 23 10 7
Average 21 26 23 25 5
Fig 3: Final results.
For the three academic years of study period, the
From figure (3), the trend line generally tend to be
average of each grade plotted in bar graph as
normally distributed where, about 97% of students has
illustrated in figure (2) below.
a chance to pass. Also, grade D represent the highest
percentage grade as noted before.

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 6 | Sep-Oct
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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
In this research work, Albaha university was taken as 1. Academic
mic plan (2010), faculty of engineering,
a sample case in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Albaha University.
universities to study, analyze and evaluate
2. Examination records (2016), (2017), (2018),
examination results of surveying course taught to civil
Albhaha University.
engineering students.
3. Faculty of engineering strategic plan, (2017)
Student results in both surveying courses
courses; surveying 1 Albaha university records.
and surveying 2 were takenken into consideration. Data 4.
was collected and analyzed for three academic years
Results of the research study can be concluded in the 5.
following points: on_(Saudi_Arabia).
 According to examination rules, course work 6.
evaluation gives good chance for students to excellence/teaching-resources/teaching
assess themselves
es before the final exam. tips/developing-signments/exams/questions
 A great chance is available for students to pass characteristics-suggestions.
surveying subjects.
 A chance available for about 19% of students to 7.
have grade A or better. surveying/news/20180228-surveying-in-civil-
 Grades D and D+ are the dominant grades. engineering-education/.
 In general, students improve their achievement in 8.
the second course of surveying compared with the 67_Enhancing_Civil_Engineering_Surveying_Lea
first one. rning_through_Workshops.
 Results of the two subjects; surveying 1 and
surveying 2 were found to be highly correlated
and go hand by hand with each other.

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