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THE LIBRARY
OF
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES

GIFT OF

Mrs. Harry Lenart

POTTERY AND PORCELAIN

CHELSEA PORRINGER
FROM THE COLLECTION OF
MR. J WARD USHER FROM A WATER
COLOUR DRAWING BY THE OWNER

POTTERY ^ PORCELAIN
A GUIDE TO COLLECTORS

BY

FREDERICK LITCHFIELD
AUTHOR OF "ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF FURNITURE"
"HOW TO COLLECT OLD FURNITURE"
ETC. ETC. ETC.

CONTAINING NEARLY TWO HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS OF
SPECIMENS OF VARIOUS FACTORIES, NINE COLOURED
PLATES, AND MARKS AND MONOGRAMS OF
ALL THE IMPORTANT MAKERS

NEW EDITION, REVISED AND CONSIDERABLY AUGMENTED

LONDON
TRUSLOVE © HANSON, LTD.
1912

BV THE SAME AUTHOR

ILLUSTRATED HLSTORY OF
FURNITURE

HOW TO SELECT OLD
FURNITURE

EDITOR OF

CHAFFERS' MARKS AND
MONOGRAMS ON POTTERY
AND PORCELAIN
&c. &c.

Printed by BALLANTYNIi, HANSON &• Co.

At the B.illantyne Press, Edinburgh

Sri

ill

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

N preparing Pottery and Porcelain for a
new edition, I have endeavoured to
make such improvements as will afford
additional help to the inexperienced
collector. ,

The chapter on " Hints and Cau-
tions," which has gained approval in

many quarters, is enlarged, and should now be more
effective in safesfuardinor the reader against errors and dis-
appointments. A new chapter on " Values and Prices " has
been added, with information which should be of some in-

terest and service.
Several of the notices on ceramic factories have been
rewritten, and many new ones added, together with marks
and fresh information. The list of Sevres decorators has
been rendered more complete by the addition of some sixty-
five names and signs, while the other soft-paste factories
have received more attention than in previous editions.
The notices of the Staffordshire potters will be found to
give better descriptions of individual work, and a list of
marked specimens will assist identification.

The illustrations have been reconsidered ; unsatisfactory
ones replaced, and several fresh ones, including three new
coloured plates, added.
In giving additional information as to the peculiarities
and characteristics of different kinds of porcelain, I have,

1891905

vi PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION
when possible, made references to public collections where
specimens of indisputable genuineness may be inspected.
Full recoo^nition is given in the text to those authors
whose works I have laid under contribution ; it is therefore
unnecessary to allude to them in the preface.

My sincere thanks are due to numerous correspondents
who have sent me interesting particulars of specimens in
their collections, and I take this opportunity of reminding
my readers that I am always glad to receive any such in-

formation to be available for future editions.

In presenting this edition to the public I may perhaps
be allowed a brief retrospect. The work in quite different

form was published in 1878 as my first literary effort; it

appeared as a small hand-book dealing only with European
porcelain and Italian majolica and was received by both
;

press and public with considerable appreciation, possibly
more than it deserved, and ran through several editions.
In 1892 I published Illustrated History of Ftirniiure,
which was immediately successful, and is now in its si.xth

edition, and at the publishers' suggestion my small Pottery,
remodelled so as to form a companion volume to Fnrnittire,
was issued in 1900. A second edition was published in
1905, and although for a work of this kind an unusually
large number of copies was printed, this is now exhausted,
and a third edition, in enlarged form, is called for.

Conscious of many shortcomings, I can at least assure
my readers of the sincerity of my desire to place at their
service the knowledge acquired during a lifelong experience.

FREDERICK LITCHFIELD.

32 St. James's Street,
London, S.W.

Greek. Gubbio — Maestro Giorgio Andreoli — — Urbino Castel Durante — Naples. Granada. Samian. and other Continental and English Porcelain-makers of the Eighteenth Century . Valencia Delia — Robbia Enamelled Earthenware Italian Majolica : Pesaro. —— — — — CONTENTS CHAPTER I ANCIENT POTTERY PAGE A — resume of the History of Pottery from the EarHest Times Egyptian. John Sadler. Roman. &c. Italo-Greek. Faenza. Gres de Flandres Staffordshire Pottery: Elers Ware Fulham — — — — Stoneware Elizabethan Jugs Place's Ware Toft's Ware Delft — Ware CHAPTER III PORCELAIN. Persian. — Richard Chaffers. ITS INTRODUCTION INTO EUROPE AND GENERAL ADOPTION The Eighteenth Century — Difference between Pottery and Porcelain Hard and Soft Paste — Three different Kinds of Soft Paste described — Chinese Porcelain — First European Porcelain — Florence. Saxony —Bottger's Hard Paste — Josiah Wedgwood. Cookworthy of Plymouth The Chelsea and Bow Factories. &c. Trench Pottery : Bernard Palissy Henri Deux or Saint Porchaire German Stoneware : Greybeards and Bellarmines. Venice. and British Archaic Pottery CHAPTER II MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE Hispano-Moresco Lustred Ware — Malaga.

\RKS AND MONOGRAMS Abruzzi Ware — Adams — Alcora — Amstel — Angouleme — Anspach — Ar- dennes — Arnheim — Baden — Baranufka — Bassano — Bayreuth — Belleek — Berlin — Boissette— Bordeaux — Bourg Reine — Bow — la Bristol — Cambrian — Capo Monte — and upwards of three hundred di notices and references. with their meanings. concluding with Zurich and Zweibriicken . and Comparison between Past and Present Ceramics — Notes on the Brussels 1910 Exhibition 37 CHAPTER V HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS Forming a Collection — Public Collections in Museums — Auctions — Guaran- teed Invoices— Standard of Excellence — Common Errors — Spurious Lowestoft — Detecting Restorations — Old Sevres and Imitations its — Redecorated China — Repairing Breakages — Washing and Packing Old China 52 CHAPTER VI SOME COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS Notes and descriptions of various Misleading Marks. including the description of the "knock-out" system at auctions . and general remarks on the Value of the Marks on China — References to Recent Litigation . viii CONTENTS CHAPTER IV MODERN rAGE A Review of. 69 CHAPTER VII A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE DIFFERENT CERAMIC FACTORIES AND FABRIQUES IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER WITH THEIR DISTINGUISHING M. 79 CHAPTER VIII NOTES AND EXPLANATIONS A Glossary of Terms used by Dealers and Collectors. 460 .

" English Pottery. "English Porcelain" The — Trapnell Bristol Collection — Notes on Examples of the different Factories sold at recent sales — Continental Porcelain — Majolica Rhodian. . and Continental . . 4S6 . . . 474 BIBLIOGRAPHY Works of Reference on English Pottery and Porcelain — Oriental Porcelain — General. and Damascus Ware — Palissy Ware . Foreign. including English. — CONTENTS ix CHAPTER IX ON VALUES AND PRICES I'AGE Relation of Price to Value — Comparisons with twenty-five years ago — On the advantage of buying simple and good specimens in preference to — more pretentious ones Remarks on the Prices and Values of "Chinese Porcelain. Persian.

.

... Giorgio's Signatures . Sebastian 16 ly Palissy Ware Dish Saint Porchaire Salt-cellar . or Incised Ware.8 CHAPTER II Hispano-Moresco Vase facing 10 The Alhambra Vase . One of M... 36 .......... Place's Ware . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Chelsea Porringer {coloured plate) Frontispiece CHAPTER I Italo-Greek \^ase .. Elizabethan Stoneware Jug... 25 26 27 Design of Ornament on Pottery by Palissy 28 CHAPTER III Knife-handle of Menecy Porcelain . Sixteenth Century 23 24 25 Dish of Toft Ware Cup of Mr... St. 15 GuBBio Plaque... Thirteenth to Fourteenth Century Tazza of Sgraffiato. Bellarmine of Fulham Stoneware .. Specimens of Ancient British Pottery 6 7. facing 20 22 Teapot of Elers Ware . Fifteenth Century 12 13 14 Specimen of Bella Robbia Ware ... Sicilo-Arabian Vase. date mark 1600 German Stoneware...

. .. ...101 A Set of Three Groups of Old Bow China . . . ...110 Tureen. and Saucer CHAPTER V Sauce-boat of Bow Porcelain 68 CHAPTER VI Figure of a Cat. ... . . Cup and Saucer of Arras Porcelain 86 88 Specimen of Belleek Milk-pot of Berlin Porcelain Soup Tureen of Bow Porcelain .. .. Cover.. .. and Stand of Bristol Porcelain . . . Pair of Bristol Figures facing 113 A Pair of Pots and Covers.120 Specimens of Caughlev . Buen Retiro Porcelain facing 116 Capo di Monte Group of the Peep-show . . facing 102 Bristol Delft Plate (Edkins) io8 Bristol Delft Election Plate 108 Bristol Delft Plate 109 Small Mug of Bristol Pottery .. . . ... . ... . .no The Teapot of the Burke Service 112 Bristol Mug with Champion's Portrait. 78 CHAPTER VII Plaque of Alcora Faience . . .Xll LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS CHAPTER IV PAGE Specimen Vase of Modern Worcester Porcelain facing 38 MiNTONS Copy of Sevres Vase 42 MiNTONS Copy of Sevres Vaisseau a Mat • 43 Specimens of Doulton's Lambeth Ware 44 Specimen of Belleek....... Ice-pail • 45 A Crown Derby Cup. . Early Slip Decorated Ware. . . . . .... facing 127 129 . • • 93 95 loi Bow Teapot with two Spouts .. Cover.... .. 81 EcuELLE of Apt Faience ..124 Teapot of Chantilly Porcelain Group of Small Chelsea Flacons ..

.ham Stoneware . 180 Dresden Harlequin Dresden Tankard .. Blue Encrusted Flowers . facing '72 173 179 Dresden Figures (Acier's Modelling) .......... 187 Frankenthal Vase.... Old Dresden Porcelain . facing 204 Fulham Stoneware Jug ..... . J) . >» »j following 34 '34 137 . Neapolitan Ewer facing 200 Pair OF Fulda Figures of Peasants .. 186 Milk-pot of Dresden Porcelain . and Saucer of Crown Derby Old Crown Derby Dwarfs .. Early Dresden Vase. Venetian Vase. Horoldt Period facing i8s Dresden Vase......... Vase of The Hague China 205 212 Harburg Jug 214 . one of Lord Burton's Set of Sev EN of Seven .... " Augustus Rex " Period . iSi 'S3 1S4 Portion of Dresden Service.o Pair of Chelsea Groups (Seasons) Modelled by roubillac facing 132 A Chelsea Vase. Cover.. Three Chelsea Vases. facing 202 Fulham Stoneware Bust of Prince Rupert 203 The West Malling Elizabethan Jug . . part of Lord Burton's Set facing 134 )j )) Chelsea "Bee" Milk-jug )> Chinese Celadon Crackle Vase .. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XI 11 PAGE Chelsea Figures ok Apollo and Muses following 129 Chelsea Figure of Britannia facing i-.. familk rose 143 144 Blue and White Set of Ginger Jar and Pair oi Beakers Chinese Porcelain Vase Specimens of Old GRks de Flandres . .. Fine Specimen of Old "Powder Blue" Chinese Por ce:lain Chinese Enamelled Porcelain Dish...... Pot-pourri Vase.. 204 Specimens of Old Fui.... facing facing facing 146 1 158 48 Cannette of Siegburg Stoneware folloiving '5S Cabaret of Copenhagen China 161 Chelsea-Derby Vase {coloured plate) facing 171 Chelsea-Derby garniture of Vases and Ewers following 171 Cup.

.... 225 Wine Bottle of Lambeth Faience 231 Leeds Ware Dish .XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS The Essex Jug ................. facing facing 271 275 280 Hochst (Mayence) Group and Pair of Ludwigsburg Figures Milk-pot of M^ne^y Porcelain Barber's Dish of Moustiers Faience .. facing 294 29..... " . Specimens of Service .... facing 247 250 Set of Five Longton Hall Vases facing 252 Lowestoft Porcelain Specimens. Three Lowestoft Teapots {coloured p/aie) facing • 259 259 Specimens Lowestoft of .. Caffaggiolo Plate.... ... Nantgarw Porcelain... Porcelain Coffee-pot of Lowestoft Service generally ascribed to facing 260 260 Lowestoft Flask 261 GuBBio Plate. Limbach Porcelain Set of Figures. 309 311 . ..... .. 297 297 302 Cream-jug of De la Courtille Porcelain Can of Rue Thirou Porcelain .......5 Vase of Nevers Faience Ewer of Nevers Faience Nottingham Ware Posset-pot ... Small Marked Teapot of Belle Vue Pottery ... 1520 26S Castelli Majolica Vase Caffaggiolo Pitcher ...... Specimens of Doulton's Lambeth Ware 239 Bowl of Liverpool Delft Liverpool Bowl. .. Giorgio.. by M..... facing 282 284 291 A Toby "Fillpot" ........ 1515-20 facing 269 269 270 Majolica (Urbino) Vase {coloured p/ate) Caffaggiolo Plate {coloured plate) Ewer of Mason's Ironstone China .. .. PAGE 216 221 Round Dish of Old Japan Porcelain .. . the Seasons Success to the African Trade " facing 242 246 Pair of Longton Hall Vases Longton Hall Vase ... circ... cin... facing 25S 258 Lowestoft Coffee-pot ... with Initials and Dates Lowestoft Teapot ..

Specimens of the Empress Catherine Service of Old SfevRES Group of Children 349 350 Specimens of Sevres Dessert Service in Windsor Castle 351 Lyre-form Clock of Sevres China 352 Si. 330 331 Saint Porchaire Candlestick Three Unusual Pieces of Salt-glaze . 394 394 397 Specimens of Swansea Ware and Porcelain facing 397 Specimens of Swansea Porcelain (Ordinary Domestic Ware) 399 . marked Lefeuvre.. Fountain of Strasbourg Faience .. facing 344 344 SivRES Vase....... facing following 326 326 Rockingham Flower-pot Shoe of Rouen Faience ..... LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS XV FACE Specimen Plate. Narghili-stand of Persian Porcelain .. . .... .. Parson and Clerk 387 Staffordshire Pottery. Helmet-shaped Ewer of Rouen Faience 327 329 Jardini&re of Rouen Faience Salt-cellar of St.... Two Specimens 383 "The Launch.... Bust of Wesley 391 Basket-form Dish of Strasbourg Faience Swansea Coffee-Can . facih 316 316 316 Persian Wall Tile Decoration in Relief. late Spode. Green Ground . 345 348 SisvRES biscuit . 334 337 Coloured Salt-glaze Sauce-boat .." Specimen of Copeland's Parian 384 Specimen Plate of Copeland China 385 Staffordshire Pottery Group.. facing 354 Copeland...... .. Paris .... Cloud Porcelain . {coloured plate) facing 342 343 Fine Salt-glaze Dish Three Salt-glaze Teapots Jardiniere of Sceaux Faience .vRES Porcelain Vase (coloured plate) ......... 321 Rhodian Faience Ewer (coloured plate) Rhodian Faience Plates . Seventeenth Century 318 Pinxton Ice-pail 319 Sweetmeat-stand of Plymouth Porcelain ..... 312 Ewer of Persian Porcelain Persian Flask (coloured plate) .. ...

.. 424 Wedgwood Vase of Blue and Whiie Jasper Ware Wedgwood Blue and White Jasper Ware Vase ... facing • 454 45^) Queen Victoria. Plate ^L•\I)E for H.....\inted Decoration . Brown and Green Glaze 432 Important Specimen of Wincanton Pottery 434 . Late Period. Founder of the Worcester Factory Very Early Blue and White Worcester Cup ... 439 440 Centre Vase of Hexagonal Form with Birds. lain Company Italo-Greek Vase . Portrait of Dr. Wall.... Yellow Ground part Transfer... Specimens of Worcester of the Barr.. and Pair of Vases with Figure Subjects (Worcester) facing 440 Four Worcester Plates. Cup of Wedgwood's Blue and White Jasper Ware I'AGE 412 422 Lamp of Black Wedgwood (Basaltes Ware) Copy OF THE Portland or Barberini Vase ..XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS EcuELLE OF Venetian Porcelain .. Chamberlains Period ......... A Pair of Birds... 429 431 431 Whieldon Ware. Blue Salmon Scale Ground.i..MOUTH Sai. 438 Specimen of Copper Plate used at Worcester ... Various Patterns facing 444 Barr Period . 435 435 Specimens of China Tokens used about 1763 436 Old Worcester Coffee-pot. • • 445 447 Specimens of Worcester of Various Decorations • 45° ... Vase of Worcester Porcelain...M. and Figure Subjects 436 Worcester Vase of Hexagonal Form. . by the Royal Worcester Porce- 459 473 A Pi.. with Arms of Nelson Set of Three Important \Vorcester Vases.t-cei...v.. part P. Flight and Specimen of Worcester.. painted facing 450 BY O'Neale Posset-pot of Wrotham Ware Design on the Back of a . Ware .. 426 Portrait Bust of Josiah Wedgwood Coffee-pot of Whieldon Teapot of Agate Ware ..ar in the Trai'nell Collection 485 .

1^ POTTERY AND PORCELAIN CHAPTER I <lncicnt pottcrj> V J^i^^-0~~l TV—t-Cil .

when the piece was sufficiently fired to be fixed. The reader will find in our niu^eums specimens carefully arranged and . this thin clayish coating. though doubtless a series of experiments would be required to alter the paste to admit of some incorporation of the glaze and prevent its scaling. the invention of which will be noted much later." was applied the design . It is a singular fact that. and the glass beads they contain. Drury Fortnum. This process was the earliest form of decoration. but not as an enamel. and to obtain this a light pipeclay was milled with water. and enabling the potter to " throw " a round plate. In a rapid sketch like the present. In the earliest attempts at decoration. are mentioned by M. saucer.2 ANCIENT POTTERY early as the fourth dynasty. and Dr. Birch. The introduction of stanniferous or tin enamel was a much later invention. With a chemicalknowledge rendering possible the production of glass. In some of the old tombs of Mesopotamia have been found curious shoe-shaped coffins of terra-cotta covered with a vitreous saline glaze and containing glass beads showing a moderately accurate knowledge of vitrifaction and the use of silex (a property of sand which forms the flinty element of glass). when Babylon was destroyed by Darius. Drury Fortnum mentions the early use of copper by the Assyrians and Babylonians for the production of a beautiful turquoise blue. if we com- pare the potter's wheel of the present day with the representations preserved to us in the old tombs of Thebes. this was used as a pigment in colouring. The most recent date for these has been fixed at 522 B. was then scratched through. though it has been asserted that in the early manipulation of metallic oxides. This art was especially adapted to the decorative bricks of terra-cotta. and.. and in some cases by such subjects as representations of the chase. showing the ornament on the coarse buff ground. there would be no difficulty in adapting a vitreous glaze to ceramic productions. a white surface was an important matter. It is well known that the knowledge of metallic oxides was in the possession of Eastern nations centuries before its importation into Europe. which were also enriched by geometrical designs. known as " slip. These coffins. notwithstanding the centuries that have passed since the time of the old Egyptian potter.C. |acquemart. the whole piece being then re-fired. or vase. and Dr. and many specimens are to be found in our museums. Dr. there is but little differ- ence — a revolving disk of wood turned by the foot. it is unnecessary to dwell long on each epoch of Ceramic Art.

" In its earlier stages it had be- longed to the genus which has been termed sensualistic. and another source was suggested by attributing to the potter's art a divine or heroic origin — Ceramus. An acanthus had sprung up there. became the abacus of the capital. that is.was turned aside.and its flexible stalks. story of the origin of the Corinthian capital. and the utter subjection of art to canon law. Greek Pottery. and not the embodiment of thought. with their educational libraries. with the Greeks. then. to prevent the birds devouring the collation prepared for the beloved Manes. be to him what they were intended by a wise will — Government to be "the picture-book of the art student. Its development in this direction was prevented by the peculiar tenets of Egyptian re- ligion. Jacquemart. arrested in their ascent by the rough tile. Art in Egypt has been well said to be " the expression of religious sentiment. may be said to some extent to have governed their religion. is apposite enough to justify quotation. was struck with the appearance of a child's grave. works such as those of Brongniart. Drury Fortnum. " Callimachus wandering in the country. Marryat. and the most elegant among the orders of Greek architecture was found. and Llewellyn Jewitt will not be consulted in vain. and if he takes an intelligent interest in the subject he will soon find his taste almost unconsciously developing. and how under the influence of the many this. Nothing more was necessary the tile . though perhaps very old. ANCIENT POTTERY 3 labelled. and these splendid national institutions. brought about an importation from Egypt into Greece of such art as existed . and improved into a quite distinct school. we find this great difference : instead of being held down and fettered by religion. we should follow the story of Ceramic Art. their art. given by Jacque- mart. son of Bacchus and Ariadne. from the earliest known specimens. Now. peculiar characteristicsof the Greek people. and repre- sentation of revered symbols. on which the mother had placed a basket of fruit. Chaffers." The ordinarily accepted derivation of ceramic from its Greek root was for the Greeks too prosaic.altered. in the hands of a poetical and imaginative people. — Passing on." If he have the time and inclination to elaborate his knowledge. dreaming of numerous conceptions. the leaves of the acanthus enveloped its base with a notched crown. and find how the contact between the Phoenician merchants and the ancient Greeks. but had laid a tile on the orifice of the basket. A well-told.had bent spirally. being credited with its . a type of art having for its ideal the reproduction of nature.

so that they could only stand by being inserted some inches in the earth. sought beauty in the combination and modification of patterns so lavishly supplied by nature. and they are only entitled to rank as works of art by their purity of form.C.eologists. The second. These amphorae were used for the storage of wine and grain those for the former purpose were made with . was of a very coarse. The paste used in the vases. and with a very fine lustrous effect it is said to — have been composed from oxide of iron and when both inside and . wedding and other presents. from KipantKOt. the most modern being thus some two thousand years old ' Ceramic. Sir Charles Robinson seems to have been much struck by the beauty of these vases. guided and controlled by abstract geometrical laws of the profoundest nature and yet it is difficult to believe that any such . pollers' carlli or clay. especially those made for domestic use. pointed bases.4 ANCIENT POTTERY invention. There were only three colours used brick-red. The custom of preserving such vases in the tombs has been the means of handing down to us a considerable number. to 150 B. the paste had every appearance of being black throughout. black. — — and the natural colour of the paste buff. of or for potlcry. and gradually improved. The only explanation that offers itself is. common de- scription. and higher class of pottery of ancient Greece. Like art in every other country. that they can be with moderate certainty assigned to different epochs. and was certainly not the sudden invention of any single genius.^ This is mentioned merely to show how far sentiment governed the growth of the ideal in Greek art. The paste was of better for quality.. that these people had an inherent art instinct. and considerable pains are manifest in its finish and decoration. . . from 700 B. He says "The : forms or contours of the pieces display such admirable combination of beauty and fitness.c. and so much light has been thiown upon their dates by arch. outside of a vessel were so coated. and not with the idea of claiming even a groundwork of truth for the fable. that it is difficult to resist the conclusion that they were the result of an inherent art instinct in the pro- ducer. and despising servile copies of natural objects. was that composed of vases Olympian suitable for prizes at the Games. it was imported in a certain form.C. from K^pa/xoi. and called amphor. and were in this manner placed in the cellars some of these vessels were six feet high. The black colour was laid on as a glaze. abstruse scientific knowledge could have guided the artisans who produced them " {Catalogue of the S/iaiidon Collection).

the mythology of their country also became naturalised. as nearly as possible. The shattered condition of many Greek vases is accounted for by the custom of placing them on the funeral pyre before removal to the tomb.C. by the perfection of human forms. there is a great similarity in the Greek and Roman specimens preserved to us. extending from the sixth to the second century B. which bears some signs of decoration by means of lines scratched through the surface. Their chief peculiarity is the coarse. To Greek ceramics belong also those amphoraj made in the islands of the Archipelago. In the decline of Greek art which followed. the collection having been considerably augumentcd by Dr. where the vases of this kind are classified into different periods of the fictile art.C.. The dates of Etruscan pottery can only be approximately esti- mated. Probably this tended to harden and make the vessel more durable. the glaze being so incorporated with the body as to leave only a slight surface polish. . — Roman simplicity in the earlier ages gave little encouragement to decorative art. and from the latter end of the fourth century. with their methods. but. buff-coloured paste. Schliemann's excavations. obtainable of the attendant. The black moulded ware is said to have been made between the eighth and the third centuries B. that more attention was paid to the arts intro- duced from Greece. ANCIENT POTTERY 5 Minute descriptions of specimens would be superfluous . and in some cases the ornament is almost charred away. while the vases with imita- tions ofGreek paintings are ascribed to a long period. and there are some cases of these specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Prisoners taken in battle who were artists. gods and heroes being no longer represented as angular beings with exaggerated muscles. when their civilisation was at its zenith. with dates a catalogue of them is . The best period of Ceramic Art among the Greeks was a little after the time of Pericles. without being guided by those governing principles necessary for its proper restraint. many may be seen simply for the trouble of a visit to the British Museum. and it was only after the Second Punic War. There is an excellent . The drawing was infinitely more refined. were set at liberty and much honoured and as. when the Romans were thrown into close contact with the Greeks. artists appear to have indulged in fancy. a great falling off in the artistic quality of their productions appears to have taken place. Roman Pottery.

and the museums of Naples. It is apparently always made of the same material. Florence. specimens of a red lustrous ware. and also in the British Ilalo-Greek (Etruscan) Vase in the many other museums. The ov\\y fabrique that.C. a sealing-wax red clay with a brilliant glaze. who fled to Tarquinii. is strictly entitled to be termed Etrus- can is that founded in 655 B. ware was brought from Italy. The term " Etruscan " used to be applied to the art products of this transition stage. and Bologna. and who was followed by many of the principal potters from the father- land. a celebrated Greek potter. As it . general consensus of expert opinion. Gaul. A great many vessels of this ware have also been discovered during excavations in different parts of England. Italy. but this term has been abandoned for the more correct one of Gra3CO-Roman or Italo-Greek. also in the Louvre. the domestic ware made for table use by the Roman potter wherever he happened to find clays suited to his purpose. and the reader is referred to his pages for much information aiiout this particular kind of pottery. although from being buried in the earth this has in many cases decomposed. Samian Pottery. This is called Samian ware. chiefly fragments of bowls and dishes for domestic use. probably because it is supposed to have been first made at the Greek island of Samos but it is. father of Tarquin the Elder. especially to the blackand red ware. ANCIENT POTTERY collection of these vases in the British Miiseinn. some- times plain. and Spain. numerous British Museum. the manu- facture of which the Romans learned from the Greeks. by . Mr. the Vatican. then a flourishing town of Etruria. —There are in Museum. according to Jacquemart. where there were settlements during the occupation of the Romans. but frequently ornamented with designs in low relief. by Demaratus. Chaffers affirms that no remains of kilns have been discovered in England he is therefore of opinion that such . Specimens are attributed to Germany.

there were established during the Roman occupation several native potteries. are fully dealt with by Chaffers. which was probably imported into Britain. Many of the vases or urns made at these ancient British potteries were thick.G.S. and Castor. in the smoke of vegetable substances. and ornament. —Apart from the Samian Pottery. scratched into the surface by skewer-like fishes. A considerable improvement in the process of manufacture evidently took place subsequent to the Roman invasion the lathe was used. Front a Photo-^ra^h kindly siipfilU-d hy Mr. George. They were evidently not sun-dried. introduced . ornamented by rough designs of human figures. and very imperfectly fired. foliage. in Northamptonshire. or their long period of burial in the earth would have softened them into their original clay. F. it has been suggested that a peculiar red paste was invariably mixed with the clay to colour it. clumsy. The Upchurch ware was generally black. . the Cutator. ANCIENT POTTERY ' 7 would have been impossible to obtain in tiie different parts of the Roman Empire always the same clay. on account of its being baked Specimens of Ancient liriiish I'oltcry in the Northampton Museum. Drinking cups were of more delicate composition. T. Upchurch. The best known of these. who gives de- scriptions of some of the specimens which have been found. while the Castor pottery is of a yellow body. They were probably baked by being placed on the funeral pyre while the body of the dead person was being consumed. J. on the banks of the Medway.. instruments of varying sharpness and thickness. and scrolls. Ancient Bnlisli Pottery.

Specimens of Ancient British Pottery in the Northampton Museum. F.had been formed entirely by hand. The strict Mosaic Law.. still the knowledge of manu- facture of articles of clay. as in all ages. and some methods of decorating them.S. was the raison d'etre of a new school of decoration — Religion here.8 ANCIENT POTTERY by means of the " slip " process. carried away some of the arts of civilisation which they had learned and though with a nomadic people fragile vessels would . This. forbidding the making of any graven image. the Curator. we find that the Jews. There. be in but little request save for use. was not the case with the pottery of what are termed the three great prehistoric periods. In this brief sketch. the transition of Ceramic Art is apparent — from Egypt as its cradle. and considerable skill was required to build up the thin walls of the larger vases or urns in a number of examples . J. chiefly cinerary urns. but as it were from a fresh source. however. the scene of its after-growth and struggle. leaving itsstamp deeply impressed upon Art. they may be said for this reason to have founded the school of floral and "eo- . In tlie earlier periods. it appears again. would have been acquired. after their long sojourn in the land of their advanced taskmasters.G. From a Photograph kindly sufpUed by Mr. Again taking Egypt as a starting-point. George. Though the Jews were not artistic potters. the vessels. T. lost for a time amidst the chaos of revolution. some notice of which will be found in the following chapter. became more common. however. to Greece as itsnursery. these are so neatly rounded as to give them the appearance at first sight of having been turned by a wheel. and to Rome.

Its secrets were kept so well. ANCIENT POTTERY 9 metrical decoration to the exclusion of any animal representation . there is a ceramic art of great antiquity in China. and the other through the e. the Arabs. scarcely anything was known to the outside world of its history.D. whose country they invaded A. specimens the dates of which are anterior to the Arab conquest. a notice of Chinese ancient pottery may be more properly classed with the alphabetically-arranged notices of different manufactories. .were subject under Islamism to a similar law. the one to Greece. to which they were so partial.xodus of the Israelites into Arabia. Apart altogether from the rise of art in Egypt. must of course remain doubt- ful. as Major Murdoch Smith suggests. that until a comparatively recent date. the Persians at that time had acquired considerable culture. to show the con- necting art links between the different countries mentioned. and its chver- gence in two streams. there are but few. the arrange- ment of the collection in the room set apart for its reception being very favourable for an instructive inspection. forming part of the valuable collection bequeathed in 1878 by Mr. the art of decorating pottery. was destroyed by the conquerors. or whether. remarkable for the high state of pro- gress which it appears to have attained with none but native help. The object of this chapter being. and as their successors. should be carefully studied and compared. they were them- selves the pupils of the vanquished. The conquest of the Moors spread over the north of Africa. Spain. upon the Hebrew foundation was raised the edilice of Arabian art. Henderson to the British Museum. and there are abundant traces of brilliant tile decoration. On the other hand. For Major Smith's theory there is much to be said. In the consideration of this question the specimens of Persian and Hispano-Moresco pottery. if any. and Major Smith only accounts for this by the statement that every artistic object of less durable materials than metal or stone. however. and Sicily. ornamenting their famous mosques. 651—652. and he points out that whereas the followers of Mohammed were rude Bedouins. Whether the Arabs taught the Persians. and penetrating wherever the ramifications of trade carried the art products made for other than their own use.

Ur. perhaps the best authority upon the subject of Majolica and similar wares. which included some of the pottery made in the ibland by the old Moorish potters. and show no signs of Moorish origin." seemed to lend colour to the theory of its being derived from the island of Majorca. however. that while the name of the ware probably came from Majorca. and has arrived at the conclusion that these are of native Italian work. has been a matter of contention between writers on the subject. However. In the year 1115 the Pisans are said to have besieged and captured Majorca. Little was known of this kind of . we cannot accord to the Moorish potters the credit of introducing their art into Italy. " Majolica. that during the dark ages the art was neglected. and revived in the early part of the fourteenth century. has carefully examined the fragments of the disks which were said to have been placed by the victorious Pisans in their churches. we cannot deny to them the merit of those beautiful productions which we now term Hispano-Moresco pottery. the manufacture of ornamental earthenware was indigenous in Italy. CHAPTER II Q^cDiaetial anD dcnaisfsfance HETHER the manufacture of an enamelled earthenware with a stanniferous glaze was an art native in Italy. Then we have Passeri's statement that pottery works existed in the neighbourhood of Pesaro from a very early period. therefore. and to have taken with them the captive king and a rich booty. Drury Fortnum. It would seem. If. or whether it was imported from Spain and the Balearic Isles. and the name which was given to the ware. Twenty years ago the author adopted Marryat's view that it was imported.

HISPANO-MORESCO VASE. . Victoria and Albeit Museum.

.

made from the twelfth to the seventeenth century. These are mostly deep. 832 to 878.D." The early Moorish potters have not only left the impres- sion of their Art upon Spanish Ceramics. sometimes with blue colour introduced. The paste is of a dull white colour. C. and the decoration consists of inscriptions in Arabic which are more picturesque than readable. but more generally with a text from the Koran. The orna- mental wall-tiles of the Mosque of Cordova are good specimens of Hispano-Moresco work. Drury Fortnum ascribes the origin of this pottery to the time of the Saracenic occupation of Sicily of some fifty years. somewhat over- fired. Of the later productions of the de- scendants of the first Moorish potters. from A. that of Sicilo. Daviliier wrote his Histoire des Faiences Hispano-Moresques a ReJIds Mctalliques. Paris. Fortnum : " Certain metallic salts were reduced in the reverberatory fur- nace. reflet melalUque. A specimen of . the date of Its the Mosque of Cordova. for the ware made in Sicily which he traces to this Arabic influence. some- times with a coat of arms. round. with the result in the shape of Hispano-Moresco ware. and he has suggested a special title. — MEDI/EVAL AND RENAISSANCE ii pottery as a distinct class until Baron J. but the specimen itself should be carefully studied. save in Museums and Mosques. 8968). madrc- pcrla. manufacture dates from the eighth century.Arabian. we have many excellent representations. decorated with pale or dark copper-coloured lustre. the glaze thick and found in " tears " or " blobs " about the base. which gives a beautiful and rich effect. Dr. and was pur- chased by our Government from the Soulages Collection. 1 86 1. The process that produced the effect known as lustred. as no illustration can do justice to its merits. to light fragments of plain and lustred pottery of an earlier date. It is labelled as the production of Malaga. We give an illustration of this beautiful vase. is thus described by Dr. and under other synonymous terms. sometimes with inter- lacing ornaments. buff-coloured dishes. One of the finest examples of this class is a two-handled vase in the Pottery Gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. but of this early period there are scarcely any examples extant. leaving a thin film upon the surface. which we have just been discussing but excavations in the island of Sicily have brought .

is four feet three inches high and seven feet in circumference . thirteenth to fourteenth century (X'ictoria and Albert Museum). The last refuge of the Moors in Spain from the power of their Christian conquerors was Granada. the well-known fortress-palace. M. its body is very graceful. and here was founded (aliout 1250) the Alhambra. These fine specimens of Moorish pottery are said to have contained gold and treasure. ings and tracings taken by Haron Davillier. The original vase. terminating in a pointed base. Only one now remains and aided by careful draw- . Deck of Paris was enabled some years ago to make a reproduction in faience. wliile its . we thus have an approximate date for the famous Alhambra vases. — 12 MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE this kind of pottery in tlie Victoria and Albert Museum is here illustrated : Sicilo-Arabian Vase. painted with Arabic inscription. of which there is an illustration on the opposite p^ige.

and the painting was upon this surface. The earlier decoration of Italian majolica was by means of a " slip " composed of fine white clay. the finished productions being known by the term " Mezza-Majolica. places the Spaniards have continued the manufacture of their celebrated tiles. and At both the latter Seville. The principal Moorish potteries were at Malaga. The colourings are green. which was then glazed by a transparent preparation composed of oxide of lead and glass. The Allianilira Vase. . and then engraving or incising the design in this "slip" before glazing." Another kind of decorative earthenware was made in the north of by coating the body of the article with a "slip" Italy. or incised ware. from a drawing made in tlie AUiambra Palace. Granada. or argillaceous covering. and not unhke outspread wings. MEDI/EVAL AND RENAISSANCE 13 beaiilifully-propoiiioned neck is ornamented by two handles that are flat. Valencia. This ware has been termed sgraffiati. Granada. sgraff'talo.

Although Della Robbia was a very young man at this time (Paul Lacroix gives his age at seventeen). This talented artist was born about 1 400. — 14 MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE brown. Jacquemart and Dr. The invention of this latter preparation is generally attributed to Luca Robbia. The introduction produce of oxide of tin enabled the potter to an opaque glaze or enamel. and though it is asserted by M. Fortnum that the knowledge of stanniferous or tin-enamel was anterior to Luca della Robbia. there can be no reasonable doubt that he altered and improved the process." and providing a much better vehicle for colours. and yellow . Finding his genius for design cramped by the process of working in metal. that he abandoned marble. to whom are attributed the gates of the Baptistery at Florence. one Leonardo. he appeal s to have had so many orders pressed upon him for execution. a name synonymous with Italian plastic della art.specimens are scarce. and one of a Tazza on a tripod foot. Luca was fortunate enough and patronage to secure the favour of Pietro di Medici. is here illustrated : Tazza of Sgraftiato or Incised Ware. thus obviating the necessity of the " slip. fifteenth century (Louvre ftfuseuni). and worked under a clever goldsmith of Florence. who gave him some commissions for sculpture in the Church of Santa Maria dei Priori at Florence. he applied himself to sculpture. as he . North Italian. and became a pupil of Lorenzo Ghiberti. which is in the Louvre Museum.

painted in various shades of blue. . for the more easily manipulated clay. some good pieces in the Louvre. Several iine specimens of his workmanship still adorn the principal churches of Florence there are also . with a white moulded border or frame. the idea would naturally occur to him to render the clay atmosphere-proof by some enamel. in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 28 inches in diameter. beautifully white. The enamel is fine in quality. before executing his designs in marble . One of a set of twelve round plaques. as a sculptor. MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE 15 liad abandoned metal. rapidity of production became desirable." Ottaviano and Agostino but one does not hear much of them. lie would make his models in wax or clay. and adapted for church enrichment. appears about this time to have taken into partnership his two pupils. and as. who have been termed his " brothers. and our own Victoria and Albert Museum is very rich in Delia Robbia ware. Most of his subjects are in high relief. with his increasing fame. save as working . under his direction. Jacquemart suggests that. He also SPECIMEN OF DELLA ROBBIA WARE. which would improve its effect. and make it an excellent sulistitute for marble.

Andrea was suc- ceeded by his four sons. They represent the twelve months of the year. Giro- lamo. three of whom followed the family calling. A set of round plates or tondini (Nos. are remark- ably tine. we know that he also painted on the flat surface. and the figure in each is a husbandman at work according to themonth represented . his nephew Andrea is the most famous. 7632-7643). Moreover. Meanwhile the home works iiad been directed by Giovaiuii Delia Kobbia. . they are painted in different shades of blue on a white ground. now at the Victoria and Albert Museum.and soform- ing what may be termed a Delia Kobbia school of art." and a general decadence took place. At his death in 1528. went to France. are really masterpieces of plastic art. 1420-1530. St. and highly histrous and the modelling of his cherubs. but the " art " had degenerated into " nianufactme. Doubtless many pieces sold as the work of the great Luca.'\lbert Museum). where Jacquemart tells us that he super- Gubbio Plaque. dated 1501 (Victoria and . . were in reality the product of his grandsons' workshops. Of his descendants. From some good specimens extant. especially the faces.) Luca was succeeded by two generations of artists. although of inferior merit. One of these. (See page 15. their style varying only indetail. and many of his productions are so ex- be easily confounded cellent as to with those of his uncle. Sebastian (in relief). intended the decoration of the Chateau de Madrid in the Bois de Boulogne. i6 MEDI/EVAL AND RENAISSANCE opaque. which have been left quite ungiazed and with theiroriginal sharpnessuntouched.

and others and if he wishes to become acquainted . Urbino. P'aenza. not because its average productions are One of M. other Italian states and cities had made rapid strides in the manufacture of enamelled earthenware — Pesaro. which also contains a sketch-map showing the geographical position of some twenty-three of these Italian factories. worked there. well arranged. (See separate notice of Majolica. Caffagiolo. Chapter VII. Gubbio. Ravenna. While Florence had become famous for Delia Robbia ware. FaiencesItalienncs dit Moycn Age ct dc la Renaissance. and in consequence many imitations were made. Pisa. Giorgio's signatures. It is really a wonderful exhibit. Delange and Borneau's beautifully illustrated volume. Castel Durante. Forli. Bologna. the reader should study MM. with whose name the celebrated Gubbio plates are now associated. Naples. In the new Sculpture Gallery at the Victoria and Albert Museum the reader will find numerous examples of this school of ceramic modelling and enamelling. Turin.) The most noted in the list of ateliers of the Italian Renais- sance is that of Gubbio. Giorgio Andreoli. more excellent than those of other factories. with the characteristics of these different fabriqucs. MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE ^7 the secret of the white enamel had become widely known. He was a native . but because a certain artist.

creamy. Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was known as. There is a plate by him in the British Museum. lead glaze. The first real porcelain made in Europe. Artists of celebrity not only prepared designs. 1538—74. Sebastian. century. which was in the Duchy of Urbino. modelled in relief. It is dated 1501.) . During this period. of a kind of soft paste with a thick. Chap.i8 MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE of Pavia. and of which we give an illustration on page 16. He was subsequently ennobled by his patron the Duke Guidobaldo. From the end of the fifteenth to the middle of the sixteenth. Maestro Giorgio. under the patron- age of Francesco de Medici. by stimulating the recipients of these much-valued gifts to become proprietors of majolica manufactories themselves. ceramic art in Italy may be said to have been at its best. too." (See notice under Flokence. which is in the Victoria and Albert Museum. and the bottle decorated with Renaissance ornament in cobalt blue which is in the Salt- ing collection is a good representative specimen. though the fallacy that Raffaele actually decorated the majolica known as Kaffaele ware has been ex- ploded by the incompatibility of dates. but painted many of the pieces. is stated to have been made at Florence. signed and dated 15 17. a practice serving as a great encouragement to the Art. and on becoming established at Gubbio. he acquired the right of citizenship. It was translucent. and generally signed himself. Giorgio were particularly brilliant. and in the same show-case are several other very fine specimens. About a hundred years previous to this there is a record of a " transparent and beautiful porcelain " having been made at Venice. subjects from the Scriptures and mythology were intro- duced as decoration for vases and plates. Many of the finest specimens were made for presentation to neighbouring poten- tates. The first known dated specimen attributed to him is the plaque of St. but no one knows of the actual existence of any more convincing evidence of fifteenth- century European porcelain. and the writer of a letter which has been preserved mentions the sending of two specimens to a friend in Padua. dated as early as 1580. he must have worked diligently. and to take a personal interest in their progress. and especially while Guidobaldo was Duke of Urbino. VII. his signatures showing various curious con- tractions and combinations of rough sketchy monograms. and his lustred ware is remarkably iridescent. and judging from the number of specimens extant. and is known as " Medici china. The pigments used by M.

which also found liberal patronage amongst the nobility of P'rance. were produced. Saintes. so rich in works of art. The introduction of the tin-enamel gave a great impetus to ceramic art. Bernard Palissy. spread from Italy to France. and vases which have rendered him justly famous. which mentions the manufacture of artistic of somewhat elaborate design. Urbino. followed. majolica. in 1553. though only tempo- rary. at the death of its patron. Doubtless the manufacture of pottery of some artistic pretension may be traced to native fabnqiies before any foreign introduction. just before and during the reign of Francis I. The marriage. Of poor parentage. afterwards Henri II. We have observed that the art of making enamelled earthen- ware. he seems to have had a natural thirst for knowledge. The traces of a soon vanished. too. dated 22nd September 1557. with Catherine de Medici. called generally.. The French. (1631). by a potter of tiles. that time. the Duke Francesco Maria II. about 15 10. to which . and those curious dishes. of the Dauphin. and adapted the different improvements they thus learned to their existing potteries of Beauvais. MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE 19 Towards the end of the sixteenth century. in pieces with French in- scriptions that show signs of unfarailiarity with the language. a small village between the Lot and Dordogne in Perigord. and others. In the archives of Rouen is a document quoted by Jacquemart. prepared a road which Francis I. daughter of the Duke of Urbino. had achieved a success dearly bought and richly merited. the production of majolica seems to have languished. Partly on account of this and partly owing to increased competition. too. appear very speedily to have naturalised Italian art. However. This remarkable man was born. and can now foreign element usually be detected only by experts. at La Chapelle Biron. and the taste of the French was thoroughly awakened by contact with the Italians and an acquaintance with their cities. About this time. but certainly a great improvement may be attributed to the importation of Italian potters and artists. would account for the introduction of Italian artists into France. the factory at Castel Durante being the last to remain in a flourishing condition. it followed in the wake of the Pesaro.. plates. Eastern porcelain was introduced into Italy. and many other important manufactories of Italian enamelled earthenware. however. after many trials and failures. though not very accurately. The occupation of Naples by Charles VIII. for the King.

therefore. it is said. after again and again refusing to sacrifice his religious principles. notwithstanding the personal influence of the Due de Montpensier. tardy as it was. his excellent representa- . happening to observe a beautiful cup of enamelled pottery. set about his task under considerable disadvantages. and some years later. and settled in Saintes as a glass painter and land measurer. who gave him liberal commissions and protection. he was once personally urged to do so by the King (Henri 111. a martyr. He married in 1539. and obtained for him the patronage of Henri II. after discharging his last workman for want of money pay wages. and. though figures and flowers were occasionally introduced.20 MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE want of means proved but a slender barrier. and. of F'rance. as in art. In religion. and the whole of his savings and the principal part of his scanty earnings were also devoted to the object he had so enthusiastically set his mind to attain.). he was proscribed by the edict of the Parliament of Bordeaux in 1562. His fame soon spread. though. and at length. principles. was arrested and his workshop de- stroyed. could not deter him from the keen pursuit of what appeared to all his friends and neighbours a hope- less task. like so many cjthers of his time. and the distress of his home. how- ever. to the Protestant faith. Beyond a knowledge of glass manufacture he possessed no other technical information. it came at last. The King claimed him as a special servant in order to save his life. and Palissy had the delight of removing from his kiln a comparatively perfect specimen of the enamelled earthenware with which his name has been identified. when he died. Bartholomew by Court protection. The sub- jects he elected to illustrate are well known reptiles of every : variety. in high relief and of wonderful fidelity to nature. he was again arrested and confined in the Bastille. and to have liad no other end in life but to disc(5ver the secret of a line enamel. and he found time to visit the chief provinces of France and Flanders. he seems to have been seized with a remark- able enthusiasm to become a potter. and parting with every marketable to chattel he possessed. and subsequently he only escaped the massacre of St. For sixteen long years victory was denied to this zealous potter. That he was naturalist as well as potter. were the strong points of his decoration. The complaints of his wife. At the age of eighty. and. Palissy was earnest and conscientious having embraced Protestant . he actually burned the floor boards of his house in a last attempt to make a successful firing. but. Experiment after experiment only resulted in dis- appointment. lingered on in prison until 15^9.

a. .

.

There are some excellent examples to refer to in the Salting bequest. many imitators and pupils. iialioiial. It is. and the manufacture Palissy had of the PaHssy ware was continued until the time of Henri IV. cyphers. Italy. Helene de Hengest. give us the Gothic window of the collegiate chapel of Oiron. a decoration by incrustation rather than by painting. Salt-cellars. unlike Palissy ware or the enamelled pottery of an encrusted faience. with a family group of this monarch and his children. . this. and Grand- Master of France. and was said to have established under her immediate patronage a pottery managed by Bernart and Charpentier.. should be Consulted. are much clumsier. exists now. L'QLnvres de Bernard Palissy. widow of Artur Goufher. and idiosyncrasies of her friends. but after her demise. supported by buttresses having the form of the symbolic termini supporting the chimney-pieces of the great gallery of the Chateau Gouftier (some few years afterwards sacked during the religious wars). in 1537. and then filled them in with a coloured clay. the decoration became richer and mainly of an architectural type pieces of this class are now occasionally . MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE 21 tions of reptiles and insects cnn leave no doubt.^ It may be observed here that the original Palissy vase was very light the imitations . which he made level with the surface. During Helene's lifetime the pieces were principally vases commemorating the death. and shields also occur as part of the ornamentation. The ware was of fine paste. and it is worthy of remark. and has been repeatedly copied. though it is said that not more than sixty-five authenticated specimens are in existence. the fabriqui' being con- tinued by her son. seen in good collections. worked with the hand. in which he graved the principal ornaments. without exception. formerly governor of Francis I. therefore. the celebrated. and very thin. is Its origin is attributed to a woman of great taste. Marguerite of Navarre.inge et Boineaii's illusLrated volume. Del. and now extremely rare. ' MM. A plate. His celebrated Marguerite daisy ornament was in all probability adopted out of compliment to his Protestant pro- tectress. that these natural objects are. Saint Porchaire ware claims attention after Palissy . Royal emblems. and upon the first nucleus the potter spread a still thinner layer of purer and whiter earth. This lady used to reside during the summer at the chateau of Oiron (a small locality in the dependency of Thouars). triangular or square. In speaking of French ceramics of the Renaissance period. virtues.

1893. or Henri Deux ware . a learned writer on French art. it has been acknowledged by collectors under its more correct title of Saint Porchaire. l>ci|uest llie Victoria and Allien Museum authorities appear to prefer the former name of Henri II. Those of our readeis who would ' In the calalojjuc of the Sahini. known by the name of Faience cfOirou. three specimens which were found in an old clothes-basket under a bedstead at Narford Hall. realised the enormous sum of £b2-}. who took some pains to trace its origin to the village of Saint Porchaire. and this is now at the Victoria and Albert Museum. ware. Edouard Bonnafte. At the sale of Saint Porcliaire Sall-cellar (Victoria and AUierl Museum).b.^3675. At the Spitzer sale in Paris. . 22 MEDIAEVAL AND RENAISSANCE This beautiful faience was./. the Fountaine (Narford Hall) collection. on the authority of M. George Salting for £1500. was purchased by Mr. and to judge by the more recent public sales where pieces have changed owner- ship its price seems to rise rather than fall.i2i8. a tazza which at the Hamilton Palace sale a few years previous had brought . but. A candlestick in the collection of Mr.^ Of all ceramic gems it is the most costly. until a few years ago. Leopold Koths- child cost the stun of .

Some of the more important of these makers will be found noticed in the alphabetical list of ceramic factories in a subsequent chapter —among others that of Franvois Briot. MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE = 3 learn more and coveted kind of particulars of this highly prized ware which was compiled by Mr.abellian Sluneware Tiisj. then. Chaffers and will find a table. is a reason for its value.. Eli/. . . the "Henri II. and the ware of Palissy but at this time a considerable number of smaller ateliers were producing specimens of varying merit. a skilful goldsmith. in the later editions of Chatters' Marks and Monograms. therefore. The famous wares of the Renaissance period were." or Saint Porchaire. as well as its undoubted merit. Chap. the limited production. (See separate notice under Saint Porchaire. revised and brought up to date by the author of the present work. under the immediate patronage of many art-loving seigneurs in Southern France. VII. silver-mounted.) The success of this beautiful and delicate faience did not outlive the two first potters. Mall Mark dale 1600 (Victoria and Albert Miiseinii).

(See notice under Briot. . bringing to Europe a better acquaintance with the Saracenic art. embracing the pottery of Persia. which is now on such an enormous scale in England. The Persian school of ceramics. Under separate notices in Chapter VII. Some. With the Middle Ages had come the Crusades. bear as part of their decoration the coat of arms or heraldic device of the owner of the property where they were made.) As upon specimens from some of these smaller French potteries there is no fabriquc mark. belongs to the period which we are now considering.. on Persia and Rhodes. is sometimes confounded with it. Damascus. Anatolia. old Mosaic Law . however. and the production of tiles.and in the later productions of the thirteenth to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries we find this influence still predominant. Chap. some fuller particulars relative to this kind of pottery will be found. when figures of men and of animals began to appear in tlie scheme of decorations. though it wanes during the seventeenth century.24 MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE and also a potter. and Rhodes. contemporary with that of Palissy. In the preceding chapter some allusion has been made to this school. it is difficult to decide to which potter to assign them. influenced as it was by the Teapiii of Klers Ware (VioUiiia and Albert Miiscimi). may be said to have originated from this source. whose woik. VII.

MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE 2S G(. the brothers Elers. Victoria of the Continental potters. and. VII. later. and patents granted in 1626. (if Kulliam Stoneware (Schreil)er Collection. (See also and Albert Museinn).) Some thirty or forty years previous to this date. VII. cannettes of Cologne being made about the si. where their manu- facture was attempted. Stoneware of a decorative kind was also made in Nuremberg and many other parts of Germany the famous . Eleks.) The well-known "greybeards" may be mentioned her . stoneware of a superior kind had been made at Staffordshire.rman Stoneware (Sixteenth Century). (See notice under Cologne. who brought with them the secrets that were known at the time to some Bellarminc. Chap. the fictile art in England received an impetus by the immigration of some Dutch potters. one of the earliest potters being one William Simp- son. Chap. how- ever.xteenth century. Coffee-pot. and imported thence to England. Four-iiandled Waler-iug.

hul which has been . decxn'alcil in slip (Vicloria and Alliert Museum) quotes from an old play. Tradition ascribes to the Cardinal a somewhat bulky person. together with a long beard. Under the notices of different potteries in Chapter VII. Mr." For those who are interested in tracing our slang terms back to their derivation. was unpopular in the Low Countries. who. John Dwight established in 1671 a manu- factory where. jewitt Dish ofTtffl Ware. In P'ulham. showing that the vernacular " mug" was taken from these jugs. he succeeded in producing a material which he termed porcelain.26 MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE These jugs were first made in caricature of Cardinal Bellarmine.. after many experiments. through opposition to the Reformed rehgion. hence these jugs were called " Bellarmines. the reader will find some particulars of the work of both English and Continental potters during the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- turies.

Before passing on to the introduction of porcelain. Thomson Boynton possesses a similar specimen which is illustrated on 27 from a photograph. the manufacture of which flourished in the seventeenth century. those quaint. availed itself of its large importation of Eastern porcelain to attempt copies thereof. will give an idea of this peculiar ware. 26 of a very quaint dish. VII." and concerning which. Franks. slip-decorated posset-pots. House. p. in Mr. in the early years of the seventeenth century. The old Dutch town of Delft. has yet much of the feeling and character of Oriental porce- . P'rancis Place's china. which marks a distinct period in our national ceramics. MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE 27 happily called by Professor Churcli a '' porcellaneous stoneware. belonging to a nation which. at potteries in theneighbourhood of Nottingham. Chap. and established fabrique in the Manor -a. The illustration on p. only z\ inches high. Thomas Buymon's CoiiL-ction. (See also notice under Flilham. between The Hague and Rotterdam." and for which he took out a patent. „ i„ ^ ^^r Small Cup of Place s Ware potter of this period (seventeenth century). mention must be made of the celebrated Delft. and dishes which are picturesque ceramic reminiscences of this time. in appearance resembling agate. more details are given. He was apparently a gentleman of ample means and cultured taste. Francis Place deserves mention as a „ . and has a time-worn and faintly-inscribed label which is in all probability in the handwriting of Horace Walpole — " Mr. tygs. W. Some excellent stoneware jugs and tankards were also made at Brampton near Chesterfield." Mr. signed by the potter. which was presented to the Museum by the late Sir A. In Staffordshire our potters were making those buff-coloured dishes which we now recognise as " Toft ware.) At Wrotham. was the only European Power to'which the Japanese allowed an entrance into their ports." which. under a separate notice. though an earthenware in substance. These took the shape of a product known as " Delft. were produced. There is in the Victoria and Albert Museum a quaint little mug. York.. in Kent. at that time. It was purchased at the famous sale of the contents of Strawberry Hill. and some other districts.

Like the term majolica. is very closely assimilated to its original models.2 8 MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE lain. Design uf Ornament on Pottery liy I'alissy- . in the fine colour (the Oriental blue) and peculiar bluish-white of the ground of some of the best specimens. and. " Delft " is often wrongly applied to all kinds of glazed earthenware.

Pottery is opaque and breaks with a rough fracture. used as a currency in their traffic little cowrie shells {poixcllana). although the actual periods of the almanac or the life of a sovereign may not coincide with the changes to which we refer. to refer to a certain form of ornament as Queen Anne " " or " Georgian. the pioneers of Eastern trade. will show rough edges where broken. of which we shall speak presently. a reign. Porcelain is translucent and breaks with a smooth fracture. The derivation of the word Porcelain is said to be from the Portuguese porccllana (a little pig). so called from their shape resembling that of a pig. should include tho^e articles produced by an artificial mixture of certain mineral elements. It is convenient in a general way to consider steam and telegraphy as the product of the nineteenth century. its shell-like appearance at . or their English ones of china clay and felspar. CHAPTER III porcelain ITS INTRODUCTION INTO EUROPE AND GENERAL ADOPTION E are accustomed to speak and to write of certain marked developments in Art and Industry as belonging to a century. china. The term " porcelain. that is. and the novel commodity required a name. either shell-like or granular according to its composition. or a dynasty. Ceramics have always been rightly divided into two distinct classes —pottery and porcelain. hard or soft paste. When they brought home the first specimens of real porcelain from China. known by their Chinese names of kaolin and petuntse. just as the sixteenth was that of majolica. as it is often called." or. and is explained by the fact that the Portuguese." and in a similar connection we must consider the eighteenth century as the century of porcelain.

2. Porcelain varies considerably in composition. and at a lower temperature. Mr. all possess a vitreous body and a soft glaze which could be scratched by a knife or other sharp instrument. — 30 PORCELAIN once suggested tlie title. or a Minton imitation of Sevres. A very soft or as it is technically termed " fat " specimen of old Sevres. Whatever be the combination of clays. is applied by a subsequent firing to that of the body. and under this classih- cation he includes the early Florentine porcelain made in the si. Hard paste of whatever nationality is very similar in its component parts. instead of forming itself in it does in the case of hard paste the kiln as porcelain. and contains only the natural elements already mentioned of china clay and felspar. while the felspar is a dry. M. which vary in each case. lime. Brongniart distinguishes a third class which he terms porcelainc inixte or hybridc. Acids from fruits. unless the file should be specially tempered for such a hard substance. 3.xteenth century and that of some other Italian fabriqucs. they have all a general similarity. hard paste and soft paste. This felspar con- stitutes by itself the hard glaze which is the surface of hard porcelain. sand. also that afterwards made at Vincennes and Sevres. William Burton in his valuable writings on this subject has given the analyses of the different compositions. which embraces the china made at Bow and Chelsea and the other English factories which followed them. Soft paste porcelain is of different kinds. it will resist any attempt to make an impression. ruul dyes. always excepting Plymouth and Bristol. This glaze. and their softness is a question of degree. The china clay is an infusible plastic body. aiiificielle in which we should include the Porcelainc tcndrc earliest made French porcelain of Rouen and St. fusible material by which the whole mass is bound together in partial vitrifaction. varying according to the particular recipe adopted and also to the purpose for which the porcelain is intended. and is divided roughly into two classes. will . Brongniart has divided it into three classes : I. Cloud. Porcelain tcndrc nalnrcUc. each differing in appearance to a trained eye and also to the touch. and has termed them artificial porcelain. a piece of Nantgarw. or of animal and mineral ingredients which make up the many varieties of soft paste porcelain. too. and as porcelain or china it has ever since been known. and if we attempt to scratch this with a file or the blade of a knife.

it naturally cannot compare favourably with it in respect of durability. by Archbishop Warham some time between 1504 and 1532. Amongst the new year's gifts to Queen Eliza- beth. by Philip of Austria. was "a porringer of white porselyn and a cup of green porselyn. the edges of soft paste porcelain when broken will be granular or. — PORCELAIN 31 stain soft paste. as it has been described. The secrets of manufacture were well kept by the Celestials. when a present of some "Oriental china bowls" was made to Sir Thomas Trenchard. like porc'laiii earth. which. Probably one of the most ancient specimens of porcelain in England is the Celadon bowl which was presented to New College. and while the fracture hard paste will show edges of like those of a broken shell. being driven there by stress of weather during his voyage from the Low Countries to Spain. Oxford. Robert Cecil. hence the old couplet "True fame. owing to the monopoly of Eastern trade. " which porcelain is a kind of plaster buried in the earth. when his Majesty visited Weymouth. 1587-88." presented by Lord Burghleigh and Mr. Specimens of Chinese porcelain had found their way to England as early as 1506." It was also stated that porcelain was made of eggshells and beaten small and buried seashells. speaks of the " tniiies" of porcelain. Thus Lord Bacon." Another fable was that the mysterious porcelain cups were of such a nature as to betray poison by a sudden change of transparency. in default of better information. like the broken surfaces of a lump of sugar. It is also hred at a lower temperature than the hard paste china. and by length of time congealed and glazed into that fine substance. and that. and while it lends itself to the colour effects of decoration more kindly than does the harder description of china. then High Sheriff. while be impervious to such hard paste will contact. in the earth for a hundred years . and inquisitive travellers were regaled with many a hoax. every specimen brought home had been carried across the desert on the backs of camels. enjoyed first by the Portuguese and subsequently by the . certainly one of the best-informed men of his time. in an argument at the bar during the impeachment of Haste. It must of course be borne in mind. was retailed and believed in Europe. that before the Cape of Good Hope had been doubled by the Portuguese traders. for years must lay Buried and mixed with elemental clay.

The information thus acquired by the French potters laid the founda- tion of the famous manufactory at Sevres. was mortally wounded. attracted the attention of art-loving sovereigns and noble patrons of the different ceramic ateliers. Jacquemart tells us of the liberal offers made by Alfonso. as having in- creased from 300 to 3000 and the same writer. Duke of Ferrara. Pere d'Entrecolles. There is some doubt as to who can claim the credit of having first made porcelain in Europe. the EngHsh East India Company was shut out from import- ing Oriental porcelain for some time after its formation in 1650. who established a mission in some of the provinces of the Celestial Empire. Its finer and more compact body. in a previous chapter. accounting in a great measure for this. Oriental porcelain had connnanded a very high price amongst collectors the difficulty of importation. Modena. who appears to .32 PORCELAIN Dutch. which he was believed to possess. the Superior-General of the French Jesuits in China. and there was considerable excitement lest he should die without first revealing the secret of making porcelain. which is substantiated by the archives of Florence. that of Feouliang. previous to its introduction into Europe as a manufacture. one Camillo. having learnt from his Chinese converts many particulars. In 1567. and the manufacture of artistic majolica was comparatively forsaken. its superiority for all vessels of use. maker of vases. and. is interesting as showing the importance attached to the secret of making porcelain. We have seen. Jacquemart quotes an extract from the note of the ambassador to the Grand Duke of P'lorence. . mentions the number of furnaces in a single province. Another story. but who declined the Duke's over- tures on account of the journey and his age. to the exclusive manners of the Chinese. writing in 1717. how the importation of true porcelain into Europe about the end of the seventeenth century caused the decline of the majolica fahriqitcs. to obtain the services of a Venetian potter who was reputed to possess the coveted secret. and Reggio. have been most anxious to impart to his countrymen the secret of porcelain manufacture. sent home a list of specific instructions. to Father Orry at Paris in 17 12. who was also chief potter. moreover. It must also be re- membered that. accom- panied by specimens. owing . and jxiinter. the master-founder. owing to the accidental discharge of a cannon in the ducal arsenal. the novelty and secret of its production. announcing the event to his master: "Camillo da Urbino.

was sent with three workmen under a cavalry escort to Konigstein. but there is no record of any successful production until later. In 1695 a soft porcelain of fine quality was made at St. and by this act of fidelity became subjected to less rigorous confine- ment. Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. Venice also claims to have been the first in this field. These Jacquemart quotes in exteiiso. in the presence of the King. recording the visits of royalty and aristocracy to the factory. Cloud (see Chap. how- ever. His fellow-prisoners formed a plan of escape. and fostered by the keen personal interest of Augustus II.) From the notices of the different factories in Chapter VII. untilthe great manufactory at Meissen was opened under his directorate in 1709-10. This was termed Medici porcelain. and afterwards to many other German towns. The first true hard porcelain was. was plunged into a vessel of cold water without sustaining any injury. Chap. though we know that attempts were made as early as 1520. and supply of the kaolin. by means of runaway workmen. (See notice of Dresden. this manufactory became in a few years famous for its beautiful productions. and he improved on this signal triumph in subsequent trials. the career of prosperity was short. where. . PORCELAIN 33 chemist in some sort to your Excellency. safe from molestation. the secret of porcelain manufacture spread to other centres first to Vienna. In 1708 he succeeded in withdrawing from his furnace a seggar containing a teapot. wherever the facilities existed for the establishment of the necessary works. Bottger. In a great number of cases..). of Sweden .. but Bottger was prudent enough to disclose the scheme.xtracts from the Mcraire de France for the year 1700. and the invention was protected by special royal patents and con- cessions. who is the real Modena inventor of porcelain. owing to many diffi- C . however. Every precaution was taken to ensure the secrecy of the highly-prized recipe and when Charles XII. it will be seen how. he could continue his work in a laboratory especially fitted up for him in the fortress. invaded Saxony in 1706. at that time busily employed in making the experiments that resulted successfully some three years later. and only some forty specimens are known to exist. also some interest- ing e. which. VII. made in Saxony in the year 1709." In the preceding chapter some reference has been made to the first soft paste porcelain made at Florence. and under the notice of that factory some additional particulars will be found. VII.

discovered . removed to Lambeth or Chelsea about 1710. we find the story of a master potter named John Astbury feigning idiocy in order to get employment in the Elers' works. they have intrinsically an artistic value superior to the vast bulk of the productions of more recent manufactories. produced a red ware. like Continental rivals. Three years afterwards he produced his celebrated cream ware. it is said that the Elers only employed workmen of the lowest intelligence for certain processes. in consequence. called "Queen's ware. Such factories were often the expensive toys of artistic potentates. after a short partnership first with Harrison and then with Thomas Whieldon. but because. that the Elers relinquished their works in Staffordshire and. It was on account of competition and the annoyance of finding that rival potters shared their jealously guarded secrets. as they were in many cases produced at great cost. Specimens of their manufacture have.34 PORCELAIN culties. which had by this time developed into a very extensive business. I In England our potters had not been idle in attempting to produce. In Dr. not unlike that made by Bottger of Meissen. orwhen from other circumstances funds were not available. settling in Bradwell and also near Burslem. In 1752 John Sadler. become rare and valuable. a book which contains a vast amount of carefully collected information on the subject. We have seen how John Dwight in the latter half of the seventeenth century nearly succeeded. Shaw. and also closely assimilated to the earlier red Chinese ware. Shaw's History of the Staffordshire Potteries. who having been apprenticed to his father in 1744. which are conducted on commercial principles. a material that would their compare favourably with the real porcelain of China. without regard to making the factory self-supporting. and also how the brothers Elers. according to Dr. not only for their scarcity. The next great name which stands out in the history of ceramic progress in England is that of Josiah Wedgwood. As an illustration of the extreme caution observed by success- ful potters.of which the cost of management was not the least. fearing that their secret would be known and betrayed. started on his own account in 1759. and so obtain access to their secret recipes and methods. and perished for lack of the necessary subsidies when the patron died. a master printer of Liverpool." and in 1768 he took Thomas Bentley into partnership for the orna- mental work in his manufactory.

which had considerable . the diffi- difficult to realise the culties. — PORCELAIN 35 the cheaper and quicker method of decorating Wedgwood's cream-coloured ware by transfer printing (see Liverpool. In 1764 the soap rock yields well. VI 1. it is heartburnings and jealousies. enormously increased the demand for such ware. and when the level is in. and is duly shipped ?'/rf Hull to Liverpool. but was afraid of a disturbance between the lords of the land when he weighed it off. Joseph Mayer. soon after his adventurous and successful journey is well — told by Mr.). in whose collection are some of the trial pieces of Chaffers' porcelain. May 23. to find and purchase the "soap- rock " which was the necessary ingredient. Richard Chaffers. with a thousand guineas in his holsters. —"We have found a very good bunch of clay . experiments had been made by William Cookworthy of Plymouth with Cornish kaolin and granite stone. his first presentation was to his great rival." 1763. the " mine " of soap rock was sold to the Worcester Porcelain Company for ^500. The who died in story of Richard Chaffers — 1765. Chap. hearing of Wedgwood's success." travelled on horseback to Cornwall in 1755. "Sends off ten tons more in thirty-five casks. and suspense endured by our eighteenth- century potters. and also a note that in May 1755. or some years previously. when articles of china are in such common daily use. and a patent. by means of this process. About this time. in producing a material which should equal or surpass the famous Chinese porcelain. In these days of the twentieth century. — " Teppit had weighed of the clay nine tons and seventeen hundred of as nice a clay as ever was seen. October 2. Thus : 1756. When he found this material in Cornwall. his charges out at this present was not up nor down of thirteen pound. December 8. In the large edition of Chaffers there are given some extracts from letters written in the year 1756-63 respecting the results of Richard Chaffers' ex- pedition." 1761. and they read now almost as do the reports from the managers of gold mines in Africa or Western Australia at the present day. if it holds we can rise two or three hundred a day. I hope it will serve for many years. — October 5. and succeeded in producing a china similar to Oriental porcelain. Wedgwood. and he and liis partner Guy Green." There are many more. and fearing that he would be beaten out of the market unless he could find the means to manufacture " true porcelain." 1759. — "He will send about ten tons of clay. and said there was a man down in October who said he would give any money for such a parcel. a prominent Liverpool potter.disappointments.

then. and Dr. in making and improving " true porcelain. Various patents were taken out by inventors of new processes. was taken out by him in 1758. are those of some of the pioneers. There are in books and newspapers of the time many re- ferences to the new invention of the da}'. . Mr.36 PORCELAIN influence upon our native porcelain manufacture. Knife-handle of Mene^y porcelain. Under the different notices in a I subsequent chapter the reader will find particulars of ail these factories the dates of their initiation are given here to emphasise . Dilwyn produced his beautiful Swansea and Nantgarw china. and the Rockingham works were founded in 1757. John Turner commenced his china works at Caughley." The names of inventors. During the eighteenth century. while in the north of Ireland Mr. and developed into an important industry. and manufacturers of porcelain. and there was. and the Davenports in England. Numerous quotations from the letters of persons interested in this novel industry might be given. China was made at Lowestoft in 1756. Shropshire. Wall of Wor- cester founding the celebrated factory in that city. founders.) Then we have the commencement of the Chelsea Factory prior to 1745. William 1 Duesbury establishing the Derby Works." It is a sign of the times that the Bow manu- factory was called " New Canton. Wethat the Bow Factory was doing an know extensive business in — 1760 and in 175 we find Mr. In Wales. to which we have just referred. Armstrong's enterprise achieved the Belleek factory. (See notices on these factories in Chap. The works at Plymouth were transferred to Bristol in 1770. VII. our potters were making great strides in the development and perfecting of their art. as we have seen." while in the epitaph of Thomas Frye he is described as " The Inventor and First Manufacturer of Porcelain in England. which the different clays and methods are in discussed. in 1772. the fact that in England. we find that in England and on the European continent the manufacture of porcelain passed through its early experimental stages. the great house of Mintons. as on the Continent. an active rivalry between manufacturers and art patrons. Later we have Spocle and his successor Copeland.

and in too many cases art degenerates into manufacture. the great commercial ideal of making a speculation remunerative is applied more and more to undertakings having for their object the pro- duction of artistic works. and the artist is no longer dependent upon a single patron. Furthermore. not as formerly. wealth and civilisation. With respect. Against this disadvantage. however. one can scarcely contrast the modern period with the ancient. we must set off the vast increase in the support and encouragement accorded to artists. When the collector looks about him. She now aims. with the growth of . but to supply the wants of the many. for porcelain the eighteenth. to pottery and porcelain. and not commercial undertakings carried on for profit. however. CHAPTER IV 00oDern NArt. even though his investi- gation goes no further than the shop windows of one of our . even if her laws have altered but little. for copies of good originals affords the producer means of recouping himself for his outlay on the latter. a characteristic phase of development has been the gradual education of the million to a knowledge of its many wants thus. On the other hand. as in manufactures. the circumstances of Art have materially changed. to produce luxuries for the few. as most of the finest European ceramic specimens only date back to a relatively recent period — for majolica the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. in con- sidering the matter. but upon society at large. we have to compare the productions of our own time with those of a period when potteries were the play- things of sovereigns. and therefore the increase in the number of persons trained to art pursuits also the modern demand .

Some few factories have with varying vicissitudes con- tinued from their foundation to the present time . too rigid an adherence to the old models and designs. because the limited production was insufficient to support the heavy expenses attending the manage- ment. though the bad copy offends the critical eye of the connoisseur. The small Bavarian factory at Nymphenburg is still carried on. The increase in the manufacture of pottery as distinct from porcelain is on a very much more extensive scale. should have something to educate it in the direction of the good original. founded 1709: Sevres. and compares the inferior wares exhibited with specimens of early Sevres. the following are the chief: Dresden.38 MODERN fashionable London streets. even though some of these now pass with their merit unacknowledged. not by its worst specimens. 1745. To the modern German school is due the revival of over- decorated Vienna china. Berlin. and Minton in 1793. he is apt to exclaim at the sad degeneration of ceramic art. Secondly. or Oriental porcelain.). 175 1 . it must be recollected that " the survival of the fittest " is an axiom in Art as it is in science. with a very moderate number of exceptions. so posterity will judge of our nineteenth-century art. the fallen have been re- cruited by an army potters who started some years after- of wards : our English Wedgwood commencing business in 1759. was resuscitated in 1772. When the State or Royal factory ceased in 1864. surely it is better that the public. Dresden. the Royal Saxony or Meissen manufactory. he must carefully separate art from manufacture for . if it must have ornament cheaply provided. and here and there fresh factories of porcelain have been established. Worcester. The ranks of 1751. But before passing sentence he must consider two things. and made a State concern in 1775. in A revival of the old Capo Monte works has been effected by the Marquis Ginori di at his establishment near Florence the Copenhagen factory. Its chief fault is ultra-conservatism in its management. and a general want of vigour in breaking fresh ground. First. It will be seen by reference to the list of different factories (Chapter Vll. . and some of the employes . The first-named of the old factories. its plant was sold. too. and that as the best is preserved to us from former ages. decline and fall followed rise and progress in a compara- tively short space of time. but by its best. rather than something without prece- dent as well as without merit. Spode 1784. that. has held its own to the present time.

by the Royal Worcester Porcelain Company. a vase in the Italian style. . WORCESTER PORCELAIN. Specimen of modern work.

.

richly gilded. The Sevres manufactory lives somewhat upon its past re- putation . (See notes in Chapter VI. and though the forms and ground colours are very good. and of other kinds of porcelains which are in request. and although the present productions are of a meretricious character. in which the representation of Imperial portraits is a pro- minent form of decoration. and generally badly painted china. but the anxiety for profit.) The Berlin factory produces a great many presentation speci- mens. MODERN 39 started works of their own. At first the better traditions of the old factory were maintained. Unfortunately. the delicacy of the old pate iendre is wanting. too.). they use the same mark as that of their more worthy and painstaking predecessors. of M.") In some cases new factories have been started in the place of extinct ones. and the sale of Sevres porcelain was accordingly prohibited. It also makes a large quantity of high-class porcelain for table services. and the paint- ing of the subjects shows a great falling off from the days of Madame de Pompadour. of old Worcester. Until recently one was able to purchase at the Sevres manu- factory specimens of recent productions. led these men and to their successors to produce tawdry copies of the vases and ser- vices of better times.and tiie endeavour meet a demand for cheapness. Deck. To the modern French school of ceramic art belong the fac- tories of M. of Limoges. Specimens are now pre- sented to individuals in recognition of some public service. generally resembling inferior modern Dresden. on " Counterfeit Marks. we have to place to the account of modern German manufacturers some of the worst forgeries and imitations of old Dresden. (See also notes on "Misleading Marks" in Chapter VI. but some few years ago the Government came to the conclusion that as a State concern under a Republican form of government it should not enter into competition with private enterprise. and the surviving concerns make large quantities of china for table use. Pillevuyt {ci-v. and some specimens are marked in imitation of older and more sought after fabriqitcs. now owned . The group of hard paste porcelain factories which towards the end of the eighteenth century grew up in the forest district of Thuringia have gradually abandoned the production of the higher description of goods. Therefore " modern Vienna " has become a byword for over-decorated.

. Le Nove. The lustred or iridescent majolica of the sixteenth cen- tury has been successfully reproduced. are many makers and decorators.). and use in lieu of a date-mark the initial of their own name. and the colouring is more crude. In the close vicinity of Paris. whose artistic majolica is particularly good. who established a factory at Belleville in 1790. of Faenza. Marseilles. and the quality is good.40 MODERN by Haviland & Co. according to the class of demand catered for.) Of the modern Italian school of ceramics. one must not forget various minor fabriqucs. bad. and some others. perhaps the chief is the large manufactory of the Marquis Ginori. Of the colours thus revived. Moustiers." Chapter VI. which may often be seen in some of the best of our London china houses. The manufacture of faience of an ornamental kind is carried on France upon an enormous scale. are making. and Cubbio {(j-v. too. and also of the early faiences of Rouen. including that factory of excellent ceramic statuary or " biscuit" of " Maison Gille. The majolica manufacturers of Bologna. Imola. but the shapes are excellent. the decora- tion of a high class. Several of these are alluded to in the notices of different factories in Chapter VIL In a notice. while the imitation of the beautiful rose du Barry is the least successful. These firms of porcelain decorators affect the double L of Sevres as a mark. the shapes being graceful. The enrichment of these pieces by jewelling is very clever. too. the sharpness of the bas-relief is inferior to that of the old Capo di Monte. very finely finished. of the modern French china. and the peculiar kind of twisted handles {iutrecciato) very pretty (see CAPO Dl MONTE). and. (See also notice under "Counterfeit Marks. in some of the best pieces. The majority of these produce imitations of either the Sevres or Dresden models. The best of these wares approach in softness of glaze and brilliancy of colour the veritable pate tendrc which they imitate. with ." whence come figures of Love and Folly. those imitating the pomnie voie and gros bleu are the best. There are a great many in small makers who produce imitations of the old Delft. and statuettes of the life-size different models of Venus. and many others. and kindred wares. As to the porcelain. where the soft paste of Tournay is decorated after the manner of the old Sevres. amongst others the successors of Jacob Petit. or indifferent. There are also in the neighbourhood of Fontainebleau several china-makers. and in fact some of the pieces have been palmed by unscrupulous dealers as original off specimens. and is better in effect than that of our English manufactures.

it is said. is carried on and a notice of . which is in slight relief. by a Chinese porcelain vase in the Sevres Museum. and decorative pottery. was introduced at Minton's by Louis Marc Solon. inspired. and of official trade returns published during the last twenty or thirty years. the products of which are familiar to every observer of shop-windows in the metropolis. Minton. In modern ceramics England has made greater progress than any other country during the past forty or fifty years. and the chief of these manu- factories is under State management (see Copenhagen). modern would be incomplete without mention of foreign ceramics the factories of Copenhagen. particu- larly by the former management. there were in the faience exhibits some excellent reproductions of Le Nove pottery. when the author acted as one of the jurors of this class of ceramics. His . Worcester. will give the dales and some particulars of the progress of our great national works. of the pate stir pate process of decoration has been. The notices of factories in Chapter VII. will emphasise in a marked degree the enormous increase in this country of the manufacture of pottery and porcelain. in the writer's opinion. and an examination of the official catalogues of International Exhibitions since 1831. He found this parian body especially adapted to his pate sitr pate decoration. since the impetus given to art industry by the great Exhibition of 1851. In the repro- duction of Thorwaldsen's models and bas-reliefs in terra-cotta the Danish potters are very clever. not of a high order. It gives to the speci- men much of the beautiful appearance of a cameo. MODERN 41 considerable success. but showing some skill in the reproduction of " Alcazar " and " Alhambra " tiles. The adoption bythe Worcester and Minton factories. forming the groundwork of the subject. the outbreak of the Franco-German War in 1870 he left France and joined Minton's staff. an effect which is increased by the polish given to the lower stratum. and from 1870 until his retirement from Minton's in 1904 he has continued to produce beautiful vases and plaques decorated in this manner. reproducticjns of the Urbino of the Re- naissance period. and Doulton . At Valencia and Seville manu- factories exist. and at the Italian Exhibition held in London in 1888. who had previously worked at the Sevres factory but at . one of the most successful improvements to be noticed. In Portugal the painting of pottery pictures. mostly for the embellishment of churches. Copeland. This process.

42 MODERN conceptions are original and full of poetry and charm." the pair being en suite with the Vaisseaii a Mai. of Neath has formed a collection of his work from the earliest to his latest endeavour. The groundwork is a production of the ccleljrated " pommeverle" of the old Sevres in its finest period. . Early Minton pieces of Solon's work '•^^^ from 1870 to 1873 bear his monogram I^. and Mr.).M.S. The monogram mark will also be found in the list of Sevres decorators {(/..v. and later ones are incised or painted L. Herbert Eccles MIXTOXS. Solon. and many of his specimens are of re- JAt markable beauty. Copy of old Sevres Vase " Duplessis. There is a pair of his vases in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The white cameo-like effect is particularly successful when used as a slight relief to the celadon green grounds.

due to the late Mr. Copy of the old Sevres I'aisseaii <) 3/iz/. and there is a set in the Wallace collection. Morllock & Goode. MINTONS. another was possessed by the late Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild. King Edward X'll. MODEKN 43 Within the last twenty-five or thirty years Mintons have made an ex-ceilent reproduction of the vicux pate tnidre (see MiNTON). Copies have been made by Mintons. C.. and the turquoise blue which this paste is capable of taking is nearly equal to the colour it is meant to imitate. the originals being lent for the purpose. M. One of the original pieces is in the collection of his late Majesty. . Campbell's enterprise. both for Messrs.

the mark of the firms for whom the order was executed. in addition to the "Globe " and the word " MiXTONS. and their recently revived manufacture of porcelain. such as Mortlock's. It not infrequently happens that some of Minton's work bears IlENRV DOULTON & CO. . 42. (leorge Tinuorth. and thus keeps the various rubbed in. Goode's. " dotting" process done afterwards. are good examples of their kind. Ijy Miss Hannah Barlow. ground of the body of the vase is in the The design drawn with a sharp instru- natural colour of the clay. or Daniell's. Among English potters who in niodcin times have made great strides in the development of the artistic departments of their productions is the eminent lirm of the Doultons of Lambeth. The the artist's direclion." of Wedgwood's jasper and Queen's ware. the animals ment which forms a burr on either being scratched on the surface and colour edge. LAMBETH Vase. by Mr. The A Jug." Of Copeland's ceramic statuary or " Parian. there is mention elsewhere. 43. - 44 MODERN The reproductions of the famous S^ivres ganiif/nrs de cheiiiiiie'es — Mat and Candelabra formed of elephant heads the Vaisseau a — which are illustrated on pp.. This colouring is done under colours inore sharply defined.

In the enormous district of North Staffordshire. notices in Chapter VII. too nu- merous to mention. The Irish factory at Belleek. and the Brothers Martin for their ex- cellent " Martin " ware. has made a reputation for the shell-like character of its pro- ductions. Their pottery in revival of the old German stoneware. de Morgan for his lustred pottery.) made for H. perhaps. There are two firms of much smaller than the proportions above. which did some excellent work fifty years ago. The effective fascia of Heath's hat establishment in Oxford Street is. the Watcombe Co. and their different kinds of faience. when Prince of Wales.M. are duly noticed under LAMBETH in Chapter VII. that review of in a modern English pottery deserve mention — Mr. for a kind of pale sur pate decoration. from its suitabihty to our English climate and atmosphere. the late King Ice Pail Edward VII. established some years ago. the Coalport China Com- pany. Jones & Co. MODERN 45 The moulded terra-cotta ornament which has produced this firm has. all sorts and kinds of ornamental . comprising some ten square miles of potteries. and many other firms in Staffordshire. and numerous minor manufacturers. (See Specimen of Belleek. and was well patronised by our Royal Family. including Maw & Son for majolica. made its distinct mark in the architectural enrichment of our buildings. for terra-cotta. To the leading houses just named may be added the new Derby Porcelain Factory (see Derby). one of the most striking instances of this kind of ornament.

generally speaking. and. framed as a picture. although the manu- facture of both pottery or earthenware and of porcelain is no novelty in America. aim at effect and cheapness rather than higher qualities. and Commerce. too. from Josiah Wedgwood's correspondence that he at one time feared that the native manufacture of ware similar to that which he was exporting to the States would injure his trade. The prohibitive duties imposed by the United States Government upon foreign (lottery. which are the tours dc force of the various manufactories. Of a great number of these Staffordshire firms the reader will find some notice in the large edition of Chaffers' Marks and Monograms. they take an important part in mural decoration. fostered an industry for which the materials were abundant. to a Mr. and Plymouth. Chelsea. in forms and de- coration. Richard Champion. and Florida. A passing allusion to the recent progress of ceramics in the United States may be made in this chapter. . In forming a collection of porcelain it wt)uld be worth the collector's trouble and attention to add a few specimens of such modern productions of the different factories as demonstrate the best points of modern work. Manufactures. Many of them reflect. This would be done most success- fully by making a careful selection from exhibition pieces. A most interesting collection of specimens of modern English porcelain is on view at the Victoria and Albert Museum. the large and moderately level surface giving ample scope to the artist. Many of these are excellent specimens of ceramic art. Georgia. Mr. We know. One great feature of our modern English school. and vie with the water- colour drawing for a space on the wall . the founder of the famous Bristol factory. and in the earlier history of our English factories of Bow. is that of plaque painting. or forming the centre-piece of some etagere. factories were established in several American States. Chaffers quotes from a newspaper of so long ago as 1766. and as the services of some of our I^vnglish potters were obtained. Sannic! Bowcn for his useful observations in China and industrious application of them in Georgia. that a gold medal was presented in that year by the Society for the Encouragement of Arts. recently developed. suitable clays were imported from South Carolina. but a great many do not come within the scheme and purpose of this book. the passing fashion or fancy of the day.46 MODERN and useful pottery and porcelain of more or less excellence arc produced.

the modern . MODERN 47 emigrated in 1784. he was in- formed that several of the workmen had been induced by the prospect of higher wages to leave the Worcester works and obtain employment at one of the American factories. which is still a prosperons and extensive business. or of the of models imported from Staffordshire and Worcester. with the modern productions that we are concerned in this chapter. as for instance the pottery made in self-colour. which set in some twenty years ago. including terra-cotta and stoneware. In the International Exhibition of Philadelphia in 1876. it approaches the older specimens.. It is. When the author was at the latter place about ten years ago. generally these speaking. Chinese and Japanese pottery and porcelain are valuable only from a furnishing and decorating point of view. turquoise. The modern work of China and Japan is chiefly the pro- duction of an enormous quantity of ornamental ware for the European market. such as sang dc bceuf. by Alice Morse Earle. The oldest American pottery. The craze for things Japanese. is that of Hews & Co. Most of this is made at a wonderfully small cost. Our English readers who are interested in this' branch of the subject will lind information as to the early American potteries in a book recently published entitled China Collecliiig in yUncrica. and is effective and cheap. has had no little influence upon the taste in our own English . and the author has often seen modern imitations of the old green enamelled or faniille vcrte description which required more than a cursory glance to determine their age but. would seem to be. Some of the " blue and white " will pass muster with the old pieces. brown. wliere they repro- duce the kind of ware most in demand by the American buyer. and other colours. in Nortii Cambridge. In the World's Fair at Chicago in 1893. there were several exhibits of native ceramics. however. In some cases. and died nine years afterwards in the new country. Massachusetts. This denotes china made for the last great Exhibition at Chicago. imitations of someFrench decorative pottery. as a general rule. so cheap that one is astounded that skilled labour can be employed for so small a remuneration. which was established so long ago as 1765. a mark was put on some modern Worcester porcelain which will in time to come puzzle the expert — the letter C underneath the usual trade mark. and from specimens which have been submitted to the author.

de. that more individual must be taken in modern work if it is to interest compare favourably with the work of those extinct at all factories whose specimens we now prize so highly. pend upon every excellence that is real. no de- ficiency in the English people in their sense of beauty. — beauty of colour. " I apprehend you will agree with me that. from my sense of duty and from a long experience in public life — which has placed me very much in relation to the great industries of the country has been — originally suggested and long ago formed in my mind. these two things are quite distinct. in the excellent language of which he was so eminent a master. conveys. I am going to give an opinion which. convenience. 1 do not enter into detail. . to utility or beauty. in all the visible and material objects that are produced to meet the wants and tastes of man. and is satis- fied if he can produce things that will sell. he is apt to grow relaxed and careless. . . A quotation from one of Mr. Now. whether it relates it. that an Englishman is a marvellous man in business produc- tion when he is put under pressure. What there is — — what there has been seems to be some deficiency in the quality or habit which connects the sense of beauty with the production of works of utility. . and beauty of proportion. namely. He has not got as much as he ought to have of the love of excellence for its own sake. has got its price.48 MODERN ceramics. : and the other is beauty. among the Greeks there was no separation whatever no gap — . besides the utility of these objects which are made to meet our common wants of every possible description. utility of course includes strength. on which I need not dwell in detail beauty of form. at the opening of a museum. namely. but. and so forth. if he is not put under pressure. Gladstone's speeches. Many of the designs executed at the Royal Worcester Works bear witness of this. there are those who will say it is a very visionary idea to promote a love of excellence for its own sake. which also divides itself into various branches. a suggestion which bears admirably upon this branch of our subject.. its value in the market. Well now. When we come to and architecture — in touch upon what this is material country. accuracy of form. . In the oldest times of human history. there are two things to look to one is utility. sculpture. Now. but I hold it is not visionary at all for. there — is painting. I only want to remind you that.. there is an important con- sideration in their beauty.

We must not expect too much . and. supposing he had been asleep during those fifty years. . We want to carry . and there is no reason why we should extinguish the feeling 1 now describe. coffee. — A great many people for instance. but by the surest in- vestigation we can make. Wh. he would think he had passed into another world. the way. . or by some apparently plausible grounds of reason. Anybody who is familiar with tea. neatness. difficulty arises from what is now absolutely inseparable from the system of modern production. perhaps a comparatively trifling. . There are difficulties in . it is a diffi- culty which can be overcome. and efficiency of the pin as a whole. so entirely different are they. portion of the manipulation of the thing he produces. at the same time. we must not look for miracles. not merely by theory. but what we may reasonably look for is progress — progress in the adoption of principles recommended. In many of the great in- dustries there is plenty of room for this appreciation of beauty. .. We are told that it takes I don't know how many people to make a pin . and dinner services of forty or fifty years ago. he made as useful as he could. this work of improvement to such a condition that it shall not depend upon the spirit of enterprise of this or that master. men. probably. of this or that — workshop or factory. and that he awoke to-day and went to the best shops and repositories to observe the character of the manu- factures that are offered for sale. and feeling of the working- brain. accordingly it lay with him to make it as beautiful as he could. Labour is not always so divided as it is in this. those who are engaged in — moulding earthenware are concerned directly in that which must be beautiful or the reverse.. we want to get it into the mind. the man who has to shape the head of the pin does not care much about the goodness. and so far superior to what was produced in the time of one generation. at the same time. MODERN 49 wliatever — between the idea of beauty and the idea of utility. as well by the surest testimony of D .itever the Greek produced in ancient days. and one very great difficulty I cannot deny yet the . but. I do not deny that that is a difficulty. That is what we want. and. the division of labour. and and heart. a similar improvement has taken place. . which confines a workman to some one. I can understand that this is an obstacle and a difficulty. If we take porcelain. namely. and especially two generations back. and naturally diminishes his interest in it as a whole.

and the " I. and the reproduc- tion of so many of the old flambe colours and glazes of K'ang- hsi porcelain. as exemplified at the Brussels Universal Exhibition of 1910. and collectors who include specimens of modern work should certainly secure examples. Ashworth & Sons of Hanley. and was the pride of the British section. L. and Doulton showed that they had maintained their high standard of excellence. Baron of Barnstaple.ancastrian " pottery made by Pilkington's under the direction of Mr. but with that exception nearly all the leading manufacturers provided representative exhibits.. W. Exhibition was the great advance in quality of artistic pottery made in England. indicate a Renaissance of the potter's art in F^nglaiid. These wares are all well potted. The work of Couldon (the successors of Brown. made of good body. Lovatt of Langley near Nottingham.). W. Josiah Wedgwood and Sons. all varied qualities of beauty. Howson Taylor. One cannot praise too highly the exhibits of some of these potters." Itseems fitting to end this chapter with some notes upon the latestendeavour of English potters. We particularly recommend the tlambe pottery of Bernard Moore. with the introduction of iris tints and colour ex- pressions new to the Art. and other firms proved that a marked progress in the manufacture of ornamental and domestic china had been made but the surprise of the . with different characteristics that make up utility in industrial productions. which show that to unite all forms of beauty. This branch of industry showed to great advantage. is the true way to the success of our national enterprise and commerce. the Crown Staffordshire Porce- lain Co. Booth's " Silicon china " is too clever an imitation of the old apple-green Worcester to elicit more than a modified word of praise from an admirer of the genuine article. James Mackintyre of Burslem. Westhead. More & Co. the Pilkington Tile and Pottery Company of Manchester. The Royal Worcester Porcelain Company was unrepre- sented.so MODERN long experience. and others. Hovvson Taylor of Smethick near Birmingham. William Burton. George L. who has contributed so much to the literature of Ceramics. as evidenced by the beautiful exhibits of Bernard Moore of Stoke-on-Trent. the " Ruskin "ware of W. Mintons. William Henry Goss's armorial decoration of miniature articles of porcelain is . the Ashby Potters' Guild of Burton- on-Trent.

. A down Derby cup. MODERN SI a well-known specialitc. and on the whole.* one could not but feel that the Ceramic branch of Industrial Art in England is more than maintaining its position in the competition of nations. and saucer. cover. the useful shown by the stone china Haiiley potters was satisfactory.

in a chapter under the same heading. As a general of rule. it does not necessarily mean the expenditure of a large sum money. appeared in the small handbook first published over twenty years ago. an example of some particular vicissitude or change in the procedure of the factory ox fahriqHc of which the specimen is the jiroduct or one which . they prefer to gratify their hobby. For mill i^ a Collection. and to what extent. To begin with. and patiently formed. CHAPTER V IDint0 anti Caution0 to Collectors HE following hints and cautions to collectors of old china are offered with much diffi- and some hesitation. every specimen should be purchased systematically. let us for a moment define what we mean by forming a collection of old china. What are sometimes aptly called " link " specimens are precious in the eyes of the genuine . because the dence author is well aware that many who consult these pages are well able to judge for them- selves in what form. It is not the purchase of a great number of expensive specimens . This chapter has therefore been somewhat extended and amplified for the guidance of those only who require such assistance. To colled in the sense that we mean. On the other hand. without any such assistance as he is able to offer. by men of comparatively small means. noteworthy collections have been those carefully. gradually. can be identified as the work of an individual artist known to have been employed at such factory. he is encouraged by the quantity of complimentary letters and verbal thanks which he has received from some of those who have acted upon the sugges- tions which. and should ho.

M. and so on to some modern representative specimens. and marked with the A. of similar decoration as to style. King for a very large sum. as an improvement upon the earlier pieces polished by the lathe. The Kings Period. (3) Then some of the specimens very difficult but still i. W. one or two later pieces showing retrogression and decadence. and with flowers or figures copied from pieces of Oriental porcelain. through those of Joachim Handler. whereas it would be possible to select from such a collection all the specimens necessary to form an excellent representative collection. important and valuable examples of each period.F. groups. having ground colours.P. K.. Oriental. but because they assist him to complete his series of specimens. Acier Heroldt. and that glazed by chemically prepared flux. services. the monogram of the king-elector Augustus II. Massey Mainwaring. . to the summit of success he perhaps adds to these . but possible to find. Mainwaring's china was valued. (4) Some portions of those early services with quaintly formed tea-pots and Chinese-shaped cups and saucers. should be collected.P. A reference to that notice will save reitera- tion here. blue or mauve. from the early times which we have just alluded to. so as to show a sequence of the different periods of the factory. maroon. then his partly gilded and more orna- mented ware. F. (2) Sparsely decorated pieces of white china. all of which will be found in the marks under the notice of Dresden in Chapter VII. gilt by the goldsmith's process. having the marks K. for perhaps less than a tenth part of the sum at which Mr. and other varieties. and having the first mark of a caduceus or rod of yEsculapius. B. HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS 53 collector.K. Marcolini. which was in May 1899 sold to Mr. yellow.. This series should demonstrate the differences of treatment which successive directors of the factory have left as a record of the periods of their work. contains specimens of the different periods alluded to but it also contains a great many . vases. Specimens of old Saxony (Meissen) porcelain figures.e. show- ing the progress from the first attempt.not for their beauty or for their intrinsic value. through phases of im- provement. and similar letters. These remarks will apply to all other factories. Let us an example by taking as an illustration the give collection ofDresden china. of Saxony. In such a collection there old should be (i) some specimens of the early red polished ware made by Buttger about 1709. The famous collection of old Dresden china formed by the Hon..

Oxford. still a great deal may be learnt from the systematic study of these public exhibits. but this is too vague and it is to be hoped that in . 54 HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS Public Collections in Museums. There should be some method employed in looking at speci- mens in a museum. and the late Drury Fortnum's recent bequest to the Ashmolean Museum. and if the reader wishes to get the full benefit of such an object-lesson. which is placed outside the case. but which is to be removed to the British Museum when the alterations and enlargements of that institution are completed. The collections in our different museums are excellent for refer- ence purposes. For Continental porcelain the amateur should also carefully study the cases of specimens in the Ceramic gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum. . and not be beguiled into a general walk through. let him go there with the fixed deter- mination of studying one particular kind of specimen at each visit. the amateur will be able to learn a great deal by careful reference and attention. without handling them. and its different characteristics noted. No doubt the gold lettering referring to the contents. W. Sir A. while the authorities have taken the pains to give particulars of sizes and subjects. If majolica is to be studied. Franks has prepared an admirable descriptive catalogue of this valuable collection. and a cursory consideration of the whole. where the labels are fairly descriptive though it seems a great pity that. If he be a student of the different kinds of majolica. and equipped with this. one must not allow the many other charming and interesting objects to distract the attention. they should omit in so many instances the name of the factory to which the example belongs. there is also the national collection of the same ware arranged in different cases same museum there are others in the of the . The best school for the study of specimens of the various Continental factories is undoubtedly the " Franks " collection at present exhibited in some six or seven glass cases in the gallery of the Bethnal Green Museum. and although it is aggravating to be obliged in many instances to be content with looking at the specimens through the glass sides of cases. which is sold at the Museum for the price of a shilling. British Museum. is intended to guide the visitor. there is the Salting collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum . .

Besides the Schreiber collection of English china and Battersea enamels. Cloud." The recent presentation of a collection of soft paste porcelain. on sale in Jermyn Street a catalogue of the collection which contains much useful information. The collection of English pottery and porcelain in the British Museum has been recently rearranged to great advantage the . If the reader has a natural aptitude for the subject and is quick and intelligent. by Mr. Fitzhenry. and St. A similar criticism is by the case which suggested is lettered " Bristol. and many examples contained in these cases will be found to bear the characteristics of the diiTerent factories which have been noticed in the seventh chapter of this book. see that the contents include specimens of Chantilly. of course. or only specimens of the one factory to which any particular glass case has been hypothecated will be placed therein. for the small but instructive collection of English pottery and porcelain which it contained." which he will find therein noted. labels are full and descriptive. but this has now been removed to the larger institution at South Kensington. Meneyy. the Geological Museum in Jermyn Street. HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS 55 any future arrangement either the articles will be iabeiled with the name of tiie factory. Such a description as "French pdtc leudrc" is far too vague for the ordinary amateur. No collector . some excellent salt glaze. The amateur who desires to acquire knowledge about the earlier English china factories will find in the large and valuable col- lection bequeathed many years ago by Lady Charlotte Schreiber a wide field of education. In the previous edition of this book. he will soon learn to recognise many of the " points. and a great many other examples very useful for reference. " Toft " or slip-decorated ware. The expert can. has materially added to the value of this Museum from the point of view of the collector of old porcelain. which was seldom was recommended visited. There is still. and the miscellaneous assemblages of old English pottery which our museum authorities have purchased from time to time contain many examples of the work of Ralph and Enoch Wood and other Staffordshire eighteenth-century potters. Plymouth and Longton Hall. besides many pieces of Bristol Delft. there are some other bequests and loans which are interesting. and have in a great many cases facsimiles of the marks which the specimens bear. Sceaux-Penthievre. however. but there is no label to tell him which factory the different pieces represent.

. L. Hobson. too. and the Wallace bequest at Hertford House must be a constant source of pleasure for those who delight in the beautiful colours of the finest Sevres porcelain. is of the highest importance. as it is sold in the Museum at the modest price of one shilling and is fully illustrated. The trustees have also published a useful guide. The same generous enthusiast has also left us the finest examples of fifteenth and sixteenth century Italian majolica. and others of great price.. There are also in his Majesty's possession a great many other fine specimens from other factories. The Earl of Hare wood's fine collection of Sevres porcelain is also shown to the public. P'or those who would pay particular attention to Oriental porcelain there is the representative collection purchased by our Government and now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. and. also that formed by Wollaston Franks in the British Museum. The greater part of this national possession was the gift of the late curator. and also of Persian and Rhodian faience which deserve most careful attention. Hinns. and his generosity has been supplemented by many other gifts and bequests. may be seen the famous Sevres dessert service made for Louis XVI.. George Salting. R. Then we have in the Jones bequest (Victoria and Albert Museum) charming specimens of the more valuable kinds of Sevres and Chelsea. he will be amply repaid by a careful study of the collection of "link" specimens formed by the late Mr. which gives much information about the different factories. F. written by Mr. illustrating and emphasising many of the remarks made on English ceramic factories in Chapter VII.56 HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS should omit to carefully study this excellent collection. which con- tains not only valuable and important pieces such as the famous "Foundling" vases. the collector should add it to his reference library. W. but — what is infinitely more instructive — a great number of experimental and " link " specimens which will serve as object-lessons. a man of very wide knowledge and keen enthusiasm. in which this collection is very rich. If the collector of English china should go so far as Worcester. R. Sir The truly magnificent collection of Mr. and purchased by George IV.A. in . bequeathed to the South Kensington Institution and now rearranged and classified.S. and a great many specimen vases of the best quality and finest periods of this celebrated factory. At Windsor Castle. and the visitor to Harrogate should not neglect the opportunity of seeing this inter- esting old Yorkshire residence. Sir Wollaston Franks.

and. the articles are . and much information and some amusement will be gained. formed by the valuable assistance of Mr. because here the amateur is safe from the annoyance of touting commission-agents and. to Robinson & Fisher's in the same street. very often to repent at leisure being dis. Strand. and watch a sale there of some collection to be dispersed. to Fosters' in Pall Mall. ascertain the prices that have been given for them. The rooms of these firms of auctioneers are recom- mended. the attendants civil. These figures will be corrected at the sale. James's. clean and well arranged. and made some notes on the catalogue of guesses as to the prices which in his opinion are likely to be realised by any pieces he may have examined. or Knight Frank and Rutley's. . Auctions. Philips Son & Neale's in Bond Street. St. Drane. moreover. while at Cardiff he will find an excellent collection of representa- tive pieces of Swansea and Nantgarw. and the catalogues tolerably accurate. he should stroll into Christie's Rooms. The intending collector should ventilate the subject by con- versation with those of his acquaintance who also have a taste for collecting he should compare the specimens he sees with any . Many of our provincial museums contain small but valuable collections of English pottery some . of these have been especially alluded to in the notices on factories in Chapter VII. and the collector can examine them in their spacious rooms in a way which is not possible in a museum. and it has been the writer's pleasure and privilege upon many occasions to give a letter of introduction from one collector to another with the result of mutual enjoyment and instruction. after having carefully viewed the same the day before. Many of our well-known private collectors are only too pleased to afford the bona fide amateur the pleasure of seeing their collec- tions. where he can do so. in King Street. or Sotheby's inWellington Street. appointed by not getting a specimen which would have been . Personal purchases at auction sales are not recommended for several reasons one buys under a certain amount of excitement : and in haste. Ifhe has the leisure. information that these pages may have afforded him. The best of specimens find their way at some time or other under Christie's hammer. HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS 57 the museum attached to the Royal Worcester Porcelain Works .

58 HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS useful in the collection. so far as circumstances permit. and he may by a few competitive bids considerably increase the cost of the desired specimens. another similar specimen. unless the articles are bulky or packing is necessary. rightly or wrongly. and will give much valuable advice but . bad. he will be patient when. or ask him to procure. of the amount of the purchase money. make terms and if with him for a moderate profit. he be a dealer. The usual commission charged is five per cent. which includes clearance and delivery. It is advisable always to employ the same dealer. . specimens have rarely been purchased directly under the hammer. good. however. and advise as to value. one is led to bid for. the collector prefers to make his selections from goods offered at auction. his attendance at a sale on his client's behalf results either in a trifling commission or none at all. he feels he has a kind of vested interest. it is only natural that he will feel aggrieved if he sees a rival bidding for a client in whom. he should seek the — advice and assistance of a reliable dealer^ the reader may rest — assured that there are many such -who will inspect the collection with him on the view day. as occasion offers. and a dealer of good reputation who accustomed to the sale-room will be in a position to is warn his client against those which for some good reasons are better avoided. and in those which he would select as being examples of well-formed and satisfactory collections. whereas a sale bargain cannot as a rule be altered with- out loss and trouble. and indifferent. in consequence of the prices ruling so high that his limits are exceeded. Another great advantage of purchasing from the dealer is that exchanges of unsatisfactory specimens can be arranged. If. There are of course auctions and auctions. being subject to human frailties. others which are not prudent purchases. and under no con- sideration to be induced to vary one's patronage by giving commissions one day to one man and another day to another. assist him to make his choice. and probably buj'. Better far to note who it is that buys the coveted lot. The reason for this should be obvious in the first place. The writer knows many collections. if the business be given. if the . but have been bought deliberately and quietly from the dealer. as must frequently happen. dealer feels that he possesses his client's confidence he will respect and not abuse it. Again. to the same man.

* Standard of Excellence. Cash payments are advised. Subsequently. while the written one. it is one of the greatest mistakes that a young collector can make. such an invoice will form a useful reference. to buy second and third rate pieces because they are cheap. trifling. unless in very exceptional cases . The safeguard is a very simple one and easily taken . As judj^ment is almost unconsciously acquireci. he will gain much information in conversation with him about the. By the prudent expenditure of a sum that can be ." and. objects offered for sale. The precaution of having a descriptive invoice is very often neglected. and he should make a catalogue of his specimens. however . the buyer should insist on a proper description being written on the invoice. and in more than half the cases of decep- tion and consequent disappointment. In the same way. whatever the bargain. in which the writer has been consulted. entitles the aggrieved buyer to recovery of the price paid. the collector should venture into the show-rooms of a respectable dealer. and is one that no honest tradesman will object to giving. let it be good and perfect as far as it goes. if the collector cares to enter in a hook kept for the purpose the description and cost of each specimen acquired (an excellent plan). In such instances the quality of decoration of the specimen may not warrant its " purchase. moreover. with the object of securing any advantage for ready money and in each case. In acquiring a collectionit is necessary to have some standard of excellence. if the collection grows. the money could have been recovered without legal process by its adoption. for in- stance. in the case of a particularly rare mark. but low price will allow of an ultimate " weeding its should a better specimen be secured. this book will save him a great deal of trouble. the law of warranty being that verbal descriptions can often be denied and set aside. This invoice forms a kind of guarantee. as all the best dealers are men of intelligence. imperfect and restored specimens should be avoided. as. and. HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS 59 Guaranteed Invoices. Except in such cases as these. However small the collection. but also subject to similar exceptions. to whom he has been recommended by a reliable " old stager. below which no specimen should be purchased. if founded on an error or a deception.

and the care- ful collector.000 value. that a judgment . To write a list of rules and regulations to be observed in making selections. every specimen acquired should be examined as to the quality of its paste. and it is by con- versing on our hobbies. if brought to the hammer. only the genuine specimens. waiting until worthy companions offered themselves. will consist of specimens good. is simply impossible. modelling. until he had spent the same amount as that at which we have (^exempli gratia) valued our dealer's stock. not only will the collection be gradually in- creased. and this. bad. while the collector would have held them. Moreover. and unless the amateur have this. be one much more valuable. and by taking every opportunity of seeing collections and making comparisons. Individual taste is most essential. and indifferent. however. colour.6o HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS spared each year. The interest. A dealer's stock of old porcelain. with taste and judgment. but a fairly profitable investment. in a pecuniary sense. is a matter that must be left to be arranged between buyer and seller. his collection would. adding again and again. with and securing a view to detecting fraud. then. and an attempt to do so would confuse and mislead. the work should be examined and judged in much the same fashion as any other article that one is ac- customed to buy upon its merits. Then. The points in judging decoration are the drawing of the figures if a subject. because compara- tively complete of its kind. to meet the requirements of his varied customers— the buyer who is fond of show and effect. say of _^ 10. the question of price is the important consideration. and keep them in his cabinets. and the " tone " and solidity of the gilding — in fact. To buy successfully. if the latter were from time to time to pick out the best specimens. only with the caution that the price should not tempt one to the acquisition of a speci- men not desirable on its merits. that we take in any favourite pursuit brings us in contact with kindred spirits. and still have many advantages. the natural effect of flowers or fruit. it must be seen at a glance how the judicious amateur can afford the dealer's profit. he will hardly acquire judgment. if the result of this examination be satisfactory. the one with a passion for bargains. as the dealer would have parted with his best pieces as he bought them. will be secured. shape. and special characteristics as a specimen of its particular factory. or the " dis- tance " and softness of a landscape. of course. Now.

Spirited modelling. By observation and practice the constant amateur will soon be acquainted with the different well characteristics of each factory. some 6000 guineas. who shall be nameless. At a sale by auction not long ago a bowl of Le Nove faience marked " Nove " with a star. but the curious questions that are sometimes asked by discursive correspondents and thoughtless inquirers are amusing enough for recital. were members of the family of the authen- ticity of this "Tudor" relic that. So convinced. a vase. realised fifty guineas. telling colour. worth a few shillings. with other articles of Sevres china. A gentleman. They were. as the notice of the Leeds factory will mention. and. however. which was highly esteemed by the late owner and her friends. It seems almost unnecessary to point out puerile and Hagrant errors. After a long journey into Gloucestershire this turned out to be a cream-coloured Leeds ivare basket dish of very slight value. at the sale by auction of the old lady's effects. HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS 6i may be formed. or a cup and saucer. At Christie's one day a set of Eveutail [i. a bronze. that the knowledge of ceramics requisite for a collector is not nearly so technical as is generally supposed. One word here as to judgment of quality. but one is frequently reminded that they not uncom- monly occur. just as an expert can recognise the touch and style of a certain master in a paint- ing. is also true of a china figure. he will be able to name this or that specimen without reference to the mark. only about a hundred years old. or a cabinet. was soberly described by the local auctioneer as a rare specimen of Hove (Brighton) porcelain. and received the honour of a special paragraph in the local newspaper. The fact is. Common Errors. under that heading in the catalogue." are the points that make the merit apparent.e. but the words " Sevres " was not repeated before the description of each article. without seeing the signature. . That which is true of a fine picture. this basket-shaped dish. and that indescribable something that may be termed "character. Not long ago some executors of an old lady consulted the author upon the value of an " Elizabethan " vase. This is not a chapter of personal reminiscences. " fan-shaped ") Sevres vases was sold for a large price. and the author has no desire to inflict them upon the patient reader.

R. of factory. and his astonishment almost amounts to incredulity. and now. or else to an altogether distinct device. but has been adopted as the regular trading-mark of a china manufactory in the hands of a private firm. one is shown a piece marked with the A. and until prevented by recent legislation. are reduced either to a shuffling mark that only the most careless could mistake. of the Marcolini. and if he had any specimens of that factory ? Then one is constantly asked to say to which factory the " Bee- hive " mark belongs. and that the piece in question was made some fifty or sixty years later ! Again. already alluded to in another chapter.R. but only upon the very early and rare specimens. or perhaps Heroldt period. that formerly used the crossed swords. This Act of Farlia- . by the Royal works. the inquirer having looked at the Austrian shield on a piece of Vienna china upside doivu. their fabriqiie marks has consider- ably reduced thenumber of forgeries . Again. as under the present administration of the law it is a criminal act to expose for sale any china bearing a forged mark. is very rarely found. asked the writer why Eventail china was so valuable. mark is never found upon china decorated with Watteau or Wouvermann figures. It may be as well to mention. positively aftirm the said specimen to have been " family property " for at least two hundred years. which has a warehouse in Dresden. many of the French and some English factories. for whose private use it was made " ever so many years ago " whereas . either painted with some flowers of an Oriental character. while the subject of deceptive marks is being noticed. that the genuine A. that the registration by the Royal manu- some years ago... At the risk of repetition one may add here what has already been indicated in the notice on the Dresden factory in Chapter VII. and gravely informed that it is the monogram of Augustus Rex. that is. how often does one hear the owner of a piece of Dresden. The " Merchandise Marks Act " has also been of great benefit in limiting the amount of fraudulently marked china. turned out several thousand specimens annually with this mark. the mark though certainly used for a very few pieces in question. or with a subject from a Chinese original.62 HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS but who was one of our legislators. the decoration of which is copied from the old Chinese porcelain. when he is informed that the Dresden factory was not established before 1709.

may turn out in the morning to have owed its apparent merit to the quality of the light. as in the case of old Sevres. and unfortunately the Chinese potters themselves are busily engaged in reproducing their best kinds and periods of old porcelain and forging the old marks. and the other very fine and light in its character and requiring much caution to detect. These plates. Spurious Lowestoft. HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS 63 ment only applies to such marks as have been registered as trade marks. such as the ruby-backed plates of the Yung-cheng period. the author has seenFrench imitations so skilfully decorated that without handling and carefully examining the paste." both of which are distinctive of genuine old Oriental. The principal differences are the lack of brilliancy in colour. or an apparently fortunate discovery in some hole and corner of a dealer's shop covered with dust that seems in itself a symbol of antiquity. but the turquoise. the artificial light is immaterial. The market has been flooded with French china. the collector is cautioned against buying by gaslight. decorated with coats of arms. To the modelling of a figure or the shape of a vase. so far as the author knows. say a position on the mantelpiece of an old country farmhouse. The French are also exceedingly clever in their imitation of fine old Oriental. are worth about _^20 to £t. There are also some extremely clever imitations of fine Oriental made in Hungary. to the cases of forgeries of Dresden and Worcester china. It has only been applied. which should be delicate and beautiful. The imitations also of Palissy and Henri II. especially if the pieces are surrounded by circumstances that seem to give them a good character. and in some cases a judge may be quite puzzled. and with the kind of flower painting which . and of a peculiar tint of the ^' pate. if of the veritable pate tendre. ware are very common and of two sorts the one so thick and clumsy as to : deceive no careful buyer. and therefore does not protect the amateur from a great many forgeries.o each. when genuine. and therefore the forger can afford to expend a good deal in the minute attention to detail. In the case of specimens of a kind which are in particular demand by collectors. it is really impossible to detect the imitation. In making purchases of pieces where colour is one of the prin- cipal features.

however. and then it can be decided whether it is desiiable or not to add it to the collection. painted with large roses and having crests and coats of arms labelled " Lowestoft. . and the pale dure of more recent manu- facture. of old Sevres. plates. the white lead with which white paint must be mixed will have commenced to discolour. It is. and one of such a fragile character as a group of several figures. Detecting Restorations. one can discover the texture of the paint where the join has been effected. one of the most dillicult lessons to learn is to detect the difference between the beautiful and valuable soft paste. As a rule. he will see that the vast majority of so-called Lowestoft. bowls and cups and saucers." If the reader will refer to the notice of that factory. The writer has found the best method of testing restorations to be that of just touching any of the suspected portions with the edge of a coin. when it is old china. This test. so absurd to see these Paris imitations of Chinese m. but the same touch upon the composition returns a dead wooden sound. The china will always give a certain ring though tapped quite gently. is really Chinese. slight and reasonable restorations must be expected and pardoned. and the kind of productions now referred to are really more in imitation of this " Oriental Lowestoft " than of the real Lowestoft. of course. one can detect the same by smelling.64 HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS has become associated in the pubHc mind with " Lowestoft. will not apply to those restorations which have been made in real porcelain. when the restoration is concealed by freshly used paint.ugs. Old Sevres and i/s liiiilalions. which would probably not be sufhciently decorative to appeal to the novice. The test of smell is also a useful one. and when the work has been done a sufficiently long time for the smell to have disappeared." that this caution has been thought necessary. but still one likes to know how much of the specimen has been restored. It is almost impossible to obtain absolutely intact groups and figures when the limbs and fingers are in exposed positions. When selecting a specimen of rarity and great age. Without doubt. or pate tcndre. but upon a careful examination of suspected places with a magnifying glass. After the production of the pale temire was discontinued.

though sometimes excellent in decoration. the paste being of a greyish hue." while the vitreous. the art of making it was lost. The turquoise is of a much greener colour of this kind of imitation of old Sevres tint than the real turquoise. The colour. and has a surface something like that of a cream cheese. HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS 65 on account of the superior durability of hard paste. and Louis XVI. glassy effect of hard paste is absent. as the appearance of the hard paste suggests. as a general rule. lacks the beautiful whiteness of the old china. —a soft. and blended with the " body. The colouring is thus beautifully soft. and is generally known as Sevres. are much more artist difficult to detect than the modern French china just alluded to . which is in the market without an undoubted pedigree. So rare are vases of really old Sevres china that it is almost safe to say that one could name the majority of collections in which they are to be found and therefore when . and are of great value. Unless the collector has had considerable experience he should be very suspicious of Sevres china if the specimen be one of any importance. turquoise. and decorated with great skill and care by a Quaker named Randall. and painted in subjects. too.). The only genuine portrait pieces which exist are those which are in the collections of a few wealthy families. the amateur should only buy Sevres from a dealer of experience and reputation. which bears the Sevres marks. The same may be said of all those services painted in por- traits ofCourt beauties of the time of Louis XV. The dark blue or gros bleu of modern productions is much more successful." and not added superficially. Old pdtc leiidre is beautifully white (to examine the paste. For a further notice of this Randall and his work. or rose dii Barry ground. refer- ence should be made to the notice on the Madeley factory (Chapter VII. Imitations of old Sevres china which were made by Mintons about fifty years ago. and painting appear part and parcel of the " body. impressionable appearance. Therefore. one hears of a fine old Sevres vase of gros bleu. until his eye and touch have been proved. which can only be produced on soft paste. it is in all probability one of the class just alluded to." even for the initiated. and having some of the characteristics described. and some of the best Coalport imitations of both Sevres and Chelsea are also " puzzles. The soft paste now made in Tournay and decorated in Paris. undecorated portions of the specimen should be scrutinised). E .

and therefore the young collector must examine the decoration carefully. One can very often see the traces here and there of the original decoration. In such a case the paste and the mark on the bottom of the piece will be left untouched. there must necessarily come. imitations of all kinds. There will also be found some signs of retiring in the little black spots caused by " sputtering " in the second firing. It should be called Rose Pompadour. Perhaps a hint upon repairing breakages may not be out of place. with the exception of the " rose du Barry " colour. and the trouble. as the author has fully explained in the notice on Sevres in Chapter VII. In using seccotine or fish glue bear in mind that only the minutest . or decorated with very little colour. the ground colours will be more opaque-looking. in obedience to the law of supply and demand. against which he should be warned. which were originally either white. have been repainted in this way. but the redecorating will be apparent on a careful examination. but there another kind of pitfall for is the young collector. Dresden groups. Some of these have been pointed out in this chapter. The name " rose du Barry " is used here because that is the common term in England. Oriental china has been redecorated to a very large extent. With high prices for richly-decorated specimens of old china. After the fracture be sure that the edges of the broken china are not chipped or grated. In redecorated Sevres china. and making the specimen one of richly-coloured ground with panels or medallions of subjects. risk. A great many sparsely-decorated pieces of china of different factories have been enriched by obliterating by means of powerful acids the little fiower or sprig which formed its very simple ornamentation. in which the genuine ground colour is opaque. Then carefully wash the parts in hot water with some common soda to remove all traces of dirt.66 HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS Redecorated China. and expense of sending the specimen away to tlic professional restorer can be avoided. Repairing Broken China. A simple fracture is easily repaired. the enamel colours being less like enamel and more like paint than upon a perfectly genuine piece.

Packing. which should be taken hold of deliberately by grasping a solid part. cut and do not pull the string which has been . hay. soft cloth will absorb the moisture from a figure or group. Perhaps the writer may one or two suggestions. the one for washing containing with a little common soda (a lump the size of a walnut to a pint of water). Plates and saucers. When specimens are worn and scratched. HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS 67 quantity is necessary. after being papered up. Accidents generally happen through taking hold of a specimen nervously and pressing some delicate. legs or foliage. If hay or moss be used it should be first passed through the fingers and all lumps or hard pieces removed. Sometimes one buys specimens on a journey. Of course this does not remove the scratches. After being well rinsed in clean water in the second bowl these more fragile specimens will dry by themselves. and the thick. exposed. then made into a package with cotton wool. IVashing Old China. and then these separate packages should be placed in the box and some hay or moss wedged tightly between each of them. Many lady collectors prefer to wash their own specimens of old china rather than trust them to a servant. Groups and figures should have a first protection by the twisting of soft paper round the projecting arms. or fragile part. but it takes away the dirt and discoloration. as the closer the edges are united the stronger will be the join. an immense im- provement in appearance will be effected by the judicious use of a little extra soda in the water. such as the base or body of the piece. A common painter's brush is the best for washing china groups and figures. should be placed in the box edgeivays and not flat. and the writer knows from experience the advantage of being able to pack delicate specimens so that they will travel safely. On a large table beside offer two bowls filled warm water. or moss. and then sponging the surface. and care should also be taken to see that the two surfaces articulate. It is dangerous to stand a delicate piece on a marble slab. there should be laid a soft cloth for the china to stand on when washed. and present a perfectly level surface where the join has been made. When the box is unpacked.

.68 HINTS AND CAUTIONS TO COLLECTORS used to tie up the packages. but at the risk of this it seemed a plan more convenient to the reader to give some of these marks and notes thereon under a separate heading. and prevent some of those disappointments which so often deter him from following up a fascinating pursuit. in the effort of the writer to assist the young collector. blue decoration (Victoria and Albert Museum). Sauce-boat of Bow porcelain. every one having a regard for the potter's Art will forgive this. In the short chapter upon imitations and counterfeit marks which follows. In these few hints the reader has been assumed to have no knowledge whatever of the subject. and therefore the more initiated will doubtless have found much that is tedious but . there is unavoidably some reiteration of the re- marks made here. Pass the hay through the fingers to see that no covers or small pieces are left in the packing.

Occasionally one had seen the Carl Theodor mark upon a basin or tea-pot obviously of Derby or Worcester manufacture. more rarely in some Sevres Derby imitations of Chelsea and Worcester. bearing the curious initial F in the margin. and Bristol. ill-advisedly perhaps. 69 . and as they were but little known. the mark of the fabrique of the service so augmented or recruited. have had placed on them. There are. having been made " to order " as a " match " for services of other factories. There is a curious instance of this which. their work after a time came to be bought and sold as that of some factory to the ware of which it was similar. which. CHAPTER VI ^ome Counterfeit anD a3i0leaDing C^arkiS T has been thought that a few notes on counterfeit marks would be of some interest to collectors. Services and figures. that the swords are now generally accepted as one of the marks of these factories. has never been published. and the well-known mark of the crossed swords of Dresden was copied so frequently by the early potters of Worcester. Now the works of imitators vary considerably. the father of a dealer who died about twenty-five years ago. This is frequently seen in the Coal- port imitations of and Dresden. These specimens are now so generally accepted everywhere as having been made at Fiirstenburg that the mark has not been removed from those of that factory in another portion of this work. a great many specimens of different factories. in the first place. Derby. so far as the author knows. were really made and decor- ated by one Frankenheim. Then there are the marks of certain small makers who placed on their products some device indicating their proprietorship. but without any intention to deceive.

and as the V 2^ pieces are generally well modelled and coloured. although a colourable imitation of the Dresden mark. he has made "Dresden. The mark which he placed on these. and delicately coloured. It is use- less to give a list of the marks." " Hochst. . of the Rue Beranger." " Crown Derby. printed " Made in Germany. Paris. Samson.70 COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS Some of the earlier marks of M. and is generally passed is off as one of the numerous monograms of Paul ly Hannong of Strasbourg. cleverly modelled. One of the most success- productions is a set of figures represent- ful of his ing the twelve months. ^y and are not the exact imitations of any par- ticular model. they would have been highly esteemed. have also acquired quite a respectable reputation. because. which were discontinued many years ago in favour of others. Besides clever copies of the most valuable descriptions of Oriental enamelled porcelain. to all other copies which bear the counterfeit marks of may note the factories imitated. This fact was mentioned in evidence a short time ago in a case at the Marlborough Street Police Court. as he has copied the genuine ones. and but for the fact of their being known by the cognoscenti to be of recent manufacture." and imitations of almost every factory the marks of which have been in sufficient demand to create a sale for his wares. and a bar across the swords not seen in the genuine Meissen mark. and one here an ingenious device of some of the German makers. they all appear under the regular headings in Chapter VII. One of thesereproduced in the margin. M. Samson. It is given in the margin. and are described in the catalogues of eminent auctioneers as " old French faience. had a distinguishable initial letter. and the work of imitation is carried on by his descendants) were some original figures of considerable merit. has been responsible for more forgeries of good marks than any other single maker known to the author." "Chel- sea. A paper label. they are now often found in ex- cellent company." is securely gummed over the counterfeit mark to prevent trouble in the Custom House. Amongst Samson's earlier and more careful works (he has been dead now for many years. in which the author was an expert witness." " Worcester. This applies. of course. It is found on groups ^ / f" and figures of a well-glazed faience." This same arch-imitator.

he has placed the Crown Derby mark on figures the model of which was never known at Duesbury's factory. ambitious figures and groups. His Wor- cester imitations are glossy-looking and the gilding is very in- ferior. Nothing but a careful study of the peculiarities of paste. COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS 71 As it was. the present imitations of the Samson firm are inferior to those made some twenty years ago. but only on those more highly decorated specimens made after richer ornamentation by gilding was intro- duced. are thtjse in the margin they occur on rather . It is difficult to give any rules and signs by which such imi- tations as Samson's may be detected. besides being markedly different in paste and glaze from the genuine old Worcester. . Among the marks of a French maker of imitations." and other well-known Derby models. In order to meet a demand on the part of a certain class of dealers." the " Seasons. Now as. decorated in the style of old Crown Derby. The gold anchor of Chelsea is never found on genuine early specimens of Chelsea. as yet not V identifiedby the writer. Another Parisian firm which makes some rather clever figures." but there are some transparent errors which may be pointed out and easily detected. Perhaps his greatest success of recent years is his imitation of Battersea enamel these enamels require careful examination by an expert. some- times on figures in costumes of the Vandyke period. but they can be detected by several little signs which the initiated alone understand. glaze. and details of gilding and decoration can gradually transform an amateur into an " expert. and sometimes on dy figures ornamented with lacework. the firm's monogram under a crown. there is an impression that the gold anchor denotes the best quality of Chelsea. owing to what has been written. as well as on the " Falstaffs. is made some- what in the style of the real Crown Derby mark. sets were sold for several times their cost when they were first placed on the market. Generally speaking. one sees Samson's " gold anchor " on the imitations of pieces wiiich would have had a small red anchor or probably no sign but the three rather dirty-looking unglazed patches (caused by the tripod on which they were baked). They are not copies of . is that of Bell & Block. whose mark.

" This kind of china is useful for decorative purposes. it is very difficult to distinguish the modern from the old. like that of Samson described above. with the M between the hilts difference that the initial letter swords denoted its origin. was similar to the Meissen mark. and therefore was open to _ appropriation. This is due to the fact that a younger generation of dealers is unacquainted with the facts now published. afterwards " Meyers und Sohn. Amongst other imitations of old Dresden marks is that of the monogram of Augustus Rex. but the specimens are generally palmed off upon the unwary as old Dresden. as in the margin." which ceased to exist many years ago. as a trade mark. Another of these private Dresden firms was that of Meyers. II altered its mark to that in the margin.72 COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS any particular fabrique. . Its ware is very often sold as genuine old Dresden to inno- cent beginners. They alsohad a mark of their own. the mark had not been made a regular trade sign. but has no value in a collector's eyes. although some of the pieces which are made on the lines of the real old Dresden are sufficiently well executed to deceive the less experienced collector. This mark. and have it painted by their own workmen. Elector of Saxony. and sold in the white. but to others it passes under the euphonious title of "Crown Dresden. the defence being that although the State factory had used the monogram on some of its earliest specimens. They used to Meissen porcelain purchase the undecorated. a lengthy lawsuit was commenced to prevent the Dresden house using as a trade mark the monogram of Augustus Rex. and for some thirty-five years the royal factory took no steps to interfere with this manu- facturer. which. and founder of the celebrated Meissen factory. Ultimately the State factory gained X^ and since then the Dresden house has the day. was adopted some forty years ago by the firm of " Wolfsohn. About twenty years ago. and as time and atmosphere have given some patina to work excellent of its kind. and as the groundwork in many cases is genuine old Meissen porcelain. Several really of the good specimens of this class of Dresden have been sold during the last few years for very substantial sums." in the town of Dresden. on account of some slight defect either in the glaze or the firing. however.

the Win the shield being his initial. COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS 73 Another producer of so-called " Crown Dresden. in that he has adopted a crown of another kind. to prove to Judge and Jury our contention that these specimens were spurious Dresden. and were imitations of the models made at Meissen during the best period of that celebrated factory. His mark is a colourable imitation of the Meissen mark.000. and the Professor produced white groups which he had actually purchased at Potschappel. which had been obtained by certain dealers in payment for several groups of so-called " old Dresden " china. The mark occurs on an imitation Dresden Basket A^. the T between the sword-hilts being the initial of the founder of the firm. The reader will probably remember somelitigation in 1909 — which aroused a good deal of public interest the object of which was to recover large sums of money. as given in the margin. but the maker is not yet identified. . His mark. has a factory in Dresden. Professor Brinckmann and the author gave evidence at con- siderable length. and in the others the defendant dealers paid large sums of money in settlement. differs slightly from the one given above. with pierced sides. who was known to the author nearly thirty years ago. The productions of this firm have not improved of late years. The " Dresden " groups and figures made by the present firm of Thieme are likely to deceive the careless amateur. Very high prices. Wissmanis another Dresden fabricant. The style of the china ("inferior 'Tv^^Sl^e- Dresden ") is much the same. amounting to over ^50. In the case that was actually tried. the verdict was for the full amount claimed. These groups had been manufactured at the factory of Potschappel in Saxony. when the famous crinoline and harlequin costumes distinguished the figures —the kind of specimen known to have a special attraction for connoisseurs. The colourings of the decorations had been carefully studied. so as to reproduce the effect of the genuine old groups. were paid for figures and groups of the design and colourings known as the "Joachim Kiindler " period. who has adopted and registered the mark in the margin. from ^500 to ^1200. flowers in relief and Cupids y/7\\ painted inside." named Haniaan.

Carl Theodor. - which are colourable imitations of those used a hundred years ago by his ancestor. The mark given in the margin. the initials of the Elector of Bavaria. is likely to be deceived by the Potschappel imitations. The present government of Bavaria.74 COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS These cases are referred to here to show that the collector who has not had considerable experience in judging old Meissen. margin is impressed. of Rudol- y stadt. has been long extinct. if not a counterfeit mark. . . the others are gener- (impressed. original gian who. The mark in the margin has been placed upon a gre^t number of groups and figures made either in Paris or at one of the German factories. as great Gotthelf Greiner of now uses marks (hayforks) fame. The china of these imitations is white and hard-looking. is undoubtedly a very misleading one. These modern productions consist of the cheapest kind of china in the Dresden grandson of old Thurin- the style sometimes the lower mark in the .) ally iu bluc. ^^ the margm. the colouring harsh and crude.") '' '^ Another mark used by Greiner is the one in . but the general effect might appeal as "pretty" to the eye unaccustomed to old china. or Dresden as it is more generally termed. with its mark CT under a crown. These are of no quality to ^^^^ who is acquainted with the ap- deceive a collector '?2S)'^ pearance of the real Ludwigsburg porcelain of the Opmark of which it is a forgery. The old factory of Franken- thal. (See notice on " Lud- wigsburg. and it is now used on white and coloured groups and figures. The productions are very inferior to those of the real old P'rankenthal. have transferred that ^fp^ \J right to their factory at Nymphenburg. Similar remarks apply to modern productions of a the manufacturer named Greiner. having the legal right to use this mark.

old Capo di Monte is scarcely ever marked.) the difference will be observed. to comply with ine pupuiar noLion mat au real v^apo ai ivionxe cinna '%\l t is ornamented in this manner. Some of the imitations of Dresden china made at Coburg are very poor in quality. in and the margin. Moreover. The mark in the margin is mis- particularly leading owing to the word Meissen being pro- minent the china on which the . of red. which Both these marks are found on bad imitations gold. The second is found on similar ware. Imitations of Capo di Monte are made both in France and Germany. and the marks given occur in blue.<. VII. and the mark which is copied by the imitators belongs to a later period of the factory. As already stated. . One of the marks adopted is. mark occurs is a cheap and meretricious imitation of Dresden {Meissen) porcelain.iici:illy ill red. but their productions are scarcely ambitious enough to deceive the most careless collector. It is generally rather indistinct. (t. but on reference to the notice on "Dresden" (Chap. and is here re- produced as accurately as possible. The decoration is generally in relief. however. dangerous. ^"^^tir the resemblance ends. Dresden china. There. for the imitations (other >\ / than the modern reproductions made at Florence. Another Coburg maker named Miiller has adopted and registered a more ambitious mark. I \/ and already noticed under the heading of Capo * DI Monte) are quite of the original work which unlike any the author has ever seen. The china is probably made in some of the cheaper and inferior German factories. ^ COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS 75 In Silesia there are some factories of orna- mental china.) misleading. The first is of course supposed to are not ^ be the crossed swords. however.

The author's evidence on this point. the police can be empowered by warrant to seize any such china when offered for sale. and his decision in this case was that with — which most sensible people would agree that the vicious imita- tions are those which are made for the purpose of fraud. Tankards. In one of these cases tried recently before Mr. and centre pieces for the dessert table are the favourite forms of this very undesirable kind of china. however. vases. This class of very inferior ornamental china finds a sale chiefly at some of our fashionable seaside holiday resorts. a most ingenious defence was set up.76 COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS the crown very carelessly drawn on the French and German is imitations. the crossed swords (Dresden). Some reported cases in which pieces of " Coburg " china were sold as " Dresden " will probably be within the recollection of many readers. already referred to. however. Some of the makers and decorators of china. have. which are absolute rubbish. when the author was called as expert witness on behalf of the Royal Worcester Porcelain Company who were the plaintiffs. There are. and under the powers conferred upon magistrates by the Merchandise Marks Act. The list of misleading marks given above is by no means exhaustive. Wall " period had included the square mark (Mandarin Seal). The defendants' counsel then endeavoured to point out to the magis- trate that the real culprits in the case were the plaintiffs' pre- decessors. who had copied the different Oriental and Dresden marks without permission. The highly decorated imitations of old Sevres are only . to deal in goods bearing fictitious marks. produced excellent work. disposed of this ad captauditm argument. as has been shown. but they are those which have come under the author's observation. and is like the device given in the margin. some imitations of different kinds of china. it is now a criminal. the pedigree of which isnot quite satisfactory. Thanks to recent legislation. and some Oriental hieroglyphics which had been copied from Chinese or Japanese models. and specimens made by some of the firms alluded to will be found in the cabinets of most collectors. ewers. de Rutzen at Great Marlborough Street. The managing director of the Worcester Company had admitted in cross-examination that the earlier marks of his factory during the " Dr. These are the more recently imported French and German manufactures. and the magistrate's common sense. at the same time as the decoration of such pieces was imitated. and not as formerly only a civil offence.

these letters in this particular kind of china. and the ground colours are poor. do also stand in many cases for the initial letter of the decorator who embellished the white china. in a great many cases the purchaser of such goods deserves but little sympathy. which to the uninitiated would indicate the year 1755. others are sold by the manufacturer in all good faith. which in real Sevres (see notice on Sevres) should indicate the date of its manufacture (1753 to 1777 being represented by the letters from A to Z). B. The mark in the margin. and far is only too eager to take advantage of what he considers to be the inexperience or error of the vendor.. The Sevres mark of the reversed L in cypher with the letter M in the centre (which. for allowing such sham china to be on sale in one of his departments. a well-known decorator of this imitation Sevres of some twenty or thirty years ago. B. L is that of Lehou- jour. On the other hand. Thus C. at a price which he thinks is below the market value. As a matter of fact. is actually the initial letter of Caille. appears on these productions. would indicate the year 1765) was also put on much of the earlier Minton china which. a firm known to the author some twenty years ago. and he made . as we have seen in the previous chapter. was decorated by Randall in the manner of old Sevres. which ought to stand for 1779. but they are used far too frequently by some of the smaller dealers in order to deceive inexperienced customers. is the double initial mark of Bareau et Bareau. if the mark were genuine. because he buys china with the counterfeit marks. but as they bear the marks of the finest quahty specimens of Sevres' best period. with the letter between the two reversed L's. The paste is very inferior to tiiat of real Sevres. Under " Hints and Cautions " the reader has been warned against these specious imitations. While these pages were in the press the author was remon- strating one day with the member of a firm of high standing in the upholstery and general furnishing business. being the second year of the double letter period. while doing the deceiver's part in masquerading as a date letter. COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS 77 misleading to the beginner. the author thinks it fair to point out that while some of them are placed upon china with the intention of perpetrating a fraud. In concluding these notes on counterfeit and misleading marks. they demand some mention.

so that their friends to whom such pieces are given may place a higher value upon them. '' ^^ »• »iK» »." This was certainly an entirely novel point of view. Karlyslip decorated ware in Mr. or at any rate. Let the reader remember that the mark is the easiest part of the forgery to imitate let him therefore . an exaggerated value is placed upon the mark. glaze. Frank Falkner's Collection (Uublin Museimi). an erroneous.78 COUNTERFEIT AND MISLEADING MARKS a defensive reply which serves to show that the " Iamb " is some- times no better than the " wolf. so much the better. firstbe satisfied that the specimen has the desirable qualities of a — genuine example of any particular fabriquc paste. Value of the Mark. they are anxious that the marks of these factories shall be on the china." He said in effect " do : We not sell this china for Dresden. In the author's opinion. . colour. our customers buy articles for presents. This should be a con- firiiiatioi! of all other points of evidence. and one can only hope that it is not as fully justified as this gentleman seemed to think. in a word character — and then if it bear the mark which confirms the other evidence of its being a genuine specimen. or Worcester but as . form.. rather than the evidence itself of a specimen being genuine. ^ »k * * Figure of a Cat.». Chelsea.

who have been manu- . The invention of Luca della Robbia was apparently adopted in Castelli. but the term is generally applied to specimens which it is difficult to assign to any of the more dis- tinguished Italian potteries. or grotesques. and generally may be said to have the appearance of inferior Urbino ware. One of the oldest names in the Staffordshire Potteries is that of Adams. HE kind of majolica which is known as " Abruzzi ware " not the production of is any particular fabrique. but not by any means the best kind of majolica. the pre- vailing colours being yellow and green. which is now known as " Abruzzi ware " is the more modern production of a number of unimportant potteries near Naples. CHAPTER VII H %!jott account of t\)z Different Ceramic jTactoric0 IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER. scrolls. ADAMS WARE. The province Naples was among the first. The kind of majolica. if not the of first. to produce majolica. however. cupids. and in Pisa and Pesaro. very Specimens. the subjects either mytho- logical or scriptural. There have been at least twelve representatives of the name in direct and indirect descent. It is decorative. WITH THEIR DISTINGUISHING MARKS AND MONOGRAMS For tlic use of many of l!ic blocks used to illustrate this section of the book the author is iiulebted to the courtesy of the proprietor and publishers of Chaffer^ " Marks ami MonosTrantsT ABRUZZI WARE. a hamlet in the Abruzzi district. See also Majolica. and fragments of specimens. of as early a time as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries have been dis- covered during excavations.

are excellent in quality and finish.-„ which IS still in use u • a I a has been adopted. A hard stone china called " Imperial Stone ware" with sage green ground and classical figures inwas also made by this firm. both in faience and porcelain. with good paintings of figures in Spanish costumes on a fine . ware 5. is said to have been the only one in Spain where porcelain was made. but for many years a mark TUNSTALL ^.). A fine relief plaque by Adams of jasper ware was sold a few years ago at Christie's for £171. . established by the Count d'Aranda. plaques. ^ ENGLAND ALCORA. Tunstall. William Adams of Greengates (i 745-1 805) was the maker of jasper ware similar to Wedgwood's. His vases. scent bottles.. A fine faience was also made at the same works. 4. • . . Vitreous Stone . 3.v. Grecian Red . The colour affected was generally blue with white relief. 1. Etruscan ware 6. This factory. The foundation of the present firm dates from 1657. The principal pieces were plaques. with the exception of Buen Retiro (<j. and particularly the drum-shaped pedestals which he made for mounting as lamps. some of them very fine.8o ADAMS WARE— ALCORA facturers of Pottery. William Adams was described as a potter of Burslem in some Chancery proceedings in 1617. cameos. and his father appears to have owned a pottery in 1568. Royal Ivory. which a century or so afterwards were let to Josiah Wedgwood for a term of ten years during the minority of the young Adams who was then the heir. and a black Egyptian ware like Wedgwood's basaltes. but he also made tea sets and vases in red and black ware of Etruscan form and character. Egyptian Black . ADAMS "^^^ mark of the old ware is ADAMS im- ESTABLD i6s7 „ pressed in the clay. and unmarked specimens are mistaken for the work of the more celebrated potter. jardinieres. The present proprietors of the works con- tinue to produce good pottery their specialities are . when John Adams built the Brick House Potteries. Adams : Jasper 2. and several of them have been famous for their productions in this branch of Industrial Art.

with the mark both painted and in- cised. four two-handled cups with covers. it is generally in red. and a soup-plate of very good quality with the A mark in gold only. F . which has the A in gold. and some specimens have the same letter scratched in the paste. The general character of the porcelain is that of the early Doccia. is frequently unmarked. S. and is marked boldly in red with the letter A. formerly in the Reynolds collection. ALCORA 8i brilliant white ground. Mr. Major Hume's great-grand- father was an officer in this king's service. Major Hume had also a fine and interesting plaque.. Major Martin A. in honour of Charles III. black or gold. who died in 1788. The plaque is partly in relief. painted in the style of old Sevres. Charles Borradaile had a cream-pot. The date of this specimen can therefore be fixed approximately. and several pieces in Plaque of Alcora faience. Of the enamelled earthenware produced here. Hume had. The mark is A. The forma- tion of this letter varies on different specimens . painted in allegorical style as a trophy. in brownish red. Spanish'peasants befure"a fountain. measuring 23 by 17 inches. The porcelain. however. until his collection was dispersed. his collection were taken by him at the sacking of the palace of Godoy (Prince of the Peace) in 1808. but occasionally occurs in gold.

but owing to the great expense of the establishment. Nowotny made both pottery and porcelain here. the Protestant pastor of Oude Loosdrecht. in 1764. . At Amstel the marks were the initial A. the Count's means were exhausted. where was carried on with considerable success until his death it in 1782. for " Weesp. with decorations generally of landscapes and country scenes. He produced some fine hard-paste porcelain. Other speci- mens fiave gilt borders. probably in imitation of Dresden. partly occasioned by the growing importation of Oriental porce- lain. The works were continued at Loosdrecht by De Moll's partners until 1784. re-opened the manu- factory at Loosdrecht. I AMSTEL. or single figures of Dutch peasants. and sometimes the name : in full. The letters M. The characteristics of this fahrique are hard paste and a : tine white body. Mark A. De Moll. impressed. All these marks were painted. but we also occasionally find the M. and light blue flowers between green leaves. and the effects of the factory were sold off in 1771. scratched in the paste. near Carlsbad A. and the disproportionate returns. near Baden. midway between Amsterdam and Utrecht. N. The earliest mark is a W. named De Moll. stand for " Manufacteur Oude Loosdrecht. " Nowotny. and the word "Amstel" in full. The manufacture of porcelain in Holland was first started at Weesp. L. ALT-HALDENSLEBEN." and the crossed swords. O. L." See Bohemia. Nathusius has recently established a factory here for hard-paste porcelain. In 1772. however. Mark stamped in blue. the latter a hard paste." with a probable refer- ence also to the name of the pastor. near Amsterdam. O. when they removed to Amstel. M. ALT-ROLHAU— AMSTEL ALT-ROLHAU. with the assistance of some runaway workmen from Saxony. by Count von Gronsveldt.

Franks considered that tiie mark " W. The mark then used was the word " Amstel in full. and the manufacture ceased in 18 10. was used after the removal to Oude Amstel in 1784. the initials being those of the director. D. These works were closed about the end of the century when a new J)S^ w MoL Ji. About the same time a fresh company was started in Amster- . J :Haag" was that of the WaWcndori /a/iri/jm: The mark A.ol. the enterprise did not flourish. a German named Daenber. — AMSTEL «3 The late Sir A. U:ot J' w nana/ factory was started Niewer Amstel under the name of George at " Dommer & Co. who granted a large annual subsidy. W. Though supported by the King of Holland.

the director of the works at Oude Amstel. — 84 AMSTERDAM— ANGOULEME dam itself. The productions were called porcelaine d'Atigouleme- Little is known of the factory. (the initials of Daenber).v. in 1754. ^^. The following marks are found painted or stencilled in red : J '' OPr^ ^^ •Sir. The accompanying marks of the Batavian lion are also attributed by M. which was formerly attributed by some authorities to Amsterdam. The paste is hard. . Anatolia (see Rhodes. AMSTERDAM (see Amstel). being now more correctly placed as the mark of the Arnheim fabrique {q.) was made Overtoom. vases. near Amsterdam. but was not of long duration. ' Faience of fine white enamel (chiefly table and tea services. D. No mark is known. ANGOULEME A small factory was established at Paris (Rue de Bondyj about 1785-92. The manufac- at tory was removed to Weesp in 1764 by Count von Grons- veldt. Jacquemart to the Amsterdam fabrique . &c. D'Angouleme. under the style of A. La Fond & Co. This lion is also found with the initials A. under the protection of the Count d'Artois.).. 17S0. statuettes." Rue tie Bondy. they are generally painted in blue.^^ / ^'^Jm- 4 A ^ ' Paris. Dihlli Guerhard. The mark was the name of the firm. by Dihl and Guerhard. also Turkey). but also includinggroups of birds. and specimens are rare. as mentioned above. that of the Crowing Cock.

including the pedestal. A rose-water jug and basin of this factory. — ANSPACH 85 MANUF"^ Sometimes the mark is stencilled in red like j^ j^jor j^^ j^^^. In a case by itself in the pottery gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum is a vase of this factory . Antoine. most beautifully painted en grisaille. S. which is decorated with a battle subject. et F.and is about 7 feet high. See under Paris. 28 Aout. but it never A J\kk . Dr. Wilfrid Ashley. D. it stands on a pedestal formed of three lions. Bavaria. but this is probably much too early a date." ANSPACH. et Fils. Franks agrees. W. Desrocher. charmingly decorated in medallion and floral designs. which originally belonged to Queen Marie Antoinette. by Dagoty and Honor6 about 181 2. the inscription in the margin d'Angouleme a Paris. 1784. and Sir A. A hard-paste porcelain is said to have been made here as early as 1718. Stegmann place the commencement of porcelain making at 1760. was in the possession of the late Mrs. The marks " Dihl " and " Guerhard et Dihl " are also found. the firm being Veuve Sazarac. Faience was made in or near Angouleme in 1784. A piece in the museum at Limoges is marked "A Angouleme de la Fabrique de Madame V. Brinckmann and Mr. A fabriqne known as that of the Duchesse d'Angouleme was carried on inthe Boulevard St. Paris. In 1764 the manufactory was removed from the site of the old faience factory to the Margrave's Schloss at Bruchberg. This vase. is one of the most magnificent specimens of tine porcelain that could be desired.

The marks are sometimes painted and sometimes stamped. A fabriqiie of faience of some excellence was established here about 1750 by the Baron d'Aprey. The general characteristics of Anspach porcelain are those of Amstel or Fiirstenburg. Faience was also made here. Broth-ba^iii nr I'l-iiellu and Cuvcr. NEAR Langres (Haute-Marne). with or without the initial A.86 APREY— APT achieved a really high rank. APREY. Of the few marks known. impressed. and from that time to the present day. The marks are generally painted in blue under the glaze. but it is without the black or dark-coloured outline usually found on faience. . There are several specimens in the Franks collection. ynej aOxt ^Ji c . rose- colour. Vilhoeut (about 1780). Louis Gerard. in red. The decoration consists chiefly of flowers and birds. France. and more recently M. Faience was made here about 1750. and sometimes of A by itself. APT. and green. The productions are principally table-ware. Reynard. of Apl Faience (Coll. Pascal). The marks are AP or " Aprey " in full. generally preceded by a potter's or painter's initial. and consist of a spread eagle. and much resembles the early Strasbourg ware (q-v. or a shield charged with a bend dexter. Pieces marked " R " have been attributed to M. Subsequent proprietors were Olivier. who made pottery at Apt in 1830. taken from a vase at South Kensington. Vaucluse.). The ware mostly imitates marbles of various kinds. one is that of Veuve Arnoux (who had the works in 1802).

de Calonne. some of it being quite equal to old Sevres. both in quality and decoration. Marks. W.). There were two factories of faience here in the hitter part of the eighteenth or early part of tiie nineteenth century. Jacqueniart to Arnheira rather than to Amstel {q-v-). Four cups and saucers. which produced pieces of some merit. under the patronage of M. Portions of services of this description.W B. The porcelain was excellent. Franks and other experts. Intendant of Flanders and Artois. have been attributed by M. The mark of a cock. ARRAS. There was also a factory of faience here. both impressed : A. been claimed for Arnhcim. and a plate were sold at . Vander Waert. a sucrier.v. The ware was similar to that of Tournay (q. jO. but not for long. ARNHEIM. D. being closed in 1786. ARDENNES— ARKAS 87 ARDENNES. k fabriqiie of soft-paste porcelain was established here before 1782 by the Demoiselles Deleneur. being made in rivalry to the productions of that factory. realise prices equal to those of the best Sevres. Porcelain was certainly made here about 1772. previously attributed to Amster- "^ dam. Pieces of hard-paste porcelain marked " A simply.). Pas-de-Calais. Namur.v. The works only lasted a few years. pieces with gold enrichments on a deep blue ground are very similar to old Vincennes (q. has lately. when offered for sale. Laramens & Co. on the authority of the late Sir A.

generally in blue. He also used an excellent lead glaze. the pottery wliich we now recognise as Astbury ware showing considerable variety in colour and design. Burns. mention has been made of the rather questionable methods by which John Astbury obtained the secrets of Elers. Figures were also made by him. is one of his best pieces. collection of Mr. Herbert Young's collection. The mark is painted under the glaze. In some remarks upon our eighteenth-century English potters in Chapter HI. May 1904. Ornamental effects .xperiments with various clays. Arita (see Japan).^300 —two of the cups and saucers are now in the Cup and Saucer of the service sold at the Hawkins sale. and by various argillaceous washes produced some charming decorative effects. After leaving his employers he started some works of his own at Shelton in the Staffordshire pottery district. Herbert Young. made to commemorate the victory of Admiral Vernon in 1739. but there are many other good specimens in the same collection. and the sucrier is in that of Mrs. In Mr. where he not only produced a red ware similar to that of Elers but subsequently made successful e. ASTBURY WARE. " 88 ARITA— ASTBURY the sale of the Hawkins at Christie's in 1904 for collection about . The famous " Portobello bowl in the British Museum. and the "Grenadier" in the same Museum attributed to him is a quaint specimen. but sometimes in other colours.

) n until 1778.may be attributed to the son. and up to about 1780. A factory of hard-paste porcelain was established here in 1753. vases. The name ASTBURY always appears with the letters stamped separately. AVIGNON— BADEN-BADEN 89 lirodiiced by superimposed clays of different colours and in relief. resem- bling bronze or tortoise-shell. near Fontainebleau (see Fontainebleau). AVIGNON. Faience was made here in the sixteenth century. Avon. In Chajfers there is a list of potters in the Vaucluse Department from 1500 to 17 15. Thomas Wheildon (q. There are two good specimens from the Soulages Collection at South Kensington. Most of the known pieces are jugs. Subsequently the works were the property of a man named Pfalzer. who turned them into an inn. by a widow named Sperl.). was made first by Thomas Astbury clouded . and the like. One occasionally sees pieces marked ASTBURY . who carried it on with considerable suc- cess by the aid of workmen from Hochst {q. who be- came insolvent. to Astbury ware was made up to 1780. and are generally unmarked. Astbury died in 1743 and was succeeded by his son Thomas. by " marbling " and by graffito process. and some works at Lane Delph were started by him as early as 1725. after which ihe fabriqiic ceased. the whole also well glazed. one Meyer. and tortoise-shell ware. They are principally noted for their fine metallic glaze. known as the " Grim Winkel. The buildings were bought by a taniier." . and therefore slightly irregular . BADEN-BADEN. Cream ware which afterwards became a speciality of Josiah Wedgwood. was also made by the younger Astbur)'.v. who became a notable potter.v. specimens bearing the name impressed with a single stamp should be viewed with suspicion. which we generally associate with the work of another famous potter. are distinctive of his ware. under the patronage of the reigning Margrave. as the father these is not known have adopted any mark.

ls. A hard-paste porcelain was manufactured here. however. BASSANO. ." may be attributed to him. F"ranks had a milk-pot painted in bistre camaieu with flowers outlined in gold. OR BARANOWKA. It was for many years in the collection of Mr. and probably the chef d'mivrc of ihQ fabriquc. S. The subjects are Alexander and the family of Darius. Mark : the name of the place painted. W. 1912. including its pedestal. Poland. The fabriquc. This fine vase. but sometimes in neutral tint. W. Reynol(.^ About that time it appears that there were several makers of majolica at Bassano the . facing each other. and a classical subject after Le Brun. Occasionally one axe-head only is found. and little is known about it until the following century. was not of much im- portance. Litchfield. is inscribed Fabe Baroni Nove. as well as Giovanni Battista Antonibon of Nove. Antonibon's successor was a potter named Giovanni Baroni. on Salmazzo's petition. BARANUFKA. R. Salmazzo continued his works for many years. The author knows of two smaller vases of much less importance. Pottery was made here in the sixteenth and early seven- teenth centuries. and pieces marked " G. the Senate de- .. edited by F. OR LE NOVE BASSANO. which was formerly in the author's posses- sion. but in the same style. gener- ahy painted in gold. The late Sir A. resembling Dresden. Drake {Notes on Venetian Ceramics) have supplied some very interesting details concerning the history of the factory subsequent to 1728. A beautiful vase. ' For further particulars see Chaffers' Marks and Aloiio^^raiiir. names of Manardi and Giovanni Antonio Caffo are mentioned. cided that no such rights existed. Antonibon claimed to have a monopoly of the manufacture of majolica throughout the Venetian domi- nions but in 1756. is 2 feet 5 inches high. and dated 1802. It is evidently a presentation piece. C. The researches of Sir W.90 BARANUFKA— BASSANO The mark consists of two axe-heads. 13th ed. near Venice. In 1753 Giovanni Mario Salmazzo started a new factory in opposition to the one at Nove. Pottery was also made here about the end of the last century.

Antonio Bdii or Antonibon. . BAYEUX 91 The marks given below are those of the brothers Antonio and Bartolomeo Terchi. who flourished in the seventeenth century. J\[ove -A\nt on>o>D 07V ^"-^ K-r GBm: Giovanni Battista.

who had made some satisfactory experiments with local felspar and china-clay. a bottle in the Sigmaringen B-R. These works were founded in 1857 by Mr. " Henri H. on the recommendation of Mr. A hard-paste porcelain was made here as early as 1744. . and are quoted from Professor Brinckmann's official catalogue. David M'Birney of Dublin. Ireland. Ware. Marks : B ctiirc ntd BEAUVAIS.92 BAYREUTH— BELLEEK BAYREUTH. in favour of " Saint Porchaire " {q. is now discarded by M. The following marks are found. from its rarity. mostly with landscapes.v-). Edmond Bonnaffe (who has made a special study of the subject). and the prices obtained for these.. Museum is dated 1524. are increasing by leaps and bounds. The peculiarity of this china is its . These marks are upon some good speci- mens of Bayreuth faience in the Hamburg Museum. all painted. the other two from the P'ranks collection. The decoration of this is usually in blue cauia'ieu. on the rare occasions when they come into the market. a well-known architect. The celebrated faience of Beauvais is hardly likely. BELLEEK. A fine faience of excellent designand workmanship was subse- quently manufactured. Martin. the first being from the collection of Sir H. We may mention that the generic term. tocome into the hands of the ordinary collector. Brown stoneware was made here in the sixteenth century . Only sixty- five pieces are known to exist. B. The pieces are well painted. Armstrong." formerly applied to this and similar /a^r/y/z^s.

The manufactory is still carried on. &c.resembling the polished. BENTLEY WARE (see Wedgwood). had obtained possession of Ringler's papers. Gasper Wegely. Grounds Basin. sea-horses. Bellevue Pottery (see Hull). who. slightly iridescent surface inside a mother-of-pearl shell. dolphins. sometime partner with Wedgwood. mermaids. and Specimen of Belleek. Bellevue (see Cadborough). sea-shells and plants. BELLEVUE— BERLIN 93 lustre. This manufactory was established in 1751 by W. Part of a Service made for Oueen Victoria. as will be seen in the notice of this latter factory. and sold them to some wealthy persons desirous of embarking in the manufacture of porcelain. a merchant who had purchased the secret of making porcelain from some Hochst workmen. corals. and occasionally tritons. the like. The designs are mostly of a marine character. Mark generally printed in colour. Bentley. After 1 76 1 it was under the management of a celebrated banker named . but sometimes stamped. BERLIN.

useful ordinary china is made in much greater quantities than pieces of an artistic character. and are not refined or delicate in colour. W of this factory. we have ample evidence in the magnificent biscuit wine-cooler presented to the Victoria and Albert Museum by the Prussian Government. from Meissen to Berlin. together with modellers and painters. That the management is. during his short occu- pation of Dresden. while the later productions are coarse in modelling. which helps us to distinguish them from the Wallendorf. transferred a quantity of the clay. but on the Berlin specimens we generally find this W accompanied by impressed numbers. At the present time. KPM WE KPJM . very delicate and fine there is also a chasteness and neatness about the decoration . the productions of Berlin came into considerable repute.94 BERLIN Gotkowski. who. especially those of a classical type of the best periods. however. together with some other choice specimens and new. and the drawing of the figures. of specimens of those times. capable of occasionally turning out fine specimens. and the factory is not improving. but became a royal manufactory under the immediate patronage of Frederick the Great. Marryat mentions that Frederick the Great would not allow the Jews to marry until they had purchased a service at the royal manufactory. both old \X/ \ This W is similar to the same letter used as a mark of Wallendorf porcelain. and now on view in the new pottery gallery of the Museum. As Dresden was at this time suffering greatly from the Seven Years' War which ended in 1763. The paste is hard.

M. The mark of Q is sometimes found upon specimens made during the proprietorship of Gotkowski (176 1-3). there was a development of the considerable manufacture of hard-paste porcelain and of stoneware. Klasterle. however. Chodau. also the imperial <^lobe and cross. In the northern district of Bohemia. BOHEMIA 95 The mark of the earliest specimens is a W (Wegely) . and in the list of notices of the different factories in this chapter. and this mark was sometimes ac- companied by the letters K. Essex (see Hedingham). Altrothau will be found. Elbogen. Dalwitz. several of these. end of the nine- at the teenth century. which have been omitted. and one has seen specimens of the Prague factory that are above the ordinary. often occurs on the modern pro- ductions. Wegely and Gotkowski periods. should be carefully inspected. One or two specimens have been seen by the author with the sceptre stamped in the paste (colourless). Collectors of marks. Tannowa. including Schlaggenwald. which are Franks collection. BOHEMIA. occasionally acquire specimens with a fabrique mark which they are unable to trace . Bingham. Potter. Klum. but there are some others. but when it became a royal manufactory the sceptre was adopted. Teinitz. in the The sceptre of the earlier and better period is thinner than the one more lately adopted. The specimens of the earlier work of this factory and of the Milk-pot ul liecliii Porcelain. P. such as Geissshiibel. Some services made at Schlaggenwald and at Pirkenhammer were carefully painted. Pirkenhammer. printed in a reddish brown colour this more . and the eagle. and these marks are always in blue. (Konigliche Porzellan Manufac- tur). Prague. and this mark should not be confounded with the marks of Gera or Gotha. Castle Hedingham. but there is nothing really exceptional in the product of any of these minor Bohemian factories.

Italy. Jelmo at Seville. Germany. following the styles of the great masters of this school. Very little appears to have been known of this factory. allegorical figures. a large number of the marks on the porcelain. in the shape of colossal busts. ^ H. Pazaurek (1905).96 BOISSETTE— BOLOGNA in any of their Guide-books. and for the satisfaction of these. was made at this factory. BOISSETTE. B. earthenware and stoneware produced at the above-named potteries. lasted a short time. also medallions. Mark : a BOLOGNA. . factory here . were made at Bologna. and through his perseverance and knowledge soon attained a high state of perfection in the repro- duction of the old ware. and the mark has never yet been in- cluded in any work on the subject.191 2. who sent him a pamphlet on the subject compiled by Dr. E. The fabrique only cursive B. One of the largest vases ever produced. the author has at considerable pains given in the latest edition of Chaffers. In1777 Jacques Vermonet and his son started a small good work was turned out. It is due to Signor Caldesi's kindness that the writer has been able to supply the above in- formation. A manufactory of artistic majolica was established here in 1849 by Angel Minghetti. ornamented with fruits and flowers. Harrison has some specimens in his collec- tion. For the information respecting this group of factories the author is indebted to Herr Deneken. and besides many other important specimens the entire decorations of Prince Simonetti's saloon in his villa near Orsino. Seine-et-Marne. Particular attention has also been given to the imitation of the old Urbino majolica. and Madonnas. and some very fine pieces have also been made in the Raflael- esque ware. curator of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum at Crefeld. Mr. measuring no less than seven feet six inches in height. and that of the Duke de Montpensier's gallery in his palace of St. ' )N^< ' Mark: the director's monogram. especially that of Luca della Robbia.

such as Angouleme. in The late Lady Charlotte Schreiber possessed a tea service. of but short duration. was started here some years ago by M. A manufactory.v. IK Demniin gives this marl. Much of the decoration H was high relief.. Fitzhenry to the Victoria and G . Jacques & Julien made soft porcelain in 1773. Rateau. Mark: a square tablet in relief. soft paste of this factory is identical with that of Mene^y. A small atelier where Messrs. and the collection of soft-paste porcelain recently given by Mr. established in the margin.). of BR BoTTGER Ware (see Dresden)." and is similar to that which is attributed to Vaux (q." Faience has also been made here from the early Messrs. V. According to our most recent informa- tion it was about 1784. BOURG LA REINE. Haffringue. The fine. The work in 1829. The general character- istics are those of other hard-paste French factories. and also some biscidt plaques with the ornament in high relief. Authorities differ as to the date of the foundation of a porcelain factory here. with medallions of cupids and trophies. without the lines enclosing the word " Bordeaux. Porcelain of fine quality is still made here. part of Latens bears the mark given the & last century. delicate. The mark con- sists of the monogram of " A. BOULOGNE. The date of a pair of vases in the Sevres Museum is given as 1780-90. A fine porcelain of excellent body was made. Pas-de-Calais. Paris. particularly well modelled. BORDEAUX— BOURG LA HEINE 97 BORDEAUX.

and the manufacture is still carried on. It contains good specimens of all of this group of F"rench pale iendrc factories. Jacques & Julien removed hither on the expiration of their lease at M^ne^y {q-v. Honeychurch. where their mark was " D. also a mezzotint engraver. the former marked " D. Middlesex. and was imtil recently manufactured by Mr." These appear to belong to one another. if not exceeding in goodness and beauty. BOW. Thomas Frye appears to have been an artist of considerable merit. Jewitt's work. and were probably made just at the time of the removal. is very interesting.). the specification. the invention being thus particularised : " A new methotl of manufacturing a certain material whereby a ware might be made of the same nature and kind. by the grant of a patent in 1744 to P2dward Heylyn and Thomas Frye ." and the latter " B. Marks: BR B la R i"o5 Pottery was also made here bv the same firm. Pottery was made here for some time prior to 1836. Borradaile had a cup and saucer. R." Mr. imported from abroad." And the recipe is also given with full directions for burning. V. china and porcelain ware. Divett. Devonshire. Marks : B la R op BOVEY TRACEY.98 BOVEY TRACEY— BOW Museum should be carefully studied. The manufacture of porcelain appears to have commenced at Stratford-Ie-Bow. and equal to. V. glazing. as given verbatim on p. 112 of Mr. and the method of preventing discoloration. by Messrs. commonly calledBow. and was assiduous in his .

Macdonald's collection. Wetherby. In 1757 a West End branch was opened in or near Spring Gardens. and thinks that this man was a relative of the bank- rupt. The decoration of some of the china was by means of transfer in outline filled in with colour. besides one or two minor potteries. 1770. they were removed to Derby. which being applied in enamel pigments. one in the British Museum and another in Mrs. heavier. one of the partners. the survivor. A. BOW 99 attention to the works nntil his death in 1762. decorated in blue underglaze. Bristol. Some cups and saucers of the earlier and the vases covered with encrusted plumes belong to this class of soft paste. and inscribed " Mr. Mr. Robert Crowther. a process also in use at Chelsea. it and in the same year there was a sale by public auction of some of the productions of the factory. Bell and Black's match manufactory marks the site of the old Bow Works. that of which the groups and figures is generally composed being of a soft artificial porcelain similar to Chelsea. There are some plates in existence. gives it an Oriental effect often in keeping with the rendering of a Chinese subject. The white pieces. Stockport. sometimes white and sometimes having a blue-grey tint with a thick glaze. The colours of the dresses for the figures are somewhat more vivid than those of Chelsea. A much harder paste was also made at Bow. died in 1762. Messrs. Cheshire. R. Occasionally one sees pieces decorated with etching. but does not appear to have been a financial success. Burton. with simple Chinese designs. are very excellent. Wetherby & Crowtlier. but and more coarser. and carried on the business in a smaller way until the whole plant was acquired by Duesbury in 1776. When Duesbury purchased the moulds and plant. It is probably on account of the imitation of Oriental china that the works were styled " New — Canton " the title that appears in the inscription on some of the earliest specimens. About 1750. was bankrupt in the following year. The paste of Bow is of different kinds. and Crowther. and some other factories. and . vitreous in appearance." and these may have been made for a member of the family of the John Crowther who was at the time continuing the business. which were discontinued shortly after Duesbury's purchase. Paul's Churchyard from 1770 to 1775. in his History and Description of English Porcelain. the factory was acquired by Messrs. for at this time he held the Chelsea and Derby Works. mentions that John Crowther "of the Bow china works " had a warehouse in St.

The pieces made at Bow may often be identified by the presence of a square or triangular hole at the back. and the sprig of " primus " in reUef. therefore their occurrence may.C73 in 1750 to -^"11. rose to some fame as a sculptor. a small capital " B. where the trellis crossed." occur in numerous instances. with this reservation. decorated with imitations or adaptations of Oriental designs. Flora. In the British Museum is a very interesting specimen of the Bow factory — a bowl. was also executed to a large extent. Bemrose in his Bo'a>. but they are sometimes on Bristol figures.229 in 1755. to 3s. Some of the most skilfully modelled Bow figures are those attributed to the modelling of John Bacon. Marquis of Granby. and Longton Hall.. His mark. are prevalent. by whom the said document is signed and dated 1790. 3s. dancers and (lower-sellers. became a Royal Academician. or I ^s. The basket pattern. who. but would represent an enormous output when we bear in mind that the average price of a china article made at the Bow factory in 1755 was from 2s. Genera! Wolfe. stating it to be the handiwork of Thomas Craft in 1760. and modelled several figures for the Bow manu- factory. the anchor and the cresent. K. are exceptionally high. but this mark may be easily overlooked. Cliclsca. Some other well-known lignres made at Bow were the set of four seasons. with flowers in relief. made for the purpose of fixing metal arms to form candlesticks. Mars and Venus. of Lambeth.A. The Bow figures and groups are not infrequently attributed to Chelsea and Worcester on account of the similarity of the marks. with a memorial affixed. while such sums as 12s. A further reference to the controversy as to some figures recently classed as Bow which are now considered to have been made at Worcester. in which such items as " a pair of dancers. and figures with bagpipes in pairs. has reproduced in facsimile the sale sheets. be taken as a sign of the Bow factory. will be found under the notice of the latter factory. harlcc]uin in different costumes. Hke those of other factories.^io." is impressed in the paste of some of his figures. This latfer sum at prices now current would only represent some eleven hundred articles at an average of . There is a pair of figures of Cooks so marked in Captain Thistle- thwayte's collection. .100 BOW here it may be observed that the earher specimens are. after being as a lad apprenticed to a china manufacturer named Crispe. The trade of the factory increased from /6. Mr. among which the red dragon. These holes are not found on figures made at Chelsea.

BOW lOI Soup Tiiiecn ol Kow porcelnin. Some of the white figures formerly considered to be Bow are now i^-yir Bow Tea-pot with two spouts. wilh [nunus lilos'iiiiii in relief (Victoria and Albert Museum). W. and some portrait figures of actors. boys mounted on goats. . formerly in the collection of Mr. Macdonaki. D. wiDtc.

and the blue. but is known to have been part of the composition of the old Worcester paste. MacLaren.^400. having raised moulded borders and blue under delicate glaze decoration. and pink-mauve colourings which are characteristic in these figures. . Really line Bow figures realise prices quite equal to those of Chelsea. Some recent information with regard to Bow and Worcester has enabled us to transfer many specimens to the latter factory. red. Bow might almost be classed as coarse Chelsea. have been recently transferred by the Museum authorities from Bow to Worcester. copied from the old Chinese porcelain. and the well-known little " Bee " milk-jug which authorities formerly assigned to Bow is also credited to the sister factory. the crude and vivid colouring. raising the figure three-quarters of an inch or more from the ground. the " blob " of red in the cheeks of the figures instead of the more careful stippling used at Chelsea. and on the scroll base from which they spring. and on these feet. This is probably the highest price yet recorded. but. with which they are likely to be confounded. A mark which appears on some figures having the appearance of a monogram "T. but this theory is now given up in favour of the view that it is the mark representing jade. Analytical experiments have proved that the body or paste of these specimens contain steatite. which were formerly ascribed to Bow. an ingredient which was never used at Bow. generally speaking and excepting the finest specimens. The Bow figures generally have bases with four prolonged scrolls which form feet. instances in which workmen's marks having the appearance of Frye's monogram occur upon figures which are undoubtedly of Bow manufacture. a and two sauce- tea-pot boats. F. however. and it may be added that there is an absence of gold on the earlier pieces. the manager of Bow factory. and sometimes this monogram is found in conjunction with recognised Bow marks. There are. and they are much more difficult to find. At the sale in May 1899 of the collec- tion of English china formed by Mr. as distinct from those of Chelsea or Bristol. consisting of three dishes. a very important pair of Bow figures realised . Collectors should carefully study the Schreiber collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum for some of the peculiarities of Bow." used to be considered as the initials of Thomas Frye. but we have no doubt would be exceeded if a sufficiently important specimen should be offered for sale.I02 BOW attributed to Chelsea. Some six specimens which are in the British Museum. there are generally some blue and red lines in the decoration.

r^ — G O ri ^ 1 O — u .

.

red and blue : 4^^' 4>T o > ??U' J This mark is on a pair of This mark of a G in blue is A Bow mark which occurs vases formerly in Mr. — BOW 103 The following marks are either incised or roughly painted in red. . and also some workmen s marks. In to the author. and occasionally the mark is in two colours. "arrow'' Bow mark. It is on Mr.\lbert Ajuseum which bears an blue with gilding over it. a sauceboat in Mr. Louis identified as Bow by a similar on a pint muy. This is specimen in the Victoria and is under the handle and is in the only instance of it known . Monograms of Thomas Frye and of Tebo. ^ BT T ^ )^ Y % % \<s Bow. Broderip's collection. Broderip's collection. 1 he mark Huth's collection.

In those of this character included in the Worcester marks. The crescent mark was used at Bow. Thompson's collection. a well- . is the mark of the crescent. in that of Lady Hughes. of Weston-super-Mare. Mr. tiiere is often some difficulty in determining the correct factory when there is no mark. a flower-seller. These were formerly in Mr. Dyson Perrins. has many of them which he agrees with the writer were made at Bow. The author had a pair of candlesticks. and many of these are claimed by Mr. such as portions of tea sets. F. in the collection of Mrs. which is found on some pieces of Longton Hall. One of these. with painted blue decoration of a rough character. notably the crossed arrows and circle. accompanied by the anchor and dagger in gold this is . and the anchor. in blue. and are now in that of Mr. and are considered to be Worcester and not Bow. Upon a figure in Turkish costume standing on a scroll base. a large figure of Flora. — I04 BOW There is considerable difference of opinion among experts as to the proper attribution of some of these workmen's marks. The marks occur generally upon specimens of little value. A small pair of figures of a boy and girl in the same collection bear the anchor and dagger in red. and the other. and also at Lowestoft. C. R. very unusual. J. H. the one marked with the crescent and the other with the swords. also occius in conjunction with the ordinary Bow anchor mark in red on two figures known to the author (see notice on Longton Hall). Macdonald. Broderip. accompanied l)y the dagger and a dot in blue. W. Some marks are also common to both Bow and Worcester. though rarely. there are several which the writer has seen on specimens which are in his opinion ofBow origin. As several models of figures were copied by both the Bow and Chelsea factories from each other. A. is in Mr. with figures representing the seasons. Perhaps the solution of for the difficulty may be found in the suggestion that some of these craftsmen worked at both factories. thus ^^ r^ The letter /^^ in blue. Manfield's collection. The impressed mark "To" is probably that of Tebo. Hobson Worcester in his new book.

Macdonald. This mark. silver-mounted coffee-pot in fg] the collection of Mrs. BRADWELL— BRAMPTON 105 known modeller. A. The famous brothers. and the lids of the tea-pots accurately fitted. The seal mark. generally in imitation of the Japanese as regards design. By carefully refining and sifting the local clays. too. occurs on a pair of candlesticks formerly ^^^« in Mr. This is of a fine brick- red. D. which Elers placed upon much of this ware is not unlike an Oriental mark. at Bow. BRADWELL. and so hard and dense that it will polish if rubbed hardly. the details of ornament such as a leaf or mask under the spout of a tea-pot or jug carefully finished by hand. it is difficult to identify. and from the great similarity to the Chinese red ware which they copied so closely. and also it is believed occasion- ally atWorcester. They were the first potters in England to use the salt glaze. but other patterns were sometimes used. together with ^r»^S» the anchor and dagger. Marc Louis Solon has many specimens in his collection.) Mark on a red. established their works here about 1690. which is very similar to one vised at Worcester. near Chesterfield (see Nottingham). Few pieces are marked. for Wedgwood at Etruria. Black ware similar to the Basalt ware afterwards produced by Josiah Wedgwood was also made by Elers. The body is closely mixed. a test that more loosely mixed paste would not respond to. Brampton. R. which is generally described as Elers Ware. Macdonald's collection. David and John Philip Elers. The principal products of their factory were tea sets. they produced vast improvements on the rough earthenware previously made in the district. Mr. . Elers Ware. (See also Astbury Ware. The ornament was generally the tea plant or prunus con- ventionalised. with well-defined moulded ornaments in relief which were produced by pressing the paste before firing in a well-cut steel mould. Staffordshire. and the reader will find Elers well represented at the British Museum. These early English potters are best known by their red ware. and one finds these most carefully potted. who also worked for Champion of Bristol. W.

he did not establish a factory on commercial lines. de Chavagnac et de GroUier's valuable Hisloire there are many particulars of this ceramic venture.for his designs. In MM. under the direction of a workman named Kempe. in opposition to Bernard Palissy. A factory enamelled earthenware was established in of Paris about 1550. engraved in the paste in cursive characters. from materials which he found at Alen^on. 1764 or 1768. in producing a hard-paste porcelain of good quality. by F'rantpois Briot. and presented his productions to his friends. from their delicacy and minute details. are better adapted for production in silver or gold than in . An inferior kind of porcelain is said to have been produced here from 1713 to 1729. or thereabouts. As far as is known. BRIOT. after experiments made with the assistance of a chemist named Guettard. and to have been successful. but worked as an amateur.io6 BRANCAS-LAURAGUAIS— BRIOT BRANCAS-LAURAGUAIS. The mark v^'as o^ej \^ nos the monogram of tlie Count. Francois Briot was a goldsmith first and a potter after- wards. and careful consideration of his work will demon- strate this . BRANDENBURG. Breitenbach (see Grosbreitenbach). who ran away from Meissen (see Dresden). and on some pieces tiiis is accom- panied by a date. The Comte de Lauraguais appears to have been a scientist and member of the French Academy in 1758.

" The earliest dated specimen attributed to him is a plate with . — Pottery was made in or near Bristol at a very early date. M. until the enormous and rapid growth of the Staffordshire potteries stifled the trade. 1735. or sometimes F. . who was the candidate at an election. alone. The latest dated specimen known is a plate with initials . In old documents he is described as a " gallipot maker. there appear to have been several firms which made " Bristol Delft. . Briot's ware is noted for its fine vitreous enamel and brilliant colours." He was also the proprietor of a copper lustre pottery factory at Brisling- ton. at first sight suggesting enamel on metal rather than earthenware. or ewers. One of the best specimens is a salver in the Salting collection. The author had a very characteristic ewer of this fabriqiic. stamped : in the clay. B D initials S. Marks F. and these are mostly ornamental salvers. and 1753 were destroyed in the hre 1711. BRISTOL. who was in partner- ship with. Siegfried Rosenblum. From the hrst part of the eighteenth century. Few specimens are known. The best known of these was that of Richard Frank. but the enamel with which it is glazed is remark- ably hard and metallic in appearance. but we have no means of differentiating early specimens from those of other old English ware of a similar character. The plate painted " Nugent 1754" was made by Frank for Nugent. These later dates belong to the time of Frank's son Thomas. which is now in the collection of Mr.. which is just previous to the decline of the industry." as it has been generally termed. and the amateur must be guided by the characteristics noted above rather than by any mark. also one T x H. B. . and Chaffers states that specimens 1703 1716 dated 1721. and appears to have been a man of great energy and to have done a large business. BRISTOL 107 clay. whose works were in " Redcliffe Backs. but specimens are generally unmarked. father. and succeeded his. Bristol Delft.. which consumed the Alexandra Palace. The material of which the specimens are made is a kind of tcrre de pipe of poor quality.

named Hope and a man named Patience. which rendered part of the design in a white opaque enamel. Owen. Compared with Lambeth Delft it is rather clumsy. he afterwards moved to 3 Corn Street. of No. 2 The Quay . Inscription on Bristol Delft. formerly belonging to Mr. Specimens are in the British Museum and also in that ofUverpool. Bristol Election Plate 1754. This Edkins left the firm some time \j^/^f^ 076o '/ Ovy after 1761 and became a coach painter and subse- quently an actor other workers were a family . from hairs plucked from the nostrils and eye- 'ids of cattle. . and has E left it on record that the brushes used for decorating this Delft ware were made by the painters them- selves. its decora- tions being in greyish-blue. A pale greenish-blue tint was also used in the enamel of this Bristol Delft. A peculiarity of the decorations found on some specimenswas produced by a process called Bianco sopra Bianco. Michael Edkins worked for the Franks.io8 BRISTOL The enamel of the ware is hard and upon a well-made earthenware body. other patterns in greyish- blue. Another Delft potter at Bristol w^as a man named Joseph Flower. which gives a pleasing contrast to the remainder of the floral or Edkins' Plate.

Virtue and Co. Owen. and was made in commemoration of the Peace of Amiens. are we able to distinguish such as are of Bristol make from Dutch tiles of the same kind. and is inferior in quality. together with its mark (Flower's initial)." A half-pint mug which was in the author's possession some years ago had a view of Ring's Pottery and also of the Temple Church: it was dated 1802. carried it on as " the Bristol Pottery. and had an excellent glaze. who had married Richard Frank's daughter. eighteenth century. After Ring's death the business was . Potter. but only because the subject is English. by the courtesy of Messrs. and as recently as 1877 this was in the possession of a de- scendant of the original owner. some- times as single specimens and also as parts of tile pictures." and in the Victoria and Albert Museum is another with a view of St. the name of William Fifield occurs on specimens well painted in flower subjects.xcellent tiles of a decorative character were made quite early in the Bristol Delft I'hite made by Flower. Among the later painters of tiles or roundels. and afterwards purchased the business. laterware than the Delft. mentions one of these tiles painted with a dog which has on its collar "Bristol 1752. We give an illus- tration of this specimen. whose book on Bristol pottery is the best authority. and on one of these Flower's mark. BRISTOL 109 and we know that he had a sign-board painted by Edkins with the words " Flower. in Major-General Astley Terry's collection is the word '' Bristol " impressed in a circle together with an anchor. or by some initial or date. Mr. — The Bristol Pottery is a different and much Bristol Pottery." His ware was thinner than that made by Frank. E. A potter named Ring. Jewitt describes and illustrates a plate which was part of a service made for a relative of his. Mary Redcliffe Church.

The manufacture of porcelain at Bristol was first started about 1750." and bears its date in the commemorative of the Peace of Paris. The small mug illustrated is marked Small Mug of Bristol Pottery " Bristol Pottery. on in quite a small way at some glass works known as Lowris House. 1S15 inscription on the face. " 1815. but the venture was not a success. possibly much later. May 30. Chaffers has given an interesting quotation from the diary of a Dr. and we know that it was in existence in 1817.'A. similar to the one illustrated. Half-pint mugs.no BRISTOL PORCELAIN continued by his widow. Pococke in which the following sentence occurs: "They make very . Macdonald's collec- tion. BRISTOL PORCELAIN. It was carried Tureen Cover and Stand of Uristol Porcelain." : in Mrs. green laurel festoons and gilding (British Museum). The small mug illustrated was probably made at this pottery. the soap rock found at Lizard Point being one of the chief ingredients' in the composition of the paste. are also occasionally found with such inscriptions as identify them with the Bristol potteries.

)." of John Biittain. and obtained it in spite of the strenuous opposition of W^edgwood. was founded by Richard Champion. given by Mr. however. Downman in his English Pottery and Porcelain. This mark in raised letters occurs on an early moulded cream- boat in Mr. Mr. In the Sheldon collection there is a specimen of this early Bristol china having the raised mark of " Bristol " spelt with one " I." CHAMPION BRISTOL CHINA. much like the Oriental. In 1770 the Plymouth works were transferred to Bristol. The benefit gained. is very important as showing that the " Lowris House " undertaking was in existence for some twelve years after its inception. This bears date 1762. he applied to Parliament for an extension of the monopoly. We do not know the exact time when works were started. apart from the above- mentioned undertaking. was . at 15 Castle Green. Two other examples of this peculiar early Bristol porcelain are known: one is a plate dated 1753 and having the initials "J. Borradaile's collection. it be seen. and two are mentioned below. which sell for sixteen shillings a pair. Alfred ^^ Trapnell has a pair of white figures of fakirs with iLj'jj' j this mark Bristoll . The manufacture of porcelain at Bristol. with the aid of some capitalists. and it was in 1768 that funds to the extent of X7000 were provided by various capitalists towards the establishment of the works." These specimens are very rare. Two years earlier Champion had been making experiments with some clay from South Carolina. With a view to increase his chances of recouping himself for the large sum paid to the patentee. which. and others who used their influence in Parliament against him. is considerably anterior to the will time of Champion. In 1774 Cookworthy retired from the firm. but 1768 has been generally assumed to be the date. which is supposed to have been made for John Brittain's brother. a Bristol merchant and partner with William Cookworthy at Plymouth {q-v. which date. in the paste is scratched the date 1750. B. who was an iron- monger by trade. and the second is a bowl decorated with the blacksmiths' arms. carried on for some years the manufacture of a fine hard-paste porcelain. CHAMPION BRISTOL CHINA iii beautiful white sauce-boats adorned witli reliefs of festoons. and Champion. but these were unsuccessful. on behalf of the Staffordshire potters. and the manufacture was carried on under the style of Champion & Co.

cognition of her own and her husband's warm support.P. in re- . the coat of arms of the Smith family. for presentation to Mrs.^"565 at Messrs. Alfred Trapnell's collection. Another remark- ably fine service." and another one is ." entwined. during his contested elections. which some few years ago sold for . for the great expense and loss of time involved drained his resources. in Mr. Smith. Sotheby's in 1 87 1. A set known is as the " Plumer " service has thejinitial " P.^440.42iOi was quite recently again put up at Christie's and realised . and two S's entwined..112 CHAMPION BRISTOL CHINA barren. and was mixed with pulverised " growan stone. was sold for . clay of which the paste was composed was brought from Corn- wall. A fine specimen is in the British Museum a cup and saucer : that formed part of a handsome tea-service made by Champion to Edmund Burke's order. the original patentee. The service is decorated with delicate wreaths (a favourite ornament at the Bristol works)./% f":-<^ i The Tea-pot uf the Burke Service. which con- sisted of six pieces. This service. The value of this service has increased enormously since that time. decorated with the arms of Burke." also from Cornwall. Some other celebrated Bristol servicesmay be mentioned. S. who had assisted Cookworthy. by Champion.and the works were discontinued. and the tea-pot illustrated on this page. was presented to the successful M. from the estate of Lord Camelford. the patent rights being sold to a company The of Staffordshire potters in 1782. One made for Sir Richard Smith decorated with the letters " R. 1774.

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" < u ^ ^ ^ o J O H t/2 .i — J= — «>' S ^ : -^^ . K <5 i.

The figures made at Champion's factory are excellent. one known as Classic. and in Victoria the Liverpool Museum (Mayer Coll. Some of these liear the mark of the modeller Tebo already mentioned. and in addition some pieces of the one which for some reason unknown to the writer has been termed the Gainsborough service. and many other models charmingly rendered. high and beautifully decorated this model .). and the other as Rustic. Biscuit Plaques A specialite of the Bristol factory was the manufacture of charming plaques. Mr. CHAMPION BRISTOL CHINA 113 decorated with a crest of a bird which has_ been described as the Cornish Chough. full of life and animation. others have coats of arms and portraits. Pairs of figures Milkmaid and Shepherd. There are also specimens some of the above-named sets of in the British Museum. We find some of them of hexagonal shape about 12 in. Gardeners. Laurel wreaths and festoons are some- times the only decoration of the services. Birds on stumps are more rarely found the models of some of them are common to . probably those of two Bristol families for whom services were made. and at others these wreaths are made to frame little cameo-like medallions. When landscapes are painted we find them very carefully executed. both Plymouth and Bristol. also two cups with initials B and C. with very satisfactory effects. a portrait figure of Edmund Burke. and among the models are the following. One of these latter with a portrait in relief of H . modelled in relief in white biscuit. Figures and Vasrs. Shakespeare and Milton. 'came originally from Plymouth. Four Quarters of the Globe (originally made at Plymouth). F"our fine examples of these vases are in the Trapnell collection and two are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. one of Champion's daughter as a Vestal Virgin. of which there is a set in South Kensington. — The vases made by Champion were of considerable importance. although there is some doubt as to the correctness of this description. and Albert Museum. The Four Seasons in two designs. Sometimes the subjects are delicately modelled flowers. generally oval in shape. are all in great demand by collectors and realise very high prices. Genuine specimens of any of these services realise large prices when by chance they are brought to the hammer. but the vases made there were of coarser paste than the Bristol ones. Alfred Trapnell has speci- mens of all these fine services.

as : though in turning the vessel on the wheel. The following is a list of the numerals found in the above . but other marks are also found. and the gilt " 2 " is considered by the same writer to be his mark. and the gold " " is attributed on i Owen's authority to him. The most usual mark is a plain cross in a slaty blue. Oxford. and on the tea-pot of the " Smith " service in Mr. A cream-jug of this kind is in the Trapneli collection. in his preface to the catalogue of the Trapneli collection. A cross was found on 867 on 459 it was . For further details of the Bristol factory.^i5o. These latter are said to be the marks of Henry Bone. is in the Trapneli collection.114 CHAMPION BRISTOL CHINA Benjamin Franklin. and another. Occasionally we find both the cross and the crossed swords on the same specimen. often seen in the paste. accompanied by a number on 288 there was no mark. and doubtless refer to the decorators of the china. but specimens are very scarce the : etching of flowers in black also occurs on some few examples. The . A. A peculiarity of Bristol paste is its hard. Hugh Owen's Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in Bristol should be consulted. the marks of a slight irregularity of the lathe were left small black spots. are . is in the British Museum. and they are of consider- able interest. has given us the results of his obser- vation of 1500 pieces of Bristol china. B ^ -I- 7 The Rev. He was Champion's first apprentice. numerals range from i to 24. including the numerals I and 2 in gold. William Stephens was his second apprentice. W. vitreous appearance and its whiteness a kind of " ribbing " can be noticed. and illustrations of many of the best pieces. Trapnell's collection in addition to the cross is the letter A and " ist " in puce. too. who afterwards became famous as an enameller and painter of portraits and figure-subjects on copper. for which the owner paid . These gold numerals always occur on carefully- painted specimens. Transfer decoration similar to that carried out at Worcester is occasionally found. Mr.

all of which were also marked with the cross: Numerals: i 2 3 5 6 7 8 g 10 1 1 12 13 Specimens: 138 27 44 56 13 22 54 nil 14 10 6 nil Numerals : 14 15 19 20 21 22 23 24 Specimens : 3 nil 2 9 3 nil This mark. is that of L. many of the pieces bearing his name or initials. X BRUGES. whose signature occurs in full upon a portion of a tea service in the Franks collection. a painter named Ebenstein. Crette. A was started here about factory of faience IP a century ago by Henry Pulinx. C. Crette. and sometimes the Ply- mouth mark alone. A factory of hard-paste porcelain was carried on here towards the end of the last century. The initials and the monogram E. painted or stencilled in red. by L. Marks as in the margin. a well-known modeller (see Bow). 1/ Lt£ttedeJjiuxe. this combination of the % two marks was used. B. Owen to denote the work of Tebo. BRUSSELS. — BRUGES— BRUSSELS I i.He. There is little or nothing to distinguish Brussels porcelain as regards the quality of the paste from any of the French hard-paste factories. either in gold or in red.i B LC B ^ . whicii is found impressed on many Bristol figures. sometimes in red. generally in blue. are those of L. Marks. is believed by Mr. Shortly after the transfer of the works from Plymouth to Bristol.^ named series of 459. The works are still carried on. Specimens are in the Franks collection.

Kiel. in 1789. Madrid. given in the above group. i. As he brought with him his workmen and models from the Neapolitan factory. and date 1756. G. many thus preserved are singularly beautiful. a painter who sometimes signed faience with his full name. Journal of Commerce in 1761 that there was at least one factory of considerable importance where Delft or faience was made under the proprietorship of one Phillipe INIombaers. C3 i^6 /TLHP J ^ *S* 3: M i cP ® IB 'G^>'4 if ni KY NT l^i Note. This manufactory was established by Charles 111. the curator of the Hamburg Museum.e. is that of a German faience produced at Friedberg in Bavaria. and although the works still remained .B. and called El Biicn Rcliro. assisting with his own hands in the production of some of the pieces. BUEN RETIRO. under a crown. near Sondershausen. given by Jannike and Chaffers and the latter quotes from The . J.ii6 BUEN RETIRO Pottery was also made The following marks are at Brussels. the ware was for the first time sold to the public. and that the three marks of K with hayforks are also erroneously included with the Brussels marks. Great secrecy was observed as to the processes used. — Dr. or for presents to contemporary sove- reigns or favourites . the Spanish productions bear much resemblance to those of Capo di Monte. at a country house much frequented by his Court. and the King took the greatest personal interest in the work. The letter K stands for Kiel. The factory was at a place called Abtsbessingen. C. On the accession of Charles IV. (who be- came King of Spain on vacating the crown of Naples in 1759). The productions were chiefly for royal use. is of opinion that the second mark. Justus Brinckmann.

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Designs in relief were also executed in white. on his entry into Madrid. and also the fleur-de-lis (the Bourbon crest). occasionally enriched by gilding. vL/ ber. ±\^ :5L O. These bear. The author once (T\ possessed a pair representing October and Novem. The pair of Sceaux illustrated are excellent representative pieces. August 14. being like that of Capo di Monte only. 181 2. : under a crown. The building was subsequently blown up by Lord Hill when he evacuated Madrid. . Figures are rare and generally well modelled. In the pottery gallery at the Victoria and Albert Museum is a magnificent vase of this factory. which. Of soft paste. this china is more than usually transparent. the royal cypher. Pottery was also made here. and a delicate white. BUEN RETIRO 117 under royal patr(jnage. susceptible of lustrous colouring. BURSLEM (see STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY). in addition to the flciir-de-lis in blue. Beresford Melville has some figures marked with the impressed fleur-de-lis. in blue. and surrendered with two hundred cannon to the English. and has altogether a shell-like appearance. and also other specimens. generally being somewhat indistinct . modeller and designer to the King. are exceptionally delicate. the buildings turned into a fortification. the impressed mark which is supposed to be that of Ochogaria. as in the preceding reign. which were purchased in Malaga in 1889. but the character of the porcelain is un- mistakable. they ceased to enjoy the close personal interest ofthe sovereign. The marks are two C's interlaced. how- ever.F I. During the Peninsular War the works were destroyed by the French. under the Duke of Wellington. Groups were favourite of fruit subjects for the decoration of services. Mrs. Mark two C's interlaced. being representations of shells ornamented with coral. Some pieces. The monogram of the painter or modeller is sometimes added. it excels in delicacy and in thinness of body.

*^<^ Modern imitations of Palissy ware are made here. '^'"'^' ""'' "^ ''"''' '"'-"''''• PORTUGAU . The fabriqiic was given up about 1808. Sussex. The word " Cadbo7ough " was formerly scratched in the clay. has turned his attention to more artistic productions. some of it being not unlike the common brown Rockingham ware. resembling late Sevres. but is now generally omitted.ii8 CADBOROUGH— CALDAS CADBOROUGH. and also at the Bellevue Pottery. These were in demand at country weddings.. generally stencilled. figures in Marryat's History of Pottery and Porcelain (3rd edit. The ware is highly glazed. near Rye. Portugal. Calvados. This popular model of the Pig has been reproduced. Le Francois. with considerable success. One of these. while the head lifts off and is used as a cup. A factory for the production of faience was started here about 1798. of excellent quality and decoration. Mitcliell. "^^^ CALDAS. The ware was of hard paste. 393). Mark: the name Caen. the body of which forms a jug. These are in the form of a pig. p. the present pro- prietor. The manufacture was afterwards revived by M. in the Baldwin collection. CAEN. and specimens may still be obtained at this little pottery. The very curious pieces known as " Sussex Pigs " were made here. but the manufacture was soon abandoned for that of porce- lain. where each guest was expected to drink the health of the happy couple in a hogshead of beer. who added his own name to the previous mark. for Mr. Caffaggiolo (see Majolica). The manufacture of common earthenware has been carried on here about a century.

was established close to Naples by Charles III. and in considering the manufactory of native birth. George Haynes between 1780 and 1790. It has been suggested that his consort. CAPO DI MONTE. . Haynes. Nantgarw. One of these is included in the illustration of a group of Swansea porcelain and described in the notice of Swansea {'/. The character of the paste is . See also notices on Swansea. SWANSEA.v. should precede it if arranged chrono- logically. in 1736. Haynes. and was greatly improved by Mr. The firm subsequently became Haynes. C(xnv''^rictn HAYNES. Swansea. CAMBRIAN WARE— CAPO DI MONTE 119 CAMBRIAN WARE. Specimens marked Cambrian (cursive) are rare. The ware is well painted birds. was also the place of manufacture of the salt-glazed stoneware known as Cambrian. Dillwyn & Co. The manufacture was probably established about 1750. on the retirement of Mr.. This factory. 1780. Marryat is probably right in giving the Queen credit only for the impetus she gave to ceramic art. Dillwyn carried on the factory alone. butterflies. and independent of those runaway Dresden workmen who carried to so many new factories the secrets of their former works. CAMBRIAN POTTERY. best known for its porcelain. and in 1802.. ceased 1820. Swansea. Canta Galli (see Florence). DILLWVN & CO. and removed to Coalport. the notice of which. Established 1750: taken cmMim by G. shells. following that of Buen Retiro in alphabetical order. may have brought the secret from Meissen to Naples but . Alexander Duncan of Penarth near Cardiff has two vases painted by Thomas Pardoe.). Mr. being the principal subjects of decoration. &c. Amelia of Saxony. and Coalport. Mr.

CAPO DI MONTE. as afterwards in Spain. — 120 CAPO DI MONTE quite different from that of the Meissen works the only thing . in common is that which we young ceramic find in all factories the Oriental style in the decoration of the first specimens. : stance has also happened which does honour to the King of Naples and is not unpleasant to me. I went to view the magnificent maiuifactory of china. After admiring all the fine things suffi- cient to seduce the money from my pocket. in the collection of Mrs. and. we are told. Mactlonald.\illuir R. looked with favtnir upon those of his subjects who were customers at the royal warehouse. Vincent from Lord Nelson " A little circum. The King here. I came to some busts . doubtless adopted with the idea of imitating the true Chinese porcelain. Marryat quotes from a letter to Lord St. Ciroiip of the Peep-show. . took the greatest per- sonal interest in the conduct and welfare of the manufactory.

it became extinct in 1821. The productions of this celebrated manufactory are very beautiful. The NeapoHtan factory was..ill the roy. the Capo di Monte establishment had a hard struggle. executed in high or low relief." which has a most delicate and soft appearance. Revolutions are not conducive to the prosperity of ceramic factories. Charles III. and during the troublous times that vexed Naples at the latter part of the eighteenth and commencement of the nineteenth century. chiefly as presents. Bohn's collection. and when went to pay for them. and with his assistance other factories were started by his subjects. like the old Sevres. and there was a note in Christie's catalogue of the Bohn sale. G. prevalent. and also mytho- logical subjects. however. They. to the effect that this group had been in the possession of an . Some large presentation pieces vases and plateaus — — were made. and. derived from what one is tempted to term its " texture. and others who were still on the original staff. however. Services were made in which each piece was decorated with a peasant in the costume of a different province. Groups of shells were very favourite designs. I was informed that the King I had directed whatever I chose should be delivered free of all cost —and it was handsome of the King. its soft paste has a charm of itsown." As we have seen in the notice of the Buen Retire factory. impressed or in blue. while underneath. these I immediately. continued under the patronage of his son and successor F'erdinand. It was originally in Mr.il family. H. and other valuable articles. to found the new works. in addition to the mark N surmounted by a crown.ordered. The royal aid was ill requited by a conspiracy between some of those who had left the parent establishment. — CAPO DI MONTE 121 in chiiKi of . One of the most charming specimens of old Capo di Monte is the little group (illustrated) of a Peep-show. and tinted in colours on a white ground borders of swags of flowers were also . more rare. The modelling and colouring are excellent. on his vacation of the throne of Naples. the requisition of part of the site for a hospital being the last straw to complete its breakdown. took with him workmen and models. is written in a brownish-red colour the name of the province or the place of which a view is given on the specimen. as in the Buen Retiro factory. After languishing for some years. to steal some of the gold and silver models. while figures were. benefited but little from the new works which soon languished and died from want of capital and energy.

much more vitreous in appearance. The author purchased it at the sale of Lady Charlotte Schreiber's Continental porcelain. The paste is. incised. occurs on f" a Capo di Monte figure of a dancer wearing a mask. and it is now in the possession of Mrs. and the tinting of the subjects in relief is less delicate and refined. the coronet surmount- ing a G is sometimes found on the more recent specimens. Besides the marks given below. occasionally in gold. Impressed mark. and some excellent specimens were exhibited at the Turin 191 1 Exhibi- tion by him. receiving the Grand Prix in recognition of their merit. . ^r ^^ Capo di AL. however." too. highly lustrous pigments. he has also adopted one of the signs used at the original factory.122 CAPO DI MONTE connected with the Capo di Monte factory for nearly Italian family a hundred years. but The manufactory is now carried on by Ricardo Ginori. and bold. . The peculiar " stippling. however. j|. that of the crowned N. collectors must beware of deception. effective designs. ^ This mark. and as. render the Marquis Ginori's factory near Florence of very high reputation. Generally sometimes N in l)lue. executed on forms that are correctly adapted from the classic and antique. GINORI. and the figure work is altogether more " waxy " and less carefully finishedthan in the old specimens. The majolica manufactured at the present time is. Ci'na 1780.4i? Monte. of the old process is replaced by a quicker method of colouring. The earlier pieces bear no marks. Arthur Macdonald. for making reproductions. Some forty or fifty years ago the Marquis Ginori established a factory near the old site. ^_ p_ Macdonald's collection. ^ rv: Mark on N KT the services ^^ Mark fnind Rex Ferdinandus.j jyj^g_ Old Capo di Monte is generally immarked. referred to above. of good quality . but the following marks occur upon some specimens. In blue. together with an incised cross. in addition to his other fabriquc marks.

The author recently saw a set of three obelisks on pedestals of good Castleford Pottery in the possession of Messrs. T. A small pottery was started here some i 2 miles from Leeds about 1790. & Co. los. Carl Theodok (see Fkax'Kenthal . D. & Co. Spink & Son. CASTELLANI— CASTLEFORD 123 Carlsbad (see Pirkenhammer). One can generally buy a tea-pot of the kind described above— that is cream-coloured stoneware with cameo medallions — and blue lines for about £2.iik1 Lidwigsburg).. Cassel (see Hesse-Cassel). When specimens are marked they bear the initials of the firm. and the word CASTLEFORD. who made a fine white stone- ware not unlike salt glaze in appearance. but inferior in quality. near Leeds. Castelli. sometimes CASTLE- FORD POTTERY. In the last Paris Centenary International Exhibition there were some clever original groups and figures in Italian faience signed by this artist potter. by David Dunderdale. near Naples (see Majolica). These works were closed in 1820. to _^3. but afterwards came into the hands of Thomas Nicholson & Co. The stoneware is similar to some of Turner's ware. los. Rome. Imitations of Wedgwood's basallcs were also made here. CASTLEFORD POTTERY. within a garter. CASTELLAN I. D. the obelisks themselves being painted with flowers. N. who used the mark of their initials. which had the oval relief cameo-like medallions on the pedestals. Torquato. which is surmounted by a crown. also a kind of cream- coloured earthenware like the Leeds ware. and a favourite ornamentation is the use of thin blue lines and of medallions in relief. Castel-Dlirante (see Majolica)... . Only the better and more unusual class of specimens realise high prices.

and who. 1778.124 CAUGHLEY CAUGHLEY. rebuilding the works. that until lygo he supplied Chamberlains with large quantities of undecorated porcelain. "James Kennedy. A factory of earthenware was established here about 1751. His paste was excellent so — good. wiio had LAUCiHl. Mug painted in blue. birds and fruit. com- menced to manufacture porcelain. 1. been employed at Worcester. 3. I'late. . Shropshire (also called SALOPIAN). near Broseley." 2. in fact. blue Chinese landscape and figures. to be painted at Worcester. Ju!4 painted in blue. In 1772 the business was acquired by Thomas Turner.KV.

which was largely used at Caughley. it was so called when Turner opened his " Salopian china ware- house " in Portugal Street Lincoln's Inn. A specimen cup in the possession of Messrs.. Hughes' collection. E. which bears the Salopian mark. Turner. in 1780. Law. The mark on Turner's later productions is the word " Salo- pian " impressed in the paste and from this fact. Died 1799. Marks: SALOPIAN or Salopian. exactly like Wedgwood. 1772. bought Mr. and also because . which they transferred to Coalport about 181 4 or 1815. . Thus. Estab''. Domestic china was chiefly made. The late Major-General Astley Terry had a milk-pot of black basalt ware. the proprietors of the Coalport works. many collectors " know the china by this name. and only give the title of " Caughley to that which bears the Arabic numerals as marks. Caughley. decoration of porcelain as distinct from in the pottery. and the willow pattern in bright blue on a white ground was a favourite decoration . 17S0. Willow pattern. Turner's business.but many services were made almost exactly like the sparsely decorated Worcester. He also invented a beautiful dark blue colour. Foulsham & Cole bears the very unusual mark of a lion rampant under a crown. In 1799 John Rose & Co. W. : H. and in the Trapnell collection there was a fine Worcester cup with a Salopian or Caughley saucer made to match this is now in Mr. CAUGHLEY 125 Turner was the first England to employ printing on potter in an extensive scale.

who says that he has never seen them upon specimens which he can identify as Worcester. Edmund Broderip's collection. R. Binns. W.I 26 CA UGH LEY So s These Arabic numerals are marks altribuled to Caughley on the authority of Mr. The following additional marks are on some Caughley speci- mens in Mr. and do not appear to have been hitherto published : — i^ ) 7|V . They were formerly attributed to the latter factory.

de Chavagnac it passed on 6th F"ebruary 1792. but sometimes in red. and jugs have quaint Oriental animals. into the hands of one Christopher Potter. This important French factory of soft-paste porcelain was one of a group founded by unfaithful artisans from the St. and also figures with costumes of the latter half of the eighteenth century. and in the Histoire des manufactures franfaises dc porcelain. and after this time the factory appears to have changed hands several times. until by an act of sale quoted by Cte. under the patronage and support of Louis Henri. The factory closed at the commencement of the French Revolution. who ten years later (1735) granted him a concession for the manufacture of porcelain " in imitation of the Japanese. leaving Chantilly about 1738 to go to Vincennes. Cirou died in 1751. we find a clear lead glaze. and the forms and decoration show Tea-pot of Chantilly porcelain (early period). for handles." The factory appears to have flourished considerably. CHANT ILLY 127 CHANTILLY. One named Cirou is said to have carried the secret to Chantilly in 1725. In the earlier period of manufacture an opaque glaze was used. and instead of the opaque-looking enamel. and the brothers Dubois. Dept. Prince of Conde. while the decoration is slight and now in the style recognised as Kakiyemon. Knife- handles appear to have been a specialite of this time. assisted in the management. lizards and reptiles. descrilied as citizen of London. generally in blue. the Japanese influence: thus the flower-pots. Its distinguishing mark was a hunter's horn. . whose names occur in the history of porcelain-making at Vincennes. In the later productions we have table services. This horn occurs in a great variety of forms. over thirty illustrations are given of the different marks appearing on specimens of Chan- tilly. tea-pots. par- ticularly in the Fitzhenry collection recently presented. and also scratched in the paste. Oise. Cloud manufactory. all of which are supposed to represent the French horn. There are several specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

of the component parts of the material used in the first attempts at porcelain manufacture. who in 1684 had been granted a patent for his manufactory at Fulham. The clay first used is said to have been brought in ships as ballast from China. but with the accession of the House of Hanover an impetus seems to have been given to it by the royal support and the employment of foreign artists. he having claimed to have solved " the mystery of making transparent porcelain. but its exportation was prohibited when discovered. CHELSEA. how- ever. together with the King of Naples and princes and nobles of France. %/ M.128 CHELSEA In the collection of soft-paste porcelain recently given to the Victoriaand Albert Museum by Mr. These are very seldom found. is We know. Mr. lines in less artistic (}^^ Mark used by M." Under the reign of Queen Anne the factory does not appear to have flourished. caused the chemists and others connected with the glass factory to turn their attention to experiments for the production of porcelain. and which had received an impetus from the success of the factory established at Meissen. The early history of thismost celebrated of English china manufactories involved in some obscurity. had ceramic factories under their protection. This letter P also occurs Chantilly. in various formations. our English moiiarchs would also be anxious to add the fashionable pursuit of china-making to 4heir . Jewitt attributes the com- mencement of the Chelsea works to John Dwight. Fitzhenry there are some costume figures made at this factory. It can be readily under- stood that as other German princes. that a factory of glass had existed at Chelsea at a very early date and as a considerable quantity of pounded glass formed one . Pigory. Pigory revived the manufacture on —~ j^ 1803. it may be assumed that the rage for porcelain which the importation of the Oriental china had caused.

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Sprimont issued the well-known "Case of the Undertaker of the Chelsea Porcelain. and its staff consisted of a hundred men. The protest. The general returns of the factory a few years previous to this date amounted to about . chief painter. . under the patronage of William. and silversmith by trade. however. . and was then only to be imported for private use. is. Barton. a practice detrimental to the English manufactory. Sunday." . In 1764. 6d." No sale was effected.^35oo per annum. and building. 6d.. announcing the sale of the plant. little is known. per day Jinks. Mr. but which the " case " clearly showed to be imported largely for sale. as much as -^35 a plate being realised at auction. " as Mr. writing in 1763. 2s. The Chelsea factory was accordingly re-established about 1745. per day. per day Gauron. was a protest against the importation of Dresden porcelain. is advised to the German Spaw. the whole undertaking was advertised to be sold as a going concern. It was Sprimont who made the Chelsea works famous and under his management. Inglefield. however. mentions a present from the King and Queen to the Duke of Mecklenburg of a service costing _^i200. 3s. and Sir Everard Faukener. peared. apparently for in April 1769. a fresh advertisement ap- . the finest specimens were produced." The case. Nightingale he was preceded by one Charles Gouyn. The pieces of this service were decorated with birds in the centre and panels of rich lustrous blue in the borders. with proportionately larger sums for the more important pieces. 5s. is. Duke of Cumberland. 8s. is generally considered to have been the first manager but according . yd. Sprimont. 6d. . and specimens command high prices when they are offered for sale. which is fully quoted in Marryat's Glossary. until his retirement in 1768-69. and thirty boys in process of training. Piggot. IS. Roberts. and is. showing interesting extracts the wages earned by those who worked at the Chelsea factory . one of them is copied here : " Boreman. Postmaster-General. I . Thomas (turning the wheel for a thrower). materials. from 1750 . Horace Walpole. Jewitt gives some very from the work-books. for taking care of the horse (used for turning the flint and clay mills). Nicholas Sprimont. 3d. a foreigner. Snowden. of whom. . 8d. the sole possessor of this rare porcelane secret. which paid a duty of eight- pence a pound-weight. gd. and the factory in all respects reached the height of its prosperity. does not appear to have been successful. to Mr. About 175 1. — CHELSEA 129 amusements. 6d.

The paste of the earlier specimens has a peculiarity that collectors have noticed. saucers. as will be seen at the end of this notice. There is also an entire absence of gilding. which is the first date that is known to be marked on any specimen.I30 CHELSEA by order of the proprietor. and it is not until Roubiliac's time that we find the gorgeous costumes and handsome gilding which make products of the second period of Chelsea so rich and decorative. the works were sold to Mr. and dishes have generally a brown edging which later on is re- placed by gilding. . when Duesbury carried on both factories. From 1770. In 1770. very white in colour. William Burton explains this by saying that in mixing the paste the Chelsea potters kept some of the "frit" coarse. is either in the style of the Chinese or in that of early Dresden — sprays of flowers. Mrs. a small embossed medallion with the anchor in relief. William Duesbury. which are more transparent than the remainder of the piece. The figures which were first made have also little decoration besides small sprigs of flowers on the dresses. and also on some pieces. and Mr. in what has now become generally recognised as the " Kakiyemon " taste — whilst the moulded ornament of the article itself suggests the silversmith more than the potter. leaves. Some of the first pieces produced at the Chelsea works were unmarked. When held to the light several moon- shaped discs appear. from 1769 to 1784. but the sign generally adopted was an anchor in red or brown. and the marks are distinct. and the composition of the paste was altered it is only in the very early specimens that we . in order to prevent the piece losing its shape in the firing — that is to say. and butter- flies. and having much the appearance of semi-opaque glass. plates. or. the proprietor of the Derby factory. those coarse pieces of " frit " stiftened the whole. is known to collectors as the Chelsea-Derby period. either plain or coloured. and though he for a time carried on the two concerns jointly. the models and workmen were ultimately removed to the Derby works in 1784. which are charac- teristic of the period. that is. Soon after Sprimont's acquisition of the works he seems to have made experiments with bone ash. find that peculiar glassy paste. not powdered. though rarely. The decoration of the early pieces of Chelsea china from 1745. insects. according to some authorities. who had recently "left off" the manufacture. and the cups.

CHELSEA PORCELAIN. the largest known figure specimen of Chelsea. Figure of Britannia. Lionel Phillips. . In the collection of Mrs.

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" Vagreable Lecon " and " Le mouton favonri" which are without doubt the originals from which Roubiliac modelled the beautiful group. CHELSEA 131 Arthur R. was employed at Chelsea in Sprimont's time." There appears on some of the figures bearing the impressed " R " of Roubiliac. bear the mark of Roubiliac." the J being joined to the M. "The Music Lesson. one of which has the medallion raised mark. The author recently saw two prints of this artist's pictures. Mrs. Manfield has a pair of partridges. decorated in colours and gold. This is apparently a workman's or modeller's mark who did the actual . either red or mauve. The celebrated French sculptor. " Shepherd and Shepherdess with Lamb. It was formerly inMr. while its companion bears a sketchy red anchor without medallion. high). formerly in Dr. was apparently reserved for the best pieces. The same lady also possesses the extraordinary figure of Britannia mentioned in Chaffers as the largest figure in existence (it is 2 ft. We give an illustration of this important figure. Three very important figures (see illustration). The mark of Iwo anchors in gold. and sometimes the whole is white. one inverted. J. Some of his figures have an R impressed in the paste. F. the monogram "t3\/. 2 in. but the mark being added by the gilder who was the last to decorate the specimen. H. Roubiliac worked in England for some seventeen or eighteen years previous to his death. Lionel Phillips possesses a remarkable pair of figures of a Shepherd and Shepherdess. Macdonald has several specimens of this very early period with the medallion mark in some cases the anchor is . which are in Mr. Claude Watney's collection. The writer's experience goes to prove that the gold mark is not neces- sarily a sign of the highest quality. Mavor's collection. w^hich occurred in 1762." which realised 1750 guineas at Christie's in May 191 1. which are undoubtedly of his modelling. but many pieces. are unsigned. while the second-named subject is the original of another well-known group. as has been stated by some experts. and on others unsigned. There is no doubt that this modeller was inspired by the pictures of Francois Boucher. and marked with the gold anchor. shows a method of marking which came into use after gilding became more common. Thompson's collection. coloured. Louis Francois Roubiliac. so we can fix an approximate date for his work at Chelsea. The figures and groups modelled liy Roubiliac are far more graceful than those of the ordinary Chelsea make as a rule they are very richly . but of similar date and character. Mr.

of Dover. were bought at Christie's by Mr. and the services decorated with long-tailed exotic birds which are familiar to most collectors. Imt tlieir present ownership cannot be stated. with dark blue ground. double the size of these. I. Charles Gilbertson has several figures so marked. 19 11. representing the Seasons. The latter are sometimes decorated with gold ornaments only.' Since the first edition of this book was published the Victoria and Albert Museum has been enriched by the bequest of the late Miss Emily Thomson. Probably the most valuable set of Chelsea vases in existence is the extraordinary set of seven formerly in the collec- tion of the late Lord Burton. a set of three vases of this ground colour. and their completeness as a set. "The Music Lesson. 2 132 CHELSEA work or " cutting up. painted with figure subjects in panels. which includes a fine service of this crimson lake ground. has a very fine pair of vases of this description. are richly gilt. however. . In the Jones Bequest. While these pages are in the press a pair of groups of two figures each. or flowers on white ground. 1 inches high. Some idea of the enormous increase in ' These vases were sold in 1903." for the record price of 1750 guineas in a sale at Christie's on May 4. birds. These are. It would be hazardous to guess what sum such a set of vases would realise if offered for sale. was sold at Christie's for ^3000 but Lord Burton's vases are more than . Amor for 950 guineas (see illustration). of which we are able to give an illustration. and their fine condition. and superbly painted with mythological subjects after the manner of old Sevres. and the same dealer also secured the magnificent centre group 15^ inches high. sometimes with panels of figures. These have the rose-pink ground colour. The pieces having rich ground colours in claret or crimson lake. of a collection of china. Besides the ordinary Chelsea figures in arbours of foliage and flowers. Victoria and Albert Museum. specimens of which the collector should take some pains to acquire. modelled by Roubiliac. and notable examples of them can be seen in the Lady Charlotte Schreiber collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum the famous " Foundling " vase in the British : Museum is also a striking example. In 1900." Mr. there are some charming specimens of these pieces with rich His Majesty the King ground colours. from the collection of Lord Metluien. there are some few special classes of Chelsea china. and in rich deep Vincennes blue. difficult to find and expensive to purchase. are remarkable. in pale green or turquoise blue.

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basin. one of Lord Burton's set of mended to the collector's at. etuis sometimes composed of single figures and sometimes of miniature groups. and more like Dresden of the best time. a tea-service of twelve cups and saucers. besides which the style of its decoration is much more valuable. We give an illustration of several in Mrs. 3. for £42. R. are the best. of the deep "blue de Vincennes" ground with decoration of gold birds. so characteristic of the commoner kind of Chelsea. In the Schreiber. and also in the Franks collection (British Museum) there is a great number of these charming littleceramic toys. and at sales realise as much as -^"40 and _^5o apiece. tea-pot. realised 810 guineas. is. A. The present value would be about ^^1500. tention are those which stand more or less alone. The tiny delicate Chelsea and "Jlacons. May 1904. 4. and the crimson lake service is rarer and contains more specimens." or trinkets. sucrier and milk-pot. are also well worth the collector's attention. In a sale of the Hawkins collection. Models of birds and animals in early Chelsea are very . seven (see the two full-page illustrations). Such tiny little gems are much sought after. and are not embowered in the rather waxy Mayflower arbours. in their modelling while of the later period the charming figures which . and not infre- quently mounted in gold. The figures and groups which are especially recom- AChelsea Vase. Macdonald's collec- tion. a little experience will enable the amateur to recognise as Roubiliac's handiwork. 2. 1770. toys. Of the earlier periods some are very delicate and graceful. CHELSEA 133 value of this kind of Chelsea china may be obtained by comparing its present vakie with the quotation from one of Mr. where same service either this or a similar one is stated to have been sold by auction on February 14. Nightingale's collections of Christie's Catalogues. often bearing French mottoes.

The Chelsea painters also decorated a good deal of Chinese porce- . Somethem are arranged as tureens. Frank Hurllnitt of Flint. The well-known " Bee " milk-jugs are also amongst the earliest specimens of Chelsea manufacture. Some of these are of life size. marked. A. There is also a white group of Lovers which demands special atten- tion on account of the very rare mark which it bears. — 134 CHELSEA desirable acquisitions. Manfield. Captain Thistle- thwayte. Both the modelling and colouring of these specimens are excellent. who died in 1751. which is in the collection of Mr. Airs. Charles Borradaile. but un- . Fred Lowenadler.specimen. M. There is also a cream-jug of strawberry leaf design in the Sheldon collection. Lady Hughes. Robert Ward. J. both of which can be seen in the British Museum. Mr. Wales and a simihu. There are also in the same collection other specimens of this en- tirely undecorated early Chelsea. (See illustration. and that is upon a tall cup with decoration of the tea plant in relief. the triangle — accompanied by "Chelsea 1745. and others are so small that they belong to the class of miniature toys described above. This is a trident and crown combined. all have many excellent examples of the different kinds which are here noticed. and others.) There are two different models of these. the relief part tinted with colour. Mr. jugs. of The formed by the late Lady rich collection of English Porcelain Charlotte Schreiber. N. is in the British Museum. and bequeathed to the Victoria and Albert Museum.. Chelsca "Bee" Milk-jug. One of them bears the incised mark given below namely. R. groups of crawfish. Mrs. Mr. and a group of Britannia weeping over a medallion portrait of the Prince of W^ales. The Hon." Another has the tri- angle only. Macdonald has many of the tiny y?rtco//s which were formerly in the well-known collection of the late Sir Julian Goldsmid. Mr. and Mr. contains a great many of the very best examples of Chelsea porcelain. Ward Usher. Lionel Phillips. H. and only two other instances of the mark are known to the author. and Mrs. Macdonald.P. a bust of the Duke of Cumberland. John Cockshutt.

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a medallion in f generally colourless. on the authority of the late Sir A. and occurs before the time when gilding was used to enrich the figures. and several specimens of this work are in one of the British Museum they are generally cups and saucers of the thick cases . These marks. mainder of the medallion being white. 1769-1784. but is now considered to belong to Chelsea. W. It is *ery rare : I'eriod. eggshell kind of china. . is evidently an imitation of (very under Marks used during Chelsea-Derby some Oriental mark. The anchor and only two specimens so marked are letter D in gold occur separately upon — known to the author namely. the re. is Rare mark on group but sometimes the anchor is Rare mark on Bee jug in the (Lovers) in llritish in red or mauve. British Museum. Incised mark incised the glaze. and that in gold appears on the richer figures of Roubiliac's time. however. Mr. and not raised on scroll feet as are those of the latter factory (see notice on Bow). The bases of Chelsea figures. accompanied by the date 1745. The most usual mark. often resemble raised blisters. icisedmark. In many cases there is no mark whatever save three dirty-looking patches which were made by the tripod on which the piece was baked. and bear no mark. relief. are generally flat. as above mentioned the anchor in red . Frederick E. is earlier. early). The impressed triangular mark was formerly attributed to Bow. Franks and others with which . 1 ^vL-^ (Generally in gold. where the base is glazed. as distinguished from those of Bow. is in The earliest dated specimen of English porcelain is generally considered to be one with the triangle and the word Chelsea below it. .\Ibert Amor's possession.) »\P> Chelsea. CHELSEA 135 lain. Museum. opinion the author agreement. m This mark. This mark. is the anchor. two a sucrier of hop trellis decoration in octagonal cups in Mr. Thompson's collection.

Another notable style of ornamentation. It was well knownthat metallic . possessed of great skill in the potter's art. though translucency. like other nations. to render this curious decoration more marked. The handles of this type consist of kylins' heads. . and. the oxygen would combine with the metal in fusion the introduction of thick smoke would absorb . was the crackle . but there is little doubt that the Chinese. 136 CHINESE POTTERY CHINESE POTTERY. with seal-like impressions. Some of the earlier productions are of a dull brownish-red colour. cause the cracks all over the surface to be more or less frequent. and improvements upon improvements resulted in a certain de- gree of excellence while the world was yet young. with movable rings placed inside the teeth circular ornaments are also found. during the reign of the Emperor Hoang-ti. with a strong current of air. The crackle appearance is produced by a very simple method. took the more readily to ceramics owing to the scarcity of marble for the decoration of their buildings. the body or pdtc being made more sensitive to heat and expansion than the coating or glaze little manipulation was required to . Very probably.oxides were susceptible to the influence ofoxygen. at irregular intervals. is known as " flashed. and sometimes red colouring matter was then rubbed into the tiny cracks. Possibly this extraordinary people. relieved by raised ornaments of a dark ferruginous colour. and so form "crackle" of a larger or smaller pattern. is absent. and adopted at an early date. some . black. Chinese pottery differs from any other in the density of its paste. three or four upon a vase. much resembling bronze. endeavoured to make specimens in imitation of many beautiful agates. the special characteristic of porcelain. about the size of a shilling piece. prepared for a development of art by their high state of civilisation. dates as far back as 2678-2599 B. the Chinese acquired the processes gradually. whether this date be specu- lative or accurate. Hy bold manipulation in the furnace. A kind of decoration peculiar to the Chinese potters. It has been supposed that the agate-like specimens thus produced were the result of mistakes or misfires. and for this reason it has not infrequently been confounded with porcelain." or Jlnmbc. this is generally found of a brownish-grey. The discovery of the secrets of the manufacture of art pottery in China..C. while bands of the bronze-like paste surround the lips and bodies of the vases. it is doubtless of great antiquity. which shows con- siderable knowledge of chemistry.

CHINESE PORCELAIN.D. 25. CHINESE POTTERY 137 the oxygen. and without the aid of the pencil. Victoria and Albert Museum). To such an extent was this science of decoration perfected. that it was possible. but . to imitate a ripe fruit some- what resembling our peach. When porcelain was first made in China we know not. give the colour of the pure metal. from 200 B. to A. and. with ormolu mount (Jones Bequest. Various dates have been given. with its many varied and beautiful tints. Chinese Celadon Crackle Vase. by causing the destruction of the oxide.C. entirely by this process.

and a dish with ornament in slight relief which was brought from Khartum. In the British Museum there are some fine examples of Celadon china whicli should be carefully examined. for which this ancient people are remarkable. With regard to the date of the famous blue and white Chinese porcelain. The whole range Chinese ceramics is so large and so full of of interest. " For the future let the porcelain for the use of the palace. be of the blue. The sets of five and seven. e bene Irovato. the dragons with five and four claws." This Celadon is the oldest of the best kind of Chinese porcelain. The Chinese reckon their periods of time by dynasties. the contorted dragons with four and five claws. are not wholly the creatures of the artist's fancy. The beautiful and peculiar green colour of the glaze. are so bound up with the literature. represent the imperial and the ordinary insignia respec- . the reader will find some assistance in attriliuting to the various dynasties and " families " many of the numerous and beautiful varieties of decoration which illustrate the wealth of colour and design handed down to us by these wonderful Ceramic artists of former centuries. the curious monsters that surmount covers and form handles of vases. Jacquemart has for the story that in the year 954 a potter having petitioned Tchi- tsong to order a pattern. Bushell. the history.and the complicated mythology. that it is to condense a notice of it within difficult the narrow limits of a book which deals with the whole subject generally. and in the notes upon these different periods. but signs and symbols of religion and politics. we do not know what authority M.138 CHINESE PORCELAIN it was probably much later." but one may say of the story se tioii e veiv. so as to imitate the colour and effect of the highly- prized jade of that tint. written by Dr. that it is difficult to treat of it without some reference to these influences. is labelled "Sung dynasty. 960-1279. the Emperor replied. too. The reader who is specially interested in Chinese porcelain isrecommended to read the handbook published by the Victoria and Albert Museum. as the heavens appear after rain. It contains in an abridged form much of the information given in his larger work. which will be found in the following pages. was no doubt perfected after many trials. Thus. This handbook is published at a popular price and is copiously illustrated. Chinese ceramics.

generally of the goddess Kwan-yin or other Buddhist divinities. and briefly to observe some of their respective characteristics. figures. Plain Whitf: Chinese Porcelain. Vases were given both as presents and as rewards for good and noble deeds. has its own distinct significance. Their quaint forms. the Tai-thsing took the colour of the earth. There are also statuettes. All that we can attempt in this notice is to give a rough list of some of the different classes of Chinese porcelain now sought after by collectors. — These pieces. are generally of an archaic character. The plan of a vase. and many another quaint device that has been passed over as a Chinese oddity by the uninitiated. and received the greatest encouragement and court patronage. where the Salting bequest has been arranged. a mythical horse. and other animals. which have no decoration whatever. presented him with one of these delicate little cups. which give the appearance of old soft paste. except ornaments in relief. or irregular in — form are very highly prized in China. though a good deal was made during the Ming dynasty. also of kylins. the kylin is an animal foretelling good luck . or the scheme of its decoration. cocks. immortal bird. the observation of its angles. The production of exquisite specimens was pursued as an art. W. CHINESE PORCELAIN 139 tivcly . while the Thang dynasty chose white. hawks. Sir A. or engraved designs which are only per- ceptible when held up to the light. and the sacred horse. Franks mentions that a Hong-Kong merchant. The height of excellence may be said to have been attained about 1465. ranging in date from the earliest period at . — Some of the most beautiful pieces of porcelain are those of the delicate texture and fine creamy glaze. As with the devices. It is known in Paris as " hlanc de Chine!' In one of the show cases in the Victoria and Albert Museum. which date would be included in the period of the Ming dynasty. and colours. yellow. so with the forms. should enlighten us upon its religious significance or the rank of the person who was allowed to make use of it. and were highly valued. lions (the latter distinguished from the former by having claws instead of hoofs). thus the Ming dynasty adopted green as a distinctive livery. who wished to pay a handsome compliment to an English gentleman. the reader will see a number of specimens of blaiic de Chine. Some of this white porcelain is of a very early date. generally cups oval octagonal.

also curious detached representations of various objects. but it was not adopted by the Chinese potters until the Yuan dynasty (12 80-1 367). The density and beauty of the blue the colour have been dependent upon the quality of the supply of cobalt. and decorated in Holland and England. was for some reason left uncoloured . " 3. foreshadowing the greater triumphs of the K'ang Hsi epoch. while the earliest specimens which are in our museums belong to the Ming dynasty. Blue and White. Bushell has classified " blue and white " into three well-defined periods which can be dis- tinguished from the rest by the following peculiarities : " I. One finds in "blue and white" every kind of decorative treatment subjects. The reign of Chia Ching (1522-66) a dark. opinion amongst collectors as to the comparative excellence of some of the tints. Another kind of white Chinese porcelain is that whicli." Some of these blue and white pieces of the Ming time were mounted in silver and hall-marked during the reign of our Queen Elizabeth. many pieces of this kind have been sold to the European markets. A fine jug is in the Pierpoint Morgan collection.' ' "2. especially in the use of cobalt as a ground wash. The latter include . 1795. but which sets off to the greatest advantage the simple but highly effective design of which it is the background. The joint reigns of Lung Ch'ing and Wan Li (1567— 1619) a gradually improving technique. which it is impossible to describe accurately. battles. —The use of cobalt blue in the decoration of pottery had been use by the Persians at a very early date. The blue and white porcelain K'ang-Hsi period is of the of good quality. hunting scenes. but which are really emblems of Chinese poetry and mythology. throughout this period. The reign of Hsiian Te (1426—35) a pale grey-blue of pure tint called at the time Mohammedan blue. Chinese games. and have varied considerably there are differences of . which are generally termed "utensils" in catalogues. — — 140 CHINESE PORCELAIN which it was produced down to the end of the Ch'ien Lung dynasty. in probably the tenth century. landscapes. full-toned blue of marvellous depth and lustre. though intended to be decorated. Cobalt blue was used both alone and in combination with other colours. and there is a bottle in the Duke of Devonshire's possession at Hardwick Hall. Dr. The blue should be brilliant and the ground- colour a peculiar white.

" the emblems of the eight immortals. or some other desirable condition. because it was brought over by the East Indian Com- pany's ships. These and many more are all symbolic. the Louis Huth collection. although white china made at King-te-Chin. and eight. make one of the most effective forms of ceramic decoration that can be obtained. and it is from that country that we have chiefly imported the finest specimens which now adorn our collectors' cabinets. the tly-brush. which realised £s^oo. Until quite recently we were accustomed to see blue and white Chinese porcelain described as " old Nankin" and this descrip- tion one still finds in the catalogues of some auctioneers and collectors. Huth for £2^^. The probable origin of the name " Nankin " being given to this kind of china." though the design really represents the blossom of the prunns or wild plum. Then there are the musical instruments. Amongst the most sought after specimens of " blue and white" are those generally described as "hawthorn. many of which are almost unknown to our Western ideas. became the generally acknowledged title of the porcelain. and the numbers five. CHINESE PORCELAIN 141 the pestle and mortar. The most notable example of the auction value of a ginger was the famous one sold a few years ago in jar of this decoration. a vase placed close to an incense burner. is that this was the port from which it was formerly shipped to Europe. They are especially beautiful. as already observed —all possessing some peculiar interest in Chmese literature and folk-lore. long- evity. Some good examples will be seen in the Salting bequest. We find occasionally in the earlier pieces of "blue and white" a peculiar glaze which gives the specimen the appearance of soft paste. two coins. some of romantic legend. seven. where it was an especial favourite. So far as the author's information goes. there never was any porcelain factory at Nankin. an ink slab. Blue and white china was imported in large quantities into Holland. and which is said to have been bought by Mr. and just as Oriental china was called " Indian " sixty or seventy years ago. Fo-kien. in brilliant cobalt blue. the " eight ordinary symbols. and a vessel for holding water with which to moisten the ink slab. the eight Buddhist signs. a cylindrical brush-holder. and other Chinese factories is said to have been sent to Nankin to be decorated." as the known source. riches. bundles of books. the detached sprigs of which. some of luck. various scrolls. and so on. This was a . the fabulous animals. so " Nankin.

but in the most highly esteemed specimens there are irregularly shaped panels with some of the emblems. which throws the panels into contrast with the powder blue ground-colour of the vase. Buddhist and otherwise.142 CHINESE PORCELAIN price beyond reason. Famille Verte. Some charming results were obtained in many of those beautiful self colours that collectors delight in amongst . Powdered Blue. These later decorations stand out in slight relief like enamel. If this ground-colour be not too dark. the figures. lilac. of different shades." with many other peculiar colours difficult to describe. which was purchased from the Orrock collection for . lemon. orange. coral. we have a perfect piece of "powdered blue." A famille verte vase in the Salting collection is considered to be the finest in the world. and not too liglit. dark blue. and one can illustrate this by referring to a precisely similar jar. The process employing what is called a reverberatory furnace was subsequently applied in the production of porcelain as in the manufacture of the " flashed " pottery already described. — The date of what is called " powdered blue" china is said to be the K'ang-Hsi period (1661— 1722). or subjects before alluded to on a white reserve.D. The prevailing colour is green.000. c^/ri an lait. crushed strawberry. provided the " form " of the specimen be good.£2 30. "iron rust. pale lavender. symbols. dragons. others. — The Ming dynasty occupied a period of nearly 300 years from A." which will command a very high price from the wealthy and fastidious collector. and these emblems are in what has been already described as ^^ famille verte" decoration. There are a great many excellent specimens of this class of china in the British Museum. 1361 to 1643. peach bloom. then. baskets of flowers and various symbols. charms. turquoise. and bronze. sang de been/. subjects. Its peculiar mottled ground is sometimes only re- lieved by gold pencillings. — Flambe Porcelain. sometimes with pale yellow in the panels. and has been estimated at ^10. are applied in pigments over the glaze. in the Victoria and Albert Museum. . liver colour. the piece being then retired at a temperature sufficiently low not to interfere with the primary decorations. from which peculiar characteristic it is frequently termed " old green enamel. mustard yellow. and occasionally with a portion of the decoration in blue under the glaze while . this variety is at the present time in very great demand among collectors. brown. It is within this period that the beautiful enamelled porcelain known as ^^ famille verte" was first produced.

" is obtained by blowing the powdered colour through gauze on to the wet white body. stand out with excellent results. CHINESE PORCELAIN 143 The peculiar ground-colour of this variety. wliich is subsequently glazed and fired. George Salting's collection in . one can detect green above the black. witli panels of lilue decoration. The peculiarity of this decoration is that Fine Specimen of Old Powdered Blue Cliinese I'orcelain. known as " powdered blue. — Famille Noire. which is singularly a coating of effective upon this the sprigs of the wild plum or cherry blossom . Some idea of the high " value placed upon a really fine specimen of the "famille noire may be given by referring to Mr. in white. In the collection of the Rev. Arthur Potts. if the brilliant black ground-colour be closely scrutinised.

" as also to the beautiful egg-shell porcelain. In the author's possession. it actually com- menced towards the end of the preceding dynasty. although. so called from the prevalence of the rose or pink colour. The period generally ascribed to "famille rose. and this its specimen would now probably realise more than three times that amount. A peculiarity attaching to one special class of the most highly prized egg-shell . The Salting collection contains several important vases with this rare and valuable decoration. Quite at the end of the K'ang-Hsi dynasty Chinese enamelled Porcelain V)\sh.144 CHINESE PORCELAIN the Victoria and Albert Museum. /a//n//e rose. in which there is a square-shaped vase for which former owner gave a thousand pounds. is the Yung-Cheng period (1723-35) and also the Ch'ien Lung (1736-95) which followed. — Famille Rose. we have the "famille n>s<' " decoration. as already observed.

" K . About the same period as this " Jesuit " china one finds specimens. and there are numerous others. or for private orders from Dutch patrons. Germany. Some are representations of the Crucifixion or other Biblical scenes. a very handsome bloom indi- genous to China and with this. Oriental china was also redecorated in France. — Occasionally we find specimens of what is undoubtedly Chinese porcelain. i. and instead of being painted with a brush the decoration seems to have been drawn with a pencil or fine point. A good deal of white porcelain has been from time to time imported into Europe. eitherwholly or in part. and there decorated. one . distinctly European. finds the decoration. speci- mens of Bow. RE-DECORATED CHINESE PORCELAIN. The piece therefore has to be turned upside down to display the colour which so much enchances its value. and Holland. processions and ships. Chinese porcelaim 145 china. is an example of this description. which were undoubtedly sent from China in the white undecorated state. made higher for coloured. Jesuit China. When the duties on imported porcelain were. There is a description of Chinese known as " Clobbered." is the custom of placing this richcolour on the backs of the plates or saucers so decorated. In the class of " famille rose " is also generally included the china decorated with the peony. slightly raised above the surface in enamel colours." because it is said to have been painted to the order of. how- ever. generally parts of tea services. Much of the so- called "Lowestoft" is of this kind. and Worcester. the subjects of which are. Italy. The tea-pot in the Schreiber collection painted by Robert Allen of Lowestoft. at the time when the trade between Holland and the East was so largely carried on. and from designs supplied by. decorated with European subjects. These services were doubtless made for the Dutch market. in many public and private collections. There are also. which is termed "ruby backed. about seventy years ago. and similar representations. and lower for " blue and white. before England had opened up the trade with China. This is called " Jesuit china. and signed by him. polychromatic. officials receiving deputations. as with the famille verte." to which we must give a word of notice. Chelsea. the Jesuit missionaries. and painted in those factories.e.

flambe. Sung and Nan Sung Dynasties (960-1279) and Yuan Dynasty (1280-1367). Porcelain of these periods is of a thick. cation recently adopted is that of dynasties. and sold for decorated Oriental china. Specimens are attributed with some uncertainty. it may be useful to add a list of the more important of these. and other orna- ment. such as fainillc verte. Sui Dynasty (a. . monsters.uieties of decoration are numerous. with entire .146 CHINESE PERIODS IN DYNASTIES was imported into England from Holland. Single coloured glazes were used. heavy type. The notice of the methods of decoration which distin- guish the porcelain of these different periods must to some extent be a repetition of the information already given about the "families. together with their dates. This was the period of the greatest development of ceramic art in China. and moreover a better acquaintance with these periods will help the reader to understand how to attribute a specimen to its correct dynasty. and crackled porce- lain was made. 581-617). famille noire. CHINESE PERIODS IN DYNASTIES." but it will be seen that these overlap with the various dynastic periods." and " powdered blue " but as the classifi- . The porcelain itself is of more delicate substance than previously. We have now given a brief description of some of the different kinds of decoration of Chinese porcelain by the names under which they are known. " blue and white.d. foliage. and towards the end of the time souffle. It is possible in many cases to detect some of the original blue decorations showing through the newer colours here and there. absence of painted decoration. Ming Dynasty (1368-1643). The period when we first have direct evidence of the manu- facture of porcelain in China. also plain white. Clobbered china is of little value. a quantity of the latter over-painted with dragons. faiiiillc rose. generally Celadon green the forms are primitive and archaic. and the v.

a o o w CO W n .

.

when enamel colours above the glaze were first used. and the " blue and white " is more free in its decorative treatment. At the commencement of this dynasty. yellow. plates. A double blue line round the base of a vase or on the bottom of a dish is considered to be an indication of a piece being " Ming. The forms of vases are much more varied and more graceful than during the Ming period the continuation of the faiiiillc verte ." but too much importance should not be given to this. This is a highly important period of Chinese porcelain. Hung Wu. and of other deities and mythological personages. rebuilt the imperial porcelain manufactory at Ching-te-chen in the province of Kiangsi." with lines of division indicating cracked ice. The " blue and white " of this period is of the bolder kind of decoration as regards foliage and figure work. its founder. and this is probably the time of the earlier faniiUe verte. is carried to perfection . ground of the the lustrous black famille noire already described is at its best. Bushell. and continued into the following one. some of the earliest white porcelain belongs to this time. Many of the other factories have either disappeared altogether." K'ang-Hsi Dynasty (1661-1722). according to Dr. the figures of Kuan-Ti. and vases are orna- mented with designs formed of raised outlines forming cluisoits. and from this time. the god of War. and. The decorations described on a previous page a^ famille verte commenced during this dynasty. of the goddess of Mercy (Kuan Yin). to be distributed from its kilns throughout China. or degenerated to provide a coarser ware for local consumption. . and many newer methods of decoration have been invented. which has developed enormously until its furnaces number many thousands. Bushell adds that " all the older glazes of repute have been reproduced here in succession. brown. and purple glazes. as has been already stated. filled in with coloured glazes. A notable period coming within the Ming dynasty is the reign of Wan-li (1573— 16 19). The " prunus " blossom and the wonderful blue ground known to collectors as "pulsating blue. blue. Dr. and sent by its trade routes to all parts of the non-Chinese world. artistic work in porcelain became the monopoly of this factory. Dishes. decorated with green. CHINESE PERIODS IN DYNASTIES 147 They include the kylins and other monsters. who is our best authority on the history of Chinese art.

the fungus. is intro- duced. and with the Museum Guide for reference the amateur should be able to learn to distinguish the peculiarities and characteristics of the workmanship of these extraordinary craftsmen and appreciate the beauties of Chinese porcelain. The " ruby-backed " form of decoration has already been mentioned. and precious stones. The Salting bequest. " reticulated " ornamentation.148 CHINESE PERIODS IN DYNASTIES are of this time. has given us an opportunity of studying some fine examples of the different periods noticed in these pages. peonies.' are very much in evidence. and wonderful processions of figures and all and kinds of subjects are introduced. although eftective for decoration. or astermed. &c. which from a decorative point of view is certainly the best in Chinese history. sacred lily.. Yung-Cheng Dynasty (1723-35). the beautiful rose colour produced from gold. openwork. marble. This is the commencement of the decorative manner already described as famillc rose. becoming more intricate and minute the peony and the chrysanthemum. in fine glazes. and belongs to the Yung-Cheng dynasty. and towards the end of the dynasty tends to deterioration. also the it is imitations of jade. and they are the last of which the collector of o/d Chinese porcelain takes any account. and we tind chrysanthemums. Towards the end of the dynasty. The other most notable collec- tions of Oriental china are those in tlie Metropolitan Museum . bronze. and foreign designs and decorations are adopted. all belong to this period. the . now rearranged in the Victoria and Albert Museum. and roses all pressed into the service of the ceramic artist and grouped and arranged in wonderfully artistic renderings. together with sorts carefully and sometimes over-laboured details of ornamentation in borders and in groundwork. The treatment becomes gradu- ally less broad and masterful. The beautiful flambe or flashed porcelain previ- ously described. &c. These two periods may be taken together. and many other typical ornaments. The faiuiltc rose decorative treatment is continued and elaborated. are scarcely collectors pieces. During this period we have etched patterns and embossed designs. Ch'ien Lung Dynasty (1736-95). During this period the influence of the western world is noticeable. Productions attributed to any time after this. and the best pieces of self-coloured porcelain.

Victoria and Albert .CHINESE PORCELAIN VASE OF famillc noire (K'nng-Hsi dynasty). .Mtiseiim (Salting Bec|uest).

.

D. NAMES OF PERIODS. PERIODS. » CHINESE DYNASTY AND PERIOD MARKS 149 of New York known as the Garland-Morgan collection. and that in the Louvre known as the Grandidier collection. Chinese marks occupy no less than thirty pages. 1004 .f[ ^ ^/">«^ • i°64 ' • « Ticn-shing 1023 y^ -^ Yuan-fufig . . j^ NAMES OF PERIODS. 1068 Ming-tao . and for the purposes of this work it has been thought sufficient to reproduce from that book.D.. when reproducing an earlier specimen. SUNG DYNASTY.. inasmuch as the Chinese potters themselves have. In the most recent edition of Chaffers. carried their love of imitation so far as to add to the reproduction the mark upon the original specimen. A. together with suffi- cient explanations to make them intelligible. by the courtesy of the publishers. Another reason for the omission of all other marks is that in many cases they are very misleading to any but the experienced collector.d. 960 to 1127. is quite beyond the design or compass of this book. A. only the main dynasty and period marks. S ^S Kiug-te . a. MARKS The marks on Chinese pottery and porcelain are so numerous and complicated that a complete list of them.

4P.d. a. i ran \W » • Hal."^ ^1* ""'"^'-yuan 1% A. .] 2F^ rt(z Cheng-ho .\ I I 27 1225 i^ llql^ Shao-hsing . ^^^^ /K* Chen-tan :^. ^ _^ NAMES OF PERIODS. I 190 ^L to /-5- Hsini-tini .D.ii Ta-clman I 120 ^j^^ Ct] Chicn-clmng iS Jt Chiiip-kang NAN-SUNG DYNASTY. A. A. ^^ E£.' Ljing-hsing P/^ J]^ Vv I nx Pao-ching CS^ Sr ^^ CIncn-tao 1 163 1225 Sliao-tinsr '1^2 I^P Titn-Iisi i% ife ^'^ l&i Shao-hsi . 1277 ^^ '^i^^ Cheang-hsing 1278 . hsi . I lOI t'i. NAMES OF PERIOnS. 1127 TO 1279. I-ho .D. A. A.D. 1265 • i.% ^ Tnan-piug . 50 CHINESE DYNASTY AND PERIOD MARKS NAMES OF PERIODS. ^'t^ ^^--^"' • ^-75 hai-iai 1195 S J Ching-lan .r Chiius-ho I lOI '^1 71^ ^ -»2i Tsiiiig-ning .D. NAMES OF PERIODS.

a. CHINESE DYNASTY AND PERIOD MARKS 151 YUAN DYNASTY (Tartar). 1279 to 1368.d. j? .

EMPEROR.152 CHINESE DYNASTY AND PERIOD MARKS NAMES OK PERIODS. A. 1457. Tchun-ti. .D. 9^)i 1465. Ying-tsoung.

. ^ {-.CHINESE DYNASTY AND PERIOD MARKS 153 TAI-THSING DYNASTY.

of the great Ming dynasty. thus : It Ta-iiiing tcliiitg-hoa itieii-lchi. . the first of all +* . Ta-iitiiig siom'u-tc nien-tchi. "In 4 the reign of Tchun-ti. in theTching-hoa period" (1465 to 1487). of the period of each emperor. meaning " the great " the third and fourth characters signify the name . of the great Ming fl^ dynasty. — 154 CHOISY-LE-ROI there are six. These characters may be placed in three columns of two marks or two columns of three. in the Siouen- e HBfe period " (1426 to 1435). In the reign of Hiouan-tsung. denote the dynasty .

but although good workmen were employed it was not a commercial success. very little is known of the factory. A Mr. contributed an article to The Expert. Faience was made here in the last century. Albert Amor had a set of three plant-holders decorated with a trellis inyellow and gold. Bower Adderley. who bought Gresley Hall. and is one of the very few marked pieces which has come under the author's observation. some with tree and bird decorations. on a coarse body. who discontinued further working in 1808. with the assistance of his friend. and owing to the information thus published several specimens were identified. A mug of this kind is in the BritishMuseum. plates of fine transparent china. CHURCH GRESLEY— CLERMONT-FERRAND 155 CHURCH GRESLEY. There was also a commoner description of ware made here and decorated with Cobalt blue. One of them was impressed with the mark. C. and that many dozens of "wastrels were found. and passed from his ownership about 1800. Very few specimens are marked. such as it was. informed Mr. Chaffers that his family re- " tained the place until 1851. Walter Nadin. Nothing much was known about this factory until a Mr. Puy-de-Dome. Probably the manu- factory. and therefore without doubt many examples of this factory are attributed to Pinxton. In appearance the china closely resembles Pinxton. and pieces are exceedingly rare. . which is inferior to Derby porcelain but of somewhat similar character. CLERMONT-FERRAND. and even when they do bear CHURCH GRESLEY impressed on them the letters are so indistinct that it is difficult to decipher them. Brown. and was run as a hobby. who was related to a former owner of a factory at Church Gresley. and he sold it to a Mr. Mr. which being imperfect had never been finished. Burton of Linton. DERBYSHIRE Sir Nigel Gresley established a small porcelain factory at Gresley Hall. Mark: CHURCH GRESLEY impressed. with panels of bouquets of flowers indifferently executed. never had the advantage of the guidance of a business man. The Nadin who owned the factory in the year 1800 was no more successful than Sir Nigel Gresley. the country home of the Gresley family. in 1794.

. S-ijatdcr 4756 CLIGNANCOURT." afterwards Louis XVIIL. Dept. used his name as a mark. Another mark was a windmill. Monsieur Comte de Provence. and marked his productions with the cypher M under a crown. A small was established here by Deruelle.nancoukt. m OlJ Ci.ii. 7734. de la Seine. who obtained factory the patronage of "Monsieur. Established 1775. Moitte. Monsieur. JC*^ Louis Stanislas Xavier. I 156 CLIGNANCOURT Marks CLERMONT.lGNAN'COURT. There is very little to distinguish the specimens of this manufactory from many other French hard-paste fabriqucs. M. who succeeded Deruelle. . and sometimes Deruelle used his cypher imperfectly stencilled in red. Cl.

sometimes. who was a personal friend of Mr. between 1780 and 1790. not in exact imitation of other factories. and that of Caughley in 1799. and subsequently by Mr.C. he did not think that there should be much difficulty in matching it.. COALBROOK DALE 157 COALBROOK DALE (known also as Coalport). realise only £-^ or ^4.. a dozen of the same pattern. that inasmuch as the " model " vase was one of their oivn make some years since. The productions of Coalport vary exceedingly. absorbed the Swansea manu- factory in 1820. and then dryly observed.^6o. from very highly finished and carefully decorated specimens in the manner of old Sevres. . At Mr. that of Nantgarw in 1828. founded by the enterprising firm of Jolin Rose and Co. Tliis factory. Pugh. Pugh. by pieces of Coalport and the uninitiated are surprised . Cock. which illustrates this. purchased what he considered to be a good specimen of old Sevres for some . and showed it to his foreman at the works. Mr. and command a fair price.^"6oo.^5o or . The foreman listened. . of the time when encrusted flowers were the fashion. Really good specimens of this factory. when in London. from their close resemblance to Sevres china. but of good colour and de- sign. when at Christie's a dozen real Sevres plates are sold for some . Some of the finest pieces of Coalport have. with the remark that they must endeavour to obtain a closer resemblance with regard to certain details. to rather poor imitations of Dresden china vases and cups and saucers. It is by no means infrequent to find that a service of old Sevres has been supplemented. while the next lot. a recent proprietor of the factory. he was succeeded by his nephew. been passed off as such and a good story was told to the author by the late Mr. or the losses by breakage made good. and bearing the legitimate mark (the best is the mono- gram CBD in gold). Q. are much appreciated. Rose's death in 1841. William Pugh. Several specimens are in the and Albert Victoria Museum. Imitations of Chelsea and Worcester were also made here.

Within the last few years a company. with the words ENGLAND and COALPORT. CLle/. the ground colour of the ware is very similar in colour to the palerkind of ginger-beer bottle already mentioned. to use a homely but apposite illustration. tlicpurchase of the Caughley factory {q. and then covered by a . was sometimes used after Tlie letter S. gener- ally a deep lustrous blue and a purple.). COLOGNE STONEWARE. and tankards of hard stoneware of many different forms and decorations. and Caughley Works were purchased.v. e. The company's chief productions are table services and good domestic ware. the composition of which. and the latter below the crown. Mark used afler the Swansea. and the decoration is as a rule effective and very artistic and although in a general way the specimens . bear a strong family likeness to one another. or Gres Flamand. and the mark now in use is an imperial crown. An incised or moulded pattern is cut in the paste when soft." has been formed to carry on the works. scratched in the paste. — 158 COLOGNE STONEWARE Marks : \DO-CtL/LO/^t. Gres de Flandres. very seldom are any two pieces identical. OR Gres de Flandres.S). closely resembles that of the common stoneware ginger-beer bottle of to-day. is the general term by which we recognise the jugs. the former above. Nantgarw. afterwards this is picked out in colours. The forms are quaint and good. entitled the " Coalport China Company. pots.

CO c/: miM . z.

.

With Coat of Arms. if SIEGBURG STONEWARE. VIVI HEINRICUS IV NAV REX FRAN'CO I590. . and inscriplion .

H .

So far as we know. opposite Bonn on the Rhine. is very satisfactory. or what was generally known as the Low Countries. where the initials with which many specimens are marked are explained and attributed. in shape resembling an enlarged " Bellarmine " with the mask of a bearded man on the neck. and this information the author has condensed into some notes in the thirteenth edition of Chaffers. as we are now more inclined to call them. mention is made that in in the year 1581 "the potts made at Culiein. Coblentz and its neighbourhood. are of a brownish shade. a very large country is alluded to it practically included Holland and a part of Ger- . They were first imported from Cologne in the sixteenth cen- tury. The stoneware which we are now considering was made at many other places besides Cologne — Raeren. many. and a coat of arms on the body others are of " Cannette " funnel shaped like the one illustrated. and became common in a great many parts of the Netherlands. It was about this time that the manufacture of stoneware jugs called " Bellarmines. It course be remembered that in speaking of Flanders will of of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. with some heraldic device or coat of arms. besides other towns. Many of these old German stoneware pots. A monograph on German stoneware from the pen valuable of Otto von Falke was recently published. COLOGNE STONEWARE 159 good salt glaze. for the sole privilege of importing these " drinking stone pottes " into England. Many of these pots are mounted with hinged covers of pewter. Verviers. and one of the Lansdowne MSS. . cabinet or dresser. and a motto or legend in old German or Flemish. Siegburg." already mentioned in the chapter on " Medicxval and Renaissance. These latter were . In Chaffers there are also quotations from the petition of a merchant named William Simpson. the industry commenced at Cologne." were first imported into England by Garrett Tynes of Aken (Aix-la-Chapelle). giving particulars of many of the makers of these interesting tankards. a town in the old duchy of Limburg. who had previously supplied the Low Coun- tries." was commenced in England. Namur. There is an excellent representative collection of this old German stoneware or Gres de Flandres in the Victoria and Albert Museum and also in the British Museum. addressed to Queen Eliza- beth. and their decorative on an old oak effect. where the necessary clays and the requisite artistic skill were to be found. called drinking potts.

COPELAND (see Spode). and the china has generally the appear- ance of Dresden of the best period. Cologne. H. — i6o COPENHAGEH mostly collected by the famous antiquary Ralph Bernal. Raeren. and probably the service was made for him. Groups and figures well modelled but somewhat wanting in gracefulness were also made. H. a modeller from started Meissen. the mark in the case of the service being in gold under the spouts of Coffee and Milk pot. and the following dates are given on the labels : SiEGBURG from early fifteenth century to 1632. excellent. and that in 1756. engaged. E. The paste is good. and the mark was adopted of three wavy lines in blue. This is said to stand for Frederick V. COPENHAGEN. Wylde says that they took place as early as 1730 or soon after. In either case the factory was very short lived. Some specimens are in the F^ranks collection at Bethnal Green. landscapes and flower painting being the usual decoration of the table services and vases. and Mr.. The attempts to found a porcelain factory at Copenhagen first are shrouded in mystery. who was King of Denmark at this time. on account of their high quality. but we have no further definite information until we hear that in 1759 or 1760 a Frenchman named Louis Fournier was making a soft paste porcelain at Copenhagen and that his efforts continued for some few years. W. best period 15 60-1 6 19. and very creditable work was turned out. and. best period 16 14 to end of eighteenth century. Frechen. Hohr-Grenzhausen (Nassau). Wylde puts the cessation four years earlier. 1550. B. Harrison has the oval eciielle of a fine service enriched with a beautiful pink colour. The present Copenhagen factory (hard paste) was established in 1772 by a chemist named Miiller some good painters were . a factory was under the direction of Mehlhorn. Franks says that this undertaking ceased in 1768. the painting generally in landscapes. These are all marked with the initial F and figure 5. C. denoting the three belts of . upon the discovery of suitable kaolin in the island of Bornholm. very valuable. and therefore specimens are necessarily scarce. from 1550.

This second venture was not a commercial success. wiiich divide the islands of Zealand An open Maltese cross is been used. the Danish National Sculptor also copies of Dresden flower painted services . and busts of famous persons after Thorvvaldsen. It was also believed to have found on some specimens included in the sale at Marlborough House.i and Fiinen from Jutland. . and the blue and white table ware made in such great quantities at Meissen. statuettes. A speciality of the factory has been the production in bisadl of the groups. and in Cabaret of Copenhagen (hard paste) China. 1775 the Government took over the factory since which date . formerly in the Walker-Joy collection. ithas been carried on as a State concern. of china belonging to the Queen Dowager of Denmark. COPENHAGEN i6i se.

those in the new art style. CREIL. The mark was ^SARIS j<? stamped in the paste. are original and well executed. under the direction of Professor Arnold Krog. may be seen. the authors of the " Hisfoire . It was generally white. + + B & G Bing nnci Grondhal. Under the style and title of Bing and Grondahl this undertaking is still carried on and has been represented at recent International E. Dept. A manufactory of a fine faience. But they do not appeal to amateurs other than those who affect modern productions. 1S53. CouRTiLLE (see Paris). but little is known about it.l62 CREIL— CREPY-EN-VALOIS During the last twenty-five or thirty years. The factory has a retail depot in Bond Street where both kinds of productions. •""MrVtV CREPY-EN-VALOIS. who had been an employe at the Royal Works. as well as reproductions of old models. Nothing appears to have been known about this factory until MM. pos- sessing some of the qualities of porcelain was founded here at the end of the eighteenth % centiu-y. Their productions are of the " new art " school the designs .xhibitions. and Bing a stationer who provided the capital. de Chavagnac and de Grollier. Bing and Grondahl. and also stencilled. and printed r 4 with historical subjects. a " new art " school of design has ob- tained favour and is now flourishing. Oise. In 1853 another porcelain factory was started by Grondahl. yf Mark in gold of the soft paste china by Fournier. Faience was also made at Copenhagen in the last century.

Dagoty (see Paris). Damascus (see Rhodian). is a memorandum of There a sale on the 15th of January 1765 to a M. Incised. This mark is referred to by Herr Jannike as found upon faience that was made here. which must have been considerable both in respect of domestic and of artistic soft paste porcelain . There are also other records of sales down to the iith of December 1766 which are full of interest to col- lectors of soft paste porcelain. Darte (see Paris). P. Darmstadt (see Hesse-Darmstadt). and many other articles. DANTZIG. two of which were marked with the word Crcpy (incised) and the third with the abbreviation C. Crc^^ C.p. various small birds in colours. among them are mentioned snuff boxes. salt-cellais in white and colours. Randour of a large white group of three figures on a terrace. and a great many other groups and figures. Upon research they found in the Archives of Paris records of a factory established in 1762 at Crepy-en- Valois by a potter from Mene^y. Dalwitz see (Bohemia). DANTZIG 163 des Manufactures Fran<.aise de Porcelain" nccideiitally discovered in a curiosity shop in Paris three little specimens. together with sale books and papers referring to the products of ihe factory.|: Incised. artificial flowers. . should be credited to Crepy. It must be obvious that many unmarked specimens. which have lieen attributed to Menec^y. c. The factory appears to have ceased to exist about 1770.

The manufactory established in 1773 at Longport. availed itself of its large importation of Eastern porcelain to attempt copies thereof. in the fine colour (the Oriental blue) and the peculiar bluish-white of the ground of some of the best specimens. en ^^^^:Po <v! Davenport LONGPORT »sj/ > o^ °* i2 «^ STONE CHIMA ' DELFT. These marks are generally stencilled in colour. though an earthenware in substance. belonging to a nation which. and. and also glass. and remained for many years in the possession of members of this family. earthenware or stone china. and octagonal-shaped jugs of this char- acter must have been made in enormous quantities to judge from the numbers still to be found. which. . and it is on record that the firm were honoured by an order to manufacture a coronation service at the time of William IV." variously arranged. The marks used were the words " Davenport " and " Longport. These resulted in a product known as Delft. Porcelain was made by Davenports from about 1794 to 1887. near Burslem. between The Hague and of Rotterdam. The ware or stone china was similar to Mason's ironstone ware. has yet nuich of the feeling and character of Oriental porcelain. passed into the hands of a Mr. They manu- factured porcelain of good quality. A later mark on fine china was a capital D. impressed. Like the term majolica. until 1876. when the works were closed. Davenport in 1793. is very closely assimilated to its original models. with or without an anchor. The old Dutch town Delft. at one time. 's accession to the throne.164 DAVENPORT— DELFT DAVENPORT. was the only European Power to whom the Japanese allowed an entrance into their ports.

Havard's great book. initials. the majority of the marks given are potters' signatures. The mark is the name of the firm. Mark of factory at Delft. chiefly in blue and white. DELFT MARKS. Histoire de la Fayence de Delft. In Chaffers there is a list of Delft potters. There are a few good speci- mens of polychromatic Delft in the Salting collection (see also Chapter VI. are occasion- ally to be seen. and sometimes the device given below. — Faience. or devices. This work. but the four pages given here are representative. however. is much sought after especially by French and German amateurs. The number of Delft marks is very large. As a rule these latter are clumsier and heavier than the original old Delft ware. with their dates from 1614 to 1813. is still made at Delft by Thoovt and Labouchere. and only experienced collectors and dealers can detect the shams.). and curious figures of Dutchmen sitting astride a barrel. Thoovt and Labouchere. but the extremely clever imitations made in Paris deter amateurs from purchasing unless they can be reasonably sure that the articles offered are really genuine. produced in Paris. should be referred to by collectors especially interested in Delft. and also M. and these realise high prices. when found genuine either of the blue and white or the polychromatic variety. . The old marks are copied. impressed. and the colouring is not so artistic. Sets more or less complete of five jars and beakers copied from Oriental designs. Modern JVork. Delft. The vast majority of so-called " Old Delft " is. dishes and plates. DELFT MARKS 165 "delft" is often carelessly applied to all sorts of glazed earthen- ware.

1698. Jacobus Kool. C U Corn. van Scbagen. l(»72. Jan V.^V. d. Willem Kool. v. (g Getrii Kam. Knotter. 3 « 6 1-0 VO. Lucas van Dale. 1691. 1683. L K Ho <3 '/ L \^ Lucas van KcsscI. Jail vm der Laen. Witsenburgh. ^. dc Roos. 1697 K Joh. c . de wilte Star. loiij r. 1697. Job. Renic Hey.i66 DELFT MARKS K n j \pw Johannes van der -^ M^3 Jacobos Pynacker. Groeii. Wal. 9:Y^ sc/t.ins 1671 van dtr ^ Th. 1676. 1690.. //'OO '<'75- iJirck van dct Kest dc blompot. 169.^ Adnan Pynackei. ill' liiinl. Witsenburg. 1696. Jan van dftr Buergeo. 1679. dc Roos.c Dirck van Schic. 1 690. IO90.^^»< Amcrcnaie ran KcsscI. J. van der Kloot.s- Com. . ^T_£— . 1O95 1675. 1674. Buergen. A t Pieter PouUsse. Ai) Meei. 1675. C.

Boender. Verborg. Deitra.c S M. Wtb.2. Ary Brouwer.r £^ rB M. 1675 I VH ^ L. W-H R. Verbt 1759. 1728. 1 699. Hi \ / TV n & G. van Amsterdarr r J. ^^ 9 1 PC ^I. Gaal. ^ A. w ManiD Gouda. C 1 P^ 7^. C^ Kcmelis van Dy ck. P. Pennis.T. 1680 J. 1713. Penniaf rt Job. GAAL Job. D P P 5^ P Joh. 1759. 4- )(> "^^ Q. //. T. de Koning J. Verhagen. DELFT MARKS 167 p. Veihacen.KJeynoven. 1759. tnji . 1759. Kruisweg.Vcrburg.

y ij_S} M-VB i7f7 ^4- ir<^o ^r)(. V ^ ^ ^. *! Even' — Suier V^an dw Even.4ZB ^ H. ' 1 68 DELFT MARKS *'. i6q8. i-DP Z>A^ ijy^ J 60S' ^ ^' J/ . j^ 2 Jll77=f4- . D //^ WD. D e^-^a2):S?. MCI /t.

1 den Appel. Van Beek. DELFT MARKS 169 IB T DE KlAAUW Dk Roos Lambert Sandenis.3 dt twe Wildemanns de dubbelde Schenkkann T. /t. W Van der Does. De Wittk Ster ^ivirend? A.ampkt Kan- G. Kiell. W V. Tvp Jnhanoes Mesch.DA De Vhrguldp Booi Riv^rend ? W Vander Briel.B Df Paauw 1651 De I. Jans Kuylick. 1764. 1-764. W. 1764. Brouwer. Spaandonck. 1680 De Witle Ster. Roerder? T. ax 1764. 1764. 1764 D Van der Does. P. 1680 . 17G4 W? Dk Drik Klokkhn A/R>R a.DJ^L C. i6go. Paris Claude R«v*rend. f. 1764 T'FORTUYN. S. Keyser and Pynakei 1680 O _ /^ De MRTAAfE Pot.

" dated ist January 1756. "china maker. and the stock was sold.170 DE MORGAN & CO. an enamelier. had been obtained. Halsey Ricardo. We give the contents of some of these cases. since built over by the Midland Railway Co.. Mr. The Derby Porcelain W^orks were started in 751 i by William Duesbury of Longton. The productions are principally lustre-ware in imitation of Hispano- Moresque. John Heath. . by Mr. de Morgan relinquished potting about 1898 and has since become a successful novelist.^666. A modern firm of potters was established at the Sands End Works. Mr. In 1763 a consignment of goods sent to London for sale. and suggests that as the partnership-deed draft was never duly executed. when Messrs. made between William Duesbury. Staffordshire. 6d. but it was before 1750.— DERBY DE MORGAN & Co. It is not known when the manufactory of pottery first commenced Derby. an architect. William de Morgan and Mr. 17s. at John & Christopher Heath were the proprietors of the Derby Pot Works. and it is interesting to compare the prices with those given at the present lime for pieces similar to those named. and the device given in the margin. The site of the manufactory was in Nottingham Road. and pottery in the Persian and Dutch styles. he was by some means or other turned out of the concern after all the information he could give. and under Duesbury's management the "output" of the factory would appear to have grown rapidly. and as Planche's name does not occur in any future papers. who had for some time resided in Saxony. It is said that he learned the secret of china-making from a Frenchman named Andrew Planche. in 1888. consisted of 41 cases of china. and as such they are both artistic and successful. gentleman. and who settled in Derby about 1745. Marks :The name and address of the firm. and Duesbury to have found the ability and energy necessary to make the business a profitable and successful one. DERBY. and realised the sum of . and Andrew Planche. This firm became bankrupt in 1780. Fulham. Heath appears to have been the capitalist. Jewitt quotes from a draft deed of partnership in his possession.

.

Wiin lUsaiit Handles. m i^^^^gi CIIKLSEA-DERBY PORCELAIN VASE.>T. . Jom:s l{r.iri.i.ukki' Muski'M. Victoria ami Ai.

.

. =. 3 u < i< o -c :: J 2 " ^ .

at 3 large Inkstands . DERBY 171 Box No. . I small do. . 6 second sized Hussars . 4 large Britannias . . . . . 41 coiitained- 8 large Flower Jars . . .

who became partner a few months before his father's death in 1786. In 18 1 5 the premises were leased to Robert Bloor. The London house at this time was 34 Old Bond Street. and tliough by the sale of many indiffer- ently-finished specimens he became rapidly rich. may be assigned to this date.172 DERBY ance being rendered in the management by the eldest son of the proprietor. Duesbury. Cover. and Saucer of Crown Derby. Bloor died in 1849. blue and gold border (British Museum). Duesbury's death in 1796. the decline of the Derby manufactory may be traced from his assumption of the management. The younger Duesbury seems to have apphed himself very closely to the improvement of the manu- facture. where Mr. and sketches by Lord Lonsdale. Mr. Courteney sold the productions consigned from Derby. and to have received considerable support from Royalty and the Court. the stock-in-trade was sold to . formerly clerk to Mr. Mr. Cup. grandson of the original William Duesbury. managed the business for a short time after Mr. Kean married Duesbury's widow in 1798 and continued the directorship of the factory until his stepson. took on the management. models being lent by the Duke of Newcastle and Lady Spencer. Those table services which are now so well known for their decoration of landscapes in medallions. sometime partner in the firm. Kean.

The colouring and details of the decoration of these quaint Derby figures varies considerably. and on the death of Mr. and the work is care- fully executed. marked with Stevenson's name. A. in 1859. but at different premises. and the buildings were pulled down. They were in turn succeeded by Messrs. Macdonald has a cup and saucer with a landscape. R. The firm after- wards became Stevenson & Hancock. it has not been altered. Locker & Co.. Sampson Hancock became the sole pro- prietor. Colonel Pownall made a collection of some twenty-seven different varieties. Mr. Stevenson in 1866. Stevenson. Sharp & Co. and a three-masted ship stamped in the paste. H. in the adopted mark serve as well for Sampson Hancock as for Stevenson & Hancock. Samuel Boyle of Fenton. A. Macdonald). Old Crown Derby Dwarfs (in the collection of Mrs. DERBY 173 Mr. Mrs. K. partly painted and partly printed. As the letters S. which were sold at Christie's in 1909 and realised over pf 500. The business seems to a certain extent to have been continued by Messrs.. and his successor still continues to produce Crown Derby china upon the old lines. His table services are fairly good reproductions of some of the old patterns. It is of interest to note that the present .

green. mirably painted. white. the pupil of Zachariah Bowman. We do not know that there is any ground for this. is worthy of special notice. but certainly the puce mark is found on some of the best. sculptor. The paste of the old Crown Derby porcelain is fine.v. As regards the colour of the marks. and therefore quickly and imperfectly finished. A general impression prevails that the puce mark indicates the best specimens. As. and puce. Mr. in distinct contrast to Sevres. who was one of the best landscape and flower artists of the Worcester factory. pink. A distinctive feature in the decoration of the tea and coffee services is a beautiful transparent full blue. rarest and most beautiful of all. that both as regards paste and decoration one may compare them in every way to good Sevres china. W. was modeller. blue. Specimens with medallions of landscapes or figure subjects. it must be em- phatically pointed out that the above comparison is only intended to apply to the finest specimens of vases and services. and of the finest Chelsea-Derby. of Derby. Mr. . on plain grounds. Hancock's great-great-grandfather was the original Mr. Ingram. a good deal of Crown Derby china was made for sale. Mr. has been noticed under Chi-:lsea {q. THE CROWN DERBY PORCELAIN CO. was managing director. they occur in red. and the shareholders were mostly local gentlemen. and and many of the landscapes and flower-pieces are ad- soft. Indeed it is only fair to say of the very best specimens of old Crown Derby. The Chelsea-Derby period from 1769 to 1784. having a capital of some £6'j. A joint-stock company was formed in 1875. The beautiful biscuit. formerly of the Worcester factory. A factory was . lilac. The finest of the latter are by the hand of William Billingsley. self-coloured The colours are mostly pale and dark blue. and. generally used as a border. when Duesbury owned both factories. R. which were probably made as orders from the art patrons of the time. relieved by gilding the cups were often fluted. are much appreciated.). who were prepared to pay for the best workmanship of which the factory was capable. to carry on upon a large scale the old industry of Derby. however. Edward Philips.ooo.174 THE CROWN DERBY PORCELAIN CO. and some admirably modelled figures are in existence. canary yellow. Duesbury's apprentice. rivalling in many respects the biscuit of Sevres.

but littleattempt is made to copy the old models. and his book gives the original prices at which the different groups and figures were sold at the works. In 1890 the Company obtained permission to use the prefix " Royal. and under the title of The Crown Derby Porcelain Co. Derby. Many of these have a number scratched in the paste." or "third" size are also incised. The late Major-General Astley Terry had a biscuit group of Mazeppa which is incised with the words "G. business upon a considerable scale was commenced. and in some cases the "first. John Haslem's book also contains many useful references he was employed at . the mark of D in reversed cyphers sur- mounted by a crown being adopted." and the mark was thereupon slightly altered. Cocker. R. Bemrose's. Mr. — THE CROWN DERHY PORCELAIN CO. and the description given by Haslem. . The productions of this Company are very decorative.) 2^2^ The above marks. L. Many Derby groups and figures bear no other mark save this number. William Burton's valuable History and Description of English Porcelain has appeared and should be consulted. the factory. intended to represent a four-legged stool. Mr. and the useful guide-book to the British Museum collection by Mr. Bow-Chelsea and Derby Porce- lain.. Mr. Hobson should be referred to. Professor Church's English Porcelain." "second. '75 built upon the site of the old workhouse. and by this." The following marks are arranged chronologically so far as possible : (Generally scratched in the paste. Since the first edition of this book was published. they can be easily identified.

in 1859. T'eriuil Locker. & Co. DKRIiY. 3B 6X c/i^v dl vW fj/.sbuiy i\: Kean. . : 176 DERBY MARKS are evidenth' the copies of a Chinese mark which is given by Chaffers. and on specimens of early date. Dkrhv. <8p3- B UESBURY -ilRBY 3) Crown Derby. 9 c*. 181510 1839.? S^fi BLOOR DERBY 1 )ui. It occurs very rarely. Derbv On transfer printed ware. Stevenson lain Works Museum. E$« Q) ~^. Blook. Occurs upon a specimen in the Worcester Porce. Karly mark. Derev. VVTDUESBURY.

DESVRE— DOCCIA 177 Both marUs generally stcnciUerl in red. .

Since that time the output has consisted principally of copies of Capo di Monte china. a large quantity of moulds were acquired for the Doccia factory. their names are occasionally found either together or separately on specimens. including the marks. many of the pieces being wonderfully good imitations. was informed by the manager that the gold mark. Cinluiy. The earlier productions of Doccia are well worth acquiring. Doccia china is generally found in parts of table services. adopted from the arms of Ginori this mark is almost identical with one of the Nove ." was only placed on the specimens actually decorated at their own works. which are situated about six miles from Elorence. . GINORI CA will. The mark on the earlier specimens is generally a star. when the works at Capo di Monte were discon- tinued.178 DOCCIA— DOE AND ROGERS highly finished porcelain which received the Grand Prix. marks. . A great deal of Doccia is unmarked. Italian peasants. Century.will. l':stablislu-(l 17. The author. and figures or groups still more seldom. Collectors who are acquainted with the characteiistics of old Venetian china will find many points of similarity between the two styles. " Richard Ginori. and it is well-nigh impossible to distinguish between them. The decoration is generally on a white ground with landscapes medallions.15. of course referring only to the decoration (see WORCESTKR). A favourite style of decoration is to paint the centre landscape or subject in a reddish-pink colour. who was a member of the jury of awards. In 1 82 1. while a broad band of deep blue relieves the border. ^^ 5?rr N. views of towns and in buildings.xteenth-century majolica are also made here.icc'i.S. vases very rarely. or single figures. Excellent copies of si. pr) * # ^ Fanciull. DOE AND ROGERS Doe and Rogers were painters for Chamberlains of Worcester .

.

ihe Monogram ofAugustus Rkx. Ill ilie collection of Mr. Chaki. DRICSDEN \'ASK (kaki. ninrked A.v I'Kkiod).es Hakhy. .. U. ^'ellllw ground with panol of Chinese deconilion. circa 1720.

Saxony. The credit of what may be justly termed the second inven- tion of the manufacture of hard porcelain belongs to Sa. and an eagle displayed on a ducal coronet. — These earlier specimens now very rare. DON POTTERY— DRESDEN 179 DON POTTERY (near Doncaster). Samuel Barker. After various changes in the • firm. being suspected of alchemy. ^a*^ J. The process was discovered by John Bottger. Mr. at Leeds. His secret being deemed of importance by the King-Elector.\(jny. inscribed DON. and under. DON POTTERY. in 1S07 Clark joined. It is true thnt the I-*ortuguese merchants had. ti ici* DouLTON Ware (see Lambeth).). DRESDEN. . where. the mark of which it closely resembles. The mark used since 1834 is a demi-lion rampant A u-ip holding a flag. by whose descen. had fled to Saxony to elude persecution.\teenth century. dants it is still carried on. neath.introduced Chinese porcelain very generally into Europe. something like jasper. hy J. the factory was bought in 1834 by GREEN. In the British Museum some specimens of Bottger ware are labelled 1706. after a number of experiments had been made.POTTEI-iY and sometimes the . of Dornheim. . Gicon . faience manufacturers. the desired porcelain was at last produced. a partner in the Leeds factory (q. His ware was very similar to that made DON POFFERY. name BARKER. as early as the si.v. a manufactory was established at Meissen in 1709. but the mode of its production was quite unknown. DORNHEIM Herr Jiinnike {" Grniulriss dcr Kciaiiiik") gives the following mark as that of Kock & Fischer. who. and were only ornamented by the gilders or silversmiths of that time and as a suitable glaze by the enamelling process . and called after their producer — were of a dark red colour. These works were established about 1790 by John Green. Doubtless many pieces have been sold for iA» Dresden. Estalilishcd 1790. an apothecary's assistant at Berlin.

l'.'. Augustus the DKKSUEN FIGURES. 11. . (In the colleclion of Mr. with both gold and silver decorations. A fine white earth was discovered later from which the first really fine porcelain was manufactured. Manficlci.i8o DRESDEN had not then been adopted.) Strong. or are to he found in some of our best private collections. It is a historical fact that Augustus Rex presented William I. and to his royal support we are indebted for many of the finest old specimens that now adorn the gallery at Dresden. (Acier's modcllini. who has been termed the " King of China Maniacs " took the greatest personal interest in this novel ! art. M. Elector of Saxony. The Franks collection contains several good specimens of Bottger ware. the pohshed surface was obtained by means of the lathe.

lilac.P.M.P.. with elaborate lace-work framings of fine gilding. Old Dresden Porce- plates . or K. and introduced wreaths. Frederick the Great attacked Dresden . super- intended the modelling.P. in 1745.M. canary yellow. the first director. as in the case of the old Chinese ruby-backed I'litpmirri \'. Bottger. Joachim Kiindler. many pieces were seized and sold. a sculptor of great merit. from the Oriental designs. which bear no other mark.P. by which that period is known. Duke de Martina). and at others they accompany the K.F. and he was. table services. In 1731. too. and we find these accompanied by care- fullypainted subjects in miniature. The ground-colours are generally painted on the under side of cups and saucers. when the works were stopped by the war. still to be seen in the royal col- lection at Dresden. DRESDEN i8i of Prussia with some dragoons. and connected by the hilts. {" Koniglichcn Porzellan Fabrik or Mamifaclur "). Occasionally one finds gilders' marks. completely equipped. vases and animals. who introduced into the decoration the intricate gilded borders and medallions in the Chinese style. and various dainty cabinet specimens of this period of the factory must always command the admiration of the collector. doubtless the idea was copied lain (coll. marone or claret colour were introduced.. To this time belong those charming services decorated first with Chinese subjects. was previous to 1740 that It the beautiful ground colours.ise. either numerals or initials in gold. in 1722. Kiindler also began a colossal statue of Augustus II. chandeliers. and the electoral archives plundered. succeeded in office by Horoldt or Herold. on these early pieces. In 1759. during which. and afterwards with seaports marked with the letters K. but had only completed the head. the manufactory was again . in return for twenty-two enormous vases. Vases. died at the early age of thirty-seven. The produc- tions of Horoldt's time are also dis- tinguished by the size of the swords (the mark of fabrujuc) which are smaller. apple green. bouquets of flowers. K.F.

were made formounting in ormolu. are the famous crinoline groups and harlequin figures. allegorical figures in sets. are among the best of his productions. Handler's work is marked liy bold and vigorous modelling. will be found at the back of the figures. near the base. Groups of Amorini representing quarters and seasons. Clocks and candelabra of ormolu with scroll feet and china flowers. luunorous. Meissen being the battle- field between tlie Austrians and the Prussians. At the sale of his collection in 1901 these figures realised three or four times their cost to the General. As in such cases the base of the figure would be hidden by the mount. Some thirty years ago the writer assisted the late General Randolph to form a which then cost from _^'io to ^{"20 each. Count Briihl. and reproducing the prevalent I^ouis Quinze taste in decorative modelling. musicians. and the illustration opposite is from one of them. Figures of this kind are invariably of good quality. collection of these figures. are excellent examples. Dresden figures during the time of Kiindler. strong in modelling. bird. and also during the King's period. The famous groups and figures representing Countess Kosel. as was the fashion of the time. as embellishment. have a Dresden group. Francis Baer. and has been termed baroque as distinguished from the rococo. and there is said to have been so much friction between the two eminent artists that it was arranged that each of them should select one-half of the designs for the new models. belong to the same category. the mark on pieces intended for mounting.i82 DRESDEN a severe sufferer from military pillage. Belonging to this class of figine work. This rococo style was affected by a French sculptor named Francois Acier. or animal. The work of Acier is distinguished from that of Kandler as being less bold and more delicate and dainty. and Augustus II. figure. and several of them are now in the valuable collection of harlequins formed by Mr. quaint. The series of tigures known as . His subjects include Arcadian shepherds. and some fine portrait groups of contemporaneous celebrities. and forceful in colouring. mendicants. with scroll bases of a lighter character than those of Kandler. Cupids in various costumes. and which continued after his death in 1775. which within the last few years have so much increased in value. which was contemporaneous with the last forty years of his career. There is a further reference to this particular kind of group at the end of this notice. The harlequins.

and Watteau. are amon.incl tliL' monkey orchcstr. Francis Haer's colleclion. and instead of scroll bases of groups and figures. too. we have round or square pedestals ornamented with beads or festoons. Acier retired on a pension in 1799. Boucher. are now varied by wreaths. festoons. The shapes of the vases. This change is reflected in the altered models Dresden H:iiiei]uin in Mr. on a base of late Louis Seize design.^ tlie recognised Acier models. to the more severe lines of the Louis Seize period. are now of classic form instead of rococo — and the decorations. of the Meissen factory. The services of this . medallions framed in laurel garlands. DRESDEN 183 tlic "Cries of Paris" .i. reprinted from the Coti/ioisscw/r. and towards tiie end of his career the style of decoration had altered from the rococo scrolls of Louis Quinze taste. which in the earlier time consisted of landscapes after Vernet. This transition is occasionally exemplified in the mounting of a Kiindler figure or group. and classic emblems.

Birds were a popular form of decoration. instead of being plain as formerly. variegated with a pattern in some cases resembling the salmon scale familiar to us in the Worcester decoration. Boucher. are Dresden Tankard wiih embossed silver mount. Herbert Young's collection. and contemporary artists. and the ground colours. . decorated with medallion portrait of Handel. and the coffee and tea-pots are " lobed " to match. in Mr.184 DRESDEN time are still painted in subjects taken from the pictures of Watteau. 1759. Cups and saucers are quatrcfoil shaped. Nicholas Berchem. Date e.

.

z ^- .

184). it is said. and became a heavy drain on the King's private means. and is known as the King's period (1778). or bleu de rot." in blue. but one occasionally finds pieces or services which were made for certain exalted persons. aiul biids. and very frequently a numeral. Upon the restoration of peace. was employed. is an example of this class. from which mark it has also acquired the cognomen of " Saxe au point. 1759. and has been selected for illustration. and decorated by private firms and individuals. Deitrich. painted with flowcis. The Marcolini from the directorship of Count period. which has a medallion portrait of Handel. and these give us an approximate date. the porcelain was sometimes sold by the factory in the white. The ordinary table services. DRESDEN 185 made fashionable. The period which followed was under his Majesty's immediate directorship. There is in existence a small number of specimens. is in indicated by a star between the sword hilts. the deep gros bleu. generally " 4. would have caused one to appropriate the piece to a period some twenty years earlier." and specimens produced at this time are generally of good quality. ornamental basket pattern border pressed in a mould. while groups of mythological figures and landscapes- are very carefully painted. The decoration of this time is very rich. but from this time the concern was unable to pay its expenses. Dr. and in the Franks collection so fre- quently referred to in these pages. but for the portrait giving us a date. It is in tlie collection of Mr. when doubtless this piece was made in commemoration. there are no fewer than fourteen dated examples. by tlie publication about this time (1778) of Buffon's Natural llisUny. chiefly parts . which. The allegorical figures of Music. are in quaint Oriental costumes. The tankard (p. which support the medallions. were linished with an fruits. show- ing the changes of style. being much used as a ground-colour. which commenced 1774 and lasted until 1814. In addition to the productions of the periods of the directorates alluded to. Herbert Young. Dates are rarely found on old Dresden cliina. a native painter of some eminence. and died 13th April. so called Marcolini. it is indicated by a dot between the hilts of the swords. These dated specimens are valuable in determining the various kinds of decoration employed. Brinckmann in his work on this factory has quoted an interesting price list which was issued in 1765 giving the names of the various patterns produced at Meissen. The great composer was a native of Saxony.

i86 DRESDEN
of a tea-service decorated by one Baron Busch, who is said to have
invented a method of engraving the porcelain with a diamond and
then rubbing in a black colouring matter which gives the effect of
fine etching. Tiie Duke of Brunswick possessed a service of this

Dresden Vase, lilue encrusted tlowers, wicli Watteau subject on gold
ground, mounted in richly chased gilt bronze (Jones Bequest,
Victoria and Albert Museum).

work wiiicli was valued at ^'10,000. Single specimen cups and
saucers are to be found in private collections. Tfiere is one in

the Franks collection, and another in that of Mr. Ciiarles Borradaile.
Another painter in black on Dresden porcelain was Preussler,
of Bresiau, and a cup and saucer attributed to him is now in the
Britisii Museum it was formerly in Dr. Fortnum's collection.
;

DRESDEN 187

Coming to :i imicli Liter period, within the last fifty years a
great quantity of Meissen poicphiin was decorated in the town of
Dresden, by firms whose names are now almost forgotten, but
who, twenty or thirty years ago, did an extensive trade in
decorating Meissen china, generally imparting to it the effect
of an earlier period of decoration. Many such pieces now come
into the market, and puzzle those who are not intimately ac-
quainted with the peculiarities of the genuine old Meissen decora-
tion of the more desirable periods.
The present
directors still manufacture from the old models
and occasionally add new ones. The more highly finished speci-
mens take rank with other modern productions of the highest
standards, but the general output of the factory has fallen out of
favour on account of the excessive
colouring and high glaze, which do not
please the fastidious taste of the collector,
while those who buy china simply for
ornament are satisfied with the cheaper
imitations made in Paris, and at Pots-
chappel, Coburg, and other German
towns.
These imitations have marks very
similar to the Meissen fabriqne marks,
and no steps were taken by
until lately
the royal factory to check this injury to
its trade and reputation. During the
Milk-pot of Dresden Porcelain.
last few years, however, their trade
marks have been strictly protected, and there have been several
prosecutions under the " Merchandise Marks Act," which has
rendered the selling of china with forged marks a serious offence.
At the present time really fine old Meissen china is exceedingly
rare, and the prices realised are very high. The finest private
collection, second only to that in the Japan Palace of Dresden, is
the one formed by the late Hon. W. F. B. Massey Mainwaring,
and for many years exhibited at the Bethnal Green Museum.
This collection v/as purchased by Mr. King, a South African
millionaire, for the large sum of ^30,000.
As regards the prices of single specimens, the highest are
given for groups of figures in masquerade or fancy costume,
particularly for those which are termed "crinoline" groups.
These fascinating specimens generally consist of a lady dressed
in the farthingale or hooped skirt, which was fashionable in

DRESDEN
the seventeenth century, attended by a negro page, and not in-
frequently holding a toy pug-dog, and a fan, while one or more
lovers in gorgeous raiment, including brilliantly coloured knee-
breeches, pay court to her.
In the sale of Lord de Grey's collection in 1902, a group
of this kind realised ;^io5o,and since then groups of this descrip-
tion when perfectly genuine, have fully maintained this value.
For groupsof this kind to bring such exceptionally high
prices, all the colouring must be original, that is of the same
period as the china itself. Owing to the high value of the pro-
ductions of this early period of the old Meissen ware, not only
are modern imitations made to impose on inexperienced collectors,
but old groups of poor and insipid colouring, or " in the white,"
have been redecorated with the bright crimsons, yellows, blacks,
and other strong colours for which the finest groups are remark-
able. A special reference to the imitations of these valuable groups
will be found in the chapter on *' Hints and Cautions."

m Impicssed marks of Bollijei-

?7 S>^uav.>/i /^.^^j;

DiuisDiiN (Meissen).
.Augustus Kcx, 1709-1726. This ni.irk is
iheoiigiii.Tl monogram of .\uguslus Rex.

Dresden. Wand of .-Rsciilapius.
Established c. 1712. Porcelain for sale,
1715-1720.

X
Used 1716-1720.
Jjrescltn.l7-i^

DRESDEN 189

Impressed mark found on Dresden Bisittit
of the Marcolini time.

The iiiiiial lettersof Meissner Porzellan
Manufactur.

Very scarce mark,
^

jgo DRESDEN

Mark used since the " Marcolini ''
period,
and at the present time, and generally
accompanied by a number scratcheti cur-
Maicolini period, 1774-1S14.
sively on the paste. The number is for
reference in the factory l)ooks.

Special Marks on Spcrifiuiis in the celebrated Collection of China in the Japanese
Palace at Dresden.

Collectors will have observed upon some early specimens of Dresden and also on some
pieces of Oriental porcelain certain letters and numbers, not fahri;ue marks, but scratched
in the paste by a diamond point such as N
= 25 or N
= Z 96. These were special marks
which corresponded with the Inventory of the Royal Collection, and are said to have been
used to prevent the courtiers from abstracting specimens from the Palace. Sir A. W.
Franks in his comments on the copy of this inventory, which was dated 1779, mentions
that it consisted of five volumes, and was compiled from documents of an earlier date. As
the collection increased duplicate specimens were sold to make room for others, and these
sales will account for the specimens, bearing these otherwise mysterious marks, which from
time to time come into the market.

NoTIi.— Much misapprehension has arisen respecting the nick or cut in the paste across
the mark (swords). One such cut signifies that the white china was sold as white, and
therefore has been coloured in some outside atelier. In some cases, however, this after-
colouring is exceedingly clever, and gives the specimen the appearance of a genuine old piece.
Either one or more such " nicks," not across the swords but above or below them, signi-
fies some defect in the piece, but these defects are sometimes so slight as to cause little or
no difiference in the value of the article so marked.

The best known of the private fiinis in Dresden, as dis-
tinguished from the Royal or State factory, were Wolfsohn and
Meyers. The former adopted some fifty or
fjf^ sixty years ago as a fabrique mark the monogram
LXj of the Royal founder of the Meissen factory, as
/T\ ''1 t'l^ margin, and this is sometimes used to de-
^^ VvD eeive inexperienced collectors, and induce them
to purchase the comparatively modern imitation,
bearing the mark in the margin, for the veritable "Augustus
Rex " early pieces, which are very scarce and valuable.
This monogram of Augustus Rex should be carefully compared
with that on page i88, which is the one marked on the early
specimens of the real Meissen.
Some few years ago the Royal factory obtained
a decision in the German law courts prohibiting
the use of this mark, and the (irm then adopted
'jrtr' another mark, the letter D, or the word " Dresden,"
11 surmounted by a crown sometimes called Crown—
'^ Dresden.

DRESDEN— DUBLIN 191

Another mark which we sometimes find upon Dresden china
of some thirty or forty years ago, is that in the margin, used
by Meyers, the second manufacturer alhided to,
the initial letter M being that of his name, and
the bar across the swords indicating a difference
from the Royal Meissen Factory. Another mark,
very similar to this, is that with the letter S
I
between the hilts. This is nn early mark of M Samson of
Paris, the famous maker of imitations. There were otiier
makers and decorators of " Dresden," one being
a man named Thieme, who adopted his initial
letter as a mark, but many of his productions
bore also, or instead of, an imitation more or less
exact of the crossed swords. (See also Chapter VI.)
The mark in the margin is given by Chaffers
SPM
as that on some modern Dresden sceaux in the late Lord
Cadogan's collection. The crossed swords mark of Meissen is
also found on the work of other factories, notably of Worcester
and of Derby. Some of the Tluiringian factories, Limburg and
Closter Veilsdorf, also used the mark for a short time, and we
know that it was discontinued after a strong protest from the
Saxony authorities. While the Worcester and Derby specimens
with this mark are easily identified, these German pieces have much
more in common with old Meissen, and are likely to be mistaken.

DUBLIN.
Captain Henry Delamain appears to have
established a factory of earthenware here,
some time prior to 1753. It is not known

what mark he used. A considerable quantity
of table ware, much resembling Leeds ware,
is marked with a harp and crown, and the
Uncertain. About 1760
name Dublin. Donovan, whose name some-
times occurs, was not a manufacturer, but DONOVAN.
he decorated all sorts of pottery, and used his
Donovan,
own name, as well as imitating various marks.
Dublin.
1790. Donovan, a
decorator only.

192 EISENACH— ESTE
EISENACH.
Herr Jannike gives the following as the mark
of A. Saeltzei", amaker of faience at Eisenacli.

ELBOGEN, Bohemia.
A factory was estabHshed here in 18 15 by
M. Haidinger, but little is known of it and speci-
mens are very rare. Hard paste. Mark, an
arm holding a sword, impressed in the paste.
(See Bohemia)

Elers Wake (see Bradwell).

J LYU^ rVli ENGLEFONTAINE.
Herr Jiinnike gives the following
'All/J£y mark for pottery made here.

EPERNAY.
Enamelled faience was made here in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries. Some pieces are marked with the word
" Epernay " in raised letters.

Essex Pottery (see also Hedixuham).

ESTE, NEAR Padua.
Faience and porcelain were both made here from the middle
down to a recent date. Several firms appear
of the last century
to have had works in the locality. The following marks are
known :

ESTE
G.
WTII. Century.

ESTE+ 1783 + ••-•^»>

D. B. are the initials of Domenico Brnnello ; G. V. of Girolamo
Kranchini. The name of Fabris also occurs.
Lady C. Schreiber's Journals mention the purchase of a

ETIOLLES— FAENZA 193

pair of fine figures of tliis factory of llie Virgin and St. Jolm, both
marked ESTE, and one of them with date 1783, the mark being
stamped in the paste. They are now in Lady Bessboroiigh's
collection.

ETIOLLES, Dept. Seine et Oise.

A small factory, established by Jean-Baptiste Monier in
1766, near Corbeil, where both soft and hard paste porcelain
were made. The mark is composed of letters, MP., joined
together, and sometimes the word Etiolles in full. The speci-
mens of this factory are very similar to those of many other
French fabriques of hard-paste porcelain. It is sought after chiefly
for its rarity.
The monogram MP. stands for Monier et Pelleve, the former
being the founder, and the hitter associated with him.

£^'

A i\\is fabriqiie, dated 1770 and marked "Etiolles,
service of
Pelleve," was purchased by Mr. Samuel Litchfield (the author's
father) some thirty-five years ago. After many changes of owner-
ship, the various pieces were sold separately, and they now
occasionally come into the market. The mark is scratched in
the paste very lightly, and being without colour, is easily over-
looked. A specimen of this service is in the Franks collection.

Fabriano (see Majolica).

P^AENZA.
The majolicaof Faenza produced at the end of the fifteenth
century perhaps the most highly prized of all the beautiful
is

ceramic productions of the best period of art in Italy, and its
characteristics and peculiarities deserve most careful attention
and examination by the collector. Generally speaking, the pig-
ments selected are blue and yellow, the ornament sometimes
being in blue on yellow ground, and sometimes the reverse. Per-
haps the most famous specimen is the beautiful plate with
grotesque figures, masks, Cupids, trophies of arms, and a satyr
playing on a pipe, with the motto Aiixilliinii mc:nn de Domino, and
N

194 FAENZA
date 1508, for which M. Adolphe de Rothschild paid ;f920 at the
Fountaine sale in 1884.
Mr. George Salting collected some famous specimens, which
are included in his bequest to the nation, amongst others being
the Baluster-shaped vase with decoration in blue and deep orange
colours, for which he paid ^^iioo.
Some of the best pieces of Faenza majolica are those which
are attributed to the handiwork of one Pirote or Pirota, and his
mark, which is sometimes the inscription " Fato in Faenza in
Casa Pirota," and sometimes a curious device, is very highly
appreciated by collectors.
The marks in all their different forms are given fully in
Chaffers, but are not reproduced here, partly from lack of
space, and partly because it is almost impossible to find a genuine
specimen for sale except when a celebrated collection is dispersed.
Under the notice on Majolica (i/.i'.), there will be found a few re-
presentative marks and inscriptions of Faenza as of other Italian
majolicas of the time.
The magnificent collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum,
formed by Mr. George Salting, should be very carefully studied
by the amateur who wishes to add genuine pieces of Faenza to
his cabinet. The large edition of Chaffers, and Dr. Drury Fort-
num's Majolica, should be consulted.
A revival of the art of making artistic majolica took place
here in 1850, when Professor Farini, having purchased part of
the collection of the Museum Passelini, which was dispersed at
this time, established a factory, where, owing to his skill and energy,
the productions attained considerable excellence. At his death
in 1863 he was succeeded by his son Ludovicus, and in 1871 a
partial change in the proprietorship took place. The old models
and decoration are successfully reproduced, and are of high merit.
The marks were an anchor and the word FAENZA, A. FARINI &
Co., altered in 1878 to the device of two triangles intersecting
each other and the letter F.

FAENZA

A FARINI &G

FENTON 195

FENTON, Stakkok'dsiiire.
This is made from very
a large district wher«e pottery lias buen
early times, and in century there were several
the eighteenth
factories. The most notable of these were those of Thomas
Whieldon (at one time in partneiship with Wedgwood), John
Barker, Robert Garren, and Thomas Green. The last nametl also
made porcelain. A modern factory of encaustic tiles, majolica,
&c., was started here by Mr. Robert Minton Taylor, under the style
of the Fenton Stone Works. (See also WiiiiiLUON and Mason.)
Marks the names of the various makers.
:

Thomas Heath, whose daughter was married to Felix Pratt, had
a pottery at early, it is said, as 1710, and Shaw mentions
Fenton as
one of his plates as"the earlier kind of white ware with blue
painting." Palmer of Hanley, and Neale, who both copied
Wedgwood ware, married daughters of Thomas Heath.
The Pottery of Feli.x Pratt, which from 1775 to about 1810
produced excellent ware, marked with the name PRATT and
known as " Pratt's ware," was in this district, his works being built
on the site of Thomas Heath's pottery. So many pieces are un-
marked that they are generally vaguely described as " Stafford-
shire pottery," but they have some peculiarities which enable us
to distinguish them. His jugs have an ornament in rehef round
the bases and also on the upper parts busts of Admirals Nelson,
;

Jarvis, Duncan, and other contemporary celebrities are found
modelled on these jugs, and a tea-pot in the Victoria and Albert
Museum has an equestrian portrait of the Duke of York. The
ware is cream coloured with a bluish glaze. Pratt's descendants
still carry on the business.

Some other potters who carried on work in the district, and
of whom Chaffers gives more particulars, were Phillips, Matthews,
John Adams, and a firm named Elkin, Knight, & Bridgvvood ;

Joseph Myatt, who made ware in the style of Wedgwood, had
works at Foley near this place. He was one of the devotees of
Wesleyanism, and it is said that John Wesley preached to a con-
gregation from his parlour window. Of Miles Mason and his
successors we have given more particulars in the notice under
Mason.
Specimens of eighteenth-century English pottery are occasion-
ally found bearing the names of various potters given above. At
the present time the Crown Staffordshire Porcelain Company carry
on a large business in domestic and artistic china at the Minerva
Works, Fenton.

196 FERRYBRIDGE— FLORENCE

FERRYBRIDGE, near Knottingley, Yorkshire.
Some works were established about 1792 by Tonilinson & Co.
Shortly afterwards, on taking into partnership Ralph Wedgwood
(son of Thomas, Josiah's partner), they made very inferior
imitations of Josiali's jasper and other wares, using the mark
" Wedgwood & Co." The works have since changed hands
several times. The name " Ferrybridge " was sometimes used
as a mark.

Feuillet (see Paris).

FLORENCE.
to the honour of the first production
There are two claimants
of soft-paste Europe, their claims being founded
porcelain in
upon the authority of two letters written from Venice, one letter
mentioning that as early as 1470 porcelain had been made by a
potter named Maestro Antonio, the writer sending with the letter,
a bowl said to be a specimen of the new achievement. The
second letter is of a later date, 17th May 15 19, and the writer,
an ambassador, in sending to his master, Alfonso d'Este 1., a
present of an ecuelle, attributes the invention to a potter named
Leonardo Peringer.
No specimens of fhis alleged early Venetian porcelain are
known to any collector, and therefore we have no trustworthy
evidence as to the manufacture of real porcelain, before the date of
1574. Dr. Foresi of Florence in 1857 accidentally found a speci-
men of Florentine soft-paste porcelain, and after considerable
research discovered documents which enabled him to associate
the porcelain bottle of his " find " with the records of \he fabriqiie
which produced it. Mr. C. H. Wylde, in his Continental China,
has given us a translation from one of these olhcial documents
which is of great interest. " Towards the end of the sixteenth
century the princes of the House of Medici made experiments in
P'lorence in porcelain, in imitation of that of China. There are
stillsome persons who possess examples ; they bear on the
reverse the mark of the dome of the Cathedral, with the letter F.
to designate the Grand Duke Francis I. as the author of the enter-
prise. It is also believed that it was continued under Cosimo 11.,
nephew of Francis 1., a theory based on a diary of the Court

FLORENCE 197

[Diario di cortc), in which one reads the record of a solemn fete
given at the Pitti Pahice in 161 3. It is stated in this record that
ticketswere made of square form of a material called royal porce-
lain on which were delineated the arms with
{porcelana regia),
the pellets, and a scimitar on the reverse these tickets were;

intended to be given to foreign nobles and other gentlemen."

Dr. Foresi was fortun.ite enough to secure ten specimens, three
of which he sold to the South Kensington Museum, where they are
still to be seen. The famous bottle which was the learned doctor's
first trouvaille is now in the Louvre.

In 1896, a charming little ewer, only six inches high, of this
very rare fabriqiic, and with the most simple decoration in blue
on a white ground, realised the very high price of ;^304, los.
This is now in the collection of Mr. George Salting, bequeathed to
the Victoria and Albert Museum.
The paste or body of this rare and delicate porcelain is soft
and creamy, and the decoration, which is generally in shaded blues,
is particularly appropriate, the designs being Italian renderings of
Eastern motifs. Specimens are exceedingly rare, according to
Drury Fortnum, only forty being known to exist.
The mark of a dome, representing the Cathedral of Florence,
has sometimes the letterF beneath it this may stand for Florence,
:

or, as suggested in the translation given above, for the name of
the Grand Duke Francis. A very interesting specimen bowl, now
in the Victoria and Albert Museum, which was purchased at the
sale of the Willett collection a few years ago for sixty-eight guineas,
is marked with a date 1638 and the letters G.G.P.F., but whether
this is actually from the Florence soft-paste china factory is not
certain, since it has been generally considered that the enterprise
ended after the death of Francisco I. in 1587.
The other marks given are on the authority of Dr. Foresi.
The Victoria and Albert Museum has recently been enriched by
the addition of seven specimens from this fabrique included in
Mr. Fitzhenry's collection of soft-paste china.

lustred Gubbio ware. In the Pitti Palace. The mark in the margin is attributed to Christoph 1^ Mackenhauer. Florence. Arms of Ihc Medici. A great part of the ware madepurely of a decorative character. A manufactory was established at Belleville in 1790 by Jacob Petit. and Delia Rolibia. and in order to com- pete in price has considerably lowered his standard . has been carried on for some twenty or thirty years at Florence. and the earlier pieces were carefully painted . FONTAINEBLEAU. a maker of faience at Florsheim at the latter part of the eighteenth and the beginning T* y A JH '>i the nineteenth century. A lion's paw holding a tablet. there are some good medallions of this latter description over the doorways on the staircase. Soy. Cenlvuy. but as of late the proprietor has copied the Dresden JP models and style of decoration. and produces excellent reproductions of old Urbino majolica. Century. A This factory is of considerable importance. on the Main. of a piuL-ly known as CANTA GALLI. decorative character. A modern ^ factory of fdience. (^ At• FLORSHEIM. WI. but the is more ambitious specimens have great merit.198 FLORSHEIM— FONTAINEBLEAU fMI (Ml XVI. and has for its mark a crowing cock very sketchily drawn.

Godebski & Cie X is : Avon les I'"ontaineliIeau. was a criminal offence. The invention of porcelain-making appears to have been his own. The present manufactory is in the Rue Paradis Poissonniere. appears to have become director of the new works. and until the recent stringent prosecutions under the Trades Marks Acts proved that the offering for sale of pieces of china bearing forged marks. Carl Theodore. was largely imported into England. however. the productions of this manufactory are not much sought after. — FONTAINEBLEAU— FRANKENTHAI. Century. 199 of excellence. until a recent registration of trade marks hindered it. M. except at Sevres.) in disgust at the discovery of his papers and piracy of his secret. who had left Hochst (q-v. some of the white figures are. and . A great deal of the commoner imitations of Dresden china have been made at several factories near Fontainebleau . bearing a colourable imitation of the Dresden mark.c XVII. compelled Hannong to carry his invention elsewhere. FoRLi (see Majolica). the cross swords of Saxony were also added. and. near Fontainebleau. A manufactory hard-paste porcelain was established at of Frankenthal 1754 in by Paul Hannong. this kind of china. and other pieces in imitation of Palissy ware. Paris. now Bavaria). formerly a potter of Stras- bourg. FRANKENTHAL (Palatinate. The mark is in blue. This a modern mark of MM. Jacquemart gives these marks : ^<^ m. The productions seem to have been mostly small figures. and the decree forbidding the manu- facture of porcelain in France. there was a considerable manu- facture of faience as early as 1608. Ringler. The negotiations came to nothing. At Avon. and he tried to sell it to the factory at Sevres. very graceful. save by dealers who may buy them to sell as Dresden .

The charming lightness and elegance of their figure work is much appreciated. Frankenthal and Ludwigsburg are often confounded. landscapes. A potter named Feylner became director in 1775. The author once possessed a pair of ice-pails or sceaux. but they excel in the " spirit " and character of the figures. A characteristic of this factory is the painting en grisaille. Frankenthal and Carl Theodore are synonymous terms. when the Elector- Palatine. 1765-1778. and are now eagerly sought after by collectors. and of these the drawing and shading are excellent. and during the last few years the price realised by auction for them has increased fourfold. The paste is not nearly so white or hard looking as the Meissen. rescued the factory from collapse and purchased the plant. He was a zealous patron of the fine arts. and afterwards that of . The earlier mark was a lion rampant. also in areddish-brown. The productions of the Frankenthal factory certainly rank among the best examples of German porcelain. The tea and coffee services and vases are as a rule finely painted in flowers. and raised the tone of Frankenthal ceramics. some very fine specimens were produced these . of the subjects. and subjects on white ground. the crest of the Palati- nate. and also with the production of a beautiful underglaze blue ground-colour. and sometimes the gilding of special specimens was in two shades of gold. until the decline of the factory was brought about owing to his becoming Elector of Bavaria (1798) and withdrawing his personal interest. with Cupids. Paul Hannong died soon after the factory was started. but in afew instances coloured grounds have been employed with great success. when first-class artists were employed. The monograms of Paul Hannong. whose mono- gram will be found below.200 FRANKENTHAL good porcelain was made until his death in 1761. and the colouring is simpler. as one of the marks on the best period of Frankenthal porcelain. Joseph Adam Hannong. and was succeeded by his son. In the loan collection at the Victoria and Albert Museiun are some very characteristic specimens of the different styles of decoration executed at this factory. are rare. being very similar in every respect. and is credited with improvements in the paste or body. Rich dark blue as a ground-colour was used. and his Christian names became the title of the factory. and the crimson-lake ground-colour which we find on the best Chelsea. Carl Theodore. During the best period.

to Ui -4 .

.

and during the war with France. Nottingham.». The factory was never a commercial success. and the concern was sold by auction. R. Haiinung. next the rampant lion on a figure in the is It is doubtful \W O collection of Mrs. 1761. Hannong. When it became a Gcjvernment establishment. are often found accompanying tiiis mark. A. Joseph Adam. A ma rk v"^ lias been attributed to Ringler. This impressed mark. . and occurs on a specimen Fin the Franks collection. the monogram of Paul . whether it is Strasbourg or Frankenthal. when Frankenthal was besieged in 1795. . Macdonald. They were made at Leeds. —. FROG MUGS. and other English potteries. with a small model of a is frog fixed bottom inside. Mark of Carl Theodore. the reader will find some useful information respecting the imitations of old Frankenthal which are now being made at Nymphenburg. A frog mug a drinking mug. FRANKENTHAL— FROG MUGS 201 his son. A. to the Sunderland. but was not finally closed until 1800. the mark used was the Elector's monogram surmounted by his ciown. Crest used from 1755 to 1761. tlie climax of misfortunes arrived. In Chapter VI. (h J.

are also excellent specimens of Dwight's Fulham stoneware. were borne by the Bishop. under the immediate protec- tion of Arnandus. however. In the \'ictoria and Albert Museum is a beautiful half-length figure of a dead child. of Fulda). but only a semi-trunslucent earthenware. is John Dwight. groups. + The honour of the first discovery of porcelain-making in England claimed for Fulham. and the mod-els. also a cross (the arms Both marks are in blue under the glaze. The bust of Prince Rupert. wife of the great diarist. of which an illustration is given. the clay being found in the district of Hohe Khin. for the manufacture of "transparent porcellane. sold by public auction. it . was not a true porcelain. which were very heavy. Landscape. FULHAM. In paste and decoration the porcelain of Fulda resembles that of Hochst in many respects.^I30. had been largely imported from Cologne. collection of Dwight's stoneware in 1873 for the sum of . and carried on in a building adjoining the episcopal palace. that of Mrs. a man of con- siderable learning. Pepys. obtained a patent in 1671 from Charles II. and tiie statuette of Meleager in the British Museum. figures. busts. and some excellent specimens in vases. inscribed. The factory was discontinued in 1780 on account of its great expense. He also made some excellent imitations of the German grey stoneware which. Mark. ^' Lydia dyd March 3. up to his time. The expenses. signifying Fiirstlich Fuldaisch(belonging to the Prince of Fulda).202 FULDA— FULHAM FULDA. and there are several other examples in the same Museum. Hard paste. and figure sub- jects are carefully painted. and fancy figures were also produced. A porcelain manufactory was established in the city of Fulda by Rin«ler's workmen in 1763. bird. Prince-Bishop of Fulda. and the fuel supplied from the beechwood forests in the vicinity. two F's interlaced under a crown. Hesse. Fulham stoneware was not confined to articles of domestic use." His ware. and services were pro- duced. &c." which was purchased at the sale of a Diviglit. As regards the stoneware jugs and pots.. but statuettes. 1673.

" . Ftom Chaffers' " Keramic Gallery. Fuimeily in ilie collection of Mr. Pair of figures of peasants. FULDx\ PORCELAIN. Charles Dickins.

.

FULHAM 203 is in some cases difficult to decide between tlie claims of Fiilliain and some of the German One has to be guided by the factories. and the decorations of tankards and jugs. the nationality of the coat of arms or device. if there be liusl of I'rince Kujiert in Fulham stoneware (Biiusli Museum). one. busts of . The actual body of the ware is not unlike that of the modern ginger- beer stone bottle. character of the decoration. often in relief. Some of this old Fulham ware was a rich brown colour with salt glaze. represented hunting scenes. since the composition and appearance are so similar. and the language of the motto or legend.

on jugs or tankards of much later date than the time of that monarch. J581. of course.ing Elizabethan Juc. however. which was for more than two hundred years the property of the parish of West Mailing. From the illustration it will be seen that the mount was a fine piece of old work. and tlie silver-gilt mount bore the London hall-mark of 1581. and the mottlings of this now much sought after variety are varied. one particular kind being described as " tiger's skin.204 FULHAM celebritiesand many humorous incidents. and he has also the original wooden stand which was used to pre- vent injury to the table. and was sold by order of the cluirchwardens to provide funds for church restoration. and green. The most sensational price ever paid for a specimen of Fulhamware was realised when the famous West Mailing Jug was sold at Christie's in 1903 for the enormous The West Mali. and one has seen figures of beefeaters and queer-looking hounds. sum of 1450 guineas." When these are mounted in silver of the period they are very valuable. Hogarth's " Midnight Conversation " was a popular subject. The body this jug of was mottled shades of in purple. but it gives us the approxi- mate date of the jug. the latter being. the greater part of the sale price must be credited to this. Robert Drane has two of these tankards with the lower part discoloured from being placed on the fire to heat the " spiced ale "which was a favourite beverage. Mr. orange. Some of the early Fulham ware was mottled. Another illustration of one of these Fulham ware jugs with a . together with a bust of Queen Anne. Crichton Brothers. From a photographby permission of Messrs. and. .

.

.

l^^LAMy . Solon has a famous private collection. and became bankrupt in 1746. The exhibit of this pottery at the last International Exhibition in Turin (191 1) showed some improvement on previous work. and he and his descendants Fulham W. Margaret's daughter Lydia married first Thomas Warland. It is now carried on by a limited company. C. The specimen was a fine piece of the old Fulham mottled ware. and then brought it to the author for his opinion and valuation. pur- carried on the works until 1862. cessful. Zsolnay . A reader of Pottery and this Porcelain wiio had but Httle previous icnowledge of the subject saw in a village shop the jug which is here illustrated. A modern factory of faience has been es- tablished here by W. sold for ^250. when chased for 45. the rim. William de Morgan opened a factory here (see De Morgan). C. 6d. After D wight's death the pottery was carried on by his daughter-in-law in partnership with a man named VVarland they were. In 1864 this firm was succeeded by Mr. Mark as in the margin. L. and Mr. and also the hinged cover the hall-mark of 1560. she purchased it for 4s. who greatly improved and enlarged the manufactory. There are several excellent specimens of old Fulham ware in the British Museum. FUNFKIRCHEN. FULHAM— FGNFKIRCHEN 205 silver mount given. and the silver mounts bore on the foot. T..iru Mouleii Jug.0. unsuc- . Messrs. however. Macintosh & Clements became the proprietors. and tliinidng from its appearance that it resembled one whicli she had read about and seen illustrated on page 23. 6ci. In 1888 Mr. the ware is well decorated with floral scrolls. As a result of the interview the jug was sent to Christie's. afterwards William White. Bailey. and in May 1910 realised £2^. Hungary. on account of an incident which connects is it with book and its author.

and went to Fiirstenburg in 1750 to found a manufactory. considerable improvements were effected. and the enterprise was taken up with much skill and spirit by Baron Von Lang. and the character of the ware is somewhat like that of Meissen. The mark is the cypher F. but coarser. but the works were continued under his successors. . Duke of Brunswick. whose knowledge of chemistry enabled him to carry on the works with success. A specialite of the factory was the production in excellent biscuit. under Jerome Bonaparte. Schubert. and on Bengraf's refusal to do this he was placed under arrest and kept without food until the terms were complied with. Lutlau. all in porcelain. daughter of Frederick. he induced a Hochst workman. After Jerome's departure in 18 13 the factory passed through various vicissitudes. learning his intention. Brunswick. obtained an electoral commission to force Bengraf to impart his secret knowledge of the various processes to him before leaving. however. The biscuit are by Rombrich. to leave his employment and take the superintendence of a furnace. Being desirous of becoming the proprietor of some ceramic works. when he was released. Charles who in 1737 married Augusta.2o6 fURSTENBURG FURSTENBURG. Prince of Wales. and also of pictures with frames of rococo design. when the duchy of Brunswick was amalga- mated with the new kingdom of Westphalia. The paste is hard. one Bengraf. and a Frenchman named Gersverot was manager. of busts. the fortunes of the Fiirstenburg factory were revived for a time. and some good artists employed. The establishment manufactory at Fi'irstenburg of a porcelain was due to William Ferdinand. and cameo portrait medallions. A great many and about 1770 table services were produced. and are palmed sometimes on the unwary collector off as old Fiirstenburg. but they are badly fuiished and indif- ferently painted. and granddaughter of George II. and eventually in 1888 was formed into a limited Some of the old models are still company. and portraits Desoches. In 1807. His master Gelz. He died very shortly after its commencement. The death of the Duke of Brunswick in 1780 caused a reduction in the establishment. used. in blue under the glaze.

XVIII. Century. GENOA 207 % The first of these marks is somewhat ^s^uncertain. but as it has been found on pieces marked with the letter F. . Geneva (see Nyon). Century. Century. but most of them are somewhat uncertain. XVIII. Majolica was made here as early as 154S it was not . it is now considered probable that it really belongs to Fiirstenburg. GENOA. XVIII. Several repre- sentative examples of tliis factory are in the Franks collection. un- like that made at Savona. Century. Century. The mark in the margin has been attributed to Hesse-Cassel. as above. thont^li usually attributed to this factory. A C-C 6 B-L XVIII. They illustrate the whiteness of the paste and some peculiarities of decoration. All the following marks are attributed to Genoa. XVII.

in blue under the glaze. A factory of majolica was started here about 1864. GIEN. ^f Sometimes the name Gera is used in full. like a little picture. but later the Gera concern appears to have been owned by two members of the Greiner family. Gotha and others. and very similar to those of the kindred factories. Kloster Veilsdorf. a landscape painted in an oblong panel. The following marks are stencilled in colour on the ware : GIKN C! e o ff o 1 i GiNORi (see Capo di Monte). This is one of the group of some twelve porcelain factories in the forest district of Thuringia. France. about which we had little reliable information until the publication recently of a work. — 2o8 GERA— GlEN GERA. issued under the authority of the Leipzig Museum. . Volkstedt. Altthitringer Porzcllan. For a short time the factory was amalgamated with that of Volkstedt. (See Thuringia. ^^ which it will be observed has a peculiar hook in the Kl upper part distinguishing it from the G of Gotha. appears to have been thrown on the surface. A characteristic of Gera porcelain is the imitation of grained woods. Speci- C/ mens are in the Franks collection (Bethnal Green Museum). Mark: an upright script G.) The productions were chiefly table services. Some of the imitations of early pieces of Raffaelesque ware are worth attention. The paste is hard. together with a collaborator named Gottbrecht. and as a relief. The factory is still a going concern. It is there stated that the factory at Gera was started in 1780 by a faience maker named Johann Gottlob Ehwaldt.

This was in 1758. the . until 1881. Chaffers mentions a specimen. Saxe-Coburg. first and last letters of his name. HS" painted with arabesques in blue. Besides the R-g referred to above. This is the oldest of the Thuringian group. and the marks given below. by a court official named Rotberg one of the marks used by the factory was R-g. In 1 81 3 a man named Henneberg. GOTHA. in which Rotberg endeavoured to induce a potter named Paul to break his engagement at Fiirsten- burg and join him. and the favourite forms of jugs and coffee-pots were classic in type. xviii. and he also states that its general characteristics are those of Moustiers faience. A of faience was established here factory Qo^C/tfi^erv about 1750. GOGGINGEN—GOTHA >0() GOGGINGEN. The paste is hard. Table services were largely made. having been started some years before either of the others. The garter with a cock and word Gotha is the mark of the modern productions. There are specimens in the Franks collection. and was followed by his sons and grandsons. but whiter ringian pastes. and decorated with portrait medallions ornamented with festoons of drapery and flowers — the portraits being sometimes modelled in relief. A. which are generally in blue but occasionally in red. a G R . when a firm named Simson Brothers became the owners. Gombroon Ware (see Persia). became the proprietor of the factory. There is an interesting cor- respondence. Bavaria. Century. some speci- mens have the R impressed. formerly valet to Prince August of Gotha. having this mark. and similar in many respects to that of other German and somewhat better than other Thu- factories. published in a German monograph on the Thuringian factories already referred to.

formerly the seat of Sir Nigel Gresley. who was also the director of other cerannc works — namely. Herr Jiiiinike gives this mark as that of a modern factory of faience estalilished here by A. The works existed from 1740 to about 1805. may be attributed to this factory. GRAFENRODA. made here. Kloster Veilsdorf.) were purchased in 1850 by M." From some specimens formerly in the Jerrayn Street Museum. Chaffers quotes a letter from a Mr. whose mark is his two initials. and says that there were found " many dozens of Wastrels. Grafenthal (see Thuringia).2IO GOULT— GROSBREITENBACH GOULT. plates of fine transparent china. B GRESLEY OR CHURCH GRESLEY. Derbyshire. Germany. . Limbach. GREINSTADT. all be- longing to the Thuringian group. and transferred to his Thuringian estabhshment. Specimens are generally immarked. W. with a deep blue tree with birds they were all said to be im- . Fkaxce. Brown. white. Schneider. FB Gkes de Flandres (see I Cologne). An miim]i()rtant factory was established here in 1770 by Gotthelf Greiner. The stock and utensils of the Frankenthal factory (q. Von Recum. which are said to be of Church Gresley manufacture. perfect or they would have received a second colour in gold. The works were recently carried on by Franz Bartolo. but unmarked. but the exceptions have "%'hurch Presley " scratched in the paste. often so indistinctly that it may easily escape notice. and Volkstedt. GROSBREITENBACH (Hesse-Darmstadt). whose grandfather purchased Gresley Hall from the Gresleys. the author thinks that some of the rather doubtful pieces of china having the appearance of Crown Derby.v. Herr Jannike gives these marks for faience M-i. A small porcelain manufactory was established about 1705 at Gresley Hall.

He appears to have worked at Castel Durante and other factories besides Gubbio but as he was established here. not only for bold and masterly drawing. Mr. Gubbio is one of the many Duchy of Urbino places in the where majolica was made and sixteenth centuries in the fifteenth . signed and dated 1525. The many marks form a study in themselves. when the Victoria and . Drury Fortnum's Majolica. and left his porcelain works to his sons. Mr. however. Greiner died in 1797. and also Dr. The mark. is generally painted somewhat sketchiiy in a brownish colour. and his last 1541. <% <^ GUBBIO. hence some confusion. but for the peculiar lustrous pigments that he used. gave 400 guineas for this specimen. An interesting col- lection of his marks will be found in Chaffers' later editions of Marks and Monograms. whicli occur upon specimens in public and private collections. Giorgio's most famous plate is the one painted with the Three Graces. GROSBREITENBACH—GURBIO 2 11 The character of all these factories is similar. a trefoil. 10s. who. factory that his name has been identified. Imitations are very clever. He should also study carefully the specimens in the Victoria and Albert and British Museums. of Narford Hall. do not appear to have inherited their father's taste or energy.. and whose works are eagerly sought after by collectors. These are famous. and at the sale of his collection in 1884. A few examples of his eccentric signatures. and the mark of three of them the same (a trefoil). but it is pre-eminently important on account of its connection with Maestro Giorgio Andreoli. it is with this . They occupy nearly eleven pages. edited by the author since 1897. and the collector who is ambitious enough to wish to possess genuine specimens of Gubbio would do well to consult this work. and the genuine article is very difficult to meet with. Cups and saucers of ail these factories are found with prettily painted landscapes (hard paste). His first signed work was dated 1519. and again at his death it was sold in 1885. where particulars of the best known collections are given. Beckett Denison bought it for £^66. whose name is so well known. are given. and in making purchases should select a dealer of first-class reputation. Fountaine.

" A revival of the old majolica manufacture has recently taken place at Gubbio. the author tend to confirm this .) GirsmrsBER^ gustafsberg. and during its short existence some care- fully decorated specimens. who was competing. HAGUE. There are some really wonderful plates of this majolica in the Salting bequest. Decorated earthenware was made here from about 1820 to i860. a German potter. The general characteristics are similar to those of Amstel. 6d. left oft' bidding in favour of the Museum agent. and several specimens are in the Victoria and Albert Museum Pottery Gallery. would have It realised a still higher price only Mr. (See also notice on Majolica. and marked with the stork. were produced. 19s. chiefly tea services.212 GUBBIO— HAGUE Albert Museum purchased it for £^^0. (For other signatures of Giorgio. It is said that white soft- paste china was purchased from Tournay. and some specimens examined by \ asc of 'Ihe lla"uc cliina. A factory of both hard and soft- paste porcelain was established here about 1775 by Lynker. and the glaze is so full that at a first glance it gives one the impression of soft paste. and two of the best are those with subjects. decorated by the Hague painters.) J^'ii ?A^ M. but the painting is in some cases much finer. see notice on Majolica. " The Allegory of Envy " and " Lovers in a Landscape. George Salting. sometimes spelt Leichner.

signature "J. Joicey. as owingto political events and its inability to compete with rival establishments. the factory was closed about 171^5. G. in blue. These are in earthenware. The district around Hanley. 1769. also separate notice of Voyez. . painted in birds and having a beautiful rich bleu dc roi decoration." the initial " H. Holland. and signed J. the notice on Staffordshire should be referred to. HANLEY. with foliage and subjects in rather high relief. Voyez. Chaffers mentions the factory of Joseph Glass. HAGUE— HANLEY 213 opinion. with a lish in its mouth.. Haldensleben (see Alt Haldensleben). painted round its body." and the initials " V. which has the name in full. or gold. Staffordshire. 3|O0ep|) (01908. J. the proprietor at the beginning of the eighteenth century." For some further information about Voyez. Part of a fine service. is on loan to the Victoria and Albert Museum from Mr. Specimens are rare because so few pieces were produced. It was at Hanley well-known " Voyez " jugs and that the vases were produced. the name " Hanau. Marks.}^. Voyez. with a sculptured medal- lion representing Prometheus attacked by a vulture this has the .(0.F. Hanley. sculpebat. Staffordshire. The mark is a stork.A. generally standing on one leg." while its square plinth is signed " H. HANAU. Chaffers describes a high vase of black basalees. who produced a kind of slip-decorated ware in 17 10. Faience was made here in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ^.. Palmer. grey. but verylittle is known about it. appears to have been noted for pottery as early as the seventeenth century." of Von Alphen. and he quotes a four-handled tyg of this ware formerly in the Staniforth collection.^. in Staffordshire.

and it is still a busy centre for the manufacture of modern earthenware. Stone china. of which Johan Schaper was the proprietor. HARBURG. In reference to this specimen the author has a note during the revision of this book from Dr. Haviland & Co. but not at Harburg." In a notice of JNIeigh there will be found a further reference to this district. Heath Pottery (see Fenton. Hanover. Jus- tus Brinckmann of the Hamburg Museum. Chaffers' Marks and Monograms. which at one time belonged to a man named Whitehead. (see Limoges). should be referred to for particulars of many of these old Staffordshire potters.. Hanky.214 HANLEY— HARBURG Elijah Mayer began business in Hanley in 1770. and Major-General Astley Terry has a mug marked Johnson. 13th edition.Museum.) signed by Schaper. The specimen illustrated is in the Victoria and Albert Museum. It was forinerly believed that a factory of faience existed here in the seventeenth century. but that Schaper was born there and that he painted on faience. A great many other potters had works near Hanley. painted inllandscape by Johan Schaper. Jug. Some good printed ware was also made by Johnson. and made good ware in imitation of Wedgwood. Marks : Schaper's name or initials. elsewhere and only painted and (Victoria and Albert . . Hanley. also Lane Delph). of course. possible that the jug illustrated was made Ilarburt. It is. His paintings are characterised by their excellent finish. were taken over about 1780 by Job Meigh. to the effect that there never was a fadoiy at Harburg. where the Old Hall works. Some of his productions are marked "Joseph Mayer & Co.

at a Rugby college. Albert Hall. Franks and others interested themselves in his wares. young Bingham returned to Castle Hedingham and assisted his father in his business of plain potting. OR CASTLE HEDINGHAM Ware. and in 1885. which cried " Cuckoo " when blown into ! . and other natural history subjects. In 1837 the family migrated to Hedingham in Essex. greens. Commercial success. to have been ambitious of producing artistic work. Sir A. however. and at the age of ten years showed his innate love of design by modelling flowers. of which an illustra- tion is given by consent of Mr. however. and with models and books lent to him by friends and neighbours he produced many quaint jugs. He seems. he had to bring the . he also made garden vases. Wright the author was put into communication with Mr. Essex. The famous Essex Jug. in 1894. Edward Bingham. Miller Christy. attracted con- siderable attention. who wrote to him about a specimen bearing tlie mark of a castle gate. and there the son Edward assisted his father. who edited the industrial section of the Victoria County History of Essex. W. was the son of a Lambeth potter who had settled at Gestingthorpe. that distinguished his Hedingham ware became known. blues. vases. snakes. Edward Sheldon of Manchester. and after some six or seven years he gave up school-keeping to return to his beloved potting. An exhibition of his ware at the Home Art and Industries Exhibition. his most productive year. leaves. Arthur Wright the curator. After spending some time away from home assisting an uncle who was teacher to the deaf and dumb. did not come quickly. and while chiefly employed in making plain pottery. and by Mr. The author's notice was directed to it by Mr. In 1864 he was employing five or six lads as assistants. and drinking cups. It from this source that the following particulars are is taken. which he was unable to identify. All his spare time was occupied in modelling. is in the Corporation Museum of Colchester. and we hear of him setting up a school in 1859 and obtaining twenty-nine pupils. With the exhaustion of the native clay. born in 1829. also modelled puzzle jugs and toy cuckoos. The peculiar greys. he had no less than thirteen kilns burning. and after many experiments and failures he obtained commissions from some influential persons. HEDINGHAM 215 HEDINGHAM. and warm browns. No notice whatever has been taken of this ware in any of the books on EngHsh pottery.

material from Devonshire. Humpherson & Co. and there are probably specimens extant which their owners have been unable to identify correctly. of Newton Abbot. and the arms of Essex county families). liliii^haiii. The old pottery made at Castle Hedingham by Edward The Essux Jui. Bing- ham Castle. Curator. Devonshire. Essex. The jug has incised underneath " E. 9I in. the Dunmoor Flitch ceremony. high. and it was sold two years later to Hexter. l>y ^iK.. The " Essex Jug" in Colchester Museum is ornamented with various the medalHons illustrating the history of the county (the revolt of Boadicea.. and may become valuable. Castle Iledin^ham. Bingham is now rare. The new venture was unsuccessful. in the Colchester Museum. . Arthur Wright. and the character of He made over the business to his son in 1899. and the works were closed in 1905. Ffom a Photo. by E. This design was repeated.2l6 HEDINGHAM his ware altered." and Bingham was its manager. It was called the " Essex Art Pottery." . Hedingham. 3 Trial piece for the Essex Jug. No.

of course stands for Moritz Fischer. in the hands of unscrupulous dealers. are the means of deception and fraud. and it seems a great pity that so much talent has been applied to furnish specimens. Ware (see Saint Porchaire). Mark. HEREND. and was lately carried on by his son Samuel. A potter named Paul. The speciality of the productions is the imitation of old Sevres and Oriental porcelains. but on the counterfeit pieces the marks of various factories were forged. NF HESSE-CASSEL or CASSEL A factory of the usual kind of German hard-paste porcelain was established here about 1766 as a development of a faience manufactory which had been in existence for nearly a century and had carried on an extensive business. The execution. HEREND. Hungary. F. impressed Helsinberg. is very good. HELSINBERG— HESSE-CASSEL :I7 HELSINBERG. but known either of the factory or its produc- little is tions. both in gilding and painting. and the arms of Hungary. as below. The earlier marks of the Herend /rt^r/^/wc were the arms of Hungary. who had previously been manager at the Fulda factory. M. was . and the finest specimens are so closely copied as to deceive any but the most experienced collector. Stoneware of good quality was made here towards the end of the eighteentli century. : Henri H. which. Herculaneum (see Liverpool). Porcelain wasmade here towards the end of the eighteenth century." either im- pressed or incised. A china manufactory was established here by Moritz Fischer in 1839. The marks used were the name " Herend.

whereas the earliest known specimen of the class of decorative pottery wliich we call Hispano-Moresco dates from the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century. 1756. Herr Jiinnike gives the letters H. sometimes painted in blue with detached sprigs of flowers. the decoration is the result of Moorish influence on the ceramic art of Spain. coffee. of a rich iridescent brown colour. A running horse impressed. by way of ornamen- tation. Paris. One of the finest specimens is a large two- handled vase. . and is the successor of the much earlier Arabic pottery which dates from about the eighth century. which was formerly attributed by Chaffers to this factory. Tlic ground-colour is a pale buff. and the particular feature of the decoration. which is highly effective. ^^-^ HESSE-DARMSTADT. 1 861. established about 1760. _ _ HILDESHEIM. C. Comparatively little was known of Hispano-Moresco pottery as a separate class. sometimes relieved witli blue. of which an illustration has been given in Chapter II. and in 1769 the Cassel pottery under his direction was producing tea. "^^ M.2i8 HESSE-DARMSTADT— HISPANO-MORESCO engaged. Eslab. and owing to the competition with local earthenware. of which Q_^qJ little is known . Jacquemart attributes this mark to porcelain I \_J made at a place called Kelsterbach. is now considered to be one of the older Fiirstenburg marks. and other table services at moderate prices. was closed in 1788. The factory never achieved great success. and the decoration is generally slight. and such specimens as were in our museums and private collections were mixed with those of Italian majolica. with a lion rampant as a mark used on porcelain made here in the eighteenth century. HISPANO-MORESCO. is the ornament in lustred pigment. \\ A small factory of hard-paste porcelain. Hanover. until Baron Davillier wrote a pamphlet entitled Histoire des Faiences Hispano-Morcsques a Reflets Meialliqties. . As the title Hispano-Moresco suggests. A characteristic of this china is a ribbing.

The process is similar to that which has already been described in the notice of Italian lustred majolica. Within the last few years. Some further notes on this class of pottery will be found in Chapter II. Century. Century. many have portions of Arabic texts incorporated into their decora- tion. A considerable quantity of this ware was made in the south of Spain. HISPANO-MORESCO :i9 it is said to have been made at Malaga. George Salting to the Victoria and Albert Museum. but the modern productions are very inferior. and was formerly in the Soulages collection. (111° Sigf. and there are several in the collection bequeathed by Mr. and are lacking in the vigour and brilliancy of the old fifteenth and sixteenth century pieces. The art of decorating pottery in metallic lustre colours was probably derived from Persia. notably at Malaga. generally in the form of deep round dishes. Cardinal D'Este In Roma/ . Those which one generally sees date from the sixteenth century . They are generally unmarked. are in the famous collection of Mr. are generally ascribed to the sixteenth century. and may have been introduced into Spain by her Saracen invaders. XVI. and dishes dating from the latter part of the fifteenth century are found decorated with the arms of some of the old Florentine families. Those dishes. which have patches of blue colour introduced into the decoration. XVI. but is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. but the marks given below occur on some specimens. Du Cane Godman. There are also some fine examples in the British Museum (Henderson collection). Many fine specimens. owing to the high prices which have been given for good specimens of this ware. and at the end of this century the art seems to have declined and disappeared for a time. for Italian patrons. there has been a revival of its manufacture in different parts of Spain.

The mark is the name Hoxter.220 HORNBERG— HUBERTSBEKG Marks on Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century Hispano-Moresco dishes. Salt-glaze earthenware was made here in the eighteenth century. . Saxony. Subsequently a potter named Paul Becker established himself here. and succeeded in producing some finely painted services. HocHST ( see Mayence). but in with the Brunswick. A small porcelain factory was started here by a flower painter named consequence of an agreement Zieseler about 1770. the works were discontinued. HUBERTSBERG. HOXTER. who was interested in the Fiir- Duke of stenburg factory. HORNBERG. Old Duchy of Brunswick. Chaffers gives these marks. Herr Jiinnike gives this mark for the modern faience made by Horn Freres. Chaffers states that Becker was one of those who obtained the secret of porcelain-making from Ringler. HiZEN Ware (see Japan). Germany.

F. Ok ^/UliV Marked Tea-pot. started by a potter named Grabners. whose name has been mentioned in connection with the Volkstedt factory. and painted earthenware of the cheaper kinds marked specimens are rare. Thos. October i8th. It doubtful if pottery was made here. . Houlden. Yorkshire. R. Hunslet. . printed. Yorkshire. in the collection of Mr." occurs on a piece in the Hon. but quite a minor concern. and was succeeded on his retirement by Christian Nonne. transfer decoration. but he appears to have been in continual difficulties. HUNSLET.A. and in 1786 Gotthelf Greiner became proprietor. Mr. though the in- is scription"Richard Craven. HULL— ILMENAU 221 HULL. G. ILMENAU (Thuringia). NEAR Leeds. Molyneux's collection. Eoynton. W. 1815. which he called the Belle Vue Pottery. who had formerly worked at Grosbreitenbach. The Duke of Weimar granted him a concession in 1777. William Bell established a pottery here about 1820. This was one of the Thuringian group. The output was prin- cipally cream-coloured. The speciality of the Ilmenau works was the production of small plaques in imitation of Wedgwood's jasper ware.S.

I MO LA. M. married his employer's daughter. Herr Jiinnike gives this mark for modern pottery made here.222 ILMENAU— ISLEWORTH Specimens are marked 9? I d& and sometimes with two letters. and was noted for the elegance of the forms of its productions and the beauty of the glaze used. and the chief of these. Richard Goulding. Italy. Leonida Caldesi. and the works were at Railshead Creek close to the ferry. The mark is " Sante Brucci. a man named Rosch." the first of the kind formed in Italy. There were some fifteen to twenty hand painters employed. Since the middle of the eighteenth century a manufactory of majolica was in exist- ence at Imola. N and R. and it then assumed the title of " Ceramic Co-operative Society. for the following particulars. A small factory was established in 1760 by Joseph Shore from Worcester. but it was not until 1 83 i that it became the property of Sante Brucci. and he and his son William carried on . In 1861 the gold medal was awarded to it at the Florence Exhibition." ISLEWORTH. under whose direction it progressed in importance. Jacquemart throws some doubt upon the existence of a factory here. iMAKi (see Japan). being the initials of Nonne and his son-in-law. an Italian gentleman. but the author is indebted to Mr.

Shropshire. Blakeway purchased the works. About the year 1637 a decree was made law which imposed the death penalty on any Japanese who returned from visiting a foreign country no native was allowed to leave the country. and probably much earlier. . 1770. A considerable number of specimens bearing dates from 1634 to 1 78 1 are known. and the plant. &c.. About 1780. The manufacture of porcelain ceased about 1800.). but little was known of the country. and this exclusiveness lasted until about 1859. nor was any one per- mitted to purchase goods from a foreigner." a favourite shape of the period. but the stock remained until 1830. its art. Some of these black pieces are decorated with a pattern in silver. Jackheld pottery has a red body with a thick and rather lustrous black glaze. which were closed soon afterwards. removed to Coalport (q. and since then we have seen a change so marked in the enterprise and ambition of this intelligent and industrious people.v. when it was sold by auction. of Oriental decoration in relief. which is impressed SHORE AND Co. JACKFIELD. and is generally found in portions of tea-services. Chaffers mentions a specimen of Isleworth pottery marked Wm. when the famous visit to the country of Lord Elgin and Commander Perry resulted in certain ports being thrown open to foreign trade. or its manufactures. Until Japan was opened up to European civilisation about forty years ago. Mrs. JAPAN. Pottery was made here certainly as early as 1 560. Mr. . so as to make one astonished that within such a compara- tively recent period so little was revealed to the outside world of the inner economy of Jajian. the tea-pot being of what is known as the " goose form. Then followed the revolution in Japan in 1868. something like Elers ware. John Rose and Mr. The extraordinary exclusiveness which pre- vailed after the expulsion of the Spaniards and Portuguese at the end of the sixteenth century made it almost impossible to carry on any intercourse with the Japanese. " Welsh ware " was made here in 1825. Goulding. June 20. JACKFIELD— JAPAN 223 the factory after Shore's death. Arthur Macdonald has an octagonal tea-pot of red ware.

and a great deal of the old pottery and porcelain that comes to us was first sent to Holland. of Ise. sets of Japanese vases and beakers would be quite out of place in a native interior. who returned from a visit to China in 1513 and settled in the province of Hizen. obtained a footing on an island near the port of Nagasaki. and carried on a trade in secret with the Japanese. when the Coreans are said to have founded a colony and started a pottery. This probably accounts for the curious fact that the fine old Japanese china. then under the influence of the Dutch. tion.C. which prefers eccentricity to symmetry. the late Sir WoUaston Franks has placed information within the reach of every one who may wish to consult its pages on this subject. of 27 B. now so much valued by collectors. is that there is no place in a Japanese house where such vases as were made could be placed such articles as the well-known . whenever it took place. the Corean influence does not seem to have been permanent.. is probably fabulous. where it had a considerable European market. The Corean invasion. but except in some of the forms of vessels which we still find in the straw-coloured pottery known as Satsuma. The date given by Dr. Hoffmann of Ltyden. and we know but little of any pottery or porcelain previous to that which the Dutch imported somewhere about the beginning of the sixteenth century. His first productions were made from Chinese models and decorated in blue colour . and arranged in the Victoria and Albert Museum. and to Holland. It is therefore certain that the Japanese potters worked for export to China. Another singular fact about this old Japanese pottery and porcelain. The real influence came from China. and is attributed to one Gorodayu Shonsui. Pairs of vases or of figures would be contrary to Japanese taste. is very instructive as to the different periods of manu- facture and in an admirable little brochure upon this collec- . Japanese china was also exported to Portugal. has so little of the character which one would expect to find in the products of a country so independent of Western civilisation.224 JAPAN It is uncertain when pottery was first made in Japan. The Salting bequest contains some good specimens of old Japan porcelain. with descriptions and illustrations of the specimens. where pottery and porcelain have always been valued. These enterprising pioneers of trade with the East. is said to have started the industry. The collection of Japanese ceramics made with the assistance of our Government.

is similar to other Eastern pottery of the archaic period. and other heraldic P . Kutana. The ancient pottery. In the author's possession. Gradually factories seem to have increased and multi- plied. the ground has a bluish tint. besides others which were decorated at Tokio although made elsewhere. specimens from all of these factories in the British Museum. for in 1799 we hear that there were eighteen in this pro- vince in the neighbourhood of Imari. which dates from a very early time. JAPAN 225 only. Kiyomidzu. The china which we collect now as " old Japan " is very hard indeed as to paste. and it is from these factories that most of what we now term "old Japan" was produced. There are Round Dish of old Japan. The conventionalised chrysanthemum.and the decoration is striking and effective. Besides Imari. which is the imperial crest. some of the principal Japanese porcelain factories were at Kioto. Kishiu. and Hizen.

The reader is referred to Chaffers' Marks and Mono- grams for a list of the numerous marks and symbols used by the Japanese potters. which is usually represented as leaping a cascade. On the more recent productions one finds characters indicating the places where the specimen was made. the prevailing colours of which are deep blue. Indian red. but on the egg-shell china it is generally the representation of a number of figures in native costumes. The buff-coloured pottery of quaint forms. the collector of old china has but a slight interest. and stags. Besides the ware of the Hizen factories. the phoenix. and alluded to in the little handbook already mentioned. because this kind of pottery alone seems to . and the Kirin (not to be con- founded with the Chinese Kylin). and a horn on his forehead. with decorations in gold and colour. " Fujiyama. especially a kind of bream. The fishes are drawn with great skill. of which there are six different varieties. is of the chief interest. however. are often found. Figure subjects are not common on this kind of china. on some kinds. The decoration of this later period of Japanese china is. either no mark at all. buffaloes. In all of these. On much of the Japanese porcelain exported to Europe. which has been here slightly described. The egg-shell china of Japan is of a much later date. There is also a curious lion. and one also finds landscapes in which the famous and only mountain of Japan. and a carp. but. One also finds quaint representations of horses. — Satsuma. and the scheme of decoration generally consisted of a number of panels filled with foliage of the peony and chrysanthemum. a monster with the body and hoofs of a deer. copies of Chinese date marks were placed. and a sacred tortoise. for on the older kinds there is. there are some fifty or more different kinds of Japanese porcelain which will be found represented in the South Kensington collection. they cannot be relied upon. dogs. and has only been produced during the last fifty or sixty years. or the mark of the potter. The real old Japan. as a rule. which to some extent occupies the place of the Chinese dragon in representing imperial dignity." is generally to be seen. a very impoverished reproduction of that on the older ware. which we recognise as Satsuma ware is remarkable. like those of China. or a leaf. The marks are numerous. the tail of a bull. butordinary landscapes rarely occur.226 JAPAN badges of the Mikado's family. but one finds representations of flying cranes (the crane was an emblem of longevity). and gold. generally painted in blue.

which one sees occasionally. 'f^ Brinckmann). does not seem to have materially infiuenced Japanese ceramics. Kelsterbach (see Hesse-Darmstadt). The curious tripod incense-burner. and information jl T C ^ U respecting them is given in the catalogue compiled by the learned Curator (Dr. The decoration of these early pieces is very minute and careful the faces and details of the costumes of the figures . to whom the author is indebted for many valuable notes. KELLINGHUSEN Another German (Holstein). copied either Chinese forms or those in demand by the Portuguese and Dutch traders. Specimens of several of these rather obscure German fabriqiics are to be found in . as we have seen. when he migrated to Kellinghusen. of this work contains additional informa- tion of the different potters who worked here from 1765 to 1840. also of H AH faience. illustrates a type of this Oriental-shaped vessel. Justus Brinckmann in a letter is to the author. will bear close examination under a magnifying glass. factory. the Hamburg Museum. The mark in the margin is given by Jiinnike. quantities of rather gaudily decorated pro- ductions have been manufactured to supply the demand. . and the latest edition margin are A. Marks as in the given by Chaffers. Since Satsuma ware became somewhat fashionable. and a modern factory is said to be in existence here. JEVER— KELLINGHUSEN 227 have retained some of the more ancient forms introduced by the old Corean potters. as the locality of a faience factory where a potter named Kirch worked previous to 1765. JEVER. This place mentioned by Dr. but the only specimens worth collecting are those made anterior to this revival. and it is singular that with the exception of the Satsuma ware. which. the old school of potters founded by the Coreans.

Chaffers mentions a factory of faience at Kiel. occurs conjunction with that of Buchwald. under the direction of Jean '~\f~^{ Buchwald. /^w .228 KIEL— KLOSTER VEILSDORF KIEL. in the form of a bishop's mitre. KLOSTER VEILSDORF or CLOSTER VEILSDORF. The explanation is that the older German spelling was Closter. The name of this painter. Some misunderstanding has also arisen from the variation in spelling of the first word of the name. and he de- ^jic(riiy\"at<i. Bohemi. which was formerly in the Reynolds collection. Abraham Leihamer. who had formerly been a dXiel/ master potter at Marieberg. but neither of these latter factories ever attained the importance of the one at Kiel. Dr. who worked here from 1764 to 1768. is that of a painter named Johann Samuel Friedrich Taenich. apparently being not applicable to Kloster Veilsdorf. V. which is on one of the Hamburg Museum examples. Klosterle. which was made at Stockelsdorf and Eckernforde. decorated with a painted subject of ladies and gentlemen to seated at a table drinking " bishop " out of a bowl of similar form. This is one of the Thuringian group of porcelain factories. g.U.^g margin is on a punch-bowl Kiel. but later two sons . and occasionally signed specimens with his name in full. is now in the Hamburg Museum.a (see Bohemia). dated from 1767 to 1770. and should be consulted by the collector who is specially interested in German faience. The mark ^bv:Jeik(untrf.. and specimens are " known which have the word Kiel accompanied by other initials " besides those of Leihamer and Buchwald. which also contains several other examples. In general appearance the ware made at Kiel resembles the Marieberg ware. The factory was founded in 1765 by Prince Eugen von Hilburghausen. This important specimen.^ j„ t.^. and has hitherto been confounded with that of Volkstedt. the mark C. on the shores of the Baltic.^. Justus Brinckmann mentions that the initial T.3)irectn: scrilies certain specimens as signed and ^. Circa 1770. The latest (thirteenth) edition of Chaffers contains several marks of this fabriquc. in on some other faience.

This trefoil in various forms and colours is common to several of the Thuringian factories. the trefoil in a very rough and indistinct form was sometimes used. Modern German faience. and the general characteristics of the paste. ^"XV r KONIGSTEDTEN. Frede. Merault. Poland. C. groups. from Sevres. In addition to the marks given below. A porcelain factory was established here about the beginning K0rz<2c ^ EsL^blished 1S03. - Table services. A great many pieces were unmarked. and a member of the Greiner family owned it in 1823. and figures similar to and indeed almost identical with those made at Limbach and at Volkstedt were pro- duced. KLOSTER VEILSDORF— KORZEC 229 of Gotthelf Greiner became proprietors. F^ KORZEC. glaze. being the first . and appearance of specimens from the three factories are the same. of the nineteenth century. by Merault. made by J.

Queen's ware. This mark is attributed to faience made here. KUNERSBERG. 1752. after the way practised in Holland. The mark used was the name of the firm impressed. John Ariens Van Hamme. but nothing is known of the factory. Jacquemart gives this mark. and a buiJ body or paste with a thick opaque white enamel on which is painted in blue the . Savoy M. made Wedg- excellent imitations of wood's basalt-ware. and appears to have ceased before 1786. This firm." This potter settled in Lambeth. Professor Church has devoted a good deal of research to find- " ing out when the early faience which we recognise as " Lambeth was first made. (See also Hanley. The peculiarities of this old Lambeth faience are quaint forms. and many pieces might easily be mistaken for the later hard paste Sevres china. he gives us some interesting facts. Jacquemart. but we know of several specimens of what we believe to be Lambeth faience which bear dates anterior to Van Hamme's work. which was established about 1770. &c. There seems to be no record of a pottery at Lambeth previous to this. The china (hard paste) is of excellent quality and decoration. Hanley. He quotes from a patent which was granted in 1676 to a Dutchman. savoy. on the authority of M. for the "art of makeinge tiles and porcelain and other earthenwares. lUciierjuem Laforcst en laforest. LAKIN & POOLE. KrONENBURG (see LUDWIGSBURG). 6 2 30 KiJNERSBERG— LAMBETH ' director. and in his hand-book entitled English Earthen- ware.) LAMBETH.

— LAMBETH 231 decoration. which are best known to us. the Mechanics' Insti- tute. and generally resembles the old "delft" or . BritishMuseum. and pill slabs are the specimens. and sometimes a coat of arms. there are in existence some large dishes with elaborate designs in colours. puzzle jugs. " 1734. the earliest date of which is one inscribed " Whit wine 1641. and the latest "Claret 1663. Robert Drane of Cardiff has a similar set of plates. Franks in the the late Sir A. A very fine specimen of this kind is the dish decorated with Jacob's Dream. and there are others in the collections of Mr." and the verse " What is a merrie man. Sir John Evans' collection. Professor Church gives a list of some twenty-three wine vessels that he is acquainted with. Hanley. On many specimens of Lambeth faience there are initials as well as dates. Major-General Astley Terry had a complete set of plates." &c." in the Schreiber collection. Mr. Besides these pieces made for use." The author purchased several many years ago. and others. which are ascribed to Lambeth. and another is the dish which was in the Willett collection. in that of W. which is in the British Museum. painted with the Temptation of Eve. on a white ground of stanniferous enamel. Fine Lambeth faience of this quality is very rare. which bear the arms of the Apothecaries' Company. posset pots. There were formerly two specimens of these pill slabs in the Victoria and Albert Museum. While these pages are being pre- pared for the press (191 1) a set of six of these plates with the legends above were sold at Wine Bcittle of Lambeth Faience (Victoria Christie's for 68 guineas from and Albert Museum). the Norwich Museum. but of octagon shape instead of round. large dishes.. all of one date. Wine bottles. dated 1660. tlenry Willett. and there is a similar set in the British Museum. at the sale of the Edkins collection one of them was inscribed " Sack " with a date .

namely. contain comfort- able studios. of which production is really a revival. the whole being coated with a saline glaze. established by a Mr. it can only be distinguished by from which certain treatment in its decoration. The appearance Doulton ware is very like the old Gris de of Flaudres. the " pattern " so delineated coloured some neutral is then tint that will harmonise with the ground colour any such . for their education and reference. just above St. Dated. and so only receives one firing. and stamped with a die. but there is nothing by which we can identify any of his work. its Tlie title " Lambeth Faience " has lieen given to those pieces . Griffith. and so hinders the possibility of fraud. there is a library. Since the 1851 Exhibition. each pottery bearing a special mark marks i. the business was afterwards removed to High Street. ornament as the often seen "beaded" veins is added. Lambeth.) DOULTON'S LAMBETH POTTERY. About the middle of the eighteenth century. and Described. ornamental buildings on the south side of the Thames Em- bankment. and with Mr. The artistic may be divided into three classes. Collectors who are especially interested in old Lambeth faience should con- sult Mr. there appears to have been a " delft pottery at Lambeth. In 1818 Mr. and also a museum attached. 3). The processes employed to produce the first-named well- known stoneware are very simple. Doulton (see Ware. The piece is then placed in the kiln. 2. John Doulton established a stoneware manu- factory at Vauxhall. Named. which may be details of recognised as English rather than foreign. John Eliot Hodgkin's valuable work on Early Eng/is/i Pottery. Lambeth Faience. and Impasto. Thomas's Hospital. great strides have been made in the develop- ment of the artistic branches of their manufactures and the . who with a pointed instrument scratches in the soft surface of the clay an original design . (See notice on WiNCANTON Pottery. The vessel after leaving the wheel is handed to the artist. instead of the three to which porcelain is subjected. Watts as partner. " 232 LAMBETH Dutch faience. which always bears the year of its production. where a great many lady artists are constantly employed painting original designs on the different vases .

F. designed and uver the "laze. The present firm is styled Henry Doulton «& Co. more or less thickened.. of these argillaceous pigments. Limited. The decoration of the " hnpaslo " consists in a bold application HENRY DOULTON & CO-.ll head . of coloured clays. specimen of paintiii" Doulton Ware Jug. according to the desire of the designer. too. executed by Mr. and this leaves the design inand is very effective. LAMBETH. An ide. they are the largest manufacturers of pipes and pottery for all sorts of . An in- slight relief. LAMBETH !33 which are hand-painted. the business having been in i8q9 turned into a Joint Stock Company. to the surface. a deaf and dumb young man. heightens the artistic effect by securing here and there an opaque or translucent enamel. though a few of the lady artists are singularly clever in rendering land- scapes (original sketches) on the slabs of white biscuit prepared for them the faience therefore differs in this respect from the . the designs being mostly floral. genious manipulation. giving a duller polish to the surface. Doulton ivarc. differs somewhat. In addition to the artistic portion of their business. varying as they do in consistency. too. The glaze of this class. owing to the death of Sir Henry Doulton. Butler. from the fact that it requires more than one firing.

f-H 1875 !^) Specimens of Doulton ware. . A. of Scriptiue subjects. — 234 LAMBETH sanitary and domestic purposes. rarely. F. George Tinworth is well known for his skilful rendering. both under and above the glaze one peculiarity of their manu- . Butler and Miss Hannah Barlow. decorated by Mr. the following are used for different kinds of ware : DOULTON a slater's PATENT tNGL>\Nr- < o 5 %ori*^* Many marks are given in the more recent additional artists' large edition of Chaffers. facture is that they do not print their designs. They also manufacture earthen- ware in slabs and tiles. and also special marks of some different kinds of ware introduced during the last few years. which are decorated by hand-painting. In addition to the marks already given. Doulton's Lambeth School of Art has the credit of having produced one of the most talented plastic artists of modern times. were formerly in the Museum of Practical Geology. if ever. and so. in terra- cotta higli relief. repeat the pattern of even the most ordinary and inex- pensive articles.

and William Greatbatch. Knight & Co.. but in such forms as render them of sufficient interest for collectors to add them to their catalogues. Prince. in the Potteries.. and have little merit. LANE DELPH. Derbyshire. Lambeth. Elkin. Samuel Spode. Chesterfield. LAMBETH— LANE DELPH 235 OTHER LAMBETH STONEWARE. M. or other celebrities. similar to that of which the ordinary ginger-beer bottle is made. and have incised such words as " The Re- form Cordial. Fore St. Staffordshire. mostly decorated in imitation of the Chinese. and here earthenware was made at least as early as 17 10. and J. Thursfield. . Myatt.Mason. Philips. varying only in subject. High St.. are signed Belper & Denby. Matthews. These stoneware bottles were made for gin or cordials. Their so-called " Iron Stone China "and " Cambrian-Argil " were very successful. Pitt. Oldfield & Co.) ." They were sometimes made specially for some well-known public-house of the time. and used probably as ad- vertisements to present to customers. Adams. (See also Mason & Co. MASONS' The Masons are the best-known CAMBRIAN-ARGIL firm. Stiff. Lambeth and precisely similar specimens.. and are in the form of caricatures of William IV.. Bourne Potteries. but collectors are sometimes puzzled when they find such pieces without special marks or names. being well made and decorated. Lord Brougham. Major- General Astley Terry has made quite a collection of such pieces. by Thomas Heath. They also made porcelain. This place is not far from Fenton. Charles Bourne. Some of these are signed J. and now and again one finds quaint bottles or jugs of a stoneware. the Duke of Wellington. They are rudely moulded. Large vases and other pieces of very handsome decorative effect were also occasionally made by Mason & Co. Besides the great firm of Doultons there are other firms in Lam- beth who have from time to time made more or less ornamental stoneware. J. miles The names of other manufacturers of potteryand porcelain here were Edwards.

earthen- ware. Staffordshire. Hilditch & Son. Established to- Aynsley wards the end of the nineteenth century. 1786. Harhy. both of pottery and porcelain. kinds of earthenware. the business is still carried Lane End. Thomas & Joseph Johnson. Originally Bankcs & Turner. T. some of which are still in existence. Turner removed to Lane End in 1762 he made various. Plant. Benjamin. Turner. & Neivb''. with transfer. Many of his jasper and l)asalt pieces. on plain and painted earthenware . established JL ^ J^. teenth century : patentees of lustre ware. About 1809. . which is now known as Longton. Mayor & Newbold. — 236 LANE END LANE END. and imitated TURNER. Wedgwood's productions with very great success. both painted and decorated HARLEY. About 1 790 . afterwards Hilditch & Hopwood. At this place. china manufacturers . there have been many factories. porcelain of good quality. white glazed earthenware and lustre J-€(/ne cm^c/ ware. John. The following are the principal ones : Aynslcy. imitations of Wedgwood ware. indeed. Early nine- Bailey & Batkin. are considered equal to Wedgwood's. established about 1756. and lustre ware. About 1830 . in the nineteenth century . Cyples. who succeeded May'. at Stoke. Cyplcs. Bailey & Batkin. .

dishes. France. There are several excellent specimens in the Liverpool Museum (Mayer collection) and also at South Kensington. LANE END— LA SEINIE 237 The blue ground of his jasper ware was of a different tint from that of Wedgwood's. Note. ver^ brilliant. and from it he made bulb pots. J. In the . this firm invented a ware called Pearl Ware. This mark is attributed by Herr Jannike to J. and as a rule the relief cameo-work in his medallions. in the Chateau of La Seinie near St. Chchnan & Wooley. ^^jCS never achieved much success. and passed into the ownership of a Paris firm. A very handsome bust of Admiral Lord Duncan. — A more complete list of these eighteenth-century Staf- fordshire potters and notice of their work and marks will be found in the latest edition of Chaffers. but a greener blue. and inkstands. a potter established here about 1743. and M. jugs. is known to the author. is not so sharp as on those of the best Wedgwood. Briqueville. Langres (see Aprey). and charmingly finished with classical subjects in relief. His most successful effort was the celebrated cane-coloured stoneware. The factory changed hands about the time of the First Empire. and were finally closed in 1803. About 1795. He obtained the satisfactory body of thisware from a native clay which burned itself into this light cane colour. Yriex-la-Perche. LA ROCHELLE. The firm was afterwards Turner & Abbo/t : after Turner's death in 1786 the works were carried on by his sons. Haute Vienne. which is peculiarly light. services. marked as above and dated 1798. and it is probable that the specimens we see marked as in the margin were made at La Seinie but decorated elsewhere. wine coolers. revised by the author in 191 1. of beautiful pp atjt waRF quality and great durability. A porcelain factory was established in 1774.B LA SEINIE. de Chavagnac gives us some information as to the concessions which were sought by its founders. a sort of biscuit.

and was well suited to this kind of pottery. and shaped fruit-dishes were largely produced by Hartley. candlesticks. A factory of faience was started here before 1773 . The firm was Humble. in 1850. The business appears to have deteriorated about 1820. Many of the designs also are very similar to Wedgwood's. the firm in 1783 being styled Hartley.238 LA TOUR D'AIGUES— LEEDS Franks collection is a cup. Some of the pieces were inscribed " Fait a la Tour dAigues. Avignon.. the beds of white clay existing in its neighbourhood were used for the purposes of the potter's art. but of a yellower tint. the . Green & Co. was taken over by Samuel Wright & Co. The year 1760. The business is still in existence. the best period of work being from about 1780 to 1790. LEEDS. their speciality being the cream-coloured ware. B. doing a large export trade. and this suggests a strong probability that his patterns were laid under contribution. LA TOUR D'AIGUES. table centre-pieces. however." Porcelain was also made here. Lauraguais (see Brancas-Lauraguais). and after being thrown into the Court of Chancery. Some of the old candlesticks are particularly chaste and pure in design — the rams' heads and wreaths of the Adams & Flaxman's time being very prevalent. E. H. After 1832 we find the concern being conducted by the Leeds Pottery Company. it ceased in 1793. Harrison also has a specimen. at a very early date. is the first reliable date we have for the establishment of a factory which afterwards grew to be a large concern. and fruit-baskets. and later. though it may be affirmed with certainty that. Greens & Co. France. with varying partnerships. and of the basket pattern this pattern was used in thin trays . Greens & Co. figures. The earlier specimens were of a character similar to Wedg- wood's Queen's ware (see WedGWOOD).. and carried on by them for a few years. candelabra. painted with a landscape in the style of Hochst (see Mayence). Basket-pattern dishes. Mr.. We have no sufficient evidence to show when pottery was first made at Leeds. and the reliefs sharp and clear.

Among these are black basalts. some of which it is impossible to be sure of correctly attri- buting unless they aie marked. but these lustre- . like Wedgwood's. being produced by a preparation containing a large amount of arsenic. but. afterwards Richard Britton & Besides the cre'am ware similar to Wedgwood's Sons. cream coloured (formerly in the Jermyn Street Museum) occasionally groups closely resembling the Staffordshire produc- tions. Britten & Co. figures and Leeds Ware Dish. " Queen's ware " already mentioned. and the better ones are desirable from an artistic point of view. LEEDS 239 proprietors were Warburton. and occasionally some lustrous pigments were used. but nearly always well modelled marbled and agate ware . This poisonous method has long been discontinued.. was very injurious to the workmen. Printing by transfer was introduced between 1780 and 1790. Specimens of old Leeds ware are not expensive. we find in Leeds pottery made at the end of the eighteenth century. and some other varieties. willow-pattern printed ware. The glaze of the best period of the factory was very fine. similar to Whieldon's. several other descrip- tions.

Greens. France. This mark is assigned to the pottery made here. < ^ ^^V LEEDS. A. Macdonald has a small plate of the cream-coloured AW ^^^*=^f<^ Leeds ware. LE MONTET. . Leeds Pottery. V \. A modern manufactory of white stone- ware. The City Art Gallery at Leeds contains a good collection of the local pottery. LENZBURG.240 LEEDS— LENZBURG ware specimens are very rare. and also a great many of the bas-relief moulds formerly in use at the factory. Saone et Loire. R. on the authority of Sir Henry Angst. with transfer decoration marked in black.yp Hartley. GREEN. LEEDS POTTERY. Lefebvre. & Co. Brilisii Consul in Ziirich. Specimens were exhibited at recent Paris Exhibitions. Le Nove (see Bassano). Switzerland. Potter (see Paris). X'"^^ J^ . and a well-known collector of Swiss ceramics. The following marks are generally impressed. "< CG W CG Mrs.

or else of Franyois Boussement. generally in blue. and was soon afterwards closed. in 1784—85. and Pierre Pelissier. M. giving some privileges. took an active mterest. The mark in the margin is used on Jact pa. and this is said to have been the first introduction of coal as fuel into France. Later.r modern porcelain made here. de Calonne. on the authority of Cte. is an especially rare one. Cloud factory. t/ .Dorez. by Barthelemy Dorez. however. The mark. The marks given below. as it changed hands in 1792. Specimens which can be identified as true Lille soft porcelain are extremely rare. The undertaking ceased about 1730. are. du Nord. Dept. and generally consist of small toilet pots or little cups. and the monogram that of the brothers Francois and Barth61emy Dorez. Lepene obtained a patent for the use of coal in the firing process. however. The specimens produced appear to have been so much like those of the St. Chaffers tells us that a concession was granted to them. A manufactory is said to liave been established here as early as 171 1. the initials being those of Lille. and Mr. both in the soft paste and peculiar decoration. on account of the few specimens turned out by the factory. It is generally either painted or stencilled in red. who is also believed to have made porcelain at Lille. had a short life. de Chavagnac et Mis de Grollier. The factory. LILLE 241 LILLE. in which the Minister. a crowned dolphin. his nephew . a porcelain factory (hard paste) was established by Sieur Lepene. that the identity of this factory has been confused.

Saxe-Meiningen.. In the Weimar Museum are two figures made at Limbach measuring nearly 3 feet in height. and Pelissier. D. was one of five which were under the direction of Gotthelf Greiner. — 242 LILLE— LIMBACH Pottery was made at Lille in the seventeenth century by Jacques Feburier and Jean Bossu and later by Boussemart. and others. and figures and groups of soldiers. This factory. musicians. but those mentioned are the mo?t important. and the crossed swords were used until a threat of legal proceedings from the Saxon Government caused the abandonment of the mark for . which was a very unusual production for a china factory in the eighteenth century. the modelling is rather stiff. A painter named Heinrich Elias Dressel worked at Limbach. B. are very correctly costumed and finished. his initials. ^^m LIMBACH. The works at Limbach were established in 176 1. Dorez. who enjoyed the patronage and protection of Duke Anthony Ulrich. and specimens are known which bear H. . but the decoration is carefully executed. There were several other factories. united in different forms of monogram. The earlier mark is the L. the most important of the Thuringian group. and became so prosperous that Greiner purchased the manufactories of Grosbreitenbach and subsequently of Volkstedt and Kloster Veilsdorf. These are all marks used by Boussemart LILLE 1161. and D. Excellent figure work was turned out at this factory . peasants.

m en g o c . c ^ o a.

.

which one finds in several forms and colours. Until recently there has been some confusion with this factory and a supposed porcelain factory at Luxembourg {(/. LIMBACH— LIMOGES 243 a trefoil. L-X .v.).

^44 LIMOGES facture roi/allo de S£imoges/' and " iPorcelaine. . C Grellet. G R et Established 1773. de Limoges/' also the fleur-de-lys.

XLK. Eccles of Neath. had a book which contained the old contracts with the Llanelly workmen. Porcelain was also made here in the last century. Century. a Mr. and oval medallion portraits in imitation of Wedgwood's blue and white jasper ware. with the name W." The modern work is of a cheap and decorative character. The ware is not unlike the Staffordshire potters' work. and since then by Holland and Guest. but he gives no mark. and black. The book has since been presented to the Swansea Museum liy Mr. also ware is marked . some being blue and white. LISIEUX. The marks in the margin are given by Chaffers as those on speci- mens presented to the Sevres Museum in 1833. IF - -'—^ LISBON The royal factory here makes a great variety of earthenware. in a circle. to whom the author is indebted for these particulars of a hitherto unnoticed pottery. The same authority mentions a fac. and later by W. South Wales. and Mr. * Pottery was made here in the sixteenth century. different colours. . . became manager of the Llanelly works. LLANELLY— LISIEQX 245 LLANELLY POTTERY. Holland to 1868. T. a place in the vicinity. IT A f^ I ^ *• tory at Cintra of statuettes with a glaze of I -^ -^^ >J i ^^^ brown. who had formerly worked at the Glamorgan Potteries. maker The mark of of J. about 1838. and some having colouring more in the style of Mason's ironstone. After Chambers the works were carried on by Coombs and Holland from 1853 to 1856. Pougat. Specimens are in the Schreiber and Franks collections. Chambers' time. or the initial letters S. Eccles. Previous to Mr. a modern earthenware. Herr Jiinnike and Dr. Graesse give this mark. green. NormAxNDY. The marks are sometimes impressed South Wales Pottery. A pottery was carried on here 'from 1839 to 1840 by William Chambers for about fourteen years. There is also a maker of modern Palissy ware at a place called Caldas in Portugal. P. which occurs in a circle inside that with " South Wales Pottery. Chambers. more as a hobby than for profit. . . W. and also atManerbe. Bryant.

bearing date 1716." of which we give an . we frequently find Liverpool ware bowls decorated in the inside with a portrait of the ship and sometimes a date and inscription. with a view of the village of Great Crosby.>46 LIVERPOOL LIVERPOOL. and as it was the fashion in those days to drink success to a voyage in that convivial concoction. Alderman Shaw and Seth Pennington were two of the best-known makers of Bowl of Liverpool Dellt (British Museum). The earliest dated specimen ascribed to Liverpool is the oblong slab in the Liverpool Museum. akin to Leeds ware or the kind of pottery made by Wedgwood and known as Queen's ware (see Wedgwood). inscribed " Success to the Africa Trade. In the Hanley Museum is preserved an important bowl. There was a group of potteries at Liverpool early in the eighteenth century. some more successful than others. punch-bowls. but pro- ducing a similar kind much of white or cream-coloured ware.

bears a label. a pot painter. served his time at Pennington's in Shaw's Brow. and there painted this Bowl. The next potter of note was John Sadler. The work of Richard Chaffers. and was painted by John Robinson. an engraver. Joseph Mayer's History of the Art of Potlciy in Liverpool. gives many illustrations of bowls and tiles of this ware. is a useful work of reference. published in 1855. whose work on English Pottery was pub- Liverpool Ware Bowl painted by John Robertson (Hanley Museum) lished while this book was under revision for the second edition (May 1904). who after he removed from Liverpool to Staffordshire. commenced in 1752 and continued until his death in 1765." Mr. It measures 20-| inches diameter and is 9 inches high. and Mr. which has already been mentioned in Chapter III. who . William Burton.. "John Robinson. LIVERPOOL 247 illustration. presented it to the Mechanics' Institute. which is interesting It as connected with Seth Pennington. with an inscription. and he appears to have made in Liverpool different kinds of porce- lain (as distinct from pottery) of an experimental character.

248 LIVERPOOL invented the process of transfer-printing on pottery and porce- lain in 17=52. The Herculaneum Pottery was established by Richard Abbey about 1790. the undecorated ware was sent to Sadler & Green to print. The works. were closed in 1841. Kstublislied 1760. although in many cases. portrait figures of actors and actresses." and in the Victoria and Albert Museum is a tea-pot with a portrait of Wesley. . but some of the tiles. Pieces are very rarely marked." The best collection of Liverpool ware was in the Liverpool Museum. i which are frequently decorated with copies of engravings from Bc/i's Bri/ish Theatre (1776). however. Liverpool. after passing through various hands. and good specimens may be seen in the Schreiber collection. Several other kinds of pottery were made here. notably in that of Wedgwood. and the two entered into partnership. to whom he had given several spoiled impressions of his engraved plates. Sadler com- municated the idea to Guy Green. applied them to broken pieces of pottery and secured a transfer. signed "Green. Mark: SADLER & GREEN. There are some specimens in the British Museum. bear the signature " J. Liverpool. and applied for a patent to protect the invention . never carried out. Sadler. He is said to have discovered tiie art accidentally by noticing that some children. the intention of patenting was. scenes from ^sop's Fables and from plays. The process soon became common to other factories. CHRISTIAN.

SADLER Established 1752. Unless marked it has nothing to distinguish it from other Italian faiences. He made stoneware. Staffordshire. plttt t jpc salt glaze.'t(in sometimes are found on Imwls decorated by him.Soap Rock from 1756. Longport had. but not very successfully. Phillips.Success to the Moiinioulh. P *• Established 1760. and sucli mottoes as ".i^n^- tmuedJ -1Q 1829. Cornwall. both of earthenware and porcelain. Another eighteenth-century firm was that of Messrs." remind us of an old custom ol a punch- Ceased 1S36. which was started about 1760. The firm con. Their mark was the ROGERS . They made D various glazed and cream-coloured wares. r^^rr-r. SHAW. LONGPORT. bowl in lionour of the occasion of a new voyatje. 1750. and has. John & George Rogers. Established about 17 10. until and lilt A possibly later. Like most of the towns in the Potteries. Faience was made here in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. LODI. f\ Loffi lY^^ M M LONGPORT. 17 6g. In 1756 he obtained . and cream ware. Mis favourite subjeels were ships. and l^ also imitated several of Wedgwood's specialities. many factories. died 1765. The name :in(l initials of Pennini.. LOMBARDY. One of the earliest known was that of Mr. LODI— LONGPORT 249 PENNINGTON.

. with a bird on a sprig in a white-shaped panel. LONGTON HALL. started business about Y/" S^y '^W ^. &c. On their ironstone china they added the chemical symbol for iron. The pair painted in on one side. and birds on the other. but a peculiarity is the singular blue colour which we find as a ground-colour in ornament on the the vases. The mark.-/\/ 1752. his brother-in-law. rather coarsely moulded and effectively though somewhat carelessly painted. which sert dishes been identified by Mr.250 LONGTON HALL name Rogers. Longton Hall. but occasionally we find exceptional specimens that are equal in qualify to the best Worcester. while possessing peculiar character- isticsthat enable us at once to identify them with the Longton Hall factory. The two full- page illustiations are of vases of the finer quality. . Staffordshire. and they were amongst the most valu- . and Derby porcelain. J As a rule the decoration of Longton Hall china resembles that of the earlier Bow and Chelsea productions. punch-bowls. leaf-shaped des- 0>^ and plates. The best-known firm in this district has been treated separately (see Davenport). Nightingale. the prices are higher than its artistic merit would sometimes seem to warrant. as shown above. Bow. although. y. standing for Littler. He and Aaron Wedgwood. which has for mark a " " in blue. The illustration in the text is of one of a pair of vases of the ordinary quality of Longton Hall. their output consisted principally of table services. In the British Museum there is a cup and saucer. as is frequently the case. stamped in the clay. and in the figures the peculiar scroll one finds bases. while encrusted flowers are of a larger size than in either Chelsea or Bow. one reversed. One of the earliest successful experimenters in the manufacture of porcelain was William Littler. The first three shown in the margin are from specimens in the Franks collection the fourth is from the Countess of Hopetoun's. is [has probably intended for two L's crossed. The set of five illustrated are among the finest specimens of their kind. From the scarcity of Longton Hall compared with Chelsea. have figures a rather darker tilue ground colour than is usual with this factory. they bear no mark. and the fifth from the Schreiber collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

V. •a u i. V ^ .

.

scrolls and flowers (Professor Church's collection). work on Staffordshire Potters. which was dispersed under Christie's hammer in July 1899. say in the year 1754. and in default of any other explanation of this initial the author is inclined to agree with other experts in thinking that it . LONGTON HALL 251 able and rare vases in Mr. and when this undertaking came to an end. William Littler at Longton near Stoke about 53 years ago. he remembers it being made by Mr. The factory is believed to have been carried on in the old- fashioned country house where Littler lived (" Longton Hall "). Messrs." A singular mark given in the margin is on the two smaller vases. Littler became manager to Baddeley & Fletcher of Shelton he lived to an : old age and died in extreme poverty. It was given by in the William Fletcher to Enoch Wood. in their Longton Hall Vase. and the writing is that of the latter as follows " 1807 (date). Rhead. : He informs me. Alfred Trapnell's carefully formed collection. quote an interesting label attached to a tea-pot which is Hanley Museum. and it has never been out of his possession during that time and is highly valued.

and which. who worked it at Longton Hall. from which would appear that this artist. who. F. has a curious mark like the one in 11 \ f the margin. also collection.A. which measure nearly i foot 8 inches C in height. In the same collection there is a shaped dish with vine leaves bearing a mark in imitation of Chinese writing similar to one we find on old Chinese porcelain. The author knows of one with this mark in Lady Hughes' and another in that of Mr. engaged workmen from London and erected a kiln and 756.. Boynton reads Littler. one may record the existence of four plates painted by the same hand with the peculiar e. A mug with blue decoration in the collection of Mr. collection. These specimens are evidence of the migratory habits of the craftsmen who worked at some of the old English factories. but the letter A ditfers slightly in form. Perhaps the largest pair of Longton Hall vases are those at Burghley House. and Worcester. Trapnell's A large beakers. Longton ^T Hall. and on receipt of a satisfactory report. Hewlin Luson. have a similar mark. too. Thomas Boynton. which Mr. and the other three in that of Mr. Bemrose's collection. that appeared likely to repay experiment. of Gunton Hall. We have Gillingwater's . I The very unusual mark of an anchor in brown. until the author's visit in 1910. Bow. sent a sample to be analysed. This same letter A is also occasionally seen on Bow figures. Trapnell's collection.S. Manfield. being interested in the manufacture of china. The Bristol plate is in Mr.xotic birds of paradise made at four different factories. and having discovered on his estate a quantity of white earth. is ^ I P on the figure of an actor in Mr. A fine pair of from Mr. LOWESTOFT. was also for some time employed at Bow. Bristol. In this connection. Longton Hall.2 52 LONGTON HALL— LOWESTOFT is the initial letter of the artist who painted them. Harman Young's col- ^^•'^ lection. Robert Drane of Cardiff. A small manufactory was established close to Lowestoft by Mr. and was formerly in Mr. H. T" had been catalogued as Chelsea. LOOSDRECHT (see Amstel).

. c^ -S .*".2 ft- .

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gave the impetus to. and furnished the models for. after a short absence. a much valued secret. compared with other factories. of several thousand pounds worth of their merchandise. and was engaged. in the following year. Onaccount of the considerable trade between the eastern coast and Holland. but the attempt was again made and the new firm of potters. Luson. Walker. his workmen were bribed to spoil his productions. partly to the severe competition of the Staffordshire potters and partly to trade losses. one of the partners of the firm that succeeded Mr. The best-known collection of Lowestoft china was that formed by Mr. Porcelain does not appear to have been made at Lowestoft previous to 1762. character about some of the Lowestoft pottery and porcelain which confirms this view. a process which was. & Richman. it is more than probable that the first Dutch importations. but some hundred and sixty specimens were reserved and bought in. This fact is testified by Gillingwater. it is said. Seago's collection took place in 1873. who wrote his History of Loivestoft in 1790. A sale of Mr. succeeded in establishing a fact(jry of considerable importance. a gentleman living in the neighbour- hood. the great-grandson of one of the original partners of the factory already alluded to. Browne. Aldred. LOWESTOFT 253 authority for the fact that. owing. that he might be present when one of the principals mixed the ingredients for the paste. both of the native delft and of the Oriental porcelain. visited the Bow or Chelsea factory disguised as a workman. and dated specimens are extant bearing that and subsequent dates. William Rix Seago. who. and he returned. one of which was due to the seizure by Napoleon. to his Lowestoft factory with much valuable information gained by means of this device. and the first step in ceramic art at Lowestoft was seriously jeopardised by this ungenerous trick . a number of specimens which had descended to him. Jewitt tells us that Robert Browne. Mr. porcelain making at Lowestoft and there is a certain amount of Oriental . The difficulty of transport of coal and sand had also caused the company to work at a disadvan- tage. The Lowestoft works were closed in 1803-1804. many years ago. and a few years since these were purchased by Mr. Frederick . in Holland. He bribed the warehouseman to conceal him in an empty hogshead. owing to the jealousy of the London manufacturers. of course. purchased from Robert Browne.

Seago acquired them. there are some seven or eight known to the author. by Mr. Louis Huth had a small trinket-stand with the arms of Yarmouth. born April 22. R. and another is the Robert Browne Ink-pot already mentioned." is a peculiar instance of this . of Samuel Aldred. W. we are able to give. and one has underneath the initials S." A speciality of the Lowestoft factorywas the manufacture of birthday plates or medallions. and it is a very interesting relic from the fact of its always having been known as Robert Browne's ink-pot. . and the initials R. 1793 ". and date " 1762. the obverse inscribed with the name and date of the birth of the person for whom the " plate " was made. With regard to Lowestoft china there has always been con- . two ofwhich have a similar inscription. W. and has upon it "A present from Lowestoft" six are in Mr. that he had identified these specimens as those which were formerly in his father's possession. Several mugs are known on which is inscribed " A present from Lowestoft. of which the reader can form an opinion from the illustration which. and such representations of local buildings as that of Lowestoft Church. Spelman's Loivcsio/t China. duly attested by the said Robert Browne. lead us to think that about the time 1762— 1790 the Lowestoft potters must have copied the decoration of the earlier Bow and Worcester specimens. and the inscription " A trifle from Yar- mouth. One was in the Jermyn Street Museum. 26. and have much more the appearance of old Bow or Worcester." and Mr. Of these little Lowestoft ink-pots. of Denmark Hill. Three of these interesting little ceramic souvenirs are illustrated in colours in Mr. The Robert Browne Ink-pot. The initials and dates of the persons for whom the services or pieces were made. A. and the date Sept. B. father of one of the founders. These are circular discs of about two inches in diameter. a quaint nine-sided little vessel with blue and white decoration. The paste and decoration of many of these pieces were very unlike what we had been accustomed to recognise as Lowestoft. which will be found on the right of our full-page illustration. three or four years before the break-up of the factory. together with the circumstances under which Mr. the reverse of the disc was decorated with a flower. 1762. Other specimens have the initials and dates of persons known to have lived in the neighbourhood of Lowestoft. Obed Aldred. Crisp's collection. such as "John Gaul. together with an affidavit. Crisp's courtesy. These dates run from 1762 to 1799.254 LOWESTOFT Arthur Crisp.

others are very translucent. will help us to decide as to whether a piece be Lowestoft or not. Spelman's book . too. reproduced in facsiuiik as to colour. Mr. and many such services were ordered by officers of the English East India Company this. Chaffers repudiates this idea on behalf of the Lowestoft factory. Some pieces are thick and opaque. These rims on the bottoms show crude and unskilful potting. It is more than probable that the greater part of what — we call armorial china that is. while Mr. and we find as a rule that it has run over the bottoms of pieces such as jugs. In forming an opinion as to the genuineness of Lowestoft china we must be guided by two or three points. In other cases Oriental china." Lowestoft " is really Oriental porcelain decorated in England. Crisp's collection the second is that of three tea-pots. Chaffers has. while the common ware has the appearance of inferior Bow of the soft paste description. in his work on English Ceramics. omits mention of Lowestoft altogether . some exceptions to this in the case of the better finished specimens. from Mr. the author has given at some length his views upon this difference of opinion. In the later editions of Chaffers. . undecorated. from sketches sent out from this country towards the end of the eighteenth century. china decorated with crests and monograms. There are.one of these is that of five specimens with names and dates. attributed to it an importance which it does not merit. view is confirmed by letters and documents which are in existence showing that the china was originally brought to this country from the East. Three full-page illustrations are given which should assist the reader to form an idea as to the appearance of genuine Lowestoft china . but it was certainly done elsewhere. The late Sir Wollaston Franks considered that what is termed. tea- pots and bowls. The character of the decorations. that one has frequently heard the expres- sion " Lowestoft Oriental " to designate this kind of ware. The glaze has a blue tinge and has run into crevices. LOWESTOFT 255 siderable difference of opinion. and not hard as is the Chinese. we think. inMr. in the majority of cases being misshapen. in which . The Lowestoft paste is soft. while the third is from a group of the kind of Oriental china which we have mentioned above as being erroneously described as Lowestoft —so much so. The better class of work resembles that of Worcester. and Professor Chiuxh. and coats of arms of English families was made to — order in China. covering the rims and flanges. has been painted and refired both in Holland and in England. however.

Burton goes on to say. William Burton. whose valuable work on English china was published in 1902. to abandon the undertaking. where they seem to have carried on the production of a common artificial porcelain. nor any other English factory which can be identified with certainty. while confirming these in all material respects. Thomas the Apostle. Cheapside. as we know from the remains of the old buildings." Some of these pieces difficult to identify are those of poor quality " blue and white.we believe it to be English. "The firm of Robert Browne & Co. until the growing competition of the cheaper bone porcelain made in Staffordshire. some specimens which occasionally baffle the most experienced judge. that these were Lowestoft imitations of Worcester made for export to Holland. and it is quite possible that this may have been part of the " several thousand pounds worth of merchandise" which ChafTers mentions as being seized by Napoleon in Holland. and one is inclined to adopt the suggestion which has been made. adds some facts of interest. and caused the partners. " Fortunately. however. The author well remembers the quantities of this kind of china. painted with " Worcester blue flowers on white ground. in whose possession some of these relics are.256 LOWESTOFT the colouring and kind of decoration are more of a European than Eastern character. crippled their trade. has presented plaster casts of . and Mr. and also from recent excavations which have brought to light some moulds of consider- able value for identifying some of the specimens which have hitherto been ascribed to Worcester. which was sold at Jones & Benham's auction rooms in the " seventies." Mr. who were advanced in years. F." imported from Holland with Dutch marqueterie furniture. One can say " It is certainly not Oriental . nor Caughley. and many of them bearing a crescent mark. Those who have the means of really judging of pastes and compositions of porcelain agree in the main with the author's views on Lowestoft. Mr. then considered to be inferior Worcester. They are neither Worcester. and it is perhaps Lowestoft. a disaster which was one of the causes of the break-up of the Lowestoft factory. A." The Lowestoft factory was comparatively unimportant. we have quite a number of pieces bearing names. set up in 1770 a warehouse in London known as the Lowestoft China Warehouse at 4 Great ' ' St. and inscriptions which prove the nature and style of the real Lowestoft production. Crisp. dates." bad copies " of the Worcester of similar description. There are. apparently composed of pipeclay and glass. Queen Street.

consisting of portions of moulds. crossed swords. milk-pots. He published a book entitled Lowestoft China in 1905. birthday tablets. R. Mr. &c. fresh diggings in the neighbourhood during the following year. He considers that the finding of two " biscuit " arms of " figures resembling those of the well-known Chelsea " boys establishes the fact of their having made figures. arms of figures. 1761 and inscribed L H. chipped and broken saucers. resulted in the finding of more Lowestoft relics. and the illustrations of this volume include some excellent facsimile coloured plates of authenticated specimens and numerous reproductions of photographs taken on the site of the excavations. and much invaluable evidence of identification. where they occupy a small table case in the English china room. decide the origin of that and some other Worcester-like pieces. and he has produced some proof of this by publishing the chemical analysis of a lump of china clay mixed ready for use. passed into the possession of Mr. the Beacon.. of Lowestoft. sauceboats. which is very similar in decoration to some early Worcester in the Chinese style. cups. W. and the tea-pot which was formerly in Mr. tea-pots and other articles. which were purchased by Mr. The British Museum collection also includes a saucer dish of powder blue with panels of views of Lowestoft Church. fragments of china such as handles. a well-painted dragon design. to whom we are all much indebted for his research and contribution to our knowledge of the factory. A. except that the local views and some other points of difference from the Worcester china. and numerals. Spelman is firmly convinced that only soft-paste porcelain was produced at the Lowestoft factory. LOWESTOFT 257 them to the British Museum. and other pieces. Since the excavations made in 1902. and he includes in his illustrations many figures which he attributes to Lowestoft. the moulds. and many portions of decorations such as fragments of borders of cups and saucers. Spelman of Norwich. These show the buildings of the factory. several of them bearing marks such as the crescent. Part of the trouvaille. Some of the mugs in the Museum have inscriptions and dates 1780 and 1781. W. Merton Thorn's collection has been identi- fied by some of the moulds alluded to above it is dated . covers. which was found among the debris. Merrington Smith. These figures in modelling and colouring resemble Stafford- R . It will be observed that this date is one year previous to that generally accepted as the commencement of china-making at Lowestoft. including knife handles.

as are the Staffordshire ware figures. but they are of porcelain. tea caddies. E. bowls. Mr.258 LOWESTOFT shire pottery. milk-pots. and the translucent figures referred to may belong to some other factories. and which. leaf- formed trays. as before mentioned. and mugs. cups and saucers. Colman of Norwich. That articles of very superior quality and finish were also produced at Lowestoft we have ample evidence not only . is similar to (he soft paste Bow or Worcester of the same time. and the author has not had an opportunity of inspecting the figures in this collection. on the rather bluish-white ground which we find given by the Lowestoft glaze. Broderip's specimens are chiefly portions of table services such as tea-pots. F. including several marked with numbers from 1 and some of these marks arc reproduced in fac- to 60. Mr. jugs. Spelman formed a considerable collection of Lowestoft which is now in the possession of Mrs. Edmund Francis Broderip of Weston-super-Mare has collected a great many specimens of Lowestoft Ii^rrel-shnped Tea-pot in the collection oi Mr. simile at the end of this notice. i. Tiie decoration is very in- differently done in blue. Mr. Mr.e. this interesting factory. Broderip. Spelman mentions that the highest number he had found on Lowestoft was 52. To the author the evidence of figure-making at Lowestoft is not quite conclusive. translucent and not opaque.

O 3 C — .

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Z X 02 < :k .

Lowestoft Coffee-pot in the collection of Mr. Jenkins Lowestoft. LOWESTOFT !59 in the good specimens illustrated and described in Spelman's hook. of the Bridge. Broderip's collection. Vallop. and was in the collection of Mr. U. The coffee-pot illustrated is a piece of much interest. JVC lncvc-. . J. the ic^obttW 0\^ §»A^ ^"'C. Yallop. Lowestoft . from which we have borrowed one of the most represen- tative. ' ^ H. but also from examples in many public and private collec- ] '« ^vx</i Adam 111 J oinU'. which is illustrated from Mr. tions.i^^"^i' map I '"-. ^f^ 10 abide. U. with flowers well painted and partly modelled in slight relief. J. The barrel-shaped tea-pot. is a good example.

W. A ser- vice. are so alike that it must be impossible to avoid confusion among the products of these three factories in collections. and Richard Philips. Crisp has a great many pieces of this service. The initials found are the following H. R. R.. Indeed the character of the real Lowestoft. Other marks. He mentions. with regard to the crude and simple form of the decoration and also of the rather rough and unfinished char- acter of the porcelain itself. The latter name. and Mr. Brodcrip has the coffee-pot (illustrated). Philips. which are probably those of workmen employed at the factory. The numbers are generally un- derneath. Redgrave (Z and W unknown). bearing a crescent mark. : 26o LOWESTOFT and while the second edition of this work was in the press the author received from Mr. and having for decoration blue zigzag compartments of roughly ^^ painted salmon scale.P. closely resemble those of the workmen's marks found on similar blue and white Worcester specimens. S. /(•^ Stevenson. occurs in full under the handle of a mug. having been fouiul in the ex- cavations already alluded to. already expressed. F. Yallop some notes on specimens re- cently found as the result of excavations on the site of the old factory. had been attributed to Caughley or Worcester. which. on account of ''^ Mm-^^i^ ^'^'^ mark. . that as regards numerals found on specimens. Mr. alternated Y ^V ^ with white. Mr. owing to Coffee-pot of Lowestoft service. they run from i to 31. Broderip's collection. Z. These notes confirm the author's opinion. which bears the name of John Hutcher with dale 1790. is now attributed to Lowestoft. inside the rim of a piece. The dates on specimens run from 1760 to 1796. the latter being the highest that he has seen. and on those purchased from families of long residence in the neighbourhood. A Oask. and are supposed to stand for Hughes. portions of cups and saucers K. and that of the cruder pieces of early blue and white Worcester or Caughley. blue spiral decoration marked with crescent.

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where he set up a gloss kiln and painted and fired china articles which he procured from Rockingham and other places. Vaiiup's collection. however. ." which is in the Schreiber collection. and the other is the so-called " Lowes- toft " china made in Paris and largely sold. Mr. has a plate of his decoration bearing his initials and date. He also painted gra- tuitously the eastwindow in St.. 1832. to whom the author is indebted for information about Allen and other Lowestoft painters. which was then called Bell Lane but whether Allen had any . the name has been identified in the register of the parish church of St.17 W.xion signed " Robert Allen. entirely different from the two kinds of china which have hitherto obtained a general recognition as Lowestoft. but the addressis not the same. Allen died in 1835 at the age of ninety-one. pecuniary interest in this shop. One of these is the Oriental porcelain with Eng- lish and foreign coats of arms. an old i a Lowcslutl Mask in collection. Spelman tells us that he joined the factory in 1757 at twelve years of age and subsequently became manager.workmen's marks on Lowestoft speci- of nection with Lowestoft china deserves mens in Mr. When the business closed he took a shop in the High Street. That he also de- corated Oriental china we know from the tea-pot painted with the Crucifi.1 u TLowestoft Hallam. These specimens are. The work X JLT Robert Allen in con. The Rev. Marks. on the back. which has already been alluded to. special mention. Spelman and with others who have . . — With regard to the marks on Lowestoft china. Hallam adds that for some years after the factory had closed such articles as ink-pots and mugs bearing the inscription " A trifie from Lowestoft" were sold at a shop in Crown Street. Mr. he does not know. \allops resident. Mr. Spelman says that he carried on the business of stationer and china dealer. . Lowestoft. the author agrees with Mr. Margaret's. W. Margaret's Church. LOWESTOFT 261 is illustrated .

These numerals are as a rule very badly formed. the crossed swords. and the enterprise was carried on under difficulties and at pecuniary loss. bottom of specimen. LOUISBURG. the reigning Duke. also from Mr. Broderip and Mr. Sheldon. E. and also for fine paintings on services. and the numerals from i to 60 appear on many specimens. The paste is. Specimens of this factory are remarkable for beauty of modelling in groups and figures. such as one finds occasion- ally on Worcester china. The crescent. WiJRTEMBERG. of a rather coarse and greyish . and occur in many cases inside the rim at the bottom of the article. that there was no re- cognised fabriqiic mark. — 26: LOWESTOFT— LUDWIGSBURG devoted special attention to this factory. OR KRONENBURG. Ringler established a porcelain manufactory at Ludvvigsburg in 1758.) LUDWIGSBURG. however. During the excavations there were found some pieces bearing imitations of Oriental marks in Chinese characters. . This crescent is found ferent authorities as that of rally inside the rim at i both open and closed. j . including those of Mr. Spelman's book : 5' c This mark is claimed by dif. % iy 1 -^ (This mark is also claimed for Longton Hall. under the patronage of Charles Eugene. owing to the site being unwisely chosen. but. These numerals are gene. The following are taken from speci- mens in various private collections. the clay and fuel had to be brought great distances. E.-) '^^> V / f 6 T AT^ /90 Said to be the mark of Robert Allen. Lowestoft and of Bow.

which ten years ago brought -^10 or £12. period. The earlier mark was the C in reversed cyphers. three stag horns. but later surmounted by the ducal crown. have enormously increased in value of late years. Paul Louis Cyffle.0. and the several specimens which are in the Franks collection should be carefully examined. in 1769.. The earlier ware resembled that of Nevers and Strasbourg (tj. Chambrette also madeporcelain. In 1778. The letters under the crown were changed to T. Meurthe. Faience was made here by Jacques Chambrette in 1732. Some of the best single figures and groups produced at this factory were designed by J. R. and colouring. small porcelain factory was established at Luneville by a A sculptor. France.r Gu^rin. ^ Wi LUNEVILLE. W. Beyer of Gotha and Franz Aston Pustelli. so that the amateur may appreciate the peculiarities of the genuine old Ludwigsburg modelling. Good specimens. which Marryat explains by -telling us that the town where fact the factory existed was known by either name. ttimVvIT T F scendants of the former. in 1806 and to W. LUDWIGSBURG— LUNEVILLE 263 appearance. in 1818. Occasionally the arms of Wiirtemberg. and are still carried on by the de. finish.).v. a single horn. Keller & y 9. are now realising ^^25 or £2. R. Pairs of small figures of peasants some 5 or 6 inches high. with or without the letter L and at a later . the works were sold to Messrs. and avoid the imitations which have lately been put on the market. were used as a mark. It is as often called Kronenburg as Ludvvigsburg. when he obtained a royalty . C. ^^^ ^ j: ^ x\t ^ X. especially the groups and figures of this factory.

Monte (see Majolica). Pieces marked " TERRE DE LORRAINE " were also made here. The first four are wares coloured in such a way as to represent the metals named. The mark is his surname and " a Luneville " stamped underneath. such as the statue of TERRE DE LORRAIME iefrpiyiQ Stanislas. be noted . and some of these have been preserved. The process in this case was to treat with a chemical wash that part of the surface which was to remain white. which has tiie appearance of being stencilled on a plain white ground. There appears to be some con- fusion between this factory and that of Niderviller. copper. A good deal of attention has been paid during the past few years to the lustred pottery of the eighteenth-century English makers. LUSTRED WARE. Lupo. in the Imperial Library of Nancy. and produced some superior vessels of a material known as terre de Lorraine. Stanislas. the name being a compliment to Cyffle's patron. so that the solution into which the article was dipped would only " take . gold. it has been shown that this kind of decoration has always been in favour it may. the same modellers having signed specimens at both places. English lustred pottery consists of four or five kinds — silver. however. By means of a subsequent improve- ment he produced a pate more suitable for statues and groups. and also In the remarks about in the notices on some majolica which was of the early Italian painted in lustred pigment. After the sale of the Luneville factory in 1780 the models and plant became the property of Niderviller. but it is very rarely found. Hispano-Moresco lustred ware. and resist lustre. that the English potters used lustred colours as a ground. " 264 LUNEVILLE— LUSTRED WARE for fifteen years. Duke of Lorraine. rather than to heighten the effect of a decoration as did the makers of the older majolica. The last isdecorated with a pattern in lustre (generally silver). steel.

while the lower part of the jugs are ribbed . and therefore we are probably correct in assuming that most of the lustred pottery which was produced in Staffordshire. They were probably made with intention. platinum or other metals. and other places. cups. silver or Sheflield plated goods would be too expensive for ordinary use. (See also New Hall and Neale & Co. since before the this invention of the cheap process of electro-plating. earthenware. genuine old pottery thus decorated.) . and glass. he was one of the first potters to adopt this form of decoration. The same authority states that in 1810 Peter Warburton took out a patent for his " new invented method of decorating china. which he also varied by marbling some of his ware with a pale pink or purple lustre. fluxed or lowered with lead or any other substance. LUSTRED WARE 265 upon the portions intended to be decorated. John Gardner and William Hennys. was of a date subsequent to the lapse of Warburton's patent. One finds in some of the old Staffordshire pottery groups and figures made by the Woods and their contemporaries. which seems worn and smooth. and Dr. who was connected with the early stages of the manufacture of Bristol delft. they may be readily mistaken for them." This patent protected his process for fourteen years. has resulted in the manufacture of modern ware in the same style. Collectors will find these modern productions rougher to the touch than the old pottery. without handling. parts of tea services. Josiah Wedgwood made gold and silver lustred ware. The specimens of English lustred ware which remain to us are jugs. Simeon Shaw in Chcuiistry of Pottery mentions as early " lustrers " John Hancock. A potter named Richard Erank of Brislington. Longton. porcelain. Swansea. with native pure or adulterated gold. On copper lustre one often finds part of the decoration in bright blue flowers and foliage. and some- times dessert services. a line of copper lustre round the base. bowls and plates. The silver lustred tea and coffee sets so closely resemble either the silver or the old Sheflield plated services of the period that. and advance in price of. silver. which invention leaves the metals after being burnt in their metallic state. is said to have been the first to produce copper lustre. The recent demand for. Sunderland. Liverpool.sometimes the copper lustre is confined to bands. The result is a very pleasing decorative eiTect.

v." illustrated in Chaffers' Kerainic Gallery. catalogue of In Sir A. fJjS Faience was made here from the sixteenth century. who decorated some of Mintons' earlier work in the manner of Sevres china.S' jKHyoAT LYONS. and went to Derby about 1790. Subsequently. and probably earlier. The fine set of four figures representing "The Seasons. where it is said that porcelain was made as well as pottery but ." and the mark L.).266 LUXEMBOURG— MADELEY LUXEMBOURG. and made a glassy porcelain with some success.^ of it. Boch.. should be ascribed to Limbach (q. and in the best and most recent work on French porcelain by MM. near Coalport. B. Thomas Martin Randall was the founder of a small factory at Madeley. it was to this of Robbins & Randall that Mortlock firm sent his white Nantgarw china to be decorated. and the productions of which have been generally sold as old Sevres. Salop. where he appears to have made the acquaintance of Billingsley. established a small business in London for the decoration of porcelain. He had been apprenticed at the Caughley works. IP. between 1830 and 1840. The mark given in the margin is that of the modern productions of Messrs. which has been attributed by Chaffers and other authorities to Luxembourg. Mention has already been made of an artist named Randall. Burton's book. A factory was started by the brothers Boch at this place. Franks' Continental porcelain he adds a note of interrogation under this entry. with another Pinxton painter.which had no mark. he worked at Pinxton. France. de Chavagnac and de Grollier there is no mention of a porcelain factory here. and the author was unaware that he had established a factory of his own until the publication of Mr. William Burton for the notice of this factory. Very little is known T-YO. MADELEY. this is very doubtful. whose adventurous career somewhat resembled his own." are without doubt " Limbach. We are indebted to Mr. W.and described as " Luxembourg porcelain. owing . and then he. who are pro- prietors of the present Luxembourg factory. and when.

" but to those amateurs and dealers who have made a special study of the different characteristics of each special they are known as Gubbio. About 1840 Randall appears to have given up his Madeley venture and removed to Staffordshire. Castel-Durante. The ceramic specimens of this time. The names here given by no means exhaust the list of places where majolica was made. Diruta. and specimens are extant which bear either in " the decoration or in some such mark as " fatto in Fabriano evidence of the place of production. fabriqite. and their assistants or pupils. and his daughter. Ravenna. Faenza. Urbino. some of the London dealers bought the sparsely decorated Sevres china and sent it to Randall for " glorification " and enrichment. where he continued his redecorating and firing. and especially to those charming specimens which were decorated by the master-hand of Giorgio Andreoli. Naples. Forli. San Quirico. A separate notice of each of these numerous small potteries . but they are the most important. Randall lived to be a centenarian. MAJOLICA 267 to the purchase of the Nantgarw works and removal to Co. MAJOLICA. of the entire stock of un- decorated Sevres china.ilport by Mr. are now termed in a general way " old majolica. Fabriano. Some general reference has also been made group of ateliers or bottcgas in the to the different towns of Italy. though he ceased to manufacture. under the patronage of the petty sovereigns who were its rulers when Italy was a collection of small states and dukedoms. Palermo. or Pesaro. Rose. Castelli. Padua. the supply of white china failed. Madrid (see Buen Retiro). Siena. from the factory. Rimini. Pisa. Brightling of Carshalton. i. Verona. in 18 13. Monte Lupo. Caffaggiolo. and a very considerable trade in this redecorated Sevres was carried on. Abruzzio. where work of this kind was carried on by individual artist potters. Mrs. has some vases painted in bird subjects signed by him and dated when he was upwards of seventy years old.e. Venice all had — their bottegas. This profitable but illicit "faking" of Sfevres china was rendered more easy by reason of the sale. In the chapter on and Renaissance " some refer- " Mediasval ence has been made to the products of Gubbio. dating from the later half of the fifteenth century. according to some peculi- arity of colour or design in the decoration.

In many cases. when no distinctive mark or special feature in there is the decoration. an excellent work which deserves careful study by the amateur. Giorgio. border of grotesques (Victoria and Albert Museum). for not only do the different makes closely resemble one another. arms of the Brancaleoni family. the marks which are found on the few genuine specimens which from time to time come into the market. 1520. almost it impossible. For full information on this subject. becomes exceedingly difficult. or to Dr. Sevres china. or place-names generally written roughly with the brush. monograms.j68 MAJOLICA or fabriqiics is not within the compass of the present work. and. than fabriquc marks such as we find on Dresden or Gubbio Plate. nay. liy M. circ. the reader is recommended Marks and to refer to Chaffers' large edition of Monograms. moreover. Drury Fortnum's Majolica. are rather of the nature of artists' signatures. but from the fact that ware made at one . to assign the specimen with any certainty to its particular fabriquc.

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One ofa pair of Vases from ibe Zsdiillc colleclion. CASTKLLI MAJOLICA. .

Our best authorities differ. wares have become confused. MAJOLICA 269 place was sometimes sent to another to receive a particular kind of decoration. wilh the arms of the Medici family and other decoration. and one finds such alternate descriptions as " Caffaggiolo or Faenza. the identities of the different Caffaggiolo Pitcher. The inexperienced collector should be very cautious in . and also that some of the artists migrated from one Italian city to another." " Faenza or Castel-Durante " appended to specimens about which experts find it impossible to be quite certain.

and it is only when celebrated collections are dispersed. Mr. 1515-20. George Salting's collection. circ. in the Victoria and Albert Museum. majolica. is very rich. Drury Fortnum's collection. presented to the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Nearly all the existing examples are known and described in various catalogues of our museums and famous private collections. given by Mr. Dr. and both the British and Victoria and Albert Museums contain many famous specimens which should be carefully examined if the reader would form a judgment on this most interesting class of ceramics. as at the famous Narford Hall or Fountaine sale in 1893.^2o8o. George Salting at the sale of the Spitzer collection in Paris for the Caffaggiolo plate . decorated with the interior of a painter's studio (Victoria and Albert Museum). abounds in beautiful examples of all the best fabriques. that one gets the opportunity of acquiring really fine pieces of old Caffaggiolo Plate.270 MAJOLICA purchasing specimens of these highly prized old fabriques without ample guarantee that they are genuine. Probably the highest price ever realised at auction for a majolica specimen was that of . or the Spitzer sale in 1895.

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MAIOLICA \"A. Fahriqiie Urbino (Cir.KCTION.I.SE. 1550). SniZKR (^n. .

We give a coloured illustration of this remarkable specimen. S." style of with scrolls and grotesque ornament forming a kind of ground- work. We also give a coloured illustration of a fine vase which was in the Spitzer collection. or prominent positions in the scheme of decoration of the vase or plate. the beautiful gold and ruby metallic colours being produced by a process which was a highly prized secret. and . or Scnaitis Populusqne Florcutinus. and " G/oots " was a device favoured by Guiliano in 15 16. while medallions of Cupids or of mythological or his- torical subjects occupy the centres. or of Caffaggiolo. and in general characteristics it is similar to that of Faenza. the ware lacks the force and expression of the earlier work pro- duced at the Casa Pirota in Faenza. but with much less success. A few notes on some of the special features of the most imporiant /abrtqiics may be Gubbio was noted for its of interest. and to have maintained its excellence for about thirty years. The word "Semper" was the adopted motto of Pietro di Medici in 1470. This lustred decoration was also in use to some extent. and Siena. which signified Sriia/ns Populusqne Roinanus. It was during this period that Francesco Xanto and Orazio Fontana worked here. Q.. George Salting's collection bearing the signatures of these artists. and there are specimens in Mr. The colourings are generally a deep orange and blue. The words " Semper" and " Glovis" occur some- what frequently.£^205o) for a Siena plate of the fifteenth century pur- chased at the sale of the Launa collection in Berlin. The decoration is that known as " Raffaelesque. and are generally found on a label or tablet forming part of the decoration also the letters S. Forli. Durlacher (. While these pages are under revision for a third edition (191 i this price has been almost equalled by that given by Mr.uid an attendant. The majolica of Urbino is considered to have been at its best about 1530-40. Plates and vases made at Pesaro. famous lustred majolica. R. and although highly decorative. at Diruta. The beautiful majolica of Caffaggiolo is distinguished by one or two peculiarities. ) MAJOLICA 271 decorated with figures of Judith . or Forli. P. The glaze is white and even. and Castel- Durante were sent to Gubbio to receive additional decoration in these lustred pigments. Siena. the latter holding the severed head of Holofernes. and a favourite pigment . F. P. Urbino. The drawing and colouring in Caffaggiolo ware are both spirited and vigorous. Q..

laid on with a brush. ." " Cafagiol. Specimens are frequently unmarked. also a trident and the inscription " in Caffagiolo. but a favourite mono- gram S.272 MAJOLICA was a deep lustrous blue. the marks of which are apparent. The word is variously spelt as " Caffagiulo. as dark as lapis-Iazuli. ^7 yO \ Pesaro Mark." " Chaffag- giolo." are found. Mark on a specimen of Baldasara." " Caff aggiolo. P.." Signature of Nicola da Ui'1)ino.

M" Prestino. ^ VicSlvo prefttno » . I . dix^loy mono 7 6 oCc IS" d. [4*P4*gi^(E" M° f Prestino. JL m(E «J»9 P. MAJOLICA 273 /v)^ GuuiJIO."P. Maestro Giorgio (Gubliio). 'saro t The above are some of the various signatures of Maestro Giorgio (Gubbio). M" I'rcslino. iy\.

274 MAJOLICA 0° O-hA ^PIS'AVRI - IJ8Z O^' ^ m m © I r '^ Castel-Duiantc. .

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MAIOLICA PLATE. Victoria and Amikkt Miisku. . Fahrique CaFFAGGIOLO.m.kci ion. In the Salting Com.

Makie Antoinette (see Paris Rue. Thirou). L. at which both pottery and porcelain were made. The works were closed in 1789. Jean E. by the royal dentist. Adolphe Frederick. Sweden. The faience was of good quality. was commenced in 1758 under the patronage of the King.' In 1110 nit t j--^/ Monte Lupo. The factory here. with a clear white glaze. Malaga (see Hispano-Moresco). Manerbe (see Lisieux). The pieces manufactured were mostly . Ehrenreich. MARIEBERG. MAJOLICA— MARl EBEKG 275 " FraU delin a ''fate in Monte.

1770. as distinguished from the laience. \U Uy \U — (I ^ //B 1764. for Ehrenreich. VJ-^ JVB yvB EslalW. Century. Frantzen. for Marieberg the initial of the Director. was French in style. Director. painter. sll u/ ^ ">^ Jf ^ The porcelain. Chra 17S0. for Henri Sten. as F. decorator. Ehrenreich. for Frantzen. for Pierre Berthevin. which was made here. Director. /^BB The mark is somewhat complicated. the figures were clad in the peasa'nt costumes of the country. three crowns.276 MARIEBERG table ware. The marks were similar to . There are the arms of Sweden. Director. a decorator of some note and . &c. sometimes a date.ro XVIII. no doubt owing to the employ- ment of French artists and workmen. Sten. . S. of the artist. Slen. generally in a monogram.. but statuettes were also made. Frantzen. u\yj /^. B. and the initial . as E. MB. The author once had a pair of reclining figures forming boxes .

candelabra. which shows that the fac- tory was renowned at this time. The mark is the initial or monogram of the potter. and similar pieces are mostly marked with the letters MB scratched in the clay. better known for his faience than for his porcelain. with a glaze which is somewhat unequal. Chaffers quotes an order for a service from England. and Mr. about 1776. by Joseph Gaspard Robert. (See specimens in the Victoria and Albert Miisenni.) MARSEILLES. A hard-paste porcelain factory was established at Marseilles. MARSEILLES 277 tliose on the pottery. The works ceased at the time of the French Revolution (1793)- The quality of the paste is only moderate. and slightly grey in tint. It has more the appearance of fine pottery than of porcelain this is probably due to the fact that Robert was . and not highly translucent. s R-K- . Tlie statuettes. and the Franks collection. but the date was generally omitted.

S. — 278 MARSEILLES— MARTIN WARE painted in birds. in green shaded with black." The tlenr-de-lis and also the initials C. and fruit. are said to mark the productions of a faiencier named Savy. I The following marks are given by Chaffers as attributed to various Marseilles potters : B- Antoine Bonnefoy. and fish. these are marked " Robert a Marseille. . There are still potteries in the neighbourhood.

279 and full of individualily while their custom of never repeating . Lane Delph. he is prepared to match any parts of services for the nobility and gentry. but no one need refer to the mark to distinguish his ware from real old Chinese porcelain. any piece exactly. and there is a shop for retail purchasers in Brownlow Street. This factory was established in the eighteenth century by Miles Mason. First-class medal. Holborn. but the business came to an end on account of the heavy duties imposed about this time. and some of it is similar to Doulton's impasto ware. Further knowledge of his career is given us in a lengthy advertisement which appeared in the Mnniing Herald of October i. the business was carried on by his . Some of the more expensive services are enriched with gilding. makes each specimen unique. The factory is at Southall. Martin stone- ware is a glazed ware varied in character. After the death of Miles. is generally in the character of old Oriental porcelain. with incised ornament. France. and a great deal of it printed. London and Southall. and afterwards continued by others of the family under the style of Mason & Co. Specimens at South Ken. Tite Henri Ristori commenced 'TT the manufacture of high-class faience here * J/ y^ in 1850. NEAR Nevers." He adds that his name will be stamped on the bottom of large pieces to prevent deception. and that in order to combat the prejudice against these English copies. Paris Exhi." scratched in the paste. 1804. in which he sets forth that he has now established a manufactory at Lane Delph near Newcastle-under-Lyme where " he can turn out china superior to Indian Nankin. M. 1856. '/SSS' sington. MASON & Co. The ware which he produced. ^Jbdtl^r /(fi^V^J bition. Staffordshire. the colouring being in reds and blues. The mark is the name of the firm. MARZY— MASON & CO. black and white. " Martin Brothers. MARZY. A shop in Fenchurch Street was opened by Miles Mason in 1780 for the sale of East Indian china ware. self coloured. "sgraffiato" decoration. trusting that if these efforts are successful he may be favoured with further patronage and so he hopes to rival the productions of foreign nations..

shows what e. and Kwer of Mason's Ironstone china. . decorated in blue and red.280 MASON & CO. The fine ewer illustrated is a most unusual specimen. The marks on Mason's Ware have varied dining the long history of the business. George Ashworth and Brothers of Hanley are the proprietors. and it was under his management that those large important vases some 3 feet in height which are occasionally to be found. Their ordinary productions were table services of a very hard.xcellent work Mason & Co. chiefly for table use. A service which was once in the author's possession was decorated with a rich lustrous blue. durable body. and would have passed for the best Spode. . Of all the ironstone china ware. were produced. were capable of produc- ing. He also made some highly decorative chimney- pieces in Mason's ironstone ware. and at the present time Messrs. The earliest pieces were stamped Miles Mason in the clay. sometimes in the character of Oriental china. foimcrly in the collection at Pryor's Bank. Fulham. In 1857 the business passed into other hands. two sons the one named Charles James took the leading part. with gilding. Mason's is undoubtedly the best (see Lane Delph). and turn out excellent ware.

and it is due to this trick that so many porcelain factories sprang . the arms of the see the wheel is occasionally . Mason. and at times has the name or initial of the artist. his fellow-workmen. Geltz of Frankfort commenced to make faience at Hochst. thus Mason's Camhrian Argil.J. near Mayence. to assist him. Lane Delph.making was contained in some papers that Ringler was known to have always about him and one day . The first experiments but having induced Ringler. surmounted by a crown. to turn his attention to the manufacture of porcelain. under the patronage of the Archbishop. under .&eo^ M G the initial of Geltz. a workman failed. MAYENCE 281 From 18001805 a cartouclic was printed on the ware to with C. an artist. Geltz was induced by one of his workmen. having made him intoxicated. towards the beginning of the eighteenth century. From 18 13 to the present time Mason's Patent Iron- stone China surmounted by a crown has been used. and in 1805 the words Kenton Stone Works were also printed as a mark. in 1740 they suc- ceeded in producing good porcelain and from this time. Ringler's management. The mark is a wheel of six spokes (sometimes five). and we also occasionally the name of the tind particular pattern or design printed on the ware. ® j^ ^ ^/£jc/htfX. h Possibly the initial of Melchior. the factory commenced to thrive. Nassau. from the Vienna manufactory. MAYENCE. The secret recipe of porcelain. named Bengraf. obtained these. The productions were of excellent quality.

but was unmarked. Melchior. peculiar large-headed figures were produced. red. the peculiar violet-red colour. The marks on the porcelain were the same as those used for the pottery. it is to this period that the finest speci- mens of the Hochst or Mayence factory may be attributed. The paste is hard. is said to have been lost to ceramic art with the death of a painter. the factory became a state establishment. Under Emmerick Joseph. and the services of a celebrated modellei'. spared in themanagement. After Melchior left the factory the works deteriorated very considerably. for which some of the pieces are famous. for not only did Ringler leave the works in disgust. but the dishonest holders of his papers sold the secret to any one who would pay them a handsome douceur. and the said to have greatest secrecy was observed in the different processes. and take his knowledge elsewhere. When the French invaded the country in 1794 the manufactory was broken up. or gold. are very rare and valuable. unrivalled. The clay is been brought from Limoges. Under the directorship of Reiss. The spirited modelling and delicate colouring of the groups are ex- cellent . and in 1909. . but fine and white and some of the modelling is. and a . as Marryat observes. one of their noted modellers. One finds occasionally figures marked with the initials of Joseph Schneider. B. near Aschaffenburg. ' 282 MAYENCE up in different parts of Germany. Pieces marked with " M. and were painted in blue. Elector of Mayence. and the stock and plant sold by auction. J. his successor. The groups and figures of this factory have appreciated in value enormously within the last few years. were engaged and as no expense was . After the factory was closed the models and some of the plant were removed to Damm. at the sale of Sir Walter Gilbey's collection. two miniature groups less than three inches in height realised 350 guineas." Melchior's cypher. Biscuit was also made at Hochst.

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The mark wheel as given Specimens is in the in the the margin. In the potting district of Hanley there were many potters who established themselves in the latter part of the eighteenth century. D MAYER.v.). Nothing can be daintier or more charming than the little flacons and toys of Meneyy porcelain. and the decoration is generally floral and very simple. About 1748 the directorate passed to Messrs. & J. from these undertakings the commercial principle seems to have been entirely absent — they were the hobbies of rich amateurs. Seine et Oise). were comparatively few but excellent in quality and. (See also Hanley. generally consisting of tiny Cupids or shepherds . an and imitation of Wedgwood's black son Joseph basaltes. Jacques & Julien. • J-J^ The earlier specimens are remarkable for the beauty of the soft paste. as the work was done to satisfy the critical fancy of the artistic proprietors. . Mene^y is one of a group of factories. Meigh & Son (see Old Hall). and the colouring and linish are crude. with the exception of those of Chantilly. who continued the works until 1773. MAYER. Indeed. when ___. This manufactory was founded by F'ranfois Barbin in 1735. letter D beneath the Franks collection are worth attention. there was no inducement to make great quantities of inferior articles for sale at remunerative prices. under the protection.^- they were removed to Bourg la Reine {q. J. Meissen (see Dresden). The best of the ware is that which occasionally we find stamped E. Elijah Mayer commenced business in 1770 and died in 1 81 3. Chantilly (the notices of which may be referred to). Cloud.) Medici Porcelain (see Florence). Melun (see Vaux). Mayer. and the firm was subsequently T. of the Due de Villeroy.x Penthievre. ViLLEROY (Dept. and on the estate. including those of Sceau. whose productions. MENE^Y. He made a good cream also ware. His succeeded him in the business. St. but the work was very inferior — indeed the material is only pottery and not porcelain. • MAYER— MEN EgV 283 considerable trade was carried on.

The mark is scratched in the paste. and. X. should lose no oppor- tunity of acquiring specimens. Amateurs should carefully study these. with bouquets or baskets of flowers. J. and kindred soft- paste French porcelain." of the patron is scratched in the paste. R. and these we have occasionally seen they . in addition to the D. In Cte. and also the letters C. Fitzhenry has made a valuable col- lection of Menegy. They are rare and difficult to procure at moderate prices. including one with an imperfect coronet above the letters. H. de Chavagnac's Histoirc des manufactures Fran- daises de porcelauic a great many variations of the D. and so similar are some of the smaller pieces of both factories that it is not unusual to see a description of a flacon in a catalogue as "either Chelsea or M6ne9y. modern manufacturers of gres stoneware : . " de Villeroy. P. but specimens are frequently unmarked. another with the letters combined in a cursive monogram. Herr Jiinnike gives the following marks as those of MM. In one case the full name. V. L. tion contains several excellent pieces. V. are given. and the Franks collec- Milk-pot of Menefy Porcelain. The same authority mentions the manufacture of groups and figures in biscuit. if they collect Continental porcelain. METTLACH. It was no doubt these little gems of the potter's craftsmanship which were copied at the Chelsea works. and having not infrequently a scroll bearing a French motto or legend." Mr. Rhenish Prussia. Refer also to notice on Crepy-EN-Valois. are charmingly modelled. but the body of the paste is not so white as that of Sevres. — 284 MEN Eg Y — M ETTLAC H and shepherdesses. Villeroy & Boch. which he has recently presented to the Victoria and Albert Museum.

" which was purchased at the pottery in 1848. — ' IVriDDLESHOROUGH—MILAN 285 MIDDLESBOROUGH POTTERY. J. The marked specimens which the author has seen are generally printed with an English land. 10. CeiiUiry. Major-General Astley " Terry had a tureen with the words " Middlesborough Pottery round an anchor impressed. Century. Richard. and he also gives the mark in the margin. XX'III. -ir^ scape. Italy. Chaffers mentions an earthen. ^r weekly XXIII. and the border of the plate or dish is embossed ^^qN^ like a picture-frame. Century. XIX. There was a pottery here in 1848. " Job 14. . MILAN.t-^- ware dish with a Biblical quotation. Faience was made here by various potters in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The following marks are given by Chaffers : Jl Pasquale Rubati Mit. but for how lonf» previ- ously is not known. and a small specimen with a similar mark is in the Swansea Art Gallery (Glynn Vivian bequest).

There is little to distinguish Alinden faience from other German ware of the same ^ kind. In 1840 he formed one of a small commitee of potters who bought a tract of country. Thomas Minton was a clever engraver. the then new Palace of Westminster). " Manu- facture Nationale de J. that only a few facts and dates are needed to complete the information that everybody must possess." makes both porcelain and faience of high quality . MINTONS The productions of this eminent firm are so well known. great-grandsons of the founder. the late head of Mintons. which occur in the coat of arms of the Hanstein family to C g^ W whom the factory belonged. and have been considerably enlarged from time to time as the re- putation and business of the firm have increased.286 MINDEN— MINTONS Porcelain is said to have been made here late in the seventeenth century. Mr. In 1828 the manufacture of the now celebrated encaustic tiles was introduced by Herbert Minton (their first employment being for the smoking- room and lobbies of the House of Commons. continuing the china and earthen- ware works. so recent. for North Staffordshire. abounding in clay and felspar. but more frequently the mark is three crescents. A modern firm.P. in Corn- wall. and so prominently before the world. MINDEN (Westphalia). The works were founded at Stoke-on-Trent in 1793 by Thomas Minton. Richard & Cie. and taking into partnership Thomas and Herbert Minton. and spared no expense nor effort to secure the most capable . their headquarters are at Milan. the manufacture of majolica was added in 1850. Colin Minton Campbell. but the factory will be found noticed under the heads of Doccia and Ginori. but nothing is known of it. Cand the letter M is sometimes found upon specimens. and at considerable pains succeeded in establishing a scheme for supplying with the requisite materials the different manufactories interested. and the improvements made in their manufactures have been so rapid. In 1868 HoUins. and formerly M. q. hitherto a partner. Faience was made here in the eighteenth century. separated from Campbell. Campbell devoted himself to raising the prestige of the firm.v.. Mr. and was at one time in the employ of Josiah Spode.

from the earliest specimens produced in Paris and signed with his monogram and also " Miles. Toft. 1885. and has also some few plaques produced since that time.R. mostly in the character of old Sevres. in his History and Description of English Porcelain. style of majolica. - MINTONS 287 artists and during his directorship. Campbell's management. in addition to their ordinary productions." to the year of his retirement from Mintons in 1904. of Mintons Porcelain are probably by these artists. birds en grisaille.B. iris MOssiLL. * Wright. vases bamboo design. Cupids in white on a pink field. Rhead. landscapes and flowers. which lasted from 1858 until . and also by his son. and aquatic plants. Solon. C. and is more fully described in Chapter IV. sprays of roses and camellias in colours on a pink ground. and \\\s pate sur pate process is well known. Christie's in many of these fine examples of English ceramic work. Campbell was sold at 1902. The fine work of Louis Marc Solon. decoration in the style of Urbino. realised good prices. M. In addition to these Mr. Cupids in white on dark background. Solon (he left Mintons in liji)). Wyse. Among the signed pieces in the collection already noticed were some pieces by Solon. This charming process of decorating porcelain was introduced by M. mentions Thomas Allen as being the most skilful of English painters on porcelain. and Protat were secured. Mason. ' F. M. Cooper. Rafifaelesque ornaments. Japanese style. Delpayrat. figures and chrysanthemuins. lilies on pale green ground. Mintons. Leroi. HOLLINS. pupil of L. made some chefs d'auvres which were in many instances signed by the painters. and also an artist named Jahn. FOSKER. Herbert Eccles of Neath has made a collection of Solon's works. pupil of L. and f'. figures and trophies in white on a brown ground. 'A. R. KlRBY. BiRKS. .Green. the services of the eminent sculptors Carrier- Belleuse. branches of flowers in the Chinese taste. For modelling. Amongst the names of the different decorators which were given in the Sale Catalogue were the following : — L. A. When the private collection of Mr. panels of Cupids. figures and flowers in white on olive-green ground. Emile de Jeanest. and some of the best of this was produced during Mr. BOULLEMIER. Mr. BiRKS. PiLSBUSY. Burton. Richards. ^ Specimens signed A. Solon in 1870. panels of Cupids on Rose du Barry ground. pd/c sur pate decoration.

After 1900 the numerals I. which has peculiarities of its own that will be easily noticed by comparison with others. ' 288 MINTONS M." In addition to these marks the impressed mark MINTON AND BAYLE was in use from 1836 to 1848. LONDON. who erected a manufactory at Stoke. Robert Minton Taylor. of the True porcelain was not made here before 1821. Hollins & Co. A new body of special softness and whiteness was introduced about thirty-five or forty years ago. and the gilding equal to that of Sevres. but some of their customers have lists for . The firm have also a system of marking their special pieces with symbol indicating the year of production. where the encaustic tile business is carried on under the title Campbell Brick and Tile Co. and on this are paintings of great merit in the style of old Sevres. in 1823. WALLBROOK. and another mark of the globe and Mintons with the words STOKE ON TRENT. The paste is soft and white like that of all the best English china. Leon Arnoux succeeded Mr. Campbell. Stone China printed on a scroll.B. are inside a circle. 2 d scij. There was also a special pattern service made by this firm about the time of Lord Amherst's appointment as Governor-General of India. and from 1845 to 1861 earthenware was marked B. and under his highly capable management the firm of Mintons continued their best traditions. Campbell. These marks are not pub- lished by the firm. but the most marked improvement. commencing a with the year 1842 with an asterisk down to 1900 with a duck having the figure 5 on its body.. were purchased by Mr. and reading " Colin Minton Campbell. took place under the directorship of Campbell and Arnoux. and this had the words S^m/iertif^ Jupan. In 1875 the tile works carried on by Mr. dating from our 1851 Exhibi- tion. NEW STONE. The more recent mark is the globe with MiNTONS printed across its centre and surmounted by a crown. a former partner in the firm of Minton. though a semi- translucent ware had been produced some twenty years earlier. This description of china is impressed with the mark ^ MINTON ] the two brackets embracing " Minton " forming the letter C reversed. the ground colours being particularly good.

and the one given below is due to the courtesy of a friend. MINTONS 289 reference. 1842 .

Moorish (see Hispaxo-Moresco). but collectors of marks like to identify specimens of some of these m\nor /trbi-iqiics. Popove. A tea service of this factory is at Knole. The mark was generally his name in full. E. A\ nonoBLi Cf)!"* Another porcelain factory was that of M. Russia. in Russian characters. A small pottery was established at Mortlake in the latter part of the eighteenth century by a man named Saunders. and ihe fabrique mark. The letters at the top of the mark JXM/IHA "' ^'i'^ margin stand for " Fabrica Gospodina. Morgan (see de Morgan). MORTLAKE. made here potter. W.290 MORTLAKE— MOSCOW MoNTAiGNON (see Nevers). MORTLAKE. Gulena. Another factory here was founded in c 1830 by A." . This mark is on a P/VP/V up p^ milk-pot formerly in Mr. whose monogram or is name is hard. and Major-General Astley Terry had a specimen impressed KISHERE. The pottery has little merit. An Englishman named Gardner started a porcelain factory at Twer in 1787. Craigie's collection. is also attributed to him. some brown which he ornamented with figures salt-glaze pottery in low relief. Another named Joseph Kishere. on statuettes and groups. Monte Lupo (see Majolica). its customers seem to have The paste been mostly limited to the Russian Court. The letter G in blue. of whom little is known. MOSCOW. Sevenoaks.

eight in 1756. M. The styles of decoration vary considerably.and not at one sole fabrique. and the expert has the greatest difficulty in assigning some unmarked specimens. eleven in 1789. or Seigneur de Trevans. Three different manufactories existed in Moustiers in 1745. who. and five only in 1799. ff ¥ . like the Delia Robbias. •Fe efiei Cleriffy Established 1698. Q. one of the sons or nephews of the founder being created Baron. in 1743. as is mostly the case.ci^onificTj. by Louis XIV. MOUSTIEKS 291 MOUSTIERS.h'iryf. appears to have been carried on at a group of ateliers. The manufacture of artistic pottery or faience here. Jacquemart gives much interesting information as to a family of potters named Clerissy. worked in succession from 1686 Barber's dish of Moustiers faience (Victoria and Albert Museum). until 1850. Basses-Alpes.

FoG. Centuries.>^ J^ t)c $0 <:? 1778. ami XVIII. MiGUe( \liiax Olery. Century. ^ MCA \yi6l^ -^'77^ .292 MOUSTIERS «5orliua Zcy.lanae •qy- CHOS Various Potters. XVII. 1/ j-errat Trum^tie/ro Q ^^ai>^^ '7. ^'?^. Marks of Olery with painter's initials. ^/^o u<t*g^^:. XVIII.

Century. therefore. Samuel Walker. XVIII. £ i^q- j^sf /A /> So? J i -BL^/ ay %^ ^}iiefAcg. NANTGARW. Wales. they settled in the village of . Nankin (see China). which we will en- deavour to remove by a very simple statement of facts. naturally some confusion in the minds of collectors. MOUSTIERS— NANTGARW 293 'J '/lion a Moustiers. if any. and the porcelain produced during the period of that influence is almost identical. There is. Glamorganshire. de Moustiers. France. Namur (see Ardennes). The mark. Pierre Auguste de Roslaing deNivas. When William Billingsley and his son-in-law. and by so doing broke their agreement with their employers. is unknown. The histories of the factories of Nantgarw and of Swansea are intimately connected on account of Billingsley's work and influence at both places. The following potters' signatures are given by Herr Jannike. small factory of porcelain was established here in 1780 by A Jacques Fourmy. 1763.s\rr> Munich (see Nymphenburg). " c=i6-' Ic \o X'^ Guichard. Loire-Inferieure. potter. leftthe Worcester works in 18 11. and Nicholas Fdurnerat de la Chapelle. Other Moustiers Potters. ^f kit F^ :ri ^* jx. NANTES. Antoi>ie GiiicJiani.

and Walker. Birds. white body. and after they had struggled on for two years. and they then returned to Nantgarw and en- deavoured to continue business upon the old lines. while a delicate. The painting of flower subjects is most artistic and skilful. were also painted." and there decorated by different painters and gilders. Beeley is said to have pretended to sell his secret to Young. W. Want of capital prevented the venture from going far beyond the experimental stage. In the notice on Swansea. he severed the connection. as he then called himself) and Walker removed to the new works. in the petition to the Government for pecuniary assistance. The porcelain made at Nantgarw by Beeley is almost identi- cal with made at Swansea from the same recipe it has a that . a tine transparency. Mr. and they applied to Government for a grant to aid them.294 NANTGARW Nantgarw. Rose of the Coalport works made an arrangement to secure their services for his factory. and very rarely landscapes. . but nearly all the more ambitious and ornate pieces of Nantgarw were sent to London in the "white. Mr. and a beautiful clear brilliant glaze. Weston Young. and the porcelain made by Young and Pardoe was harder than that of Beeley's production. and built some small kilns for the manufacture of soft-paste porcelain. who had been employed at the Swansea works. a skilful painter on china. on both vases and services. pink briar roses being a favourite subject. appears to have joined Beeley. small green trefoil ornament often decorates the border of plates. This was in 1817. upon being acquainted with the breach of contract of his new employes or prot^g^s with the Worcester firm of Flight & Barr. we have pointed out that. and Billingsley (or Beeley. and is not so highly valued by fastidious collectors. The renewed attempt was a financial failure. where a china factory already existed. When they left Nantgarw for Coalport he appears to have purchased the plant left behind. that he built larger kilns at Swansea. formerly of Bristol. Previous to this Mr. and to have continued the works with the assistance of Thomas Pardoe. or Billings- ley. and the factory was again closed in 1822. to The paste made afterwards by Young was of a harder and more vitreous appearance. Dillvvyn was in conse- quence instructed by the Board of Trade to investigate and report. but he did not do so. and he was so favourably impressed with the beautiful paste produced by these potters.

5 w < o H .. a- 2 .

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The mark is NANTGARW impressed. by W. Palmer. NEALE & CO. particularly of such specimens as are believed to have been decorated at Nantgarw by Billingsley. was for a time in partnership with Neale. and is in Mr. Neale also made ware something like the agate ware of Wedgwood. Collectors who make Nantgarw china are recommended to consult a speciality of a recently published work. (See also notice on Swansea. who by the way was a daughter of Heath. There is a vase of this kind in the Victoria and Albert Museum..' in Hanley after quarrelling with Wedg- wood. are attributed to Wedgwood.) Naples (see Capo di Monte. and made some very clever imitations of Wedg- wood's jasper ware. Nast (see Paris). A firm of potters of this name was in existence at Hanley about 1778-87. 295 The late Duke of Cambridge possessed several table services of Nantgarw and Swansea china. who had commenced business Toliy " Fillpot. Alexander Duncan. and realised good prices. entitled The Ceramics of Swansea and Nantgarw. in May 1904. sometimes with cameo medallions and charminglymoulded wreaths or festoons of husks. The mark is im- pressed. The Cardiff Museum should also be visited. Eccles of Neath. have risen enormously. NEALE & CO. also Majolica). but many specimens are un- marked. The Toby " Fillpot " illustrated is a marked specimen of Neale & Co. and a story is told that Palmer's wife. and The Macintosh have good representative collections of Nantgarw. Mr.. as much as _^20 and ^25 being given for a plate with flower painting only. At recent sales the values of good Nantgarw. which after his deatli were sold at Christie's. and sometimes the lettersC.W. but with a surface more re- sembling polished granite. Many unmarked specimens of Neale & Co. Mr. There are some good specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum and also in the British Museum." underneath. Frank Falkner's collection on loan to the Dublin Museum. for " china works. Turner. .

. the following classification of the different kinds of Nevers faience. The mark of " Ridgway " in several varied forms occurs on a great many specimens of good Staffordshire ware. NEUHALDENSLEBEN. also some good Toby Fillpots and silver lustre ware. mentioned by Brongniart as existing in 1844 under the manage- ment of MM. both Palmer and Neale had a circle impressed on some of their ware with their name and that of the town " Hanley " in Roman capitals within the circle. M. Several manufactories of faience.296 NEALE & CO NEVERS the well-known potter. and in 1820 the business was owned by Philips & Bagster. Neppel & Bennot. visited Wedgwood's show-rooms in London to purchase models for the purpose of copying them. Broc de Segange. But little is known of a porcelain factory here it is barely . but eventually passed into the hands of Ridgway & Co. The following marks are found upon various modern imita- tions of ancient majolica made here. Neudech (see Nymphenbukg). when he is said to have improved his body and to have produced some copies of Wedgwood's Portland vase. and have other branches. Neale & Co. who are still large potters in this district. some of which were of considerable importance. and continued the business after his death. given below. Chaffers quotes from the best French authority. After Wilson's death the works were carried on by his brother and his sons. A potternamed Robert Wilson was also a partner with Neale in 1778. NEVERS. and it is said that they forged the mark Besides the mark of their great rival. had been in existence during the seventeenth century and later. which may be of use in determining the approxi- . Hanover.

Specimens of Nevers are difficult to identify. Tradition dc Rouen. M. Gout persan. 1650 to 1750. 1789. and Albert Museum). 1640 to 1789. Persian Ewer of Nevers faience (Victoria style of decoratiun (Victoria and Albert Museum). . quoted by Chaffers. La Faience et les Faienciers de Nevers. 1600 to 1660. 1700 to 17CS9. chiefly potters' and artists' signatures. owing to the similarity of their characteristics to those of the Rouen and other similar faiences. 3rd Epoch. Decadence de I'art. 1770 to 1789. 1730 to 1789 Tradition de Moustiers. NEVERS 297 mate date of specimens by tlieir character and decoration. 2nd Epoch. 1st Epoch. 1630 to 1700. but there are several others.out franco-nivernais. de Segange was director of the Nevers Museum in 1863. and in his book. The following are the best-known marks. Vase of Neveis iaiL-nce. (". has practically exhausted the subject. 4th Epoch. Tradition italienne. who has also given a great deal of detailed information respecting some of the many potters of Nevers. Goftt chinois ct japonais. Goiit de Saxe. 5th Epoch.

. a ship and inscription. Imitations of Wedgwood's cream-coloured ware were also made in considerable quantities at Newcastle. The " frog " mugs already mentioned as made at Leeds. and St. Chaffers also gives Moore & Co. but Chaffers mentions the mark of " Newcastle. Pottery of a coarse but effective decorative character was made by several potters in the neighbourhood of Newcastle. NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. were also made at the Newcastle potteries." As a general rule Newcastle pottery is unmarked." In general character specimens resemble Stafford- shire pottery. and the letters. or commemorative of some historical or a legend political event.298 NEVERS— NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE Witliin tlie kibt twenty-five years or so a revival of the manufacture of faience has been brought about at Nevers by one Mon- taignon. sometimes " Mon " and sometimes " Montaignon " in full.. and a peculiarity of this ware is to be noticed in a band or border of pink lustre colour. and busts of celebrities were also Statuettes made here. who has adopted as his mark a rebus of his name " Montaignon." the tie (taignon) being coloured green. Fell & Co. being in black. and Professor Church is of opinion that the crude "marbling" of the bases of these pieces identifies them with Newcastle rather than with the Staffordshire potters. . but are less carefully finished and more highly coloured. Anthony. and also at Sunderland from about 1777 to 1825. and some of these bear the name of Wedgwood spelt " Wedgewood." and sometimes the names of the potters mentioned above are found. Donkin & Co.. generally of cylinder form. Professor Church mentions the names of Sewell. He has copied to some extent the old designs and colourings. Mugs. we find decorated by "transfer" process with verses. and the " Sheriff Hill Pottery.

Shelton. With the assistance of Paul Louis Cyffle. About 1780 the factory passed into the hands of General the Count de Custine. Several pieces of "New Hall" are in the ceramic gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Burton mentions a vase in the British Museum (K 1 8) which is impressed Worburlon. & H. Baron de Beyerle. In 18 10. who. whose director. near Strasburg. M. invented and patented the process of metallic decoration now generally known as " lustre ware. Cookson & Harding. Haixling were HACKWOOD. Lanfrey. bestowed considerable care and energy upon the improvement of the works. he was successful in producing some fine specimens. This firm in 1856 gave place to Messrs. and of some workmen imported from Sa. Mr. and John Turner (see Lane End). The firm purchased the patent rights of William Cookworthy's inventions (see Plymouth) from the then owner Richard Champion. & J. nna TaUen by Champion's removed to New Hall. Anthony Keeling. de la Meurthe). but his productions are scarcely ever marked. Hackwood & Company. Staffordshire. a cele- brated modeller. Councillor and Treasurer to the King. of the Luneville factory. it is stated. the proprietors. General de Custine. as in the margin. late 1862 Messrs. . W. ceased 1825. and in C. The names of the makers are impressed. Warburton. NIDERVILLER (Dept.xony. and Director of the Strasburg Mint. son of Jacob Warburton. but a great many pieces are unmarked. Peter ' ]^^°- Company ni 1782. NEW HALL— NIDERVILLER 299 NEW HALL. The the best known of the partners are Samuel Hollins. After various changes the works were acquired in 1842 by Messrs. and are generally attributed to Wedgwood. superintended the manufacture for some time at Tunstall before the works were Established by Whilehead. The manufacture was commenced here about 1782 of porcelain by a firm consisting for most part of local potters. one of the original partners. A small factory of hard-paste porcelain was established here in 1760 by Jean Louis. HACKWOOD & CO." The mark used by this company is shown in the margin.

generally sten- cilled in blue. aA27V (BJ" Laiifrey's mark was his monogram. was one of the numerous victims of the IxepubHc.L. The earliest mark consisted of the letters B and N (for Beyerle. in a monogram. M mark was two C's interlaced.300 NIDERVILLER however. X This mark may be distin- guished from that of X X Ludwigsburg by the shape of the crown.s since been discontinued owing to its unsuccessful competition with the other factories. %? Stamped in relief.C. and continued so until his death in 1827. The name of the town in full is perhaps also referalile to him. The /abritjite h3. F. and on his execution his estate was forfeited. with or without Cystine's a count's coronet. Niderviller). Lanfrey became the proprietor of the factory by purchase in 1802. .. m This mark ^' may stand for Beyeric and Custine. The monogram CN and the simple initial N also belong to this period of the factory.

are attributed to this fabrique . Custine. and is. France. chiefly famous for its statuettes. There is some confusion between this factory and that of Luneville owing to the purchase of Cyffle's models by Niderviller in 1780.v. HH XVIII. Very little is known of the pottery made here. painted with figures of peasants. MM. is marked with the initials of the firm given in the margin. they are very p r p similar to the work of Moustiers. Marseilles. which they attribute to Niderviller. Boncoirant et Compagnie. m Beyerle. Custine. . &c.and similar specimens. and the same modellers and artists worked at both places. Cenlury. The marks used on the faience were similar to those on the porcelain. established 1760. Century. XXVIII. Plautier. The last five are given by Herr Jilnnike. also Terre DE I.. plates. NIMES. Various jugs. de Chavagnac et de Grollier mention some groups and statuettes incised with the name '^opns/inii. which were modelled by Charles Sauvade from Luneville {q. Card.ORRAINE.). made by MM. mCusline. NIDERVILLER— NIMES 301 Faience was made at the works under all the proprietors above mentioned. One specimen in the Sevres Museum. Niderviller was. and other French potteries.

Another jug with an early date.-r / \ Of Jvottinqkmn. also with curious dotted designs. and has a legend : " ^ohn ymithj J-un''. Nutliiighain ware.. . 171 2. The above date appears on a stoneware posset-pot. It is in- scribed as under : U'amnel Watlcinscn. Jtajor "l j. 7 rr 1 I. .ai. Eliot Hodgkin. aarali. — — 302 NOTTINGHAM NOTTINGHAM Pottery and Stoneware. Couplets from old songs are . Majoress j -^ •' r'roo (see illustration).'^ There are specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum of brown stoneware mugs with hunting subjects in relief./. is de- scribed by Mr. and one of them has a bust of Queen Anne be- tween two beefeaters. his "U/tje. and there must have been a considerable trade in beer and cider mugs for use in the public-houses of the time. also in relief.j of &aysferd near Jiottmffham. the flowers on the lower part Posset-pot. having their stalks incised and the leaves perforated. certainly as early as 1700. Ahard brown stoneware was made at more than one pottery in the neighbourhood of Nottingham.

and initials arc inscribed. legends. Most of them used their names or initials as marks: e. Hans Kraut (1578). Similar stoneware was made at Brampton near Chesterfield and at other potteries in this district. Strobel (1730). von Schwartz uses this mark . NOVE (see Bassano). Puzzle jugs were also made in the Nottingham district. or pitcher. Nuremberg is said to have been the pioneer in the manu- facture of majolica in Germany. J. Marx (1735). The finest specimen of this class is still in its original position in the Chateau of Salzburg. and there is a lustre in its brown glaze. with figures of Adam and Eve enamelled in different colours. which are attributed to him. G. which letters stand for Nuremberg. NUREMBERG. Some pieces are marked NB. and various dates. and produced in his native town some fine specimens of dark copper- green earthenware. Early pieces are rarely marked. . but the ware made here was not so well potted as the Nottingham work. and for which high prices have been given. exhibited in the new pottery gallery. Kosdenbusch (1741). : NUREMBERG 303 written underneath. An artist named Veit Hirsch- vogel. who had travelled in Italy. ^'' A3: ^B The modern factory of J. and seen the works of Luca della Robbia. Some of these were large tiles used for the ware stoves then in vogue. and there are also still extant mantelpieces with very fine bas-reliefs. with subjects in relief. Stebner (1771). From the sixteenth century to the present day there have been many potters at Nuremberg. A.g. Hirschvogel died in 1525. and also two or three of the large earthenware stoves. and others. This brown ware is not unlike the common ginj^er- beer bottle in texture and composition but its surface is smooth. The Victoria and Albert Museum has a fine criiche. seems to have carried back his experience.

There is some confusion with regard to the ^-shaped shield. the Frankenthal factory was closed. some of the best German authorities this was a Frankenthal I . This has been generally considered to be a mark of Nymphenburg but according to . and under I his management the factory achieved considerable success. As the mark is some- times a very small shield and is almost always impressed. and succeeded in organising it as an establishment under the protection of Maximilian Joseph. from whom so many factories received technical assistance. and he was doubtless a great acquisition. was sent for. and very high prices are realised when they are offered for sale. Figures and groups and vases of this factory are excellently modelled and delicately coloured. During the past few years such specimens have greatly increased in favour with both foreign and English collectors. The best of the Nymphen- burg productions are some charming miniature figures with a glaze which gives them the appearance of soft paste they . Bavaria. but it does not appear to have flourished until 1756. for in 177 1 the staff only numbered about 30. The output. who had learnt some of the secret processes of glazing from Ringler. The landscapes which form the chief decoration of some of the best table services are very care- fully painted. must have been altogether beyond the demand. who had succeeded Maxi- milian Joseph as Elector of Bavaria. when Ringler. Elector of Bavaria. for in 1766 some 300 hands were employed. Among those was Melchior. and many of the modellers and painters removed to Nymphenburg. The first director was a man named Hartel. have an exquisite grace and finish. specimens are apt to be passed over as unmarked. Some of the earlier pieces were very beautifully painted by Heintzmann. In 1758 the works were altogether removed to Nymphenburg. in which respects they are second to no other ceramic productions. There are several good representative specimens of this factory in the Franks collection. The marks are found both impressed in the paste and also under the glaze in blue. in 1747.304 NYMPHENBURG NYMPHENBURG. and are similar to those of the Frankenthal factory. and at Neu- dech on the Au. however. and this somewhat indistinctly. After the death of Carl Theodor. whose work had materially enhanced the reputation of the Hochst factory. A manufactory of porcelain was attempted here. by a potter named Niedermayer.

The letters which accompany the shield are incised or written in gold.iAft.). LI l. tlie ^ is claimed liy recent writers for FiankeiUhal.A. ^ 62. r^ The most usual mark is the shield of Bavaria. are very inferior to the old work. Its present productions. however.' XT' 7T n t ' \/ m ' Impressed marks. {q. The following occur on some specimens in the Franks collection : .v. The factory. They are impressed or incised. which is still in existence. can be seen by visitors to the Bavarian capital. ® f s . a short distance from Munich. At the recent International Exhibition at Brussels (19 10) the factory had an important Further reference to some exhibit. — NYMPHENBURG 305 mark. although many of the original models are reproduced. These additional Nymphenburg marks are given on the authority of Professor Hofmann of the Munich Museum. of the modern productions of the Nymphenburg factory will be found in Chapter VI. generally impressed.H J77S I )f D. As a shield of Bavaria it may have been used by both factories. 17.

Hanley. The paste is ofgood quality. Pinto Basto. A manufactory still exists at Vista Allegre. OLD HALL WORKS. and as there was no porcelain factory at Geneva. who had left the royal works at Sevres. IVIEIGH ^^'' -1°^ Meigh. for which he received the Society of Arts gold medal in 1823. or the word " Geneve. turquoise. as in the margin. H. carefully exe- cuted. and the general character of the productions of this factory is that of hard-paste Sevres." In the early part of the nineteenth century. earthenware figures and other ornamental pieces of considerable merit were made by this firm from the designs of J. Chaffers to be that of the Genevese painters who decorated the Nyon china. Pieces are also marked with the ^:x initial G. Chaffers also mentions a cup and saucer signed " Gide 1789. this mark is said by Mr. Staffordshire. Mr. The mark is a fish in blue. and paintings generally floral. and the theory is probably due to the existence of two marks. with while and gold flowers. Specimens are in the Franks collection. and the mark VA. A small manufactory was established here towards the end of the eighteenth century by a French flower-painter named Maubree. C. OPORTO. Wylde thinks that there was a second porcelain factory at Nyon. Meigh & Sons occupied these works from about 1780 the firm has recently been turned into a company under . and a specimen cup and saucer. junior. Messrs." either with or without the fish. Limited. A was factoryestablished here about 1790." Gide having been the director of the factory for a time. The paste is Y /X hard. directed by M. OiRON Faience (see Saint Porchaire). the other without the fish. but nothing appears to be known of such an one. is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. . one with. the style of "The Old Hall Earthenware Company. was the inventor of a new glaze made without lead. Switzerland (Lake of Geneva). The mark is an impressed stamp. sometimes surmounted by a crown. amember of the firm. B. Giarnielli. Vista Allegre.3o6 NYON— OPORTO NYON.

^^ i\ r^A 3- These are supposed to be the initials of Benoist Le Brun. ORLEANS— PARIS 307 ORLEANS. A fleur-de-lis is also found under the label on some pieces. :8oS-ii. and later Henoist le Brun. (see Chapter II.). Padua (see Majolica). Century. In 1753 a manufactory was established here under the pro- tection of the Duke of Penthievre. marked as in the margin. specimens will be readily taken for the latter. There are two white figures of Cupids in the Art Gallery of Swansea (Glynn Vivian bequest) bearing this mark. XVIII. Soft paste was first made. or a ribbon trellis with roses. architect of the city of Orleans. but sparse. Palmer (see Neale & Co. Some of these were . following the fashion of other French factories. PARIS. The ground colour is nearly always white. Earthenware figures and statuettes were also made here. and the decoration carefully painted. Herr Jannike gives this mark as inuse from 1790 to 1800. the director being first Giirault Daraubert. OvERTOOM (see Amsterdam). Both these directors placed their initials underneath the Orleans "label" which formed the /(//«•/(/«(? mark.). consisting of detached rosebuds. Le Brun was director from 1808 to 181 1. but. and unless marked. also Saintes. sometimes of a medallion with landscape or portrait. this was discontinued for the more durable but less beautiful hard paste. tories of porcelain and were carried on with varying success. Palissy (Bernard). and its neighbourhood. The general description of Orleans porcelain is similar to that of the later hard-paste Sevres made about 1800. Towards the end of the eighteenth century several small fac- were established in Paris.

in the style of late Sevres. This mark is considered to represent the initials of Henri Chanou. orby the name of the street in which they were estab- hshed. or factory. The life of several of these small businesses lasted just as long as the individual taste. The mark is stencilled in red.}f PARIS: CHICANNEAU. and the decora- tion is in the style of the late Sevres already alluded to.3o8 PARIS known by names of the patrons under whose protection they the flourished. or means of the proprietor. who formerly worked in the Sevres factory and after- wards established a small /rt/^. energy. For the convenience of the reader short notices of the majority of these " Paris " fabriqucs are arranged here alphabetically to follow these remarks. and worthy of the collector's attention. With regard to paste. and general style of decoration they are all similar the paste is hard and like that of the later . or in other cases by the names of the potters or artists who commenced business in small ateliers which sometimes developed into a fabriqiic. The mark: with a CM I . or potter were devoted to its encouragement. Some of them are noticed under separate heads. which apply to them all. For this reason some marks are given here that other- wise would have little or no interest for the collector. and in many cases was not of long duration. C. Established 1784. which was carried on after her death by other members of the ClouD) family until about 1762. Others never achieved any results of note. Sevres china. the forms are those which we recognise as of the " Empire " time or that which just preceded it. PARIS. and a cross reference to them will be found for the reader's convenience. artist.7<7?/c in Paris. As a rule the little fabriqiic has become known to us owing to the survival of articles de luxe of special designs ordered by some wealthy patron. ^ CM The widow of Pierre Chicanneau started a factory of porcelain in (see St. and have been lost sight of. of some note. Hard paste. form. 1722.

" Russinger & Locre. Established towards the end of the last century by P. who used their names or initials as their mark by Pouyat alone. The M probably stands for Moreaii. one Russinger. by "De la Courtille. mdiKU/ /o-cf urc ' De la Courtille. Cream-jug of De la Courtille porce- The fabriqiie was of hard paste. about 1800 . Dagoty. whose partner. two torches crossed. He styled his ware " L'Imperatrice." The mark is generally stencilled in red. A X subsequent mark resembles the heraldic charge. Honore. . H.v. known as a X lance-rest." 1773. and by A. This should not be mistaken for the Dresden crossed swords. valued at that time at 3000 francs (£120). F. Another member of the family. lain (Victoria and the mark in blue. PARIS: DAGOTY. One of the finest specimens of ceramic art produced by this factory was a life- size bust of La Comtesse du Barry. Deltuf . was director throughout the Revolution. Dagoty. Dagoty subsequently combined with the firm of Honore {q. had a factory in the Rue St. The factory was afterwards carried on by the firm of Pouyat & Russinger. PARIS: COURTILLE (RuE Fontaine au Roi) This factory was established in 1773 by Jean Baptiste Locre. date unknown. PARIS 309 cross under. and Albert Museum). tlie widow's maiden name. subsequently.') about 1812. under the patronage of the Duchesse d'Angouleme. R.

Boulevard Poissionniere. . . two headless airows crossed. Paris. DAGOTY.M. " Darte. some of his fccent specimens. I'auliouri.. A factory of hard-paste porcelain was /v startedabout 1773 by Vincent Dubois. c.. the designs being mostly of an Eastern character. marked with the potter's name. • Antoinc. and since that time his works at each international exhibition have shown considerable progress and gained distinction. PARIS: DUBOIS. Maik. PARIS : DARTE. A small factory of hard-paste porcelain was established in the Rue de Popincourt in 1796 . . The first copies of the famous Alhambra were made by this firm and at the Paris TOvase Exhibition. gener- ." stencilled in red. M'"' de MADAME DUCHESSE D'ANGOULEME R. PARIS. F. Honore. Dihl (see Angouleme). Century. Dagoty E. Riie'clc la Ri>quetle. ' => ' 177 . or Saint Porchaire. and there are some richly coloured and well-gilt plates still extant. and consists of the incrustation of different coloured clays . Our Art Department has purchased XIX. PARIS: DECK. B. Harrison possesses a cup and saucer marked DARTE FRERES A PARIS. " ally in blue. it is very effective. St. E. 1780. 1878. and they may be seen at the Victoria and Albert Museum.„. some remarkably fine plates were . shown by him.LDAGOTV a Paris. as it is now generally called. Theodore Deck established a factory of artistic faience in the Rue Halevy in 1859. Mr. H. The process of de- coration is somewhat similar to the old Henri Deux ware.l^Lmpeiratricc P.3IO PARIS Mamii-actiiinc ie S^. A .

had flowers very carefully painted in richly ornamented trellis-work. but sometimes in black. and are generally in gold. Walker Joy's collection. MM. PARIS 311 Paris. Other marks are used. Guy & House! succeeded to the fabrique of " Porcelaine de la Reine " (see Paris : Lebceuf). PARIS: FEUILLET. equal in every way to the best kind of hard-paste Sevres of the same time. Rue Thirou Porcelaine de la Reine. Housel was sole pro- prietor from 1799 to 1804. but has a capital F in the middle of the reversed L's.). A pair of semi- a Pciris. A richly decorated porcelain in imitation of Sevres. Honor6 about 1785 . Rue Thirou Occasionally we find very richly decorated specimens bearing this mark. formerly in Mr. circular Jardinieres. . Gasnault coUectii PARIS: HONORE. subsequently amalgamated with Dagoty {q-v. M. This work was carried on at No 20 Rue de la Paix. Established by F. Due d'Orleans (see Paris : Pont-aux-Choux). J'ecuCUt PARIS: GUY & HOUSEL (Rue Thirou). as shown. The mark also is similar to that of Sevres. M.

and a monogram of M. Chaffers mentions a potter of this name having an estab- as lishment in Rue Amelot.312 PARIS PARIS: LASSIA. Lebceuf. The marks are generally stencilled in red. established in 1774 by Jean Joseph Lassia. PARIS: LEBCEUF. Chaffers has assigned to the Lebceuf factory the variously formed initial ^ surmounted by a crown. . Queen Marie Antoinette is said to have been the patroness of both. PARIS: LEFEBVRE. Andr6 Marie Lebceuf commenced the manufac- ture of a hard-paste porcelain. 1 778. on tjold ground. marked in gold l. 1774. and that made at the Angouleme factory (17. Cupids playing. A. which he called " Porcelaine de la Reine. some of the pieces being equal to Sevres." Marie Antoinette being AA///f T'OLI' C/ wcV.^. L L""^ Ruo <lc Keiiilly. Specimen Plate. and the mark Lcfebvrc a Paris written in gold. It is almost impossible to avoid Rue Thirou " Dc la Reine" (Antoinette). for Marie Antoinette with an S below. and Mr.). by A. M.v) his were patroness. which the author has given to the Angouleme factory.cfcbz'rr a Paris. In 1778. on richly gilt ground. The productions of great excellence. The author had a hnely painted pair of plates with Cupids playing games. confusion between the porcelain made and decorated by Lebceuf. The letter P^ without a crown is also supposed to have been used by Lebceuf. Hard paste.

M. . N. PILLIVUYT ET C"=-. established 1773 . and vary considerably in style. as his fabrique mark. Hard paste . and the favourite decoration seems to have been small sprigs of flowers on a white ground. The mark used was J. PARIS: C. It is of dark lustrous green. The paste is hard and like most other Parisian porcelain. NAST. PARIS: PONT-AUX-CHOUX. P. This factory was started in 1784 by Louis Honore de la Marre de Villars. PAKIS: MORELLE. Their ornamental specimens are of a very high character. The manufactory owned by this lirm is. Apotter of this name purchased a manufactory of china in the Rue de Popincourt. The finest specimen seen by the writer is a large bottle purchased by the V^ictoria and Albert Museum from their exhibit in Paris in 1878. stand for MAP " Morelle a Paris. The mark is the name of the firm. the largest in France. Petit (see Fontainebleau). aris Paris. In 1786 the fabrique changed hands. generally stamped or stencilled." PARIS: NAST. and the mark used thereafter was his monogram L. stencilled in red. Due d'Orleans.. combined in various ways. and came under the patronage of Louis Philippe. PARIS 313 Paris. according to Chaffers. and the effect produced by the varying shades of the colour is very good. the letters in the margin." . . the factory was known as the " Fabrique de Pont- aux-Choux. L'Imperatrice (see Paris : Dagoty). A PARIS. After the Duke's death in 1793. employing about 1500 workmen. 1783. H. Paris. and adopted his name.

B. an Englishman. cina 1786. Paris. Comte d'Artois. He called his ware " Prince of Wales' China." R E. In 1789. under the direction of Pierre Antoine Hannong. Porcelaine dk la Reine (see Lebceuf). was started in 1769 by Charles Philippe.314 PARIS ^rx" M This mark most probably belongs to the same factory. CP Potter Rue dc Crussol. 1789. St. fabrique of hard paste. established a factory of hard-paste china. Riie dc Cnissol. Charles Potter. PARIS : POTTER. Th'xs. Denis. The monogram of Outrequin de Montarcy. said to be the oldest in Paris. CP CP Rue Faubour. of Strasbourg. . A small tcte-a-tcte service with this mark was formerly in the author's possession. PARIS: PORCELAINE D'ARTOIS. or Hanung..

and many have been deceived by his pro- ductions. PARIS— PERSIA 315 PARIS: SAMSON. A pecu- liarity which he notices. The mark given here was that used upon the " Dresden " specimens. His manufactory is probably responsible for more disappointments on the part of young collectors than any other half-dozen makers of spurious china grouped together. because some of his figures are remarkably original and clever. and which is observable in many specimens. R. Major Murdoch Smith. and his productions are sold as "old Dresden. In a volume published by the South Kensington little authorities. and entitled Persian Art. and jars are highly decorative. while numerous other Parisian firms are unnoticed. written in small cursive characters in red and puce.. Chelsea and many of the Continental fabriqiies. He tells us that ceramic art has existed from a very early date in Persia. A maker and decorator of French porcelain and faience of this name. is to be found on some excellent white and gold dessert services. merits special mention here. potter (see Liverpool). Bow. but also copies their marks. bowls. they were not meant merely for ornament.E. This name. . PERSIA. and on some well-painted plates with richly gilt borders. is frequently used by unscrupulous dealers to deceive amateurs. It is doubtful whether the firm were porcelain makers or only dealers. but he imitates more or less successfully not only specimens of Crown Derby. and in his illustrated description of the collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum. gives much useful information which his official position in Persia has enabled him to acquire. Pennington. Pavia (see Majolica). he divides Persian ceramics into seven different classes. also SCHOELCHER ET FILS. and though the rice dishes. His mark." Samson also makes exceedingly clever imitations of all the rarer and more precious descriptions of Oriental porcelain. is that the pottery was almost always made for use. See also notes on this manu- facturer in Chapter VI. as given here. PARIS: SCHOELCHER.

though whether it was really native to Persia is doubtful it is more probable .3i6 PERSIA Both Jacquemart and Chaffers doubt the existence of porcelain of Persian manufacture but some . leave little doubt that porcelain of a high quality was known there. different sects departing more or less from the proscribed law of representations of men and animals. the time of highest excellence . he traces of M. green ^" J^Cquemart's philosophical ground. and that it obtained its name of " Gombroon ware " from the fact of its coming through that port of the Persian Gulf. a kind of decoration forbidden by the original canons laid down by Zoroaster. each style of decoration to a religious source. that was a special class of ware it imported from China.in). The modern productions of Persian factories are very poor. with shaped panels (collection Study of the Subject. Sechr. polychi lion (Coll. Narghili-stand of Persian porcelain. Rouen). Dutuit. bowls in the Henderson collec- tion now arranged in the British Museum. Ewer of Persian porcelain.

•/^-' PERSIAN. >. k 13TH-16TH Century. .BERT MUSEUM. ICTORIA AND Al.

H .

Some fresh information respecting Persian pottery be found in the thirteenth edition of Chaffers. too. Some of the tiles in the Henderson collection are ornamented with texts from the Koran in high relief. that of the Ewer and Narghili-stand are of the earlier Persian work. before alluded to. is fre- . there will be found some most interesting specimens of the twelfth. and sixteenth centuries. and to have decorated his palace at Ispahan with national pottery. the Renaissance period of Persian art. and that of the tile. at Rhodes was brought about by the capture of a vessel contain- and moulds. . will contributed by Mr. 555. The decoration of Persian ware is generally floral. The colouring is very artistic and striking. PERSIA 317 having been during the reign of Shall Abbas. which fell into the hands ing Persian potters. thirteenth. fourteenth.1628. with Persian cera- mics his suggestion being. of the famous Rhodian knights. material. with equestrian figure. the pigments having somewhat the appearance of vitreous enamels. quently introduced inornament. tlie latter being rightly classed. who assisted the author in revising and editing that portion of the work. Several specimens of this. according to Jacquemait. L. are in- cluded in the Salting bequest in the Victoria and Albert Museum. who had joined the Christians in the war against the Mussulmans. In the Henderson collection. of the later period. and the collection also in- cludes many pieces of Damascus and Rhodian ware. Hobson. that the manufacture of artistic pottery . Of tiie illustrations given. C. who 1 appears to have been the Grand Monarqiie of Persia. carnations and hyacinths being favourite subjects the cypress.

Dr. Fortnum. century (Victoria and Albert Museum). decoralion in slight relief. Du Cane Godman.3i8 PERSIA These marks are mostly given on the authority of Dr. Pranks. Mr. Pesaro (see Majolica). XVII. 12. Fortnum {Catalogue of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Wollaston IVisiaii Wall Tile. pp. 13). George Salting (whose collection is now part of our national treasures at South Kensington). and the Henderson collection at the British Museum. The principal collections of Persian faience in this country are those of Mr. . Petersburg). Petersburg (see St. the late Sir A.

and the latter left afterwards to work at the Worcester factory. and they were closed in 181 8. East Derbyshire. during a residence at Dresden. having the sum represented stated on the round fiat piece of china this . but may generally be ascribed to the Pinxton factory when the paste is greyer and coarser in texture than that of Derby. Mr. The establishment of a cliina factory liere was due to John Coke. and as a rule having no mark." . and subsequently assisted at those of Nantgarw and Swansea (see notices of these factories). who. Mr. are often mistaken for unmarked Pinxton Ice-pail (Victoria and Albert Museum). Esq. the celebrated flower-painter of Derby. BiUingsley possessed a recipe for porcelain-making. PINXTON 319 PINXTON. Coke's coin. which produced some fine pieces. an ancestor of Colonel Talbot Coke. The pieces decorated with views of different country seats in medallions. Payment to the workmen was made in china tokens. china-money passed current in and about Pinxton. secured the services of Billingsley. but without any great success. A disagreement between Coke and Billingsley took place about 1 800-1 802. Jewitt quotes an interesting fact respecting this factory. and was known as " Mr. Coke continued the works at Pinxton with other help. and a small factory was started in 1796. similar to the Derby porcelain. had acquired a taste for artistic pottery. and finding upon his family estate some suitable clay. Derby china.. on canary ground.

and in a letter. A patent was taken out in 1768. and there is at least one dessert service known to the author with landscapes in medallions on each piece. These efforts were successful in 1754-55. the cursive P given below is that most frequently found. which. F&R Fischer SS. and to have made in- vestigations in many parts of Cornwall in search of the elements necessary for the making of china. near Carlsbad. and the formation of the letter varies. The proprietor. Plymouth . PLYMOUTH.320 PIRKENHAMMER— PLYMOUTH Specimens Pinxton are generally unmarked. and assisted Cookworthy with funds and interest. The firm afterwards became Fischer & Reichambach. like Bottger.K & Reichambach. & R. and started on his own account in Nutt Street. Factoryof hard-paste porcelain. necessary for the manufacture of porcelain. would form the vitreous property required. or granite. Christian Fischer. and used his initials as a mark. if pulverised. C. Christian Fischer became the pro- prietor in 1 81 8. took the matter up con amore. Specimens occur with the word " Pinxton " in full. when he discovered at Boconnoc. both a white plastic clay. the first of European porcelain-makers. Lord Camelford. Pisa (see Majolica). He had acquired a thorough knowledge of his business in London. but when they of are. the family seat of Lord Camelford.F. founded in 1802. to a friend and customer. having the mark in puce given below of a crescent and star. he first mentions the importation of both the kaolin and petuntse. (see Bohemia). when the mark was changed to F. dated 1745. was a chemist's apprentice. and a kind of moor stone. from Virginia. and the Plymouth . William Cookworthy. The earliermarks are unknown. After this he seems to have taken up the matter thoroughly. f C^ PIRKENHAMMER.

were very favourite patterns . W. The paste is hard. only of a milky white. with limpets. prevented the concern being conducted on remunerative principles. by a clever French artist named Soqui whom Cookworthy engaged from the Sevres manufactory. are also to be found. and smaller ones for pickle-stands. instead of yellow. This is the case with some of the models representing the quarters of the globe. cockles. and after removing to Bristol Cookworthy sold his patent rights and plant to a cousin. PLYMOUTH 321 manufactory — the first English factory to make china from nalive materials — came prominently before the public. Mr. and the great expense incurred in making continual experiments for perfecting his in- vention. is credited with the painting of the exotic birds in favour at the Worcester factory. Richard Champion. it is supposed. and he was the first to produce the cobalt blue direct from the ore. and natural colours. Groups of shells. glaze something like polished ivory. shells arranged in tiers. white shell work. Advancing years. Birds and flowers were painted on some of the cups and saucers and vases. a native of Plymouth. in lyyq (see Bristol). and some of the white pieces have a beautiful Sweetmeat-stand of Plymouth porcelain. Cookworthy's chemical knowledge was of great assistance in the manufacture of colours. Some of the figures made at Plymouth are cast from the same moulds as those of Bristol. and Henry Bone. both in blue and white. and escallops. one of Cookworthy's apprentices. X . for oysters.

and Mr. Scotland. by William Baird. has a very important set of three of these which were formerly in Mr. with illustrations of pieces identified with their work. Vernon in 1739. of Edinburgh.322 PLYMOUTH — PORTOBELLO Cree. since " Portobello ware " is mentioned in Mr. but the Portobello SCOTT ware to which attention is called in this notice was made at a group of potteries which ffi thrived at Portobello for some time. Mr. Baird quotes the Florentine Lion. with fis'ure of Britannia sur- . These marks are generally in red. figures. Alfred Trapnell has a complete set of four. and judging from these it must be exceedingly difficult to separate them from ordinary Staffordshire pottery of the same time. J. F. There are many pieces of pottery in existence connected by some legend with this historical event. Poland (see Korzec). In the Annals of Diiddingston and Portobello. PORTOBELLO. from about the end of the eighteenth century until 1845—54. a watch-case in the form of a miniature clock. there are accounts of several makers. Thompson's collection. with a paw on a ball. Some little confusion about Portobello pottery seems liable to arise. Midlothian. William Burton's work on English Pottery as having SCOTT been made in Staffordshire to commemorate the taking of Portobello in Spain by Admiral BROTHERS.

There has been some revival of late years.\IX. NEAR Dijon." . is made here by La Hubaudicre & Co. at potteries in this district it is on sale in the shops .r (/ . ^ C» by MM. have been occasionally seen by the author. about 1820. I PRAG Pratt's Ware (see Fenton). The marks are as follows : — ^ . and a monogram as in the margin. generally in green and red colours. PORTOBELLO— QUIMPEK 323 mounted by a crown. Portobello. of recent date. also a group of a cow with calf. (see Bohemia). QUIMPER. F) 0S3 Z-^. in the style of old Rouen ware. PREMIERES. Glazed stoneware and faience. generally decorated with peasant figures and landscapes. The works are still carried on by his descendants. ^Century. of Edinburgh. with an impressed mark " PRAG. . There is a modern porcelain factory carried on ] IS. . as Kath- bone's ware. PRAGUE. Kriegel & Co. Chaffers mentions the work of Scott Brothers as marked with the name Scott. Specimens of faience with a good glaze. Portugal (see Caldas). - I I Lavalle. The manufacture of faience was started here by a brickmaker named Lavalle. in the shape of work of an effective decorative character.

RHEINSBERG. J. red. In sequence the marks may be taken as follows: first the R. Hildebrandt. It was estab- lished by a member of the Greiner family about 1780. . The marks given below are found in different colours. and purple. Ratisbon (see Regensburg). but little is known of it. long before the time of the present firm.324 RAUENSTEIN— RHEINSBERG A pottery is said to have existed here. blue. Sometimes dots and sometimes dashes separate the two letters. Mr. Ratisbon. earthenware of various kinds and " Gres " stoneware were also made here. Heine. Only table-ware was produced. A. and after 1800 the two crossed hooks accompanied by the R— n. In the last century. Raeren Stoneware (see Cologne). REGENSBURG. Schwcrdtner has a porcelain factory here. This mark is given by Herr Jannike for the faience made here by F. Saxe-Meiningen. and save for collectors of marks there is Httle of interest concerning it. This small factory of hard-paste porcelain was one of the least of the Thuringian group. Porcelaine de la (see Angouleme and Paris: Lebceuf). the R-n being the one most often seen. and is still a going concern. K ^ * R -n 71- Ravenna (see Majolica). RAUENSTEIN. then the R-n.

the truth of which has been questioned by so eminent an authority as the late Dr. A brownish-red colour is a favourite pigment. in decorative treatment. Some good specimens are in the Salting bequest. where the style of the room is of the period harmonising with this kind of decoration —that is. The best collections of Rhodian pottery are those of Mr. RHODIAN FAIENCE 325 RHODIAN FAIENCE OR POTTERY. from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. during an expedition against the Mussulmans at the time of the Crusades. and the plates and small round dishes which we have seen. and the Henderson collection in the British Museum. . from which. generally carnations. or tile. jug. The borders of such plates are generally decorated in black designs. with spiky leaves spreading over the surface of the plate. Rhodian pottery is every effective. Anatolian ware is. F. the glaze less thick. Fortnum. similar to Rhodian. of the capture by the Knights of Rhodes. A place named Kutakia in Anatolia is credited with being the source of this kind of pottery. A pottery was thereupon established in the Isle of Rhodes. Du Cane Godman. Damascus. he contends. sprays of flowers. Mr. We are enabled to give a faithful repre- sentation in facsimile of a fine Rhodian ewer in the Victoria and Albert Museum. George Salting in the Victoria and Albert Museum. of a vessel which was carrying from Iran a cargo of fine pottery.S. Jacquemart relates a story. The pottery Rhodes. and Anatolia belongs to of the Turkish school. We have no means of establishing or refuting this romantic but rather doubtful theory of the origin of Rhodian pottery. and also a number of potters who understood the mystery of its production. are generally less clumsy. as in one of the plates illustrated. and sometimes the stems of these sprays fastened together. Sometimes geometrical patterns are employed. M. make an excellent mural decoration. Green is also a favourite colour. Dr. and groups of four or five plates or round dishes. It is of ct)arse body with a thick glaze. lately bequeathed to the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford.. but we can readily recognise as a distinct class of decoiative ware that which is known as Rhodian. Fortnum. as a rule. laid on so thickly as to stand out from the white ground in slight relief.R. the examples in the JMusee Cluny were produced. the decoration being. but the paste is whiter. F.

and . Moore & Co. Job Ridgway. about 1840-50. including those of Elijah Mayer. Wear & Co. Westhcad.326 RIDGWAYS The South Kensington authorities. Toft & May. Later the firm was John Ridgway & Co. jugs. the founder. the com- bination trading under the title of Ridgway. which has a good reputation for high-class domestic ware. These productions are marked £4lger. Staffordshire." They do not. Taylor. They are inferior in many respects to the old ware. both as to form and colour. terested to learn that the making of these was one of Ridgway's specialities.. Meigh & Johnson. and therefore we may perhaps still be permitted to entitle this notice "Rhodian" until there is more definite information available. on the ground that the proofs of Rhodes being its proper source are unsatisfactory. points to the ware being made at Damascus. took over and still carry on the business. has been noted for good work for upwards of a century. and the glass cases which contain this portion of the Salting collection are labelled " Turkish and Syrian ware. Palmer & Wilson (see Neale). Brown. in the The brilliant scarlet found floral decorations of plates. assign any particular province or district of the Turkish Empire as the actual place of production. and absorbed several of the businesses of other Staffordshire potters." by which we have known this description of ware for so many years. At the present time the pottery at Algiers is making good copies. use of two different pigments. of this old Turkish or Rhodian pottery. John Ridgway was appointed potter to her Majesty Queen Victoria. and tiles in the indicates " Rhodian " work. have abandoned the title " Rhodian. In 1855 Messrs. and G. RIDGWAYS. was one of Josiah Wedgwood's apprentices. in their recent arrangement of this class of pottery in the Salting bequest. however. and built the works known as Cauldon Place in 1802. Morley. but are highly decorative. Collectors who affect those covers of paste pots ornamented with landscapes and subjects in coloured will be in- transfer. whereas the use of purple produced from manganese. started on his own account in 1794. The firm of Ridgways at Shelton. & T. The firm also made a good class of earthenware with a semi-translucent body similar in many re- spects to Mason's ironstone china. The writer of the Salting catalogue says there is a distinction to be made between the pottery called " Rhodian " and that of Damascus.

HERT MUSEUM. . Jug 15TH-16TH Cenh-rn. generally known as Rhodlan Faience.turkish. \'lCTORL\ ami Ai.

( .

'A .'P.

I .

le (see La Rochelle). Mr. The factory passed through several hands.). but the principal output was that of chocolate- brown tea and coffee services. it being the Rockingham crest. which were said to have the valuable quality of ex- tracting the full flavour of the tea. Baguley. in Yorkshire. Brameld. until in 1807 it was carried on by Messrs. In the year 1745 a manufactory of pottery was established at Swinton. ROCKINGHAM. but the words Rockingham and Brameld are also found. ROCKINGHAM 327 received the Grand Prix at the Brussels International ICxliiliition. The manufactory was specially celebrated for its tea-pots. In 1823 the mark of a griffin was adopted. K. and sometimes a crown sur- mounting an oval containing the initials J. commonly known as " Rock- ingham ware. India Temple Stone China. A portion of the original works is now occupied by one of their former employes." One of a pair of richly decorated Rockingham flower-pots formerly in the author's possession. R. on the Marquis of Rockingham's estate. the latter sometimes in a blue-coloured cartouche. &c. . Various kinds of earthenware and stone- ware were made. W.. and some- times the initials J. with such words as Stone China. The mark of RIDGWAYS occurs in various forms. (see also Neale & Co. near Rotherham. Rochei. 1910.

ROCKINGHAM. Rome (see Majolica). for the manufacture of earthenware of various kinds. . an enamel composed with oxide of tin. in 1760. is all so alike that without a distinctive mark they cannot be distinguished. faience in the style of old Strasbourg and Moustiers was produced. RORSTRAND. There is a remarkable Rockingham vase. A company was started in 1726. As in the first instance the art seems to have been imported from Delft. B RAM ELD. at Stralsund (which formerly belonged to Sweden. under State patronage. In the large edition of Chaffers. although on some pieces one finds the decoration influenced by local colour. such early specimens as are in the Museum of Stockholm have the appearance of the older Delft ware. and to have lasted for about twenty years. more detailed information as to these Swedish factories will be found. The second period may be said to have commenced with the adoption of the stanniferous glaze. This first period lasted from 1726 to 1759. Mortlock of Oxford and stamped with their Street. and at Kiel. Excellent porcelain services and figures were also made here. over 3 feet high. name. i/locJiinqJiamrfori^ . During this later period. at Marieberg. Wedgwood ware was also imitated by these factories. but was afterwards annexed by Prussia). in the Ceramic Gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum. The faience made at Rorstrand. such as the costumes of Swedish peasants. near Stockholm.328 ROCKINGHAM— RORSTRAND A considerable quantity of the table ware was made for Messrs. The general characteristics of all the old Swedish potteries are similar. . generally carefully painted in flowers on a fine clear white ground as a rule figures are unmarked.

or early St. or full. and initials of the painter or master-potter. painter. Fahlstrom. bhie and wliite decoration. Established 1726. RORSTRAND— ROUEN 329 Jiar^huLm -^ij^i D. The marks consisted of S. /2 ^ ROUEN (Dept.Shoe of Rouen faience. and will be found noticed in Chapter II. <. Hillberg. After the foundation of the rival factory at Marieberg.^orjt 't A. was substituted for that of Stockholm. sometimes abbreviated. For a short time about 1759 both words were used. /J^ //^ 8 c/3S. generally with the date. as one . A manufactory of artistic pottery was flourishing here in the sixteenth century. for " Stockholm " in Stockholm. the word Rorstrand. . painter. which is also in the neighbour- hood of Stockholm (see Mariebekg). Seine-Inferieure)..

Twickenham. which was presented by the late Duke of Hamilton. This was in 17 13.. Two of the most remarkable were formerly Ilelniet-sh. he had a service of Rouen faience made for his use. and painted in repre- sentations of Mucins Scasvola. When Louis XIV. at Orleans House. and of Curtius jumping into the gulf.330 ROUEN of the principal ceramic factories that existed in France when the wave of art from Italy. They were pictures composed of 238 tiles joined together and framed. . but there are in existence beautiful specimens marked with a date as early as 1542. and this was marked with the fleur-de-lis. our Victoria and Albert Museum possesses one of the best. sent his plate to the mint.iped Ewer of Rouen faience. rolled thither straitened for money to carry on his wars. There are extant in theMuseum and elsewhere Sevres beautiful specimens of this ware. and in the bust of Flora on a high pedestal.

by Louis Poterat. . The marks of the fabriqnc are very numerous. —The manufacture of soft-paste porcelain at Rouen is whose family had been connected attributed to Louis Poterat. Porcelain. ROUEN 331 Jaidinicie or Sceau of Rouen faience (Victoria and All)ert Museum). and there are in the Victoria and Albert Museum some plates of Rouen faience decorated with the arms of the Poterat family. and if so it was is the first so far as France is concerned. the Medici porcelain of Florence being a few years earlier. who were lords or seigneurs of the district. A great many of these will be found in tiie large edition of ChafTers' Marks and Monograms. A ROUEN 1542 R XVIII. and many would appear to be only painters' marks. about 1673. Century. with the making of earthenware for many years. The date generally attributed to the first achievement in the way of porcelain.

a sister of Lamon- inary of Valenciennes. Fauquez. Rue Thirou (see Paris). RUDOLSTADT (see Volkstedt). The mark of a hayfork single and crossed with another. The manufacture was continued up to the time of the Revolution. revised by the author of this work. The mark is said by Dr. The manufacture of soft-paste porcelainwas tirst attempted in 1 77 1 by Fauquez. The fabriquc was subsequently revived. when it was for a time abandoned. and St. AMAND-LES-EAUX. which belonged to M. Cloud factory. A manufactory of faience was founded here about 1740. The first one also contains the letter A. Russia (see Moscow. for St. the re-founder of the works at Valenciennes (q-v. The factory is believed to have closed in 1696 owing to the successful rivalry of the St. Rye. but the re- semblance is more apparent than real. NoRD. at the sides. Petersburg). The cypher consists of the interlaced initials of Fauquez and his wife. who having sought permission was re- . AMAND-LES-EAUX Specimens of this Rouen porcelain are extremely rare the — only piece known to the author is the charming tall cup in the Fitzhenry collection recently presented to the Victoria and Albert Museum. Lejeal to be an imitation of that on old Sevres. while the second has the letters S. On the authority of Graul and Kurzvvelly's work on Thuringian factories this is now assigned to Volkstedt. It is unmarked. The mark of A. Other marks attributed to this fabriquc. P. and was in active work in 1807. and it would appear that there was no factory actually at Rudolstadt.332 RUDOLSTADT— ST. Sussex (see Cadborough). which is the mark attributed to this factory. and Fauquez was forced to emigrate. but that the name was given because this place was the seat of the government of the Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. by various French and German authorities will be found in the eighth and subsequent editions of Chaffers' Marks and Monograms.). was formerly considered to be the mark of Rudolstadt. France. has not been identified. ST. with a star. A. Amand.

As late as 1873 members of this family were directors. he appears to have persevered in his enterprise. and in 1894 there was a manager named Miquet. In 1800 the proprietorship of the factory passed to a M. AMAND-LES-EAUX— ST. however. as in that year Henri . However.A. c/ St. and those who have decorated it have copied the style and colourings of original Sevres specimens. who was in 1815 succeeded by his son and afterwards by his grandson. A factory of both faience and porcelain was established here in 1690. by the Chicanneau family. The fabrique marks used during the later period are the monogram S. The porcelain made since 1800 is similar to that Tournay. Maximilien de Bettignies. ST. Cenis (see Sinceny). and it be will seen that one of these is a colourable imitation of a Sevres mark. The marks are similar to those on the faience. It should not deceive an experienced collector. because the paste is not so good in quality. This porcelain attained a medal at the 1851 London Exhibition. soft. Specimens of tlie Fauquez period of porcelain are seldom seen. The mark was "St. Amand was a free town. ST. C. CLOUD. . passing as genuine old Sfevres.A. France. nor so white as that of Sevres it is. and one has to be content with descriptions. and to have made a soft paste similar but somewhat inferior to that of Sevres until 1778. when owing to the rivahy of the Tournay factory he ceased his efforts and reverted to his business of faience manufacture. and has been largely used for purposes of of re-decoration." and after 1722 the initial "T" underneath. CLOUD 333 fused by the Government on the ground that St. in blue and a seal in relief with the letters S.

dis- agreements ensued in the family. Fitzhenry. and not as free from spluttering in the firing. and his fabriqiie mark was a sun." which was used from 1696 to 1722. 1/22. the earliest is the "St. such as sprigs of flowers in the style known as " Kaki- yemon. Cloud factory was burned down in 1773 by an incen- diary. Of the marks given below. and had already desirous of 1 granted royal letters and concessions to many specialists Trou. which happened about 1700. Cloud porcelain. and the Victoria and Albert Museum has recently been enriched by several good pieces included in the collection of soft-paste porcelain at but since presented first lent to the nation by Mr. more or less roughly drawn. There are several specimens in the F"ranks collection. to whom he had imparted his secret. Cloud porcelain is similar to that of Mene9y but somewhat thicker and clumsier. Owing to a second marriage of the widow." with the initial letter for Trou. C. The decoration is generally quite simple. afterwards the "St. and not being rebuilt." without the letter " T. At his death." then the "Sun. ." and the colouring mostly blue. Louis XIV. had become especially having a national porcelain factory. The claim of St. but it was undoubtedly the parent of the St »-T—« celebrated Sevres manufactory. C. Cloud to have first produced soft-paste porcelain in Europe is challenged by Florence and Rouen. separated. CLOUD Trou became director. These marks of the "sun " occur in endless variety.334 ST. but sometimes red on creamy-white ground. for want of funds. one branch of it opening a rival establishment. the works were conducted by his widow and children. the manufactory ceased. Chicanneau introduced this invention about 1695. The paste of St. The fleur-de-lis is also an earlv mark. The St. who claimed to have discovered the secret of making true porcelain. which Blue and while salt-cellar of St.

Some of the figures in the costumes of Russian peasants are of much interest. which is certainly of Russian. s Cypher of Catherine II. The mark is generally the initial of the reigning Czar or Czarina. A tea service at Knole. ^ 7 -D j f* f ST. Sevenoaks. ^ ^ >t J). A . J f 'S. CLOUD— ST. de Chavagnac et de Grollicr: — * T T • S c B <Ib S S.C. Tlie following additional marks are given on the autliority of MM. with only gilding as a decoration. There are several specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum. ST. is of fine quality porcelain. is said to have been the paste and style of decoration founded on that of Dresden. £E *? /^ £. 1730-1762. Lady Sackville has a very curious drinking-cup formed of a female head with lustre decoration. <. but specimens known to the author have more resemblance to Berlin china than to Dresden. Established 1774. . Porcelain has been made here under imperial patronage since 1744 . surmounted by an imperial crown. white. and either of Petersburg or Moscow manufacture. PETERSHURG 335 s:c ^4^ T /-^t Trull. PETERSBURG. and also in the Franks collection at present in the Bethnal Green Museum.

1762-1796. In the chapteron Medi.eval and Renaissance pottery some observations have been made upon this peculiar faience. 1706-1S01. and also the different collections through which several of tlie specimens have passed during the . now in existence si.) Pottery was probably made here in the last century. and in the larger edition of Chaffers' Marks ami Mono- grams. 1825-1855. but we have no particulars of it.336 ST. England. Kuznetsoff. BPATbEBl. SAINT PORCHAIRE or HENRI DEUX. 1855- (Zaboda means works or manufactory. Emperor Nicholas. Paul Korneloffe. There are. a table is given showing the number of specimens in France.. and Russia. 1801-1825. the most valuable and delicate of ceramic gems.K. S.. PETERSBURG— SAINT PORCHAIRE £ n-. Initials ofEmpress Catherine II.. T. Emperor Alexander II.\ty-five specimens of this coveted fahriqiic. Established 1827. KopHHAOBblXlj C^it Korneloffe Brothers. Initial of Emperor Paul. so far as we know. 6 Emperor Alexander I. maker.

These decorations are in the true (Victoria and Albert Museum). This remarkable man was born. It was formerly known as Henri Deux or Oiron ware. Our Victoriaand Albert Museum has no less than six good specimens. and the quaint devices given in Chaffers' Marks and Monograms are heraldic ornaments and part of the decora- Saint Porchaire Candlestick tion. of the world-renowned Bernard Palissy. They are lent by Mr.^8oo respectively. to which want of means was but a slender barrier. Renaissance character of the time of Fran- cois Premier and Henri II. Of poor parentage. the failures. which were acquired at prices which are very low compared with those realised at recent sales. together witli a list of the prices realised. France. SAINTES. Unless a specimen can be traced as one of these sixty- five. The date of the ware given by Chaffers is 1520-50. it cost its late owner ^1500. Pierpont Morgan. was the scene of the struggles. These six pieces cost _^2430. SAINT PORCHAIRE— SAINTES 337 last few years. and here he produced those curious dishes. he seems to have had a natural thirst for know- ledge. Porchaire is the recent name Saint which. the — two specimens a bibcron or ewer. it should have an independent pedigree which will stand the test of verification. has been adopted. crescents of Diane de Poitiers . whereas at the sale (in June 1 899) of the col- lection of M. Edouard Bonnaffe. and those collectors who can afford to purchase costly specimens of Saint Porchaire faience would do well to consult the table of specimens in his work referred to above. at La Chapelle Biron. There is no fabrique mark. The Salting bequest includes a fine tazza of this rare faience it is ornamented with the interlaced . This brings the number on view to seven. and a salt-cellar — realised the enormous sums of ^2000 and . about 15 10. and finally of the success. for he Y . plates. on the authority of M. This place. Stein. a small village between the Lot and Dordogne in Perigord. near Rochelle. famous Paris expert. and vases which have rendered him so famous.

and at length. he seems to have been seized with an enthusiastic desire to become a potter.338 SAINTES found time to visit the chief provinces of France and Flanders. he actually burned the floor boards of his house in a last attempt to make a successful firing. he lingered on in prison until 1589. personally urged to do so by the King (Henri III. it is said. That he was a naturalist as well as a potter. and settled in Saintes as a glass painter and land measurer. and therefore set about his task under con- siderable difficulties. after again and again refusing to sacrifice his religious prin- ciples. and ob- tained for him the patronage of Henri II. he was proscribed by the edict of the Parlia- ment of Bordeaux in 1562. having embraced Pro- testant principles. when he died. notwithstanding the personal influence of the Due de Montpensier. Palissy was earnest and conscientious . it came at last. For sixteen long years victory was denied to this zealous potter. and. to the Protestant faith. happening to observe a beautiful cup of enamelled pottery. who gave him liberal commissions and protection. a comparatively perfect specimen of the enamelled earthenware with which his name has been identified. The King claimed him as a special servant in order to save his life. tardy as it was. though once. and the whole of his savings and the principal part of his scanty earnings were devoted to the object he had so enthusiastically set his mind on attaining. Bartholomew by court protection. His fame soon spread. Experiment after experiment only resulted in disappointment. and . his excellent representations of reptiles and insects can leave no doubt. and distress of his home. were the strong points of his decoration. The complaints of his wife. and henceforth to have had no other end in life but to discover the secret of a fine enamel. In religion. in high relief and of wonderful fidelity to nature. after discharging his last workman for want of money to pay wages. as in art.). and parting with every marketable chattel he possessed. The sub- jects he elected to illustrate are well known : reptiles of every variety. but. he was again arrested and confined in the Bastille. and. At the age of eighty. He married in 1539. though figures and flowers were occasionally introduced. was arrested. and Palissy had the delight of removing from his kiln. and subsequently he only escaped the massacre of St. like so many others of his time. of France. a martyr. and his work- shop destroyed. and some years later. Beyond a knowledge of glass manufacture he possessed no other technical information. could not deter him from the keen pursuit of what appeared to all his friends and neighbours a hope- less task. however.

The following story is told as to the discovery of the salt-glaze process. should be consulted by those who take special interest in Palissy ware. SAINTES— SALT-GLAZE WARE 339 it is worthy of remark. national. Jacquemart men- potteries. SALT-GLAZE WARE. and the excellence of the modelling. and the Government grant was not available to add representative specimens to our national collection. and there are some good examples in the British Museum. is family group of this in the Louvre. M r^ and both he and Chatters mention a hunt. A good selection was made and was afterwards taken over by the Government. The imitations are heavy and lumpy. It will be within the recollection of some of our readers that when. about fifteen years ago. Genuine specimens can be dis- tinguished from imitations. Salopian (see Caughley and Coalport). his celebrated Marguerite daisy ornament was adopted out of compliment to his Protestant in all probability protectress. Delange and Borneau's illustrated volume.) ing-flask decorated with roses and tulips. MM. a syndicate of amateurs and dealers was formed to guarantee a sufficient sum of money to purchase some Palissy. Majolica. Deioye. that these natural objects are. by the lightness and elegance of their make.and has been repeatedly copied. ^ SA. this pot becoming red-hot. The Musee du Louvre is very rich in specimens of good Palissy ware. from this magnificent collection. Palissy had many imitators and pupils.\. the 1 r cc o name of the owner. seems to have |-j ^ had other M.Y\feS having on one side. and Limoges enamel. Marguerite of Navarre. Some brine boiled over and ran down the sides of a common brown earthen pot . with a monarch and his children. combined with the crispness of finish. ' • ' tions those of Grouzat. LCEuvres de Bernard Palissy. Palissy ware bears no mark. the sale of the Narford Hall collection took place. and Rochez. *i. t . in addition to being famous as the scene of Palissy's work. within a wreath. the . Saintes. A plate. without exception. and the manufacture of Palissy ware was continued until the time of Henri IV. and on the other an inscription of which the above is a copy.

to serve ale to customers in the alehouses of the period. when . as distinct from earthenware or pottery. having a bearded mask roughly moulded in the neck. notably those of Germany. as the country which now includes Belgium was then called. or Flanders. it has been said as early as the twelfth century (see notice under Cologne). becomes partially vitrified. in or near Cologne. called Bellarmines. fired to secure the glaze. and of families in the Low Countries. who lived 1 542-1621. Professor Church has noted.340 SALT-GLAZE WARE brine formed a glaze when cool and dry. the brothers Elers. merchant. that when microscopically e. as we have just noticed. and a great many have been discovered at different timts in the excavations made in and near London and also in the provinces. brought the secret to England with them about 1688. however. stoneware shows a texture similar to true porcelain. produced the salt-glazed stoneware at a very early period. the body of the ware must be of a com- position to stand this heat without softening such a body.xamined. which. that owing to the high temperature. praying for the sole right of importing the brown salt-glazed stoneware jugs which in those days were so common. which was the chief centre for this kind of ware. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth there was a petition from one William Simpson. The most popularly known of these jugs were those which were narrow in the neck and wide in the belly. with dates of the latter part of the sixteenth century. by showing that the common earthen pot could not have withstood the high tempera- ture necessary to bring about the chemical action capable of achieving such a result. Professor Church. More probably the famous potters. Brown stoneware jugs of different capacities were in common use in Queen Elizabeth's time. Some of the Continental potteries. and the result is stoneware. and was hated by the Protestants of his day for his fierce opposition to the reformed religion. in his English Earthen- ware. and it soon became known and put in practice in Burslem. The chief peculiarity about true salt-glaze ware is. has demolished this little romance. also those of Belgium. is neces- sary in its manufacture. and in Bavaria. after a certain Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. are now so highly . To this class of salt-glazed stoneware belong those charmmg mottled brown jugs with cylindrical necks which when they have silver mounts of the time of Queen Elizabeth. There are some specimens in existence which bear the arms of Amsterdam and of other towns.

" but a material which Professor Church has happily christened a " por- cellaneous " stoneware. have already been referred to and although it is very difficult to attribute . and afterwards started a pottery of his own. with certainty someof the specimens of the peculiar red ware. were adopted by others. and of which we have such excellent specimens preserved to us in the British and Victoria and Albert Museums. vary cream. The relief or embossed appearance attained thereby is very success- ful. and the foundation by them of potteries in Staffordshire. There are six of these in tiie Victoria and Albert Museum (one of them will he found illustrated in Chapter II. Many of the Astbury pieces are well worth collecting they . The business does not seem to have flourished. gained admission to the works. who obtained a patent in 1671 for his "mystery of transparent earthenware.). and early in the eighteenth century Staffordshire became the chief centre of salt-glazed earthenware. particularly that for the salt-glaze process. and sometimes brown occurring. One of the immediate successors of the Elers was a potter named John Astbury. and an enormous business was developed. There are several good specimens of this ware in the British Museum. still some specimens which in all probability were their work are to be seen. Professor Church is of opinion that they produced this red ware for about twenty years. buff. who by shamming lunacy. The cream ware which Astbury first produced was adopted and improved upon by Wedgwood. and the Elers brothers abandoned their works in Staffordshire about 1710 or 17 I 2. the pattern being sharp and well defined. the dates of which from the Hall marks on the silver mounts run from 1560 to 1600: but we do not know that the jugs themselves are of English manufacture. In England. to these potters. from 1692 to 17 10. Their methods and recipes." The fine stone- ware which he produced at Fulham. which in his son's time attained considerable popu- larity. and a design being in many cases impressed by means of a mould. red. The coming to England of John Philip and David Elers. . in colour. was not exactly " porcelain. SALT-GLAZE WARE 341 prized by collectors. It is probable that some were imported. the honour of first making stoneware of this kind is claimed for John Dwight. made in imitation of its Chinese prototype.

which stand out well against the buff or cream-coloured ground. with similar little depressions. made from about 1720 to 1760. says that it may almost take rank as porcelain. Professor Church. fit with a nicety which is unusual with any but the most carefully finished articles. The sauce-boat illustrated is an excellent specimen of its . Chinese subjects. and the design is impressed by means of a mould. who is probably the best authority on salt- glaze. birds and flowers one also finds very successfully rendered in the enamel colouring on the cream or pale buff ground. as a rule. and. from about 1740 to 1760. sauce-boats. and when one is fortunate enough to find speci- mens which are picked out with colours. and the more ordinary salt-glaze cream-coloured ware. that is from about 1760 to 1800. buff. In appearance the surface is something like that of a cuttlefish or the dried rind of an orange. are among the daintiest products of the potter's art. Specimens of this time. and able to hold their own with the best porcelain. they are particularly brilliant and effective. but sometimes they are found in green. ^25 and ^^30 being readily give at auction for the tea-pot with portrait of King of Prussia. so thin and light. and pickle-stands are so deli- cate. red or brown. The self-coloured pieces are usually either of a cream or very pale drab. and especially those decorated with interesting portraits in colour. there is either a portrait medallion or a quaint figure- subject in bright enamel pigments. The glaze is like the surface of an egg. of which we see specimens in the form of basket-shaped dishes ornamented with a pattern pressed from a mould. now bring very high prices. and they are. It was during this period. and that had a little more alkali entered into its composition it would be veritable hard porcelain. that it is a positive pleasure to handle them. The best pieces of salt-glaze ware. are of the later date. admirably potted the lid of a tea-pot will . Some of the tea-pots. where colour is introduced. that the decorative effect of this ware was vastly improved by the introduction of colours painted inenamel and being in very slight relief to the surface. and whose knowledge as a chemist enables him to deter- mine the operation of cause and effect in composition of body and of glaze.342 SALT-GLAZE WARE Fine Cabinet Specimens of Salt-glaze. After 1760 there is some decadence.

a .

.

Solon. has Coloured Salt-glaze Sauce-boat with shell ornament in ruby and in relief. and initials P. also that of Professor Church on this English Earthemvare. under the spout is the date 1772 and initials. with the exception of some models . F. There is an excellent little collection of this thin. under the spout. Date 1772. but the subject will repay a much more thorough investigation. the perusal of work. In the collection of Mr. Herbert Young. Salt-glase Figures. in his work Tlie Art of the Old Eni^lish Potter. M. It is in the collection of Mr. SALT-GLAZE WARE 343 kind. where the specimens are better arranged and have more instructive labels. and " Notes on Salt-glaze " in the large edition of Chaffers are recommended to those who would make a careful study of the many peculiarities of this interesting ware. somewhat archaic in appearance. landscapes in a panel formed by a raised green moulding. and are original designs. delicate salt- "|P "F glaze ware in the ceramic gallery of the Victoria -*'*-' and Albert Museum and also in the Hritish Museum. Its development during the later part of the seventeenth century has been traced in these pages. Herbert Young. The which we recognise as of this fine salt-glaze ware figures are generally of small size. reproduced some examples of this English earthenware and fine .

and show the " pitted " surface which has been compared to dried orange skin. has some good figures of this kind in his well-known collection. Lambeth Wark. Cheshire. and sanitary appliances being glazed by the chemical application of common salt. such as the sacred hawks in the British Museum. Frank Faulkner. is known. common kitchen ware. In the collection of Mr. such as the Boy extracting a Thorn. but we generally find that the glaze has given them a smoother appearance.344 SALT-GLAZE WARE showing Chinese inspiration. effect. or the Oriental figures in the Schreiber collection (Victoria and Albert Museum). Mr. drain pipes. Shackletim. and occasionally from the classic antique.") Samson (see Paris). No marked example of a salt-glazed figure of this.and very rarely the surface is enamelled in colours. As a rule they are of the peculiar putty-coloured material with the egg-shell glaze. R. of Bovvdon. F. . The use of different coloured clays gives the specimens so treated a polychromatic Fine Salt-glaze dish. the " cabinet specimen " type. which is now scientifically applied while the ware is being fired. The manufacture of ordinary useful salt-glazed ware is now carried on in this country to an enormous extent. (See also notice at end of " DouLTON.

^ ^ 5 » o S < -> \ \ H -£ h i/ r -T. .

.

A factory of considerableimportance at the present day is that of Messrs. biscuit figures. Jardiniere of Sceaux faience. SARREGUEMINES— SCEAUX PENTHIEVRE 345 SARREGUEMINES. . and a few years later came under the protection of the Due de Penthievre. Satsuma (see Japan). Lord High Admiral. Utzchneider& Co. Savona (see Majolica). about 1750.. near Paris. Fkanck. and stoneware of an artistic character are made. estabhshed about 1770. Saxony see (Dresden). SCEAUX PENTHIEVRE. Porcelain (soft paste). fel Recent Mark. A small factory was established by one Jacques Chapelle.

and very similar to those of Menegy. An excellent faience. <4^ SX. like that of Menec^y. ^^ Glut. The mark. 1775. was probably that of the close of this factory. S y Some pieces are marked " Leppert und Haas. represent a joint of meat or a to These marks are given by Herr Jiinnike.346 SCEAUX PENTHIEVRE— SCHLAGGENWALD The productions are soft paste." the names of proprietors. much resembling that of Strasburg {q. for which unmarked specimens might be easily mistaken. The anchor mark was assumed out of compliment to the Admiral. The paste is hard. . is probable that the manu- It facture of it ceased about the same time as that of the porcelain. though the manufacture of soft paste had previously ceased. and the subjects are sometimes finely painted. As the Sevres manufactory flourished. and a great many marks of these firms have been given in the latest (13th) edition of Chalmers' Marks. the best workmen and artists were attracted thither. SP d^ SCEAUX. With the exception of the Vienna factory. The appears to have passed through factory various hands. SCHLAGGENWALD. Wurtemberg.v. Bohemia. each piece was . was also made here. Some curious table-services of stannifer- ous enamelled earthenware were made here ^ in the eighteenth century made vegetable. this is said to have been the oldest in Austria. SCHERZHEIM. and the date of the death of its ducal patron. is engraved in the paste. or SCHRETZHEIM. 1794.). The mark is an S. It was estab- lished about 1800 (see Bohemia).

Spain is indebted for two of the finest monuments of ceramic art. SEVILLE.uk for (aiencc made here. Dr. Towards the end of the nineteenth century. though interesting. As has been already pointed out. and a discus- sion of the question. M. SEVRES. and the rich facpade to the door of the Church of Santa Paula in a suburb of that city. Imita- tions of Moorish tiles and other pottery are made in considerable still ^ J?^ Z' (SEyij^ quantities. the firm of Pickman & Co. Jacquemart is of opinion that some of the majolica hitherto attributed to Savona Majolica) was really made at (see Seville. Seinie (see La Seinie). in blues and yellows. namely. Modem." There is also a considerable manufactory of Seville pottery of quaint artistic forms. carried on at the present day in the town of Seville. SCHWERIN— SEVRES 347 SCHWERIN. carried on the manu- facture of what is called " opaque china " with some success. Century. xi. Svenrc Herr Jiinike gives this ni. Spain. the altar front and dossale in the chapel erected by Ferdinand and Isabella in the Alcazar at Seville. Sept-Fontaines (see Luxembourg). Inour notice of Vincennes we have already shown that the history of thismost important ceramic manufactory. and rude but effective decoration.\. some of the productions of which have within the last few years realised . the precise place of manufacture of much of the early majolica will probably always be a matter of uncertainty. but there is no fabriqne mark. is hardly within the scope of this work. Some of these are marked " Sevilla. Drury Fortnum mentions that to Niculoso Francesco of Seville.

Victoria and Albert Museum). named Dubois. One of their workmen. . The secret was carried to this place from Chantilly by two brothers. Gravant by name. French Government. After three years' trial. commenced with the manufacture of soft- paste porcelain at Vincennes. and a laboratory was furnisiied by the Intendant of Finance in the Chateau of Vincennes. every offering to sell their information to the facilitywas afforded them. green ground (Jones Beciuest. however.348 SEVRES such enormous prices. and upon their Sevres Vase. they were expelled on account of irregularities and intemperance.

The decoration is extremely beautiful. and was made for the Empress Catherine of Russia at a cost of . bands of turquoise with paintings in medallions of the initial E (Ekaterina). SEVRES 349 SPKCIMENS OK OLD SEVRES. and the numeral 11. . Eleven pieces of this service were formerly in the collection of Mr. Portions of the service wliich originally comprised 744 pieces.5oo. Goode.{^i3.

Other . had gained much useful information. however. The double-letter period then commenced. and so on until P P denoted 1793. until (omitting W) Z was reached in 1777. denoted by A.aise) were used for short time. A A standing for 1778. these privileges were extended. Victoria and Albert Museum). a sculptor. the alphabet placed between them formed the distinguishing date- mark.35° SEVRES an intelligent man.) took an active interest in the venture. which he sold to the Intendant. The rest of the alphabet denoted successive years. in addition to the double "L" and enclosed .i changes in the mark were used after 1800 which will be shown in the table at the end of this notice. and the King (Louis XV. commencing this new year starting-point in the factory's history. when this system of marking was discontinued and the initials of the Republic (R F for Repubiique Frani. privileges Eight years afterwards. the 1753." The two L's in reversed cyphers became the regular mark. paying one-third of the expenses. and allowing the company to use the title of " Manufacture Royale de Porcelaine de France. and certain were granted. Upon many specimens of old Sevres china. and the letters of Sevres hisatit Group of ChililrL'n (Jones Bequest. In 1745 a company was formed by Charles Adam.

about twenty years ago. The medallions ot mythological subjects are the work of Legay.. and placed in the green drawing-room of Windsor Caslle. the company built a large and suitable edifice at Sevres. Goode. In 1760 Louis XV. Dodin. The whole service was. is A list of these signatures will be found following these remarks. and in 1756 the buildings at Vincennes having become SPECIMENS OF OLD SEVRES. there is also another letter or device.000. assessed at £ 1 00.. and Asselin. and afterwards purchased by George IV. and would now be worth considerably more. This the signature of the decorator or gilder. Philippine. too cramped for the operations. The specimens illustrated were formerly in the collection of Mr. SEVRES 351 letter indicating tiie date. where a site had been purchased from the Marquise de Pompadour. From the King's partnership dated the prosperity of the factory. Portions of a famous dessert service made originally for Louis XVI. purchased the establishment from the .

000 francs. Duplessis. at a salary of 2000 louis. department of the operations. Victoria and Albert Museum).352 S?:VRES company. with a competent staff of the best men to assist him in each Lyre-form Clock of Sevres china. goldsmith to the King. and appointed M. the royal grant to the manufactory being 96. dark blue (Jones Bequest. composed . Boileau director.

rose tendrc. render the pieces so produced the most beautiful that can be imagined or desired. Bachelier superintended the decoration. only some three inches high. and in his directions to the painters drew upon the best examples of suitable subjects which were at his command. The names of some other decorations occur in various cata- logues and inventories thus the ail de prcdix. green. must have been almost insuperable. or the Rose Pompadour. at which his Majesty personally presided. or du Barry was used about the same time other . SEVRES 353 the models for the vases. Clodion were all employed at various times as modellers. were in the collection of Mr. There is a pair of small square-sided pedestals in existence. a brilliant red. with an interlaced scroll of green. In 1752 Hellot discovered the charming blue ground colour obtained from copper. which. vert rehaussc d'or and others. a greyish-blue not to be confounded with turquoise blue. and which were decorated in four colours. which need special temperatures. was sold in the Hawkins sale at Christie's. so z . were valued at ^5000. As proof of the King's personal interest in the enterprise. and turquoise. combinations which. With respect to the beautiful and delicate salmon-pink. chemical experiments resulted in the violet pensce. These tiny ceramic gems. pourpre. The oldest colour is the beautiful bleu tie rot. doubtless. Pajou. rouge de fer. bleu turque. vert sable. May 1904. known as bleu turquoise. rose. carmine. Falconet. bleu lapis. and veined blue representing lapis-lazuli. one colour on each side. and are probably unique. gave the factory every encouragement and . for about ^'1200. whose Court influence was supreme for twenty years. verte-pomme et vcrt-pre. when the author last saw them. or Rose du Barry. as the difficulty in firing different colours. and it was a sure road to royal favour for a courtier to become a liberal purchaser at these sales. that the Sevres porcelain of the best period owes much of its fame. the bleu de roi with the verte-pomme. partridge eye-pattern. jaune claire et jotiquille. and Daguerre. and in 1757 the pink known as Rose Pompadour. in harmony with that most delicate composition forming the pate teudre. the well-known . he allowed exhibitions of the productions to be held at the Palace of Versailles. Boizot. or riche. Samuelson. Madame de Pompadour. it is to her artistic taste and her extravagance. a These ground colours are sometimes used in combination on the same piece. bleu de roi. A dejeuner service of the Rose du Barry and green colours in combination.

It is recorded that Xhrouet.354 SEVRES highly prized by collectors. was paid 160 francs as a reward for his achievement. Madame de Pompadour was born in 1721. which every collector admires and which only the wealthy can possess. Chavagnac and de Grollier's Histoire des Manufactures Frauraiscs de Porcclainc. was interested in the factory." to distinguish it from the true Rose du Barry. and many presents were ordered for her by the King. The labels in the Victoria and Albert Museum bear the alternative description. it may be observed that whereas the interests of Madame de Pompadour in the factory were commercial as well as artistic. in that it has an opaque instead of a trans- parent appearance. According to the latest authority on Sevres. and it is distinct from the other colours applied to Sevres porcelain. the artist who actually produced the colour. too. and in the Hawkins sale at Christie's in 1904 a single cup and saucer sold for 200 guineas. which gives the pink the peculiar tint familiar to gardeners as the colour of the bloom of the azalea Mollis. as already stated. as already mentioned. The highest prices are always commanded by genuine examples in which this delicate ground colour predomin- ates. and there is at least one celebrated service decorated with her mono- gram. that Madame du Barry can have had no influence on the productions of Sevres until long after the discovery and use of the beautiful rose colour. and was only interested in the production of beautiful objects. a salmon-pink with a tinge of yellow in its composition. one of these having a little blue in its composition and being termed by some collectors " Pompadour pink. Madame du Barry had no financial concern in it. The Queen. one year after the time at which her predecessor in the King's affections had become his mistress. and Rose Pompadour is the correct title of the beautiful ground colour. MM. " reigned " from 1745. Although. although living outside the inner circle of the Court. as were the Dauphin and . it is singular that the name by which it has been generally known in England should be Rose du Barry. It is evident. It is. seeing that Madame du Barry was not born until 1746. and died in 1764. therefore. many orders were executed for her. Madame du Barry gave no title to any colour. Rose du Barry or Pompadour. no particular colour or model appears to have been named after her. In reference to the influence on Sevres of these two royal favourites. Vases or other important speci- mens realise sums running to thousands of pounds. From the author's experience and observation it would appear that there are two rose colours.

SEVRES PORCELAIN VASE. Jovrs Kkouest. lA AND Albbrt Museum . Mounted in Ormolu.

I .

Besides the costly and richly decorated services and vases. for hard-paste porcelain. the ability to make the more delicate pd/e tendre would appear to have vanished. garnitures de chcmince were made as presents to reigning sovereigns and rewards to ambassadors. or a horseshoe-shaped scroll and flowers. Boileau's death in 1773 to Parent. The charming white of the soft-paste ground enhances the value of the decoration. and orders on a liberal scale were also received from such personages. who. on analysis. sucriers. and many others toonumerous to mention. SEVRES 355 Marie Antoinette. and the gilding. or such other modest portions of valuable services. youngest son of the Frankenthal potter. a " chintz " pattern. until in 1761 Pierre Antoine Hannong. however. who came to France as his bride in 1770. there were also made large quantities of the best kind of soft- paste porcelain. proved to be the desideratum . Beautiful. who had noticed a white unctuous earth. are all examples of the refined and cultivated style of ornamentation favoured by this celebrated factory. were the cause of continued researches. It is obvious. and became an enthusiastic supporter of Sevres. however simple. was imprisoned. is invariably skilfully and carefully executed. and also to imitate the durability and utility of the Chinese and Japanese porcelains. by the wife of a poor surgeon. for use in the chateaux and houses of the nobility. The latter already knew something of the manufacture of porcelain owing to the patronage of the Vienna factory by the Austrian Court. whether slight or rich. The amateur of moderate means must be content with cups and saucers. the " hop trellis " pattern. and important speci- mens can only be acquired by wealthy collectors. the desire to equal the Saxons in their hard paste. appointed by the National Convention. sold the secret of hard-paste porcelain to the Sevres manufactory .with its adoption. The direction passed at M. The necessary kaolin was accidentally discovered in large quantities near Limoges. then administered . which she thought might be used as a substitute for soap this. decorated in a simple and unassuming manner. services. Detached sprigs of flowers with a double blue line. tea-pots. that the Sevres factory has a pre-eminence over all rivals in the magnificence of its productions. however. then. A com- mission. Vases. and so revolutionised porcelain-making in France. as were the productions of the royal works. and in 1779 to Regnier.

Its decoration is the initial of Ekaterina and the numeral II. the more durable and later process preventing that beautiful "blending" of body and decoration. Its value to-day may be imagined from the fact that when a single plate is offered for sale. This effect was also successfully imitated at the Chelsea works by M.0 00. His Majesty the King has at Windsor Castle and also at Buckingham Palace a very fine collection of Sevres porcelain. at Sevres. of Russia. Its original cost was about . owing to the colour being unequally applied to the surface of the china with a brush. and is to be found on some of the richest specimens of Chelsea. The finest period was. and the beautiful turquoise ground colour with small medallions . excellent. was afterwards amalgamated with the Sevres factory. however. deserves to be noted. which is in the Green Drawing-room at Windsor Castle.. which the writer has had the privilege of examining. to whom ceramics owe so much. when the pate tendre was in its perfection. In the beautiful rich dark bhie ground colour. the average price realised under the hammer is about . Afterwards.356 SEVRES the affairs of the factor)' until M.500 for the 744 pieces of which it consisted. which. In Chaffers' large edition several quotations of interest will be found which were taken from these books. one observes a blotchy or splashed effect. as a rule. however. Tlie effect of the old Bleu de Vincennes is. upon the beautiful blue colour and the rich massive gilding which generally accompanies it. that from 1753 to 1769. and depend for their decorative eff'ect. and one of our illustrations represents portions of a famous service. and compar- ing with the inventory books kept at the Castle. Sprimont. and is now very highly prized by collectors. He founded the Museum of Ceramic Productions. was appointed by the First Consul in 1800. with the approval and assistance of Napoleon the First. These pieces I of Vincennes are. A peculiarity of the earhest productions of the factory at Vin- cennes. as we have seen. Alexandre Brongniart. this process was im- proved by putting on the colour in the form of a powder which vitrified and spread more equally over the surface.£i 3. in which every specimen is accurately described. valued at ^^ 10 0. and at the Octavius Coope sale (May 1910) the pair of ice-pails illustrated on page 349 realised ^2700. and remained director for nearly fifty years. very sparsely painted.^i 50 . Another illustration represents one other famous service of old Sevres which was made in the year 1778 for the Empress Catherine II. which is so eminently artistic.

those which contain some of the finest specimens are the Jones collec- tion in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Manchester Square. There is in the same work much information of a more de- tailed character about this very important ceramic factory. G. SEVRES 357 of a chocolate brown. and Mr. and this list he has been allowed to use for the present work by the courtesy of the proprietor and publisher of Chaffers. This collection was originally formed by Lord Hertford. Mr. who also owns a set of the finest "jewelled" Sevres known to the author. as have other members of this wealthy family. The late Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild had also a very valuable collection of Sevres china. to add a number of the more recent of the Sevres marks from 1871 to 1904. In revising the present edition of Pottery and Porcelain for the press. Lord Hillingdon. de Chavagnac et Mis de GroUier. When the writer was revising the eighth edition of Chaffers' Marks and Monograms he took considerable pains to complete the list of date marks and decorators' signs on specimens of Sevres porcelain. and the collections of the Duke of Buccleuch. Histoirc dcs Manufactures Franfaises de Porcelainc by Cte. Another famous service. Hare wood House. David Currie's old Sevres in this museum and that of Mr. and the famous Richard Wallace collection bequeathed by the late Lady Wallace. . exhibited at Hertford House. David Currie are famous. The latter has several cases of specimens on loan at the Victoria and Albert Museum. which were presented to this country by the French Minister of Industry some years ago. and the reader is referred to it for additional notes on Sevres porce- lain. halfway between Harrogate and Leeds. and also a small collection of specimens of present-day manufacture. There are also in the pottery galleries of the Victoria and Albert Museum a great many specimens of less note and value. Leopold de Rothschild. contains some beautiful Sevres. Joicey are also worth studying. both in England and on the Continent. and is open to the public one day a week. is in the possession of M. advantage has been taken of the more recently published authority. and by him left to Sir Richard Wallace. J. but of great beauty. which was made for the Prince de Rohan and is decorated with his Cardinal monogram. Amongst the collections which can be seen by the public.

Herbert W. 1755 I. and the JJ for 1787. It differs from that before given by M. Hughes." First date mark. This mark is upon a emblems of painters. A (Vincennes).358 SEVRES u Early Marks. 1754 H C ( ditto ). D removed to -Sevres 1756 J E 1757 K F 1758 L . and with slight but careful decoration in detached bouquets and a blue line. which is now altered on the authority of the late M. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF SIGNS EMPLOYED IN THE NATIONAL MANUFACTORY OF SEVRES. with unknown rendered as above. "Vincennes. 1753. Riocreux of the Sevres Museum. The double L mark is sometimes very freely Examples of 1770 and 1771. plate of good soft paste. in the collection of Mr. By which the exact date of any piece may be ascertained. Brongniart in the addition of the letter J for 1762. 1753 G I7S9 B ( ditto ).

. 1790 X 1775 FF . we may take it that this 17th July was the date when the old double L and date letters disappeared officially... Although on some rare occasions the double letter was used after this year.. 1783 NN .. 1787 T 1772 CC . Regnier.. [780 KK. but occasionally outside. when the interlaced L's are too contracted to receive them or if double letters. The actual date of the King's execution was January 21. 1779 JJ . under date July 17. — SEVRES 359 S 1771 BB .. 1789 V 1774 EE ... 1791 Y 1776 GG . in which M.. thatinasmuch as the mark of the double L was the em- blem of royalty. These letters are not always placed within the cipher.. by MM. . 1782 MM . 1792 Z 1777 HH 1785 PP to July i7tli 1793 AA 177S 1786 — Note. side. it was desirable to obliterate any such souvenirs. and the new order of things came into existence.. 1793. as the following table of signs will explain : Year IX (iSoi) . 1793. the Minister of Interior. Garat. and the mark was to be altered with as little delay as possible.. informed M.. It may also be observed that the date letters are sometimes capitals and sometimes small. de Chavagnac et de Grollier^ an interesting otftcial letter is fully quoted. one on each . 1784 00 ... . In the Histoire dcs Maiiiifactiircs Fran(atses dc Porcelain. and the letters QS^ and RR have appeared in several books. the director of the Sevres factory. 1788 U 1773 DD 1781 LL ...

ouis XVIII. •%Vr£S Napoleon. FIRST IMPERIAL EPOCH. O evre$ 1814 TO 1S48.EON. 1814101824. 1804 to 1814. Generally in J. Always in red. ^. . 1S24. blue the number under the word Sevres . a^ Charles X. cLe Sevres NAroi. indicates the year. 1824 to 1S2S. 1792 TO 1S04. 1S27 nearly always in blue. 1792 to 1799. The numbers underneath ihe word Sevres stand for I So I to 1S04.3^ I. SECOND ROYAL EPOCH. 360 SEVRES FIRST REPUBLICAN EPOCH. . last two figures only being used.e. 1810101814. vvbjA. Generally printed in red. 1804(01809. 1S25. .

SE 45. &c. used on the decorated pieces. and so on up to the present time. &c. 1834. Generally in blue . 1830. Louis Philippe. On services for the Palaces. . Generally in blue. < evres Generally in blue. 1848 to 1S51. riiilippe. 1831101834. the 48 representing the year. tlii.s mark in green was used for white porcelain. 1845 to 1848.4 8. blue . The S stands for Sevres. SEVRES 361 Louis sv. SECOND REPUBLICAN EPOCH. Cloud. SECOND Louis Philippe. . only the last two cyphers of the year "<? 3Q being used. Generally in printed in green. and 51 for 1851. Dreux. Charles X. In gold or in blue. Generally Charles X. used on pieces only gilt. St. CS. as P'ontaine- bleau.:) After 1803. 1829 and 1830. Other marks indicated other chateaux.

1900 to 1902. year of decoration. Mark printed in red. 1900 to 1904. 1888 to 1891. Mark stamped in relief. Mark in red to indicate year of decoration.ide for presentation to ministers. Mark used for large decorated specimens. 1900. 1890 to 1904. a potter. Mark impressed on biscuil. ambassadors. Mark in green to indicate 1900 to 1904. . Mark printed in red. year of gilding. impressed on biscuit. Mark printed in red without date. Mark printed in red. (SEVRES) 1S60 to 1899. Mark 1900 to 1902. or legations. Mark yearofmanufaclure.362 SEVRES THIRD REPUBLICAN EPOCH. 1 87 1 to 1904. 18S0 to 1889. Mark in red to indicate year of gilding. Mark in red to indicate in red to indicate 1S72 to 1899. Marks used for specimens m. 1S71. 189S to 1904.

SEVRES 363 TABLE OF MARKS AND MONOGRAMS OF PAINTERS. . FROM 1753 TO 1800.AND GILDERS OF THE ROYAL MANUFACTORY OF SEVRES. DECORATORS. Marks.

.564 SEVRES Marks.

SEVKES 365 Marks. .

772. 1765— 1793- ^ COKNAILLE Flowers. Born 1748. Emblems. bouquets. Gilding and bouquets. Choisy.n. flowers. Flowers.-^ . 1755-1793. 1773- Chevalier . worked 1770- 1825. ^\ Chulot . . Names of Painlcrs. Chauvaux. and his lieautiful enamelled borders are much prized. C . . arabesques. . /. De . or C^iy COMMELIN Garlands. Subjects and Dales. Born <s 1729. x. 366 SEVRES Marks. bouquets. 1755- 1793- CoTEAU of Geneva was one of the artists who decorated Khe jewelkii Sevres. Flowers. and ara- besques. entered 1755. he was an cnameller. bouquets. jun.

tiste de 1756. . Modeller and sculptor. garlands. Fernex. worked 1752-1793. . SEVRES 367 Marks.. . Born 1733.. Falot Fontaine ^ . scapes. . butterflies.. /• Falconet . . 1773- 1793- Evans . Subjects ami Dates. Jean Bap. 1757-1766 . Knincs of Pain/ers. died 1791. Head of School of Sculp- ture. Bouquets. and land- Birds. DUTANDA D T.

Born 1725. em- blems. subjects. . tered 1769. Gilding. Before 1800. tered 1747. ^» JUBIN . ^ '^. gilder 1793.368 SEVRES Marks. Before 1800. bouquets. Entered 1749. Birds. Be- H HOURY Flowers. Entered 1758. o O • ^jv Leandre Pastoral subjects. GOMERY . en- HUNY Flowers. Z' J§ Le Bel. bouquets. Henrion Garlands. Garlands. . En- 9^. &c. P'igures and flowers. sen. Names of Painters. medallions. gilder 1755. GiRARD . JOYAU Detached bouquets. bouquets. . cy^ -^^ Grison . En- tered 1765. bouquets. Gilding. 1771-1825. . Born 1736. . Subjects and Dates. W or ^^ "'^''™ • Figures. entered f 1756. fore 1800. Born 1740. Be- fore 1800. En- tered 1768. . Before 1800. Bouquets. Garlands. >" Hericourt . Gremont Garlands. Arabesques. Chinese sub- jects.

. SEVRES 369 Marlts.

370 .

PH . SEVRES 371 Marks.

. . gilder 1755. Flowers. Taillaxdier . en- tered 1754.. sen. . entered 1750. Born 1737. . Born 1727. garlands. ornaments. Taunay . jun. Thevenet. entered 1757. 2000 Vincent . Bouquets. afterwards Bouquets. Gilding. Born 1736. birds. Inventor of ground colours. About Madame Gerard 1792. garlands. . . Gilding. Subjects and Dates.37. 1752 1790. . Born 1733. entered 1752. friezes. Enameller and painter. Born i7o8. medallions. Vande . Born 1713. Emblems. Born i737> worked 1753— 1790. Arabesques. Bouquets. Tabary . groups. entered 1755. or ViEILLARD . .. Yvernel Landscapes. and inventor >T-^ + or of Rose du Barri ground colour. Born 1711. Birds. garlands. Names of Painteis. en- tered 1750. Xrowet . Born 1731. Born 1736.. Thevenet.. Vavasseur . Before 1800. Tardi . Gilding. . • • • Tandart Bouquets. About 1745-1754- • • • • Theodore . Landscapes. entered 1753. entered 1752... . Vautrin. good. . flowers. Born 1718. SEVRES JllarJcs. friezes. Ornaments. . . &c. one of the early Vincennes artists.enteredi74i.

i. Before 1800. Marks. "^^ v:i Y' ^3 GI D LATE PERIOD. . Cupids. A description of the specimens on which these marks have been found is given in the large edition of Chaffers. 1800 TO about 1900. T" "TT or Th ^ Unknown.N. &c. SEVRES 373 Marks of Painters on Sevres porcelain hilherlo not identified.

A. Mo. 1878-1901 Alex. Gilding 1813-55 jun. . . Gilder and de. Names of Paintej Subjects. Flowers and birds Previous to 1900 Belet. r: Bienville. Time of Work. Figures 1810-46 Oi. deller and de- corator Bocquet . Emile . Decorations 1858-94 BouLLEMEiRjA. H. Paul . Ornaments 1 877-1904 Blanchard. Ornament 1880-1904 A . Louis . Gilding After 1798 Bonnuit . Ornaments. Decorator 1902-4 BOITEL . Gilding 1807-38 sen.374 SEVRES Marks. Ornaments After 1800 Beranger. Adolphe Ornament After 1800 Belet. BouLLEMiER. Barriat Figures 1852-83 Belet. Gilding Previous to 1842 BOULLEMIER. Brecy. 1849-80 Louis corator Blanchard.

.

76 .

SEVRES 377 Marks. EF .

. . .1904 »^ Latache . . WE .1840 Ch.JJ. Time of Work. Eugene Gilding 1864-88 LiGUE.378 SEVRES Marks. Flowers and oina. Subjects. Decorator 1881-1904 AT. Lucas. Figures. las I T Legay . Tf Lassere . Decorator 1896. . . . . Ornaments (/>fl/c s«r 1866-84 **^* pate) Leger . Et. Gilding 1780-1800 Le Guay. Landscapes 1807-44 Laxglois. 1864-90 J-L ments Langlace . Names of Painters.. IB". . Nicho. EL Leroy. Decorator 1902-4 ft. portraits 17 80. Gilding 1870-79 Le Bel.Landscapes About 1823 J^. Charles Decorator and 1877-1904 modeller Martinet . Lambert . Landscapes 1847-72 Michael N. Legrand . Denis . .

Painter and gilder 1867-70 PORCHON . 1879-88 nand ments Parpette. Ornament After 1800 . M"' Flowers 1791-1825 J Peluche . Gilding About 1809-15 MOREAU. Subjecls. Clj Paillet. 1863-71 M MiCAUD . son 1838-71 MORIN . . Time of Work. . . &c. Gilding Decorations on fai- ence and paste 1792-1834 1862-76 MiMART LM . . Charles Decorator 1879-82 O. Figure subjects After 1800 OuiNT.1785-1840 ments PlHAN Ornament 1888-1904 p Pline . &c. . . Decorator 1880-1904 Philippine Flowers and orna. MiLET. Meyer. Names of Painters. Fer. M'"'" . Figures.Figures and orna. Gilder 1888-1904 AM MORIOT . . Alfred Figures. Optat . . . SEVRES 379 Marks. . . 1830-52 MORIOT. Decorator 1884-I904 {MOREAU .

38o .

.

Subjects. Ornaraentsandgild. Navies of Painters. . Henri Painter 1887-I904 rr X Tracer.Painter and gilder 1837-82 enne Joseph Troyon . 1802-17 ing ]-U .382 SEVRES— SHERZHEIM Marks. Tracer. Louis Painter 1888-I904 Tristan. Time of Work. . Eti.

started in business on his own account. purchased the whole concern in 1833. and was succeeded by his son. and after serving an ap- Josiah to Thomas Whieldon. Classical-form Ewer. He copied many of Wedgwood's designs. or ironstone china. Classical-form Vase. having previously been its London agent. Copeland in 1881. Five years later he invented an opaque porcelain. and used the process largely in producing the old " willow pattern. LATE Sl'ODE. Under his manage- ment a very was carried on in the metropolis at large business a warehouse in Fore Street. Spode was born in 1733. In 1867 Mr. afterwards Lord Mayor of London in 1835-36. a production with which his name has become identified." and other Oriental designs. who COPELAND. The London House (Bond Street) was given up by Messrs. He died in 1797. William Copeland's son. SPODE 383 SPODE. and subsequently in Bond Street. including his jasper ware. Copeland took into partnership his four sons. commenced to make porcelain. In 1843 the firm was Copeland & Garrett. He introduced transfer-printing into Stoke in 1784. sometime partner of Josiah prenticeship Wedgwood (see Wedgwood). also the "cane ware" of Turner and the patterns of other contemporary potters. . Cripplegate. William Copeland afterwards became a partner in the firm. in 1800. in addition to pottery.

Specimen of Co]3cIand*s Parian or Ceramic Statuary. Like Josiah .384 SPODE and adepot for the wholesale trade opened in Charterhouse Street. With regard to ceramic statuary. an effect assisted by the softness of the is paste . and has what is technically described as "a fine body and excellent glaze." The THE LAUNCH. best is that modelled after the Sevres pale tendre of the early period. the jewelling. ironstone. The porcelain is soft. when more than usual care has In been bestowed upon the finish of the gilding. the similarity to Sevres very great. beautifully white. ceramic statuary. being the invention of a Mr. and earthenware. the composition of clays now commonly known as Parian was originated at Copeland's manufactory. is not so lustrous. some specimens. liattam. E. however. majolica. ivory. The manufactures of the present firm may be divided into six classes: porcelain.G.

SPODE 385

Wedgwood, who neglected to patent his celebrated Queen's ware,
Messrs. Copeland & Garrett acted in a similarly unselfish or
careless manner, and the manufacture of this peculiar kind of
porcelain was speedily followed by other firms. At the close
of an art exhibition at South Kensington in 1871 a lively con-
troversy arose, which we believe was
ultimately decided in Copeland's
favour. Mr. Gibson, R.A., who has
designed raanyof the subjects carried
out in this " porcelain statuary,"
declared this material to be second
only to marble for reproducing the
sculptor's idea and on account of its
;

lustrous transparency it is considered
by some people to be superior to its
more opaque cousin " biscuit."
A speciality of Copeland &
Specimen Plate of Copeland China,
Garrett's time was the manufacture jewelled and turquoise ground, with
of dolls' services ; some of these are finely painted landscape; in the col-
charming miniature sets, and
little lection of Mr. Charles Hardy.

in great favour with collectors.
These specimens are so small that the mark is generally omitted.
The fine earthenware called "ivory" is very agreeable both
to sight and touch, resembling Wedgwood's " Queen's ware " in
many respects, though more closely akin to porcelain greater ;

durability is also claimed for it.
Copeland's manufactures are now largely used for mural
decoration of all kinds the drawing and finish of the tiles, of
;

which sometimes as many as fifty are required for a single panel,
show great merit.
Earthenware is also manufactured very largely both for home
and export trade.

|a:^^I
The word " Spode" is fre-
CSPODE)
quently written in red a SPODES
Stone-China in cursive letters.

X
COPELAND COPELAND

Present mark.
{Mark used 1847-56.
2 B

386 STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY

STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY.
The produced at several fabriques
different kinds of pottery
in Staffordshire have been noticed under their respective headings,
but there remains a type of Staffordshire pottery, specimens of
which are generally unmarked, and which it is difficult to assign
to any particular potter, except where there are models which
can be identified with others marked by the makers. In Stafford-
shire Pots and Potters the brothers Rhead have given a fairly
complete list of those Staffordshire potters who are known to
have made figures, Toby jugs, and groups, and the following is
taken from their book :

Ralph Wood
(father and son), Enoch Wood, Aaron
Wood, J. Wedgwood, Whieldon, Voyez, J. Neale & Co.,
Lakin & Poole, Wood & Caldwell, Turner & Co., Walton,
R. Wilson, Bott & Co., J. Lockett, Barker, Sutton & Till,
Edge & Garrett, J. Dale.
The names printed in capitals are well known, and there are
notices of their work in the alphabetical of makers in this
list

chapter. Two of the best collections of old Staffordshire signed
figures probably those of Mr. Frank Falkner of Hillside,
are
Bowdon, Cheshire, and Dr. Sidebotham, which until two or three
years ago were on loan at the Salford Museum, Peel Park, but
which are now in the Dublin National Museum.
For further information about many of these old Stafford-
shire potters the reader is recommended to refer to Messrs.
Rhead's book mentioned above.
The groups and figures made by these potters, quaint in
subject and generally excellent in colouring, form a type of
ceramic treatment which we now recognise as " Staffordshire
Pottery," and many collectors make very effective groupings
of them. The subjects selected are frequently Biblical, such as
the Four Evangelists, Elijah and the Ravens, or are of a humorous
character like the Tithe Pig and many others. "Toby" beer-
jugs of quaint characters were also a speciality of the eighteenth-
century Staffordshire potters. Cows, sheep, deer, and dogs
are also cleverly represented in a rough but effective manner.

STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY 387
The well-known group of "The Vicar and Moses" is by
Ralph Wood, and " The Parson and Clerk," illustrated below, is
attributed by Professor Church to his son, Aaron Wood. Both
specimens are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. In some cases
the subjects chosen, such as the " Tithe Pig " group, are earthen-
ware imitations of Chelsea models. One of the best and most

Stafifordshirc J^^ttcry Group ol I'.iison anci C I' ik (Victoria anil Albrr Museum).

important of the Staffordshire figures is one 20 inches high
representing Fortitude, and the author formerly possessed one
of a lady standing at a tripod which was over 24 inches high,
probably one of the largest ever made. Mr. E. Sheldon, Mr. H.
Manfield, M.P., and Mrs. A. R. Macdonald, have good private
collections of Staffordshire pottery, and there are a great many
specimens in the British, and Victoria and Albert Museums, and

388 STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY
also in many provincial museums, among others those of Liver-
pool, Northampton, Nottingham,Taunton, Birmingham, the
Wedgwood Institute, Stoke-on-Trent, Burslem, and a great
many more. As some of the by local
collections are lent
collectors, they are not all permanent exhibits. When marked,
specimens bear the names of some of the potters enumerated
above. The work of J. Voyez is perhaps better recognised by
his jugs and plaques than by groups and figures. The jugs are
modelled in very high relief, and one in the Victoria and Albert
Museum is signed and dated 1788. Voyez was at one time in
the service of Josiah Wedgwood, but subsequently he worked
for Palmer of Hanky. In 1773 he issued a catalogue of
" Intaglios and Cameos after the most esteemed antiques, made
by J. Voyez, Sculptor," and this pamphlet is now deposited in the
Birmingham collection in the Old Library, Union Street.
John Walton of Burslem, whose name occurs on the previous
page, deserves special notice. He made a great quantity of rustic
figures, also sheep and cows in bowers of foliage, the figures of
the four evangelists, and others. His work is crude but the
colouring is effective. A peculiarity of Walton's figures is that
one finds the names of the characters represented, stamped in
relief, such as " Gardener," " Luke," " Falstaffe," while his name
WALTON occurs in a scroll, Walton commenced business in
1790; his name appears in a directory of 182 1, and he discontinued
manufacturing about 1839.
Some confusion has been caused by there having been so
many potters named Wood, more than one of them bearing the
same Christian name, and a few words of explanation seem neces-
sary. Ralph and Aaron Wood were the two sons of a miller of
Burslem, and both worked as potters. The former made the
rustic figures which have already been alluded to. Aaron was a
modeller, and made moulds for other potters. He had two sons,
William and Enoch. The elder was apprenticed to Josiah
Wedgwood, and was so successful that at the end of his articles
by a special arrangement he continued his service as a modeller
at Etruria. Enoch the younger son, was apprentice to Henry
Palmer of Hanley, and subsequently set up in business at Burslem
as a maker of cream-coloured, black basalt, and jasper wares, and
of portrait busts which have become famous. Two favourite
subjects were the Rev. George Whitfield and the Rev. John Wesley,
and in the collection of Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, dispersed a few
years ago, there were two of these, each signed at the back with

STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY 389

the name of tht- subject, date of death, and the words " Enoch
Wood, Sculp. Burslera." The two dates of the decease of these
worthy pastors, 1770 and 1791, give us the time when Enoch
Wood was doing some of his best work. Mr. WilHam Burton
says that Enoch Wood was in partnership for some time with
his cousin Ralph, who was, of course, the son of the maker of
"The Vicar and Moses" and other humorous groups, and he
quotes from a directory of 1786 where both names are entered
as of Burslem. Ralph Wood the elder was born in 1716 and
died in 1772 among other models attributed to him are the
;

Haymakers, Sportsman and Bagpiper, " Old Age " represented by
a beggar leaning on stick and crutch (see full page illustration),
some Toby Fillpots, figure of Charity on a rocky base uncoloured,
and Hudibras on horseback. When his figures are marked they
are impressed R. WOOD, as distinguished from the mark of his
son, which is Ra Wood, Burslem.
The Falkner collection of pottery figures already mentioned
contains a great many specimens marked by their makers, and
amongst these the following may be noted as of especial interest
since they help us to identify unmarked figures with makers :

Vicar and Moses, stamped Ra Wood, Burslem. This proves
that the son made this group as well as his father.
Bust of Shakespeare stamped Wedgwood.
Figure of a lion, right paw resting on globe, stamped Wedg-
wood. This model was made by several other potters.
Eight figures of chessmen, jasper ware, stamped WedGWOOD.
Figure of St. Sebastian stamped Enoch Wood.
Pair of Tritons as Candlesticks, stamped Wood and Cald-
well.
Group of St. George and Dragon, stamped Wood and Cald-
well.
Figure of Britannia seated on a rocky base, helmet, breast-
plate, and shield silver lustred, stamped Wood and Caldwell,
Burslem.
Figure of Quia as Falstaff, stamped WOOD AND Caldwell.
Bust of the Duke of Wellington, stamped WOOD and Cald-
well.
Bust of the Rev. George Whitfield, companion to the Bust,
of Wesley, marked ENOCH WOOD, sculp. Burslem.
Figure of a lion in white on solid blue jasper base, impressed
Enoch Wood, sculpsit.
Female figure, classical design, hands upraised, holding water

390 STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY
vase as a candleholder, mounted on round plinth, black basaltes,
impressed Turner.
Satyr head, mask cup, black basalte, impressed Turner.
Group of figures round trunk of a tree formed as jug, inscribed
J.
VOYEZ 1788.
Figure of a sheep, lamb in foreground. Scroll at back im-
pressed Walton.
Figure of a girl standing on an irregular base, dove in hand,
marked on a raised riband Walton.
Pair of figures, boy and girl, each holding a basket of fruit,

standing on irregular bases. Same mark.
Pair of figures, boy embracing dog, girl embracing lamb, tree
background, irregular bases. Same mark.
Toby jug, old man seated holding on his knee with both hands
jug of foaming ale. Copied from Ralph Wood Model. Same mark.
Figure of lion couchant, crowned, tree background. Same
mark.
Royal Arms of George III., with supporters decorated in
heraldic colours. Same mark.
Two figures of a girl with watering can, tree background.
Same mark.
Group of boy standing, with dog at foot, girl seated with a
lamb in her lap, three sheep below, tree background. Same mark.
Pair of figures of gardeners, lettered in front " Gardeners,"
impressed Salt.
Figure of a girl standing on irregular base embracing a lamb,
tree background, lettered in front " Shepherdess," impressed Salt.
Pair of figures, sheep and ram, with Iamb in foreground, on
rocky bases, tree background. Scroll at back impressed Salt.
Figure of a boy, lettered in front " Fire." Same mark.

Note. This potter was Ralph Salt, who worked at Hanley from 1812 to 1S40, and was
a maker of somewhat inferior Staffordshire pottery cottage figures. His work is of similar
quality to that of Walton. He died in 1S46, and was succeeded by his son, Charles Salt.

Figure of Diana, partly draped, left hand holding bow, standing
on square pedestal, height 5 inches, impressed mark Neale and Co.
Toby jug, old man seated holding foaming jug of ale.
Same mark.
Figure of a boy, partly draped, holding basket of flowers
strongly coloured, height 5^^ inches, raised tablet at back impressed
Edge and Grocott.
Figure of a boy with nest in left hand and bird in right,

height G^ inches. Same mark.

STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY 391

These makers are included in Rlieads' list, but these figures
are the only ones known to the author astheir name.marked with
Group, the Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday, mark
impressed under the base Lakin and Poole.
The group has an inscription with COKDii (sic) and the date ;

of the tragedy, 1793, probably gives us that of this group.
Figure of a girl supporting creel with left hand, and holding
up skirt, in which are two fish, with her right hand, front lettered
"Water," height 6 J inches, impressed at back, J. Dale, Burslem.
Bust of Wesley on panelled pedestal. Same mark.
Bust of William Clowes in black coat, impressed on a white
tablet in front " William Clowes, Primitive Methodist Preacher,"
marked at back in transfer B.S. and T., Burslem.
Note. — This is the mark of Barker, Sutton and Till mentioned in the Rheads' list.

James Caldwell was taken into partnership in 1790, and the
firm was Wood &
Caldwell until 181 8. In that year Enoch
purchased the Caldwell interest, and
afterwards, having taken his three sons
into partnership, the business was
carried on as Enoch Wood & Sons,
and there are specimens stamped with
thistitle and the word " Burslem,"

together with a device like a spread
eagle and a shield.
Enoch Wood died in 1840 at the
advanced age of eighty-three, and the
business was closed six years later.
A collection of specimens of his
own and his partners' work was made
by Enoch Wood, and Mr. Burton
mentions that he sent 182 of the best
examples to the King of Saxony in
1835, and these are still preserved in
the Dresden Museum. It is unfor-

tunate that the Enoch Wood collec-
tion was not catalogued and kept in-
Bust of Wesley by Enoch Wood
tact, but at his death it was dispersed
(signed), in Mr. Frank Falkner's
by sale, and the specimens in our collection.

museums are chiefly from this source.
In addition to Wesley and Whitfield, some of the other por-
traits attributed to Wood, or Wood & Caldwell, are the figure

392 STAFFORDSHIRE POTTERY— STOCKELSDORF
and the busts of Alexander
of Falstaff I. of Russia, Napoleon and
Wellington, Nelson, Duncannon, the Duke of York, and other
celebrities of the time.
Mythological personages and allegorical figures were also
represented, and the author once had two figures of Newton and
Chaucer signed " E. Wood."
Two who made rustic figures were Hall and
other potters
I. Dale. These two names are stamped on two figures of
peasants in the collection of Major-General Astley Terry.
To the younger Ralph Wood Mr. Burton attributes the busts
of Milton, Handel, and Washington. Some of these bear the
signature impressed " Ra Wood," and although in some technical
details they are better than the work of his father, they lack the
bucolic humour which render the Tithe group and similar subjects
fascinating to the collector of this characteristic English pottery.
A full account of all these potters and their works will be
found in Chaffers' Marks and Monograms, 13th edition.
There is a marked difference between the older and better
quality of these Staffordshire figures and the ones which have
been more recently made, which the collector should be careful
to note. The coloured pigments which decorate the older pottery
figures. Tobies and groups are transparent, while the modern
colours are opaque. The modelling and figure-work generally of
the work which was produced from about 1740 to 1780 is also
superior to that which was made later.

STOCKELSDORF.
Herr Jiinnike gives these marks for faience made here.
Buchwald was the director, while Leihamer was either the painter
or the potter.
In the Hamburg Museum there are several specimens of this
faience marked with an abbreviation of the name of the place,

STOCKHOLM (see Rorstrand).

STRALSUND— STRASBOURG 393

STRALSUND.
A factory was established here about 1730 for the manu-
facture of faience. Some of the early directors are said to have
come from Rorstrand and Marieberg, notably Ehrenreich, whose
initial is frequently found as part of the mark. The curious
device of three radiating lines under a crown is derived from
the arms of the town (see also notices on Makieberg and
Rorstrand).

^
STRASBOURG.
Strasbourg is of particular interest to the collector of old
porcelain, because was the cradle of hard porcelain, so far as
it

France was concerned, and Charles Francis Hannong, who was
born in 1669, is considered to have been the first manufacturer.
He had started faience works in 1709, but subsequently, with
the assistance of a runaway workman from Meissen, turned his
pottery works into a porcelain factory, which after his death in
1739 was carried on by his sons. Paul Antoine Hannong
became sole owner in 1738, and with the assistance of Ringler,
also one of the Meissen potters in its early days, attained con-
siderable success.
When Vincennes factory enjoyed royal protection,
the
Hannong was prohibited from rivalry, and retired to Frankenthal,
while his son still continued the manufacture of earthenware
at Strasbourg.
The few specimens Strasbourg porcelain are
that exist of
very difficult to identify unless It is hard paste, and the
marked.
marks are always impressed or incised. The impressed H is

394 STRASBOURG

Basket-form Dish of Strasbourg faience.

1 ouuUuii ill hlKLsiHiuii^ KucncL- (\ icluiiu and Albeit Museum).

— — —

STRASBOURG 395
generally accompanied by certain letters and numbers which
signify as under :

V for vase, F for figure, G for group, VC for plates, C or
CC for cups.
The following marks are attributed to this fahriqiic by various
experts, but some are doubtful :

H I
?1 1
@ %
^ m
n
\<% H «5
M

vv
S3X ^?
H 20

TM-H-'H fiS'T'HC
Hannong also made faience here, the manufacture of which
was continued by his descendants until 1780. The above marks
are the initials of the different members of the family.
The following additional marks on porcelain only, are given
on the authority of MM. de Chavagnac et de Grollier :

H
K

GO 51
n "c
\J l-j c it i>

7

396 SUNDERLAND— SWANSEA
SUNDERLAND.
There were several potteries established near Sunderland, the
earliest about 1775, and the most recent about the first quarter
of the nineteenth century. There is very little to distinguish
this pottery from that of Staffordshire, save that it is less carefully
finished. The jugs and half pint, and pint cylindrical mugs which
we see with ships and quaint legends or verses upon them, are
generally recognised as Sunderland pottery, or that made at
Newcastle-on-Tyne (see also Newcastle). Sometimes a pinkish
lustre colour has been introduced into the decoration. If speci-

mens are marked, it is with the name of the potters, such as
" Dixon & Co., " " Phillips & Co.," " Dawson," " Sewell &
DoNKiN," " Fell," " Fell, Newcastle."

Sussex (see Rye).

SWANSEA.
There appears have been a pottery at Swansea, established
to
in the year 1768, and this was extended under the direction of a
Mr. Haynes in 1790 and its title changed to "The Cambrian
Pottery." Mr. L. W. Dillwyn purchased these works in 1802.
In the notice of the Nantgarw factory we have mentioned how
upon seeing at those works some beautiful specimens of white
porcelain, having a granulated fracture v'hich he described as
similar to " fine lump sugar," he made inquiries respecting its
production.
This Nantgarw porcelain was being made by Billingsley, who
had left the Worcester works without leave, assisted by Walker,

who had also worked there and had married Billingsley's daughter.
These men persuaded Mr. Dillwyn that the disasters in the kilns
which attended so many of their experiments were due to the
consequences of their small capital and limited plant, and Mr.
Dillwyn was induced to build some china works at Swansea, where
they could continue their experiments in the manufacture of this
beautiful transparent body, with brilliant glaze, of which he had
seen specimens. This change had not been made long, and the
experiments seemed like succeeding, when Mr. Dillwyn received
legal notice from Messrs. Flight & Barr of Worcester, that the
two men Billingsley, alias Bailey or Beeley, and Walker, who were
in his employ, were breaking their contract with the Worcester
firm. Mr. Dillwyn dispensed with their services, and they left

.

2 O 3 5 u o . O rr. y < & ~ .s S pi = ^ < y 4> Q.

xvhich is here quoted. Beddow for landscapes. Baxter for subjects and landscapes. Mr. 1818. who had assisted him at the works. Drane. so that the reader may. representative of the work of these different painters. probably being copied from botanical book illustrations. is subsequent to the year 1818. and again there is the production of the factory after Beeley's departure. appeared an advertise- ment of the dissolution of his partnership with the Bevingtons. and he was not successful. pupils of his. are generally stiff and mechanical. Dillwyn still continued to make china. Colclough for birds. who has paid a great deal of close atten- tion toSwansea and Nantgarw china. "The full-page illustration shows ten objects arranged in two . and Mr. as al- ready pointed out in the notice of the Nantgarw factory. after a brief attempt at carrying on business on their own account. where. they failed. Mr. Drane has kindly written a description of these. indeed Mr." Swansea porcelain was mostly decorated at the works. and in the Cambrian of March 14. then that which. but the true secret possessed by Beeley was wanting. Other artists were Pollard and Morris. later porcelain is. There is first of all that made before Beeley's assistance was obtained. that by trans- mitted light. Swiinsca diffee-can (Victoria and A peculiarity of some of this Albert Museum). Alexander Duncan has supplied the author with photo- graphs of some specimens in his collection. states that the greater part of Swansea china which one finds now. SWANSEA 397 Swansea and returned to Nantgarw in 1817. and is the most beautiful of all English " bodies " or pastes. if he wishes.it displays a pale sea-green tint. The quality of porcelain pro- duced Swansea varies consider- at ably. become acquainted with some of the various styles of work executed at Swansea. The manufacture of porcelain was continued at Swansea after this . is practically the same. and the flower subjects by Beeley are skilfully painted and most artistic. and Weston Young for flowers but the latter . and therefore has been termed by collectors the " duck-egg green body.

In its centre is a group of garden flowers by Pollard . On the right of this vase is a Nantgarvv plate with a wreath of flowers occupying the whole of its bevelled edge. . on Nantgarw china and on Swansea china and ware. by Baxter . to the left of the tureen. Besides these recognised Swansea artists a great many pieces were decorated by amateur painters who bought or had given to them the china specimens in the white. Here are represented all the chief painters. and the specimens of their work are so selected and represented that. Some of those are signed " Elinor Bassett. Between these three objects are. On the right of this is a Nantgarw cup and saucer painted by Billingsley. painted by the same artist but showing progress in finish and drawing. an oviform vase without cover painted by Thomas Pardoe. and on the its right of the tureen is a spill vase painted by Pollard with the wild strawberry in his characteristic manner.' In the same collection there is a companion vase. the upper stage a ivare covered tureen on stem painted by Young in his botanical style. by using a magnifying glass. Mr. and next is a two-handled vase of elegant form. except Morris. a very elegant little ewer insaucer exquisitely painted by Pollard." a lady friend of Dillwyn's who is known to have painted several pieces. and is marked 'Cambrian. next to this is a plate of Beeley's Swansea body made in a Nantganv mould. Herbert Eccles of Neath. beginning on the left. signed by him. and he is said to have painted the landscapes on a fine service in the possession of Mr. in its saucer. This was made before 1814. but many other subjects have been found. when he must have been quite young. is a cabinet cup and saucer of fine Swansea I porcelain delicately painted. and then had them fired. painted by Pollard with wild flowers in a dift'erent style of his work." Landscape subjects are attributed to a painter named Beddow. It is difficult to know what particular subjects one can ascribe to Baxter we : know that he published a book of drawings of Greek and antique figures in outline. On the lower stage.398 SWANSEA stages. but they are of inferior execution. painted them with flower subjects. with an embossed pattern on its border. while the gold 'marblings on the blue ground are a great improvement in the ' appearance of the vase (see also Cambrian). the centre being left blank. with a very effective group of flowers on a dark blue ground. On is a cup after the manner of Wedgwood. some of the painters can be identified by their peculiarities. Robert Drane possesses a rather poorly painted plate of Chamberlain's Worcester signed and dated 1809. with a Cupid.

during the last twenty years. a large collection has been made. Herbert Eccles of Neath. Mr. and Mr. Alexander Duncan. the two marks occurring on some specimens. the Museum of such specimens as would serve to complete the col- lection. showing the forms of the ordinary domestic ware. a local amateur. This improvement. and a trident in red. chiefly owing to the enthusiasm of Mr. Drane. SWANSEA 399 The usual marks are " SWANSEA " printed in red letters or impressed in the paste. however. Mr. is from a manufacturer's point of view. It may be observed that the trident mark is supposed to indicate a paste which was considered by its makers to be an improvement upon the softer kind which preceded it. in his work already alluded to. Alexander Duncan of Penarth. Mr. gives other marks which he has seen on some specimens in the cabinets of local collectors. In the collection of Mr. and other local residents. Hughes possesses a service which has several of the marks. and not from that of a . who was given carte blanche hy the Committee to make purchases for Specimens of Swansea Porcelain. The different marks seem to have been applied without rule or method. Mr. Turner. Graham Vivian. Herbert W. have good private collections. where. and in the Cardif? Museum.

painted by Baxter.400 SWANSEA collector. and there is a smoky tint observable in the paste. S'lwdns&O' ^lwdns&Oy (In green) on saucer.. The collector of Swansea and Nantgarw must be upon his guard against a particular form of imposition which it is difficult to detect. Swansea. (In red) on cup. and a knowledge of the peculiar moulds of plates and of cups and saucers and vases in use at Swansea.^ in black. type) on china plate. On the coarser qualities the light is less translucent. and puce . . impressed or painted. Amongst the marks are those of " Dilhvyn & Co. iswanseaI Swansea. generally in red. Impressed mark (very small several plates. will help us to determine the origin of the china. These two marks are on cup and saucer of the very finest Swansea china . was discontinued some of the painters After the factory being settled in Swansea continued their means of livelihood by purchasing undecorated china from Coalport or some other factory and painting the same with flower subjects. and then having the pieces fired and finished." Swansea. green. red. DILLVVrYNi^C°j SVVAM6EA Lp Marks on Swansea China. but also in other colours) after the style of the two marks given above. It is more gritty on the surface. but the paste must be closely studied. yellow.. SWANSEA. In such cases one finds the true work of a Swansea artist and a fairly white china as a background. Some of the very best Swansea china is marked in script letters (mostly in red. SWANSEA SWANSEA SWANSEA In red on tea-service and Mark in red. Bevington & Co. and if held up to a strong light will give one the effect of sodden snow.

^ G-Ooji^KA^T- "WoOCBIKfi •SWaaTi^^A DiirifrwKcJ" Bgsr <ioorv 1 SWITZERLAND. ^ Impressed on fine china plate Impressed on very large china dinner painted with flowers. dish painted in (lowers. This ware was made about 1845. For Swiss porcelain. They are only of interest as being connected with Swansea ceramics. thirteenth edition. but they occur on Swansea pottery only and not upon the porcelain. Turner. Thoune. SWANSEA— SWITZERLAND 401 Several specimens of good Swansea are marked in printed red given ibove. 2 c . The mark " Dillwyn's Etruscan ware " occurs on the black and red copies of the Greek and Roman vases. 1 hiwiA^) ^l^^^^^cSrt ^^'^'^^"^ <S. Faience was made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries at several places in Switzerland. letters after the style SWANSEA. see Nyon.. SWANSEA. e fO (l-nfMlJ. The following additional marks are taken from The Ceramics of Swansea and Nantgariv. Some further details will be found in Chatters' Marks and Monograms. The marks with single and double trident are later but not common. such as are in the British Museum. hut they are not of much interest to the collector. by W. SgXKHfoA ftt'^AK. revised by the author. and Zurich.

again are described as good imitations of Oriental china. The designs and colouring are good. Thirou. some similar to Delft. Tettau. a cursive T. TEINITZ. others of a peculiar light greenish glaze others . It was noted as early as 1560. SWITERLAND. Since that time it has gradually declined. esteemed everywhere for the qualities of colouring and glaze. and Sir Augustus Franks gives it cautiously as probably one of the Thuringian factories. unplaced on account of lack of information. near Toledo. has been hitherto . Specimens marked as in the margin are in the collection of Mr. Various kinds of ware were made. No marks are known. and reached its zenith in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thoovt and Labouchere (see Delft). an unimportant factory of the Thuringian group.402 TALAVERA LAREYNA—THOUNE Syrian Ware (see Turkey). THOUNE. Taxnowa. This was the most celebrated fabriquc of faience in Spain. Henry Grahame of the ylberdecn Free Press. Bohemia (see Bohemia). TETTAU. TALAVERA LAREYNA. and the gilding excellent (see Bohemia). Rue (see Paris). Bohemia. and only of interest because the mark. -^ There was here a fabrique ware in the of n j/vlC- ^*y'^ '^^ *'^^ "'"^^ ware of Sgraffiato or incised Q/Zi^x*/ ^^ which mention has been made in Chapter H. . Pro- ^ ^^-^ / ' fessor Hoffman Museum mentions in his Catalogue of the Munich a marked specimen in that collec- tion. A modern factory of high-class faience is carried on here by a potter named Welby.

From the infor- mation thus available. while the making of table ware developed into a considerable trade. Very little was known of the history of these factories imtil in 1909 an important work entitled Alt Thiiriiigcr Porzellan. the former was gradually discontinued. Prince. to give a list of this group of factories in chronological order. came into existence during the latter part of the eighteenth century. are rightly prized by the collector because the conditions favourable to the production of such delightful ceramic bijou. gradually faded away because they were not run upon a commercial basis. The manufacture of the more artistic productions having resulted in loss. . besides that which is exported. Limbach. who have made the best of the materials at hand. Hochst.x will probably never recur. was published. and after succeeding so long as they were subsidised. Grand Duke. of Chantilly or of Frankenthal. were established as the pet hobby of some reigning King. which tiiough lacking the grace and elegance of the best Meissen or Frankenthal modelling. or nobleman. by MM. and developed their business on com- mercial lines.i. and that of the more ordinary domestic ware in profit. which supplies many German cities with domestic porcelain of fair quality. The cardinal distinction between these Thuringian factories and many other continental porcelain works. of considerable artistic merit especially costumed groups and figures. and several of them still continue to produce a large output. to say nothing of the im- portant factories of Sevres and Meissen. In the forest district of Thurin«i. Such factories as Fiirstenburg. Veilsdorf. is that the former are as a rule conducted by merchants and potters. and a host of others of similar character. about a dozen factories of more or less importance. the author is now able to correct many previous errors. The collector concerned only with the specimens of earlier is times. Graul and Kurzwelly. The leading spirit in the enterprise which commenced at Gotha and afterwards spread to Volkstedt. Fulda. possess characteristics which render them well worthy of acquisi- tion. THURINGIA 403 THURINGIA. The charming specimens of Menecy or Hochst. which will be found in the several notices on them in this chapter. when ware was manufactured. Frankenthal. and also to inform the reader of some of their individual characteristics.

Gera 6.. — : 404 TOFT WARE and the other places where porcelain was made in this Thuringian district. which was published a few years ago from its text we quote the following description of . who thus produced according to his fancy. both pieces of Wrotham make. and Schney. .S. Tettau. Grosbreitenbach 9. and Described. but de- veloped into a potter. Ralph Toft was another suc- TiTrhQ. slip. Gotha . inscriptions. . names or dates. 3. but only in the case of Tettau did they survive the initial stages. 2. was allowed to trickle through a tube by the workman. See separate notices of the above in their alphabetical order in this chapter. was then applied before. and he and his sons and grandsons gradu- ally acquired a dominant interest in the majority of these factories. '^*''' '''^'^ '^^' decorated in slip. BAtPHIWOr-rHGl? • and belongs to a class of early Eng- '°' lish pottery. and this gave to the body . medallions. slip-decorated ware : " The material of the body of this ware was usually a coarse reddish clay. The best reference work on this characteristic old English ware known to the writer is one entitled Examples of Early English Pottery Named. a thin. and the period of his chief activity would appear to be from about 1760 until his death at an advanced age. Some smaller efforts were made at Katzhiitte. usually composed of sulphuret of lead. He was born in 1732. Limbach 7. conventional designs. A glaze. F. Greiner was originally a glassblower. often mixed with man- ganese. 4. Volkstedt. called " slip-decorated ware. and Edith Hodgkin. Kloster-Veilsdorf Wallendorf 5. . creamy mixture of clay and water. and also in Cheshire and Derbyshire the earliest known dated . TOFT WARE. when formed by the wheel or otherwise. by John Eliot Hodgkin. One of the earliest of the known Staffordshire potters who flourished in the latter half of the seventeenth century was Thomas Toft. on which. who was assisted by a chemist named Mackeleid. The following are the Thuringian porcelain factories I. Rauen- . was Gotthelf Greiner.T' r?fTn . specimen being 16 12 and the latest 1710. THOMiiO V JjOI 37 cessf ul potter about the same period. borders. quaint figures.A. firing. Ilmenau 8. Dated. . stein." It was made in Staffordshire in Kent (see Wrotham). .

John Wright 1707. is mentioned by Mr. Eliot Hodgkin's collection which was dispersed by auction some years ago . I made it 166-. A dish in the Willett collection. Ralph Toft 1676. Eng- lish Earthenware. Named and dated specimens were in Mr. and the Arquebusier on horseback belonging to Mrs. Thomas Sans i 710. Hodgkin and by Professor Church in his excellent work. In the British Museum there are excellent examples. The brothers Rhead in their very interesting work. A curious dish which Mr. Mr. William Salting in the Bethnal Green Museum is an excellent specimen others . posset-pots. Johnson 1694. the ricii yellow tone and of transparency. William Talor 17 ID. A careful examination of the dishes in the British Museum is strongly recommended. Other makers of this ware are quoted both by Mr. These Toft ware dishes are crude and primitive. Solon's work on this subject. and collectors must exercise great caution. order of these old makers of slip ware. dated 1650. William Wright 1707. also in General Pitt-Rivers' private museum near Salisbury. The vessels decorated with slip comprise tyj^s. William Chaterly 1696. Youlgrave. Some figures were also made by these potters. Rich 1702." The two best-known Staffordshire makers of this ware were the two brothers Toft another was Thomas Sans. as much as ^100 being given for an authenticated and signed specimen. — TOFT WARE 405 and to the slip. which is as follows : Thomas Toft 1660. candlesticks. which adds so much to the charm of the ware. bearing the name " Thomas Toft. is dated 1676. W." the last hgure being obliterated.whatever colour. T. dish by whom. plates. signed Kalph Toft. James Johnson 1691. dishes. Joseph Glass 17 10. Hodgkin describes is thus inscribed. There are many imitations. and cradles intended for gifts. JobHew 17 10. but the Tofts are the best known. a circular . "Thomas Toft. should also be consulted. cups. Ralph Simpson 17 10. Tinker's Clough. and Derbyshire. chiefly dishes. Stafford- shire have given us a list in chronological Pots and Potters." but without a date. and in the museums of Salford. and the latest edition of Chaffers. besides those quoted above. George Taylor 1700. jugs. Robert Shaw 1692. and when undoubtedly genuine are highly appreciated. . William Sans 1710. but they mark a distinct chapter in the history of English potting. Shaw in his History of Staffordshire. An illustration of a dish of Toft ware will be found on page 26.

and left the place to take employment with Messrs. left these works after twenty years' service. Parts of services are found.. The character of Torksey china is very similar to that of Pinxton. In 1801 he was directing the manufacture of china at Mansfield. his son-in-law. china manufacturer. Flight & Barr of Worcester. O'Neill mentions a service painted with views . about three-quarters of a mile from Torksey the house is still called . on the banks of the river Trent. with their names painted thereon. dots. and from the result of per- sonal inquiries made on the spot it would appear that Billingsley leased a house on a farm in the township of Brampton. " Pottery House. with descriptions or titles underneath the specimens. it is like a coarse kind of Derby. A small and unimportant factory generally overlooked by writerson ceramics was established at Torksey. and Billingsley is said to have been assisted by George Walker. generally painted in landscapes.-/i7»e mark seems to have been adopted. TORKSEY. and then in 1803 crossed the Trent. and are decorated with lines.4o6 TORKSEY are in the Hanley Museum. or rather." The date given by Dr. and from being a town of some little importance about a hundred years ago. O'Neill is 1803. Billingsley was born in 1758." and the farm attached to it " Pottery House Farm. where he was subsequently employed." Dr. They are generally made of buff- coloured clay./. wrote an article upon the subject which he has been good enough to send to the author. when from lack of financial support he failed. which is about twelve miles from Lincoln. Tour D'Aigues (see La Tour D'Aigues). but Dr. John Coke to establish the Pinxton factory. and was at Torksey until 1808. William O'Neill of Lincoln. an enthusiastic collector of old china. and then helped Mr. The elder Astbury and Thomas Whieldon also made figures of this description a little later than the last date in the above list (see notices under AsTBURY and Whieldon). apprenticed to Derby in 1774. and sometimes cups or mugs which have been made for children. The rest of his con- stantly changing career is recounted in the notice of the Nantgarw and Swansea factories. No particular /(. who in 1805 described himself as "of Brampton in the parish of Torksey. The factory is of interest because of its connection with William Billingsley. has dwindled to a straggling village. or drops of white slip.

J. Its productions . owned the factory of St. Vases and services in the style of the Meissen and also of the Sevre. who sold it to a merchant named Peterinck in 1751. Peterinck. the crossed swords. Amand-les-Eaux. though soft as opposed to hard paste. and its texture is less translucent. as has been mentioned. G. although he lacked technical experience. the two daggers meeting at the points. is coarse when compared with the fine pate teiidre of Sevres. A manufactory of soft-paste porcelain was established here in 1750 by a concessionaire named Francois Carpentier. After Peterinck's death at a very advanced age. TOURNAY. the son of the man who. but within some twenty years from that date. Joicey. the enterprise languished. and obtained from the Empress of Austria. of which there is one in the King's possession at Windsor Castle. and was purchased in 1S15 by Henri de Bettignies. through various causes. and are supposed to be the work of an artist named Mayer. These have the famous hleii de roi decoration. and the border of bleu de ro/with good gilding and paintings of landscapes. with good paintings of birds. and in the ten years 1752-62 its staff increased to upwards of two hundred work- men. The productions of the best period of Tournay are some fine table services. TOUKNAY 407 of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. and having besides a nondescript hiero- glyphic something between a W and the figure 3. a con- cession giving him the exclusive privilege of manufacturing porcelain in the Netherlands for thirty years. and flowers comes out into good relief against the soft creamy ground colour of the porcelain. a period of decline set in. factory were made. The title of Im- perial and Royal to the factory was also granted. was an enthusiastic potter. which destroyed a great part of the buildings and their contents. After 1800 a decoration in the style of the Empire came into vogue. who was employed about 17S0. and he was assisted by the Government with capital for the undertaking. under whose dominion Belgium was at this time. The paste or body of this porcelain. birds. Both these services are part of the famous one which was originally made for Philippe. and another in the Victoria and Albert Museum lent by Mr. bearing a colourable imita- tion of the Dresden mark. For some years subsequent to 1770 the factory prospered. culminating in a disastrous iii-e. due d'Orleans.

Some- times the initials G. F. A. Sometimes two of the marks will be found on one specimen. The marks are /T~~ • G. The marks are as below. occur on a fine service in his Majesty's collection at Windsor Castle : To T^ The marks on the pottery made here are as follows : 6 >><• ^ 4^^G TREVISO. and occasionally a date is added.r. Towards the end of the eighteenth century the brothers Guiseppe and Andrea P'ontebasso established a factory Cj'. are omitted. R. ./\. /y\ G The two following marks are also attributed to Tournay they . of soft-paste porcelain here. A.r.. In the British Museum there is a Treviso cup and saucer marked T. V. — — 4o8 TOURNAY —TREVISO have been used for subsequent decoration after the style of the old Sevres. More rarely the names are written in full.. but pieces are often un- marked. (standing for Guiseppe Andrea Fratclli Fontcbasso) and the name of the town. Italy.

There is in the Victoria and Albert Child. one cannot distinguish them from other Italian ware of a similar character. BOWERS. but as very few specimens appear to have been marked. E. with the name of Enoch Booth. and the amateur should study the specimens of all three classes of this Eastern pottery in the Salting bequest. But little appears to be ff known Turkish porcelain. Chaffers mentions a fniltiera in the Reynold's collection as marked " Falta in Torina a di \2 Sctebre iS77>" ^"'^ '^''ge dish in the collection of the Marquis ''• d'Azeglio inscribed on the back of the rim. TURKEY. Faience is said to have been made in Turin during the six- teenth and seventeenth centuries. Tunstall has already been alluded to. The same authority mentions another plateau with the potter or decorator's signature " Gratapaglia Fc Taiir" (see also notice under ViNOVO). Both the Turkish and Syrian pottery are closely related to Persian ware. however. who had a pottery at Tunstall. of Some pieces. Adams' imitations of Wedgwood's jasper ware. also A. T.v. marked V^ with a crescent. attributed to the ceramic factories of Turkey. " Fabrica Reale di Torina 1737. Museum a large dish dated 1757. Chaffers mentions several other potters who had works here. are. the tS^ ground being white or tinted. In the notice on Mr. as their decoration determines their Eastern origin. and made light earthen- ware of the kind known generally as " Leeds ware." with a monogram which looks like a combination of G. TURIN. . The marks in the margin have been attributed to Turkish porcelain." Some of these pieces are stamped G. Tunstall Potteries. & E. Keeling. The decoration is generally of a floral character painted in bright colours under a clear siliceous glaze. TUNSTALL POTTERY— TURKEY 409 TUNSTALL POTTERY (see also Adams). The South Kensington I * » authorities now describe as Turkish the ware generally ^^^ known as Rhodian. q.

where he had a depot. Some of his plates were decorated at Delft. which they suc- ceeded in getting limited to the production of transparent ware. France. Bankes in of Stoke. Turner died in 1786. crude in drawing and in colour (red prevailing) having inscriptions in Dutch. Amand-les-Eaux it has been said that Fauquez was unsuccessful in obtaining the Government con- cession for porcelain making in 1771. He manufactured largely for export to the Low Countries. including statuettes and busts (see Staffordshire Pottery). Robert Drane. when the competition of Tournay drove him out of the field. but the partnership was dissolved and Turner started on his own account in 1762 in Lane End. Not a few collections possess curious plates decorated with Biblical subjects. and also his jasper. There is now in the Edinburgh Museum a remarkable punch bowl with a capacity of 22 gallons. R. Urbino (see Majolica). This potter was originally partnership with a Mr." well potted and carefully finished productions of buff tint. The mark is TURNER impressed. and this was considered quite a tour dc force at the time. In 1785 he sought and obtained a . but the blue ground colour was never equal to that of Wedgwood. VALENCIENNES. NoRD. in which the relief patterns are sharply defined. JOHN. as the name suggests. leaving it open to other potters to make opaque ware from this Cornish clay. These are of Turner's manufacture.4IO TURNER— VALENCIENNES TURNER. where he appears to have manufactured a great variety of ware. John Turner made imitations of Wedgwood and copied his cream ware. There is one in the Cardiff Museum presented by Mr. The ware by which his reputation has been established is that known as " cane ware. such as the Prodigal Son. modelled by Wassey who worked for Turner. Turner was asso- ciated with Josiah Wedgwood in the working of some Cornwall clay pits. but that he continued his enterprise until 1778. but a great deal of his ware was unmarked (see also Lane End and New Hall). In the notice of St. and are occasionally marked with his name impressed. and Chaffers mentions a controversy between them and Champion regarding the renewal of his patent.

Some specimens bear the mono- gram F. L. and appointed special authority to as manager a man named Vaunier. and the plant was sold in 1810. Amand-les-Eaux. The undermentioned marks are attributed by different authorities. Lamoninary. In 1800 Lamoninary returned and attempted to re-establish himself. . The brother-in-law of Fauquez. and one has seen dishes and cups and saucers painted with landscapes and battle scenes in a pink colour. oC . but it was apparently worthless. also assisted him. clause compelling him to use coal for his Fauquez furnaces. Refer to St. modelled by a sculptor named Verboeckhoven but called Fickaer. Some biscuit groups representing various subjects.. named Lamoninary. but he was unsuccessful. which probably stand for Kauquez. and of these the group representing the Descent from the Cross is the most important one known to us. VALENCIENNES 411 make porcelain at Valenciennes. and Lamoninary emigrated in 1795. M I ^ Faience was made here during the greater part of tlie last century by various members of the family of Dorez. of merit are the more noteworthy. who came originally from Lille. The porcelain of Valenciennesnot remarkable for quality is it is similar to the hard paste of Vincennes. and Vaunier appear to have left the works. who had formerly been employed at Lille. Valenciennes. The concession was granted for and contained a ten years. v. The factory was ordered by Government to be sold as the property of an emigrant.

A manufactory of both hard and soft-paste porcelain was established in Venice by Francesco Vezzi. H. which /C\ is identical with that attributed by the best authorities to Bordeaux. so that unmarked pieces are often mistaken for Dresden of the earliest period. we have no other evidence. C. but beyond the existence of these interesting documents describing the achievement of success. Permission to manufacture was appHed for in 1769 by the proprietors of the hard-paste Vincennes factory. was purchased by the author at the sale of the .4i: VAUX— VENICE VAUX NEAR Melun. decorated with the arms of the Scmiticoli family. VENICE. A service of this kind. and for practical purposes must begin the history of Venetian porcelain in the eighteenth century. but it is uncertain whether this was actually granted. these were part of the dowers of Venetian ladies on their marriage. porce- lain was made at Venice. firstly by one Antuonio and secondly by Jacopo Tebaldo. quoted by Mr. One sometimes and coffee services of Venetian china finds tea in leather-covered boxes. both in paste and decoration. France. The ware produced was of a very high class.decorated with the arms of noble families of Venice . the leather case bearing the same device as the china. Such specimens as are claimed for Vaux are similar in every respect to those of Bordeaux or any of the other hard-paste French factories. with the help of some workmen who had left the Meissen factory. There must always be confusion about the mark in the margin. There seemsto be some doubt about the existence of a porcelain factory here. Wylde in Continental China. as early as 1720—25. According to two letters dated as early as April 1470 and May 1 5 19.

VENICE 413
Cavendish-Bentinck collection. Sometimes one finds the cups of
Venetian, and the saucers of Dresden porcelain, and vice versa. TJie
decoration of cups and saucers is mostly in quaint Oriental style,
with a somewhat plentiful use of a peculiar red in the colouring.
1758 some Dresden potters named Hewelke obtained
In
permission of the Senate to make porcelain. Little is known of
their productions, which ceased in 1763. Their mark is said to
have been a V for Venice.
In 1765, a potter named Cozzi succeeded in obtaining con-
cessions from the State, and produced specimens in consider-
able quantity, and great artistic merit.
of His white glazed
groups and figures are very fine, and, in the author's opinion,
worth much more than their present market value, as compared
with the respective prices and merits of specimens from other
e.xtinct factories. This white china is unmarked. There were
several fine specimens in the collection of the late Lady Char-
lotte Schreiber, which were purchased by the author at her death.
Several of these are now in the possession of Lord Rosebery.
The usual mark of Venetian porcelain of this period (1765-
1812) was an anchor, generally painted in red, which is often
accompanied by initials, presumably those of the painters. A
mark more rarely found is V% Ven", or some other contraction
for Venezia, generally painted in either red or blue, and not
infrequently ornamented with flourishes and grotesques. See
also Majolica.
This mark belongs to the earlier period of Vezzi mentioned
above. Some of the specimens of old
Venetian porcelain in the Franks coUec- Veil • A.G.'JT'ZO.
tion are decorated with the arms of
.\n early mark.
> 1 1

Popes and Doges which give us the
approximate dates of their manufacture, and these should be
noted by the collector.

V en "^

Vf

1

414 VENICE—VIENNA

Joclouico (yrtolanjL Uenetb

(Uninse.ntlLiJM'ri'ca. aC
c/orcecana, in I/enetia

Marks of the \'ezzi period. Established
1723, ceased circa 1 7 50.

)j. Qv turv <vto
JoJe. vazz I J'ect

Co 22

CM
Giovanni Marconi.
^
This anchor is generally in red.
T.G.
1^
VIENNA.
This factory was established in 1718, after many previous
experiments, by a Dutchman named Claude Innocent du Pas-
quier, who had obtained from the Emperor Charles VI. an
exclusive privilege for twenty-five years. The more practical
part was conducted by a potter named Stenzel, who is said to have
been a runaway workman from the Meissen manufactory. It
was a private enterprise, and was not successful. The factory
reached its greatest prosperity after it became the property of
the Empire in 1744. and was under the special patronage of
the young Empress, Maria Theresa, Du Pasquier still remaining
director at a salary of 1500 florins a year. Figures and groups
appear to have been modelled about this time, and the sub-
jects for vases, plateaus, and cups and saucers, were taken
from pictures by Boucher, Watteau, Lancret, and Angelica
Kauffmann. With the Court influence to support it, the staff of

VIENNA 415

workmen was increased from 40 in 1750 to 320 in 1780, the
successive directors being Maierhoffer, de Grunbiihel, Joseph
Wolf, and Kessler.
1785 Baron de Sorgenthal was appointed to the director-
In
ship,and his spirited management had a very marked effect upon
the productions of the manufactory, and the period of richly
painted and heavily gilt ornamentation commenced, which has
been termed the "Sorgenthal" period. A clever chemist, one
Leithner, was engaged to prepare special colours, and to improve
the gilding and it is certainly due to his efforts that the famous
;

" rothbrun " was so effective, and the massive relief gilding
applied to the porcelain, made capable of so much minute siuface
chasing and intricate design. The paintings, too, about this time,
and were excellent, the colouring being wondeifuUy
until 1820,
brilliant,and the subjects mostly taken from Angelica Kauff-
mann's, Rubens', or Lancret's pictures. From the year 1784 it
was the custom to stamp the date of its production on each
specimen, in addition to the ordinary fahriqite mark. This was
done by omitting the first two numerals until the 1800 was
reached, when the year was stamped in full, except the first

numeral thus 1796 would be shown by 96 being impressed
in the paste, 1806 by the figures 806. Baron Leithner was
director in 1844, and after his retirement the manufactory
declined, until, becoming a burden to the State, it was discon-
tinued in 1864, and the plant sold by public auction, the books
and manuscripts being placed in the Imperial Museum. After
the break-up of the State establishment, a number of the work-
men and artists, formerly employed there, set up small ateliers
on their own account, and continued to produce specimens
similar in character to those of the extinct factory. Some of the
modern paintings are very artistic and show great finish ;
the
gilding is sometimes very good.
These private firms considerably in degrees
vary very
of merit, and of late years an over-decorated, cheaper,
and more tawdry description of Vienna china has been placed
on the market. This would seem to have damaged the sale of
the better class of modern Vienna, and now only the really old
specimens are in any request. Imitations of Vienna china bear-
ing a forged mark have also been made by some Dresden firms
(see notes in Chapter VI.).
The mark, a shield of the arms of Austria, is generally in
blue, under the glaze, but sometimes impressed in the paste.

4i6 VIENNA— VINCENNES
Specimens made previous to 1744 were not marked with the
shield but with various and sometimes the word
signatures,
Vienne or Viennoe and a date. A sumptuous monograph on
this factory entitled Geschichte der K. K. Wiener Porzellan
MauHfaclur, by J. Folnesics and D. E. W. Braun, was
published in 1907, and gives the names of all the chief artists
with facsimiles of their signatures, and also numerous variations
of the shield mark. There are many specimens in the Franks
collection representing the different periods of the factory.

© S ?-o

VINCENNES, Seine.

The history of at Vincennes has much
porcelain-making
interest for the collector. was the most important of the soft-
It

paste factories, and apart from the excellence of the china
produced it is celebrated as being the parent of the great Royal
Sevres factory.
The notice of Chantilly (p. 127) mentions two brothers named
Dubois who left that factory in 1738. They brought the secrets
of porcelain-making to Vincennes, and with the assistance of
M. Orry de Fulvi, Councillor of State and Minister of Finance,
started a factory in the vicinity of the royal chateau. The
Dubois were intemperate, and the same reason which caused
them to leave Chantilly led to their dismissal in 1741 from
Vincennes. An assistant named Gravaut, who had also come
from Chantilly, managed to learn their secrets during their fits of
drunkenness, and persuaded M. de Fulvi to entrust the work to
him. Further assistance was obtained from Chantilly workers,
and Charles Adam was appointed director. In 1745 a special
royal concession was granted to Charles Adam for the manu-
facture of porcelain "de meme qualite que celles qui se font en
Saxe." By this concession many privileges were granted to
Adam, and on the strength of it a company was formed with a
capital of 90,300 livres. Very stringent measures were taken to
prohibit any of the skilled craftsmen from leaving the factory

VINCENNES 417

for rival establishments in and to prevent
other countries,
strangers from acquiring any by bribing the
of tlie secrets
employes. The King's jeweller and modeller Uuplessis, his
Majesty's enameller Mathieu, Hellot a noted chemist, and a man
named Hults, known for his good taste, were all pressed into
service, and the factory entered on a period of prosperity.
In 1753 the King issued an edict conveying a fresh concession
to Adam, granting him the exclusive privilege of porcelain-
making France, exempting the employes from military
in
service, and sanctioning his use of the royal cypher (the L's
interlaced) which had already been adopted as a mark.
It was in this year that the first letter of the alphabet, placed

within the interlaced Us, was employed to indicate the date of
manufacture previous to this time we sometimes find a dot,
;

or less frequently, a rosette, in the space afterwards used for
the letters of the alphabet. In 1756 occurred the removal of the
works from the chateau of Vincennes, to new buildings at Sevres,
where, fostered by the protection and personal interest of the
King, the undertaking became the royal porcelain factory of
Sevres.
The well-known mark of the double interlaced I^'s having the
letters A, B, C within them, is therefore that of the Vincennes
factory for the years 1753,' 1754. I755» while that which has the
D and following letters is the mark of Sevres.
The products of Vincennes from 1745 until 1756, when the
factory was merged in that of Sevres, are highly prized by
collectors.
The paste is beautifully soft, and to use a technical expression
" fat," and the decoration is eminently satisfactory. The rich
blue or b/eii dc roi has a cloudy, unequal appearance, due to the
fact that the pigment was applied with a brush at Sevres it was ;

appHed as a powder, and then fluxed or vitrified in the kiln. The
decoration of the earlier pieces was chiefly copied from Chinese
designs, and sometimes executed entirely in gold, such subjects
as birds of Paradise, or exotic pheasants, being carefully rendered
in that material or in colour. A little later Cupids and children
playing, after Boucher, were represented, and these were painted
and occasionally in red. A speciality of the
en caiiiaicH in blue
Vincennes factory was the manufacture of artificial flowers, the
use of which about 1750 became a craze in Paris it is said that ;

the King gave an order for these ceramic toys to the huge
amount of -^32,000 for the decoration of the chateau of
2 D

4i8 VINCENNES
Madame Pompadour and of other palaces. The royal favourite is

said to have planned a surprise fete at the chateau of Belleville
for Louis XV. in a garden arranged with these artificial flowers,
scented with perfumes.
Specimens of soft-paste Vincennes will be found wherever
there are collections of old Sevres, and several of these are
referred to in the notice on the latter factory.

-^

U
Early marks, "Vincennes."
First date mark, 1753.

Hani-paslc Vincennes.

The manufacture of hard-paste porcelain at Vincennes has a
record quite distinct from that of the manufacture of soft-paste
porcelain at the same place. Pierre Antoine Hannong, the well-
known Strasbourg potter, obtained consent to occupy the vacated
buildings of the soft-paste factory at the ch.ateau of Vincennes
for a factory of hard-paste china, and letters patent were granted
to a nominee of his in 1767 for a term of twenty years, the conces-
sion including the right to manufacture faience. We do not know
much about the conduct or productions of this undertaking, but
apparently it came to an end in 1770, and the factory was then
purchased by a man named Seguin, who under the protection of
the Due de Chartres was permitted to use the title of " Royal
factory of Vincennes," and adopted a heraldic label as a mark.
There is nothing except this mark to distinguish this hard-paste
Vincennes china from the ordinary porcelain of similar quality
common to many French factories.

fi^L \\\X
Established by Han-
HI H 5?*^
I
nong and Le Maire. I

| |

The H. L. stands for ilannong and Ix-maire, who was asso-
ciated with him.
Marks on iiard-paste Vincennes under proprietorship of

VINCENNES— VINOVO 419
S(:-guin, being the monogram of the Due de Chartres. This hibel
is similar to one of the mari^s said to be used on hard-paste
Orleans porcelain [q-v.).

Louis riiilippe, 17S3.
LP
VINOVO, Turin.
We are indebted to Sir A. W. Franks for information re-
specting the earlier history of porcelain-making at this place.
According it was in
to his notice of the fahriquc 1776 that G. V.
Brodel, who had beenunsuccessful at Vische, started a porcelain
factory in the royal castle at Vinovo near Turin. He was assisted
by Pierre Antoine Hannong, one of the famous family of Stras-
bourg potters, but the enterprise was not successful and came to
an end about 1778 or 1780. It was resumed by a Doctor Vittore

Amades Gioanetti, who carried on the factory for a time he :

died in 1815. The porcelain is of a peculiar composition, con-
taining a considerable quantity of silicate of magnesia, and is of
the kind termed by Brongniart a "hybrid" paste. The author
has seen some excellent figures of this make which, being marked
with a X) have been erroneously classed as Bristol. The paste is
entirely different, and is more like very late hard-paste Sevres,
though not so white. Specimens are scarce, and the mark is
found in blue or dark grey, gold, and black. Mr. Chaffers, in
The Keramic Gallery, illustrates an ecuelle cover stand, decor-
ated with the arms of Savoy in gold, and with the full mark
below the cross of Savoy. V stands for Vineuf or Vinovo, and
D. G. are said to be the initials of Gioanetti.
A specimen of similar decoration once belonged to the writer,
and is now in Mr. Borradaile's collection.
The mark of a cross stands for Turin, a plain cross on a shield
being the heraldic device of the city. In the Franks collection
there is a cup decorated with the arms of the King of Sardinia,
bearing this mark.
In the British Museum there is a cup and saucer of this fac-
tory, from the collection of Mr. Fitzhenry, signed " Carassus pinxit."
Baron Davillier mentions a specimen with the Vinovo mark

420 VINOVO— VOLKSTEDT
in black, and Marryat says that he has seen examples with the
Dresden mark.

+

VOLPATO— WALLENDOKF 421

china factory at Kudolstadt, which appears to have been the seat
of government of the principality of Schvvazbiirg-Rudoistadt
(see also notice of Thuringia).

r
VOLPATO, GIOVANNI, Rome.
Giovanni Volpato, who is best known to tlie world of art as a
celebrated engraver, was also a potter, and is said to have worked
both in Venice and Rome. He produced white glazed earthen-
ware of fine qnality, and Chaffers mentions that in 1790 he
employed some twenty modellers. Volpato died in 1803, and
although the works were carried on by Guiseppe his son, and
afterwards by his widow, who married the chief modeller, they
ceased in 1831 owing to the successful competition of other
potteries. Early specimens are marked G. Volpato Roma, but
sometimes one finds G. V. impressed or scratched in the paste.
There is a pair of vases with snake handles painted with
grotesques on a white ground, in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,
marked in full as above. The author has seen bas-relief plaques
with classic subjects, and copies of some of Canova's statues
and groups, very carefully executed. Chaffers says that Volpato
introduced the manufacture of hard-paste biscuit china into Rome.

VOYEZ, J.

A
celebrated modeller of figure subjects, employed by Ralph
Wood, Wedgwood, Neale, Adams and other potters. Fine ex-
amples of his carving in ivory are in the Holborne Museum, Bath.
Jugs with groups of figures around a trunk of a tree formed as a
jug are inscribed "J. Voyez " and dated about 1788 (see also
Staffordshire Pottery).

WALLENDORF.
An unimportant factory of the Thuringian group was estab-
lished at Wallendorf in 1762 by a potter named Hammann, who
had made experiments in china-making at Katzhiitte, when further
efforts were forbidden.

422 WALLENDORF— WEDGWOOD
Two members of the Greiner family joined him, and a small
company was formed in 1 764. The factory passed through different
ownerships, and in 1897 was worked by a limited company.
The paste is hard the products were chiefly table services,
;

which are generally decorated with simple blue patterns and a
ribbed surface of the cup or bowl. The mark of W
is interlaced,

and should not be confounded with the W
of Wegely of Berlin
fame. A more cursive W
was also used on some specimens, and
a mark which is an imitation of the Marcolini period of Dresden
(crossed swords with a star between the hilts) was also in use
until it was discontinued upon a vigorous protest from Saxony,

NX/
^x/ 4>
WEDGWOOD.
Josiah Wedgwood, who may termed the greatest
justly be
of English potters, was born at in July 1730, and
Burslem
came of a good old Staffordshire family dating back to the latter
part of the fourteenth century. A Gilbert Wedgwood was work-
ing at Burslem in the seventeenth century, and in the Victoria
and Albert Museum there is a green glazed Puzzle Jug made by
a grandson of his, John Wedgwood, signed and dated 169 1.
Josiah was apprenticed to his elder brother, Thomas, in
November 1744, and served his time with
credit, and after ten years occupied in dif-
ferent ventures, including a short partner-
ship with Thomas Whieldon, he settled at
Burslem, as a potter on his own account,
in 1759, at a place known as Churchyard
Works, and afterwards at Ivy House.
Having, by dint of patient experiment,
succeeded in perfecting a cream-coloured
ware with a beautifully soft glaze and of
light creamy texture, he presented the first
Cup of Wedgwood's blue and
specimen, a caudle and breakfast set, to
white Jasper ware.
Queen Charlotte on the occasion of her
accouchement in 1762. This was a most advantageous, as well
as loyal, presentation. The Queen gave an order for a complete
dinner service, with an appointment as Queen's potter, and the

WEDGWOOD 423
ware was styled, by permission, the gueeii's ware. The King
also patronised Wedgwood with considerable
and his orders,
cream-coloured ware became the fashion.
The decoration of this cream-coloured ware by means of

Lamp of BlaLk Wedgwood (Basaltes) ware {Victoria and Albert Museum).

printing under the glaze was introduced in 1772, and a remark-
able example of this description is the celebrated service which
was manufactured for the Empress Catherine of Russia, having
views of different noblemen's seats in purple, bordered with a
gadroon edge. ^'3000 was paid for this service, which comprised
952 pieces. The decorative work alone is said to have cost Wedg-

424 WEDGWOOD
wood ^2900, and he paid for prints, books, and the preparation
of the plates ^2400, so that he lost heavily by executing the order.
time, Wedgwood took no pains to
Unlike most potters of his
register his invention under a patent, and therefore the manu-
facture of similar ware sprang up in a great number of factories,
and was made in vast quantities, both for home use and export,

Copy of Portland or Barberini Vase, by Josiah \Yedgwood
(Victoria and Albert Museum).

thus adding to the trade of the country. By-and-by, Wedgwood
took as partner Thomas Wedgwood, a relation, for some time
foreman in the Queen's ware department, and was thus at more
liberty to prosecute experiments on fresh lines, notably those
leading to the production of his celebrated "jasper ware" in
1775-
The chi'f d'auvrc of this beautiful ware was the reproduction
of the celebrated Barberini or Portland vase. At the auction

however. coveted treasure. agreed that if Wedgwood would no longer oppose his bidding he should . The Duke of Portland. Wedgwood bid as high as ^^looo for the Wedgwood Vase of blue and white Jasper ware (\'ictoria and Albert Museum). WEDGWOOD 425 atwhich the Duchess of Portland's fine collection of works of art was disposed of in 1786. which he desired as a model for reproduction in his jasper ware.

Bentley 's partnership continued until his death in 1780. are good specimens of Wedgwood's skill. These were a set of three vases of Etruscan form.^i8o. his The majority of fine pieces were cast from his models. It is worth remarking that this famous sculptor at one time worked for the moderate sum of about one guinea a day. 424) in the Victoria and Albert Museum is numbered. The celebrated Etruria works were opened by Josiah Wedgwood in 1769. and during these twelve years many of the pieces were marked " Wedgwood & Bentley. and the vase (illustrated on p. These fifty copies were distinguished by having the niunbers from i to 50 scratched in the paste. 426 WEDGWOOD have the vase for the purpose required. the first specimens produced in the new works were appropriately " thrown " by the great Josiah in person. The first copies of the Portland vase were of black ground. polished like onyx. . and the price realised at Christie's generally runs from . and many of his beautiful cameo-like classic plaques have never been surpassed. and accordingly it was linocked down to the Duke at ^1029. A great many of the very small jasper ware cameo . with the relief in pure white. who had acted as agent in that city.4399' The singular sharpness of