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REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD,
through a Task Order under the Prosperity, Livelihoods, and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity
Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00, Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022).

Tetra Tech
159 Bank Street, Suite 300
Burlington, Vermont 05401 USA
Telephone: (802) 658-3890
Fax: (802) 658-4247
E-Mail: international.development@tetratech.com
www.tetratechintdev.com

Tetra Tech Contacts:
Ian Deshmukh, Senior Technical Advisor/Manager
Email: ian.deshmukh@tetratech.com

Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program
1611 North Kent Street
Suite 805
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 592-6388
Fax: (866) 795-6462

Stephen Kelleher, Chief of Party
Email: stephen.kelleher@fcmcglobal.org

Olaf Zerbock, USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative
Email: ozerbock@usaid.gov

Editors:
• Jennifer Hewson, Conservation International
• Marc Steininger, FCMC & Conservation International
• Stelios Pesmajoglou, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

Contributing authors:
• Angel Parra, Consultant; GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert
• Gordon Smith, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute
• David Shoch, TerraCarbon, LLC
• John Musinsky, National Ecological Observatory Network
• Fred Stolle, World Resources Institute
• Kemen Austin, World Resources Institute
• Irene Angeletti, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities
(FCMC) Program to provide its missions, partner governments, local and international stakeholders with assistance in
developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. FCMC services include analysis, evaluation, tools and guidance for
program design support; training materials; and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US
Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture.

Please cite this report as:
Hewson, J., M.K. Steininger and S. Pesmajoglou, eds. 2014. REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual,
Version 2.0. USAID-supported Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities Program. Washington, DC, USA.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 i

REDD+ MEASUREMENT,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV)
MANUAL, VERSION 2.0

FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

DISCLAIMER
The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the
views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United
States Government.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 ii

..3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ..................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ...............66 4............ 9 2................................................................................................................................................................. 9 2.................................................................................................................................. 1 1..........0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS .............................49 4..............50 4......7 REFERENCES................................38 3..................................................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS .............. 4 1................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT.....1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM ..........................................................................................................................................................4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS...................................22 2...........6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA ................54 4..............................................26 2............... V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT ................ 17 2.............................................................2 BACKGROUND ....67 4.......2 IPCC GUIDANCE.......................0 iii ........0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ...... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL....3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN .5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS ..0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS...........................6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES ................................................................................................................... III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................... VERSION 2.................................34 3.....2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ ............1 INTRODUCTION ......................41 3..................................19 2............... SCOPE AND STRUCTURE .............. 1 1..............6 REFERENCES................................3 REFERENCES......................................................0 INTRODUCTION....................3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS ......13 2....................1 PURPOSE............................................................... 42 3................... 8 2...........................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................5 EXAMPLES .................................... 50 4....................................30 3.......................................4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES .................... 31 3...................................... 57 4..................................................31 3......... VIII 1........

............................................................................... 114 5....................... VERSION 2...................................... 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT..................................................................................................................................................................................... 127 6..... 82 5................................................................90 5........................................10 REFERENCES .......... 125 6.............................................5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH......................................................................................................................................................76 4.....................................................................0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE .............................0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE ....................................................84 5...............................................................6 REFERENCES....................................................11 SELECTED RESOURCES ........79 4..........82 5...............7 DATA CHECKING .........3 VERIFICATION ..2 REPORTING.......................................................1 INTRODUCTION .........................3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS.................................................................... 151 7............. 165 7..................................4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW ..............................................................81 5...................................................................0 iv ........... 125 6.... 109 5.............1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC ....................78 4................................93 5...............................................................................1 INTRODUCTION .... 141 6...... 152 7................... 152 7............ 121 6....................................... 4............................ 118 5........8 SELECTED RESOURCES.....................75 4........................................................................................................................................................4 REFERENCES........8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS ...................................................7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING .......................................................3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS .......................0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ...9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD ..................................................................................2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC ........................................................................................... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL....................................................2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING .................

Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon.0 v . VERSION 2.

FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science.0 vi . Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology. VERSION 2. Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT.

SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency. VERSION 2. comparability. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 vii . plus the role of conservation. and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. accuracy. completeness. sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.

Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center. Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. John Rogan of Boston University. Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text. Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics. Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. including Colin Silver.0 viii . and Leif Kindberg of FCMC. SilvaCarbon Consultant. and members of the USAID Climate Change office. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department. Karyn Tabor. Rishi Das. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. Maggie Roth. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Megan McGroddy. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. VERSION 2. the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Ronald McRoberts. Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. Andrew Lister.

0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 125 . This chapter is relevant to the activities highlighted on the following page.3.0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE Authors: Angel Parra and Stelios Pesmajoglou 6.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses key considerations on reporting and verification for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation. of this Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory. 6. Inventory and Reporting Steps. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. Section 3. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+).

0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 126 . for the time period required. using the reporting tables. STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). through stratification and other methods. appropriate to the tier level identified. AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates. assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize such pools in terms of methodological choice. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs). Document and archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land- use category. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. pool or non-CO2 gas. for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area. if using the gain-loss method. Within the categories designated as key. estimating the uncertainty in each estimate. STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met. Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs.STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements. STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories. carbon pool and non-CO2 source. and worksheets where appropriate.

those under the UNFCCC) and guidelines included in voluntary or compliance schemes and processes. Information must be well-documented. in some cases. emission factors used. The quality of GHG inventories relies not only on the robustness of the science underpinning the methodologies and the associated credibility of the estimates. as compared to its commitments or FREL/FRLs and could also form the basis for assigning any eventual incentives or penalties. This section of the Manual discusses reporting requirements for REDD+ based on decisions adopted by the COP to the UNFCCC. but also on the way the information is compiled and presented. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. effectiveness of measures put in place. it provides an overview of requirements and mechanisms.. For verification. However.” respectively. as well as the amount of GHG removals as a result of forest conservation and enhancement activities. This is followed by a discussion on reporting modalities for FREL/FRLs and reporting information on the implementation of results-based REDD+ activities. information generated by a forest carbon inventory and a land-use change analysis) into an agreed format. or application of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures. such as the reporting worksheets and tables contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance on Land Use. financial resources needed or used.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 127 . 6. transparent and consistent with specific reporting requirements and protocols (e. The reported information is often used to help improve the transparency of actions and verify emissions and removals claimed for different activities.2 REPORTING Reporting for REDD+ can be defined as the process used to translate information resulting from measurements or monitoring (for example. Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF) and of software options available to facilitate reporting. impact on deforestation drivers. and probably any future REDD+ mechanism. 28 In this section. Under the UNFCCC. we will use the terms “developed countries” and “developing countries” as synonyms to the UNFCCC terms “Annex I Parties” and “non-Annex I Parties.g. the information reported in a country’s GHG inventory represents the basis for assessing that country’s performance. the UNFCCC terms may be used to accurately quote texts and requirements under the UNFCCC. It encompasses the amount of GHG emissions avoided as a result of reduced deforestation and forest degradation. In any international system in which an accounting procedure is foreseen. such as the UNFCCC reporting framework. it describes the key provisions of decisions adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and discusses verification approaches included in the GPG-LULUCF. 2010). methodologies employed. As REDD+ actions should be results-based. an overview of general reporting requirements under the UNFCCC is provided. First. According to the decisions adopted by governments working under the aegis of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC. also known as a Forest Reference Emission Level or Forest Reference Level (FREL/FRL).Regarding reporting. other reported information may include data on forest areas affected. developing countries 28 that are willing to develop REDD+ activities will have to establish a National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS) to assess anthropogenic forest-related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks (UNFCCC. developing countries will have to demonstrate that they are reducing emissions from deforestation compared to a business-as-usual scenario. including the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. information reported in GHG inventories provides the means by which the international community can monitor progress made by countries in meeting their commitments and in achieving the Convention's ultimate objectives. Depending on the specific activity.

A comparison of key UNFCCC reporting requirements for NCs and BURs is given in Table 6. using comparable methodologies to be promoted and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties”. specific guidelines have been developed detailing standardized reporting requirements. using comparable methodologies to be agreed upon by the COP. developing countries can submit information in the following ways: • In national communications (NCs).1: General provisions of the Convention relating to reporting of information Article 4 (http://unfccc. all countries are required to provide information relating to the implementation of the Convention. For example.1 Overview of reporting requirements under the UNFCCC Under the UNFCCC.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 128 .. which is determined through decisions of the COP. The need for robust and defensible estimates on REDD+ has been highlighted during UNFCCC negotiations leading to the recognition that REDD+ “results-based actions should be fully measured. but does not establish a frequency for submission. “Any other information that the Party (the country) considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its (the country’s) communication. http://unfccc. The Convention specifies the time frame for initial communications. Within the UNFCCC process. Box 6.16. periodically update. material relevant for calculations of global emission trends”.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.1. of the Convention sets the obligation for all countries – taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities. 2010). paragraph 73.php). objectives and circumstances – to “develop. 29 Decision 1/CP. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. To promote the provision of credible and consistent information. • In biennial update reports (BURs).php) of the Convention requires each country to communicate to the COP the following elements of information: (a) “A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.. and • In the context of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs). and c.2. (b) “A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party (the country) to implement the Convention”. Paragraph 1 (a). including national inventories of anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks (see Box 6. to the extent its (a country’s) capacities permit. if feasible.” Article 12 (http://unfccc.int/essential_background/aconvention/background/items/1379. reported and verified” 29 (UNFCCC.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1362txt. national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all GHGs not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. publish and make available to the Conference of the Parties.1). reporting requirements for developed countries are more detailed and stringent in terms of the amount of information provided and the frequency of reporting. These requirements differ across countries taking into account their specific capacities and capabilities. including.pdf.6.

8.pdf.int/resource/docs/cop8/07a02.int/resource/docs/publications/userman_nainc_en. and on the institutional arrangements put in place for this purpose. see: http://unfccc. GHG emissions and removals. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.pdf. To facilitate the usage of these guidelines. and capacity-building activities. http://unfccc. the use of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in 30 The latest version of the reporting guidelines are included in the Annex to Decision 17/CP. http://unfccc. financial and technological transfers. 31 The Manual is available in English. the UNFCCC secretariat produced a user Manual 31 and a resource guide. 1996) and subsequently revised at COP 8 (New Delhi. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/publications/08_resource_guide4. IPCC Guidelines Good Practice Guidance (2000 and LULUCF) is encouraged Documentation Encouraged to provide information on Encouraged to provide information on methods used methods used. SF6 encouraged Sectoral Only summary tables are required Summary tables required.pdf.National communications National communications from developing countries provide information on: the ongoing and planned actions to address climate change.int/resource/docs/publications/08_resource_guide2. N2O required. time series back to the years reported in previous NCs encouraged Gases NCs and BURs: CO2. 32 National communications Biennial update reports Frequency Every fours years Every two years (starting in December 2014) Format Hard copy Electronic Years covered 2nd NCs: 2000 2010 (or more recent years if information is available) for the 1st BUR. 32 UNFCCC website: http://unfccc. HFCs. additional or supporting information. adaptation and mitigation measures to climate change.int/resource/docs/publications/09_resource_guide3.int/resource/docs/publications/09_resource_guide1. http://unfccc. 2002) 30. Guidelines for the preparation of NCs from developing countries were first adopted at COP 2 (Geneva. For the full text of these guidelines. sustainable development. both of which are available on the UNFCCC website.1: Summary of key UNFCCC reporting requirements for NCs and BURs for developing countries While developing countries are required to prepare their GHG inventory using the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC. may be supplied in a technical annex Table 6.pdf#page=2. both human and financial. tables in annex 3A. The preparation and delivery of NCs depends on the availability of resources. 1996).0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 129 .pdf. including sector-specific information.2 Disaggregation to the IPCC good practice guidance for LULUCF and the sectoral report tables annexed to the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines encouraged Version of the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines required. CH4. subsequent BURs to cover a calendar year that does not precede the submission date by more than four years.pdf. PFCs. French and Spanish.

1). 2000) and GPG-LULUCF is encouraged.National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (GPG 2000) (IPCC. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. Reporting estimates of GHG emissions and removals from all sectors is accomplished using a table included in the reporting guidelines (reproduced in Figure 6.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 130 . Providing documentation on the methodologies used to prepare the NCs is also encouraged but not required.

0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 131 .int/resource/docs/cop8/07a02.Figure 6-1: Reproduction of the reporting table for national communications of developing countries (source: http://unfccc.pdf#page=2) REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.

The first BURs are due by December 2014. This resulted in developing countries reporting forest- related activities in their initial NCs based on the four categories of the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines (Changes in forest and other wood biomass stocks. 2003). and the cornerstone of such a system is a reliable 33 Additional flexibility is given to least developed countries and small island developing states. • National GHG inventory. Forest and grassland conversion. reported and verified domestically and will also be subject to international Measurement. Guidelines for the reporting of information were also adopted for the preparation of BURs. Access to this information will facilitate the assessment of results of the implemented mitigation actions.17 (UNFCCC. CO2 emissions and removals from soils). the reduction goals and progress indicators. Reporting and Verification (MRV). The purpose of NAMAs is to serve as a mitigation strategy for a developing country. To do so. developing countries have started using the GPG-LULUCF. and subsequent BURs every two years (Decision 2/CP. Internationally supported actions will be measured. making it worthwhile for them to change their current behavior and use of resources. while domestically supported mitigation actions will be measured. developing countries are to take NAMAs to deviate their emissions relative to business-as-usual emissions in 2020 in the context of sustainable development. tables included in Annex 3A. developing countries 33 are required to submit BURs containing information on GHG emissions and removals.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 132 . This has facilitated the provision of more detailed information. the UNFCCC Secretariat is providing training that includes information on how to incorporate elements of the GPG-LULUCF in the inventory process. sufficient. needs. 2010].16 [UNFCCC. before the finalization of the GPG-LULUCF (IPCC. To be efficient. For the preparation of subsequent NCs. financial resources should provide appropriate incentives to the relevant actors at the right time.16 [UNFCCC. countries should provide information on the nature of the action. and their domestic arrangements for MRV. 2011]). as appropriate and to the extent that capacities permit. paragraph 6 of these guidelines states that.2 to the IPCC good practice guidance for LULUCF…” Developing countries are currently preparing their BURs. Abandonment of managed lands. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions Also as part of the Cancun Agreements (Decision 1/CP. REDD+ could be part of the overall NAMA strategy of a country. The reporting guidelines for BURs are contained in Annex III to Decision 2/CP. Specifically for LULUCF. a system for MRV of emissions and removals related to implemented actions is very important. technology and capacity-building needs and support received. All developing countries followed this structure in reporting emissions and removals in their initial communications. “Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to include. the assumptions and methodologies used. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. NAMAs can be funded by external/international donors and/or through the use of domestic resources.17). These include providing information on: • National circumstances and institutional arrangements. the progress of implementation and estimated emission reductions. • Mitigation actions and their effects: For each nationally-appropriate mitigation action (NAMA). reported and verified domestically. and • Finance. As a result.It should be noted that the revised UNFCCC reporting guidelines were adopted in 2002.17 [UNFCCC. and predictable. 2011). in the inventory section of the biennial update report. 2010]). Biennial Update Reports As part of the 2010 Cancun Agreements (Decision 1/CP. and support received for the implementation of these actions. as well as information on mitigation actions. further elaborated by Decision 2/CP.

REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. methodologies and procedures used in the construction of a FREL/FRL.19. as result of implementation of REDD+ activities (Decision 14/CP. the GPG-LULUCF). new trends and any modification of scope and methodologies. consistent with the guidance agreed under the UNFCCC.2). completeness and accuracy). include details on how the national circumstances were considered.national GHG inventory that is prepared following the IPCC principles (transparency. As agreed by governments (Decision 13/CP. complete. A country’s submissions must include information and rationale on the development of the FREL/FRLs. consistency.19). including details of national circumstances and. while the other information should be provided prior to a country receiving payment for its implemented REDD+ activities. and build upon existing systems while being flexible and allowing for improvement. 6.19) are provided.2. According to the provision of this decision.17 (see Box 6. suitable for MRV.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 133 . taking into account new knowledge. In particular. and  Provide data and information that are transparent. Countries should ensure that their FREL/FRLs are consistent with their anthropogenic forest related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks as contained in their national GHG inventories. all submitted information will be subject to a technical assessment. national forest monitoring systems should:  Be guided by the most recent IPCC guidance and guidelines. consistent over time..17. reporting specifications for FREL/FRLs (Decision 12/CP. Subnational FREL/FRLs (covering less than its entire national territory of forest area) may be elaborated as an interim measure.2 General guidance for reporting The Warsaw Framework on REDD+ established modalities for national forest monitoring systems in Decision 11/CP. In the submission. while transitioning to a national FREL/FRL. where countries decide to submit information on a FREL/FRL they must follow the provisions of the annex to Decision 12/CP. FREL/FRLs can be updated periodically as appropriate. comparability. The submitted information must be transparent. and on safeguards (Decisions 12/CP. a country may also note areas where technical improvement is needed and areas for capacity building on the construction of future FREL/FRLs.19). Reporting on FREL/FRLs is voluntary. FREL/FRLs are benchmarks for assessing each country’s performance in implementing REDD+ activities. if adjusted.17 and 12/CP. However. and accurate for the purpose of allowing a technical assessment of the data. Reporting on FREL/FRLs According to Decision 12/CP.17).e. in accordance with the guidelines contained in the annex to decision 12/CP. as adopted or encouraged by the COP (i. The FREL/FRL-related information should be reported as soon as a country has collected all the required data.17 and any future decision taken by the UNFCCC. The following sections discuss specific reporting requirements for REDD+. They are expressed in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (CO2eq) per year and must be established using the GPG-LULUCF.

16. an explanation of why and how the definition used in the construction of FREL/FRLs was chosen. and descriptions of changes from previously submitted information. complete. methods. including methodological information. Anthropogenic forest-related emissions by sources and removals by sinks. in a comprehensive and transparent way. The results of the implementation of REDD+ activities should be measured against the FREL/FRLs and should be expressed in tonnes of CO2eq per year.3. The data and information used by developing countries in the estimation of anthropogenic forest-related emissions by sources and removals by sinks. descriptions of relevant policies and plans. 34 Additional flexibility given to the least developed countries and small island developing states. in case there is a difference with the definition of forest used in the national greenhouse gas inventory or in reporting to other international organizations.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 134 . (d) The definition of forest used in the construction of FREL/FRLs and. Reporting on implementation of REDD+ activities The Warsaw Framework on REDD+ established reporting requirements for developing countries seeking to obtain and receive payments for results-based REDD+ actions in Decision 14/CP. noting that significant pools and/or activities should not be excluded. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. Box 6. a technical annex that contains the information listed in Box 6. if applicable and assumptions used. (c) Pools and gases. a description of data sets. and forest carbon stock and forest-area changes are to be consistent with the GPG-LULUCF and any guidance on the MRV of NAMAs by developing countries. and forest carbon stock and forest-area changes. forest carbon stocks. inter alia.19. consistent and accurate information. as appropriate. if appropriate. (b) Transparent.2: Guidelines for submissions of information on FREL/FRLs Information to be submitted includes: (a) Information that was used by Parties in constructing a FREL/FRL. used at the time of construction of FREL/FRLs. models. countries 34 (on a voluntary basis) should provide. which have been included in FREL/FRLs and the reasons for omitting a pool and/or activity from the construction of FREL/FRLs. and activities listed in decision 1/CP. including historical data. in their BURs. Specifically. should be transparent. including. paragraph 70. forest carbon stocks. and consistent over time and with the established FREL/FRLs. approaches.

Demonstration that the methodologies used to produce the results referred to in decision 14/CP.16. A description of how the elements contained in decision 4/CP. appendix I. 2. are consistent with those used to establish the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. 5. paragraph 70.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 135 . Box 6. and  Build upon existing systems. Summary information from the final report containing each corresponding assessed FREL/FRL.4). The summary of information should be provided periodically and be included in national communications. it stipulates that systems for providing information on how the safeguards are addressed and respected should:  Be consistent with the guidance identified in decision 1/CP. or other communication channels agreed to by the COP. (b) The activity or activities referred to in decision 1/CP. as appropriate. 6. paragraph 1. (e) The period (in years) of the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. Specifically. 3. A description of national forest monitoring systems and the institutional roles and responsibilities for measuring. which includes: (a) The assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (CO2 eq). Reporting on safeguards Decision 12/CP.  Be country-driven and implemented at the national level. reporting and verifying the results. paragraph 1(c) and (d). Necessary information that allows for the reconstruction of the results.16.15.  Provide information on how all of the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.17 provides guidance relating to the provision of information on how safeguards are addressed and respected (see Box 6. included in the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. consistent with the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level.16 are being addressed and respected. (d) The date of the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level submission and the date of the final technical assessment report. Results in tonnes of CO2 eq per year. paragraph 2.19. It was also agreed that developing countries undertaking REDD+ activities should provide a summary of information on how all of the safeguards are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the activities. have been taken into account.  Be transparent and flexible to allow for improvements over time.3 Guidelines for elements to be included in a technical annex to a BUR 1. (c) The territorial forest area covered.  Provide transparent and consistent information that is accessible by all relevant stakeholders and updated on a regular basis. 4.

national circumstances and laws. on a voluntary basis. Respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and members of local communities.16.or.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp3/Anx_3A_2_Reporting_Tables. in particular indigenous peoples and local communities. Transparent and effective national forest governance structures. Worksheets The GPG-LULUCF worksheets are presented in different modules. but are instead used to incentivize the protection and conservation of natural forests and their ecosystem services. Actions are consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity. Actions to address the risks of reversals. via the web platform on the UNFCCC website. 6. paragraphs 70 and 72. and non. While the worksheets are largely based on Tier 1 methods. Each sub-module is further divided into four worksheet groups covering: living biomass. The GPG-LULUCF contains worksheets that can be used to perform the actual calculations of emissions and removals and could be included in the inventory to improve transparency. are not used for the conversion of natural forests. dead organic matter.3 Reporting provisions of the GPG-LULUCF According to the GPG-LULUCF. they are supplemented with higher tier methods where appropriate. Actions to reduce displacement of emissions. Decision 12/CP.iges. 35 Example worksheet: http://www.16.ipcc- nggip. and to enhance other social and environmental benefits.2.CO2 GHG emissions. by taking into account relevant international obligations.19 of the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ reiterates the above provisions and further stipulates that the summary of information referred to above could also be provided. Each module corresponds to a specific land-use category 35. ensuring that the actions referred to in decision 1/CP. Box 6. paragraph 70. information should be reported in an inventory of emissions and removals that is typically divided into two parts: reporting tables and an inventory report. and noting that the United Nations General Assembly has adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. in the actions referred to in Decision 1/CP.4 Safeguards that should be promoted and supported when REDD+ activities are implemented Actions complement or are consistent with the objectives of national forest programmes and relevant international conventions and agreements. taking into account national legislation and sovereignty. A module is divided into two sub-modules to distinguish between those lands that remain in the same land-use category and those lands converted to other land-use categories. The full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders. soils (further sub- grouped into mineral soils and organic soils).0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 136 .

36 For illustration.g. The second type of table is a subset of the first type. along with supporting documentation.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 137 . To ensure the completeness of an inventory.3 (two parts). All reporting tables are included in Annex A3. The first represents a matrix of the area of all land that was converted to another category and the associated emissions. in thousands of hectares. and use the notation key “NE” (Not Estimated) in the reporting tables.iges.. together with a justification for exclusion. management system.In general. degradation and management of forests. national land classification or other factors. soil type.or. if a country decides that a disproportionate amount of effort would be required to collect data for a pool from a specific category that is not a key category in terms of the overall level and trend in national emission.2.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp3/Anx_3A_2_Reporting_Tables. subjected to gross deforestation. the inventory compiler should use qualitative “notation keys” provided by the IPCC Guidelines and GPG (see Table 6. It also reports the emissions and removals of CO2 and non-CO2 GHGs due to conversion of the six categories to any other land-use categories. Additional stratification is encouraged (in a separate column for subdivisions) according to criteria such as climate zone. and • Total emissions. the reporting tables are generally complemented by a documentation. Carbon-stock changes per unit area deforested or degraded or managed. For example. Though this Manual focuses on forest monitoring. the summary reporting table is reproduced in Figure 6. An example of a compilation worksheet is shown in Figure 6. separated for each carbon pool.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. Obtained by multiplying each activity data by the relevant emission carbon stock change factor. • Total change in carbon stock.2). • Emission factors. ecological zones. 36 http://www. Reporting tables Two types of reporting tables are provided in the GPG-LULUCF. worksheets contain the following information: • Initial and final land-use category. which should be used to provide references to relevant sections of the inventory report if any additional information is needed.2 of the GPG-LULUCF. • Activity data. Gg) or in CO2eq. it is important to fill in information for all entries of the reporting tables. this table is provided as an example.ipcc-nggip. If actual emission and removal quantities have not been estimated or cannot otherwise be reported in the tables. vegetation type. Expressed in physical units (e. Furthermore. and results from the first table because it reflects the resultant change in carbon stock due to activities. Areas of land. tree species. the country should list all gases/pools excluded on these grounds.

QA/QC procedures and archiving of data. • A description of the methodologies used in compiling the inventory. and if necessary. In the context of REDD+ reporting. the completeness of the reporting and eventual re-calculations.Figure 6. and • Tables for illustrating the results of the key category analysis. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. or uncertainty in emissions or removals.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 138 . recalculations (with justification for providing new estimates). the methodology used for identifying key categories. and an indication of the level of complexity (IPCC tiers) applied.e. including information on the level of category disaggregation used and its rationale. • Information on uncertainties (i. including data from previous inventory years. time-series consistency. land area representation and land-use databases are likely to be required. the assumptions. Whenever the term key category is used. A key category is one that is prioritized within a national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country's total inventory of GHG in terms of the absolute level of emissions and removals. Inventory report The other part of a national inventory is an inventory report that contains comprehensive and transparent information.. methods used and underlying assumptions). • A description of the key categories. Typical sections of the inventory report are: • An overview of trends for aggregated GHG emissions/removals by gas and by category.2: Reproduction of a compilation worksheet for reporting emissions and removals Other tables that may also be incorporated in a report include: • Tables with emission trends. the trend in emissions and removals. explanations for why the IPCC-recommended tiers have not been applied. data sources and rationale for their selection. appropriate information on land-use definitions. it includes both source and sink categories.

jp/public/2006gl/pdf/1_volume1/V1_8_ch8_Reporting_Guidance. preparation and management. all of the relevant inventory information should be compiled and archived. Such cells are normally shaded in the reporting tables. This information should allow for reconstruction of the inventory by experts not involved in its preparation. NA (Not Applicable) The activity of category exists but relevant emissions and removals are considered never to occur. including all disaggregated emission factors. Notation key Explanation NE (Not estimated) Emissions and/or removals occur but have not been estimated or reported. and • Information on planned improvements.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.ipcc-nggip.2: Notation keys for use in GHG-reporting tables 37 Furthermore. • A description of the institutional arrangements for inventory planning. activity data and documentation on how these factors and data were generated and aggregated for reporting. 37 www. The category where these emissions and removals are included should be indicated (for example in the documentation box in the correspondent table).iges. NO (Not Occurring) An activity or process does not occur within a country.or.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 139 . Table 6. IE (Included Emissions and/or removals for this activity or category are estimated and included in elsewhere) the inventory but not presented separately for this category. C (Confidential Emissions and/or removals are aggregated and included elsewhere in the inventory information) because reporting at a disaggregated level could lead to disclosure of confidential information.

0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 140 .3: Reproduction of summary reporting tables REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.Figure 6.

g. 2006b). Many governments also have an interest in mitigating GHG emissions from agriculture and forestry.iges. which is a limitation if a country has more than 18 categories.php 39 http://www. • Names of categories used in the column are not included in the calculation procedure of the worksheets and thus can be easily changed.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 141 . the “purpose of verifying national GHG inventories is to establish their reliability and to check the accuracy of the reported numbers by independent means.3 VERIFICATION According to the GPG-LULUCF (IPCC.Software for reporting The UNFCCC has developed an online software tool.ipcc-nggip. Determining mitigation potential requires an understanding of both current emission trends and the influence of alternative land use and management practices on future emissions. The IPCC task force on GHG Inventories has also released an Inventory Software tool 39 to help countries estimate and report GHG emissions and removals. build confidence on estimates and trends.or.edu/projects/ALUsoftware/index. national and international. 2003). such as: • The names or type of forest/plantation category in a country may differ from the categories defined in the UNFCCC software. 2013). assignment of emission factors and completion of the calculations.jp/software/index.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_national_communications/non- annex_i_inventory_software/items/7627.html 40 http://www. and to help to improve scientific understanding.. this software is compatible with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC.colostate. These goals can be achieved through: 38 http://unfccc. 6. Verification can be performed at several levels: project.nrel. The software also has internal checks to ensure data integrity. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. The software simplifies the process of conducting the inventory by dividing the inventory analysis into steps to facilitate the compilation of AD. 38 where activity data (AD) and emission/removal factors data are used as input to obtain net annual carbon uptake/release.html. There are several key features or limitations in using the software. Another software tool is the Agriculture and Land Use GHG Inventory Software40 which guides inventory compilers through the process of estimating GHG emissions and removals related to agricultural and forestry activities (ALU Software. • The UNFCCC software can be changed to nationally relevant categories (e.” The IPCC has also stipulated that the overall goals of verification are to provide inputs to improve GHG inventories. There are two options if the number of forest/plantation categories is more than provided: i) Insert additional rows only if the inventory expert has capacity to modify the “macros”. Acacia species can be changed to another species). or ii) merge smaller or homogeneous categories such that the total number of rows (or categories) is not larger than 18. and • Forest/plantation categories: option exists for 18 categories.

the following may be included: peer and public review.19. text is quoted verbatim from the IPCC document. This information may facilitate verification activities at the project or national level. Specifically: • Decision 13/CP. 3) Direct measurement of emissions and removals of GHGs. research consortiums. and 5) Using models. 14/CP. rather than on a single year basis. 10/CP. 13/CP. the IPCC has recognized that “such verification would be complex and resource intensive.ipcc-nggip.g. In relation to internal verification. 2) Application of higher tier methods. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. reporting and verifying. November 2013. and • Decision 14/CP. which are performed by the organizations. The resulting “Warsaw Framework for REDD+”42 includes two decisions relating to international-level verification. The provisions of these two decisions will be discussed below in section 6.iges. cross-checking requires considerable time and it is likely to be implemented over multiple years. Governments reached agreement regarding external verification requirements and procedures for REDD+ as part of the negotiations at COP19 in Warsaw. Poland. agencies or individuals responsible for the compilation of the inventory.19 be designated as the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ (see paragraph 44 of the COP19 report. and possibly complemented by top-down approaches based on atmospheric measurements.7 of the GPG-LULUCF 41. • Internal checks.pdf 42 COP 19 agreed that decisions 9/CP. Furthermore.19. and possibly performed by research consortiums and/or programs”. private companies.” The five main approaches to verification currently included in the GPG-LULUCF are: 1) Comparison to other information. 11/CP. transcription.19. 6. and analysis).19. non-governmental organizations).3.1 Approaches to project or national internal verification According to the GPG-LULUCF. emission 41 http://www. which are performed by other bodies not directly involved with the preparation of the GHG inventory (e.pdf). depending on a country’s national circumstances. such as independent inventories and international programs and datasets.19.int/resource/docs/2013/cop19/eng/10. At the same time.3. information is provided in section 5.19 on modalities for measuring. such as underlying data (collection.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 142 . measured by independent methods at different levels. In some instances.or. independent scientists. the uniqueness of estimation methods required for forestry-related activities has led to the conclusion that verification “would be based on complete accounting of emissions and removals at the national scale. in other instances changes have been made to reflect specific REDD+ aspects. available at http://unfccc. and • External checks..” A complete verification process would require cross-checking of the results at different scales (sub-national and national). 12/CP.19 on guidelines and procedures for the technical assessment of submissions from Parties on proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels. other government agencies. In addition to these five approaches.3. 4) Remote sensing. and is most relevant for REDD+ activities.19 and 15/CP.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp5/Chp5_7_Verification. examination of specific aspects of the inventory.

.or. of the GPG-LULUCF 43 provides a technical description for each approach.ipcc-nggip. rules used for the calculations (suitability and application of methods. The criteria for selecting verification approaches includes: scale of interest.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 143 . complexity of design and implementation of the verification approaches. desired level of accuracy and precision.g.4 below. 43 http://www. types of data).7. costs.iges. Section 5. and upscaling procedures. and the required level of expertise needed to verify. verification should be conducted using data and methods that are independent from those used to prepare the inventory. The IPCC guidance also provides an information table. to assist in identifying the most suitable approaches for particular categories or inputs. including models).jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp5/Chp5_7_Verification. with reference to its applicability (e. for a particular category. Figure 6.factors. Verification. AD assumptions.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. No matter which verification approaches are used or what aspects of the inventory are verified.

0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 144 .Figure 6.4: Reproduction of the table for general applicability of verification approaches REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.

and ideally they should have been conducted as a part of QA/QC.” Some of the checks and comparisons that can be used for internal verification of the LULUCF sector are summarized in Box 5. At the same time.2 General guidance for internal verification According to the GPG. precision and cost of the approach itself.LULUCF.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 145 . and • Final calculations can be reasonably linked to underlying data and assumption. non-key categories can also be selected for verification if they are of particular relevance to mitigation efforts. • Applied verification methods are transparent. • Verification results are reasonable and well-explained. The GPG-LULUCF stipulates that “if a country undertakes internal verification of its inventory. the spatial scale of the inventory coverage. In addition to the suitability/availability of a particular verification approach.3 44 of the GPG-LULUCF (reproduced below).pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. rigorous and scientifically sound. • Other available national verification activities are described.or. • Uncertainty estimates and QA/QC documentation is included in the report. the quantity and quality of the data to be verified. • Documentation of the verification is included in the inventory report. there are two key considerations for an inventory agency in its efforts to develop a verification plan: • Identify the criteria for selecting the inventory elements for verification. For example. 44 http://www. it should ensure that: • Sufficient independent expertise is available. other criteria to be used for selecting a particular approach include: the type of data to be verified.ipcc-nggip.7. • Decide how the inventory elements will be verified. These checks and comparison are essential. or their uncertainty is high or they are expected to change significantly over the inventory reporting period.3. key source/sink categories should be given priority for verification.6.iges. and the accuracy.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp5/Chp5_7_Verification.

costs may REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.3 of the GPG LULUCF Country-specific circumstances and availability of resources are key to selecting appropriate verification approaches.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 146 . “Approaches 1. and. Direct measurements are relevant. Remote sensing is the most suitable method for the verification of land areas. although this approach can be resource-intensive. Approaches 1 and 2 can be easily implemented by an inventory agency with low to moderate resources.5: Box 5. 2 and 3 are feasible for verifying several components of the inventory. on a large scale.Figure 6.7. In general.

paragraph 1(c) and (d).be a constraint. 5. land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) experts selected from the UNFCCC roster of experts. A description of national forest monitoring systems and the institutional roles and responsibilities for measuring.19. Box 6. Necessary information that allows for the reconstruction of the results. Data and information used in the estimation of anthropogenic forest-related emissions by sources and removals by sinks. and forest carbon stock and forest-area changes after implementation of REDD+ activities has started (see Box 6.5. Their proposed FREL/FRL. reporting and verifying. 2.19) In accordance with decision 12/CP. one from a developed country and one from a developing country. Results in tonnes of CO2 eq per year.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 147 . 6. 3. Demonstration that the methodologies used to produce the results referred to in paragraph 2 above are consistent with those used to establish the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. forest carbon stocks. A description of how the elements contained in decision 4/CP.3. developing countries interested in implementing REDD+ activities for results-based payments are required to submit information to the UNFCCC secretariat on: 1. included in the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. Each submission will be assessed by two land use. reporting and verifying the results. which includes: (a) The assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (CO2 eq).2.” 6. paragraph 7 1. and 2.15. Modalities for measuring. Both data sets will be subject to a technical assessment or analysis. 4. have been taken into account. Technical assessment of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels (Decision 13/CP. Guidelines for elements to be included in the technical annex referred to in decision 14/CP.2.3 International verification-related provisions resulting from the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ As discussed above in section 6. developing countries may submit a proposed FREL/FRL that will be subject to a technical assessment.5). consistent with the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. paragraph 70. (e) The period (in years) of the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. The objectives of the technical assessment are: REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.17.16. Summary information from the final report containing each corresponding assessed FREL &/or FRL. (c) The territorial forest area covered. (b) The activity or activities referred to in decision 1/CP. Models can be used as an alternative when direct measurements combined with remote sensing is not feasible. (d) The date of the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level submission and the date of the final technical assessment report.

As part of the technical assessment process. consistent and accurate. including methodological information.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 148 . technical exchange of information on the construction of FRELs/FRLs with a view to supporting the capacity of developing countries for the construction and future improvements. and procedures used in the construction of FREL/FRL will assess the following: • The extent to which the FREL/FRL maintains consistency with corresponding anthropogenic forest-related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks as contained in the national GHG inventories. why and how the definition used was chosen. • To assess the degree to which the information provided is in accordance with the guidelines for submissions of information on FREL/FRL (annex to decision 12/CP. The technical assessment of the data. The decision also contains provisions relating to general procedures and the timing (see Figure 6. whether descriptions of changes to previously submitted FRELs/FRLs have been provided. • Whether a description of relevant policies and plans has been provided. Given the facultative nature of the assessment. non-intrusive. as appropriate. areas for technical improvement may be identified and these areas and capacity-building needs for the construction of future FRELs/FRLs may be noted by the country concerned. and justification of why omitted pools and/or activities were not deemed significant. methodologies. as appropriate. if it is different from the one used in the national GHG inventory or from the one reported to other international organizations.17) for the construction of the FREL/FRL. • The extent to which the information provided was transparent. approaches. and activities included in the FREL/FRL. the assessment team is to refrain from making any judgment on domestic policies taken into account in the construction of FRELs/FRLs. • Whether the definition of forest used in the construction of the FREL/FRL has been provided and. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. • How historical data have been taken into account in the establishment of the FREL/FRL. taking into account the stepwise approach. models (if applicable) assumptions used and whether the FRELs/FRLs are national or cover less than the entire national territory of forest area. of their FRELs/FRLs subject to national capabilities and policy. • Whether assumptions about future changes to domestic policies have been included in the construction of the FREL/FRL. methods. • The extent to which the FREL/FRL value is consistent with the information and descriptions provided by the country. description of data sets.6 for timeline) of the technical assessment. complete. • To offer a facilitative. • Pools and gases. • If applicable.

6: Timeline for the technical assessment of FRELs/FRLs REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. if submitted. revised FREL/FRL (4 weeks) Prepare draft report Provide comments on draft report (12 weeks) Address country’s comments & Publish final Figure 6. Country Assessment Secretariat Team Submission Receipt of Submission Send submission to assessment team (2 weeks) Desk review (8 weeks) Technical Ask country for clarifications (1 week) Respond to clarification questions (8 weeks) Consider response &.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 149 .

The two LULUCF experts may seek clarifications on the technical annex and the country should provide clarifications to the extent possible. (b) The analysis of the technical annex.17.16. The developing country that submitted the technical annex has the possibility to interact with the technical team of experts during the analysis of its technical annex to provide clarifications and additional information to facilitate the analysis by the technical team of experts. definitions. will be included among the members selected for the technical team of experts.Technical analysis of data and information for results-based payments (Decision 14/CP. a technical report to be published by the secretariat via the web platform on the UNFCCC website. annex IV. in accordance with national circumstances and taking into account national capabilities. under their collective responsibility. as appropriate. and (d) The results are accurate. comprehensiveness and the information provided between the assessed reference level and the results of the implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. containing: (a) The technical annex. the technical team of experts shall analyse the extent to which: (a) There is consistency in methodologies. including areas for further improvement and capacity-building needs.19) Upon the request of the developing country seeking to obtain and receive payments for results-based actions. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. to the extent possible. The LULUCF experts will develop. As part of the technical analysis referred to in decision 2/CP. if noted by the country concerned. (c) Areas for technical improvement identified. as appropriate. consistent. (b) The data and information provided in the technical annex is transparent.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 150 . (c) The data and information provided in the technical annex is consistent with the relevant guidelines. paragraph 4. and (d) Any comments and/or responses by the developing country concerned. one each from a developing country and a developed country. two LULUCF experts from the UNFCCC roster of experts. paragraph 70. complete and accurate.

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S.gov .U. DC 20523 Tel: (202) 712-0000 Fax: (202) 216-3524 www. NW Washington. Agency for International Development 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue.usaid.