REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD,
through a Task Order under the Prosperity, Livelihoods, and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity
Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00, Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022).

Tetra Tech
159 Bank Street, Suite 300
Burlington, Vermont 05401 USA
Telephone: (802) 658-3890
Fax: (802) 658-4247
E-Mail: international.development@tetratech.com
www.tetratechintdev.com

Tetra Tech Contacts:
Ian Deshmukh, Senior Technical Advisor/Manager
Email: ian.deshmukh@tetratech.com

Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program
1611 North Kent Street
Suite 805
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 592-6388
Fax: (866) 795-6462

Stephen Kelleher, Chief of Party
Email: stephen.kelleher@fcmcglobal.org

Olaf Zerbock, USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative
Email: ozerbock@usaid.gov

Editors:
• Jennifer Hewson, Conservation International
• Marc Steininger, FCMC & Conservation International
• Stelios Pesmajoglou, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

Contributing authors:
• Angel Parra, Consultant; GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert
• Gordon Smith, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute
• David Shoch, TerraCarbon, LLC
• John Musinsky, National Ecological Observatory Network
• Fred Stolle, World Resources Institute
• Kemen Austin, World Resources Institute
• Irene Angeletti, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities
(FCMC) Program to provide its missions, partner governments, local and international stakeholders with assistance in
developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. FCMC services include analysis, evaluation, tools and guidance for
program design support; training materials; and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US
Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture.

Please cite this report as:
Hewson, J., M.K. Steininger and S. Pesmajoglou, eds. 2014. REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual,
Version 2.0. USAID-supported Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities Program. Washington, DC, USA.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 i

REDD+ MEASUREMENT,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV)
MANUAL, VERSION 2.0

FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

DISCLAIMER
The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the
views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United
States Government.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 ii

.........3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN ........4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM ....... 17 2............................................................................................................... V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................... VERSION 2...............................................................66 4........................................................................................ VIII 1.........6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA ........................................................... SCOPE AND STRUCTURE ..7 REFERENCES........1 INTRODUCTION ............................13 2...54 4................................4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS.......49 4....................................................22 2...................41 3...............................0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ...............................................................................6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES .......................................................... 1 1....................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION .......................69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT........................................................................................................................................................................5 EXAMPLES ...............................19 2.........................................1 INTRODUCTION ...................................... 9 2..........................................................................2 BACKGROUND ...................3 REFERENCES............0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS .......... 9 2...................................................................................................................5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS .. 31 3..................0 INTRODUCTION............................... 57 4............................................................4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES .......... 8 2...3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS .................30 3.........................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS .............................................................................. 1 1.............. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.............. 50 4.........................2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT .............................................................................2 IPCC GUIDANCE....................34 3..50 4..............31 3...... 42 3...................................................................................................................................................................................... III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ........0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS..................................................................................6 REFERENCES............................................................26 2........................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ...........67 4...........................................................0 iii ......................................................... 4 1....................................38 3...2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ .....1 PURPOSE..

.............. 127 6..................82 5..............................5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH....................................0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE ............................................................................7 DATA CHECKING ....................................................................................... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.........................................................................4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW ....10 REFERENCES ...78 4...............1 INTRODUCTION ................................ 152 7......................................... 114 5..............................................................................................................................................................1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC ...........................................2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING ....................93 5.......................................................................... 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT..............................................75 4........................................8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS . 4....... 118 5... 165 7................3 VERIFICATION .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 REFERENCES........................................... 151 7...................90 5.................8 SELECTED RESOURCES..........................1 INTRODUCTION ....4 REFERENCES.........81 5............................................... 121 6..............................................................................................................3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS........11 SELECTED RESOURCES .............76 4...............7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING .............................79 4.................................................... 109 5...............................................................3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS .........2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC .................... 125 6.........................2 REPORTING.........................................0 iv ........ VERSION 2............. 141 6........ 152 7................................................................0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE ..................................................... 125 6.................84 5................................ 82 5.......................................................................0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ........9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD ............................................................................................................

VERSION 2. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture. Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon.0 v . REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.

FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science.0 vi . Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology. Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. VERSION 2. Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement. Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science.

0 vii . completeness. accuracy. SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency. plus the role of conservation. VERSION 2. and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT. comparability. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.

Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department. including Colin Silver. Rishi Das. Andrew Lister. Maggie Roth. the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center.0 viii . Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. and Leif Kindberg of FCMC. Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. Karyn Tabor. VERSION 2. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Megan McGroddy. John Rogan of Boston University. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History. Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. and members of the USAID Climate Change office. Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. SilvaCarbon Consultant. Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. Ronald McRoberts. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text.

3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses key considerations on reporting and verification for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation. This chapter is relevant to the activities highlighted on the following page. Inventory and Reporting Steps. Section 3. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. of this Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory.0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE Authors: Angel Parra and Stelios Pesmajoglou 6. 6. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+).0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 125 .

Document and archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land- use category. pool or non-CO2 gas. STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories. STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 126 . Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. and worksheets where appropriate. assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize such pools in terms of methodological choice. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. appropriate to the tier level identified. STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. carbon pool and non-CO2 source. for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. through stratification and other methods. Within the categories designated as key.STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements. EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area. for the time period required. STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs). estimating the uncertainty in each estimate. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met. using the reporting tables. if using the gain-loss method. AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates.

effectiveness of measures put in place. it describes the key provisions of decisions adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and discusses verification approaches included in the GPG-LULUCF. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. those under the UNFCCC) and guidelines included in voluntary or compliance schemes and processes.2 REPORTING Reporting for REDD+ can be defined as the process used to translate information resulting from measurements or monitoring (for example. emission factors used. we will use the terms “developed countries” and “developing countries” as synonyms to the UNFCCC terms “Annex I Parties” and “non-Annex I Parties. the UNFCCC terms may be used to accurately quote texts and requirements under the UNFCCC. information reported in GHG inventories provides the means by which the international community can monitor progress made by countries in meeting their commitments and in achieving the Convention's ultimate objectives. Under the UNFCCC. methodologies employed. or application of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures.Regarding reporting.g. This section of the Manual discusses reporting requirements for REDD+ based on decisions adopted by the COP to the UNFCCC. such as the UNFCCC reporting framework. an overview of general reporting requirements under the UNFCCC is provided. information generated by a forest carbon inventory and a land-use change analysis) into an agreed format.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 127 . developing countries will have to demonstrate that they are reducing emissions from deforestation compared to a business-as-usual scenario. For verification. According to the decisions adopted by governments working under the aegis of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC. Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF) and of software options available to facilitate reporting. transparent and consistent with specific reporting requirements and protocols (e. However. First. as compared to its commitments or FREL/FRLs and could also form the basis for assigning any eventual incentives or penalties. The quality of GHG inventories relies not only on the robustness of the science underpinning the methodologies and the associated credibility of the estimates. As REDD+ actions should be results-based. impact on deforestation drivers. In any international system in which an accounting procedure is foreseen. as well as the amount of GHG removals as a result of forest conservation and enhancement activities. 28 In this section. Information must be well-documented. in some cases. including the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. developing countries 28 that are willing to develop REDD+ activities will have to establish a National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS) to assess anthropogenic forest-related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks (UNFCCC. Depending on the specific activity. such as the reporting worksheets and tables contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance on Land Use. financial resources needed or used. 2010).. The reported information is often used to help improve the transparency of actions and verify emissions and removals claimed for different activities. it provides an overview of requirements and mechanisms. 6. other reported information may include data on forest areas affected. This is followed by a discussion on reporting modalities for FREL/FRLs and reporting information on the implementation of results-based REDD+ activities. but also on the way the information is compiled and presented. and probably any future REDD+ mechanism. the information reported in a country’s GHG inventory represents the basis for assessing that country’s performance. also known as a Forest Reference Emission Level or Forest Reference Level (FREL/FRL).” respectively. It encompasses the amount of GHG emissions avoided as a result of reduced deforestation and forest degradation.

29 Decision 1/CP. For example.. to the extent its (a country’s) capacities permit. To promote the provision of credible and consistent information. specific guidelines have been developed detailing standardized reporting requirements. including national inventories of anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks (see Box 6. reported and verified” 29 (UNFCCC. http://unfccc. • In biennial update reports (BURs). but does not establish a frequency for submission.6. using comparable methodologies to be promoted and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties”. The Convention specifies the time frame for initial communications.2. Paragraph 1 (a).php) of the Convention requires each country to communicate to the COP the following elements of information: (a) “A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.pdf. if feasible. using comparable methodologies to be agreed upon by the COP. developing countries can submit information in the following ways: • In national communications (NCs).1 Overview of reporting requirements under the UNFCCC Under the UNFCCC. reporting requirements for developed countries are more detailed and stringent in terms of the amount of information provided and the frequency of reporting. paragraph 73. Box 6.php). including. and c.1. and • In the context of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs). objectives and circumstances – to “develop.. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.int/essential_background/aconvention/background/items/1379.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1362txt. The need for robust and defensible estimates on REDD+ has been highlighted during UNFCCC negotiations leading to the recognition that REDD+ “results-based actions should be fully measured. which is determined through decisions of the COP.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 128 . A comparison of key UNFCCC reporting requirements for NCs and BURs is given in Table 6.16. national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all GHGs not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Within the UNFCCC process. “Any other information that the Party (the country) considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its (the country’s) communication. material relevant for calculations of global emission trends”. publish and make available to the Conference of the Parties. 2010).int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.1: General provisions of the Convention relating to reporting of information Article 4 (http://unfccc. periodically update.” Article 12 (http://unfccc.1). of the Convention sets the obligation for all countries – taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities. all countries are required to provide information relating to the implementation of the Convention. These requirements differ across countries taking into account their specific capacities and capabilities. (b) “A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party (the country) to implement the Convention”.

sustainable development. French and Spanish. SF6 encouraged Sectoral Only summary tables are required Summary tables required. may be supplied in a technical annex Table 6. additional or supporting information.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 129 . PFCs.int/resource/docs/publications/08_resource_guide4. see: http://unfccc. http://unfccc. 32 National communications Biennial update reports Frequency Every fours years Every two years (starting in December 2014) Format Hard copy Electronic Years covered 2nd NCs: 2000 2010 (or more recent years if information is available) for the 1st BUR. 1996).pdf. http://unfccc. Guidelines for the preparation of NCs from developing countries were first adopted at COP 2 (Geneva.pdf. financial and technological transfers. the UNFCCC secretariat produced a user Manual 31 and a resource guide. GHG emissions and removals. CH4. N2O required. 32 UNFCCC website: http://unfccc. and on the institutional arrangements put in place for this purpose. both of which are available on the UNFCCC website.pdf.pdf. and capacity-building activities.int/resource/docs/publications/userman_nainc_en. 31 The Manual is available in English.int/resource/docs/publications/09_resource_guide3. http://unfccc. 1996) and subsequently revised at COP 8 (New Delhi. time series back to the years reported in previous NCs encouraged Gases NCs and BURs: CO2. To facilitate the usage of these guidelines.int/resource/docs/publications/08_resource_guide2.8.int/resource/docs/cop8/07a02. IPCC Guidelines Good Practice Guidance (2000 and LULUCF) is encouraged Documentation Encouraged to provide information on Encouraged to provide information on methods used methods used.1: Summary of key UNFCCC reporting requirements for NCs and BURs for developing countries While developing countries are required to prepare their GHG inventory using the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.int/resource/docs/publications/09_resource_guide1. both human and financial. including sector-specific information.National communications National communications from developing countries provide information on: the ongoing and planned actions to address climate change.pdf. the use of the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in 30 The latest version of the reporting guidelines are included in the Annex to Decision 17/CP. HFCs. adaptation and mitigation measures to climate change. For the full text of these guidelines.pdf#page=2. subsequent BURs to cover a calendar year that does not precede the submission date by more than four years. 2002) 30. The preparation and delivery of NCs depends on the availability of resources. http://unfccc.2 Disaggregation to the IPCC good practice guidance for LULUCF and the sectoral report tables annexed to the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines encouraged Version of the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines required. tables in annex 3A.

Reporting estimates of GHG emissions and removals from all sectors is accomplished using a table included in the reporting guidelines (reproduced in Figure 6. 2000) and GPG-LULUCF is encouraged. Providing documentation on the methodologies used to prepare the NCs is also encouraged but not required.National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (GPG 2000) (IPCC.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 130 . REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.1).

Figure 6-1: Reproduction of the reporting table for national communications of developing countries (source: http://unfccc.pdf#page=2) REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.int/resource/docs/cop8/07a02.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 131 .

Specifically for LULUCF. further elaborated by Decision 2/CP. before the finalization of the GPG-LULUCF (IPCC. For the preparation of subsequent NCs. and their domestic arrangements for MRV. needs. as well as information on mitigation actions.2 to the IPCC good practice guidance for LULUCF…” Developing countries are currently preparing their BURs. 2011]). NAMAs can be funded by external/international donors and/or through the use of domestic resources. and • Finance. reported and verified domestically. The reporting guidelines for BURs are contained in Annex III to Decision 2/CP.16 [UNFCCC. The purpose of NAMAs is to serve as a mitigation strategy for a developing country. Reporting and Verification (MRV). To do so. in the inventory section of the biennial update report. 2010]. Internationally supported actions will be measured. “Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to include. The first BURs are due by December 2014.17 [UNFCCC. the assumptions and methodologies used. countries should provide information on the nature of the action. the progress of implementation and estimated emission reductions. To be efficient. This resulted in developing countries reporting forest- related activities in their initial NCs based on the four categories of the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines (Changes in forest and other wood biomass stocks. REDD+ could be part of the overall NAMA strategy of a country. All developing countries followed this structure in reporting emissions and removals in their initial communications. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions Also as part of the Cancun Agreements (Decision 1/CP. Guidelines for the reporting of information were also adopted for the preparation of BURs.16 [UNFCCC. • Mitigation actions and their effects: For each nationally-appropriate mitigation action (NAMA). and subsequent BURs every two years (Decision 2/CP. 2010]).It should be noted that the revised UNFCCC reporting guidelines were adopted in 2002. Access to this information will facilitate the assessment of results of the implemented mitigation actions. Abandonment of managed lands. sufficient. 2003). as appropriate and to the extent that capacities permit. Forest and grassland conversion. developing countries 33 are required to submit BURs containing information on GHG emissions and removals. 2011). CO2 emissions and removals from soils). and support received for the implementation of these actions. technology and capacity-building needs and support received. a system for MRV of emissions and removals related to implemented actions is very important. As a result. This has facilitated the provision of more detailed information. financial resources should provide appropriate incentives to the relevant actors at the right time. tables included in Annex 3A.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 132 . and the cornerstone of such a system is a reliable 33 Additional flexibility is given to least developed countries and small island developing states. while domestically supported mitigation actions will be measured. Biennial Update Reports As part of the 2010 Cancun Agreements (Decision 1/CP. the reduction goals and progress indicators. These include providing information on: • National circumstances and institutional arrangements.17 (UNFCCC. reported and verified domestically and will also be subject to international Measurement. paragraph 6 of these guidelines states that. • National GHG inventory. developing countries are to take NAMAs to deviate their emissions relative to business-as-usual emissions in 2020 in the context of sustainable development. developing countries have started using the GPG-LULUCF.17). making it worthwhile for them to change their current behavior and use of resources. and predictable. the UNFCCC Secretariat is providing training that includes information on how to incorporate elements of the GPG-LULUCF in the inventory process. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.

the GPG-LULUCF). Reporting on FREL/FRLs According to Decision 12/CP. new trends and any modification of scope and methodologies.2 General guidance for reporting The Warsaw Framework on REDD+ established modalities for national forest monitoring systems in Decision 11/CP..19. consistent with the guidance agreed under the UNFCCC. comparability. and on safeguards (Decisions 12/CP. reporting specifications for FREL/FRLs (Decision 12/CP. FREL/FRLs are benchmarks for assessing each country’s performance in implementing REDD+ activities. In particular. and build upon existing systems while being flexible and allowing for improvement.17.national GHG inventory that is prepared following the IPCC principles (transparency. as adopted or encouraged by the COP (i. Countries should ensure that their FREL/FRLs are consistent with their anthropogenic forest related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks as contained in their national GHG inventories. while transitioning to a national FREL/FRL. while the other information should be provided prior to a country receiving payment for its implemented REDD+ activities.17). A country’s submissions must include information and rationale on the development of the FREL/FRLs. in accordance with the guidelines contained in the annex to decision 12/CP. Reporting on FREL/FRLs is voluntary. They are expressed in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (CO2eq) per year and must be established using the GPG-LULUCF.19) are provided.17 and any future decision taken by the UNFCCC. The FREL/FRL-related information should be reported as soon as a country has collected all the required data. consistent over time. national forest monitoring systems should:  Be guided by the most recent IPCC guidance and guidelines.2). a country may also note areas where technical improvement is needed and areas for capacity building on the construction of future FREL/FRLs.e. all submitted information will be subject to a technical assessment. Subnational FREL/FRLs (covering less than its entire national territory of forest area) may be elaborated as an interim measure. 6. include details on how the national circumstances were considered.17 (see Box 6.2. taking into account new knowledge. suitable for MRV. including details of national circumstances and. complete.19). methodologies and procedures used in the construction of a FREL/FRL. FREL/FRLs can be updated periodically as appropriate. The following sections discuss specific reporting requirements for REDD+. consistency. and  Provide data and information that are transparent. As agreed by governments (Decision 13/CP.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 133 . In the submission. as result of implementation of REDD+ activities (Decision 14/CP. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. where countries decide to submit information on a FREL/FRL they must follow the provisions of the annex to Decision 12/CP. and accurate for the purpose of allowing a technical assessment of the data. According to the provision of this decision. The submitted information must be transparent. if adjusted. However. completeness and accuracy).19).17 and 12/CP.

in case there is a difference with the definition of forest used in the national greenhouse gas inventory or in reporting to other international organizations. inter alia. and consistent over time and with the established FREL/FRLs. models. a technical annex that contains the information listed in Box 6. and forest carbon stock and forest-area changes.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 134 . REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. descriptions of relevant policies and plans. approaches. including. consistent and accurate information. paragraph 70. The data and information used by developing countries in the estimation of anthropogenic forest-related emissions by sources and removals by sinks. (d) The definition of forest used in the construction of FREL/FRLs and. forest carbon stocks. including historical data. complete. Reporting on implementation of REDD+ activities The Warsaw Framework on REDD+ established reporting requirements for developing countries seeking to obtain and receive payments for results-based REDD+ actions in Decision 14/CP. (b) Transparent.19. Anthropogenic forest-related emissions by sources and removals by sinks. and forest carbon stock and forest-area changes are to be consistent with the GPG-LULUCF and any guidance on the MRV of NAMAs by developing countries.2: Guidelines for submissions of information on FREL/FRLs Information to be submitted includes: (a) Information that was used by Parties in constructing a FREL/FRL. Specifically. methods. and descriptions of changes from previously submitted information. which have been included in FREL/FRLs and the reasons for omitting a pool and/or activity from the construction of FREL/FRLs. 34 Additional flexibility given to the least developed countries and small island developing states.3. an explanation of why and how the definition used in the construction of FREL/FRLs was chosen.16. if applicable and assumptions used. The results of the implementation of REDD+ activities should be measured against the FREL/FRLs and should be expressed in tonnes of CO2eq per year. used at the time of construction of FREL/FRLs. should be transparent. noting that significant pools and/or activities should not be excluded. in their BURs. a description of data sets. including methodological information. countries 34 (on a voluntary basis) should provide. forest carbon stocks. in a comprehensive and transparent way. and activities listed in decision 1/CP. if appropriate. Box 6. (c) Pools and gases. as appropriate.

reporting and verifying the results. It was also agreed that developing countries undertaking REDD+ activities should provide a summary of information on how all of the safeguards are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the activities. it stipulates that systems for providing information on how the safeguards are addressed and respected should:  Be consistent with the guidance identified in decision 1/CP.15. paragraph 70. A description of national forest monitoring systems and the institutional roles and responsibilities for measuring. 6. The summary of information should be provided periodically and be included in national communications. included in the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. appendix I. paragraph 1. Reporting on safeguards Decision 12/CP. which includes: (a) The assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (CO2 eq). 2.4).0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 135 . 4.16. Box 6. Specifically. Summary information from the final report containing each corresponding assessed FREL/FRL.  Provide transparent and consistent information that is accessible by all relevant stakeholders and updated on a regular basis. consistent with the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. (c) The territorial forest area covered.3 Guidelines for elements to be included in a technical annex to a BUR 1.17 provides guidance relating to the provision of information on how safeguards are addressed and respected (see Box 6. are consistent with those used to establish the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. as appropriate. Necessary information that allows for the reconstruction of the results.  Be transparent and flexible to allow for improvements over time. (d) The date of the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level submission and the date of the final technical assessment report. Demonstration that the methodologies used to produce the results referred to in decision 14/CP.16 are being addressed and respected. and  Build upon existing systems. 5. have been taken into account. (e) The period (in years) of the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. A description of how the elements contained in decision 4/CP. paragraph 2.  Provide information on how all of the safeguards referred to in appendix I to decision 1/CP.16. 3. (b) The activity or activities referred to in decision 1/CP.  Be country-driven and implemented at the national level. or other communication channels agreed to by the COP. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. Results in tonnes of CO2 eq per year.19. paragraph 1(c) and (d).

information should be reported in an inventory of emissions and removals that is typically divided into two parts: reporting tables and an inventory report.16. are not used for the conversion of natural forests. A module is divided into two sub-modules to distinguish between those lands that remain in the same land-use category and those lands converted to other land-use categories. Worksheets The GPG-LULUCF worksheets are presented in different modules. taking into account national legislation and sovereignty.iges.CO2 GHG emissions. Transparent and effective national forest governance structures. Box 6. The GPG-LULUCF contains worksheets that can be used to perform the actual calculations of emissions and removals and could be included in the inventory to improve transparency.2. national circumstances and laws.or.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp3/Anx_3A_2_Reporting_Tables. and non. in the actions referred to in Decision 1/CP. by taking into account relevant international obligations. Actions to reduce displacement of emissions.19 of the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ reiterates the above provisions and further stipulates that the summary of information referred to above could also be provided. dead organic matter. soils (further sub- grouped into mineral soils and organic soils). 6. Each module corresponds to a specific land-use category 35. ensuring that the actions referred to in decision 1/CP. paragraphs 70 and 72. but are instead used to incentivize the protection and conservation of natural forests and their ecosystem services.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 136 .3 Reporting provisions of the GPG-LULUCF According to the GPG-LULUCF. via the web platform on the UNFCCC website. and to enhance other social and environmental benefits. Actions are consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity. While the worksheets are largely based on Tier 1 methods. Each sub-module is further divided into four worksheet groups covering: living biomass.16. 35 Example worksheet: http://www. in particular indigenous peoples and local communities. Respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and members of local communities.4 Safeguards that should be promoted and supported when REDD+ activities are implemented Actions complement or are consistent with the objectives of national forest programmes and relevant international conventions and agreements. Decision 12/CP. The full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders. and noting that the United Nations General Assembly has adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. they are supplemented with higher tier methods where appropriate. paragraph 70. on a voluntary basis.ipcc- nggip. Actions to address the risks of reversals.

soil type. Furthermore. worksheets contain the following information: • Initial and final land-use category. Reporting tables Two types of reporting tables are provided in the GPG-LULUCF. The first represents a matrix of the area of all land that was converted to another category and the associated emissions. 36 For illustration. To ensure the completeness of an inventory. • Activity data. Carbon-stock changes per unit area deforested or degraded or managed. Though this Manual focuses on forest monitoring. The second type of table is a subset of the first type. degradation and management of forests. • Emission factors.2 of the GPG-LULUCF.In general. which should be used to provide references to relevant sections of the inventory report if any additional information is needed. if a country decides that a disproportionate amount of effort would be required to collect data for a pool from a specific category that is not a key category in terms of the overall level and trend in national emission. this table is provided as an example. in thousands of hectares.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 137 . Gg) or in CO2eq. It also reports the emissions and removals of CO2 and non-CO2 GHGs due to conversion of the six categories to any other land-use categories.g. and results from the first table because it reflects the resultant change in carbon stock due to activities. tree species. All reporting tables are included in Annex A3. • Total change in carbon stock.2).jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp3/Anx_3A_2_Reporting_Tables.3 (two parts). along with supporting documentation. Areas of land.ipcc-nggip. Additional stratification is encouraged (in a separate column for subdivisions) according to criteria such as climate zone. vegetation type. management system. Expressed in physical units (e. the summary reporting table is reproduced in Figure 6.iges. the country should list all gases/pools excluded on these grounds. national land classification or other factors.or. Obtained by multiplying each activity data by the relevant emission carbon stock change factor.. An example of a compilation worksheet is shown in Figure 6.2. ecological zones. the inventory compiler should use qualitative “notation keys” provided by the IPCC Guidelines and GPG (see Table 6. For example.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. and use the notation key “NE” (Not Estimated) in the reporting tables. separated for each carbon pool. 36 http://www. together with a justification for exclusion. the reporting tables are generally complemented by a documentation. and • Total emissions. it is important to fill in information for all entries of the reporting tables. If actual emission and removal quantities have not been estimated or cannot otherwise be reported in the tables. subjected to gross deforestation.

REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. or uncertainty in emissions or removals. land area representation and land-use databases are likely to be required. the assumptions. Typical sections of the inventory report are: • An overview of trends for aggregated GHG emissions/removals by gas and by category. the methodology used for identifying key categories. In the context of REDD+ reporting.. and an indication of the level of complexity (IPCC tiers) applied. • Information on uncertainties (i.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 138 . QA/QC procedures and archiving of data. recalculations (with justification for providing new estimates). including information on the level of category disaggregation used and its rationale. data sources and rationale for their selection. appropriate information on land-use definitions. Inventory report The other part of a national inventory is an inventory report that contains comprehensive and transparent information. including data from previous inventory years. and • Tables for illustrating the results of the key category analysis. Whenever the term key category is used. explanations for why the IPCC-recommended tiers have not been applied. it includes both source and sink categories. • A description of the methodologies used in compiling the inventory. time-series consistency. and if necessary. methods used and underlying assumptions).Figure 6. the trend in emissions and removals. A key category is one that is prioritized within a national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country's total inventory of GHG in terms of the absolute level of emissions and removals. the completeness of the reporting and eventual re-calculations.e.2: Reproduction of a compilation worksheet for reporting emissions and removals Other tables that may also be incorporated in a report include: • Tables with emission trends. • A description of the key categories.

and • Information on planned improvements. all of the relevant inventory information should be compiled and archived.iges. 37 www.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. C (Confidential Emissions and/or removals are aggregated and included elsewhere in the inventory information) because reporting at a disaggregated level could lead to disclosure of confidential information.2: Notation keys for use in GHG-reporting tables 37 Furthermore. Notation key Explanation NE (Not estimated) Emissions and/or removals occur but have not been estimated or reported.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 139 . Such cells are normally shaded in the reporting tables.ipcc-nggip. activity data and documentation on how these factors and data were generated and aggregated for reporting. This information should allow for reconstruction of the inventory by experts not involved in its preparation. preparation and management. The category where these emissions and removals are included should be indicated (for example in the documentation box in the correspondent table). • A description of the institutional arrangements for inventory planning. IE (Included Emissions and/or removals for this activity or category are estimated and included in elsewhere) the inventory but not presented separately for this category. Table 6. NA (Not Applicable) The activity of category exists but relevant emissions and removals are considered never to occur. NO (Not Occurring) An activity or process does not occur within a country.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/1_volume1/V1_8_ch8_Reporting_Guidance. including all disaggregated emission factors.or.

0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 140 .3: Reproduction of summary reporting tables REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.Figure 6.

Software for reporting The UNFCCC has developed an online software tool. and to help to improve scientific understanding.jp/software/index. the “purpose of verifying national GHG inventories is to establish their reliability and to check the accuracy of the reported numbers by independent means. The IPCC task force on GHG Inventories has also released an Inventory Software tool 39 to help countries estimate and report GHG emissions and removals. assignment of emission factors and completion of the calculations.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_national_communications/non- annex_i_inventory_software/items/7627. Determining mitigation potential requires an understanding of both current emission trends and the influence of alternative land use and management practices on future emissions. and • Forest/plantation categories: option exists for 18 categories. • Names of categories used in the column are not included in the calculation procedure of the worksheets and thus can be easily changed.edu/projects/ALUsoftware/index.html. this software is compatible with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC. such as: • The names or type of forest/plantation category in a country may differ from the categories defined in the UNFCCC software. 6. 38 where activity data (AD) and emission/removal factors data are used as input to obtain net annual carbon uptake/release.or. The software simplifies the process of conducting the inventory by dividing the inventory analysis into steps to facilitate the compilation of AD. 2013). REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.g. Many governments also have an interest in mitigating GHG emissions from agriculture and forestry.ipcc-nggip. These goals can be achieved through: 38 http://unfccc. Verification can be performed at several levels: project. • The UNFCCC software can be changed to nationally relevant categories (e. 2003). There are two options if the number of forest/plantation categories is more than provided: i) Insert additional rows only if the inventory expert has capacity to modify the “macros”. 2006b).0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 141 . Another software tool is the Agriculture and Land Use GHG Inventory Software40 which guides inventory compilers through the process of estimating GHG emissions and removals related to agricultural and forestry activities (ALU Software. which is a limitation if a country has more than 18 categories..html 40 http://www. build confidence on estimates and trends. or ii) merge smaller or homogeneous categories such that the total number of rows (or categories) is not larger than 18.” The IPCC has also stipulated that the overall goals of verification are to provide inputs to improve GHG inventories.3 VERIFICATION According to the GPG-LULUCF (IPCC.iges.php 39 http://www.colostate. national and international. There are several key features or limitations in using the software.nrel. Acacia species can be changed to another species). The software also has internal checks to ensure data integrity.

pdf 42 COP 19 agreed that decisions 9/CP. In some instances. 11/CP. and possibly performed by research consortiums and/or programs”. measured by independent methods at different levels.pdf).19. Furthermore. Specifically: • Decision 13/CP.” A complete verification process would require cross-checking of the results at different scales (sub-national and national).3. available at http://unfccc. which are performed by the organizations. other government agencies. text is quoted verbatim from the IPCC document.19 on guidelines and procedures for the technical assessment of submissions from Parties on proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels. independent scientists.int/resource/docs/2013/cop19/eng/10. such as independent inventories and international programs and datasets.19.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 142 . research consortiums.g. transcription.19 and 15/CP. and 5) Using models. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. and analysis). In relation to internal verification. and is most relevant for REDD+ activities. At the same time.ipcc-nggip. which are performed by other bodies not directly involved with the preparation of the GHG inventory (e. In addition to these five approaches.19 on modalities for measuring.3. emission 41 http://www.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp5/Chp5_7_Verification. Poland.19 be designated as the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ (see paragraph 44 of the COP19 report. 3) Direct measurement of emissions and removals of GHGs.or. information is provided in section 5. Governments reached agreement regarding external verification requirements and procedures for REDD+ as part of the negotiations at COP19 in Warsaw. 14/CP.” The five main approaches to verification currently included in the GPG-LULUCF are: 1) Comparison to other information. • Internal checks. rather than on a single year basis. 4) Remote sensing. and possibly complemented by top-down approaches based on atmospheric measurements. November 2013.7 of the GPG-LULUCF 41. depending on a country’s national circumstances.19. examination of specific aspects of the inventory. 2) Application of higher tier methods.19. such as underlying data (collection. 13/CP.iges. private companies.3. reporting and verifying. and • External checks. cross-checking requires considerable time and it is likely to be implemented over multiple years. The provisions of these two decisions will be discussed below in section 6. non-governmental organizations). 6. The resulting “Warsaw Framework for REDD+”42 includes two decisions relating to international-level verification.19. This information may facilitate verification activities at the project or national level. 10/CP. agencies or individuals responsible for the compilation of the inventory..1 Approaches to project or national internal verification According to the GPG-LULUCF. in other instances changes have been made to reflect specific REDD+ aspects. the following may be included: peer and public review. the IPCC has recognized that “such verification would be complex and resource intensive. the uniqueness of estimation methods required for forestry-related activities has led to the conclusion that verification “would be based on complete accounting of emissions and removals at the national scale. 12/CP. and • Decision 14/CP.

jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp5/Chp5_7_Verification. with reference to its applicability (e. to assist in identifying the most suitable approaches for particular categories or inputs. costs.factors. The criteria for selecting verification approaches includes: scale of interest. and upscaling procedures. of the GPG-LULUCF 43 provides a technical description for each approach. Section 5. verification should be conducted using data and methods that are independent from those used to prepare the inventory. for a particular category.4 below. Verification. rules used for the calculations (suitability and application of methods.. 43 http://www. The IPCC guidance also provides an information table.or.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. AD assumptions.7. complexity of design and implementation of the verification approaches. desired level of accuracy and precision.g.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 143 .iges. types of data).ipcc-nggip. including models). Figure 6. No matter which verification approaches are used or what aspects of the inventory are verified. and the required level of expertise needed to verify.

Figure 6.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 144 .4: Reproduction of the table for general applicability of verification approaches REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.

and • Final calculations can be reasonably linked to underlying data and assumption. the spatial scale of the inventory coverage.or.” Some of the checks and comparisons that can be used for internal verification of the LULUCF sector are summarized in Box 5. • Other available national verification activities are described.3 44 of the GPG-LULUCF (reproduced below). • Uncertainty estimates and QA/QC documentation is included in the report.6. precision and cost of the approach itself. the quantity and quality of the data to be verified. or their uncertainty is high or they are expected to change significantly over the inventory reporting period. and ideally they should have been conducted as a part of QA/QC. there are two key considerations for an inventory agency in its efforts to develop a verification plan: • Identify the criteria for selecting the inventory elements for verification. • Decide how the inventory elements will be verified. non-key categories can also be selected for verification if they are of particular relevance to mitigation efforts. key source/sink categories should be given priority for verification. In addition to the suitability/availability of a particular verification approach. The GPG-LULUCF stipulates that “if a country undertakes internal verification of its inventory. At the same time. • Applied verification methods are transparent.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. other criteria to be used for selecting a particular approach include: the type of data to be verified. These checks and comparison are essential.LULUCF. • Verification results are reasonable and well-explained. For example.iges. and the accuracy. 44 http://www.ipcc-nggip. rigorous and scientifically sound.7.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp5/Chp5_7_Verification.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 145 . it should ensure that: • Sufficient independent expertise is available. • Documentation of the verification is included in the inventory report.2 General guidance for internal verification According to the GPG.3.

3 of the GPG LULUCF Country-specific circumstances and availability of resources are key to selecting appropriate verification approaches. 2 and 3 are feasible for verifying several components of the inventory.Figure 6. on a large scale. In general.5: Box 5. Remote sensing is the most suitable method for the verification of land areas.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 146 . and. Direct measurements are relevant. costs may REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. “Approaches 1. although this approach can be resource-intensive. Approaches 1 and 2 can be easily implemented by an inventory agency with low to moderate resources.7.

A description of how the elements contained in decision 4/CP.19.2. Models can be used as an alternative when direct measurements combined with remote sensing is not feasible. Modalities for measuring.” 6. Results in tonnes of CO2 eq per year. Technical assessment of forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels (Decision 13/CP. paragraph 70.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 147 .5. consistent with the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. reporting and verifying. and forest carbon stock and forest-area changes after implementation of REDD+ activities has started (see Box 6. forest carbon stocks. which includes: (a) The assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year (CO2 eq). Each submission will be assessed by two land use.19) In accordance with decision 12/CP. Data and information used in the estimation of anthropogenic forest-related emissions by sources and removals by sinks.5).16. The objectives of the technical assessment are: REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. 6. (d) The date of the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level submission and the date of the final technical assessment report. (b) The activity or activities referred to in decision 1/CP.15. developing countries may submit a proposed FREL/FRL that will be subject to a technical assessment. reporting and verifying the results. have been taken into account. Necessary information that allows for the reconstruction of the results. Box 6. land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) experts selected from the UNFCCC roster of experts. and 2.2. 3.3.be a constraint. A description of national forest monitoring systems and the institutional roles and responsibilities for measuring. one from a developed country and one from a developing country. Demonstration that the methodologies used to produce the results referred to in paragraph 2 above are consistent with those used to establish the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. (c) The territorial forest area covered.3 International verification-related provisions resulting from the Warsaw Framework for REDD+ As discussed above in section 6. Their proposed FREL/FRL. 5. included in the forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. (e) The period (in years) of the assessed forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level. 4. Summary information from the final report containing each corresponding assessed FREL &/or FRL. developing countries interested in implementing REDD+ activities for results-based payments are required to submit information to the UNFCCC secretariat on: 1. paragraph 7 1. Guidelines for elements to be included in the technical annex referred to in decision 14/CP. 2.17. Both data sets will be subject to a technical assessment or analysis. paragraph 1(c) and (d).

including methodological information. methodologies. methods. taking into account the stepwise approach. as appropriate. • Whether the definition of forest used in the construction of the FREL/FRL has been provided and. and justification of why omitted pools and/or activities were not deemed significant. Given the facultative nature of the assessment.17) for the construction of the FREL/FRL. consistent and accurate. approaches. complete. The decision also contains provisions relating to general procedures and the timing (see Figure 6.6 for timeline) of the technical assessment. description of data sets. and activities included in the FREL/FRL. The technical assessment of the data. • To assess the degree to which the information provided is in accordance with the guidelines for submissions of information on FREL/FRL (annex to decision 12/CP. • If applicable. • Pools and gases.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 148 . • The extent to which the FREL/FRL value is consistent with the information and descriptions provided by the country. areas for technical improvement may be identified and these areas and capacity-building needs for the construction of future FRELs/FRLs may be noted by the country concerned. As part of the technical assessment process. • Whether a description of relevant policies and plans has been provided. technical exchange of information on the construction of FRELs/FRLs with a view to supporting the capacity of developing countries for the construction and future improvements. as appropriate. why and how the definition used was chosen. • The extent to which the information provided was transparent. and procedures used in the construction of FREL/FRL will assess the following: • The extent to which the FREL/FRL maintains consistency with corresponding anthropogenic forest-related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks as contained in the national GHG inventories. non-intrusive. models (if applicable) assumptions used and whether the FRELs/FRLs are national or cover less than the entire national territory of forest area. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. if it is different from the one used in the national GHG inventory or from the one reported to other international organizations. • How historical data have been taken into account in the establishment of the FREL/FRL. whether descriptions of changes to previously submitted FRELs/FRLs have been provided. • To offer a facilitative. • Whether assumptions about future changes to domestic policies have been included in the construction of the FREL/FRL. the assessment team is to refrain from making any judgment on domestic policies taken into account in the construction of FRELs/FRLs. of their FRELs/FRLs subject to national capabilities and policy.

0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 149 .6: Timeline for the technical assessment of FRELs/FRLs REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6. if submitted. Country Assessment Secretariat Team Submission Receipt of Submission Send submission to assessment team (2 weeks) Desk review (8 weeks) Technical Ask country for clarifications (1 week) Respond to clarification questions (8 weeks) Consider response &. revised FREL/FRL (4 weeks) Prepare draft report Provide comments on draft report (12 weeks) Address country’s comments & Publish final Figure 6.

(b) The analysis of the technical annex. The developing country that submitted the technical annex has the possibility to interact with the technical team of experts during the analysis of its technical annex to provide clarifications and additional information to facilitate the analysis by the technical team of experts. including areas for further improvement and capacity-building needs.16. and (d) The results are accurate. two LULUCF experts from the UNFCCC roster of experts. one each from a developing country and a developed country. paragraph 4. consistent. annex IV. (c) The data and information provided in the technical annex is consistent with the relevant guidelines. (c) Areas for technical improvement identified. the technical team of experts shall analyse the extent to which: (a) There is consistency in methodologies. as appropriate. comprehensiveness and the information provided between the assessed reference level and the results of the implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. as appropriate. As part of the technical analysis referred to in decision 2/CP. (b) The data and information provided in the technical annex is transparent. if noted by the country concerned. under their collective responsibility.19) Upon the request of the developing country seeking to obtain and receive payments for results-based actions. to the extent possible. paragraph 70. and (d) Any comments and/or responses by the developing country concerned. The LULUCF experts will develop. complete and accurate.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 150 . The two LULUCF experts may seek clarifications on the technical annex and the country should provide clarifications to the extent possible. definitions. in accordance with national circumstances and taking into account national capabilities.Technical analysis of data and information for results-based payments (Decision 14/CP. containing: (a) The technical annex. a technical report to be published by the secretariat via the web platform on the UNFCCC website. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.17. will be included among the members selected for the technical team of experts.

ipcc-nggip.C. Published: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. Published: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.int/resource/docs/2013/cop19/eng/10a01. 2006b. Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory. 2006. http://unfccc.6.ipcc-nggip.colostate. 2007.iges. http://www.html IPCC.html IPCC. Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its thirteenth session.int/files/meetings/cop_16/application/pdf/cop16_lca.or. 2013. Published: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.or.iges.jp/public/2006gl/index.1 UNFCCC. Japan.pdf UNFCCC.or.nrel. Good Practice Guidance for Land Use.iges. 2000. UNFCCC. Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software. 1996. http://www. Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. 2003. http://unfccc. http://www.ipcc-nggip.or. IPCC.ipcc-nggip. 2013. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session. UNFCCC Decision 1/CP. IPCC Inventory Software http://www. http://www. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.iges. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its thirteenth session.jp/public/gl/invs1.ipcc- nggip.16: Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention . held in Bali from 3 to 15 December 2007.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 6.0 – REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE 151 . Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Land-Use Change and Forestry.edu/projects/ALUsoftware/. and the role of conservation.int/resource/docs/2011/cop17/eng/09a01. 2011. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its nineteenth session. Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Japan. http://www.jp/public/gp/english/index. Japan. Colorado State University.html IPCC. held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session. 2010.pdf#page=4. http://unfccc.4 REFERENCES ALU Software.html IPCC.jp/software/ UNFCCC. FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add. held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its nineteenth session.or. Japan. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. Published: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf.iges.

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