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REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD,
through a Task Order under the Prosperity, Livelihoods, and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity
Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00, Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022).

Tetra Tech
159 Bank Street, Suite 300
Burlington, Vermont 05401 USA
Telephone: (802) 658-3890
Fax: (802) 658-4247
E-Mail: international.development@tetratech.com
www.tetratechintdev.com

Tetra Tech Contacts:
Ian Deshmukh, Senior Technical Advisor/Manager
Email: ian.deshmukh@tetratech.com

Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program
1611 North Kent Street
Suite 805
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 592-6388
Fax: (866) 795-6462

Stephen Kelleher, Chief of Party
Email: stephen.kelleher@fcmcglobal.org

Olaf Zerbock, USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative
Email: ozerbock@usaid.gov

Editors:
• Jennifer Hewson, Conservation International
• Marc Steininger, FCMC & Conservation International
• Stelios Pesmajoglou, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

Contributing authors:
• Angel Parra, Consultant; GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert
• Gordon Smith, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute
• David Shoch, TerraCarbon, LLC
• John Musinsky, National Ecological Observatory Network
• Fred Stolle, World Resources Institute
• Kemen Austin, World Resources Institute
• Irene Angeletti, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities
(FCMC) Program to provide its missions, partner governments, local and international stakeholders with assistance in
developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. FCMC services include analysis, evaluation, tools and guidance for
program design support; training materials; and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US
Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture.

Please cite this report as:
Hewson, J., M.K. Steininger and S. Pesmajoglou, eds. 2014. REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual,
Version 2.0. USAID-supported Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities Program. Washington, DC, USA.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 i

VERSION 2. VERSION 2. MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES (FCMC) PROGRAM DECEMBER 2014 DISCLAIMER The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government.0 ii . REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.REDD+ MEASUREMENT. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. REDD+ MEASUREMENT.0 FOREST CARBON.

... 4 1................... 17 2..........38 3..............................2 IPCC GUIDANCE...1 PURPOSE.....................................22 2........... 8 2......................................................66 4.................19 2............................................. SCOPE AND STRUCTURE ............................................................ VIII 1.......................................................................4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS.................................... 1 1....................................................................................0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ................3 REFERENCES.............................................. 50 4.......2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ ................3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS .................................... 1 1................................26 2..................................................49 4.............67 4......................30 3.................... 31 3...............................................0 iii .................................................................34 3............ V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..............................................................................54 4.....................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ..................................... 57 4...........50 4...........3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN ................31 3..............................................41 3....................................................... 9 2.........................1 INTRODUCTION ...............................1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 42 3.........................0 INTRODUCTION..................................6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA ..........................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................... VERSION 2..................................................0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ....................................69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT.......................0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS....................................................................5 EXAMPLES ............................... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.........2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT .................................................................13 2...................................1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................7 REFERENCES..............................3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ......4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES ............................................ 9 2.....6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 REFERENCES....................................5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS ................................................................................. III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................2 BACKGROUND ..................................4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM .......

........7 DATA CHECKING .....................................................0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE .........................4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW .......................... 82 5.................93 5................................................................................................................... 118 5................76 4..... 121 6................................................................................ 109 5....................................................................................................................................................... 114 5...............................................................6 REFERENCES...............................................10 REFERENCES ........................8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS ..........1 INTRODUCTION ..............................................................3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS..........................................................84 5....................3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS ................................................................ REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.......................0 iv ................................................................................................................ 152 7.....................2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING .... 152 7........4 REFERENCES...........................1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC ............................................................................... 165 7.............................................................................................................................................75 4. VERSION 2......7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING ............8 SELECTED RESOURCES................................................... 4............................11 SELECTED RESOURCES ...................................................0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE ......................................2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC ................................................. 125 6............ 125 6. 141 6.................82 5.......................2 REPORTING.................... 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT.......78 4.....................................................................................................................90 5........5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH......0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ...............................................3 VERIFICATION ..................9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD ..............................................................81 5..................... 151 7.............................................79 4..................................................................... 127 6...........................................................................

Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture.0 v . REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. VERSION 2. Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT.

Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT.FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science. Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. VERSION 2. Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science.0 vi . REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology. Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement.

plus the role of conservation.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.0 vii . REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. completeness. accuracy. comparability. VERSION 2. and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT. sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency.

John Rogan of Boston University. Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. Megan McGroddy. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History. and Leif Kindberg of FCMC. Ronald McRoberts. SilvaCarbon Consultant. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program. Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. Rishi Das. Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center. including Colin Silver. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. and members of the USAID Climate Change office. Karyn Tabor. Maggie Roth.0 viii . Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. VERSION 2. Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Andrew Lister.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text. Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics.

Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF). Section 3. More detailed and technical information on the collection of data for input onto greenhouse gas (GHG) estimation is provided in Chapters 4 and 5. the main steps for estimating emissions and removals for activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. 3.3. This chapter is relevant to the activities highlighted on the following page.0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS Authors: Angel Parra and Stelios Pesmajoglou 3. sustainable forest management. Inventory and Reporting Steps. of this Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national GHG inventory. It also provides an overview of the methodologies for estimating emissions and removals.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 31 .1 INTRODUCTION This chapter provides a brief description of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. the main carbon pools. and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). and land-use types. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. including a brief overview of IPCC guidance evolution. plus the role of conservation. including a discussion on the activity data (AD) and emission factors (EFs) needed.

Document and archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land- use category. for the time period required. appropriate to the tier level identified. STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals. assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize such pools in terms of methodological choice. STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. if using the gain-loss method.STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. through stratification and other methods. STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. and worksheets where appropriate. Within the categories designated as key. carbon pool and non-CO2 source. STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates. for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories. STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met. using the reporting tables. STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs). EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area. estimating the uncertainty in each estimate.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 32 . pool or non-CO2 gas. Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3.

change in silviculture or management practice).According to the GPG-LULUCF.. Managed land may be distinguished from unmanaged land by fulfilling not only the production but also ecological and social functions. and o The stocks of carbon in the land-use categories (both those that are subjected to change and those that are not).ipcc- nggip. the practice used to convert the land to a different use (e. it is important to consider the inventory scope. and iii) uncertainty estimates associated with any data reported. etc.1).. REDD+) is to have the capacity and capability to compile a GHG inventory with estimates of carbon stock changes with a known uncertainty. and • Changes in carbon stocks can be estimated by first establishing the rates of change in land use. Ramsar.e. Box 3. The minimum requirement for a country to participate in a mitigation mechanism connected to a financial process (e. the estimation methodologies described are those from the GPG-LULUCF. Anthropogenic emissions and removals are defined as those occurring on managed lands. estimation methodologies and data needs. rests upon two linked assumptions: • The flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) to/from the atmosphere is equal to changes in carbon stocks in the existing biomass and soils. the fundamental basis for the GHG inventory methodology for land use and land-use change in forests. no definitions are given here beyond broad descriptions. burning. and the carbon stocks before and after the change. a National Forest Inventory. for those changes associated with forest lands. For that reason. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3.or. For the purposes of this Manual.g.iges. for example. The term managed lands is defined fairly broadly and although it is not strictly the same as anthropogenic activities it is most commonly used as the best approximation available on a global basis (see Box 3. including REDD+. which may refer to internationally accepted definitions. a country needs to have: i) country-specific estimates of EFs by using. This requires estimating: o The land use in the inventory year. a calendar year or a multi-year time period).1: Managed and unmanaged lands Countries can use their own definitions of managed and unmanaged lands. In the context of REDD+. which are consistent with those in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006 IPCC Guidelines) (IPCC.. The detailed definitions and the national approach to distinguishing between unmanaged and managed land should be described in a transparent manner in the inventory report (IPCC GPG 2003). To meet this condition. 2006). available at http://www. a national GHG inventory should cover all anthropogenic emissions and removals within the national boundaries and over a specific time period (i.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf_files/Chp2/Chp2_Land_Areas. such as those by FAO. o The conversion of forest to a different land use.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 33 .g. To estimate GHG emissions and removals. ii) multi-temporal inventory data.pdf. selective cutting. clear-cutting.

time series consistency. and • To provide good practice guidance on the choice of estimation methodology and improvements of the methods.1 of this Manual. CO2 pools. 1996).2 IPCC GUIDANCE 3.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 34 .2. the GPG-LULUCF 2003. and non-CO2 gases. refer to Section 7. The GPG-LULUCF provides guidance on specific features related to the LULUCF sector including: • Consistent representation of land areas. and Other Land Use). and • The following non-CO2 gas estimates: o Nitrogen dioxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from forest fires. For more details. cropland. deadwood. Its main objectives are: • To assist countries in producing national GHG inventories for the LULUCF sector that are transparent. wetlands. • All five carbon pools (aboveground biomass. including estimation of uncertainties. • CO2 emissions and removals estimates for all carbon pools. and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines (Volume 4: Agriculture. as well as advice on cross-cutting issues. o N2O from managed forests (fertilized forests). REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. quality assurance. o N2O and CH4 from managed wetlands. and other land. grassland. o N2O from drainage of forest soils. complete. Inventories can be organized according to six broad land-use categories: forest land. and quality control.3. and • Guidance on how to complement the Convention reporting for the LULUCF sector to meet the supplementary requirements under the Kyoto Protocol. Table 3. consistent. litter. Forest Land Remaining Forest Land) during the period covered by the inventory.. and lands converted into another land-use category (e. Land-Use Change and Forestry The IPCC developed the GPG-LULUCF in 2003 (IPCC.g. Forest Land Converted to Cropland) during the inventory period.1 The Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. These land-use categories can be further sub-divided into lands remaining in the same land use (e. Forestry. and o N2O from land-use conversion. comparable and accurate. 2003) as a supplement to the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Revised 1996 Guidelines)(IPCC. and soil organic carbon).g. Other advances of the GPG-LULUCF are the inclusion of: • A key source/sink category analysis. belowground biomass.. settlements. enabling the dedication of limited inventory resources to important source/sink categories. • Verification.1 summarizes the differences between the Revised 1996 Guidelines. • Sampling for area estimates and for estimating emissions and removals.

or other managed  Other land lands  CO2 emissions and removals from soils Some land categories not included.Revised 1996 IPCC 2006 IPCC Guidelines GPG-LULUCF Guidelines AFOLU Sector Approach for reporting based Approach for reporting based Agricultural sector is merged on four categories: on six land categories: with LULUCF in order to ensure consistency and avoid  Changes in forest and other  Forest land double counting. and livestock dead organic matter and  Aboveground biomass population characterization and belowground biomass are zero  Belowground biomass manure management systems (i. conversion  Wetlands  Abandonment of croplands. Description of alternative methods to estimate and report carbon stock changes REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3.e.. Forests and Grassland The six land categories are Similar categories subdivided according further subdivided into: to the four reporting categories:  Land remaining in the same  Changes in management use category  Conversion  Land converted into another  Abandonment use category  Cultivation Methods provided mainly for Methods given for measurement Incorporation of methods for aboveground biomass and soil and estimation of all five carbon non-CO2 emissions from organic carbon. CH4 emissions contained in an appendix. pools: managed lands. reflecting the limited availability of scientific information.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 35 .  Litter Incorporation of methods to  Soil organic carbon estimate CO2 emissions from Methods given for all non-CO2 flooded land.  Settlements pastures. The reporting woody biomass stocks  Cropland for land categories remains  Forest and grassland  Grassland similar to the GPG-LULUCF. soils and Default assumption: changes in biomass burning. coconut. such as coffee. inputs equal losses). tea. Lack of clarity on agroforestry. with methods for gases.  Dead organic matter from agriculture.

Database (EFDB) that is a out of deadwood  Biomass Expansion Factor supplementary tool to the 2006  Litter stock under different (BEF) for conversion of IPCC Guidelines. analysis provided for the selection of:  Land categories  Land sub-categories  Carbon pools  CO2 and non-CO2 gases Key AD required: Key AD required: Similar  Area of plantations/forest  Area of forest land remaining  Forest area converted forest land and area of other  Average area converted (10- land category converted into year average) forest land. species. providing management systems annual net increment alternative emission factors  Soil organic carbon in (including bark) to with associated documentation. as well as development into deadwood in volume suitable for of the IPCC Emission Factor  Annual biomass transferred industrial processing. the inventory) and 20-100  Forest area affected by years before year-t disturbances  Area under different land  Forest area affected by fire use/management systems and  Land afforested derived from soil type: during year-t and cropland/grassland 20 years before year-t  Land converted to forest  Area under managed organic through plantation or natural soils regeneration Key Emission Factors required: Key Emission Factors required: Improvements of default  Annual biomass transferred emissions and stock change  Average annual net increment factors. disaggregated by:  Area abandoned and climatic region. management years before year-t (year of system. associated with harvested wood products. vegetation regenerating to forest: 20 type. Key source/sink category Key source/sink category Similar analysis not provided.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 36 . etc. different management aboveground tree biomass systems increment  Amount of biomass fuel  Root: shoot ratio appropriate present in an area subjected to increment to burning REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3.

AD and the selection of methods. not linked. CO2 and non-CO2 GHG emissions.2 2006 IPCC Guidelines The 2006 IPCC Guidelines represent an evolutionary development in the methodologies for GHG inventories (IPCC. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. • Reporting on all emissions by sources and removals by sinks from managed lands. GPG-LULUCF. Changes in carbon stock in Biomass and soil carbon pools Similar biomass and soil carbon in a linked. provided. • Generic methods for accounting of biomass. The most significant change introduced was the consolidation of the LULUCF sector and the Agriculture sector into a single sector referred to as Agriculture. Figure 3-1 provides an overview of the evolution of the LULUCF sector in the IPCC Guidelines. and 2006 Guidelines for the AFOLU sector 3. settlements.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 37 . and other land).2. wetlands. 2006). cropland. • Incorporating methods for non-CO2 emissions from managed soils and biomass burning. dead organic matter and soil carbon stock changes in all land-use categories and generic methods for GHG emissions from biomass burning that can be applied in all land-use categories. AD Emission Factors explicitly and Emission Factors not described. • Adopting three hierarchical tiers of methods that range from default emission factors and simple equations to the use of country-specific data and models to accommodate national circumstances. These land categories are further sub-divided into land remaining in the same category and land converted from one category to another. Table 3. • Describing alternative methods to estimate and report carbon stock changes associated with harvested wood products. grassland.  BEF to convert volume of extracted roundwood to total aboveground biomass (including bark)  Mortality rate in natural and artificially regenerated forests Three tier structure approach Three tier structure for the Similar presented. and livestock population characterization and manure management systems from agriculture. given vegetation. carbon pools. but application for choice of methods. The land-use categories are designed to enable inclusion of all managed land area within a country.1: Differences between 1996 IPCC Guidelines. while emissions and removals for unmanaged lands are not reported. or forest type. Other changes for the AFOLU sector include: • Adopting the six land-use categories used in the GPG-LULUCF (forest land. Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). • Incorporating a KCA for land-use categories. which are considered to be anthropogenic.

June 7th.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 38 . Figure 3. providing alternative emission factors with associated documentation. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. • Improving default emissions and stock change factors.or.3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS The sequence of steps for inventorying emissions and removals for the national inventory report is outlined below: 1) Estimate the land areas in each land-use category for the time period required. • Greater consistency in land area classification for selecting appropriate emission and stock change factors and AD.pdf) 3. drawing on the three approaches. 2008 (http://www.1: Evolution of the LULUCF sector in the IPCC guidelines.jp/ presentation/NGGIP_AWG_KP. • Adhering to principles of mass balance in computing carbon stock changes. reflecting the limited availability of scientific information. From the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Presentation at UNFCCC Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) Workshop on Methodological Issues. as well as development of the IPCC EFDB that is a supplementary tool to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. and • Incorporating methods to estimate CO2 emissions from flooded land with methods for CH4 emissions contained in an appendix.iges.ipcc-nggip. described below.

4) Quantify emissions and removals and estimate the uncertainty in each estimate. 5) Use the reporting tables to report emissions and removals estimates. tier levels are described below. pool or non-CO2 gas (more information on verification is provided in Chapter 6). Within the categories designated as key. Document and archive all information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land-use category. and expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. and land-use change (more information on reporting is provided in Chapter 6).2) Identify key categories (see Box 3. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. verification. 3) Ensure that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors and AD appropriate to the tier level are being met.2). carbon pool. 6) Implement quality control checks. assess which non-CO2 gases and carbon pools are significant and prioritize such pools in terms of methodological choice.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 39 . Utilize the worksheets where appropriate. non- CO2 source.

Assessing the relative importance of LULUCF categories by integrating them into the overall key category analysis. to the total emissions/removals. so it may not be feasible to use more rigorous methods for every category of emissions and removals. 2. It is good practice for each country to identify its national key categories in a systematic and objective manner. regarding the identification of key categories. By identifying these key categories in the national inventory. the KCA should identify key categories for all sectors excluding LULUCF. which are important. including: 1. Methodological choice for individual source and sink categories is important in managing overall inventory uncertainty. The GPG-LULUCF also recommends performing the KCA twice. these methods generally require more extensive resources for data collection. or to the trends of emissions/removals for the years covered by the inventory. and 3. Section 5. or to the total uncertainty.4 of the GPG-LULUCF provides guidance on quantitative approaches for performing a KCA with the aim of meeting three objectives. The KCA should then be performed with the LULUCF included. inventory uncertainty is lower when emissions and removals are estimated using the most rigorous methods provided for each category or subcategory in the sectoral volumes of these Guidelines.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 40 . helping countries identify the most appropriate methodologies for specific activities. Enabling continued assessment of key source categories without LULUCF. it is good practice to use results of a key category analysis (KCA) as a basis for methodological choice. However. from the GPG-LULUCF. It is therefore good practice to identify those categories that have the greatest contribution to overall inventory uncertainty in order to make the most efficient use of available resources. as well as greater confidence in the estimates that are developed. Consequently.2: Key categories and a key category analysis Key categories refer to specific elements within a GHG inventory. in terms of their contribution. Generally. The figure below. As a first step. provides an overview of the decision process involved in a KCA. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. Such a process will lead to improved inventory quality. They represent a central element of the IPCC Guidelines. Achieving consistency with guidance and decisions of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. inventory compilers can prioritize their efforts and improve their overall estimates.Box 3.

dead wood. and soils (see Box 3. stump. branches. but typically do not make up a significant fraction of the pool. it is good practice to clearly report them. in various states of decomposition above the mineral or organic soil. National circumstances may require slight modifications to the pool definitions used here. 3. Live fine roots (of less than the suggested diameter limit for belowground biomass) are included with soil organic matter where they cannot be distinguished from it empirically. litter. specific to forests.3: Five carbon pools Living Biomass: • Aboveground biomass: All living biomass above the soil. These definitions provide a generic representation of these pools occurring in a terrestrial ecosystem.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 41 . and humic layers. lying dead. Live fine roots (of less than the suggested diameter limit for belowground biomass) are included in litter where they cannot be empirically distinguished.4. including stem. Dead wood includes wood lying on the surface. or measured as part of the soil carbon pool.4. is included in Chapter 4. standing dead trees must be large enough to meet the definition of “tree” that is used for live trees by the country.1 Carbon pools The GPG-LULUCF provides the following definitions for the five carbon pools: aboveground biomass. all six top-level land categories defined by the GPG-LULUCF and AFOLU are briefly presented below: REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. Dead Organic Matter: • Dead wood: Includes all non-living woody biomass not contained in the litter. • Litter: Includes all non-living biomass with a diameter less than a minimum diameter chosen by the country for dead wood (for example 10 cm. This includes the litter. it is acceptable for the methodologies and associated data used in some tiers to exclude it – provided the tiers are used in a consistent manner throughout the forest inventory time series (as specified in Chapter 4). lying on the ground. • Belowground biomass: All living biomass of live roots. Additional information. belowground biomass. (including peat) to a specified depth chosen by the country and applied consistently through the time series. either standing. or in the soil.3. Carbon stocks in lying dead wood are also called coarse woody debris. Soils: • Soil organic matter: Includes organic carbon in mineral and organic soils.3). Fine roots of less than (suggested) 2mm diameter are often excluded.4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES 3. because it is impractical to try to remove very fine roots and root hairs from the soil. Where modified definitions are used. dead roots. seeds. bark. Dead branches still attached to a living plant are included as part of the aboveground live tree biomass pool. and foliage. This ensures that modified definitions are used consistently over time and demonstrates that pools are neither omitted nor double counted. In cases where forest understory is a relatively small component of the aboveground biomass carbon pool. Typically.2 Land-use categories While this Manual focuses on MRV system requirements for forest land. and stumps larger than or equal to 10 cm in diameter or any other diameter used by the country. and possibly also a minimum length). Box 3. fumic.

unless they are already included under other categories. called “tiers. It also includes systems with vegetation that fall below the threshold used in the forest land category and are not expected to exceed. the threshold of the forest land category. as the complexity and resources required for conducting inventories also increase for higher tiers. but are expected to exceed. grassland or settlements categories. such as the changes in carbon stocks before and after a change in land use. sub-divided into managed and unmanaged. Settlements Settlements include all developed land. depending on data availability and the magnitude of expected changes in the pool. where data are available. Tier 2 for biomass and Tier 1 for soil carbon). while EFs are the average amounts of emissions per unit-area of each type of activity. Wetlands Wetlands include land that is covered or saturated by water for all or part of the year (e.4. There is a trade-off. 3.. estimates can be made based on surrogate parameters that are associated with emission rates. however. The generic form of the methodologies provided in all IPCC Inventory guidelines including the GPG-LULUCF is shown in Figure 3. A combination of tiers can be used (e. ice..3). and agro-forestry systems with vegetation below thresholds used for the national definition of forest land.2. Other land Other land includes bare soil.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 42 . as well as agricultural and silvipastoral systems.” In general. The category also includes all grassland from wild natural grasslands. This should be consistent with the selection of national definitions. It also includes systems with vegetation that currently fall below. and all unmanaged land areas that do not fall into any of the other five categories. The GPG-LULUCF (and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines) allow for inventories with different levels of complexity. such as páramo. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. including transportation infrastructure and human settlements of any size.5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS As it is not possible to measure all emissions and removals.g. AD are changes in the area of land use.g. and also by ecosystem type. Grassland Grassland includes rangelands and pasture land that is not considered as cropland.Forest land Forest land includes all land with woody vegetation consistent with thresholds used to define forest land in the national GHG inventory. rock. inventories using higher tiers have improved accuracy and reduced uncertainty (Figure 3. It allows the total identified land areas to match the national area. Emissions estimates are equal to the product of all AD considered and their associated EFs. subdivided into managed and unmanaged consistent with national definitions. without human intervention. peatland) and does not fall into the forest land. Wetlands can be subdivided into managed and unmanaged according to national definitions. An explanation of tiers is provided in Box 3. cropland. the threshold used in the forest land category. Cropland Cropland includes arable and tillage land. to recreational areas.

Figure 3. for example.2: The IPCC basic equation for the estimation of emissions/removals Figure 3.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 43 .As key categories have the most significant impact on total emissions. Other reasons for using a higher tier approach may be the need for improved detail in a particular sector.4). if possible. key categories should be addressed by at least Tier 2 methods. the need to understand the abatement effect of a mitigation project. Em." stands for reduced emissions (adapted from GOFC GOLD.3: Key implications of using different tiers. in order to improve the accuracy of the estimates (Figure 3. 2011) REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. note "Red.

g.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 44 . livestock population data). or the change in area of different land categories (Figure 3. Box 3. The three approaches include: • Approach 1 identifies the total area for each land category. is unlikely to be sufficient for crediting under REDD+. (Angelsen. 2008) Figure 3. These inventories use advanced measurements and/or modeling systems to improve the estimation of GHG emissions and removals beyond Tier 1 or 2 approaches. The GPG-LULUCF and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines provide equations and default parameter values (e.. agricultural production statistics. but the emission and stock change factors are based on country or region-specific data.4: Choice of estimation tier according to KCA process (adapted from Maniatis and Mollicone.g. Higher temporal and spatial resolution and more disaggregated land-use and management categories are used in Tier 2 to correspond with country-defined coefficients for specific regions and specialized land-use categories. 2010) 3. Tier 2 uses the same methodological approach as Tier 1. including models and inventory measurement systems tailored to address unique national circumstances. Country defined emission factors are more appropriate for the climatic regions and land-use systems in the country or region. but for Tier 1 there are often globally available sources for these estimates (e. Assessments are repeated over time and employ high- resolution land-use and management data. The Tier 1 method alone. deforestation rates. This information is usually provided by non-spatial country statistics and does not provide information on the nature and area of conversions REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3.4: Tiers Tier 1 methods are designed to be simple to use.5). Note that approaches are specific to representing AD and should not be confused with the three inventory tiers discussed above. emission and stock change factors) so the inventory compiler does not need specific data for these equation parameters. Tier 3 uses higher order methods. global land cover maps. however. which are generally disaggregated at the subnational level.5.1 Activity data The IPCC Guidelines describe three different approaches for representing AD. Country- specific land-use and management data are needed.. fertilizer use.

different forest types or conversion of one forest type to a different category. deadwood and soil organic carbon). land cover change maps) will be useful for land tracking. or Approach 2 with additional information (e. it is primarily necessary to develop a national forest inventory for REDD+. It is likely that land-use changes under a REDD+ mechanism will be required to be both identifiable and traceable in the future. or adapt an existing inventory. REDD+ implementation. no Approach 1 tracking of land use conversions Approach 2 Tracking of land use on a non-spatially explicit basis Approach 3 Tracking of land use on a spatially explicit basis Figure 3.. i. derived from sampling or wall-to-wall remote sensing mapping techniques. • Approach 2 involves tracking of land conversions between categories.2 Emission factors The first methodological requirement to be met for the national inventory report is the generation of country- specific estimates of the EFs for each key sub-category. it only provides “net” area changes).. litter.g. it is likely that only Approach 3.6). and thus is not suitable for REDD+. and to comply with the UNFCCC completeness reporting principle. belowground biomass.5. for example deforestation minus forestation.e. resulting in a non-spatially explicit land-use conversion matrix. between land uses (i.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 45 .5: Different approaches for obtaining activity data (adapted from IPCC GPG 2003) 3.e. To obtain such estimates. and thus. • Approach 3 extends Approach 2 by using spatially explicit land conversion information. to provide estimates for the five IPCC forest carbon pools (aboveground biomass. Therefore. The carbon stock change estimates that a country will have to submit through its GHG inventory will also have to consider all the possible transfers between pools (Figure 3. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. Net area of land use for various land use categories.

REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3.7). Figure 3. while the Guidance from 2006 uses Stock-Difference (IPCC.3 Methods to estimate emissions and removals For land use.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 46 . 2006). The Gain- Loss method estimates emissions by identifying the area of change from one cover type to another and the difference in stocks between those two types per unit area (Figure 3. 12 The GPG-LULUCF (IPCC. and ii) gain-loss (Angelsen 2008). the IPCC recognizes two methods to estimate carbon emissions: the Stock-Change method 12 and the Gain-Loss method (IPCC. even though the 2006 Guidelines are more up-to-date and use the latter. The Stock-Change method estimates emissions by identifying the changes in carbon stocks at the beginning and end of the period over an entire monitoring area. and thus in this Manual we use the former term throughout. 2003) uses the term Stock-Change. 2003). There has been no decision for non-Annex l Parties regarding use of the 2006 Guidelines.Figure 3. Both of these simple calculation approaches assume that emissions to and removals from the atmosphere are equal to the total stock changes.6: Carbon transfer among pools in a forest ecosystem 3.7: Two IPCC-recognized methods for estimating carbon emissions: i) stock-difference.5.

5. above ground biomass to total biomass. However. Nonetheless. For the Stock-Change method. this means estimating what is a modest reduction in stock per area spread over large areas. the responsibility of using this information appropriately remains with the user. Such data may also be suitable for regional circumstances where a group of countries share similar ecosystems. The EFDB is a continuously revised web-based information exchange forum for EFs and other parameters relevant to the estimation of emissions or removals of GHGs at the national level. and growth rates. The entire forest area is then sampled in the field at one time period and revisited at a later time period. land-cover mapping is used to stratify the monitoring area to assist field sampling and to extrapolate field-based estimates. i. or other parameter. These per-area estimates can then be assumed to be constant. Additional sources of emission estimates include: 1) measured emissions and 2) complex calculations. using these estimates requires careful consideration. the field inventory is conducted to obtain an estimate of mean stock-per-unit-area for each cover class. there is a range of data necessary for calculation.e. however. Particularly for land use. each of which has a relatively large emissions impact. Lastly. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. These procedures enable the user to judge the applicability of the EF.. For forest degradation. the guidelines provide default values for different regions and ecosystems. it should be noted that some country- specific data tend not to change annually.iges. data needs should be addressed.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 47 . Some emissions occur over a period of years after the actual action. These are multiplied to estimate the emissions associated with each type of land-use change. It is intended to become a recognized library where users can find EFs and other parameters with background documentation or technical references. For deforestation.or. the criteria for inclusion of new EFs and other parameters will be assessed by the editorial board of the EFDB.5: IPCC Emission Factor Database One source of EFs is the IPCC Emission Factor Database (EFDB).ipcc- nggip. Therefore. Emissions estimates may also come from complex models that the country has developed (Tier 3 method). Measured emission estimates are increasingly available due to the emission trading scheme requirements in some countries. for use in their inventory. the data on the difference in stocks associated with a change between two classes over time are called Emission Factors (EFs). Sampling must be designed to capture losses from deforestation and forest degradation that occurred between the two time periods. this means ensuring that the sampling design captures the impact of a relatively small variable. Collaboration within the region for data could be a cost-effective alternative. Internet queries of the database can be performed via the home pages of the IPCC.g. and the areas of change are called Activity Data. For the Gain-Loss method. such as those from harvested wood products.php. To alleviate the lack of data. countries are encouraged to invest in finding country- specific data that are better suited to local circumstances. carbon density per species in a country). In this case.jp/EFDB/main. Box 3. (e. IPCC-NGGIP. However a country needs to ensure that the complex models are compatible with the IPCC Guidelines. or directly at http://www. The EFDB is designed as a platform for experts and researchers to communicate new EFs or other parameters to a worldwide audience of potential end-users. such as conversion factors for carbon content of wood.The design of the field-inventory and land cover mapping strategies differs depending on which of the two methods is used. The EFDB. patches of deforestation. While experts and researchers from all over the world are invited to populate the EFDB with their data. The complex calculations include many parameters. The difference in stocks between the two time periods is then estimated for each stratum. represents one source of EF data information. and land use is monitored to estimate the areas of change between pairs of classes. and compatibility with the unmeasured part of the inventory must be ensured. described in Box 3. otherwise inconsistencies may arise. Various EFs and parameters are required.

forest inventories. Gain . and therefore. ii) changes in land use (AD).2 summarizes the key elements to consider when estimating emissions and removals from the land-use change and forestry sector: i) forest carbon pools (EFs from forest ecosystems). Carbon stock required estimation 2. Tier 2  Requires national data including a pools (Emission national forest inventory Factors) 3. regular monitoring is required. Tier 1  High uncertainty but less expensive 1. Table 3.Land uses can change on an annual basis. and iii) the carbon stock estimation methods. Approach 3  Suitable for REDD+.loss  1 forest inventory with carbon method stock fluxes estimation Table 3. Stock change  2 series of forest inventories 3.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 48 . Forest carbon 2. Approach 2  Not readily suitable for REDD+ representation because it is not spatially explicit (Activity Data) 3. and could be accomplished through ground surveys. The collection of AD should be conducted with the aim of generating representative. Approach 1  Not suitable for REDD+ due to the lack of accuracy 2. 2011). reliable. Land 2. but requires rigorous analysis process and ground truthing 1. IPCC elements Options Implications 1.2: Key elements for the estimation of emissions and removals for the LULUCF sector REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. or using satellite data (GOFC GOLD. Thus. Tier 3  Most accurate but more expensive and time consuming 1. AD on land areas can change on an annual basis. and consistent data over time.

A. Maniatis. (GOFC-GOLD Project Office. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. 2006. Moving ahead with REDD: Issues. 2008. A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals caused by deforestation. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 3. Canada) IPCC. Carbon Balance and Management 5:9. 1996.3.. options and implications. Bogor. D. Japan. Japan.0 – ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS 49 . Mollicone. and D. 2011. ed. Published: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. IPCC. Indonesia. Options for sampling and stratification for national forest inventories to implement REDD+ under the UNFCCC. Alberta. gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests. Published: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. Japan. GOFC-GOLD. and forestation. 2010. 2003. Published: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. GOFC-GOLD Report version COP17-1. CIFOR. Natural Resources Canada. IPCC.6 REFERENCES Angelsen. Land-Use Change and Forestry.

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