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REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD,
through a Task Order under the Prosperity, Livelihoods, and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity
Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00, Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022).

Tetra Tech
159 Bank Street, Suite 300
Burlington, Vermont 05401 USA
Telephone: (802) 658-3890
Fax: (802) 658-4247
E-Mail: international.development@tetratech.com
www.tetratechintdev.com

Tetra Tech Contacts:
Ian Deshmukh, Senior Technical Advisor/Manager
Email: ian.deshmukh@tetratech.com

Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program
1611 North Kent Street
Suite 805
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 592-6388
Fax: (866) 795-6462

Stephen Kelleher, Chief of Party
Email: stephen.kelleher@fcmcglobal.org

Olaf Zerbock, USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative
Email: ozerbock@usaid.gov

Editors:
• Jennifer Hewson, Conservation International
• Marc Steininger, FCMC & Conservation International
• Stelios Pesmajoglou, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

Contributing authors:
• Angel Parra, Consultant; GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert
• Gordon Smith, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute
• David Shoch, TerraCarbon, LLC
• John Musinsky, National Ecological Observatory Network
• Fred Stolle, World Resources Institute
• Kemen Austin, World Resources Institute
• Irene Angeletti, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities
(FCMC) Program to provide its missions, partner governments, local and international stakeholders with assistance in
developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. FCMC services include analysis, evaluation, tools and guidance for
program design support; training materials; and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US
Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture.

Please cite this report as:
Hewson, J., M.K. Steininger and S. Pesmajoglou, eds. 2014. REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual,
Version 2.0. USAID-supported Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities Program. Washington, DC, USA.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 i

REDD+ MEASUREMENT,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV)
MANUAL, VERSION 2.0

FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

DISCLAIMER
The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the
views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United
States Government.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 ii

......................49 4..........................................................6 REFERENCES........................................13 2.......................2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ .....................................30 3...................38 3........................................................................................................ REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL................41 3................................5 EXAMPLES ........................... 31 3................................................4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS.....................26 2.................................. VERSION 2.................................. 50 4...19 2..67 4....................................................................................................................... III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ....................0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS .......................... 9 2................................................................... VIII 1.................5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS ........ 1 1.. 8 2........ 1 1...........................................7 REFERENCES...........................................................................................34 3..............................0 iii .................................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS...............................................................................................................................4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM ........1 INTRODUCTION ........4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES .3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 4 1..........................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ...0 INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS ........................................................1 PURPOSE....................................................................................................................................................69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT.................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ................................................... SCOPE AND STRUCTURE .........................................................3 REFERENCES.............. 9 2...................................................................2 IPCC GUIDANCE.............................................. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS....1 INTRODUCTION ...........................................0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ...............................31 3.............................................................22 2.....................2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT ............................. 17 2.....................................................................................................66 4......................2 BACKGROUND ....50 4....3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN .....6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES ......................54 4...................................................6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA ....................... 57 4.................................... 42 3...............................

.................................. 152 7...5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH...3 VERIFICATION ................................................................................................................................0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE .................................................................................................................................................. 127 6..........................................................................................................................2 REPORTING....................................... 141 6...... 118 5....2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING ....................... 4..........................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 109 5.................................................................................................................................................................2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC .....81 5...........90 5........................7 DATA CHECKING ............................................... 121 6..............................79 4..................... 165 7................................................................................................78 4.......82 5...................................93 5.11 SELECTED RESOURCES ........................ VERSION 2.....................4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW .......... 82 5...................... 125 6...................................................8 SELECTED RESOURCES....84 5................. 151 7......................4 REFERENCES.............9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD .......8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS ...........................................0 iv ................................1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC ............................................................................................................................................7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING ...........0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ........................75 4.....................3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS.......................76 4.......................3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS ............. 152 7.........................6 REFERENCES..............................1 INTRODUCTION .........10 REFERENCES ......................... 125 6............................. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL...........0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT............ 114 5...............................................

Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. VERSION 2. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture. Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon.0 v .

Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science. Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science.0 vi . VERSION 2. Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology.

sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. completeness. SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency.0 vii . and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT. comparability. VERSION 2.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. accuracy. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. plus the role of conservation.

the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program. Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. including Colin Silver. Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. and members of the USAID Climate Change office. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department. Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. Ronald McRoberts. VERSION 2. Andrew Lister. Maggie Roth. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. SilvaCarbon Consultant. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Rishi Das.0 viii . Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. Megan McGroddy. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. and Leif Kindberg of FCMC.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text. John Rogan of Boston University. Karyn Tabor. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center. Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History.

Section 3. and the key functions and components of institutional arrangements.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the main elements of a Measurement.3. It highlights the main steps in establishing national arrangements and describes the key administrative and organizational arrangements. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 9 . Reporting and Verification (MRV) system for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). Inventory and Reporting Steps. of the Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory. This chapter is relevant to the activities highlighted on the following page.0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Author: Stelios Pesmajoglou 2. including the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders.

STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements. using the reporting tables. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories. if using the gain-loss method. STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. Within the categories designated as key. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. pool or non-CO2 gas. AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. estimating the uncertainty in each estimate. for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area. STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs). appropriate to the tier level identified. assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize in terms of methodological choice. carbon pool and non-CO2 source. and worksheets where appropriate. Document and archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land-use category/change. STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals. through stratification and other methods. Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met. for the time period required.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 10 . STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates.

Box 2. should be implemented using a three-phase approach (see Box 2.” that ensure the transparent. comparable. also sometimes referred to as “national systems.In accordance with decision 1/CP. and results-based demonstration activities. For example. some countries will need to start from scratch and ensure that they go through the first two phases before they are ready to implement REDD+ activities. reported and verified. results-based REDD+ actions.16. a robust and transparent national forest monitoring system. while others could skip earlier phases if they have already put in place the elements needed under Phase 1 and 2. Phase 2 involves the implementation of national policies and measures. countries would develop: a national strategy or action plan. and national strategies or action plans.2) of GHG emissions and removals from REDD+ activities. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. reported and verified.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 11 . coherent. Phase 3 involves implementation of results-based actions that should be fully measured.1). legal. As countries are at different levels of development and have different capacity needs. and a system for providing information on how social. One of the key actions for Phase 1 is the establishment of institutional arrangements. complete and accurate MRV (see Box 2. technology development and transfer. a national Forest Reference Emission Level and/or Forest Reference Level. which are to be fully measured.1 Three-phase approach for REDD+ During Phase 1 (often referred to as ‘REDD+ readiness’). and environmental safeguards are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the REDD+ activities. which could involve further capacity-building. implementation of these three phases is taking place on different timeframes.

etc. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. comparable. Monitoring encompasses MRV. environmental markets. and natural resource management. In addition to MRV. Verification provides inputs to improve data (including GHG emissions and removals as well as all measured data or derived parameters) and helps to build confidence in. 2000). consistent. also encompassing sub-national arrangements for specific jurisdictions. GHG inventories must be transparent. monitoring is another activity of particular importance for REDD+ activities. monitoring can be categorized as a management function that entails reviewing implementation of planned objectives and goals. the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use.3. and/or voluntary or compliance-based regimes or mechanisms. in a manner that adheres to the IPCC principles and relevant United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or other guidance. the term institutional arrangements. as well as other related issues. It brings together multiple objectives and aims to maximize total benefits. These capacities and institutions are expected to have broader benefits and applications than solely addressing REDD+ issues. In general. 2006). In addition. A key benefit to focusing on national arrangements is the development and maintenance of stronger in- country technical capacities and relevant national and regional institutions and organizations. 2003).2 Definitions of MRV elements Measurement refers to the direct or indirect measurement of emissions or removals from forest areas. GHG accounting. such as quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities and uncertainty estimation. High quality forest MRV systems have many obvious benefits for broader environmental monitoring. and the IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC. In the context of this Manual. Verification refers to the assessment (through internal and external checks) of the completeness. Reported information encompasses forest-related data and estimates of GHGs and the methodologies used to derive them. is defined as the processes and procedures that codify all relevant elements of a fully operational MRV system covering all lands and activities relevant to REDD+. and accurate. having such arrangements in place will enable countries to participate in future financial mechanisms. consistency and reliability of the reported information through an independent process. Box 2. complete. and improve scientific understanding of. as described in Box 2. governance aspects and generating information on the effectiveness of policies and forest management practices as part of REDD+ implementation.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 12 . sustainable economic development. estimates and trends. Indirect measurement involves estimation of emissions reductions using equations based on data on land areas and specific emission factors or the use of complex models that take into account a number of different parameters that affect the release or sequestration of carbon and other GHGs. Reporting refers the presentation of measured information in a transparent and (often) standardized manner. Internationally accepted quality criteria are laid out in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management for National GHG Inventories (IPCC. Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF) (IPCC. According to these guidelines.

The inventory of annual trends. gases and categories are made in such a way that differences in the results between years and activities reflect real differences in emissions. paragraph 70”. 5 The information builds on. when appropriate.3 Quality attributes of GHG inventories Transparency: There is sufficient and clear documentation so that individuals or groups other than the inventory compilers can understand how the inventory was compiled and can confirm the quality of the data. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. and complies with. ii) a national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level (FREL/FRL) – see Box 2. 6 Or sub-national (as an interim measure). and. paragraph 71 (UNFCCC.1 Requirements for REDD+ implementation In accordance with Decision 1/CP. the Kyoto Protocol. and Accuracy: The GHG inventory contains neither over nor underestimates. Box 2.2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ 2. Comparability: The GHG inventory is reported in a way that allows it to be compared with GHG inventories from other countries. refer to Chapter 3 of this Manual. so far as can be judged.16. Completeness: Estimates are reported for all relevant activities and gases. 2009). This requires undertaking all efforts to remove bias from the inventory estimates. 6 and iv) a system for providing information on safeguards. should be calculated using the same method and data sources for all years and should aim to reflect the real annual fluctuations in emissions and not be subject to changes resulting from methodological differences. 5 For more detailed information on the preparation of the GHG inventory. Where data are missing. as far as possible. requirements of the IPCC.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 13 .4 FREL vs. Box 2. Consistency: Estimates for different inventory years. 2. as well as relevant elements developed in the context of the UNFCCC.17. The scope of the work is limited to the MRV of GHG emissions and removals as a result of human influence on forest lands. The objective of this chapter is to provide guidance on the key elements of national arrangements for credible and functional MRV systems for REDD+ activities. iii) a robust and transparent National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS).4. FRL According to decision 12/CP. countries that aim to implement REDD+ activities are to develop: i) a national strategy or action plan. and uncertainties have been reduced as much as is practical. “forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year are benchmarks for assessing each country’s performance in implementing the activities referred to in decision 1/CP.2.16. their absence should be clearly documented.

• Be flexible and allow for improvement. including natural forest. • Have a forest inventory and a land-use change analysis (see Box 2. comparability. • Be able to apply the Revised 1996 Guidelines as elaborated by the GPG-LULUCF in order to ensure the transparency.15 and 11/CP. The system to be developed could also take into consideration the multiple functions of forests in climate change (for example by considering both mitigation and adaptation benefits) in order to ensure the integral and sustainable management of forests.16.5). a NFMS should be guided by the GPG-LULUCF and should provide data and information that are transparent. the phased approach for the implementation of REDD+ activities. or be guided by. as appropriate. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. these are listed in Box 2.Decisions 4/CP. countries should: • Secure the cooperation of all stakeholders through the establishment of national arrangements. In most cases.9 specify that a NFMS uses a combination of remote sensing and field-based forest carbon inventory approaches for the estimation of anthropogenic forest-related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks. consistent over time.2 Considerations for establishing a National Forest Monitoring System While developing a NFMS. 2. consider counter-measures to deforestation and forest degradation. • Enable the assessment of different types of forest in the country. • Reflect. the development of a NFMS would take into consideration. countries have the opportunity to: strengthen their forest governance. forest carbon stocks and forest area changes. and enhance sustainable forest management.19 also stipulates that a NFMS should: • Build upon existing systems. A NFMS may also provide relevant information for national systems for the provision of information on how safeguards (see decision 1/CP. Decision 11/CP. completeness. including law enforcement. appendix I) are addressed and respected. and • Be able to prepare domestically verified national reports. In general.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 14 . Taking into account national capabilities and capacities. as defined by a country. consistency and accuracy of their emissions and removals estimates. • Have in place appropriate quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures. and are suitable for MRV as a result of the implementation of REDD+ activities. as appropriate.6). a number of elements.2.

including scientific and technical research institutions focusing on issues relevant to REDD+. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. forest degradation. tourism. Potential synergy between activities and policies relating to REDD+ and those relating to other sectors.. Effects of past efforts to bring about land-use management and land tenure changes in the country (e. taking into consideration various sectors of the national economy (including energy. health and services). including deforestation.Box 2. industry. Specific geographic or other characteristics that influence the development of REDD+ activities (e.. Economic information related to factors that will be affected by REDD+ activities. Population that is affected (e. such as soy or oil palm in the forestry sector. such as energy and agriculture. fisheries.g.g. conservation of forest carbon stocks.5: Typical elements to be considered by countries when determining their national context Historical development of all REDD+ activities that are relevant for the country. demographics and employment statistics related to REDD+ activities in the country).0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 15 . sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. including an analysis related to drivers of deforestation and the impact of commodities. and Linkages with actions undertaken by the country in the context of relevant multilateral agreements. mining. Information related to the current and projected factors contributing to deforestation.. past investments to reduce deforestation or enhance reforestation and lessons learned).g. transport. agriculture. Education. mountainous areas with limited or no access. such as the UNFCCC. potential need for regional initiatives involving neighboring countries).

aid in the design of efficient ground sampling schemes. • Establishing a clear legal. for example. and in the extrapolation of plot measurements to the regional or national level. the sub-national. • Identifying synergies between national and sub-national REDD+ activities. The different points of view expressed by different governments are the result of differing political interests and national circumstances. governments agreed that if the overall performance is measured at the national level.. regulatory and accounting framework regarding the implementation of sub- national or project activities.. including jurisdictional and project-level. countries could still pursue project‐level activities after the adoption of national (and potentially sub-national) reference levels (UNFCCC.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 16 . Box 2. This can be achieved through: • Identifying drivers of deforestation and forest degradation at the national and sub-national levels. At the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP17). age. the monitoring of LUC through remote sensing is a key tool to identify and implement corrective actions in areas where illegal deforestation and forest degradation is occurring. forest lands. An estimate of the value and possible uses of timber is an important part of the broader information required to sustain ecosystems. The analysis assesses and quantifies the area change of specific land-use categories (e. Also. one can calculate the number of trees per unit of area (e. hectare. wetlands) for a specific period of time. and both levels in a “nested approach”. diameter at breast height.2. 2011). 2. and the value of the timber. and defects. Inventories can be performed for purposes beyond calculating the value of timber. Remote sensing imagery and products.g. For more information on remote sensing. Conversely. From the data collected.g. The identification of cost-effective solutions requires a balanced approach of remote sensing and ground-based measurements. Three options have been extensively debated: the national level. crop land. An important consideration in MRV is the trade-off between the cost versus the accuracy of monitoring and evaluation systems for REDD+. to provide comprehensive information about the state and dynamics of forests for strategic and management planning. the basal area. A historical land-use change (LUC) analysis is the analysis of dynamics that have occurred in a given territory.3 National versus sub-national accounting One of the critical issues in the UNFCCC negotiations on REDD+ concerns the geographical scale that should be used to account for emissions. it is important to ensure that the two systems are compatible in order to safeguard the integrity of the overall accounting process. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. and because of technical issues in measuring and accounting of emissions.g. the volume of trees in an area. see Chapter 5. in the assessment of change areas.6: National forest inventory and land-use change analysis A national forest inventory is the systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis. ground-based measurements are required for generating carbon data and to verify desktop forest mapping from remote sensing imagery. grass lands. For countries that wish to establish both national and sub-national accounting systems. When undertaking a forest inventory the following items are important to measure and note: species. e. site quality. acre). The information provided by the LUC analysis – together with the information provided by the forest inventory is integrated into the GHG inventory in order to estimate the associated emissions or removals from the different land-use categories and subcategories.. and • Ensuring the consistent use of definitions of forest parameters.

2. National-level accounting provides a complete picture of how projects. there is a need to ensure sufficient capacity and technical competence of the staff involved in the inventory development process for:  The timely collection of data needed to estimate anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks. estimating anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks. This integration can occur in stages (e. comparability. policies and measures are contributing to a country’s progress in reducing emissions. 2. national-level lead agency. as well as the quality of data through the planning. legal and procedural arrangements between the government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of emission and removal estimates from LULUCF.3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS In general. and focal point REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. and inventory management. the provisions contained within it on national arrangements would be generally applicable to all countries. consistency. National arrangements should be designed to incorporate both general and specific functions. starting with sub-national accounting and moving up to national) or once the national accounting is in place. It also plays an important role in helping to secure financing by projects that may be contingent on results that are measurable..3. and  The preparation of GHG inventories in accordance with the relevant UNFCCC reporting guidelines. inventory preparation.3 Implementation phases Implementation of national arrangements for REDD+ MRV involves three phases: inventory planning.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 17 . national arrangements for REDD+ MRV should include all institutional. and establishing and maintaining the institutional. In doing so. and for reporting and archiving information.2 Specific functions Specific functions of national inventory arrangements include collecting activity data (AD).3.” it is expected that project-level and/or sub-national programs would be integrated into national-level accounting. Although Decision 15/CP.1 General functions The key general functions of national inventory arrangements are: designating a single national-level entity7 with overall responsibility for the inventory.17) and the guidance provided by the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE). completeness. and carrying out data verification procedures. selecting appropriate methods and emission factors (EFs). The information on functions of national arrangements in this section is adapted from the Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention.g. 2. 2. implementing uncertainty assessments and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities. legal and procedural arrangements made within a country for estimating anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks in all categories and activities included in the monitoring plan. Part I: UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines on Annual Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Annex I to Decision 15/CP.For a “nested approach. and be operated to ensure the transparency. and accuracy of the data. 7 Other terms for this designated body include national entity.17 applies to Annex I Parties. reportable and verifiable.3. preparation and management of inventory activities.

including all disaggregated EFs and AD together with explanations of the rationale for selecting these factors and data. processes would need to be established for the official consideration and approval of the inventory. as well as for categories where significant changes to methods or data have been made. in accordance with the planned QA procedures.4 of the IPCC GPG-LULUCF (IPCC. procedural information. As part of inventory preparation. a country needs to collect sufficient AD. They would also need to provide for a basic review of the inventory by personnel that have not been involved in the inventory development process. As part of inventory planning. a country would archive all relevant inventory information for the reported time series. This can be achieved by elaborating an inventory QA/QC plan. EFs. as well as the institutional. the inventory planning process. Inventory preparation Inventory preparation includes all aspects of implementation of the MRV actions. as well as how they have been generated and aggregated for the preparation of the inventory.Inventory planning Inventory planning includes activities that lead up to the implementation of MRV activities. For more information. should be considered in the development and/or revision of GHG data and the quality objectives of the GHG inventory. see Chapter 3 of the Manual. and other relevant technical elements of the inventory once they have been initially established. if appropriate. as well as their organization into a reporting format. Information obtained from the implementation of the QA/QC plan.7) and for those individual categories in which significant methodological and/or data revisions have occurred. preferably an independent third party. methods. the trend. countries should consider ways to improve the quality of AD. key categories are all inventory activities that account for 95 percent of the total GHG emissions. As part of inventory management. before the submission of the inventory. a key category is one that is prioritized within the national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country’s total inventory of GHGs in terms of the absolute level. On the basis of any periodic evaluations of the inventory preparation process (see below). it includes both source and sink categories as well as specific GHGs. and the cooperation between. countries would need re-evaluate and adjust. including the roles of. An area of particular importance is the implementation of general inventory QA/QC procedures in accordance with a QA/QC plan. following the guidance provided by GPG-LULUCF. and section 5. Countries would be required to apply category-specific QC procedures for key categories (see Box 2. Countries should ensure there is sufficient capacity to carry out all activities through training of existing personnel or hiring of experts.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 18 . Inventory management Inventory management refers to the handling of the inventory report and its relevant source information once an inventory cycle is complete. Whenever the term key category is used. provisions should be made for an extensive expert review of key categories. or the uncertainty in emissions and removals. and other verification activities. including any recalculations. a country will define and allocate specific responsibilities in the inventory development process. As part of inventory planning.7: Key categories According to the IPCC. legal and procedural arrangements made to prepare the inventory. Following the basic review. and EFs as necessary to support the methods selected for estimating anthropogenic GHG emissions and removals. In accordance with the GPG-LULUCF. In terms of absolute level. Box 2. The methodological basis for the estimation of GHG emissions and removals is provided in the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines as have been updated by the GPG-LULUCF. 2003). Other information to be archived includes: REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of the inventory.

such as joint mitigation and adaptation.1. 8 Figure 2. • A description of the methods used for the identification of key categories. on the coordination of support for the full implementation of activities and elements referred to in decision 1/CP. The length of the inventory cycle depends on national circumstances and reporting requirements. paragraphs 70. as appropriate. • Explanation of how QA/QC procedures have been implemented. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Many countries have well-established systems for the collection and processing of non-GHG related information. and • Findings of external and internal reviews and descriptions of planned inventory improvements as a result of these reviews. in accordance with national circumstances and the principles of sovereignty. and to inform the secretariat 8 It should be noted that national forest inventory data would not be available annually. Experience in the use of such systems would be extremely valuable for application to GHG inventory development and/or strengthening of procedures to archive. Such a cycle can be applied to annual.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 19 . or longer-term periods.1: A typical cycle for an inventory process (source: EPA National System Template).4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Decision 10/CP. For more information see section 2.6 2. Such systems involve database management processes for archiving data and information. Another part of inventory management is ensuring that the country has the capacity to respond in a timely manner to requests for clarifying information on the national inventory. and retrieve information.16. a national entity or focal point to serve as a liaison with the secretariat and the relevant bodies under the Convention. Countries should look at their experience in other areas for guidance and resources on this issue. store. An example of an inventory cycle is shown in the diagram in Figure 2.19. including different policy approaches. biennial. but every few years (typically between three to ten years). 71 and 73. states that countries could “designate.

that make decisions and oversee the inventory preparation process. it is necessary to identify existing national capacities and allocate necessary funds. or others in the private sector. consistent with any specific operational modalities of the financing entities providing them with support for the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. • Preparation of the inventory almost entirely by government employees within a single agency. possibly mandated by national legislation. in accordance with national circumstances and the principles of sovereignty. countries would need to identify specific actions consistent with MRV goals and develop a plan for their completion. The national-level lead agency or institute should be charged with overall responsibility.16. for example. including. as well as human and other resources. Once the specific actions are identified. for the collection and archiving of information. seeking funding for REDD+ projects. Each approach is associated with relative pros and cons and has financial and staffing implications. Some typical approaches include: • Completely out-sourcing the inventory preparation process to an outside organization. Whatever approach is used. which depend on the MRV goals that have been identified by a country. including combinations of the above. the process necessitates the development of clear roles and responsibilities. a university.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 20 . to deal with a REDD+ MRV system. academia. in terms of administrative and organizational arrangements. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Given the interdisciplinary nature of REDD+. This may include setting up working groups and task forces to undertake specific tasks. it should function in such a way that the quality of the inventory is maintained and improved over time and that decisions can be made in an effective and timely manner. and • Preparation of the inventory delegated to the country’s provinces or states.” Based on the experience of other similar processes under the UNFCCC (such as the national communications of developing countries). and implementation of national or regional REDD+ initiatives. Establishing institutional arrangements includes a number of specific activities. paragraph 70. • A small team of government employees overseeing the preparation of the inventory by a number of consultants and researchers. as well as establishing specific procedures and systems. and possibly other organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs). In establishing national arrangements. or a research institute. The separate provincial inventory information is then aggregated at the national level.” The same decision further stipulates that such entities “may. including securing the resources and commitment of all relevant stakeholders in the country. a country would need to implement the necessary administrative and organizational arrangements. to facilitate the appointment of personnel. are possible and there is no absolutely correct approach. institutional arrangements can strengthen the national policymaking process by enhancing coordination of all relevant stakeholders. nominate their entities to obtain and receive results-based payments. perhaps as a subset of a more comprehensive GHG inventory. raising awareness among various private and public institutions and facilitating consultations and establishing relationships among stakeholders. such as a consulting company. but not limited to: preparation of national reports and communications to meet international commitments. • Forming an advisory or oversight board composed of representatives from multiple agencies and ministries. To ensure timely completion. It is important that the appropriate body be identified at an early stage of the process. implementation of REDD+ activities involves many national actors and stakeholders supporting the work of a national-level entity or focal point.accordingly. Every country will likely have its own approach on how to put in place these arrangements for REDD+. Many other situations. Whatever approach is taken.

A centralized approach will likely include few other institutions. Such information would provide the background to help a country better understand. inter alia. or the country's lead body may be composed of a multi-agency working group. out-sourced: Government agencies and employees may prepare most. • Integrated vs. as well as changes in the arrangements as refinements and/or new stakeholders are involved. existing national capacities and available options for addressing GHG emissions and removals from REDD+ within the broader context of sustainable development. or all. • Single agency vs. separate: The country's GHG inventory work may be integrated with other related efforts (e. the government may “out-source” the work of preparing the inventory to private consultants. At every step of the process it is imperative that countries keep track of the specific roles and responsibilities of all relevant organizations. Often smaller countries resort to extensive use of external assistance due to lack of expertise and the length of time necessary to build capacity within the specific timeframe for the preparation of a GHG inventory. in contrast. Some common patterns include: • Centralized vs. Although these templates have been developed to address the national arrangements of a national GHG inventory covering all economic sectors. research institutions. this institutional body will be required to manage the work of the other institutions and organizations and will have overall responsibility for coordinating administrative and technical arrangements and the overall quality of reported estimates.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 21 . in practice one agency will often have the overall coordinating role to avoid conflicts. Although the multi-agency approach may have some relative advantages in regard to plurality in the decision-making process.and for specific roles and responsibilities to be allocated. academic institutions. may include many different teams and/or institutions that each work on different parts of the inventory and make their own decisions regarding methodologies and other issues. avoiding soil erosion) to ensure the best use of resources and utilize available expertise. thus “in-sourcing” the process. The appointment should be transparent to all stakeholders in the process so that there is no ambiguity of which institution leads the process. The management system that a country uses will be determined by national circumstances. Such a multi-agency structure requires a very clear delineation of roles and responsibilities to ensure that there is a clear line of reporting and decision-making on GHG inventory issues. water management. it is possible to modify them for the purposes of a GHG inventory on LULUCF. multi-agency: The lead agency may be housed within a single government agency. Countries with a large administration and various institutions with expertise in certain areas of the inventory often use the centralized approach. • In-sourced vs. or other structure.g. A brief description of the templates and an example of how they could be modified are provided in Appendix 2. for example.6 below. Alternatively. decentralized: The country's lead agency may maintain a large degree of control and decision-making authority over the inventory preparation process. One way to do this in a systematic way is through the use of the National System Templates from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – see section 2. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. the lead agency usually has more of a coordinating role and less power over decisions on methodological issues. While developing a MRV system for REDD+ activities. The decision on out-sourcing depends on whether the administration has developed sufficient capacity and capability to do all or most of the technical work itself through the involvement of experts and agencies. A decentralized approach. or other NGOs. reducing threats to biodiversity. In such cases.. In general terms. its own specific conditions. committee. a country has the opportunity to identify those national and regional development priorities and objectives that would serve as the basis for addressing REDD+ and climate change. of the inventory.

With each new staff hire by FUNCATE. as the work progressed. Forty-five personnel were engaged in the work at different stages of the inventory development (22 image interpreters. Colombia. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. For instance. costs. Part of this added cost was caused by the decision to create a spatially explicit database and the wall-to-wall character of the territorial coverage required to include other land-use categories previously not considered (e. The LULUCF inventory was the most expensive among all sectors reported in the national GHG inventory.1 Brazil The Foundation of Space Science.. had an added cost due to the new methodological requirements from the GPG-LULUCF.5 EXAMPLES In this section we present examples of institutional arrangements for Brazil. if necessary. 9 2.google.. The information in this section is based on the WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking Project National GHG Inventory Case Study Series.com/site/maptpartnerresearch/national-ghg-inventory-case-study- series/producing-a-national-ghg-inventory-for-the-land-use-land-use-change-and-forestry-lulucf-sector. in particular. The experience gained from the first national inventory and the new demands from application of the GPG-LULUCF helped to identify the initial level of human resources needed. and responsibilities. and India for the preparation of GHG inventories for the LULUCF sector. This person had overall knowledge of the inventory’s development and actively participated at all phases. associations. The total cost of the second national inventory was approximately $1. perform additional QC procedures. FUNCATE engaged other agencies. MCT. but did not subcontract any components of the LULUCF inventory. FUNCATE identified the need to enlarge the team. a large number of image interpreters were needed at the beginning of the project but were latter allocated to other work within FUNCATE or dismissed. personnel worked full-time until completion of that activity. The idea was to create a database that would facilitate the updating and recalculation of previous inventory estimates. Most of the staff was engaged full time in the project. one information technology expert. ensure that the budget expenditure and the agreed timetable evolved according to the contract and cooperation agreement with MCT. five validation and data analysis staff. image classification). three auditors. and one documentation specialist).1 million distributed among a cooperation agreement and a contract. timetables. besides those from FUNCATE. Inventory coordination at FUNCATE was carried out by one person with experience in remote sensing whose role was to oversee the development of the inventory at all phases (including the compilation of the GHG data for the LULUCF inventory). Applications and Technology (FUNCATE) was the sole institution in charge of compiling the Brazilian LULUCF inventory. The second inventory. such as those involved in system development. Other people. and prepare the partial and final reports.g. and Brazil’s National Space Research Institute (INPE). Technology and Innovation (MCT). three system development staff. one database development expert. During project development (e. one general coordinator. one database management expert.2.g.5. worked simultaneously for other projects at FUNCATE. which varied in size according to the stage of development of the project. and academic and research institutions. training was carried out to ensure consistency in image classification among the different image interpreters and thus minimize classification uncertainty. The cost included 9 Full reports are available at: https://sites. No external people were engaged directly in the preparation of the inventory. seven administrators. selective logging). in coordination with the General Coordination on Global Climate Change under the Brazilian Ministry of Science.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 22 . The number of personnel engaged was driven by the product delivery time schedule and budget. However. FUNCATE had a clear mandate established through a contract or cooperation agreement that set individual terms of reference. This required national wall-to-wall coverage with remotely sensed data of adequate resolution.

the process. database construction. The working groups’ ultimate objectives are to define needs and priorities for each sector and to select EFs and methods for calculating the uncertainty associated with each module. and local level that are needed as a basic input for research and to comply with international commitments. Regional Autonomous Corporations. familiarization of guidelines.. the National Corporation for Forestry Research and Development. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Meteorology and Environmental Studies (IDEAM). The only national system in place. and LULUCF) to form sectoral working groups. eliminate those considered not relevant for the final product. the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. the Association of Regional Autonomous Corporations and Sustainable Development. programs. the Amazon Institute for Scientific Research. agriculture.g. and national level that collectively generate information.2. and build technological capacities for their own purposes. compilation. each one of the institutions involved compiles and archives the data on its own portal site. waste.salaries and labor benefits. frequency. travel expenses. comprises a set of overarching principles that focus on environmental principles to foster management of the country’s natural resources. The lack of a system to share data also prevents the implementation of comprehensive QC procedures nationwide. a public institution that is part of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (MADS). this should improve the quality. the Geographic Institute Agustin Codazzi. and agree on the final allocation of the full budget for LULUCF. Carton de Colombia. and part of the development of a software tool to manage large datasets. Bogota’s Botanical Garden Jose Celestino Mutis. regional.. The institutional arrangements are based on voluntary agreements among the following organizations: MADS. regional. It would also be necessary to identify priority data at the national.. analysis. regulations. and systematization of forestry information to develop the revision mechanisms controlling the flow of information. Although the working method to prepare these communications has been effective. Additional details. SINA is a set of norms. One option being considered is for both the national and regional institutions responsible for the collection. The institute responsible for conducting the GHG inventory is the Institute of Hydrology. All costs for each phase of the project were detailed by FUNCATE and helped MCT to prioritize the activities. 2. Pizano S. consumables.2 Colombia Colombia has prepared two national communications under the UNFCCC.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 23 . A. equipment. industry. energy. SINA does not have any technical platform to share information online. However. and efficient manner. regarding the overall system in place. resources. IDEAM is responsible for selecting public and private institutions that are actively participating in the inventory-related sectors (e. as there is no centralized technical platform to share and exchange information with other LULUCF-related institutions in a permanent. the Special Administrative Unit of the National Parks System. universities. the National Environmental System (SINA). the development of the GHG inventory encompasses the steps illustrated in Figure 2. Therefore. carry out scientific research. Currently. The budget did not contemplate the acquisition of data other than those planned under the legal instruments. No consultants were hired for the project. private entities (e. and availability of the reported data. are provided below.g. timely. and acquisition of data starts from scratch for each new GHG inventory. IDEAM also provides technical and scientific support to the agencies that constitute SINA. etc. A small portion of the budget was ensured by the Ministry of the Environment. SINA comprises several institutions at the local. the Environmental Research Institute of the Pacific.). transportation. and the Integrated Monitoring System for Illicit Crops. Major funding came from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and from MCT. and institutions that fosters compliance with the environmental principles embedded in the constitution of Colombia.5. activities.

which meet on a regular basis to decide on the respective roles and establishment of these roles. Initially. The Ministry of Environment and Forests is responsible for the overall coordination of the process.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 24 . Various other institutions involved in the LULUCF sector provide technical assistance and expertise to ensure that all methodological processes are followed in order to develop a comprehensive and accurate inventory to the extent that capacities permit. the National Remote Sensing Centre. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.2: Key steps for national inventory preparation in Colombia 2. and the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education.5. The coordination process has evolved over the years. such as the Forest Survey of India (FSI). and to ensure that all activities are implemented in a timely fashion.3.3 India India’s overall institutional arrangement structure for the preparation of GHG estimation for the LULUCF sector is shown in Figure 2. The current approach involves cooperation with other organizations.Figure 2. the Indian Institute of Science took a leading role as it was the institution involved in the IPCC process for developing the GHG emissions inventory for the LULUCF sector.

4 million Rupees (or $9. 2012-13). which covers land-use mapping. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.95 million) for 2012-13 (Union Budget. the Natural Resource Management Division.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 25 . For example.3: Work allocation and implementation arrangements for developing the GHG emissions inventory by sources and removal by sinks for the LULUCF sector in India Funding for all activities is part of the Indian Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organisation.Figure 2. has been granted a budget of 537.

Template 1: Institutional Arrangements for National Inventory System This template assists inventory teams in assessing and documenting the strengths and weaknesses of existing institutional arrangements for inventory development. The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) was also funded through the second national communication.75 million Rupees (or $1. 2. allowing countries within regions to compare and contrast results. completeness. comparability. The budget outlay of its Forestry and Wildlife Division is 9. and what methods were used. Template 2: Methods and Data Documentation This assists inventory teams in documenting and reporting the origin of methodologies. The advantages of the templates are that they: • Focus on documenting essential information in a concise format and avoid unnecessarily long written reports. • Serve as instruction Manuals and a starting point for future inventory teams. Future inventory teams can refer to the completed template for each source and sink category to determine what information was collected. bilateral.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 26 . • Standardize tasks. providing comprehensive documentation of each of the critical national system building blocks. Supplemental checklists with recommended QA/QC procedures have been developed for the Inventory Coordinator and QA/QC Coordinator. preparing the GHG emissions inventory is part of the FSI mandate and has been funded through the forestry and wildlife budget of the Ministry of Environment and Forest. • Ensure roles and responsibilities are understood.compared to the 68.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/internationalpartnerships/capacity-building. and EFs used to estimate emissions or removals. The Key Category Analysis (KCA) Tool can be used to determine key categories in a GHG inventory. and multilateral funds. 10 See http://www.html#National for more details and for how to download the templates REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. promotes institutionalization of the inventory process. the parent organization of FSI. Similarly. typically less than 50 pages. activity datasets.8 million Rupees (or $167 million) for 2012- 2013 (Union Budget 2012-13).27 million) that was allocated in the budget for preparation of the entire GHG emissions inventory for the second national communication. how the data was obtained. This ensures continuity and integrity of the inventory. and facilitates prioritization of future improvements. spread over four years. including governmental.epa. Template 3: Description of QA/QC Procedures This guides countries through the establishment of a cost-effective QA/QC program to improve transparency. • Provide an objective and efficient system for identifying priorities for future improvements.6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES EPA's National System Templates can be used as a set of building blocks by countries to construct a national inventory management system 10. • Accommodate varying levels of national capacity.066. consistency. and • Create transparency in a country's national system and improve quality over time. The six templates (briefly described below) can be compiled into a single National Inventory System Report. and confidence in national GHG inventories. and several other sources.

and procedural arrangements among the government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of emission and removal estimates from LULUCF.2 to document existing arrangements for obtaining. In this description. and focal point.2. Use Table 2. Template 6: National Inventory Improvement Plan Synthesizes findings and describes specific priorities for future capacity building projects based on the needs identified in the first five templates and facilitates continual inventory improvements. List this information in column “Strengths in Management Structure of the REDD+ Inventory System” of Table 2. legal. thus. identify what improvements are needed to enhance the institutional arrangements for each sector and list these in column “Potential Improvements in Management Structure of the REDD+ Inventory System” of Table 2. and determine whether they could be assigned. In preparing this section. on which sources or sinks are the most important and should be the focus of improvement efforts. indicate which data provider listed in Table 2. Given the key category analysis and existing institutional arrangements within each sector. Example of modifying Template 1 for the purposes of REDD+ Step 1: List the lead agency and describe the arrangements or relationship between the REDD+ Inventory Agency/Organization and the UNFCCC National Focal Point Agency11. For example. Explain in detail how the arrangements were established. Template 5: Key Category Analysis (KCA) KCA provides information.3. organization. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.3. where strengthening is not needed. address the following questions and add additional comments as necessary: • Is there a formal legal contract between the organizations? 11 “National-level entity” is used throughout the Manual and refers to the designated single national-level entity with overall responsibility for the inventory and for establishing and maintaining the institutional. An archive system allows estimates to be easily reproduced. specific to the contacts/experts for inventory development. if different (Table 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 27 . Example roles are provided in Table 2. In the “Comments” column of Table 2. Step 3: Identify where well-established institutional arrangements needed to prepare the inventory exist. Identify the role. Describe the strategies that were used to collect the necessary inventory data from an organization. and allows reproducibility of the estimates. safeguards against data and information loss.1). Other terms for this designated body include national entity.3. The KCA Tool enables a country to determine key categories from a GHG inventory.Template 4: Description of Archiving System An archive system is an inexpensive yet critical step in the sustainability of the National Inventory System. where data have been collected and managed adequately and. compiling and reviewing inventory data. provide information on the status of the institutional arrangements or any additional information not included elsewhere within the table. consider whether any important tasks for inventory preparation have not been assigned or delegated. according to IPCC criteria. national-level lead agency. Step 2: List additional information. and contact information for those providing relevant data for estimating emissions. for sectored+.2 provides the statistics that will be used in the inventory.

identifies the inventory management team members. GHG Policy Specialist who tracks capacity building efforts and IPCC processes REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.g. • Was there a meeting with the experts..0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 28 . The status of the institutional arrangements can be noted in the "Comments" column Role Name Organization Contact Information Comments Inventory Director/Coordinator LULUCF Sector Lead Archive (Data and Document) Manager/Coordinator QA/QC coordinator Uncertainty Analysis coordinator Other: e. Table 2. if different. written or verbal communication with staff)? • How was the request for data made? • At what level of management was the request made? • How was the organization motivated to share its data and information with the inventory agency? Describe the arrangements or relationship Designated National-level Entity UNFCCC National Focal between REDD+ Inventory for REDD+ Inventory Point (Name) and UNFCCC Agency/Organization and UNFCCC National Preparation Focal Point Agency Focal Point Agency.1: Designated inventory agency.g. and other key contributors explaining the background and purpose of the inventory? • Is it an informal arrangement (e. data providers..

0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 29 .2: National inventory management team Strengths in Management Potential Improvements in Management Comments Structure of the REDD+ Structure of the REDD+ Inventory REDD+ activity Inventory System System LULUCF (general) Deforestation Forest degradation Conservation of forest carbon stocks Sustainable management of forests Enhancement of forest carbon stocks Table 2.3: Strengths and potential improvements in the management structure of the REDD+ inventory system REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.Table 2.

held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session http://unfccc.html FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add. Miwa K. and Tanabe K. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its nineteenth session.htm IPCC GPG-LULUCF. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session. 2000. Published: IGES.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01. Japan. http://www.iges.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. http://www. Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. http://unfccc.1. Published: IGES. IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session. Published: IGES. Japan.ipcc-nggip.ipcc-nggip. held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session IPCC. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. 2003. 2010.7 REFERENCES CGE: Training material and methodological documents provided by the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention.. Land-Use Change and Forestry.html UNFCCC. Buendia L.jp/public/2006gl/index.int/7914..0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 30 .htm IPCC.ipcc-nggip.iges. held in Cancun from 29 November to 10 December 2010 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session http://unfccc.. 2011. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories..pdf#page=2 UNFCCC.int/resource/docs/2011/cop17/eng/09a01.jp/public/gp/gpgaum.php EPA National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems.or. Eggleston H. Japan.epa. 2006.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf.. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session.int/resource/docs/2013/cop19/eng/10a01.or.2. Available at: http://www. Ngara T.S.or. http://www. held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its nineteenth session http://unfccc.iges.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/internationalpartnerships/capacity-building. eds. 2013.pdf#page=4 UNFCCC.

DC 20523 Tel: (202) 712-0000 Fax: (202) 216-3524 www. Agency for International Development 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue.usaid.gov .U. NW Washington.S.