REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD,
through a Task Order under the Prosperity, Livelihoods, and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity
Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00, Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022).

Tetra Tech
159 Bank Street, Suite 300
Burlington, Vermont 05401 USA
Telephone: (802) 658-3890
Fax: (802) 658-4247
E-Mail: international.development@tetratech.com
www.tetratechintdev.com

Tetra Tech Contacts:
Ian Deshmukh, Senior Technical Advisor/Manager
Email: ian.deshmukh@tetratech.com

Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program
1611 North Kent Street
Suite 805
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 592-6388
Fax: (866) 795-6462

Stephen Kelleher, Chief of Party
Email: stephen.kelleher@fcmcglobal.org

Olaf Zerbock, USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative
Email: ozerbock@usaid.gov

Editors:
• Jennifer Hewson, Conservation International
• Marc Steininger, FCMC & Conservation International
• Stelios Pesmajoglou, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

Contributing authors:
• Angel Parra, Consultant; GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert
• Gordon Smith, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute
• David Shoch, TerraCarbon, LLC
• John Musinsky, National Ecological Observatory Network
• Fred Stolle, World Resources Institute
• Kemen Austin, World Resources Institute
• Irene Angeletti, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities
(FCMC) Program to provide its missions, partner governments, local and international stakeholders with assistance in
developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. FCMC services include analysis, evaluation, tools and guidance for
program design support; training materials; and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US
Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture.

Please cite this report as:
Hewson, J., M.K. Steininger and S. Pesmajoglou, eds. 2014. REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual,
Version 2.0. USAID-supported Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities Program. Washington, DC, USA.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 i

REDD+ MEASUREMENT,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV)
MANUAL, VERSION 2.0

FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

DISCLAIMER
The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the
views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United
States Government.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 ii

.................................................................................................................................... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL........13 2.................26 2.....................2 BACKGROUND ................................................................ 8 2..................................50 4......................1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................................... VERSION 2............2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ .......TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS............... 1 1.........................4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES ..............................................1 PURPOSE........................ 9 2.................6 REFERENCES. VIII 1...........6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES ................ 42 3..............2 IPCC GUIDANCE..................... 9 2..........................................1 INTRODUCTION ...5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS ...................................................... 17 2............................38 3.....................................................................................30 3.......................................69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT...........................................................................................................5 EXAMPLES ........ SCOPE AND STRUCTURE ................................ 31 3.......................................................49 4.................54 4..2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT ......................................0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS .....................................0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS..............................................................22 2......................................... III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................... 57 4........................................................ 1 1.....................................................................................................3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ...............................67 4............................................. 50 4...........................19 2...........................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS .....................................................................................................................................7 REFERENCES........................................................0 iii .66 4.......3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN ................................... V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................................................... 4 1...............................3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS ....................................................41 3.......................3 REFERENCES........................................31 3...................................................................6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA .................0 INTRODUCTION..................................0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ..................................34 3...................................................4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM .......................................1 INTRODUCTION ....................4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS..

.......................... 125 6.................79 4............................... 125 6.............................................................................................2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC ...3 VERIFICATION .. 114 5...............................82 5..............10 REFERENCES .....................................9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD ......................0 iv .......................................................................1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC .........................................................75 4...........2 REPORTING........................................... 151 7............................................................0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE .................. 152 7...................................78 4.....4 REFERENCES.........................76 4............................................................................ 118 5.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH...........6 REFERENCES...... VERSION 2.......................................................................................................................... 152 7...............................................................................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ...............8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS ...................8 SELECTED RESOURCES.................................3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS ............... 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT.7 DATA CHECKING .....................93 5................................90 5..................... 165 7.......................... 121 6................................................0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE ........................................................................................2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING .... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.............. 109 5..0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ............................................. 141 6....................................4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW ..................... 4..............81 5........................3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS..1 INTRODUCTION ....................................84 5...................................11 SELECTED RESOURCES ......................................................................................................................... 82 5...................................................................................... 127 6.7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING ....................................

REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT. VERSION 2. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture.0 v . Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon.

Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science.0 vi . Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement. VERSION 2. Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology.FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science.

VERSION 2. SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. plus the role of conservation. comparability. completeness. and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT. accuracy.0 vii .

REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department. Rishi Das. and Leif Kindberg of FCMC. and members of the USAID Climate Change office. Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center. Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. Ronald McRoberts. Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. Karyn Tabor. Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History. SilvaCarbon Consultant. Maggie Roth. VERSION 2. the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 viii . Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. John Rogan of Boston University. Megan McGroddy. including Colin Silver. Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. Andrew Lister.

including the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders. It highlights the main steps in establishing national arrangements and describes the key administrative and organizational arrangements. of the Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory.0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Author: Stelios Pesmajoglou 2. This chapter is relevant to the activities highlighted on the following page. and the key functions and components of institutional arrangements. Section 3. Reporting and Verification (MRV) system for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Inventory and Reporting Steps.3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the main elements of a Measurement.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 9 . 2.

Document and archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land-use category/change. appropriate to the tier level identified. through stratification and other methods. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Within the categories designated as key. STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. using the reporting tables. STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs).0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 10 . for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met. carbon pool and non-CO2 source. STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). pool or non-CO2 gas. STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates. AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. if using the gain-loss method. STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals. for the time period required.STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements. estimating the uncertainty in each estimate. Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs. STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. and worksheets where appropriate. assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize in terms of methodological choice.

while others could skip earlier phases if they have already put in place the elements needed under Phase 1 and 2. results-based REDD+ actions. For example. legal. and national strategies or action plans. reported and verified.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 11 . comparable. Box 2. which could involve further capacity-building. implementation of these three phases is taking place on different timeframes. a robust and transparent national forest monitoring system. As countries are at different levels of development and have different capacity needs. coherent. reported and verified.” that ensure the transparent. complete and accurate MRV (see Box 2. One of the key actions for Phase 1 is the establishment of institutional arrangements.16. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. and environmental safeguards are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the REDD+ activities.1). and a system for providing information on how social. countries would develop: a national strategy or action plan. technology development and transfer.1 Three-phase approach for REDD+ During Phase 1 (often referred to as ‘REDD+ readiness’). which are to be fully measured. some countries will need to start from scratch and ensure that they go through the first two phases before they are ready to implement REDD+ activities. and results-based demonstration activities. should be implemented using a three-phase approach (see Box 2. also sometimes referred to as “national systems. a national Forest Reference Emission Level and/or Forest Reference Level. Phase 3 involves implementation of results-based actions that should be fully measured.2) of GHG emissions and removals from REDD+ activities.In accordance with decision 1/CP. Phase 2 involves the implementation of national policies and measures.

Indirect measurement involves estimation of emissions reductions using equations based on data on land areas and specific emission factors or the use of complex models that take into account a number of different parameters that affect the release or sequestration of carbon and other GHGs. estimates and trends. and/or voluntary or compliance-based regimes or mechanisms. governance aspects and generating information on the effectiveness of policies and forest management practices as part of REDD+ implementation. GHG accounting. as described in Box 2. According to these guidelines. monitoring can be categorized as a management function that entails reviewing implementation of planned objectives and goals. environmental markets.2 Definitions of MRV elements Measurement refers to the direct or indirect measurement of emissions or removals from forest areas. Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF) (IPCC. Reporting refers the presentation of measured information in a transparent and (often) standardized manner. and natural resource management. sustainable economic development. 2006). monitoring is another activity of particular importance for REDD+ activities. A key benefit to focusing on national arrangements is the development and maintenance of stronger in- country technical capacities and relevant national and regional institutions and organizations. comparable. 2003). Verification provides inputs to improve data (including GHG emissions and removals as well as all measured data or derived parameters) and helps to build confidence in. complete. the term institutional arrangements. Verification refers to the assessment (through internal and external checks) of the completeness. High quality forest MRV systems have many obvious benefits for broader environmental monitoring.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 12 . In addition. consistency and reliability of the reported information through an independent process. It brings together multiple objectives and aims to maximize total benefits. consistent. in a manner that adheres to the IPCC principles and relevant United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or other guidance. having such arrangements in place will enable countries to participate in future financial mechanisms. Reported information encompasses forest-related data and estimates of GHGs and the methodologies used to derive them. These capacities and institutions are expected to have broader benefits and applications than solely addressing REDD+ issues. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.3. such as quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities and uncertainty estimation. In addition to MRV. and improve scientific understanding of. also encompassing sub-national arrangements for specific jurisdictions. the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. In the context of this Manual. etc. is defined as the processes and procedures that codify all relevant elements of a fully operational MRV system covering all lands and activities relevant to REDD+. 2000). and accurate. Box 2. In general. and the IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC. GHG inventories must be transparent. as well as other related issues. Internationally accepted quality criteria are laid out in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management for National GHG Inventories (IPCC. Monitoring encompasses MRV.

5 For more detailed information on the preparation of the GHG inventory.3 Quality attributes of GHG inventories Transparency: There is sufficient and clear documentation so that individuals or groups other than the inventory compilers can understand how the inventory was compiled and can confirm the quality of the data.2. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. The scope of the work is limited to the MRV of GHG emissions and removals as a result of human influence on forest lands. 6 Or sub-national (as an interim measure). The objective of this chapter is to provide guidance on the key elements of national arrangements for credible and functional MRV systems for REDD+ activities.4. so far as can be judged. requirements of the IPCC. iii) a robust and transparent National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS). “forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year are benchmarks for assessing each country’s performance in implementing the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. and. paragraph 71 (UNFCCC. as well as relevant elements developed in the context of the UNFCCC. Comparability: The GHG inventory is reported in a way that allows it to be compared with GHG inventories from other countries. The inventory of annual trends. 6 and iv) a system for providing information on safeguards. the Kyoto Protocol.2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ 2. as far as possible. FRL According to decision 12/CP. gases and categories are made in such a way that differences in the results between years and activities reflect real differences in emissions.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 13 . should be calculated using the same method and data sources for all years and should aim to reflect the real annual fluctuations in emissions and not be subject to changes resulting from methodological differences. 5 The information builds on. 2. Box 2. when appropriate. This requires undertaking all efforts to remove bias from the inventory estimates. Where data are missing. 2009).16. and Accuracy: The GHG inventory contains neither over nor underestimates. and complies with. and uncertainties have been reduced as much as is practical.17. their absence should be clearly documented. refer to Chapter 3 of this Manual. countries that aim to implement REDD+ activities are to develop: i) a national strategy or action plan.1 Requirements for REDD+ implementation In accordance with Decision 1/CP. Consistency: Estimates for different inventory years.16. paragraph 70”.4 FREL vs. Completeness: Estimates are reported for all relevant activities and gases. ii) a national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level (FREL/FRL) – see Box 2. Box 2.

2. • Have a forest inventory and a land-use change analysis (see Box 2. a number of elements.Decisions 4/CP. countries have the opportunity to: strengthen their forest governance. consistency and accuracy of their emissions and removals estimates. completeness. as appropriate. or be guided by.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 14 . Taking into account national capabilities and capacities. and • Be able to prepare domestically verified national reports. a NFMS should be guided by the GPG-LULUCF and should provide data and information that are transparent. Decision 11/CP.19 also stipulates that a NFMS should: • Build upon existing systems. • Be able to apply the Revised 1996 Guidelines as elaborated by the GPG-LULUCF in order to ensure the transparency.2 Considerations for establishing a National Forest Monitoring System While developing a NFMS. In most cases.2. as appropriate. forest carbon stocks and forest area changes. The system to be developed could also take into consideration the multiple functions of forests in climate change (for example by considering both mitigation and adaptation benefits) in order to ensure the integral and sustainable management of forests.16. these are listed in Box 2. including natural forest.9 specify that a NFMS uses a combination of remote sensing and field-based forest carbon inventory approaches for the estimation of anthropogenic forest-related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks. consistent over time. as defined by a country. comparability. • Be flexible and allow for improvement. countries should: • Secure the cooperation of all stakeholders through the establishment of national arrangements.15 and 11/CP. • Reflect. appendix I) are addressed and respected. A NFMS may also provide relevant information for national systems for the provision of information on how safeguards (see decision 1/CP. and enhance sustainable forest management. and are suitable for MRV as a result of the implementation of REDD+ activities. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.6). consider counter-measures to deforestation and forest degradation. including law enforcement. the development of a NFMS would take into consideration. the phased approach for the implementation of REDD+ activities. • Have in place appropriate quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures.5). • Enable the assessment of different types of forest in the country. In general.

taking into consideration various sectors of the national economy (including energy. such as energy and agriculture. Population that is affected (e. such as soy or oil palm in the forestry sector.g. industry.. Education. including deforestation.5: Typical elements to be considered by countries when determining their national context Historical development of all REDD+ activities that are relevant for the country. Potential synergy between activities and policies relating to REDD+ and those relating to other sectors. forest degradation. Information related to the current and projected factors contributing to deforestation. agriculture. mining. including an analysis related to drivers of deforestation and the impact of commodities. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. tourism. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.g.. fisheries..Box 2. conservation of forest carbon stocks. past investments to reduce deforestation or enhance reforestation and lessons learned). Effects of past efforts to bring about land-use management and land tenure changes in the country (e. transport. Economic information related to factors that will be affected by REDD+ activities.g.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 15 . mountainous areas with limited or no access. Specific geographic or other characteristics that influence the development of REDD+ activities (e. demographics and employment statistics related to REDD+ activities in the country). such as the UNFCCC. and Linkages with actions undertaken by the country in the context of relevant multilateral agreements. including scientific and technical research institutions focusing on issues relevant to REDD+. potential need for regional initiatives involving neighboring countries). health and services).

The information provided by the LUC analysis – together with the information provided by the forest inventory is integrated into the GHG inventory in order to estimate the associated emissions or removals from the different land-use categories and subcategories. • Establishing a clear legal. Inventories can be performed for purposes beyond calculating the value of timber. An estimate of the value and possible uses of timber is an important part of the broader information required to sustain ecosystems.. An important consideration in MRV is the trade-off between the cost versus the accuracy of monitoring and evaluation systems for REDD+. hectare.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 16 . Remote sensing imagery and products. 2011). grass lands.2. the sub-national. it is important to ensure that the two systems are compatible in order to safeguard the integrity of the overall accounting process. acre). When undertaking a forest inventory the following items are important to measure and note: species. the basal area. the monitoring of LUC through remote sensing is a key tool to identify and implement corrective actions in areas where illegal deforestation and forest degradation is occurring. and both levels in a “nested approach”. At the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP17).. age. to provide comprehensive information about the state and dynamics of forests for strategic and management planning.. countries could still pursue project‐level activities after the adoption of national (and potentially sub-national) reference levels (UNFCCC. The different points of view expressed by different governments are the result of differing political interests and national circumstances. one can calculate the number of trees per unit of area (e. Three options have been extensively debated: the national level. and in the extrapolation of plot measurements to the regional or national level. the volume of trees in an area. diameter at breast height. site quality. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. in the assessment of change areas. • Identifying synergies between national and sub-national REDD+ activities. and because of technical issues in measuring and accounting of emissions. Also. and the value of the timber.g. For more information on remote sensing. and defects. e. including jurisdictional and project-level. for example. For countries that wish to establish both national and sub-national accounting systems. Conversely. This can be achieved through: • Identifying drivers of deforestation and forest degradation at the national and sub-national levels. aid in the design of efficient ground sampling schemes. crop land. The identification of cost-effective solutions requires a balanced approach of remote sensing and ground-based measurements. and • Ensuring the consistent use of definitions of forest parameters.g. regulatory and accounting framework regarding the implementation of sub- national or project activities.6: National forest inventory and land-use change analysis A national forest inventory is the systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis. Box 2. governments agreed that if the overall performance is measured at the national level.g. 2. see Chapter 5. wetlands) for a specific period of time. The analysis assesses and quantifies the area change of specific land-use categories (e. From the data collected. ground-based measurements are required for generating carbon data and to verify desktop forest mapping from remote sensing imagery. forest lands.3 National versus sub-national accounting One of the critical issues in the UNFCCC negotiations on REDD+ concerns the geographical scale that should be used to account for emissions. A historical land-use change (LUC) analysis is the analysis of dynamics that have occurred in a given territory.

2 Specific functions Specific functions of national inventory arrangements include collecting activity data (AD). and for reporting and archiving information. 2. consistency. and establishing and maintaining the institutional. completeness. National-level accounting provides a complete picture of how projects.For a “nested approach.3. legal and procedural arrangements between the government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of emission and removal estimates from LULUCF. and focal point REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. implementing uncertainty assessments and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities. Part I: UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines on Annual Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Annex I to Decision 15/CP. reportable and verifiable. policies and measures are contributing to a country’s progress in reducing emissions..0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 17 . In doing so. national-level lead agency. 2.1 General functions The key general functions of national inventory arrangements are: designating a single national-level entity7 with overall responsibility for the inventory. preparation and management of inventory activities. selecting appropriate methods and emission factors (EFs). as well as the quality of data through the planning. comparability. 7 Other terms for this designated body include national entity.3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS In general. This integration can occur in stages (e. 2. Although Decision 15/CP. starting with sub-national accounting and moving up to national) or once the national accounting is in place. It also plays an important role in helping to secure financing by projects that may be contingent on results that are measurable. national arrangements for REDD+ MRV should include all institutional. 2. legal and procedural arrangements made within a country for estimating anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks in all categories and activities included in the monitoring plan.” it is expected that project-level and/or sub-national programs would be integrated into national-level accounting.17) and the guidance provided by the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE). and carrying out data verification procedures. estimating anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks. and accuracy of the data. there is a need to ensure sufficient capacity and technical competence of the staff involved in the inventory development process for:  The timely collection of data needed to estimate anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks.3. National arrangements should be designed to incorporate both general and specific functions.17 applies to Annex I Parties. the provisions contained within it on national arrangements would be generally applicable to all countries.3 Implementation phases Implementation of national arrangements for REDD+ MRV involves three phases: inventory planning. inventory preparation. The information on functions of national arrangements in this section is adapted from the Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention. and be operated to ensure the transparency. and inventory management.g.3. and  The preparation of GHG inventories in accordance with the relevant UNFCCC reporting guidelines.

0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 18 . a country will define and allocate specific responsibilities in the inventory development process. procedural information. should be considered in the development and/or revision of GHG data and the quality objectives of the GHG inventory. or the uncertainty in emissions and removals. 2003). as well as for categories where significant changes to methods or data have been made. In terms of absolute level. a country needs to collect sufficient AD.7) and for those individual categories in which significant methodological and/or data revisions have occurred. Countries should ensure there is sufficient capacity to carry out all activities through training of existing personnel or hiring of experts. it includes both source and sink categories as well as specific GHGs. Inventory management Inventory management refers to the handling of the inventory report and its relevant source information once an inventory cycle is complete. An area of particular importance is the implementation of general inventory QA/QC procedures in accordance with a QA/QC plan. if appropriate. provisions should be made for an extensive expert review of key categories. as well as the institutional. Countries would be required to apply category-specific QC procedures for key categories (see Box 2. EFs. as well as how they have been generated and aggregated for the preparation of the inventory. the trend. a country would archive all relevant inventory information for the reported time series. For more information. including the roles of. legal and procedural arrangements made to prepare the inventory. as well as their organization into a reporting format. following the guidance provided by GPG-LULUCF.7: Key categories According to the IPCC. As part of inventory planning. countries would need re-evaluate and adjust. This can be achieved by elaborating an inventory QA/QC plan. key categories are all inventory activities that account for 95 percent of the total GHG emissions.Inventory planning Inventory planning includes activities that lead up to the implementation of MRV activities. methods. and the cooperation between. The methodological basis for the estimation of GHG emissions and removals is provided in the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines as have been updated by the GPG-LULUCF. Box 2. Other information to be archived includes: REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. preferably an independent third party.4 of the IPCC GPG-LULUCF (IPCC. government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of the inventory. In accordance with the GPG-LULUCF. in accordance with the planned QA procedures. including all disaggregated EFs and AD together with explanations of the rationale for selecting these factors and data. before the submission of the inventory. a key category is one that is prioritized within the national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country’s total inventory of GHGs in terms of the absolute level. and other relevant technical elements of the inventory once they have been initially established. On the basis of any periodic evaluations of the inventory preparation process (see below). As part of inventory management. As part of inventory planning. countries should consider ways to improve the quality of AD. As part of inventory preparation. the inventory planning process. They would also need to provide for a basic review of the inventory by personnel that have not been involved in the inventory development process. Information obtained from the implementation of the QA/QC plan. and EFs as necessary to support the methods selected for estimating anthropogenic GHG emissions and removals. see Chapter 3 of the Manual. and other verification activities. Following the basic review. Inventory preparation Inventory preparation includes all aspects of implementation of the MRV actions. processes would need to be established for the official consideration and approval of the inventory. Whenever the term key category is used. including any recalculations. and section 5.

store. Countries should look at their experience in other areas for guidance and resources on this issue. as appropriate. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. such as joint mitigation and adaptation. Such systems involve database management processes for archiving data and information. on the coordination of support for the full implementation of activities and elements referred to in decision 1/CP.1: A typical cycle for an inventory process (source: EPA National System Template). or longer-term periods. in accordance with national circumstances and the principles of sovereignty. Another part of inventory management is ensuring that the country has the capacity to respond in a timely manner to requests for clarifying information on the national inventory.6 2. 71 and 73. An example of an inventory cycle is shown in the diagram in Figure 2.16. biennial. a national entity or focal point to serve as a liaison with the secretariat and the relevant bodies under the Convention. The length of the inventory cycle depends on national circumstances and reporting requirements. but every few years (typically between three to ten years). For more information see section 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 19 . Such a cycle can be applied to annual. states that countries could “designate. Many countries have well-established systems for the collection and processing of non-GHG related information. and retrieve information. including different policy approaches. • A description of the methods used for the identification of key categories. Experience in the use of such systems would be extremely valuable for application to GHG inventory development and/or strengthening of procedures to archive. and • Findings of external and internal reviews and descriptions of planned inventory improvements as a result of these reviews. • Explanation of how QA/QC procedures have been implemented. 8 Figure 2.1.4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Decision 10/CP. paragraphs 70. and to inform the secretariat 8 It should be noted that national forest inventory data would not be available annually.19.

such as a consulting company. and implementation of national or regional REDD+ initiatives. that make decisions and oversee the inventory preparation process. for the collection and archiving of information. or a research institute. The separate provincial inventory information is then aggregated at the national level. a university. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. academia. as well as human and other resources. nominate their entities to obtain and receive results-based payments. including securing the resources and commitment of all relevant stakeholders in the country. but not limited to: preparation of national reports and communications to meet international commitments. Once the specific actions are identified. the process necessitates the development of clear roles and responsibilities. as well as establishing specific procedures and systems.accordingly. • Forming an advisory or oversight board composed of representatives from multiple agencies and ministries. • A small team of government employees overseeing the preparation of the inventory by a number of consultants and researchers. to deal with a REDD+ MRV system. for example. and • Preparation of the inventory delegated to the country’s provinces or states. are possible and there is no absolutely correct approach. perhaps as a subset of a more comprehensive GHG inventory. Whatever approach is used. in terms of administrative and organizational arrangements. Many other situations.16. Every country will likely have its own approach on how to put in place these arrangements for REDD+. It is important that the appropriate body be identified at an early stage of the process. countries would need to identify specific actions consistent with MRV goals and develop a plan for their completion.” The same decision further stipulates that such entities “may. to facilitate the appointment of personnel. To ensure timely completion. Given the interdisciplinary nature of REDD+. in accordance with national circumstances and the principles of sovereignty. a country would need to implement the necessary administrative and organizational arrangements. or others in the private sector. it should function in such a way that the quality of the inventory is maintained and improved over time and that decisions can be made in an effective and timely manner. seeking funding for REDD+ projects. possibly mandated by national legislation. consistent with any specific operational modalities of the financing entities providing them with support for the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. raising awareness among various private and public institutions and facilitating consultations and establishing relationships among stakeholders.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 20 . Establishing institutional arrangements includes a number of specific activities. • Preparation of the inventory almost entirely by government employees within a single agency. This may include setting up working groups and task forces to undertake specific tasks. which depend on the MRV goals that have been identified by a country.” Based on the experience of other similar processes under the UNFCCC (such as the national communications of developing countries). institutional arrangements can strengthen the national policymaking process by enhancing coordination of all relevant stakeholders. Each approach is associated with relative pros and cons and has financial and staffing implications. including. paragraph 70. including combinations of the above. implementation of REDD+ activities involves many national actors and stakeholders supporting the work of a national-level entity or focal point. In establishing national arrangements. The national-level lead agency or institute should be charged with overall responsibility. it is necessary to identify existing national capacities and allocate necessary funds. Whatever approach is taken. Some typical approaches include: • Completely out-sourcing the inventory preparation process to an outside organization. and possibly other organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

committee. of the inventory. separate: The country's GHG inventory work may be integrated with other related efforts (e. a country has the opportunity to identify those national and regional development priorities and objectives that would serve as the basis for addressing REDD+ and climate change. in practice one agency will often have the overall coordinating role to avoid conflicts. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. out-sourced: Government agencies and employees may prepare most. At every step of the process it is imperative that countries keep track of the specific roles and responsibilities of all relevant organizations. in contrast. • Integrated vs. the lead agency usually has more of a coordinating role and less power over decisions on methodological issues. In such cases. Often smaller countries resort to extensive use of external assistance due to lack of expertise and the length of time necessary to build capacity within the specific timeframe for the preparation of a GHG inventory. The decision on out-sourcing depends on whether the administration has developed sufficient capacity and capability to do all or most of the technical work itself through the involvement of experts and agencies. this institutional body will be required to manage the work of the other institutions and organizations and will have overall responsibility for coordinating administrative and technical arrangements and the overall quality of reported estimates. The management system that a country uses will be determined by national circumstances. as well as changes in the arrangements as refinements and/or new stakeholders are involved. A brief description of the templates and an example of how they could be modified are provided in Appendix 2. thus “in-sourcing” the process. A centralized approach will likely include few other institutions. A decentralized approach. academic institutions. Although these templates have been developed to address the national arrangements of a national GHG inventory covering all economic sectors. • Single agency vs. multi-agency: The lead agency may be housed within a single government agency. Alternatively. existing national capacities and available options for addressing GHG emissions and removals from REDD+ within the broader context of sustainable development. Such a multi-agency structure requires a very clear delineation of roles and responsibilities to ensure that there is a clear line of reporting and decision-making on GHG inventory issues. decentralized: The country's lead agency may maintain a large degree of control and decision-making authority over the inventory preparation process. Although the multi-agency approach may have some relative advantages in regard to plurality in the decision-making process..6 below. it is possible to modify them for the purposes of a GHG inventory on LULUCF. inter alia. its own specific conditions. or other structure. may include many different teams and/or institutions that each work on different parts of the inventory and make their own decisions regarding methodologies and other issues. research institutions. • In-sourced vs. reducing threats to biodiversity. One way to do this in a systematic way is through the use of the National System Templates from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – see section 2. for example. The appointment should be transparent to all stakeholders in the process so that there is no ambiguity of which institution leads the process. Such information would provide the background to help a country better understand.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 21 . avoiding soil erosion) to ensure the best use of resources and utilize available expertise. While developing a MRV system for REDD+ activities. or all. the government may “out-source” the work of preparing the inventory to private consultants. In general terms.and for specific roles and responsibilities to be allocated. or other NGOs. water management. Some common patterns include: • Centralized vs. or the country's lead body may be composed of a multi-agency working group. Countries with a large administration and various institutions with expertise in certain areas of the inventory often use the centralized approach.g.

associations. MCT.g. which varied in size according to the stage of development of the project. and responsibilities. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. three system development staff. such as those involved in system development. costs. Inventory coordination at FUNCATE was carried out by one person with experience in remote sensing whose role was to oversee the development of the inventory at all phases (including the compilation of the GHG data for the LULUCF inventory). perform additional QC procedures. The number of personnel engaged was driven by the product delivery time schedule and budget. selective logging). and prepare the partial and final reports. had an added cost due to the new methodological requirements from the GPG-LULUCF. Part of this added cost was caused by the decision to create a spatially explicit database and the wall-to-wall character of the territorial coverage required to include other land-use categories previously not considered (e. ensure that the budget expenditure and the agreed timetable evolved according to the contract and cooperation agreement with MCT. one database development expert. The experience gained from the first national inventory and the new demands from application of the GPG-LULUCF helped to identify the initial level of human resources needed. a large number of image interpreters were needed at the beginning of the project but were latter allocated to other work within FUNCATE or dismissed. FUNCATE engaged other agencies. However. as the work progressed. personnel worked full-time until completion of that activity. With each new staff hire by FUNCATE.2.5. 9 2. This required national wall-to-wall coverage with remotely sensed data of adequate resolution. besides those from FUNCATE. Applications and Technology (FUNCATE) was the sole institution in charge of compiling the Brazilian LULUCF inventory.1 Brazil The Foundation of Space Science. FUNCATE identified the need to enlarge the team. in particular. The total cost of the second national inventory was approximately $1. Forty-five personnel were engaged in the work at different stages of the inventory development (22 image interpreters. Colombia. one information technology expert.google.1 million distributed among a cooperation agreement and a contract. The second inventory.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 22 . No external people were engaged directly in the preparation of the inventory. and Brazil’s National Space Research Institute (INPE). five validation and data analysis staff. if necessary. image classification). one general coordinator. The LULUCF inventory was the most expensive among all sectors reported in the national GHG inventory. and one documentation specialist). seven administrators. The idea was to create a database that would facilitate the updating and recalculation of previous inventory estimates. and academic and research institutions. in coordination with the General Coordination on Global Climate Change under the Brazilian Ministry of Science. FUNCATE had a clear mandate established through a contract or cooperation agreement that set individual terms of reference.com/site/maptpartnerresearch/national-ghg-inventory-case-study- series/producing-a-national-ghg-inventory-for-the-land-use-land-use-change-and-forestry-lulucf-sector. During project development (e. Technology and Innovation (MCT). The information in this section is based on the WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking Project National GHG Inventory Case Study Series. Other people. For instance. Most of the staff was engaged full time in the project. This person had overall knowledge of the inventory’s development and actively participated at all phases. worked simultaneously for other projects at FUNCATE. but did not subcontract any components of the LULUCF inventory. three auditors. timetables. one database management expert. and India for the preparation of GHG inventories for the LULUCF sector.g.5 EXAMPLES In this section we present examples of institutional arrangements for Brazil. The cost included 9 Full reports are available at: https://sites... training was carried out to ensure consistency in image classification among the different image interpreters and thus minimize classification uncertainty.

the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. A.5. resources. One option being considered is for both the national and regional institutions responsible for the collection. regional. and national level that collectively generate information. No consultants were hired for the project.. Bogota’s Botanical Garden Jose Celestino Mutis.g.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 23 . a public institution that is part of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (MADS). universities.. each one of the institutions involved compiles and archives the data on its own portal site. SINA comprises several institutions at the local. the process. It would also be necessary to identify priority data at the national. The working groups’ ultimate objectives are to define needs and priorities for each sector and to select EFs and methods for calculating the uncertainty associated with each module. frequency. 2. agriculture. Although the working method to prepare these communications has been effective. The budget did not contemplate the acquisition of data other than those planned under the legal instruments. timely. However. consumables. the National Corporation for Forestry Research and Development. database construction. SINA is a set of norms. the development of the GHG inventory encompasses the steps illustrated in Figure 2. Additional details. as there is no centralized technical platform to share and exchange information with other LULUCF-related institutions in a permanent. and the Integrated Monitoring System for Illicit Crops. and institutions that fosters compliance with the environmental principles embedded in the constitution of Colombia. the Special Administrative Unit of the National Parks System. the Amazon Institute for Scientific Research. Pizano S. industry. this should improve the quality. are provided below. The lack of a system to share data also prevents the implementation of comprehensive QC procedures nationwide. and acquisition of data starts from scratch for each new GHG inventory. A small portion of the budget was ensured by the Ministry of the Environment. and availability of the reported data. comprises a set of overarching principles that focus on environmental principles to foster management of the country’s natural resources. IDEAM is responsible for selecting public and private institutions that are actively participating in the inventory-related sectors (e. travel expenses. analysis. Currently.salaries and labor benefits. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. and build technological capacities for their own purposes. the National Environmental System (SINA). Regional Autonomous Corporations. Meteorology and Environmental Studies (IDEAM). All costs for each phase of the project were detailed by FUNCATE and helped MCT to prioritize the activities. etc. The institutional arrangements are based on voluntary agreements among the following organizations: MADS. familiarization of guidelines. SINA does not have any technical platform to share information online. regional. The institute responsible for conducting the GHG inventory is the Institute of Hydrology. The only national system in place. compilation.2 Colombia Colombia has prepared two national communications under the UNFCCC. IDEAM also provides technical and scientific support to the agencies that constitute SINA.g. and systematization of forestry information to develop the revision mechanisms controlling the flow of information. and LULUCF) to form sectoral working groups. activities.). the Association of Regional Autonomous Corporations and Sustainable Development. programs. the Environmental Research Institute of the Pacific. eliminate those considered not relevant for the final product. and agree on the final allocation of the full budget for LULUCF. carry out scientific research. waste. private entities (e. Therefore. and part of the development of a software tool to manage large datasets. energy.. and efficient manner. transportation. the Geographic Institute Agustin Codazzi.2. regarding the overall system in place. and local level that are needed as a basic input for research and to comply with international commitments. Major funding came from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and from MCT. Carton de Colombia. regulations. equipment.

such as the Forest Survey of India (FSI). REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.2: Key steps for national inventory preparation in Colombia 2. The Ministry of Environment and Forests is responsible for the overall coordination of the process. The current approach involves cooperation with other organizations.Figure 2.3 India India’s overall institutional arrangement structure for the preparation of GHG estimation for the LULUCF sector is shown in Figure 2. the National Remote Sensing Centre.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 24 . Initially. and to ensure that all activities are implemented in a timely fashion. The coordination process has evolved over the years. which meet on a regular basis to decide on the respective roles and establishment of these roles. the Indian Institute of Science took a leading role as it was the institution involved in the IPCC process for developing the GHG emissions inventory for the LULUCF sector.3. and the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education.5. Various other institutions involved in the LULUCF sector provide technical assistance and expertise to ensure that all methodological processes are followed in order to develop a comprehensive and accurate inventory to the extent that capacities permit.

which covers land-use mapping.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 25 . REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. For example.4 million Rupees (or $9.95 million) for 2012-13 (Union Budget. has been granted a budget of 537.Figure 2. 2012-13). the Natural Resource Management Division.3: Work allocation and implementation arrangements for developing the GHG emissions inventory by sources and removal by sinks for the LULUCF sector in India Funding for all activities is part of the Indian Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organisation.

The budget outlay of its Forestry and Wildlife Division is 9. The six templates (briefly described below) can be compiled into a single National Inventory System Report.6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES EPA's National System Templates can be used as a set of building blocks by countries to construct a national inventory management system 10. the parent organization of FSI. • Ensure roles and responsibilities are understood.html#National for more details and for how to download the templates REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. and • Create transparency in a country's national system and improve quality over time. Template 3: Description of QA/QC Procedures This guides countries through the establishment of a cost-effective QA/QC program to improve transparency. Future inventory teams can refer to the completed template for each source and sink category to determine what information was collected. preparing the GHG emissions inventory is part of the FSI mandate and has been funded through the forestry and wildlife budget of the Ministry of Environment and Forest. typically less than 50 pages.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/internationalpartnerships/capacity-building. The Key Category Analysis (KCA) Tool can be used to determine key categories in a GHG inventory. 2. 10 See http://www. including governmental.8 million Rupees (or $167 million) for 2012- 2013 (Union Budget 2012-13). completeness. allowing countries within regions to compare and contrast results. • Provide an objective and efficient system for identifying priorities for future improvements. consistency. and what methods were used. how the data was obtained.75 million Rupees (or $1. This ensures continuity and integrity of the inventory.27 million) that was allocated in the budget for preparation of the entire GHG emissions inventory for the second national communication.epa. • Serve as instruction Manuals and a starting point for future inventory teams. and facilitates prioritization of future improvements. spread over four years.066. Template 2: Methods and Data Documentation This assists inventory teams in documenting and reporting the origin of methodologies. comparability. The advantages of the templates are that they: • Focus on documenting essential information in a concise format and avoid unnecessarily long written reports. activity datasets. Similarly. providing comprehensive documentation of each of the critical national system building blocks. • Accommodate varying levels of national capacity. • Standardize tasks.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 26 . and multilateral funds. Template 1: Institutional Arrangements for National Inventory System This template assists inventory teams in assessing and documenting the strengths and weaknesses of existing institutional arrangements for inventory development. Supplemental checklists with recommended QA/QC procedures have been developed for the Inventory Coordinator and QA/QC Coordinator. promotes institutionalization of the inventory process.compared to the 68. and confidence in national GHG inventories. bilateral. The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) was also funded through the second national communication. and several other sources. and EFs used to estimate emissions or removals.

provide information on the status of the institutional arrangements or any additional information not included elsewhere within the table. for sectored+. An archive system allows estimates to be easily reproduced. and focal point. List this information in column “Strengths in Management Structure of the REDD+ Inventory System” of Table 2. and determine whether they could be assigned. Example roles are provided in Table 2. organization.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 27 . Other terms for this designated body include national entity. national-level lead agency. compiling and reviewing inventory data. Template 5: Key Category Analysis (KCA) KCA provides information. indicate which data provider listed in Table 2. Given the key category analysis and existing institutional arrangements within each sector. legal. if different (Table 2.3. where data have been collected and managed adequately and. The KCA Tool enables a country to determine key categories from a GHG inventory.3. and procedural arrangements among the government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of emission and removal estimates from LULUCF.2 provides the statistics that will be used in the inventory. identify what improvements are needed to enhance the institutional arrangements for each sector and list these in column “Potential Improvements in Management Structure of the REDD+ Inventory System” of Table 2. Describe the strategies that were used to collect the necessary inventory data from an organization. specific to the contacts/experts for inventory development. Explain in detail how the arrangements were established.2. Step 3: Identify where well-established institutional arrangements needed to prepare the inventory exist. according to IPCC criteria. address the following questions and add additional comments as necessary: • Is there a formal legal contract between the organizations? 11 “National-level entity” is used throughout the Manual and refers to the designated single national-level entity with overall responsibility for the inventory and for establishing and maintaining the institutional. Identify the role. where strengthening is not needed. In this description. and allows reproducibility of the estimates. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. In the “Comments” column of Table 2.1). and contact information for those providing relevant data for estimating emissions. thus.3. Use Table 2.Template 4: Description of Archiving System An archive system is an inexpensive yet critical step in the sustainability of the National Inventory System. safeguards against data and information loss. on which sources or sinks are the most important and should be the focus of improvement efforts. For example. Example of modifying Template 1 for the purposes of REDD+ Step 1: List the lead agency and describe the arrangements or relationship between the REDD+ Inventory Agency/Organization and the UNFCCC National Focal Point Agency11.2 to document existing arrangements for obtaining. Step 2: List additional information. Template 6: National Inventory Improvement Plan Synthesizes findings and describes specific priorities for future capacity building projects based on the needs identified in the first five templates and facilitates continual inventory improvements. In preparing this section. consider whether any important tasks for inventory preparation have not been assigned or delegated.

Table 2. and other key contributors explaining the background and purpose of the inventory? • Is it an informal arrangement (e. written or verbal communication with staff)? • How was the request for data made? • At what level of management was the request made? • How was the organization motivated to share its data and information with the inventory agency? Describe the arrangements or relationship Designated National-level Entity UNFCCC National Focal between REDD+ Inventory for REDD+ Inventory Point (Name) and UNFCCC Agency/Organization and UNFCCC National Preparation Focal Point Agency Focal Point Agency. • Was there a meeting with the experts.g.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 28 . GHG Policy Specialist who tracks capacity building efforts and IPCC processes REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.. identifies the inventory management team members. data providers.. if different.1: Designated inventory agency. The status of the institutional arrangements can be noted in the "Comments" column Role Name Organization Contact Information Comments Inventory Director/Coordinator LULUCF Sector Lead Archive (Data and Document) Manager/Coordinator QA/QC coordinator Uncertainty Analysis coordinator Other: e.g.

2: National inventory management team Strengths in Management Potential Improvements in Management Comments Structure of the REDD+ Structure of the REDD+ Inventory REDD+ activity Inventory System System LULUCF (general) Deforestation Forest degradation Conservation of forest carbon stocks Sustainable management of forests Enhancement of forest carbon stocks Table 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 29 .3: Strengths and potential improvements in the management structure of the REDD+ inventory system REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.Table 2.

epa.or.ipcc-nggip.pdf#page=4 UNFCCC.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/internationalpartnerships/capacity-building.7 REFERENCES CGE: Training material and methodological documents provided by the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention..int/resource/docs/2011/cop17/eng/09a01.iges.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf. held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its nineteenth session http://unfccc..iges.html UNFCCC. and Tanabe K. Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Miwa K. eds.int/resource/docs/2013/cop19/eng/10a01. IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. Japan. Published: IGES.int/7914. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its nineteenth session.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01. held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session http://unfccc. http://www.htm IPCC. Buendia L.1. Available at: http://www.php EPA National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems. Published: IGES. Japan. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session.or. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. http://www.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Eggleston H. http://unfccc..or. http://www. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session.html FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add. Land-Use Change and Forestry. 2000...S. Published: IGES. held in Cancun from 29 November to 10 December 2010 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session http://unfccc. 2013.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 30 . Japan.iges.pdf#page=2 UNFCCC. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session.2.jp/public/2006gl/index. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme.ipcc-nggip.htm IPCC GPG-LULUCF.ipcc-nggip. 2010.jp/public/gp/gpgaum. held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session IPCC. 2011. 2006. Ngara T. 2003.

NW Washington. Agency for International Development 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue. DC 20523 Tel: (202) 712-0000 Fax: (202) 216-3524 www.U.usaid.S.gov .