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REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD,
through a Task Order under the Prosperity, Livelihoods, and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity
Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00, Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022).

Tetra Tech
159 Bank Street, Suite 300
Burlington, Vermont 05401 USA
Telephone: (802) 658-3890
Fax: (802) 658-4247
E-Mail: international.development@tetratech.com
www.tetratechintdev.com

Tetra Tech Contacts:
Ian Deshmukh, Senior Technical Advisor/Manager
Email: ian.deshmukh@tetratech.com

Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program
1611 North Kent Street
Suite 805
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 592-6388
Fax: (866) 795-6462

Stephen Kelleher, Chief of Party
Email: stephen.kelleher@fcmcglobal.org

Olaf Zerbock, USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative
Email: ozerbock@usaid.gov

Editors:
• Jennifer Hewson, Conservation International
• Marc Steininger, FCMC & Conservation International
• Stelios Pesmajoglou, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

Contributing authors:
• Angel Parra, Consultant; GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert
• Gordon Smith, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute
• David Shoch, TerraCarbon, LLC
• John Musinsky, National Ecological Observatory Network
• Fred Stolle, World Resources Institute
• Kemen Austin, World Resources Institute
• Irene Angeletti, Greenhouse Gas Management Institute

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities
(FCMC) Program to provide its missions, partner governments, local and international stakeholders with assistance in
developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. FCMC services include analysis, evaluation, tools and guidance for
program design support; training materials; and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US
Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture.

Please cite this report as:
Hewson, J., M.K. Steininger and S. Pesmajoglou, eds. 2014. REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual,
Version 2.0. USAID-supported Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities Program. Washington, DC, USA.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 i

REDD+ MEASUREMENT,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV)
MANUAL, VERSION 2.0

FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

DISCLAIMER
The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the
views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United
States Government.

REDD+ MEASUREMENT, REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL, VERSION 2.0 ii

.........................................4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM .................50 4...................................................................... 1 1.................................. 1 1......................................................... VERSION 2................................................................................5 EXAMPLES ............................................................................ VIII 1..................... 42 3..............................................2 BACKGROUND ...........3 REFERENCES...........3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN .............. 31 3....6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA .....................................2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT ................................3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ............. 57 4...................................0 INTRODUCTION.......6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES ..............................0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ................................................................................ 50 4...41 3.....................................26 2....................................................................................................................................................... 4 1..............................................................................0 iii .........2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ .....1 INTRODUCTION ............0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS.....3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS ...........................................................1 INTRODUCTION ................. 9 2...................................................................................... III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS .......2 IPCC GUIDANCE....................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ..........66 4.........................................54 4.................30 3..........................................69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT........................................................................................... 17 2..............................................................6 REFERENCES..7 REFERENCES.................................................................... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.......................................38 3...... 8 2......................................0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS .........67 4...........................................................1 INTRODUCTION .............................22 2....19 2...................................................................................................... SCOPE AND STRUCTURE ...............................1 PURPOSE............34 3.............................. 9 2..................4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS...........................................................49 4..................................5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS ...........................................................................................13 2.......................................4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES ..........................................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................... V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..........................................................................................................................................................31 3......

....0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE ....................................................................................................................0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE ......................................................................................................................................................7 DATA CHECKING ................................... 151 7.....1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC .... 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT.. 152 7..............................................2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING .........9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD ....................................................................90 5.......................................84 5........ 127 6....................................................11 SELECTED RESOURCES ............. 165 7.........................................75 4..............................................................................................................................................82 5......................................................................................................................................................................10 REFERENCES .................................................................................................7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING ................................................................................. 121 6...........................................................................................76 4.... 152 7................................ 125 6........................... VERSION 2....... 125 6.....................................................................93 5.................. 4...................................0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ............................................3 VERIFICATION .........................................................4 REFERENCES.........3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS ................................................2 REPORTING.................................................................................................8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS ....................................................................................3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS........................................................................................................................... 114 5....78 4...79 4.................1 INTRODUCTION ..2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC ........8 SELECTED RESOURCES...0 iv ................. 82 5................................ 141 6................. 118 5.........4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW ..81 5................................................... 109 5...............................1 INTRODUCTION .................. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL....5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH............6 REFERENCES.............................................

0 v . VERSION 2. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture. Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon.

Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement. Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use.FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science.0 vi . VERSION 2. Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology.

comparability. SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency. sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. accuracy. VERSION 2.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 vii . and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT. completeness. plus the role of conservation.

Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics.0 viii . REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. and Leif Kindberg of FCMC. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History. Megan McGroddy. Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. Karyn Tabor. John Rogan of Boston University. Andrew Lister. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. including Colin Silver. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. Maggie Roth. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. Ronald McRoberts. and members of the USAID Climate Change office. SilvaCarbon Consultant. Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center. VERSION 2. the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program. Rishi Das. Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute.

1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the main elements of a Measurement. This chapter is relevant to the activities highlighted on the following page. 2.0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Author: Stelios Pesmajoglou 2.3. of the Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. including the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 9 . and the key functions and components of institutional arrangements. It highlights the main steps in establishing national arrangements and describes the key administrative and organizational arrangements. Reporting and Verification (MRV) system for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation. Section 3. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). Inventory and Reporting Steps.

through stratification and other methods. Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs. assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize in terms of methodological choice.STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements. and worksheets where appropriate. EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area. pool or non-CO2 gas. if using the gain-loss method. carbon pool and non-CO2 source. STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. Within the categories designated as key. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). estimating the uncertainty in each estimate. STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs). appropriate to the tier level identified. using the reporting tables. STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates. STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 10 . Document and archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land-use category/change. STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. for the time period required. STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories.

a robust and transparent national forest monitoring system. reported and verified. and a system for providing information on how social. results-based REDD+ actions. which are to be fully measured.1). reported and verified. complete and accurate MRV (see Box 2.” that ensure the transparent. while others could skip earlier phases if they have already put in place the elements needed under Phase 1 and 2. For example.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 11 . Phase 3 involves implementation of results-based actions that should be fully measured. comparable. should be implemented using a three-phase approach (see Box 2. Phase 2 involves the implementation of national policies and measures. and national strategies or action plans. a national Forest Reference Emission Level and/or Forest Reference Level.In accordance with decision 1/CP. One of the key actions for Phase 1 is the establishment of institutional arrangements. also sometimes referred to as “national systems. countries would develop: a national strategy or action plan.1 Three-phase approach for REDD+ During Phase 1 (often referred to as ‘REDD+ readiness’). technology development and transfer. As countries are at different levels of development and have different capacity needs. legal. and results-based demonstration activities.16. implementation of these three phases is taking place on different timeframes. some countries will need to start from scratch and ensure that they go through the first two phases before they are ready to implement REDD+ activities. which could involve further capacity-building. coherent. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. and environmental safeguards are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the REDD+ activities. Box 2.2) of GHG emissions and removals from REDD+ activities.

0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 12 . GHG inventories must be transparent. and improve scientific understanding of.2 Definitions of MRV elements Measurement refers to the direct or indirect measurement of emissions or removals from forest areas. sustainable economic development. comparable. A key benefit to focusing on national arrangements is the development and maintenance of stronger in- country technical capacities and relevant national and regional institutions and organizations. the term institutional arrangements. etc. the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. also encompassing sub-national arrangements for specific jurisdictions. In the context of this Manual. Monitoring encompasses MRV.3. 2000). in a manner that adheres to the IPCC principles and relevant United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or other guidance. and the IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC. Internationally accepted quality criteria are laid out in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management for National GHG Inventories (IPCC. having such arrangements in place will enable countries to participate in future financial mechanisms. Indirect measurement involves estimation of emissions reductions using equations based on data on land areas and specific emission factors or the use of complex models that take into account a number of different parameters that affect the release or sequestration of carbon and other GHGs. consistent. In general. and natural resource management. consistency and reliability of the reported information through an independent process. and/or voluntary or compliance-based regimes or mechanisms. environmental markets. as described in Box 2. It brings together multiple objectives and aims to maximize total benefits. and accurate. Reported information encompasses forest-related data and estimates of GHGs and the methodologies used to derive them. Verification provides inputs to improve data (including GHG emissions and removals as well as all measured data or derived parameters) and helps to build confidence in. GHG accounting. High quality forest MRV systems have many obvious benefits for broader environmental monitoring. In addition. Verification refers to the assessment (through internal and external checks) of the completeness. In addition to MRV. governance aspects and generating information on the effectiveness of policies and forest management practices as part of REDD+ implementation. According to these guidelines. monitoring is another activity of particular importance for REDD+ activities. monitoring can be categorized as a management function that entails reviewing implementation of planned objectives and goals. is defined as the processes and procedures that codify all relevant elements of a fully operational MRV system covering all lands and activities relevant to REDD+. such as quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities and uncertainty estimation. These capacities and institutions are expected to have broader benefits and applications than solely addressing REDD+ issues. complete. Box 2. Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF) (IPCC. Reporting refers the presentation of measured information in a transparent and (often) standardized manner. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. as well as other related issues. estimates and trends. 2003). 2006).

REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. and uncertainties have been reduced as much as is practical. 6 Or sub-national (as an interim measure). when appropriate.17. 5 The information builds on. refer to Chapter 3 of this Manual.4 FREL vs. “forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year are benchmarks for assessing each country’s performance in implementing the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. FRL According to decision 12/CP. This requires undertaking all efforts to remove bias from the inventory estimates. Box 2. ii) a national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level (FREL/FRL) – see Box 2. paragraph 71 (UNFCCC. The objective of this chapter is to provide guidance on the key elements of national arrangements for credible and functional MRV systems for REDD+ activities. Consistency: Estimates for different inventory years. as well as relevant elements developed in the context of the UNFCCC. 6 and iv) a system for providing information on safeguards. so far as can be judged.16. and Accuracy: The GHG inventory contains neither over nor underestimates.2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ 2. requirements of the IPCC. paragraph 70”. and complies with. Completeness: Estimates are reported for all relevant activities and gases. The inventory of annual trends. the Kyoto Protocol. 2009). Comparability: The GHG inventory is reported in a way that allows it to be compared with GHG inventories from other countries. 2. Where data are missing.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 13 .4. their absence should be clearly documented.2. gases and categories are made in such a way that differences in the results between years and activities reflect real differences in emissions.16. 5 For more detailed information on the preparation of the GHG inventory.1 Requirements for REDD+ implementation In accordance with Decision 1/CP.3 Quality attributes of GHG inventories Transparency: There is sufficient and clear documentation so that individuals or groups other than the inventory compilers can understand how the inventory was compiled and can confirm the quality of the data. Box 2. and. The scope of the work is limited to the MRV of GHG emissions and removals as a result of human influence on forest lands. should be calculated using the same method and data sources for all years and should aim to reflect the real annual fluctuations in emissions and not be subject to changes resulting from methodological differences. countries that aim to implement REDD+ activities are to develop: i) a national strategy or action plan. iii) a robust and transparent National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS). as far as possible.

a NFMS should be guided by the GPG-LULUCF and should provide data and information that are transparent. as appropriate.6).9 specify that a NFMS uses a combination of remote sensing and field-based forest carbon inventory approaches for the estimation of anthropogenic forest-related GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks. Taking into account national capabilities and capacities. and are suitable for MRV as a result of the implementation of REDD+ activities. 2. countries have the opportunity to: strengthen their forest governance. • Have in place appropriate quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures.15 and 11/CP. • Be flexible and allow for improvement. appendix I) are addressed and respected. A NFMS may also provide relevant information for national systems for the provision of information on how safeguards (see decision 1/CP.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 14 . the phased approach for the implementation of REDD+ activities. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.2.2 Considerations for establishing a National Forest Monitoring System While developing a NFMS. consider counter-measures to deforestation and forest degradation. • Have a forest inventory and a land-use change analysis (see Box 2. countries should: • Secure the cooperation of all stakeholders through the establishment of national arrangements.Decisions 4/CP. the development of a NFMS would take into consideration. The system to be developed could also take into consideration the multiple functions of forests in climate change (for example by considering both mitigation and adaptation benefits) in order to ensure the integral and sustainable management of forests. consistency and accuracy of their emissions and removals estimates. • Be able to apply the Revised 1996 Guidelines as elaborated by the GPG-LULUCF in order to ensure the transparency. and • Be able to prepare domestically verified national reports.16. comparability. including law enforcement. • Reflect. as defined by a country. In most cases. In general. these are listed in Box 2. completeness. Decision 11/CP. a number of elements. • Enable the assessment of different types of forest in the country.5). or be guided by. including natural forest. and enhance sustainable forest management. consistent over time. forest carbon stocks and forest area changes.19 also stipulates that a NFMS should: • Build upon existing systems. as appropriate.

transport. Potential synergy between activities and policies relating to REDD+ and those relating to other sectors. such as soy or oil palm in the forestry sector. including scientific and technical research institutions focusing on issues relevant to REDD+..g.. such as energy and agriculture. agriculture. industry. potential need for regional initiatives involving neighboring countries). fisheries. health and services). mining.g. Economic information related to factors that will be affected by REDD+ activities.5: Typical elements to be considered by countries when determining their national context Historical development of all REDD+ activities that are relevant for the country. Specific geographic or other characteristics that influence the development of REDD+ activities (e.Box 2. Information related to the current and projected factors contributing to deforestation. demographics and employment statistics related to REDD+ activities in the country). including an analysis related to drivers of deforestation and the impact of commodities. tourism. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. Effects of past efforts to bring about land-use management and land tenure changes in the country (e. Population that is affected (e. Education. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.. past investments to reduce deforestation or enhance reforestation and lessons learned).g. taking into consideration various sectors of the national economy (including energy. forest degradation. mountainous areas with limited or no access. conservation of forest carbon stocks. including deforestation.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 15 . such as the UNFCCC. and Linkages with actions undertaken by the country in the context of relevant multilateral agreements.

6: National forest inventory and land-use change analysis A national forest inventory is the systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis. grass lands.2. Box 2. forest lands.3 National versus sub-national accounting One of the critical issues in the UNFCCC negotiations on REDD+ concerns the geographical scale that should be used to account for emissions. For more information on remote sensing. wetlands) for a specific period of time. the monitoring of LUC through remote sensing is a key tool to identify and implement corrective actions in areas where illegal deforestation and forest degradation is occurring. including jurisdictional and project-level. see Chapter 5. • Identifying synergies between national and sub-national REDD+ activities. and in the extrapolation of plot measurements to the regional or national level. age. one can calculate the number of trees per unit of area (e. the volume of trees in an area. and the value of the timber. The information provided by the LUC analysis – together with the information provided by the forest inventory is integrated into the GHG inventory in order to estimate the associated emissions or removals from the different land-use categories and subcategories. countries could still pursue project‐level activities after the adoption of national (and potentially sub-national) reference levels (UNFCCC. Inventories can be performed for purposes beyond calculating the value of timber. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Conversely.g. diameter at breast height. For countries that wish to establish both national and sub-national accounting systems. 2. When undertaking a forest inventory the following items are important to measure and note: species. Three options have been extensively debated: the national level. governments agreed that if the overall performance is measured at the national level.g. for example.. in the assessment of change areas. acre). The identification of cost-effective solutions requires a balanced approach of remote sensing and ground-based measurements. The analysis assesses and quantifies the area change of specific land-use categories (e. and both levels in a “nested approach”. The different points of view expressed by different governments are the result of differing political interests and national circumstances. the sub-national. and defects. it is important to ensure that the two systems are compatible in order to safeguard the integrity of the overall accounting process.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 16 .. At the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP17). hectare.. An important consideration in MRV is the trade-off between the cost versus the accuracy of monitoring and evaluation systems for REDD+. ground-based measurements are required for generating carbon data and to verify desktop forest mapping from remote sensing imagery. to provide comprehensive information about the state and dynamics of forests for strategic and management planning. An estimate of the value and possible uses of timber is an important part of the broader information required to sustain ecosystems. Also. e. and because of technical issues in measuring and accounting of emissions. Remote sensing imagery and products. 2011). site quality. • Establishing a clear legal. crop land.g. regulatory and accounting framework regarding the implementation of sub- national or project activities. and • Ensuring the consistent use of definitions of forest parameters. the basal area. A historical land-use change (LUC) analysis is the analysis of dynamics that have occurred in a given territory. aid in the design of efficient ground sampling schemes. From the data collected. This can be achieved through: • Identifying drivers of deforestation and forest degradation at the national and sub-national levels.

national-level lead agency. and inventory management. Although Decision 15/CP. and focal point REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. national arrangements for REDD+ MRV should include all institutional. estimating anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks.3. 7 Other terms for this designated body include national entity. National arrangements should be designed to incorporate both general and specific functions. and for reporting and archiving information. the provisions contained within it on national arrangements would be generally applicable to all countries. implementing uncertainty assessments and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities. The information on functions of national arrangements in this section is adapted from the Guidelines for the preparation of national communications by Parties included in Annex I to the Convention. as well as the quality of data through the planning.2 Specific functions Specific functions of national inventory arrangements include collecting activity data (AD). policies and measures are contributing to a country’s progress in reducing emissions.17) and the guidance provided by the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (CGE). legal and procedural arrangements made within a country for estimating anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks in all categories and activities included in the monitoring plan. 2. National-level accounting provides a complete picture of how projects. 2. consistency.3.For a “nested approach. selecting appropriate methods and emission factors (EFs). reportable and verifiable. and carrying out data verification procedures.3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS In general. starting with sub-national accounting and moving up to national) or once the national accounting is in place. preparation and management of inventory activities.. and be operated to ensure the transparency.17 applies to Annex I Parties. 2. and  The preparation of GHG inventories in accordance with the relevant UNFCCC reporting guidelines. completeness. there is a need to ensure sufficient capacity and technical competence of the staff involved in the inventory development process for:  The timely collection of data needed to estimate anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks.1 General functions The key general functions of national inventory arrangements are: designating a single national-level entity7 with overall responsibility for the inventory. and establishing and maintaining the institutional.” it is expected that project-level and/or sub-national programs would be integrated into national-level accounting. Part I: UNFCCC Reporting Guidelines on Annual Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Annex I to Decision 15/CP.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 17 .3 Implementation phases Implementation of national arrangements for REDD+ MRV involves three phases: inventory planning. This integration can occur in stages (e. and accuracy of the data. comparability.3.g. In doing so. It also plays an important role in helping to secure financing by projects that may be contingent on results that are measurable. inventory preparation. 2. legal and procedural arrangements between the government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of emission and removal estimates from LULUCF.

As part of inventory planning. provisions should be made for an extensive expert review of key categories. a key category is one that is prioritized within the national inventory system because its estimate has a significant influence on a country’s total inventory of GHGs in terms of the absolute level. as well as their organization into a reporting format. and other verification activities. In terms of absolute level. Following the basic review. key categories are all inventory activities that account for 95 percent of the total GHG emissions. if appropriate. and the cooperation between.Inventory planning Inventory planning includes activities that lead up to the implementation of MRV activities. as well as how they have been generated and aggregated for the preparation of the inventory. On the basis of any periodic evaluations of the inventory preparation process (see below). EFs. see Chapter 3 of the Manual. Inventory management Inventory management refers to the handling of the inventory report and its relevant source information once an inventory cycle is complete. it includes both source and sink categories as well as specific GHGs. and other relevant technical elements of the inventory once they have been initially established. They would also need to provide for a basic review of the inventory by personnel that have not been involved in the inventory development process. Information obtained from the implementation of the QA/QC plan. the trend.4 of the IPCC GPG-LULUCF (IPCC. procedural information. This can be achieved by elaborating an inventory QA/QC plan. Other information to be archived includes: REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Whenever the term key category is used. Box 2. countries should consider ways to improve the quality of AD. before the submission of the inventory. government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of the inventory. including any recalculations. in accordance with the planned QA procedures. preferably an independent third party. should be considered in the development and/or revision of GHG data and the quality objectives of the GHG inventory. 2003). a country would archive all relevant inventory information for the reported time series. the inventory planning process. including the roles of. methods. a country will define and allocate specific responsibilities in the inventory development process. following the guidance provided by GPG-LULUCF. including all disaggregated EFs and AD together with explanations of the rationale for selecting these factors and data. processes would need to be established for the official consideration and approval of the inventory. As part of inventory management. The methodological basis for the estimation of GHG emissions and removals is provided in the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines as have been updated by the GPG-LULUCF. and section 5. Countries should ensure there is sufficient capacity to carry out all activities through training of existing personnel or hiring of experts. and EFs as necessary to support the methods selected for estimating anthropogenic GHG emissions and removals. as well as for categories where significant changes to methods or data have been made. In accordance with the GPG-LULUCF.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 18 . a country needs to collect sufficient AD. countries would need re-evaluate and adjust. or the uncertainty in emissions and removals.7) and for those individual categories in which significant methodological and/or data revisions have occurred. As part of inventory planning.7: Key categories According to the IPCC. Countries would be required to apply category-specific QC procedures for key categories (see Box 2. Inventory preparation Inventory preparation includes all aspects of implementation of the MRV actions. As part of inventory preparation. An area of particular importance is the implementation of general inventory QA/QC procedures in accordance with a QA/QC plan. For more information. as well as the institutional. legal and procedural arrangements made to prepare the inventory.

REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.16. 71 and 73. Many countries have well-established systems for the collection and processing of non-GHG related information. in accordance with national circumstances and the principles of sovereignty.4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Decision 10/CP. The length of the inventory cycle depends on national circumstances and reporting requirements. • Explanation of how QA/QC procedures have been implemented. paragraphs 70. For more information see section 2. states that countries could “designate. store. 8 Figure 2. Another part of inventory management is ensuring that the country has the capacity to respond in a timely manner to requests for clarifying information on the national inventory.1: A typical cycle for an inventory process (source: EPA National System Template). Such systems involve database management processes for archiving data and information.19. such as joint mitigation and adaptation.1. but every few years (typically between three to ten years). including different policy approaches. and to inform the secretariat 8 It should be noted that national forest inventory data would not be available annually. An example of an inventory cycle is shown in the diagram in Figure 2. as appropriate. or longer-term periods. Such a cycle can be applied to annual. a national entity or focal point to serve as a liaison with the secretariat and the relevant bodies under the Convention. and • Findings of external and internal reviews and descriptions of planned inventory improvements as a result of these reviews.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 19 . Experience in the use of such systems would be extremely valuable for application to GHG inventory development and/or strengthening of procedures to archive. on the coordination of support for the full implementation of activities and elements referred to in decision 1/CP. and retrieve information.6 2. • A description of the methods used for the identification of key categories. Countries should look at their experience in other areas for guidance and resources on this issue. biennial.

such as a consulting company. including combinations of the above. consistent with any specific operational modalities of the financing entities providing them with support for the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. a university. Whatever approach is taken. or a research institute. it should function in such a way that the quality of the inventory is maintained and improved over time and that decisions can be made in an effective and timely manner. Once the specific actions are identified. and possibly other organizations such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs). for example. in terms of administrative and organizational arrangements. • A small team of government employees overseeing the preparation of the inventory by a number of consultants and researchers. Every country will likely have its own approach on how to put in place these arrangements for REDD+. implementation of REDD+ activities involves many national actors and stakeholders supporting the work of a national-level entity or focal point. Some typical approaches include: • Completely out-sourcing the inventory preparation process to an outside organization. paragraph 70.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 20 . The national-level lead agency or institute should be charged with overall responsibility. In establishing national arrangements. raising awareness among various private and public institutions and facilitating consultations and establishing relationships among stakeholders. it is necessary to identify existing national capacities and allocate necessary funds. which depend on the MRV goals that have been identified by a country. seeking funding for REDD+ projects.16. in accordance with national circumstances and the principles of sovereignty. that make decisions and oversee the inventory preparation process. possibly mandated by national legislation.” Based on the experience of other similar processes under the UNFCCC (such as the national communications of developing countries). Establishing institutional arrangements includes a number of specific activities. and implementation of national or regional REDD+ initiatives. It is important that the appropriate body be identified at an early stage of the process. as well as human and other resources. academia. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. perhaps as a subset of a more comprehensive GHG inventory. To ensure timely completion. including securing the resources and commitment of all relevant stakeholders in the country. institutional arrangements can strengthen the national policymaking process by enhancing coordination of all relevant stakeholders. the process necessitates the development of clear roles and responsibilities. The separate provincial inventory information is then aggregated at the national level. for the collection and archiving of information. nominate their entities to obtain and receive results-based payments. • Forming an advisory or oversight board composed of representatives from multiple agencies and ministries. to deal with a REDD+ MRV system. a country would need to implement the necessary administrative and organizational arrangements.accordingly. • Preparation of the inventory almost entirely by government employees within a single agency. or others in the private sector. Whatever approach is used. but not limited to: preparation of national reports and communications to meet international commitments. are possible and there is no absolutely correct approach. This may include setting up working groups and task forces to undertake specific tasks. Each approach is associated with relative pros and cons and has financial and staffing implications. including. Given the interdisciplinary nature of REDD+. to facilitate the appointment of personnel.” The same decision further stipulates that such entities “may. as well as establishing specific procedures and systems. Many other situations. and • Preparation of the inventory delegated to the country’s provinces or states. countries would need to identify specific actions consistent with MRV goals and develop a plan for their completion.

research institutions. Such a multi-agency structure requires a very clear delineation of roles and responsibilities to ensure that there is a clear line of reporting and decision-making on GHG inventory issues. may include many different teams and/or institutions that each work on different parts of the inventory and make their own decisions regarding methodologies and other issues. A centralized approach will likely include few other institutions. In general terms. Although the multi-agency approach may have some relative advantages in regard to plurality in the decision-making process. a country has the opportunity to identify those national and regional development priorities and objectives that would serve as the basis for addressing REDD+ and climate change. the lead agency usually has more of a coordinating role and less power over decisions on methodological issues. for example. the government may “out-source” the work of preparing the inventory to private consultants. At every step of the process it is imperative that countries keep track of the specific roles and responsibilities of all relevant organizations. • Single agency vs.6 below. The management system that a country uses will be determined by national circumstances. Often smaller countries resort to extensive use of external assistance due to lack of expertise and the length of time necessary to build capacity within the specific timeframe for the preparation of a GHG inventory.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 21 . avoiding soil erosion) to ensure the best use of resources and utilize available expertise. A decentralized approach.and for specific roles and responsibilities to be allocated. Countries with a large administration and various institutions with expertise in certain areas of the inventory often use the centralized approach. • In-sourced vs. reducing threats to biodiversity. One way to do this in a systematic way is through the use of the National System Templates from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – see section 2. inter alia. In such cases. separate: The country's GHG inventory work may be integrated with other related efforts (e. thus “in-sourcing” the process. this institutional body will be required to manage the work of the other institutions and organizations and will have overall responsibility for coordinating administrative and technical arrangements and the overall quality of reported estimates. committee. multi-agency: The lead agency may be housed within a single government agency. as well as changes in the arrangements as refinements and/or new stakeholders are involved. water management.g. While developing a MRV system for REDD+ activities. • Integrated vs. Some common patterns include: • Centralized vs. or the country's lead body may be composed of a multi-agency working group. A brief description of the templates and an example of how they could be modified are provided in Appendix 2. existing national capacities and available options for addressing GHG emissions and removals from REDD+ within the broader context of sustainable development.. or other NGOs. in contrast. Although these templates have been developed to address the national arrangements of a national GHG inventory covering all economic sectors. it is possible to modify them for the purposes of a GHG inventory on LULUCF. academic institutions. decentralized: The country's lead agency may maintain a large degree of control and decision-making authority over the inventory preparation process. its own specific conditions. in practice one agency will often have the overall coordinating role to avoid conflicts. out-sourced: Government agencies and employees may prepare most. The decision on out-sourcing depends on whether the administration has developed sufficient capacity and capability to do all or most of the technical work itself through the involvement of experts and agencies. of the inventory. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Such information would provide the background to help a country better understand. or other structure. Alternatively. The appointment should be transparent to all stakeholders in the process so that there is no ambiguity of which institution leads the process. or all.

and responsibilities. MCT. costs. worked simultaneously for other projects at FUNCATE. associations. a large number of image interpreters were needed at the beginning of the project but were latter allocated to other work within FUNCATE or dismissed. Other people. in coordination with the General Coordination on Global Climate Change under the Brazilian Ministry of Science.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 22 . had an added cost due to the new methodological requirements from the GPG-LULUCF. ensure that the budget expenditure and the agreed timetable evolved according to the contract and cooperation agreement with MCT. three system development staff. Most of the staff was engaged full time in the project. However.. image classification). five validation and data analysis staff. No external people were engaged directly in the preparation of the inventory. and one documentation specialist)..1 million distributed among a cooperation agreement and a contract. which varied in size according to the stage of development of the project. This required national wall-to-wall coverage with remotely sensed data of adequate resolution.com/site/maptpartnerresearch/national-ghg-inventory-case-study- series/producing-a-national-ghg-inventory-for-the-land-use-land-use-change-and-forestry-lulucf-sector.2. The number of personnel engaged was driven by the product delivery time schedule and budget.g. selective logging). For instance. Technology and Innovation (MCT). With each new staff hire by FUNCATE. This person had overall knowledge of the inventory’s development and actively participated at all phases. Part of this added cost was caused by the decision to create a spatially explicit database and the wall-to-wall character of the territorial coverage required to include other land-use categories previously not considered (e. one database development expert. Applications and Technology (FUNCATE) was the sole institution in charge of compiling the Brazilian LULUCF inventory. and prepare the partial and final reports. The LULUCF inventory was the most expensive among all sectors reported in the national GHG inventory. and India for the preparation of GHG inventories for the LULUCF sector. as the work progressed. FUNCATE engaged other agencies. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. FUNCATE had a clear mandate established through a contract or cooperation agreement that set individual terms of reference. perform additional QC procedures. FUNCATE identified the need to enlarge the team. The cost included 9 Full reports are available at: https://sites. training was carried out to ensure consistency in image classification among the different image interpreters and thus minimize classification uncertainty.g. The total cost of the second national inventory was approximately $1. one database management expert. if necessary.1 Brazil The Foundation of Space Science. one information technology expert. Colombia. Forty-five personnel were engaged in the work at different stages of the inventory development (22 image interpreters. such as those involved in system development. personnel worked full-time until completion of that activity. 9 2. The idea was to create a database that would facilitate the updating and recalculation of previous inventory estimates. in particular. The experience gained from the first national inventory and the new demands from application of the GPG-LULUCF helped to identify the initial level of human resources needed. and academic and research institutions. and Brazil’s National Space Research Institute (INPE). The information in this section is based on the WRI Measurement and Performance Tracking Project National GHG Inventory Case Study Series. but did not subcontract any components of the LULUCF inventory. Inventory coordination at FUNCATE was carried out by one person with experience in remote sensing whose role was to oversee the development of the inventory at all phases (including the compilation of the GHG data for the LULUCF inventory). The second inventory. besides those from FUNCATE. seven administrators. During project development (e. three auditors.google. timetables. one general coordinator.5.5 EXAMPLES In this section we present examples of institutional arrangements for Brazil.

Bogota’s Botanical Garden Jose Celestino Mutis. equipment. No consultants were hired for the project. However.. and local level that are needed as a basic input for research and to comply with international commitments. The institutional arrangements are based on voluntary agreements among the following organizations: MADS. the Amazon Institute for Scientific Research. and build technological capacities for their own purposes. eliminate those considered not relevant for the final product. the National Corporation for Forestry Research and Development. as there is no centralized technical platform to share and exchange information with other LULUCF-related institutions in a permanent. etc. familiarization of guidelines. consumables. compilation. The budget did not contemplate the acquisition of data other than those planned under the legal instruments. and part of the development of a software tool to manage large datasets.. travel expenses. It would also be necessary to identify priority data at the national.. regarding the overall system in place.salaries and labor benefits. comprises a set of overarching principles that focus on environmental principles to foster management of the country’s natural resources. this should improve the quality.2 Colombia Colombia has prepared two national communications under the UNFCCC. analysis. regional. the Special Administrative Unit of the National Parks System. and efficient manner.g. waste. A small portion of the budget was ensured by the Ministry of the Environment. Carton de Colombia. Pizano S. the Association of Regional Autonomous Corporations and Sustainable Development. and institutions that fosters compliance with the environmental principles embedded in the constitution of Colombia.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 23 . One option being considered is for both the national and regional institutions responsible for the collection. regional. the process. and LULUCF) to form sectoral working groups. and acquisition of data starts from scratch for each new GHG inventory. SINA is a set of norms. The lack of a system to share data also prevents the implementation of comprehensive QC procedures nationwide. the National Environmental System (SINA). The institute responsible for conducting the GHG inventory is the Institute of Hydrology. carry out scientific research.).2. The working groups’ ultimate objectives are to define needs and priorities for each sector and to select EFs and methods for calculating the uncertainty associated with each module. The only national system in place. IDEAM is responsible for selecting public and private institutions that are actively participating in the inventory-related sectors (e. and the Integrated Monitoring System for Illicit Crops. resources. universities. timely. the Environmental Research Institute of the Pacific. each one of the institutions involved compiles and archives the data on its own portal site. frequency. Although the working method to prepare these communications has been effective. 2. programs. Meteorology and Environmental Studies (IDEAM). private entities (e. regulations. and national level that collectively generate information. a public institution that is part of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (MADS). and agree on the final allocation of the full budget for LULUCF. and availability of the reported data. SINA does not have any technical platform to share information online. are provided below. and systematization of forestry information to develop the revision mechanisms controlling the flow of information. energy. Additional details. SINA comprises several institutions at the local. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Major funding came from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and from MCT. Currently. the Geographic Institute Agustin Codazzi. the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Regional Autonomous Corporations. agriculture. industry. activities. database construction.g.5. IDEAM also provides technical and scientific support to the agencies that constitute SINA. A. Therefore. the development of the GHG inventory encompasses the steps illustrated in Figure 2. transportation. All costs for each phase of the project were detailed by FUNCATE and helped MCT to prioritize the activities.

Initially.5. which meet on a regular basis to decide on the respective roles and establishment of these roles. the National Remote Sensing Centre.3. and to ensure that all activities are implemented in a timely fashion.Figure 2. the Indian Institute of Science took a leading role as it was the institution involved in the IPCC process for developing the GHG emissions inventory for the LULUCF sector.2: Key steps for national inventory preparation in Colombia 2. The coordination process has evolved over the years. The Ministry of Environment and Forests is responsible for the overall coordination of the process. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 24 . and the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education. such as the Forest Survey of India (FSI). The current approach involves cooperation with other organizations.3 India India’s overall institutional arrangement structure for the preparation of GHG estimation for the LULUCF sector is shown in Figure 2. Various other institutions involved in the LULUCF sector provide technical assistance and expertise to ensure that all methodological processes are followed in order to develop a comprehensive and accurate inventory to the extent that capacities permit.

3: Work allocation and implementation arrangements for developing the GHG emissions inventory by sources and removal by sinks for the LULUCF sector in India Funding for all activities is part of the Indian Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organisation. has been granted a budget of 537. 2012-13). For example.95 million) for 2012-13 (Union Budget.4 million Rupees (or $9. which covers land-use mapping.Figure 2. the Natural Resource Management Division. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 25 .

compared to the 68. • Accommodate varying levels of national capacity. the parent organization of FSI. and EFs used to estimate emissions or removals. how the data was obtained. and • Create transparency in a country's national system and improve quality over time. and facilitates prioritization of future improvements. • Serve as instruction Manuals and a starting point for future inventory teams. typically less than 50 pages. preparing the GHG emissions inventory is part of the FSI mandate and has been funded through the forestry and wildlife budget of the Ministry of Environment and Forest. Template 3: Description of QA/QC Procedures This guides countries through the establishment of a cost-effective QA/QC program to improve transparency. spread over four years. and what methods were used. and confidence in national GHG inventories. Template 1: Institutional Arrangements for National Inventory System This template assists inventory teams in assessing and documenting the strengths and weaknesses of existing institutional arrangements for inventory development. Future inventory teams can refer to the completed template for each source and sink category to determine what information was collected. including governmental. 2.27 million) that was allocated in the budget for preparation of the entire GHG emissions inventory for the second national communication. The budget outlay of its Forestry and Wildlife Division is 9.epa. completeness.75 million Rupees (or $1. The Key Category Analysis (KCA) Tool can be used to determine key categories in a GHG inventory. promotes institutionalization of the inventory process.6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES EPA's National System Templates can be used as a set of building blocks by countries to construct a national inventory management system 10. consistency. The advantages of the templates are that they: • Focus on documenting essential information in a concise format and avoid unnecessarily long written reports. • Standardize tasks. Template 2: Methods and Data Documentation This assists inventory teams in documenting and reporting the origin of methodologies.html#National for more details and for how to download the templates REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 26 . Supplemental checklists with recommended QA/QC procedures have been developed for the Inventory Coordinator and QA/QC Coordinator.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/internationalpartnerships/capacity-building. Similarly.8 million Rupees (or $167 million) for 2012- 2013 (Union Budget 2012-13).066. and several other sources. bilateral. allowing countries within regions to compare and contrast results. This ensures continuity and integrity of the inventory. The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) was also funded through the second national communication. • Ensure roles and responsibilities are understood. providing comprehensive documentation of each of the critical national system building blocks. activity datasets. comparability. and multilateral funds. • Provide an objective and efficient system for identifying priorities for future improvements. The six templates (briefly described below) can be compiled into a single National Inventory System Report. 10 See http://www.

1). indicate which data provider listed in Table 2.2 provides the statistics that will be used in the inventory. where data have been collected and managed adequately and. for sectored+. legal. In this description.3. identify what improvements are needed to enhance the institutional arrangements for each sector and list these in column “Potential Improvements in Management Structure of the REDD+ Inventory System” of Table 2. An archive system allows estimates to be easily reproduced.Template 4: Description of Archiving System An archive system is an inexpensive yet critical step in the sustainability of the National Inventory System. Identify the role. consider whether any important tasks for inventory preparation have not been assigned or delegated. In the “Comments” column of Table 2. if different (Table 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 27 . and focal point. where strengthening is not needed. and allows reproducibility of the estimates. Template 5: Key Category Analysis (KCA) KCA provides information. thus. Explain in detail how the arrangements were established.2 to document existing arrangements for obtaining. organization. provide information on the status of the institutional arrangements or any additional information not included elsewhere within the table. specific to the contacts/experts for inventory development. Use Table 2.3.3. Template 6: National Inventory Improvement Plan Synthesizes findings and describes specific priorities for future capacity building projects based on the needs identified in the first five templates and facilitates continual inventory improvements. Describe the strategies that were used to collect the necessary inventory data from an organization. In preparing this section.2. Given the key category analysis and existing institutional arrangements within each sector. Example roles are provided in Table 2. Example of modifying Template 1 for the purposes of REDD+ Step 1: List the lead agency and describe the arrangements or relationship between the REDD+ Inventory Agency/Organization and the UNFCCC National Focal Point Agency11. national-level lead agency. List this information in column “Strengths in Management Structure of the REDD+ Inventory System” of Table 2. and determine whether they could be assigned. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. Step 3: Identify where well-established institutional arrangements needed to prepare the inventory exist. compiling and reviewing inventory data. and contact information for those providing relevant data for estimating emissions. Other terms for this designated body include national entity. and procedural arrangements among the government agencies and other entities involved in the preparation of emission and removal estimates from LULUCF. The KCA Tool enables a country to determine key categories from a GHG inventory. address the following questions and add additional comments as necessary: • Is there a formal legal contract between the organizations? 11 “National-level entity” is used throughout the Manual and refers to the designated single national-level entity with overall responsibility for the inventory and for establishing and maintaining the institutional. according to IPCC criteria. on which sources or sinks are the most important and should be the focus of improvement efforts. For example. Step 2: List additional information. safeguards against data and information loss.

• Was there a meeting with the experts..g. and other key contributors explaining the background and purpose of the inventory? • Is it an informal arrangement (e. if different.. The status of the institutional arrangements can be noted in the "Comments" column Role Name Organization Contact Information Comments Inventory Director/Coordinator LULUCF Sector Lead Archive (Data and Document) Manager/Coordinator QA/QC coordinator Uncertainty Analysis coordinator Other: e. identifies the inventory management team members. GHG Policy Specialist who tracks capacity building efforts and IPCC processes REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2. data providers.g.1: Designated inventory agency.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 28 . written or verbal communication with staff)? • How was the request for data made? • At what level of management was the request made? • How was the organization motivated to share its data and information with the inventory agency? Describe the arrangements or relationship Designated National-level Entity UNFCCC National Focal between REDD+ Inventory for REDD+ Inventory Point (Name) and UNFCCC Agency/Organization and UNFCCC National Preparation Focal Point Agency Focal Point Agency. Table 2.

3: Strengths and potential improvements in the management structure of the REDD+ inventory system REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.Table 2.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 29 .2: National inventory management team Strengths in Management Potential Improvements in Management Comments Structure of the REDD+ Structure of the REDD+ Inventory REDD+ activity Inventory System System LULUCF (general) Deforestation Forest degradation Conservation of forest carbon stocks Sustainable management of forests Enhancement of forest carbon stocks Table 2.

2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories...or. http://www. 2013. held in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its nineteenth session http://unfccc. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session.htm IPCC.2.ipcc-nggip. 2011.int/resource/docs/2011/cop17/eng/09a01.7 REFERENCES CGE: Training material and methodological documents provided by the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention.. held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session http://unfccc.epa.ipcc-nggip. held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session IPCC. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. 2000. held in Cancun from 29 November to 10 December 2010 Addendum Part Two: Action taken by the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session http://unfccc. http://www. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its nineteenth session.or.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01. and Tanabe K. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session.jp/public/2006gl/index. http://www. Japan.S. Published: IGES. Miwa K.pdf#page=2 UNFCCC. Published: IGES.0 – INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS 30 .pdf#page=4 UNFCCC.html UNFCCC. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session..int/resource/docs/2013/cop19/eng/10a01. Ngara T.jp/public/gpglulucf/gpglulucf. 2006.1.php EPA National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems. http://unfccc.int/7914. Published: IGES. 2003. IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. Land-Use Change and Forestry.htm IPCC GPG-LULUCF. Buendia L.iges.pdf REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 2.iges. eds.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/internationalpartnerships/capacity-building. Available at: http://www.jp/public/gp/gpgaum.or. Japan. Japan..iges. 2010. Eggleston H. Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.html FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.ipcc-nggip.

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