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REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

Greenhouse Gas Management Institute • David Shoch. Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program 1611 North Kent Street Suite 805 Arlington. Livelihoods. National Ecological Observatory Network • Fred Stolle. partner governments. USAID-supported Forest Carbon. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00.0. World Resources Institute • Irene Angeletti. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute Contributing authors: • Angel Parra.tetratechintdev. FCMC services include analysis. Steininger and S. local and international stakeholders with assistance in developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. FCMC & Conservation International • Stelios Pesmajoglou. Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual. and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture. TerraCarbon. Consultant. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert • Gordon Smith.com www.K..kelleher@fcmcglobal. Suite 300 Burlington. Tetra Tech 159 Bank Street. Washington. Virginia 22209 USA Telephone: (703) 592-6388 Fax: (866) 795-6462 Stephen Kelleher. Pesmajoglou. training materials. DC. and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No. Vermont 05401 USA Telephone: (802) 658-3890 Fax: (802) 658-4247 E-Mail: international.deshmukh@tetratech. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon.com Forest Carbon. Chief of Party Email: stephen. M. eds.com Tetra Tech Contacts: Ian Deshmukh. VERSION 2. REDD+ Measurement. Version 2. Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022). USA.org Olaf Zerbock. evaluation. World Resources Institute • Kemen Austin. Markets and Communities Program. J. USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative Email: ozerbock@usaid. Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program to provide its missions. LLC • John Musinsky. Please cite this report as: Hewson.gov Editors: • Jennifer Hewson.This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD. 2014. tools and guidance for program design support. Senior Technical Advisor/Manager Email: ian. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.development@tetratech. Conservation International • Marc Steininger.0 i . through a Task Order under the Prosperity.

MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES (FCMC) PROGRAM DECEMBER 2014 DISCLAIMER The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government.REDD+ MEASUREMENT. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. VERSION 2. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 ii . VERSION 2.0 FOREST CARBON.

...............................................30 3............................2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT ....................38 3.................... 9 2...................................................67 4........................................0 INTRODUCTION..................1 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................22 2..2 BACKGROUND ............................................... VIII 1......................................54 4........................................................................................................... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL..66 4......................................... 31 3...............0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ......................0 iii ...26 2...3 REFERENCES.................................... SCOPE AND STRUCTURE .....................................................................................................................................................................................................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ...............................0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS.............................. 57 4................................13 2....................1 INTRODUCTION ..4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS........................................ 50 4. 17 2..............................................................34 3..19 2................................................................................................................................2 IPCC GUIDANCE......................................................................................2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ ...........4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES ...3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS ......4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM ....................3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN .................. 42 3.............................................................. 1 1..............49 4............ 8 2..................................................................6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA .............................................................................. 4 1.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................. 9 2....................... VERSION 2...........................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................... III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS .......50 4.............69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT...........................41 3.......................31 3.......6 REFERENCES.5 EXAMPLES ..........1 PURPOSE................................................5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS ..............................................................................................7 REFERENCES............ 1 1....................3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ...........................................1 INTRODUCTION ..............6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES ...............................................................0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ...............

...............78 4..............................7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING .............................................................................................2 REPORTING.........................................84 5................................................................. 127 6..........93 5.......6 REFERENCES.....3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS..............................................1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC .........4 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................... 151 7............. 121 6.........................................................................3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS .......................................10 REFERENCES ..........................................................0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE ........................................3 VERIFICATION ...................................................................................0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ........................... 141 6......................................................................... VERSION 2...................................2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC ........................................................................................81 5......................................75 4........................1 INTRODUCTION .. 114 5...............................................................................76 4......................................................................... 109 5..11 SELECTED RESOURCES ...................................... 152 7.......................................................................... 82 5.....................90 5.........5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH............................................................ 4............................1 INTRODUCTION ...............8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS .....................82 5..............8 SELECTED RESOURCES.......................................................................................................9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD ...........................................................................................0 iv ...................................................................................................... 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT.......................... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL................79 4..................... 118 5..............4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW .........................................................2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING .................................. 125 6.........................0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE .... 152 7...................7 DATA CHECKING ............................. 125 6........................................... 165 7.......................................

REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 v . VERSION 2. Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture.

REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 vi . Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement. Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science. Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT. VERSION 2. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology.FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science.

plus the role of conservation. sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. completeness.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency. accuracy. VERSION 2.0 vii . comparability. and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.

0 viii . Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. John Rogan of Boston University. Ronald McRoberts. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. and members of the USAID Climate Change office. Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. Karyn Tabor. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department. Megan McGroddy. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Andrew Lister. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. including Colin Silver. Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. and Leif Kindberg of FCMC. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. VERSION 2. SilvaCarbon Consultant. Maggie Roth. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History. Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. Rishi Das. Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center.

Even if the overall MRV process occurs at the level of a sub- national jurisdiction. and critically compare the varying advice they may receive. Reporting and Verification (MRV) system for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation.0 INTRODUCTION Authors: Marc Steininger.1 Audience This Manual is intended for multiple audiences. data processing. techniques and accounting methods that could be part of a Measurement. techniques and staffing and equipment needs for greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting. it is intended for those in charge of planning and developing a MRV system within a national or sub-national agency. 1. and options for different techniques and methods. While these individuals may not conduct specific MRV activities such as field work. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). These programs provide approved methodologies for the estimation of REDD+ baselines and MRV. This is in the context of REDD+ as a mechanism within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). one can assume that the arrangements and requirements are similar to those at the national level and that coordination with the national government will be very important. accuracy issues. It is intended to assist these individuals in envisioning such a design. and engage in informed discussions on data. as well as approaches to nested REDD+. Fred Stolle. capacity building. Other aspects are dependent on similar technologies and methodologies as those at the national level. The Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and the American Carbon Registry (ACR) are examples of programs that serve a supporting role in voluntary carbon markets through registering emission reductions claimed by site-level initiatives. know what questions to ask. as well as understanding the broader context of their sub-component. Jennifer H ewson and Stelios Pesmajoglou 1. For the sub-national jurisdictional case. analysis and reporting themselves. It is important that these individuals have a broad understanding of all aspects involved in a MRV system in order to envision a structure within the agency.0 – INTRODUCTION 1 . where accounting and monitoring at different levels can be coordinated. This Manual is intended to inform policy makers on REDD+. expertise. The technical aspects of these methodologies often defer to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. They should also have a fundamental knowledge of MRV terminology and concepts to engage with consultants. models. understand the range of MRV components. as well as implementers of MRV at the national level.1. there is a need for them to understand what is involved in terms of staff time. 1. Those working on site-level initiatives will also find this Manual relevant to their MRV needs. This Manual is also intended for managers and technicians involved in the design of a sub-component of a MRV system. funds. First. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. especially those related to the definition of land-use classes and the estimation of carbon stocks. some aspects of the MRV system may still be conducted nationally to lower overall costs and promote standardization.1 PURPOSE. SCOPE AND STRUCTURE The purpose of this Manual is to provide an overall review of the data.

and entails a variety of approaches and decision factors worthy of consideration.1. is needed for national monitoring of land-use changes. Section 3. covered in each chapter are highlighted in an Inventory and Reporting Steps figure at the beginning of each chapter.2) and near-real time (NRT) monitoring (Section 7. These include the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) Sourcebook 1. the IPCC guidelines provide specific requirements and reporting formats for GHG inventories. or steps.0 – INTRODUCTION 2 . activity data based on remote sensing. The step. i. The following three chapters address Measurement processes.pdf 2 The MGD is available at http://www.1. A short glossary is provided at the beginning of the Manual. providing in-depth information on evolving technologies and. it provides relatively little specific guidance on how these changes should be estimated. A short glossary is provided at the beginning of the Manual. and emission factors based on ground-based inventories.1) covers the UNFCCC REDD+ negotiations and the role the IPCC has played in providing MRV guidance. for example. This is a reflection of the present state of science and guidance on these topics. This Manual complements other available resources focused on REDD+ MRV. Remote sensing is an evolving field with new technologies. while the IPCC provides formats for reporting land-use changes. Chapter 5 provides an overview of steps for selecting a system for monitoring land-use change. of the Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory.3). a range of examples. This Manual covers the major components of developing a MRV system. remote sensing.gfoi. Readers are encouraged to utilize all available resources. as illustrated below in Figure 1. Field- Based Inventories (Chapter 4) and Land-Use Change (Chapter 5). Chapter 6 covers Reporting and Verification processes. It provides added focus on the topics of institutional arrangements and reporting and verification. The GFOI MGD presents a step- by-step guide with readily implementable approaches to generate. but are thus far only broadly defined or being tested in various countries: community-based MRV (Section 7. while heavily conceptual in design.1. founded on a long history of field methods in forest inventories. The first (Section 7. The remaining two sections cover activities that could be part of MRV systems. the GHG Inventories (Chapter 3) and their main inputs.wur.The GOFC-GOLD Sourcebook presents an annually updated review of science.nl/redd/sourcebook/GOFC-GOLD_Sourcebook. In Chapter 7.e. ii) concurrently or iii) some pieces of a step developed before others. As the process requires steps that may be developed i) in sequence. and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI)’s Methods and Guidance Documentation (MGD) 2. Inventory and Reporting Steps. topics relevant to a step may be covered in a later chapter. 1 The Sourcebook is available at http://www. three thematic reviews are provided for further information. For example.gofcgold. primarily via the analysis of digital data acquired by satellites.org/methods-guidance-documentation REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1.. The reader will notice that some chapters are less prescriptive than others. providing in-depth chapters on these topics.3. In most cases. They also provide specific guidance on the measurement of carbon stocks. Conversely.2 Scope and structure The Manual begins with an overview of the program components needed for a national MRV system. including a discussion of national arrangements required by the UNFCCC (Chapter 2).

carbon pool and non-CO2 source. Chapter 3 STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs). if using the gain-loss method. STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements. appropriate to the tier level identified. Chapter 6 STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. using the reporting tables. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met. Chapter 6 Figure 1. estimating the uncertainty in each estimate. Document/archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land-use category/change.0 – INTRODUCTION 3 . Chapter 5 STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories. for the time period required. Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs. EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. and worksheets where appropriate. Chapter 2 STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. Chapter 5 STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals. Within the categories designated as key. AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. Chapter 4 STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize in terms of methodological choice. through stratification and other methods. pool or non-CO2 gas. Chapter 3 STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates.1: Inventory and reporting steps covered by chapter REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1.

representing about 12 percent of global CO2 emissions.” The willingness for international support is further demonstrated by the launch of programs such as the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). a MRV system should be linked to decision-making and enforcement to better enable adaptive management and policy implementation at the national level. and the United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (UN- REDD). and anticipation of. one of two permanent subsidiary bodies to the Convention. Efforts to provide payments for ecosystem services may create incentives for curbing deforestation and. In addition. Some countries are developing nested REDD+ programs..5 billion metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2eq) per year. The world’s tropical forests are rich in natural resources. many tropical forested countries lack up-to-date. Finally.1 Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) REDD+ is expected to be implemented mostly in tropical developing countries. these forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services including timber. Additionally.3 ─ 5. if effective. however. is currently losing over seven million hectares of forest per year (Hansen et al. MRV must be coordinated across levels to ensure that sub-national MRV systems do not conflict with the national system.. 2012) The planet. Tropical forests contain as much as 50 percent of the species on earth in less than 5 percent of the earth’s land area (Mittermeier and Robles Gil. donors are supporting readiness programs in many countries where improved technical capacity is needed. water purification. is training and development for national MRV systems. annual net GHG emissions from land use and land‐use change activities between 2000 ─ 2010 accounted for approximately 4. In these cases. as policies must include provisions for ensuring compliance and measuring their impact. This rate of deforestation has serious implications for biodiversity. rural communities dependent on forests for food and income. including the Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). which was later reinforced as the “Cancun Agreements.2 BACKGROUND 1. carbon content changes occurring in their forests. To build this necessary capacity in preparation for. fuel wood. the SBSTA provides guidance on technical and methodological elements of REDD+ including MRV and reference levels. This includes coordinating with a country’s Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and associated reporting. A major component for REDD+. According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC. and advises the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP) and the Conference of the Parties REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. where REDD+ activities exist at two or more levels.2. where most of the forest- based emissions are occurring among developing countries. accurate information on forest cover. Although deforestation in the tropics is a major contributor to global emissions. help address the needs of forest-dependent communities. A MRV system must be integrated with the overall development of a REDD+ strategy for a country. such as site or state levels and national levels. and cultural and religious values.0 – INTRODUCTION 4 . 2005). REDD+. These include the REDD+ efforts under the UNFCCC. Countries need this information in order to manage their forests. 2014). The UNFCCC has specialized bodies. and a focus of the different initiatives. In relation to REDD+. These benefits are crucial to the more than 50 million people who live in tropical forests and the many millions of others who are indirectly dependent on these forest services. However. and the effects of GHG emissions on global climate. the world’s tropical forests help regulate the climate by storing over 200 billion metric tons of carbon (Baccini et al. The principle of REDD+ and the availability of funds has generated great interest among developing countries. to fulfill the requirements for REDD+ (as described in the following chapters) significant capacity building is needed. and drivers of these changes. as well as several bilateral efforts. The UNFCCC Bali Action Plan (2007) demonstrated increased willingness for industrialized countries and donors to pay for projects and policies that reduce deforestation in developing countries. 2014).1.

The IPCC was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a United Nations intergovernmental body. systematically archived and made available to decision makers so that they can evaluate them in a timely manner. The GPG-LULUCF serves a key role in providing reporting requirements within the context of the UNFCCC and methodologies for MRV. due to several factors: • Lack of information to evaluate policies and set realistic goals and compensation. including institutional and administrative arrangements. plus countries with economies in transition (the EIT Parties). Country-wide data on forest-cover change is not gathered in a systematic fashion. and countries cannot account systematically for GHG emissions from land-use sectors. However. including the Russian Federation. Annex I Parties (named so because they are listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC) include the industrialized countries that were members of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in 1992. 4 The UNFCCC divides countries into two main groups: Annex I Parties and non-Annex I Parties. Non-Annex I Parties are all other countries not listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC and are mostly developing countries. • Lack of existing models to generate the information that would help guide policy makers in designing policies and programs. other organizations are linked to the UNFCCC process that provide funding and carry out pilots projects or country programs to further develop REDD+ understanding. Certain groups of developing countries are recognized by the UNFCCC as being especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. All States that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol are represented at the CMP. Mechanisms for sharing data. while States that are not Parties participate as observers. at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP. methodologies. and is frequently referenced in this Manual.serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) 3 via the provision of timely information on scientific and technological matters as they relate to the Convention or the Protocol. and experiences are insufficient to encourage replication. and thus emphasize the need for high-quality MRV. is a key resource and focuses on the overall reporting requirements and detailed criteria for particular aspects of MRV. Forest and land-use information needs to be continuously updated. The CMP reviews the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and takes decisions to promote its effective implementation. Some bilateral agreements also provide financial and technical assistance to non-Annex I Parties 4 for preparation of their national communications. provides financial assistance to developing countries through its implementing agencies. SBSTA and the IPCC. Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF). UNEP. the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). 3 The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC. the quality of MRV is not always guaranteed. There are few existing examples of comprehensive national MRV systems. Information on forest carbon stocks and flows is absent. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. Almost all of these efforts are to support REDD+ as a pay-for-performance mechanism. Others (such as countries that rely heavily on income from fossil fuel production and commerce) feel more vulnerable to the potential economic impacts of climate change response measures. Besides the main technical guidance bodies.0 – INTRODUCTION 5 . the Baltic States. and several Central and Eastern European States. cited in this document. an operating financial entity of the Convention. The Global Environment Facility (GEF). including countries with low-lying coastal areas and those prone to desertification and drought. 195 countries are current members of the IPCC. and the World Bank. and methods and systems for detecting forest clearance and degradation are often absent.

The FCMC team includes Conservation International (CI). • Lack of capacity to gather and utilize information on forest cover and forest carbon.19: Modalities for national forest monitoring systems. USAID launched the Forest Carbon. are being addressed and respected. carbon stocks and the economy. the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute (GHGMI) and the World Resources Institute (WRI). with funding allocated through the sustainable landscapes pillar of its global climate change program. partner governments. and vulnerable populations. measurement. reporting.1: The Forest Carbon.16. finance and carbon markets (FCM). known collectively as the “Warsaw Framework for REDD+. and low emissions development strategies (LEDS). In response to the demand for technical contributions for enhancing the international framework for REDD+ and for technical assistance in implementing projects and programs related to REDD+. and verification (MRV). Box 1.19: Coordination of support for the implementation of activities in relation to mitigation actions in the forest sector by developing countries. including the decisions adopted at COP19.0 – INTRODUCTION 6 .” The Decisions are outlined below. Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program The US Government (USG) pledged $1 billion in “fast-start financing” for 2010 to 2012 to assist countries to develop and implement REDD+ plans that contribute to sustainable livelihoods. women. and therefore not further referenced. • Decision 11/CP.19 are referenced throughout the Manual. Markets and Communities (FCMC) program (2011-2015) to provide its missions. Version 1 of the FCMC MRV Manual was released at COP19 in Warsaw. The technical competencies provided by FCMC present an integrated approach to address social and environmental soundness (SES).19: Work programme on results-based finance to progress the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. Tetra Tech. Several countries do not have the needed knowledge or capacity to evaluate the impacts of policy alternatives on forest extent. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been leading the implementation of REDD+ activities.16. paragraph 70 – see Box 1. Poland (November 2013). protect biodiversity. The MRV Task within FCMC focuses its efforts on building capacity on protocols linked to REDD+. and Decisions 10- 15/CP.19: The timing and the frequency of presentations of the summary of information on how all the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP.19 as this decision is not readily relevant to the topics covered. • Decision 12/CP. and respect the rights of Indigenous Peoples.2. Version 2 includes revisions and updates throughout the chapters based on user feedback and key REDD+ decisions that have occurred since the publication of Version 1. FCMC is building technical capacity by developing tools and training that support USG contributions to the international REDD+ architecture. • Lack of transparency from not sharing data on forests and forest carbon mechanisms to facilitate broad- based civil society participation in REDD+ decision-making. appendix I. Box 1. coordinated under the overall FCMC- lead organization. in the Manual. • Decision 9/CP. local and international stakeholders with technical assistance in developing and implementing integrated REDD+ initiatives. • Decision 10/CP. There is no independent monitoring system with the capacity to hold the government accountable for policy decisions. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1.2 provides an overview of Decision 9/CP. including institutional arrangements. the poor.

• Decision 15/CP.19: Addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. They also agreed that developing countries seeking to obtain and receive results-based payments should provide the most recent summary of information on how all safeguards have been addressed and respected before they can receive results-based payments. but is more comprehensive than the Summary for Policymakers.0 – INTRODUCTION 7 . including alternative sources. The COP encouraged entities financing REDD+ activities. It also provides a proposed checklist of steps towards system development that countries can use or adapt to their own circumstances.2: Work programme on results-based finance to progress the full implementation of REDD+ activities With the adoption of Decision 9/CP. bilateral and multilateral. • Decision 14/CP. Technical modifications have also been made to each of the technical chapters. This can be useful for tracking progress towards such a system within a country. taking into account different policy approaches. Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual: Overview (herein “Overview”) is provided in addition to this Manual. including the Green Climate Fund. public and private. Finally. It also decided to establish an information hub on the web platform on the UNFCCC website as a means to publish information on the results of REDD+ activities and corresponding results-based payments.19. The Overview does not have the same level of detail as the technical chapters. a new shorter FCMC REDD+ Measurement. to collectively channel adequate and predictable results-based finance in a fair and balanced manner.19: Modalities for measuring. The Overview provides a synopsis of the MRV components and the process for the development of a sustainable MRV system. Box 1. governments working under the UNFCCC reaffirmed that results-based finance provided to developing countries for the full implementation of REDD+ activities may come from a variety of sources. reporting and verifying.19: Guidelines and procedures for the technical assessment of submissions from Parties on proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels. • Decision 13/CP.

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U.gov .S. NW Washington.usaid. DC 20523 Tel: (202) 712-0000 Fax: (202) 216-3524 www. Agency for International Development 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue.