REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

J. training materials. Virginia 22209 USA Telephone: (703) 592-6388 Fax: (866) 795-6462 Stephen Kelleher. TerraCarbon.0. evaluation.deshmukh@tetratech.0 i . eds. Version 2. USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative Email: ozerbock@usaid. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00. Chief of Party Email: stephen. Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual. Livelihoods. Please cite this report as: Hewson. and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture. FCMC & Conservation International • Stelios Pesmajoglou. National Ecological Observatory Network • Fred Stolle. World Resources Institute • Irene Angeletti. Steininger and S. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon. FCMC services include analysis.com Tetra Tech Contacts: Ian Deshmukh. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute Contributing authors: • Angel Parra. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute • David Shoch. USA. M.gov Editors: • Jennifer Hewson. tools and guidance for program design support. Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program to provide its missions.This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD. partner governments. Vermont 05401 USA Telephone: (802) 658-3890 Fax: (802) 658-4247 E-Mail: international. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. 2014.tetratechintdev. Markets and Communities Program. LLC • John Musinsky.K. Pesmajoglou. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. VERSION 2. Conservation International • Marc Steininger. REDD+ Measurement.kelleher@fcmcglobal. Suite 300 Burlington. Senior Technical Advisor/Manager Email: ian. Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022). local and international stakeholders with assistance in developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. USAID-supported Forest Carbon.org Olaf Zerbock.development@tetratech. DC. Consultant.. World Resources Institute • Kemen Austin. Washington.com www. and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No.com Forest Carbon. GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert • Gordon Smith. through a Task Order under the Prosperity. Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program 1611 North Kent Street Suite 805 Arlington. Tetra Tech 159 Bank Street.

REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.REDD+ MEASUREMENT.0 FOREST CARBON. VERSION 2. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. VERSION 2. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES (FCMC) PROGRAM DECEMBER 2014 DISCLAIMER The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government.0 ii .

................................................... 17 2..................4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS............6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA .........................3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN .............. SCOPE AND STRUCTURE ............ REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL........................................ 42 3............ 57 4..........................69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................19 2.49 4.....................................................................................0 iii .................................................................................................................................................................................................0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS.................................6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES ......... 1 1................5 EXAMPLES .........................67 4...................................34 3...................................................................................................................................................................2 IPCC GUIDANCE.................31 3.....4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM ........0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ....13 2..................................................30 3.... 4 1...............................................2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT .................... V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................1 PURPOSE..............................1 INTRODUCTION ..................................0 INTRODUCTION................ 8 2...................22 2............................................................38 3................................................................................................................... 9 2...............TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................66 4...........0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS .................... 1 1...............................41 3..6 REFERENCES............................................................... 50 4...................................................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ... III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS ...........26 2. 9 2................................................... VERSION 2............1 INTRODUCTION .......... 31 3.................1 INTRODUCTION ....3 REFERENCES...........................................................................................................................................................................................2 BACKGROUND ...............3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS ..................................................................54 4.........................2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ .........7 REFERENCES................................... VIII 1.....................................................................................5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS .......4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES ................50 4..............................................................................

........................................................... 4............................................................... 152 7......................3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS ...............................................90 5..............76 4...................................................................................... 165 7.0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE ................................................................... 125 6.....................................................................0 iv ...0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ..........8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS .........................2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING .....................................82 5.........................................4 REFERENCES.................................... 118 5..................................5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH..3 VERIFICATION ...................... 151 7...............................................................8 SELECTED RESOURCES..................... 121 6..........................................................6 REFERENCES......93 5..............84 5...............75 4..................................................................................................................................................3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS..........11 SELECTED RESOURCES .................. VERSION 2............................. 114 5..................... REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL............................................................................................................................................................... 152 7..........................................................78 4................. 82 5............... 109 5................................................. 127 6............2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC ..................0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE ............................7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING ........................................4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW ........................................... 141 6........................................................81 5............................1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC ........................................2 REPORTING....1 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................................................................7 DATA CHECKING ............. 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT...............................................................1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 125 6............................79 4.....................10 REFERENCES .........................................................................9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD ...............................

REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 v . ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture. Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon. Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT. VERSION 2.

Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 vi . Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology.FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science. Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement. Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT. VERSION 2.

accuracy. SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. comparability. and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. VERSION 2.0 vii . plus the role of conservation. completeness.

Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.0 viii . Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History. Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. SilvaCarbon Consultant. Maggie Roth. Rishi Das. Karyn Tabor. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. John Rogan of Boston University. and Leif Kindberg of FCMC. Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. Megan McGroddy. Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. including Colin Silver. Andrew Lister. the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program. Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department. Ronald McRoberts. VERSION 2. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. and members of the USAID Climate Change office.

data processing.1 PURPOSE. and engage in informed discussions on data. Other aspects are dependent on similar technologies and methodologies as those at the national level. This is in the context of REDD+ as a mechanism within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). models. as well as implementers of MRV at the national level. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. Even if the overall MRV process occurs at the level of a sub- national jurisdiction. These programs provide approved methodologies for the estimation of REDD+ baselines and MRV. and options for different techniques and methods. it is intended for those in charge of planning and developing a MRV system within a national or sub-national agency. Fred Stolle. While these individuals may not conduct specific MRV activities such as field work. one can assume that the arrangements and requirements are similar to those at the national level and that coordination with the national government will be very important. especially those related to the definition of land-use classes and the estimation of carbon stocks. where accounting and monitoring at different levels can be coordinated. analysis and reporting themselves. techniques and accounting methods that could be part of a Measurement. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). there is a need for them to understand what is involved in terms of staff time. funds. SCOPE AND STRUCTURE The purpose of this Manual is to provide an overall review of the data. This Manual is intended to inform policy makers on REDD+. as well as understanding the broader context of their sub-component. They should also have a fundamental knowledge of MRV terminology and concepts to engage with consultants. expertise. The technical aspects of these methodologies often defer to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. It is important that these individuals have a broad understanding of all aspects involved in a MRV system in order to envision a structure within the agency. and critically compare the varying advice they may receive.1.0 – INTRODUCTION 1 .1 Audience This Manual is intended for multiple audiences. some aspects of the MRV system may still be conducted nationally to lower overall costs and promote standardization. For the sub-national jurisdictional case. 1. accuracy issues. capacity building. Jennifer H ewson and Stelios Pesmajoglou 1. The Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and the American Carbon Registry (ACR) are examples of programs that serve a supporting role in voluntary carbon markets through registering emission reductions claimed by site-level initiatives. know what questions to ask. techniques and staffing and equipment needs for greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Authors: Marc Steininger. First. Those working on site-level initiatives will also find this Manual relevant to their MRV needs. understand the range of MRV components. It is intended to assist these individuals in envisioning such a design. Reporting and Verification (MRV) system for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation. This Manual is also intended for managers and technicians involved in the design of a sub-component of a MRV system. as well as approaches to nested REDD+.

i.gofcgold. For example. Conversely.org/methods-guidance-documentation REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. activity data based on remote sensing. remote sensing. providing in-depth information on evolving technologies and. The step.2 Scope and structure The Manual begins with an overview of the program components needed for a national MRV system.3).pdf 2 The MGD is available at http://www.e. is needed for national monitoring of land-use changes. it provides relatively little specific guidance on how these changes should be estimated. and emission factors based on ground-based inventories.1. three thematic reviews are provided for further information. This Manual covers the major components of developing a MRV system. They also provide specific guidance on the measurement of carbon stocks. Chapter 5 provides an overview of steps for selecting a system for monitoring land-use change. 1 The Sourcebook is available at http://www. The GFOI MGD presents a step- by-step guide with readily implementable approaches to generate. the GHG Inventories (Chapter 3) and their main inputs. a range of examples. founded on a long history of field methods in forest inventories. and entails a variety of approaches and decision factors worthy of consideration.1) covers the UNFCCC REDD+ negotiations and the role the IPCC has played in providing MRV guidance. These include the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) Sourcebook 1. Inventory and Reporting Steps. The remaining two sections cover activities that could be part of MRV systems.3.1. In Chapter 7. The reader will notice that some chapters are less prescriptive than others. This Manual complements other available resources focused on REDD+ MRV. for example. Field- Based Inventories (Chapter 4) and Land-Use Change (Chapter 5). The following three chapters address Measurement processes.gfoi. but are thus far only broadly defined or being tested in various countries: community-based MRV (Section 7.nl/redd/sourcebook/GOFC-GOLD_Sourcebook. A short glossary is provided at the beginning of the Manual. the IPCC guidelines provide specific requirements and reporting formats for GHG inventories. including a discussion of national arrangements required by the UNFCCC (Chapter 2). ii) concurrently or iii) some pieces of a step developed before others.0 – INTRODUCTION 2 . This is a reflection of the present state of science and guidance on these topics. It provides added focus on the topics of institutional arrangements and reporting and verification. The first (Section 7.The GOFC-GOLD Sourcebook presents an annually updated review of science. of the Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory. or steps. while heavily conceptual in design.. In most cases. and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI)’s Methods and Guidance Documentation (MGD) 2. while the IPCC provides formats for reporting land-use changes. providing in-depth chapters on these topics. primarily via the analysis of digital data acquired by satellites. Section 3. as illustrated below in Figure 1. covered in each chapter are highlighted in an Inventory and Reporting Steps figure at the beginning of each chapter.2) and near-real time (NRT) monitoring (Section 7. As the process requires steps that may be developed i) in sequence. Chapter 6 covers Reporting and Verification processes. Readers are encouraged to utilize all available resources. A short glossary is provided at the beginning of the Manual.wur. Remote sensing is an evolving field with new technologies.1. topics relevant to a step may be covered in a later chapter.

if using the gain-loss method. Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs. carbon pool and non-CO2 source. Chapter 2 STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. Chapter 3 STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates. Chapter 6 STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. through stratification and other methods. for the time period required. pool or non-CO2 gas. Within the categories designated as key. Chapter 4 STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). Chapter 6 Figure 1. STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements. Chapter 3 STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs).1: Inventory and reporting steps covered by chapter REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met. using the reporting tables. Document/archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land-use category/change. estimating the uncertainty in each estimate. assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize in terms of methodological choice. Chapter 5 STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals. for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. and worksheets where appropriate. AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. Chapter 5 STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. appropriate to the tier level identified.0 – INTRODUCTION 3 . EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area.

representing about 12 percent of global CO2 emissions. annual net GHG emissions from land use and land‐use change activities between 2000 ─ 2010 accounted for approximately 4. to fulfill the requirements for REDD+ (as described in the following chapters) significant capacity building is needed.2 BACKGROUND 1. one of two permanent subsidiary bodies to the Convention. MRV must be coordinated across levels to ensure that sub-national MRV systems do not conflict with the national system. 2012) The planet. and the effects of GHG emissions on global climate. such as site or state levels and national levels. This includes coordinating with a country’s Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and associated reporting. rural communities dependent on forests for food and income. is currently losing over seven million hectares of forest per year (Hansen et al. A major component for REDD+.2. if effective. Finally.. These include the REDD+ efforts under the UNFCCC. and advises the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP) and the Conference of the Parties REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC. In addition. These benefits are crucial to the more than 50 million people who live in tropical forests and the many millions of others who are indirectly dependent on these forest services. where REDD+ activities exist at two or more levels. The principle of REDD+ and the availability of funds has generated great interest among developing countries. which was later reinforced as the “Cancun Agreements. and anticipation of. The UNFCCC has specialized bodies. however.. and a focus of the different initiatives. as well as several bilateral efforts. Although deforestation in the tropics is a major contributor to global emissions. In these cases. and the United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (UN- REDD). The UNFCCC Bali Action Plan (2007) demonstrated increased willingness for industrialized countries and donors to pay for projects and policies that reduce deforestation in developing countries. including the Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). Efforts to provide payments for ecosystem services may create incentives for curbing deforestation and. and drivers of these changes. these forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services including timber. many tropical forested countries lack up-to-date. A MRV system must be integrated with the overall development of a REDD+ strategy for a country. carbon content changes occurring in their forests. the world’s tropical forests help regulate the climate by storing over 200 billion metric tons of carbon (Baccini et al.3 ─ 5. To build this necessary capacity in preparation for. 2014). donors are supporting readiness programs in many countries where improved technical capacity is needed. However.1.” The willingness for international support is further demonstrated by the launch of programs such as the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF).5 billion metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2eq) per year. fuel wood. Additionally. a MRV system should be linked to decision-making and enforcement to better enable adaptive management and policy implementation at the national level. The world’s tropical forests are rich in natural resources. 2005). In relation to REDD+. as policies must include provisions for ensuring compliance and measuring their impact. is training and development for national MRV systems. This rate of deforestation has serious implications for biodiversity. accurate information on forest cover. and cultural and religious values. Countries need this information in order to manage their forests.0 – INTRODUCTION 4 . 2014).1 Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) REDD+ is expected to be implemented mostly in tropical developing countries. where most of the forest- based emissions are occurring among developing countries. Some countries are developing nested REDD+ programs. REDD+. the SBSTA provides guidance on technical and methodological elements of REDD+ including MRV and reference levels. water purification. Tropical forests contain as much as 50 percent of the species on earth in less than 5 percent of the earth’s land area (Mittermeier and Robles Gil. help address the needs of forest-dependent communities.

Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF). Besides the main technical guidance bodies. and thus emphasize the need for high-quality MRV. UNEP. including countries with low-lying coastal areas and those prone to desertification and drought. the quality of MRV is not always guaranteed. including institutional and administrative arrangements. and countries cannot account systematically for GHG emissions from land-use sectors. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. However. Annex I Parties (named so because they are listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC) include the industrialized countries that were members of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in 1992. at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention. and the World Bank. Some bilateral agreements also provide financial and technical assistance to non-Annex I Parties 4 for preparation of their national communications. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP. while States that are not Parties participate as observers. and several Central and Eastern European States. provides financial assistance to developing countries through its implementing agencies. cited in this document. The CMP reviews the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and takes decisions to promote its effective implementation. Others (such as countries that rely heavily on income from fossil fuel production and commerce) feel more vulnerable to the potential economic impacts of climate change response measures. The IPCC was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a United Nations intergovernmental body. the Baltic States. including the Russian Federation. Almost all of these efforts are to support REDD+ as a pay-for-performance mechanism. systematically archived and made available to decision makers so that they can evaluate them in a timely manner. Information on forest carbon stocks and flows is absent. SBSTA and the IPCC.0 – INTRODUCTION 5 . Mechanisms for sharing data.serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) 3 via the provision of timely information on scientific and technological matters as they relate to the Convention or the Protocol. other organizations are linked to the UNFCCC process that provide funding and carry out pilots projects or country programs to further develop REDD+ understanding. The GPG-LULUCF serves a key role in providing reporting requirements within the context of the UNFCCC and methodologies for MRV. Certain groups of developing countries are recognized by the UNFCCC as being especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. plus countries with economies in transition (the EIT Parties). The Global Environment Facility (GEF). and is frequently referenced in this Manual. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. All States that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol are represented at the CMP. and methods and systems for detecting forest clearance and degradation are often absent. and experiences are insufficient to encourage replication. the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Non-Annex I Parties are all other countries not listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC and are mostly developing countries. There are few existing examples of comprehensive national MRV systems. is a key resource and focuses on the overall reporting requirements and detailed criteria for particular aspects of MRV. an operating financial entity of the Convention. methodologies. Country-wide data on forest-cover change is not gathered in a systematic fashion. 3 The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC. • Lack of existing models to generate the information that would help guide policy makers in designing policies and programs. 4 The UNFCCC divides countries into two main groups: Annex I Parties and non-Annex I Parties. 195 countries are current members of the IPCC. due to several factors: • Lack of information to evaluate policies and set realistic goals and compensation. Forest and land-use information needs to be continuously updated.

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been leading the implementation of REDD+ activities. Box 1. known collectively as the “Warsaw Framework for REDD+. The technical competencies provided by FCMC present an integrated approach to address social and environmental soundness (SES). In response to the demand for technical contributions for enhancing the international framework for REDD+ and for technical assistance in implementing projects and programs related to REDD+. Tetra Tech. • Decision 10/CP. and Decisions 10- 15/CP. and respect the rights of Indigenous Peoples. partner governments.19: Coordination of support for the implementation of activities in relation to mitigation actions in the forest sector by developing countries.1: The Forest Carbon. USAID launched the Forest Carbon. finance and carbon markets (FCM).19: The timing and the frequency of presentations of the summary of information on how all the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP. Several countries do not have the needed knowledge or capacity to evaluate the impacts of policy alternatives on forest extent. FCMC is building technical capacity by developing tools and training that support USG contributions to the international REDD+ architecture. are being addressed and respected.2 provides an overview of Decision 9/CP.19 are referenced throughout the Manual. The FCMC team includes Conservation International (CI). measurement. women. Version 2 includes revisions and updates throughout the chapters based on user feedback and key REDD+ decisions that have occurred since the publication of Version 1. in the Manual. coordinated under the overall FCMC- lead organization. • Decision 9/CP. reporting.16. • Decision 11/CP. • Lack of capacity to gather and utilize information on forest cover and forest carbon. The MRV Task within FCMC focuses its efforts on building capacity on protocols linked to REDD+. Box 1. Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program The US Government (USG) pledged $1 billion in “fast-start financing” for 2010 to 2012 to assist countries to develop and implement REDD+ plans that contribute to sustainable livelihoods. • Lack of transparency from not sharing data on forests and forest carbon mechanisms to facilitate broad- based civil society participation in REDD+ decision-making. and vulnerable populations.” The Decisions are outlined below. including the decisions adopted at COP19. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1.0 – INTRODUCTION 6 . • Decision 12/CP. carbon stocks and the economy. and verification (MRV). Poland (November 2013). Markets and Communities (FCMC) program (2011-2015) to provide its missions.16.19: Work programme on results-based finance to progress the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. local and international stakeholders with technical assistance in developing and implementing integrated REDD+ initiatives. There is no independent monitoring system with the capacity to hold the government accountable for policy decisions. appendix I. including institutional arrangements. Version 1 of the FCMC MRV Manual was released at COP19 in Warsaw. with funding allocated through the sustainable landscapes pillar of its global climate change program. and low emissions development strategies (LEDS).19: Modalities for national forest monitoring systems.19 as this decision is not readily relevant to the topics covered.2. the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute (GHGMI) and the World Resources Institute (WRI). the poor. and therefore not further referenced. protect biodiversity. paragraph 70 – see Box 1.

2: Work programme on results-based finance to progress the full implementation of REDD+ activities With the adoption of Decision 9/CP.19: Guidelines and procedures for the technical assessment of submissions from Parties on proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels. governments working under the UNFCCC reaffirmed that results-based finance provided to developing countries for the full implementation of REDD+ activities may come from a variety of sources. taking into account different policy approaches. The COP encouraged entities financing REDD+ activities. • Decision 15/CP. Box 1. They also agreed that developing countries seeking to obtain and receive results-based payments should provide the most recent summary of information on how all safeguards have been addressed and respected before they can receive results-based payments. • Decision 14/CP. It also provides a proposed checklist of steps towards system development that countries can use or adapt to their own circumstances. including alternative sources. public and private. including the Green Climate Fund. Finally.19: Addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. • Decision 13/CP. a new shorter FCMC REDD+ Measurement. but is more comprehensive than the Summary for Policymakers. reporting and verifying.19. This can be useful for tracking progress towards such a system within a country.19: Modalities for measuring.0 – INTRODUCTION 7 . Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual: Overview (herein “Overview”) is provided in addition to this Manual. It also decided to establish an information hub on the web platform on the UNFCCC website as a means to publish information on the results of REDD+ activities and corresponding results-based payments. The Overview provides a synopsis of the MRV components and the process for the development of a sustainable MRV system. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. The Overview does not have the same level of detail as the technical chapters. Technical modifications have also been made to each of the technical chapters. to collectively channel adequate and predictable results-based finance in a fair and balanced manner. bilateral and multilateral.

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usaid. NW Washington. DC 20523 Tel: (202) 712-0000 Fax: (202) 216-3524 www.U. Agency for International Development 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue.gov .S.