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REDD+ MEASUREMENT

,
REPORTING AND
VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL
VERSION 2.0
FOREST CARBON, MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES
(FCMC) PROGRAM

DECEMBER 2014

This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for
International Development. It was prepared by Tetra Tech.

World Resources Institute • Kemen Austin. VERSION 2. M. National Ecological Observatory Network • Fred Stolle. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has launched the Forest Carbon. Virginia 22209 USA Telephone: (703) 592-6388 Fax: (866) 795-6462 Stephen Kelleher. Suite 300 Burlington. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute Contributing authors: • Angel Parra. Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program 1611 North Kent Street Suite 805 Arlington. LLC • John Musinsky.com Forest Carbon. Conservation International • Marc Steininger.org Olaf Zerbock. TerraCarbon. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. and Conserving Ecosystems (PLACE) Indefinite Quantity Contract Core Task Order (USAID Contract No. Consultant. Order Number AID-OAA-TO-11-00022). Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program to provide its missions.0.tetratechintdev. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. FCMC & Conservation International • Stelios Pesmajoglou. local and international stakeholders with assistance in developing and implementing REDD+ initiatives. Livelihoods. 2014.deshmukh@tetratech.kelleher@fcmcglobal. GHG inventory & LULUCF sector expert • Gordon Smith.com www. Vermont 05401 USA Telephone: (802) 658-3890 Fax: (802) 658-4247 E-Mail: international. tools and guidance for program design support. USA. Please cite this report as: Hewson. FCMC services include analysis.0 i .gov Editors: • Jennifer Hewson.. USAID-supported Forest Carbon. Washington. evaluation. USAID Contracting Officer’s Representative Email: ozerbock@usaid. REDD+ Measurement.com Tetra Tech Contacts: Ian Deshmukh.K. Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual. training materials. DC. Senior Technical Advisor/Manager Email: ian.This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Tetra Tech ARD. Greenhouse Gas Management Institute • David Shoch. J. World Resources Institute • Irene Angeletti. eds. through a Task Order under the Prosperity. Version 2. and meeting and workshop development and facilitation that support US Government contributions to international REDD+ architecture. Tetra Tech 159 Bank Street. EPP-I-00-06-00008-00. Markets and Communities Program. Pesmajoglou.development@tetratech. Chief of Party Email: stephen. Steininger and S. partner governments.

VERSION 2. MARKETS AND COMMUNITIES (FCMC) PROGRAM DECEMBER 2014 DISCLAIMER The author’s views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government.REDD+ MEASUREMENT. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. VERSION 2. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.0 ii . REDD+ MEASUREMENT.0 FOREST CARBON.

................................................................................................................. 8 2..13 2.......1 INTRODUCTION .......................49 4.........................................................................................................................5 FIELD WORK AND ANALYSIS .............22 2................ 1 1............................................3 CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN INVENTORY DESIGN ..............66 4..........................7 REFERENCES....50 4....................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS............. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL......................................2 IPCC GUIDANCE....................4 DEFINITIONS OF CARBON POOLS AND LAND USES .........54 4.....................................................................................................0 FIELD-BASED INVENTORIES ...............................67 4........................................3 KEY FUNCTIONS AND COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS .......................26 2.................41 3...... 31 3...... VERSION 2..................... SCOPE AND STRUCTURE .................................................... 1 1...............0 iii .................................................................................0 INTRODUCTION..4 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS.....................38 3.... V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...............................................................................34 3..0 ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ................................................ 9 2..........4 THE FOREST CARBON INVENTORY TEAM .......................31 3......................................................................................................5 EXAMPLES ........... 57 4......................................................1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................19 2........69 REDD+ MEASUREMENT...............................................................................6 EPA NATIONAL SYSTEM TEMPLATES ......................5 METHODOLOGIES FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS ...1 PURPOSE..... 9 2.....................................................................................................................................30 3.....................................6 CALCULATING CARBON STOCKS FROM FIELD DATA ............................................................3 INVENTORY AND REPORTING STEPS ..................... 42 3........................3 REFERENCES....... III ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ....................................6 REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................................2 ELEMENTS OF A MRV SYSTEM FOR REDD+ ............ 17 2.....................................2 CARBON POOLS AND THEIR MEASUREMENT ...............................................0 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS....................................................................................2 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................................ VIII 1.................................................... 50 4...............................1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................. 4 1.................................

............................................................................................................................. 125 6...........................................2 REPORTING.............................................................................................................. 114 5.....0 THEMATIC REVIEWS ...........................76 4........................................................ 125 6...................3 OVERALL STEPS AND NEEDS.....11 SELECTED RESOURCES .........................................................................................................7 DATA CHECKING .............................2 LAND USES AND CATEGORIES IN THE UNFCCC ....3 VERIFICATION .... 152 7........................4 REFERENCES.... 152 7..........0 REPORTING AND VERIFICATION: ELEMENTS AND GUIDANCE ...........0 iv ............................................................................... 127 6....6 REFERENCES.....................................7 COMMON SATELLITE DATA SOURCES FOR LAND-USE MONITORING ..1 INTRODUCTION .................................... 181 REDD+ MEASUREMENT......................3 NEAR-REAL TIME MONITORING AND ALERT SYSTEMS ....4 REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW ................................. 151 7................................................................................................................................................................. 121 6............................................................................................................ VERSION 2.......81 5....84 5................ REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL.................. 141 6...................................8 CONSOLIDATING INVENTORY DATASETS ......................................1 HISTORY OF REDD+ UNDER THE UNFCCC .............. 4...........................10 REFERENCES .....2 COMMUNITY-BASED MONITORING ....... 82 5........................................................................78 4.....................................90 5....93 5.....8 SELECTED RESOURCES.................................................9 THE GAIN-LOSS METHOD ............................ 109 5....................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................................79 4.................................................................................................................................................................. 165 7.......................... 118 5.............0 REMOTE SENSING OF LAND COVER CHANGE ..................................5 EMERGING AREAS OF RESEARCH...82 5.............................................................................................75 4......................

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACR American Carbon Registry AD Activity Data AFOLU Agriculture. Markets and Communities Program FCPF Forest Carbon Partnership Facility REDD+ MEASUREMENT.0 v . VERSION 2. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Forestry and Other Land Use AGB Aboveground biomass BCEFs Biomass conversion and expansion factors BRDF Bi-directional reflectance distribution function BURs Biennial Update Reports CH4 Methane CI Conservation International CMP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol CO2 Carbon dioxide COP Conference of the Parties CV Coefficient of Variation DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DTs Decision Trees EFDB Emissions Factor Database EFs Emissions Factors EM Electromagnetic EOS Earth Observation System EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAS Fire Alert System FCMC Forest Carbon.

VERSION 2. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. Technology and Innovation MMU Minimum-mapping unit MRV Measurement.0 vi . Reporting and Verification N20 Nitrogen oxide NAMA Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Strategies NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Applications and Technology GEF Global Environmental Facility GFIMS Global Fire Information Management System GFOI MGD Global Forest Observation Initiative Methods and Guidance Documentation GFW Global Forest Watch GHG Greenhouse gas GHGMI Greenhouse Gas Management Institute GIS Geographic Information System GLAS Geoscience Laser Altimeter System GOFC-GOLD Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics GPG-LULUCF Good Practice Guidance for Land Use.FIRMS Fire Information and Resource Management System FREL Forest Reference Emission Level FRL Forest Reference Level FSI Forest Survey of India FUNCATE Foundation of Space Science. Land-use Change and Forestry GPS Global Positioning System IDEAM Colombian Institute for Hydrology. Meteorology and Environmental Studies ILUA Integrated Land Use Assessment INPE Brazilian National Space Research Institute IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KCA Key Category Analysis LDCM Landsat Data Continuity Mission LEDS Low Emission Development Strategies LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LUC Land-use Change MADS Colombian Ministry for Sustainable Development MCT Brazilian Ministry of Science.

REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. plus the role of conservation. sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. completeness. SBSTA Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SES Social and Environmental Soundness SINA Colombian National Environmental System SLR Side Looking RADAR SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission TACCC IPCC principles of transparency. and consistency TOA Top-of-atmosphere UMD University of Maryland UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USAID United States Agency for International Development USGS United States Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard WGs Working Groups WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute REDD+ MEASUREMENT.NCs National Communications NFMS National Forest Monitoring System NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program NGO Non-governmental organization NNs Neural Networks NRT Near-real Time PCA Principal components analysis PRODES Projeto De Estimativa De Desflorestamento da Amazoni (Brazilian Amazon deforestation monitoring program) QA/QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control QUICC Quarterly Indicator of Cover Change RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging REDD+ Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. VERSION 2. accuracy.0 vii . comparability.

Frank Martin Seifert of the European Space Agency's Centre for Earth Observation ESRIN. Ronald McRoberts. the International Panel on Climate Change and the Landsat program. Megan McGroddy. Chris Potter of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Ames Research Center.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the various colleagues in our organizations who have commented on the text. Andrew Lister. Maggie Roth. Deborah Lawrence of the University of Virginia. including Colin Silver.0 viii . Michael Gillenwater of the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute. Axel Penndorf of BlackBridge. and Jamie Eaton of TerraCarbon LLC. REPORTING AND VERIFICATION (MRV) MANUAL. and Charles Scott of the US Forest Service. Asim Banskota of the University of Minnesota. and members of the USAID Climate Change office. Brice Mora of the Global Observation of Forest Cover and Land Dynamics. VERSION 2. including Ned Horning of the American Museum of Natural History. John Rogan of Boston University. Carly Green and Jim Penman of the Global Forest Observations Initiative. REDD+ MEASUREMENT. Mario Chacon and Johnson Cerda of Conservation International. The authors also thank those who have made graphics available for use in this Manual. Rishi Das. Karyn Tabor. Additional figures are from the websites of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. SilvaCarbon Consultant. and Leif Kindberg of FCMC. Christine Dragisic of the US State Department.

First. techniques and accounting methods that could be part of a Measurement. It is intended to assist these individuals in envisioning such a design. and engage in informed discussions on data. and options for different techniques and methods. Jennifer H ewson and Stelios Pesmajoglou 1. The Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and the American Carbon Registry (ACR) are examples of programs that serve a supporting role in voluntary carbon markets through registering emission reductions claimed by site-level initiatives. as well as approaches to nested REDD+. know what questions to ask.1. capacity building. as well as understanding the broader context of their sub-component. techniques and staffing and equipment needs for greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting. and critically compare the varying advice they may receive. there is a need for them to understand what is involved in terms of staff time. Even if the overall MRV process occurs at the level of a sub- national jurisdiction. Other aspects are dependent on similar technologies and methodologies as those at the national level. especially those related to the definition of land-use classes and the estimation of carbon stocks. This is in the context of REDD+ as a mechanism within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). it is intended for those in charge of planning and developing a MRV system within a national or sub-national agency. This Manual is also intended for managers and technicians involved in the design of a sub-component of a MRV system. While these individuals may not conduct specific MRV activities such as field work.0 INTRODUCTION Authors: Marc Steininger. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). 1. This Manual is intended to inform policy makers on REDD+. They should also have a fundamental knowledge of MRV terminology and concepts to engage with consultants. Reporting and Verification (MRV) system for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation. one can assume that the arrangements and requirements are similar to those at the national level and that coordination with the national government will be very important. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. as well as implementers of MRV at the national level. SCOPE AND STRUCTURE The purpose of this Manual is to provide an overall review of the data.0 – INTRODUCTION 1 . expertise. Those working on site-level initiatives will also find this Manual relevant to their MRV needs. some aspects of the MRV system may still be conducted nationally to lower overall costs and promote standardization. understand the range of MRV components. accuracy issues. It is important that these individuals have a broad understanding of all aspects involved in a MRV system in order to envision a structure within the agency. For the sub-national jurisdictional case. 1. models.1 Audience This Manual is intended for multiple audiences. The technical aspects of these methodologies often defer to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines.1 PURPOSE. These programs provide approved methodologies for the estimation of REDD+ baselines and MRV. data processing. where accounting and monitoring at different levels can be coordinated. Fred Stolle. analysis and reporting themselves. funds.

i. and entails a variety of approaches and decision factors worthy of consideration.0 – INTRODUCTION 2 .pdf 2 The MGD is available at http://www.wur. a range of examples.. activity data based on remote sensing. primarily via the analysis of digital data acquired by satellites. Readers are encouraged to utilize all available resources.nl/redd/sourcebook/GOFC-GOLD_Sourcebook. as illustrated below in Figure 1.e.1) covers the UNFCCC REDD+ negotiations and the role the IPCC has played in providing MRV guidance. The step. The reader will notice that some chapters are less prescriptive than others. covered in each chapter are highlighted in an Inventory and Reporting Steps figure at the beginning of each chapter.org/methods-guidance-documentation REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. In Chapter 7. A short glossary is provided at the beginning of the Manual. Chapter 6 covers Reporting and Verification processes. The GFOI MGD presents a step- by-step guide with readily implementable approaches to generate.The GOFC-GOLD Sourcebook presents an annually updated review of science. This Manual covers the major components of developing a MRV system. It provides added focus on the topics of institutional arrangements and reporting and verification. while the IPCC provides formats for reporting land-use changes. but are thus far only broadly defined or being tested in various countries: community-based MRV (Section 7. These include the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) Sourcebook 1.2) and near-real time (NRT) monitoring (Section 7. and emission factors based on ground-based inventories. The remaining two sections cover activities that could be part of MRV systems.1. Chapter 5 provides an overview of steps for selecting a system for monitoring land-use change. As the process requires steps that may be developed i) in sequence. A short glossary is provided at the beginning of the Manual. providing in-depth chapters on these topics. This Manual complements other available resources focused on REDD+ MRV. while heavily conceptual in design.3. The following three chapters address Measurement processes.2 Scope and structure The Manual begins with an overview of the program components needed for a national MRV system. founded on a long history of field methods in forest inventories. three thematic reviews are provided for further information. is needed for national monitoring of land-use changes. Inventory and Reporting Steps. including a discussion of national arrangements required by the UNFCCC (Chapter 2).1. ii) concurrently or iii) some pieces of a step developed before others. remote sensing. Remote sensing is an evolving field with new technologies. This is a reflection of the present state of science and guidance on these topics. the IPCC guidelines provide specific requirements and reporting formats for GHG inventories. Field- Based Inventories (Chapter 4) and Land-Use Change (Chapter 5). for example. it provides relatively little specific guidance on how these changes should be estimated. They also provide specific guidance on the measurement of carbon stocks. For example. or steps. 1 The Sourcebook is available at http://www. Conversely. of the Manual outlines the sequence of steps required for generating a national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory.3). Section 3. The first (Section 7. the GHG Inventories (Chapter 3) and their main inputs. topics relevant to a step may be covered in a later chapter.1. In most cases. and the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI)’s Methods and Guidance Documentation (MGD) 2.gfoi. providing in-depth information on evolving technologies and.gofcgold.

pool or non-CO2 gas. estimating the uncertainty in each estimate. STEP 0: Establish Institutional Arrangements.1: Inventory and reporting steps covered by chapter REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. Chapter 4 STEP 4: Generate Activity Data (AD). for representing areas in the GPG-LULUCF. including expert peer review of the emission estimates following specific guidance under each land-use category. Chapter 5 STEP 2: Conduct key category analysis (KCA) for the relevant categories. AD represents the extent over which a human activity occurs. Chapter 6 Figure 1. ensuring that the requirements in terms of emission and removal factors are met. Emissions and removals estimates represent the product of the AD by the associated EFs. Chapter 3 STEP 3: Design a forest carbon inventory to generate Emissions Factors (EFs). Chapter 5 STEP 5: Quantify emissions and removals.0 – INTRODUCTION 3 . for the time period required. assess significant non-CO2 gases and carbon pools and prioritize in terms of methodological choice. Chapter 3 STEP 6: Report emissions and removals estimates. and worksheets where appropriate. using the reporting tables. carbon pool and non-CO2 source. if using the gain-loss method. Chapter 2 STEP 1: Estimate the land areas in each land-use category. appropriate to the tier level identified. Document/archive information used to produce the national emissions and removals estimates following specific instructions under each land-use category/change. Within the categories designated as key. Chapter 6 STEP 7: Perform verification and implement quality control checks. EFs represent coefficients that quantify the emissions/removals per unit area. through stratification and other methods.

a MRV system should be linked to decision-making and enforcement to better enable adaptive management and policy implementation at the national level. Finally. is training and development for national MRV systems.. The UNFCCC Bali Action Plan (2007) demonstrated increased willingness for industrialized countries and donors to pay for projects and policies that reduce deforestation in developing countries. In addition. which was later reinforced as the “Cancun Agreements. Some countries are developing nested REDD+ programs. However. The world’s tropical forests are rich in natural resources. A major component for REDD+.1. fuel wood.1 Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) REDD+ is expected to be implemented mostly in tropical developing countries. as policies must include provisions for ensuring compliance and measuring their impact. these forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services including timber. The principle of REDD+ and the availability of funds has generated great interest among developing countries. These benefits are crucial to the more than 50 million people who live in tropical forests and the many millions of others who are indirectly dependent on these forest services. and cultural and religious values. In relation to REDD+. The UNFCCC has specialized bodies.5 billion metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2eq) per year.. to fulfill the requirements for REDD+ (as described in the following chapters) significant capacity building is needed. such as site or state levels and national levels. In these cases. if effective. MRV must be coordinated across levels to ensure that sub-national MRV systems do not conflict with the national system. This includes coordinating with a country’s Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and associated reporting. representing about 12 percent of global CO2 emissions. accurate information on forest cover. annual net GHG emissions from land use and land‐use change activities between 2000 ─ 2010 accounted for approximately 4. 2014). the SBSTA provides guidance on technical and methodological elements of REDD+ including MRV and reference levels. and drivers of these changes. and the effects of GHG emissions on global climate. Countries need this information in order to manage their forests.2. water purification. including the Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA).0 – INTRODUCTION 4 . however. where REDD+ activities exist at two or more levels. A MRV system must be integrated with the overall development of a REDD+ strategy for a country. REDD+. 2005). This rate of deforestation has serious implications for biodiversity. Although deforestation in the tropics is a major contributor to global emissions. the world’s tropical forests help regulate the climate by storing over 200 billion metric tons of carbon (Baccini et al. Additionally. and advises the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP) and the Conference of the Parties REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. as well as several bilateral efforts.2 BACKGROUND 1. help address the needs of forest-dependent communities. Tropical forests contain as much as 50 percent of the species on earth in less than 5 percent of the earth’s land area (Mittermeier and Robles Gil. Efforts to provide payments for ecosystem services may create incentives for curbing deforestation and. where most of the forest- based emissions are occurring among developing countries. one of two permanent subsidiary bodies to the Convention. and anticipation of. 2014). many tropical forested countries lack up-to-date. is currently losing over seven million hectares of forest per year (Hansen et al.3 ─ 5. 2012) The planet. According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC. These include the REDD+ efforts under the UNFCCC. and the United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (UN- REDD).” The willingness for international support is further demonstrated by the launch of programs such as the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). and a focus of the different initiatives. donors are supporting readiness programs in many countries where improved technical capacity is needed. To build this necessary capacity in preparation for. rural communities dependent on forests for food and income. carbon content changes occurring in their forests.

0 – INTRODUCTION 5 . 4 The UNFCCC divides countries into two main groups: Annex I Parties and non-Annex I Parties. and several Central and Eastern European States. Land-Use Change and Forestry (GPG-LULUCF). and the World Bank. provides financial assistance to developing countries through its implementing agencies. Others (such as countries that rely heavily on income from fossil fuel production and commerce) feel more vulnerable to the potential economic impacts of climate change response measures. systematically archived and made available to decision makers so that they can evaluate them in a timely manner. including countries with low-lying coastal areas and those prone to desertification and drought. the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). due to several factors: • Lack of information to evaluate policies and set realistic goals and compensation. methodologies. Information on forest carbon stocks and flows is absent. and countries cannot account systematically for GHG emissions from land-use sectors. other organizations are linked to the UNFCCC process that provide funding and carry out pilots projects or country programs to further develop REDD+ understanding. and methods and systems for detecting forest clearance and degradation are often absent. There are few existing examples of comprehensive national MRV systems. The IPCC was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a United Nations intergovernmental body. UNEP. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP. All States that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol are represented at the CMP. and experiences are insufficient to encourage replication. Country-wide data on forest-cover change is not gathered in a systematic fashion. Non-Annex I Parties are all other countries not listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC and are mostly developing countries. while States that are not Parties participate as observers. Annex I Parties (named so because they are listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC) include the industrialized countries that were members of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in 1992. • Lack of existing models to generate the information that would help guide policy makers in designing policies and programs. However. The Global Environment Facility (GEF). Forest and land-use information needs to be continuously updated. 195 countries are current members of the IPCC. The GPG-LULUCF serves a key role in providing reporting requirements within the context of the UNFCCC and methodologies for MRV. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use. plus countries with economies in transition (the EIT Parties). REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. cited in this document. including the Russian Federation. and thus emphasize the need for high-quality MRV. at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention. including institutional and administrative arrangements. Mechanisms for sharing data.serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) 3 via the provision of timely information on scientific and technological matters as they relate to the Convention or the Protocol. SBSTA and the IPCC. the Baltic States. an operating financial entity of the Convention. the quality of MRV is not always guaranteed. Besides the main technical guidance bodies. Some bilateral agreements also provide financial and technical assistance to non-Annex I Parties 4 for preparation of their national communications. is a key resource and focuses on the overall reporting requirements and detailed criteria for particular aspects of MRV. Certain groups of developing countries are recognized by the UNFCCC as being especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. Almost all of these efforts are to support REDD+ as a pay-for-performance mechanism. 3 The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC. The CMP reviews the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and takes decisions to promote its effective implementation. and is frequently referenced in this Manual.

• Decision 9/CP.16. and low emissions development strategies (LEDS).0 – INTRODUCTION 6 . including institutional arrangements. Several countries do not have the needed knowledge or capacity to evaluate the impacts of policy alternatives on forest extent.19: Work programme on results-based finance to progress the full implementation of the activities referred to in decision 1/CP. • Lack of capacity to gather and utilize information on forest cover and forest carbon. local and international stakeholders with technical assistance in developing and implementing integrated REDD+ initiatives. and therefore not further referenced. including the decisions adopted at COP19. the poor. in the Manual. and vulnerable populations. women. Markets and Communities (FCMC) program (2011-2015) to provide its missions.19: Modalities for national forest monitoring systems. • Decision 10/CP. Tetra Tech. protect biodiversity. Box 1. • Decision 11/CP.19 are referenced throughout the Manual. USAID launched the Forest Carbon. are being addressed and respected. finance and carbon markets (FCM). reporting. measurement.19: The timing and the frequency of presentations of the summary of information on how all the safeguards referred to in decision 1/CP. The FCMC team includes Conservation International (CI). In response to the demand for technical contributions for enhancing the international framework for REDD+ and for technical assistance in implementing projects and programs related to REDD+. Box 1. The MRV Task within FCMC focuses its efforts on building capacity on protocols linked to REDD+. The technical competencies provided by FCMC present an integrated approach to address social and environmental soundness (SES). and Decisions 10- 15/CP. Version 1 of the FCMC MRV Manual was released at COP19 in Warsaw.19 as this decision is not readily relevant to the topics covered. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1. carbon stocks and the economy. Version 2 includes revisions and updates throughout the chapters based on user feedback and key REDD+ decisions that have occurred since the publication of Version 1. appendix I.” The Decisions are outlined below. paragraph 70 – see Box 1. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been leading the implementation of REDD+ activities. and respect the rights of Indigenous Peoples. and verification (MRV). • Decision 12/CP. Poland (November 2013). the Greenhouse Gas Management Institute (GHGMI) and the World Resources Institute (WRI). with funding allocated through the sustainable landscapes pillar of its global climate change program. Markets and Communities (FCMC) Program The US Government (USG) pledged $1 billion in “fast-start financing” for 2010 to 2012 to assist countries to develop and implement REDD+ plans that contribute to sustainable livelihoods.1: The Forest Carbon. There is no independent monitoring system with the capacity to hold the government accountable for policy decisions.2. FCMC is building technical capacity by developing tools and training that support USG contributions to the international REDD+ architecture. • Lack of transparency from not sharing data on forests and forest carbon mechanisms to facilitate broad- based civil society participation in REDD+ decision-making. known collectively as the “Warsaw Framework for REDD+.16. partner governments.2 provides an overview of Decision 9/CP. coordinated under the overall FCMC- lead organization.19: Coordination of support for the implementation of activities in relation to mitigation actions in the forest sector by developing countries.

a new shorter FCMC REDD+ Measurement. • Decision 14/CP.2: Work programme on results-based finance to progress the full implementation of REDD+ activities With the adoption of Decision 9/CP. • Decision 13/CP. Finally. REDD+ MRV MANUAL: CHAPTER 1.19: Guidelines and procedures for the technical assessment of submissions from Parties on proposed forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels. to collectively channel adequate and predictable results-based finance in a fair and balanced manner. taking into account different policy approaches. reporting and verifying.19.19: Modalities for measuring. It also decided to establish an information hub on the web platform on the UNFCCC website as a means to publish information on the results of REDD+ activities and corresponding results-based payments.19: Addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. bilateral and multilateral. • Decision 15/CP. including the Green Climate Fund. governments working under the UNFCCC reaffirmed that results-based finance provided to developing countries for the full implementation of REDD+ activities may come from a variety of sources. Box 1. Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual: Overview (herein “Overview”) is provided in addition to this Manual. including alternative sources. Technical modifications have also been made to each of the technical chapters. The COP encouraged entities financing REDD+ activities. but is more comprehensive than the Summary for Policymakers. The Overview does not have the same level of detail as the technical chapters. public and private. The Overview provides a synopsis of the MRV components and the process for the development of a sustainable MRV system.0 – INTRODUCTION 7 . It also provides a proposed checklist of steps towards system development that countries can use or adapt to their own circumstances. They also agreed that developing countries seeking to obtain and receive results-based payments should provide the most recent summary of information on how all safeguards have been addressed and respected before they can receive results-based payments. This can be useful for tracking progress towards such a system within a country.

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S.usaid.U.gov . Agency for International Development 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue. NW Washington. DC 20523 Tel: (202) 712-0000 Fax: (202) 216-3524 www.