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LX-Series Configuration

Guide

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451-0311B

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2 451-0311B

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451-0311B 3

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............. 16 User Command Mode ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 Online Help ........ 24 Related Documents ................................................................................................................. 22 Notification Command Mode ........... 19 PPP Command Mode ................... and TACACS+ for the LX Unit ..................................................................................................................................................... 33 Setting Up TACACS+ ................................. 33 Setting Up RADIUS .................................................................................................................................. 31 Setting Up RADIUS.................................................... 14 Using the Function Keys ................................................................................................................................................. 27 Setting the TCP/IP Parameters in the IP Configuration Menu .................................... 17 Superuser Command Mode .................................................................................................................................................................. Table of Contents Preface ................................................. 38 Setting Up SecurID ................................................................ 21 Interface Command Mode ................ 13 How This Book is Organized ................................................................... 27 Configuring TCP/IP Parameters with the Quick Start Configurator ............................................... 21 SNMP Command Mode ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Menu Editing Command Mode ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Subscriber Command Mode ............................................................................................................................................................................................... SecurID........................................................... 20 Ethernet Command Mode ............................................................................................................................................... 43 451-0311B 5 ................... 23 Broadcast Group Command Mode .....Initial Setup of the LX Unit ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 18 Asynchronous Command Mode ........................................................................................ 29 Setting Up Local (Onboard) Security for the LX Unit ............. 23 Disabling (Negating) Features and Settings ..................................... 22 Menu Command Mode ....................... 18 Configuration Command Mode ......................... 27 Obtaining TCP/IP Parameters from the Network ............................... 29 Creating and Loading a Default Configuration File .......................................................................................... 13 Conventions .............................................................................. 20 Modem Command Mode ......................................................... 25 Chapter 1 ............................................................................... 31 Changing the Password Defaults .................................................................................................................................................... 15 Navigating the LX Command Line Interface (CLI) ...... 27 Configuring TCP/IP ...........................................

. 73 6 451-0311B ................................................................................................................................ 71 Updating the ppciboot Firmware ............................ 70 Setting the Timeout in Seconds ...................... 66 Upgrading Software and ppciboot with the Command Line Interface ................. 65 Scripting On External Units ... 64 Applying Default Configurations to Other Units .......................................................................................................................................................... 61 Where the Configuration is Stored ............................................................................... 62 Editing the Files on a Unix Host .................................................................................................................... 72 Saving the Configuration ........... 62 Saving the Configuration to the Network .......................... 51 Setting Up Modem Ports for Remote Console Management .. 61 Saving the Configuration File ..................................... 71 Setting the Speed and Duplex Mode of the Ethernet Network Link .......................................................................................................................................................... 70 Booting from Flash ................................................................................................................. 49 Making Straight-through Cables .................................................................................... 62 Editing the Files in Windows ................... 61 Saving the Configuration Into the Flash ................................................................................................................................................ 66 ppciboot Factory Default Settings ................................................................... Chapter 2 .................................................................................................... 66 How to Upgrade the Software . 73 Booting the System ......................... 61 Backup and Recovery .................................................................................................................................................................................. 49 Connecting the Console Port to the Network Element ................... 64 Loading the Configuration ................... 53 Setting Up Security for a Console Port ....................... 51 Configuring Asynchronous Ports for Direct Serial Connections ................................. 50 Modular Adapters (RJ-45 to DB-25 and RJ-45 to DB-9) .............. 69 Booting from the Network .....System Administration ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 Saving the Boot Image to Flash ............................................................................................................ 65 Creating a Default Configuration File ......................................................... 51 Configuring Ports for Remote Console Management .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 72 Resetting to System Defaults ........................................................................................ 50 Recommendations for Making Cables ............................................................................................................................................... 59 Chapter 3 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71 IP Configuration Menu ............................................ 54 Creating Subscribers for Remote Console Management ...........................................Setting Up Remote Console Management .................... 63 Recreating the Zip File in Order to Upload It Onto the LX .................................... 65 Restoring the Default Configuration File to a New Unit ....................................................................................................................... 58 Specifying Access Methods ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 68 Upgrading Software with the ppciboot Main Menu ...........

......................... 81 Service Profiles ...... 101 Displaying Broadcast Group Characteristics ........................................................................................................................... 81 Overview of User Profiles .............................................................................................................. 74 Changing the Network Mask .......... 91 Localsyslog Example .................. 101 Displaying Broadcast Group Summaries ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 95 Web Example .................................................................................. 76 Defaulting from the Main Menu ................................................... 89 Displaying Characteristics of Service Profiles ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 74 Changing the Unit IP Address ................................... 89 Displaying Characteristics of User Profiles ......................................................................................................................................................................... 79 Configuring the Notification Feature ...................Configuring the Data Broadcast Feature ....................................................................................................................... 92 SNPP Example ............................................................................................................................................................ 90 Configuration Examples ............................................................................................................... 97 Usage Guidelines .................... 75 Changing the Gateway Address ........ 75 Changing the TFTP Server IP Address ................................................................. 76 Defaulting from CLI .... 79 Overview of the Notification Feature ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103 451-0311B 7 ....................................................................................................................................... 95 Chapter 5 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 77 Chapter 4 .................. 99 Removing Ports from Broadcast Groups .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 97 Setting Up Broadcast Groups ..................................................... 99 Specifying Port Options .......................................... 73 Choosing an IP Assignment Method ................................ 88 Displaying Information on the Notification Feature .................................. 93 SNMP Example ..................... 94 Email Example .... 92 Remotesyslog Example ................................................................................. 76 Booting from Defaults ..... 100 Disabling Broadcast Groups ...................................................................................................................... 75 Saving the Configuration ... 101 Displaying Broadcast Group Characteristics ... 91 Outbound Asynchronous Port Example .................................................................................................................................................................. 76 Acquiring the IP Configuration .................. 93 TAP Example ............................................................................Setting Up the Notification Feature ................................................................................... Using the IP Configuration Menu ..................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................... 134 Displaying Subscriber Information .............................................. 115 Removing Ports from a Rotary ........................................................ 121 Creating Subscriber Accounts and Entering Subscriber Command Mode ....................................................................................................... 118 Displaying Rotary Information ........................................................ 139 8 451-0311B .............................................. 138 Displaying the Audit Log for a Subscriber ............................................ 135 Displaying the Subscriber Status .. 133 Enabling Audit Logging ....................................................... 134 Enabling Login Menus ............ Chapter 6 .................... 136 Displaying the Subscriber TCP Information ................................................................................................................................................... 117 Displaying Interface Summaries ... 110 Configuring RADIUS................................................................................................................................ 115 Displaying Interface Information .............. 135 Displaying Subscriber Characteristics .... 107 Specifying Socket Numbers ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 138 Displaying the Command Log for a Subscriber ......................................................................................................... 116 Displaying Interface Port Mapping ........................................................................................ 117 Displaying Interface Statuses ..................... 123 Setting Up the Session and Terminal Parameters ............................................................................................. 110 Configuring Rotaries ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... TACACS+.............................................. 108 Specifying Maximum Transmission Units (MTU) ......................................................................................................................................................... 116 Displaying Interface Characteristics ......................................................................................................... or SecurID Authentication on an IP Interface ............ 128 Configuring the Subscriber Password ................................. 121 Creating Subscriber Accounts by Copying . 134 Enabling Command Logging .................................................................................. 133 Specifying a Preferred Service ....................... 133 Specifying a Dedicated Service ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 132 Adding Superuser Privileges to a Subscriber Account ...................Configuring IP Interfaces ..................................... 109 Configuring Local Authentication on an IP Interface .. 105 Setting Up IP Interfaces ..... 123 Specifying the Subscriber Access Methods .................................................................................................................. 118 Chapter 7 ...................... 122 The User Profile ......................................... 137 Displaying the Subscriber Summary Information . 122 Deleting Subscriber Accounts ............................................................ 113 Disabling Rotaries ............................Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit . 106 Specifying SSH Keepalive Parameters .......................................................................................................................................

......................... 163 TACACS+ Accounting Attributes ............................. 147 Displaying Status Information for Groups of Power Control Relays .......................Overview of RADIUS Authentication ................................ 151 Adding a Rule to a Chain .......................Overview of TACACS+ Authentication .................................................................... 147 Displaying Status Information for Power Control Units .................. 168 451-0311B 9 ..................... 143 Configuring an LX Asynchronous Port as a Power Master ........................................................................................................................................Configuring Power Control Units ..................................... 154 Saving Changes in Rules .........Configuring Ports for Temperature/Humidity Sensors .................................................................... 155 Appendix A ..................................................................................................................... 152 Example: Accepting Packets Based on the Destination IP Address ................................................................................. 149 Chapter 10 ...................................................................................... 142 Chapter 9 ........ 161 RADIUS Accounting Attributes ........... 147 Displaying Information on Power Control Units ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 148 Displaying Summary Information for Power Control Units ..................... 162 TACACS+ Accounting Client Operation ...................................................... 144 Configuring Power Control Units ............................................................. 143 Default Name for a Power Control Relay ........................ 157 RADIUS Authentication Attributes .................................. 145 Specifying the Off Time ....................... Chapter 8 .....................................Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting ....................................Configuring Packet Filters with the iptables Command ...... 145 Naming a Power Control Relay .............................. 141 Displaying the Temperature and Humidity ..... 153 Notes on the iptables Command Options ............................................................................................... 141 Configuring Sensor Access for an LX Port ....................................................................................... 167 Example of TACACS+ Authentication .......................................................................................................... 151 Example: Dropping Packets Based on the Source IP Address ................................................................... 168 TACACS+ Authentication Attributes .............................................................................................. 153 Example: Ignoring Telnet Requests from a Specific IP Address ................................. 146 Naming a Group of Power Control Relays .................................... 164 Appendix C ................................................................................... 141 Displaying Sensor Summaries .. 161 RADIUS Accounting Client Operation ........................................................................................................................ 145 Assigning Power Control Relays to a Group .......... 159 Appendix B ................................

190 Appendix 4 ....................................................................................................... Appendix D .................................................................................................................................................................... 171 iptables man Pages .......................................................... 191 Index .......................................................................................Details of the iptables Command ..... 193 10 451-0311B .............................................................................................. 171 Appendix 3 ........

........................ 118 Figure 11 ... 135 Figure 14 ......Interface Summary Display ............................ 149 Figure 23 ........................................ Figures Figure 1 ........... 142 Figure 20 ........................... 117 Figure 10 ................Rotary Display ............................ 91 Figure 5 .............................................................................................Subscriber TCP Display .......................... 142 Figure 21 .....................................................................Subscriber Status Display .Device Summary Display ................... 119 Figure 13 ............................ 136 Figure 15 ...................................................... 169 451-0311B 11 .........................................Device Status Display for an Alarm Master Port ..................Rotary Connections on an IP Interface .......Device Status Display for a Sensor Port ...148 Figure 22 ..... 139 Figure 18 ................................. 137 Figure 16 . 139 Figure 19 ...........................................................................................................Device Summary Display for Sensors .....158 Figure 25 ......................................... 138 Figure 17 ....................... 50 Figure 3 ...........................TACACS+ Authentication Process ...Audit Log Display ........90 Figure 4 .................... 116 Figure 9 .................................Interface Characteristics Display ..Broadcast Group Characteristics Display ...Command Log Display ................ 102 Figure 6 ............................LX Command Modes .......Interface Port Mapping Display ...............Device Status Display for a Power Control Relay Group ............................ 149 Figure 24 ...................Subscriber Characteristics Display ......................Broadcast Group Summary Display ...........Service Profile Display ...Subscriber Summary Display . 113 Figure 8 .................................................................Straight-through Wiring Scheme .......................... 103 Figure 7 ...................... 16 Figure 2 . 118 Figure 12 ......................................................Interface Status Display .........RADIUS Authentication Process ........................................................................................................................................User Profile Display .............

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• Chapter 7 – Describes how to configure subscriber accounts. • Appendix B – Provides an overview of the RADIUS accounting feature and the TACACS+ accounting feature and describes the RADIUS and TACACS+ accounting attributes. How This Book is Organized This guide is organized as follows: • Chapter 1 – Describes how to do the initial setup of the LX unit. • Chapter 10 – Describes how to use the iptables command to configure packet filters for the LX unit. • Chapter 9 – Describes how to configure ports for power management. Preface This guide describes how to manage and configure the LX unit and provides background information on all of the configurable features of the LX unit. • Chapter 3 – Describes how to perform system administration on the LX unit. • Chapter 2 – Describes how to set up remote console management on the LX unit. • Chapter 5 – Describes how to set up the Data Broadcast Feature. • Chapter 8 – Describes how to configure ports for Temperature/Humidity sensors. 451-0311B 13 . • Appendix A – Provides an overview of the RADIUS authentication feature and describes the RADIUS authentication attributes. • Chapter 6 – Describes how to configure IP interfaces. • Chapter 4 – Describes how to set up the Notification Feature.

). the notation <CTRL> refers to the CTRL key. Conventions The following conventions are used throughout this guide: • Command execution – Unless otherwise specified. etc. NOTE: You must press the Enter key after you type Ctrl-F. italics – are used to indicate variables in command syntax descriptions. or Ctrl-L. • Ctrl-B – Moves back to the previous session. • Keyboard characters (keys) – Keyboard characters are represented using left and right angle brackets (< and >). messages.Preface • Appendix C – Provides an overview of the TACACS+ authentication feature and describes the TACACS+ authentication attributes. Ctrl-B. user input. For example. commands are executed when you press <RETURN>. • Appendix D – Lists the Linux man pages for the iptables command. Using the Function Keys The LX Command Line Interface (CLI) supports the following function keys: • Ctrl-F – Moves forward to the next session. <A> refers to the letter A. 14 451-0311B . • Ctrl-L – Returns you to the Local Command Mode. displays. prompts. and <RETURN> refers to the RETURN key. • Typographical conventions – The following typographical conventions are used: Monospace Typeface – indicates text that can be displayed or typed at a terminal (i..e. keywords and commands are shown in lowercase letters. • Command syntax – Where command options or command syntax are shown. • Up arrow – Recalls the last command.

) Online Help The question mark character (?). (Note: You must type the first three characters in a command keyword before you can autocomplete it with the Tab key. if you type the tab key after you type show ver at the Superuser command prompt. the show version command will be autocompleted. For example. For example. and the Tab key. The following guidelines will help you to navigate the online help system: • Type the ? character (or press the Tab key) at the command prompt in any command mode. You could then type show port? to list the next item in the syntax of the show port command. 451-0311B 15 . Preface • Tab key – Autocompletes a partially typed command. are used to display online help in the LX Command Line Interface (CLI). to display the first keyword of each command that can be executed in that command mode. For example. the following is displayed when you type the ? character at the User command prompt: InReach:0 > User Commands: clear Clear screen and reset terminal line disconnect Disconnect session enable Turn on privileged commands exit Exits and disconnects user no Negate a command pause Pause enable ping Send echo messages show Show running system information ssh Secure Shell (Triple-DES/Blowfish) telnet Open a telnet connection terminal Set the terminal type • Type the ? character (or press the Tab key) after the displayed keyword to list the options for that keyword. type show? to list the options of the show keyword.

type a question mark at the Menu :0 >> prompt to display the commands that can be executed in the Menu command mode. For example.Preface Navigating the LX Command Line Interface (CLI) The LX CLI is structured as a set of nested command modes. 16 451-0311B . User Enter “enable” command and login to Superuser command mode Superuser Notification Cconfiguration Nnotification Ssnmp SNMP Configuration Pport ethernet Ibroadcast group Pport async Ethernet Ssubscriber Iinterface Asynchronous Broadcast Group Mmenu Interface Subscriber Pppp Mmodem Menu Oopen PPP Modem Menu Editing Figure 1 .. Each command mode is used to implement a group of related features or functions. Config:0 >>) and its own set of commands.g. Figure 1 lists the command modes in the LX CLI.LX Command Modes Each command mode has its own command prompt (e. Type a question mark (?) (or press the Tab key) at any of the LX CLI command prompts to display the commands that can be executed in the current command mode.

each command mode is nested in a previous command mode. Preface Except for the User command mode. you are in the User command mode. You can use the end command to return to the Superuser Command Mode from the Configuration Command Mode or from any command mode that is nested in the Configuration Command Mode.g. The User command mode includes commands for doing the following: • Managing your LX session and terminal. For example. This is indicated by the User command prompt (e. For example. InReach:0 >). (The User command mode is the basic command mode of the LX CLI. User Command Mode When you log on to the LX unit. You can use the exit command to return to the previous command mode. the Superuser command mode is nested in User command mode. you would enter the exit command in the Asynchronous command mode to return to the Configuration command mode. to enter the Configuration command mode you must enter the configuration command from the Superuser command mode. • Pinging remote hosts. To enter a nested command mode. • Displaying your subscriber-specific information. • Accessing the Superuser command mode.. you must enter the appropriate command from the previous command mode. The rest of this section describes the LX command modes and the commands that are used to access each of them. • Displaying information about the LX port to which you are connected. you are in the User command mode when you log in to the LX unit. and so on. the Configuration command mode is nested in the Superuser command mode.) For example. 451-0311B 17 . • Connecting to remote hosts via SSH and Telnet.

InReach:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Superuser command mode. you must enter a Superuser password at the Password: prompt. Refer to the “Superuser Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Superuser Command Mode.g. as well as the following: • Manage the LX unit.Preface Refer to the “User Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the User Command Mode. and all other server-level features. you can perform all of the tasks that you can perform in User command mode.. Superuser Command Mode The Superuser command prompt (e. In the Configuration command mode. • Display global information for the LX unit. In the Superuser command mode. • Access the Configuration command mode. You can access the Configuration command mode by executing the configuration command in the Superuser command mode. SecurID. • Access the Linux shell. the Password: prompt is displayed. 18 451-0311B . You can access the Superuser command mode by executing the enable command in the User command mode. Configuration Command Mode The Configuration command prompt (e.. TACACS+. you can perform such tasks as the following: • Specify the server-level configuration of the LX unit. When you execute the enable command.g. The server-level configuration includes the Superuser password and settings for ppciboot. Config:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Configuration command mode. RADIUS. To enter Superuser mode.

. 451-0311B 19 . APD settings. the prompt Async 4-4:0 >> indicates that you are in the Asynchronous command mode for port 4. and inbound and outbound authentication. autobaud. autodial. you can do the followng: • Configure asynchronous port settings such as access methods. • Access the Ethernet command mode. flow control. • Access the Modem command mode. Async 4-4:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Asynchronous command mode. • Access the Menu command mode. Asynchronous Command Mode The Asynchronous command prompt (e. • Access the Broadcast Group command mode. Preface • Access the Asynchronous command mode. • Access the PPP command mode. • Access the Subscriber command mode. Refer to the “Asynchronous Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Asynchronous Command Mode. • Access the SNMP command mode. For example.g. • Access the Interface command mode. for example: Config:0 >>port async 4 In the Asynchronous command mode. You can access the Asynchronous command mode by executing the port async command in the Configuration command mode with an LX port number as the command argument. • Access the Notification command mode. Refer to the “Configuration Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Configuration Command Mode.

Some of the settings that you can configure include type. IPCP parameters. Refer to the “Modem Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Modem Command Mode. Modem 4-4:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Modem command mode. Modem Command Mode The Modem command prompt (e. Refer to the “PPP Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the PPP Command Mode.g. 20 451-0311B . In the PPP command mode. You can access the Modem command mode by executing the modem command in the Asynchronous command mode. you can configure external modems for asynchronous ports. You can access the PPP command mode by executing the ppp command in the Asynchronous command mode. you can configure the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for asynchronous ports.g.Preface PPP Command Mode The PPP command prompt (e. In the Modem command mode. dialout number.. and the modem initialization string. Some of the settings that you can configure include accounting. and LCP parameters. modem retries. authentication.. PPP 4-4:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the PPP command mode.

Refer to the “Ethernet Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Ethernet Command Mode. You can access the SNMP command mode by executing the snmp command in the Configuration command mode.. SNMP Command Mode The SNMP command prompt (e. you can configure the SNMP settings for an LX unit. for example: Config:0 >>port ethernet 1 In the Ethernet command mode. Subs_mark >>) is displayed when you are in the Subscriber command mode.g. You can access the Subscriber command mode by executing the subscriber command in the Configuration command mode. In the Subscriber command mode. Refer to the “Subscriber Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Subscriber Command Mode. Ether 1-1:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Ethernet command mode. Subscriber Command Mode The Subscriber command prompt (e. Telnet settings. Some of the subscriber settings include function keys. Snmp:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the SNMP command mode.g.. Preface Ethernet Command Mode The Ethernet command prompt (e. 451-0311B 21 . you can provision subscribers of the LX unit. You can access the Ethernet command mode by executing the port ethernet command in the Configuration command mode with an LX port number as the command argument. In the SNMP command mode. you can configure Ethernet port descriptions and the duplex mode and speed of Ethernet ports. and security settings.g..

g. You can access the Interface command mode by executing the interface command in the Configuration command mode. delete. and IP Rotaries for the interface. Menu Command Mode The Menu command prompt (e. and display menus and access the Menu Editing command mode by executing the open command. In the Menu command mode. mark-1:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Menu Editing command mode. as well as SSH and Telnet settings.g. the prompt mark-1:0 >> indicates that the menu mark is open in the Menu Editing command mode. Interface Command Mode The Interface command prompt (e. You can access the Menu command mode by executing the menu command in the Configuration command mode.. Menu :0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Menu command mode. You can access the Menu Editing command mode by executing the open command in the Menu command mode. For example. Refer to the “Interface Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Interface Command Mode. MTU. Menu Editing Command Mode The Menu Editing command prompt (e.. In the Interface command mode. you can create.Preface Refer to the “SNMP Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the SNMP Command Mode.. Intf 1-1:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Interface command mode.g. 22 451-0311B . you can configure interfaces for the LX unit. Refer to the “Menu Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Menu Command Mode. import. Some of the settings that you can configure include the IP settings.

Refer to the “Broadcast Group Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Broadcast Group Command Mode.g. you can configure a Broadcast Group. Refer to the “Menu Editing Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Menu Editing Command Mode. Notification:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Notification command mode. email addresses.g. Preface In the Menu Editing command mode. remote hosts. local files. The Slave Ports receive data broadcasts from the Master Ports.. A Broadcast Group consists of Slave Ports and Master Ports. and asynchronous ports. In the Broadcast Group command mode. Notification Command Mode The Notification command prompt (e. Refer to the “Notification Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed information on the commands that you can execute in the Notification Command Mode. You can access the Broadcast Group command mode by executing the broadcast group command in the Configuration command mode. you can configure the sending of accounting log messages to pagers. In the Notification command mode.. BrGroups 6:0 >>) is displayed when you are in the Broadcast Group command mode. 451-0311B 23 . you can create and modify menus. You can access the Notification command mode by executing the notification command in the Configuration command mode. Broadcast Group Command Mode The Broadcast Group command prompt (e. syslogd. SNMP trap clients.

you need to execute the no command with the dialout modifier and the number modifier. In some instances. The full command syntax would look like this: Async 6-6:0 >>no autobaud To display the features and settings that can be disabled or negated in any command mode. enter no?.Preface Disabling (Negating) Features and Settings In order to disable a feature or setting. you must execute the no command with one or more modifiers. the no command may require more than one modifier. The no command must be executed in the same Command Mode in which the feature or setting was specified. For example. Type the question mark (?) after the first modifier to determine if the no command requires additional modifiers to disable a feature or negate a setting. to reset the dialout number in the Modem command mode. for example: Async 6-6:0 >>no? apd authentication autobaud autodial The above example shows that you can disable the Autodial feature by executing the no autodial command in the Asynchronous command mode. For example. you can disable Autobaud by executing the no command with the autobaud modifier in the Asynchronous command mode. for example: Modem 6-6:0 >>no dialout? number Modem 6-6:0 >>no dialout number? <cr> 24 451-0311B .

The LX Quick Start Instructions (P/N 451-0312F) describes how to get the LX unit up and running. 451-0311B 25 . refer to the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide (P/N 451-0310E). Preface Related Documents For detailed information on the LX commands. For more information on the LX hardware. refer to Getting Started with the LX Series (P/N 451-0308E).

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the LX unit will attempt to load its TCP/IP parameters from the network when the LX unit boots. BOOTP. The Superuser Password prompt appears. 2. Chapter 1 Initial Setup of the LX Unit This section describes how to do the initial setup of the LX unit. and Xon/Xoff flow control. Plug in the terminal at the DIAG port (port 0) on the LX unit. 451-0311B 27 . Press y (yes) and press <Enter>. (The port values are 9600 bps. or you can explicitly configure TCP/IP parameters for the LX unit with the Quick Start Configurator or the IP Configuration Menu. one stop bit. You can do the tasks described in this chapter after you have installed and powered on the LX unit as described in Chapter 1 of Getting Started with the LX Series. you must perform the tasks described in this chapter. Before you use the LX unit for network management. (You can access the IP Configuration Menu from the ppciboot Main Menu. eight bits. Configuring TCP/IP Parameters with the Quick Start Configurator Do the following to configure TCP/IP parameters with the Quick Start Configurator: 1. or RARP.) The Run Initial Connectivity Setup? y/n message appears (when the LX first boots up on default parameters). Configuring TCP/IP You can allow the LX unit to obtain its TCP/IP parameters from the network. no parity. The LX unit can load its TCP/IP parameters from any LAN that runs DHCP.) Obtaining TCP/IP Parameters from the Network If the TCP/IP parameters for the LX unit have not been explicitly configured.

6.5 2 Subnet mask 255. a data entry line specific to that parameter appears on the Quick Configuration menu. 5. The Is this information correct? message appears. Press the number corresponding to the parameter you want to set. Once you enter a parameter value. CONFIGURATION SUMMARY 1 Unit IP address 10. 7. configuring as many parameters as you want.0.0. since this is the first time you are configuring the LX unit (the default password is system).1. You are not required to configure all parameters. Press 7 (Exit and Save) to save your changes.0 3 Default Gateway 4 Domain Name Server 5 Domain Name Suffix 6 Superuser Password Changed 7 Exit and Save Is this information correct? (y/n) : 28 451-0311B . Enter the password system. Continue in this way through the menu. The Quick Configuration menu appears: Quick Configuration menu 1 Unit IP address 2 Subnet mask 3 Default Gateway 4 Domain Name Server 5 Domain Name Suffix 6 Superuser Password 7 Exit and Save Enter your choice: 4. Enter the appropriate information and press <Enter> to return to the Quick Configuration menu.Initial Setup of the LX Unit 3. NOTE: You should change the Superuser Password.80.

prm). 10.prm (e. Setting the TCP/IP Parameters in the IP Configuration Menu You can use the IP Configuration Menu to set the TCP/IP parameters for the LX unit. The default is InReach. lx12ab9f. you can save the unit configuration to the network. Press y (yes) and press <Enter>. you can use this . For more information. 9. 12.prm file as a template to configure multiple units at one time by changing the last six digits of the mac address to reflect that of the specific unit. NOTE: The login username and password are case-sensitive. Press <Enter> several times to display the Login: prompt. The information is saved to flash. 451-0311B 29 . The default is access. Creating and Loading a Default Configuration File This section explains how to create a default configuration file with which you can load multiple units. refer to “Saving the Configuration to the Network” on page 30. Creating a Default Configuration File After your first LX unit is up and running. Once this is complete. You can now use the LX unit. Initial Setup of the LX Unit 8. Enter your password. 11. Enter your login name. Press y (yes) and press <Enter>. refer to “Using the IP Configuration Menu” in Getting Started with the LX Series. You must rename this .zip file to lx last six digits of the mac address.g. The Save this information to flash? message appears. For further information.

Since the format is a . lx12ab9f. the unit looks on the TFTP server specified in ppciboot. execute the following command in the Superuser Command Mode: save configuration network filename tftp_server_address NOTE: The filename that you specify in the save configuration network command must not include the . For more information. If a TFTP server is accessible.prm file as a template to configure multiple units at one time. the LX unit connects to it and tries to download a default file named lx last six digits of the mac address. refer to “Saving the Configuration to the Network” on page 62.prm (e.. If this file exists. a configuration file must already exist on the TFTP server.zip extension. you can load a default configuration file from a TFTP server that is located on the same server from which you obtained your IP address..prm (e. since they belong to the unit itself and cannot be used on a different unit. After copying the . it is detected at startup and the unit checks that a TFTP server was passed by ppciboot. To save the configuration to the network. the Quick Start menu is displayed.g. If the default file does not exist. The configuration file is a .zip file that contains everything previously described except for the SSH keys.g.Initial Setup of the LX Unit Loading a Default Configuration File If loading via BOOTP and DHCP.prm). If the network host is a UNIX host. 30 451-0311B . Saving the Configuration to the Network The TFTP protocol is used to perform the operation of saving the LX configuration to a network host. If the configuration is defaulted. you would rename it to lx last six digits of the mac address. the LX unit loads it into its configuration table. lx12ab9f.prm file. it is usable by WinZip or UNIX Unzip. If you are not loading via one of these.zip file.prm). You can use the .

Changing the Default Password for the InReach User Do the following to change the User-level password of the InReach User: 1. MRV recommends that you change this password to something other than system. NOTE: The LX unit also supports RADIUS. TACACS+. Initial Setup of the LX Unit Setting Up Local (Onboard) Security for the LX Unit Local security is the default security method for the LX unit. and SecurID security. refer to “Changing the Password Defaults” (below). and TACACS+ for the LX Unit” on page 33. Access the Configuration Command Mode.) 451-0311B 31 . IMPORTANT! MRV Communications recommends that you change the default password for the user InReach before you put the LX unit on a network. To reduce the risk of an unauthorized user gaining access to the Superuser Command Mode. refer to “Setting Up RADIUS. Changing the Password Defaults It is widely known that the default password for the InReach user is access. If an unauthorized user knew this username/password combination. TACACS+. SecurID. (Refer to “Configuration Command Mode” on page 18 for information on accessing the Configuration Command Mode. the user is authenticated against a username/password file that resides on the LX unit. Under RADIUS. For more information. the user is authenticated against a username/password file that resides on the authentication server. he/she could log on to your LX unit. and SecurID. It is also widely known that the default Superuser password is system. For more information. Under Local security. For this reason. you should change the InReach user’s password to something other than access.

Initial Setup of the LX Unit

2. Access the Subscriber Command Mode for the InReach subscriber. You
do this by entering the subscriber command with InReach as the
command argument; for example:
Config:0 >>subscriber InReach

3. Enter the password command at the Subs_InReach >> prompt; for
example:

Subs_InReach >>password

4. Enter a new User password at the Enter your NEW password:
prompt. The password will be displayed as asterisks, as in the following
example:

Enter your NEW password : ***************

5. Re-enter the new User password at the Re-Enter your NEW
password: prompt. The password will be displayed as asterisks, as in
the following example:

Re-Enter your NEW password: ***************

Changing the Default Superuser Password

To change the Superuser password for the LX unit, do the following:
1. Access the Configuration Command Mode. (Refer to “Configuration
Command Mode” on page 18 for information on accessing the Configu-
ration Command Mode.)

2. Enter the password command at the Config:0 >> prompt; for
example:

Config:0 >>password

3. Enter a new Superuser password at the Enter your NEW password:
prompt. The password will be displayed as asterisks, as in the following
example:

Enter your NEW password : ***************

32 451-0311B

Initial Setup of the LX Unit

4. Re-enter the new Superuser password at the Re-Enter your NEW
password: prompt. The password will be displayed as asterisks, as in
the following example:

Re-Enter your NEW password: ***************

Setting Up RADIUS, SecurID, and TACACS+ for the LX Unit
You can implement SecurID, RADIUS, or TACACS+ authentication on the
LX unit. For more information, refer to the following:
• “Setting Up RADIUS” (below)

• “Setting Up TACACS+” on page 38

• “Setting Up SecurID” on page 43

Setting Up RADIUS
The LX can implement RADIUS authentication and RADIUS accounting
at the server level and for specific interfaces and asynchronous ports. You
must configure RADIUS accounting and/or authentication at the server
level before you can implement it on specific interfaces and asynchronous
ports on the LX unit.

The basic steps for configuring RADIUS authentication on the LX unit are:

1. Installing and configuring the RADIUS server on a Network-based
Host (see page 34).

2. Specifying the RADIUS server settings on the LX (see page 34).

3. Specifying the RADIUS period on the LX (see page 38).
For more information on RADIUS authentication, refer to “Overview of
RADIUS Authentication” on page 157.

For more information on RADIUS accounting, refer to “Overview of
RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting” on page 161.

451-0311B 33

Initial Setup of the LX Unit

Installing and Configuring the RADIUS Server on a Network-based Host

Before you can authenticate with RADIUS on your LX unit, you must
configure a RADIUS server on your network.

In general, RADIUS server implementations are available on the Internet.
These implementations generally use a daemon process that interacts with
RADIUS clients (located on LX units and on other remote access devices).

The daemon uses a list of clients and associated secrets that it shares with
these clients. The per-client secret is used to encrypt and validate
communications between the RADIUS server and the client. The file used
to keep the client list and secrets is the “clients” file.

Another file used by the daemon to store the users that are authenticated
is the “users” file. The “users” file contains the RADIUS attributes
associated with a particular user. As a minimum, this file must contain
the user’s username, password (depending on the RADIUS server used),
and Service-type.

To configure the RADIUS server, refer to your RADIUS host
documentation. MRV recommends that you use the Merit RADIUS server
implementation. Information for the Merit RADIUS server can be found
at http://www.merit.edu. Refer to the GOPHER SERVER and the MERIT
Network Information Center for new releases.
Specifying the RADIUS Server Settings on the LX

Do the following to specify the RADIUS server settings on the LX unit:

1. Check the primary RADIUS Server host to ensure that the RADIUS
server client database has been configured.
2. Access the Configuration Command Mode on the LX. (Refer to
“Configuration Command Mode” on page 18 for information on accessing
the Configuration Command Mode.)

34 451-0311B

To verify the LX RADIUS configuration. Initial Setup of the LX Unit 3. refer to the following sections: • “RADIUS Primary Accounting Server Commands” on page 37 • “RADIUS Secondary Authentication Server Commands” on page 37 451-0311B 35 . Use the radius primary authentication server secret command to specify the secret that will be shared between LX unit and the RADIUS primary authentication server. 6. for example: Config:0 >>radius primary authentication server address 146. exit from the Configuration command mode and execute the show radius characteristics command at the Superuser command prompt. or a RADIUS secondary server.87. For examples of the commands that you would use. Use the radius primary authentication server address command to specify the IP address of the RADIUS primary authentication server. for example: Config:0 >>radius primary authentication server port 1645 NOTE: The LX listens to port 1812 by default. for example: InReach:0 >>show radius characteristics Refer to Table 1 on page 36 for descriptions of all of the settings that you can specify for a RADIUS server. In order to use a RADIUS primary accounting server.32. for example: Config:0 >>radius primary authentication server secret BfrureG 5.93 4. you must specify an IP address and a secret for the respective RADIUS server. Use the radius primary authentication server port command to specify the socket your RADIUS server is listening to.

or timeout value for the RADIUS server. Table 1 .RADIUS Settings RADIUS Settings Description address IP address of the RADIUS server 1port UDP port of the RADIUS server 1retransmit The maximum number of times that the LX unit will attempt to retransmit a message to the RADIUS server secret The RADIUS secret shared between the LX unit and the RADIUS server 1 timeout The length of time that the LX unit will wait for the RADIUS server to respond before retransmitting packets to it 1. refer to the applicable commands in the “Configuration Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. the LX unit will use the default values for these settings. After you have specified the RADIUS settings for the RADIUS primary authentication server.Initial Setup of the LX Unit • “RADIUS Secondary Accounting Server Commands” on page 37 NOTE: The use of a RADIUS primary accounting server. If you do not specify a UDP port. RADIUS Primary Authentication Server Commands Config:0 >>radius primary authentication server address 152. you can configure the RADIUS primary accounting server and the RADIUS secondary authentication and accounting servers. retransmit value.65. and the use of RADIUS secondary servers. Refer to the “Configuration Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed descriptions of the commands in this chapter. RADIUS Command Examples This section provides examples of all of the commands that are used to specify settings for the RADIUS servers.33 36 451-0311B . For more information. is optional.34.

78 Config:0 >>radius secondary authentication server port 1812 Config:0 >>radius secondary authentication server retransmit 3 Config:0 >>radius secondary authentication server secret AsJkirbg Config:0 >>radius secondary authentication server timeout 7 RADIUS Secondary Accounting Server Commands Config:0 >>radius secondary accounting server address 198.67. Initial Setup of the LX Unit Config:0 >>radius primary authentication server port 1645 Config:0 >>radius primary authentication server retransmit 3 Config:0 >>radius primary authentication server secret AaBbCc Config:0 >>radius primary authentication server timeout 7 RADIUS Primary Accounting Server Commands Config:0 >>radius primary accounting server address 181.68.20.77 Config:0 >>radius secondary accounting server port 1813 Config:0 >>radius secondary accounting server retransmit 3 Config:0 >>radius secondary accounting server secret GgJjoreou Config:0 >>radius secondary accounting server timeout 7 451-0311B 37 .82.84.28.56 Config:0 >>radius primary accounting server port 1646 Config:0 >>radius primary accounting server retransmit 3 Config:0 >>radius primary accounting server secret reuyyurew Config:0 >>radius primary accounting server timeout 7 RADIUS Secondary Authentication Server Commands Config:0 >>radius secondary authentication server address 178.

refer to “Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting” on page 161. (Refer to “Configuration Command Mode” on page 18 for information on accessing the Configu- ration Command Mode. For more information on TACACS+ authentication.Initial Setup of the LX Unit Specifying the RADIUS Period on the LX The RADIUS period is the interval at which the LX unit will update the RADIUS accounting server with the status of each RADIUS user. For more information on TACACS+ accounting. you must configure a TACACS+ server on your network. 38 451-0311B . Do the following to specify the RADIUS period: 1. for example: Config:0 >>radius period 10 Setting Up TACACS+ You can implement TACACS+ authentication and TACACS+ accounting at the server level and for specific interfaces and asynchronous ports on the LX unit. 2. 3. You must implement TACACS+ accounting and/or authentication at the server level before you can implement it on specific interfaces and asynchronous ports on the LX unit. The RADIUS period is specified in minutes. Installing and Configuring the TACACS+ Server on a Network-based Host Before you can configure TACACS+ on your LX unit. refer to “Overview of TACACS+ Authentication” on page 167. Specifying the TACACS+ period on the LX (see page 42). Access the Configuration Command Mode. The basic steps for configuring TACACS+ authentication on the LX unit are: 1. Use the radius period command to specify the RADIUS period. Specifying the TACACS+ server settings on the LX (see page 39).) 2. Installing and configuring the TACACS+ server on a Network-based Host (see page 38).

To configure the TACACS+ server. this file must contain the user’s username. Access the Configuration Command Mode on the LX. 2. password (depending on the TACACS+ server used). Use the tacacs+ primary authentication server secret command to specify the secret that will be shared between LX unit and the TACACS+ primary authentication server.19. for example: 451-0311B 39 . Check the primary TACACS+ Server host to ensure that the TACACS+ server client database has been configured. Specifying the TACACS+ Server Settings on the LX Do the following to specify the TACACS+ server settings on the LX unit: 1.) 3. (Refer to “Configuration Command Mode” on page 18 for information on accessing the Configuration Command Mode. These implementations generally use a daemon process that interacts with TACACS+ clients (located on LX units and on other remote access devices). for example: Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary authentication server address 149. Initial Setup of the LX Unit In general.89 4. and Service-type. TACACS+ server implementations are available on the Internet. The per-client secret is used to encrypt and validate communications between the TACACS+ server and the client.87. The daemon uses a list of clients and associated secrets that it shares with these clients. Use the tacacs+ primary authentication server address command to specify the IP address of the TACACS+ primary authentication server. The “users” file contains the TACACS+ attributes associated with a particular user. refer to your TACACS+ host documentation. Another file used by the daemon to store the users that are authenticated is the “users” file. The file used to keep the client list and secrets is the “clients” file. As a minimum.

For examples of the commands that you would use. After you have specified the TACACS+ settings for the TACACS+ primary authentication server. refer to the following sections: • “TACACS+ Primary Authentication Server Commands” on page 41 • “TACACS+ Secondary Authentication Server Commands” on page 42 • “TACACS+ Secondary Accounting Server Commands” on page 42 NOTE: The use of a TACACS+ primary accounting server. To verify the LX TACACS+ configuration. and the use of TACACS+ secondary servers. you can configure the TACACS+ primary accounting server and the TACACS+ secondary authentication and accounting servers.Initial Setup of the LX Unit Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary authentication server secret Goitji 5. In order to use a TACACS+ primary accounting server. 40 451-0311B . you must specify an IP address and a secret for the respective TACACS+ server. for example: Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary authentication server port 1687 NOTE: The LX listens to port 1812 by default. exit from the Configuration command mode and execute the show tacacs+ characteristics command at the Superuser command prompt. 6. is optional. for example: InReach:0 >>show tacacs+ characteristics Refer to Table 1 on page 36 for descriptions of all of the settings that you can specify for a TACACS+ server. or a TACACS+ secondary server. Use the tacacs+ primary authentication server port command to specify the socket your TACACS+ server is listening to.

36. TACACS+ Command Examples This section provides examples of all of the commands that are used to specify settings for the TACACS+ servers.98. Refer to the “Configuration Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed descriptions of the commands in this chapter. or timeout value for the TACACS+ server. the LX unit will use the default values for these settings. For more information. If you do not specify a UDP port. TACACS+ Primary Authentication Server Commands Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary authentication server address 182.TACACS+ Settings TACACS+ Settings Description address IP address of the TACACS+ server 1port UDP port of the TACACS+ server 1retransmit The maximum number of times that the LX unit will attempt to retransmit a message to the TACACS+ server secret The TACACS+ secret shared between the LX unit and the TACACS+ server 1 timeout The length of time that the LX unit will wait for the TACACS+ server to respond before retransmitting packets to it 1. refer to the applicable commands in the “Configuration Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. Initial Setup of the LX Unit Table 2 .33 Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary authentication server port 1687 Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary authentication server retransmit 3 Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary authentication server secret Gfsufsa Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary authentication server timeout 7 451-0311B 41 . retransmit value.

58 Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary authentication server port 1842 Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary authentication server retransmit 3 Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary authentication server secret L3498reiu Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary authentication server timeout 7 TACACS+ Secondary Accounting Server Commands Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary accounting server address 182.57.Initial Setup of the LX Unit TACACS+ Primary Accounting Server Commands Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary accounting server address 182. Do the following to specify the TACACS+ period: 42 451-0311B .20.86. This value is specified in minutes.56.32.56 Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary accounting server port 1664 Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary accounting server retransmit 3 Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary accounting server secret iuhgeuer Config:0 >>tacacs+ primary accounting server timeout 7 TACACS+ Secondary Authentication Server Commands Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary authentication server address 182.28.18 Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary accounting server port 1819 Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary accounting server retransmit 3 Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary accounting server secret Geihuige2 Config:0 >>tacacs+ secondary accounting server timeout 7 Specifying the TACACS+ Period on the LX The TACACS+ period is the interval at which the LX unit will update the TACACS+ accounting server with the status of each TACACS+ user.

Initial Setup of the LX Unit

1. Access the Configuration Command Mode. (Refer to “Configuration
Command Mode” on page 18 for information on accessing the Configu-
ration Command Mode.)
2. Use the tacacs+ period command to specify the TACACS+ period;
for example:

Config:0 >>tacacs+ period 10

Setting Up SecurID
You can implement SecurID authentication at the server level and for
specific interfaces and asynchronous ports on the LX unit. You must
implement SecurID authentication at the server level before you can
implement it on specific interfaces and asynchronous ports on the LX unit.

Under SecurID authentication, the user is required to enter a user name
and a PIN number plus the current token code from his or her SecurID
server. The LX unit transmits the information to the RSA ACE/Server,
which approves access when the information is validated.

SecurID supports both DES and SDI encryption.

451-0311B 43

Initial Setup of the LX Unit

The basic steps for configuring SecurID authentication on the LX unit are:

1. Installing and configuring the SecurID server on a Network-based
Host (see page 38).
2. Specifying the SecurID server settings on the LX (see page 39).

For more information on SecurID authentication, go to the RSA SecurID
website (http://www.rsasecurity.com/products/securid/index.html).

Installing and Configuring the SecurID Server on a Network-based Host

Before you can configure SecurID on your LX unit, you must configure a
SecurID server on your network. To configure the SecurID server, refer to
your SecurID host documentation.

Specifying the SecurID Server Settings on the LX

Do the following to specify the SecurID server settings on the LX unit:
1. Check the primary SecurID Server host to ensure that the SecurID
application is running.

2. Access the Configuration Command Mode on the LX. (Refer to
“Configuration Command Mode” on page 18 for information on accessing
the Configuration Command Mode.)

3. Use the securid authentication version command to specify the
SecurID authentication version for the LX unit. You can specify the
authentication version as Version 5, or pre-Version 5 (legacy); for
example:
Config:0 >>securid authentication version version_5
Config:0 >>securid authentication version legacy

4. Use the securid authentication port command to specify the
socket your SecurID server is listening to; for example:

Config:0 >>securid authentication port 1687

NOTE: The LX listens to port 1812 by default.

44 451-0311B

Initial Setup of the LX Unit

5. Use the securid primary authentication server address
command to specify the IP address of the SecurID primary
authentication server; for example:
Config:0 >>securid primary authentication server
address 149.19.87.89

NOTE: If the SecurID authentication version is “legacy”, you must
specify a Master authentication server instead of a Primary
authentication server. For more information, refer to the
securid master authentication server address
command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide.

6. Use the securid authentication encryption command to specify
the SecurID encryption method for the LX unit. You can specify DES or
SDI as the encryption method; for example:
Config:0 >>securid authentication encryption des
Config:0 >>securid authentication encryption sdi

7. To verify the LX SecurID configuration, exit from the Configuration
command mode and execute the show securid characteristics
command at the Superuser command prompt; for example:
InReach:0 >>show securid characteristics

SecurID Command Examples

This section provides examples of all of the commands that are used to
specify settings for the SecurID servers. Refer to the “Configuration
Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for
detailed descriptions of the commands in this chapter.

Config:0 >>securid primary authentication server address
138.30.65.34
Config:0 >>securid authentication port 4500
Config:0 >>securid primary authentication server name bigsky1.com
Config:0 >>securid authentication encryption des

451-0311B 45

you will need to clear the secret from the LX unit. Table 3 . For more information. refer to the applicable commands in the “Configuration Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. or name for the SecurID server. retransmit value. encryption. To clear the SecurID secret from the LX unit. 46 451-0311B . refer to the zero securid secret command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. version. NOTE: If the SecurID secret on the LX unit does not match the SecurID secret on the SecurID server.Initial Setup of the LX Unit Config:0 >>securid authentication retransmit 7 Config:0 >>securid authentication timeout 3 Config:0 >>securid authentication version version_5 Refer to Table 3 (below) for descriptions of all of the settings that you can specify for a SecurID server. timeout. the LX unit will use the default values for these settings.SecurID Settings SecurID Settings Description address IP address of the SecurID server 1port UDP port of the SecurID server 1retransmit The maximum number of times that the LX unit will attempt to retransmit a message to the SecurID server 1 encryption The encryption method for SecurID authentication on the LX unit 1version The SecurID authentication version that will be used on the LX unit 1name The host name of the SecurID authentication server for the LX unit 1 timeout The length of time that the LX unit will wait for the SecurID server to respond before retransmitting pack- ets to it 1. If you do not specify a UDP port.

From a web browser: 1. 2. 451-0311B 47 . log in to the LX unit. Click on the ‘Admin’ button on the menu bar of the client and entering the Superuser password. Enter the default Configuration command to reset the LX unit to the factory defaults. if you answer “yes” to the confirmation prompt. if you answer “yes” to the confirmation prompt. you may wish to reset the unit to it’s factory defaults. the LX will display a confirmation prompt warning you that the unit will be rebooted. and rebooted. and bring up the console. Click on the ‘Default’ button to display the options to default the unit or certain other parameters. NOTE: After you select a default option. Access the Configuration Command Mode. The LX unit will be defaulted. Browse to the LX unit’s IP address. 4. for example: Config:0 >>default configuration NOTE: After you enter the above command. and rebooted. 3. Initial Setup of the LX Unit Resetting the Unit to Factory Defaults If you believe you have misconfigured the unit. Select the option to default the unit. This activates a ‘Default’ button on the menu bar. or you believe the configuration is somehow corrupt.) 2. the LX will display a confirmation prompt warning you that the unit will be rebooted. This may be done in one of several ways: From an LX asynchronous port: 1. (Refer to “Configuration Command Mode” on page 18 for information on accessing the Configu- ration Command Mode. The LX unit will be defaulted.

except for the ppciboot configuration. You are prompted for the password. which is access. 1. Power-cycle the LX unit. execute the save configuration flash command in the Superuser command mode. 48 451-0311B . Refer to “Booting from Defaults” on page 76 for further information on defaulting from ppciboot and defaulting from the CLI. it will not be saved to flash. or if you are unable to make a serial connection to an LX asynchronous port. 6. If you enter the password. When the unit is powered on. Select [2] to reset the Linux system configuration. Connect a terminal to the DIAG port of the LX unit. 2.) 5. Press B to Boot the system. the command erases all of the configurations you have saved. Do this only after you have configured the ppciboot options and saved the configuration.Initial Setup of the LX Unit From the LX DIAG port: NOTE: This method is recommended if you no longer have network access. Select the asterisk (*) from the menu to display the following options: [1] Reset ppciboot Configuration [2] Reset Linux System Configuration 4. 3. the ppciboot Main Menu is displayed. Select [1] to reset the ppciboot configuration to system defaults. To save the configuration to flash. (Note: Although the ppciboot configuration will be reset to defaults.

Chapter 2 Setting Up Remote Console Management Network Elements can be managed via Telnet connections. Use a straight-through cable to connect a console port to a modem. Setting up remote console management involves doing the following: • Connecting the LX asynchronous port to the Network Element (see below). • Creating the subscriber(s) that have remote access to the asynchronous port where the Network Element is connected (see page 58). You can make the MRV-supplied RJ-45 crossover cables into straight-through cables. or via SSH connections. 451-0311B 49 . refer to “Making Straight-through Cables” on page 50. to the LX asynchronous ports on which the network elements are attached. Connecting the Console Port to the Network Element Network elements can be connected to LX asynchronous ports by a modem or by a direct serial line. For more information. MRV Communications provides RJ-45 crossover cables. This method of managing network elements is known as remote console management. • Configuring the LX asynchronous port for the remote management of the connected Network Element (see page 51). Use a crossover cable to connect a direct serial line from an LX console port to the serial management port on a network element. • Setting up security for the LX asynchronous port to which the network element is connected (see page 54). This chapter describes how to set up remote console management on an LX unit. The LX asynchronous-port connectors are female RJ-45 connectors.

do the following: • Lay the modular cable on a table or on some other flat surface. MRV Communications recommends silver wire for making crossover cables and black wire for making straight-through cables. you should use different colored wires for straight-through and crossover cable. For example.Setting Up Remote Console Management Making Straight-through Cables To make an MRV-supplied crossover cable into a straight-through cable. and it could break if the RJ-45 connector is not properly seated before you squeeze the handle. RJ-4 RJ-45 Connectors Connectors Straight Through Cable Figure 2 . 50 451-0311B . make sure that the RJ-45 connector is fully inserted into the die-set cavity and that the wire is fully inserted into the RJ-45 connector.Straight-through Wiring Scheme Recommendations for Making Cables Keep the following in mind when you make your own cables: • Before crimping the cables.) • Crimp the RJ-45 connector in opposite directions at both ends (see Figure 2). NOTE: MRV Communications recommends that you not use Ethernet Xbase-T crossover or straight-through cable for serial communications. (The modular cable should lie flat with no rolls or twists in it. (The die set might be fragile.) • In order to keep track of the cable type.

Setting Up Remote Console Management Modular Adapters (RJ-45 to DB-25 and RJ-45 to DB-9) You can obtain adapters with male and female DB-25 and female connectors from MRV Communications. Configuring Asynchronous Ports for Direct Serial Connections The default settings for LX asynchronous ports will support direct serial connections to most Network Elements. for example: Async 6-6:0 >>access remote 451-0311B 51 .) 2. Access the Asynchronous Command Mode for the asynchronous port that you want to configure. These adapters direct signals from the RJ-45 connectors on the cable to the correct pin on the DB-25. connector. you can explicitly set an asynchronous port to non-default values. refer to Getting Started with the LX Series. Use the access remote command in to set the access for the asynchronous port to Remote. For more information. do the following: 1. (Refer to “Asynchronous Command Mode” on page 19 for information on accessing the Asynchronous Command Mode. Explicitly Setting LX Asynchronous Port Characteristics It is recommended that you explicitly set the characteristics of an LX asynchronous port to match those of a directly connected Network Element. To explicitly set the characteristics of an LX asynchronous port. NOTE: Autobaud must be disabled on ports that are used for remote console management. or DB-9. However. execute the no autobaud command in the Asynchronous command mode. when conditions warrant. Configuring Ports for Remote Console Management This section describes how to configure LX asynchronous ports for remote console management. To disable autobaud on a port.

odd. enter the appropriate command to set the speed.Setting Up Remote Console Management 3. 9600.Commands for Setting Asynchronous Port Characteristics Port Allowable Values Command Examples Characteristics autohangup enabled or disabled autohangup enable no autohangup data bits 5. For the full syntax of each command listed in Table 4. This ensures that the port will drop the connection. parity. Table 4 lists the commands that you can use to set the port characteristics that pertain to remote console management of directly connected Network Elements. 115200. when the network element resets DTR at subscriber logout. 6. or autohangup setting for the asynchronous port. 38400. Table 4 . 600. stop bits. 300. 19200. 52 451-0311B . 4800. or 8 bits 6 flow control xon or cts flowcontrol cts flowcontrol xon parity even. or 230400 stop bits 1 or 2 stop bits 1 stop bits 2 NOTE: MRV Communications recommends that you enable Autohangup on an LX asynchronous port that will be used to do remote console management. 7. flow control. 2400. or none parity even parity odd parity none speed 134. 57600. 200. In the Asynchronous Command Mode. refer to the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. data bits. speed 115200 1200.

(Refer to “Asynchro- nous Command Mode” on page 19 for information on accessing the Asyn- chronous Command Mode. use the speed command. Execute the modem enable command to enable modem control on the port. Execute the access remote command to set the port access to REMOTE. for example: Modem 5-5:0 >>type dialout 451-0311B 53 . Execute the modem command to access the Modem Command Mode for the port under configuration.) 2. for example: Async 5-5:0 >>modem 7. for example: Async 5-5:0 >>access remote 3. Ensure that the port is set to the same speed as the modem to which the port is attached. To set the port speed. Execute the flow control command to set the port flow control to CTS. Setting Up Remote Console Management Setting Up Modem Ports for Remote Console Management Do the following to set up a Modem Port for remote console management: 1. for example: Async 5-5:0 >>speed 57600 6. for example: Async 5-5:0 >>modem enable 4. execute the type command to set the Modem Type to DIALOUT. In the Modem Command Mode. Access the Asynchronous Command Mode for the asynchronous port that you want to set up for remote console management. for example: Async 5-5:0 >>flowcontrol cts 5.

These methods of authentication require a user to enter a valid username/password combination to access the console port. Access the Asynchronous Command Mode for the asynchronous port that you want to configure. SecurID authentication. In the Modem Command Mode. for example: Modem 5-5:0 >>initstring AT S7=45 S0=1 L1 V1 X4 &C1 &1 Q0 &S1 NOTE: The initialization string may vary between modem types. LOCAL authentication is enabled by default on console ports.) 54 451-0311B . RADIUS. In the Modem Command Mode. execute the timeout command to specify the Timeout value for the modem. and SecurID. (Refer to “Asynchronous Command Mode” on page 19 for information on accessing the Asynchronous Command Mode. In the Modem Command Mode. 10. RADIUS authentication. (Other authentication options on console ports are NONE. for example: Modem 5-5:0 >>retry 6 11. for example: Modem 5-5:0 >>timeout 30 Setting Up Security for a Console Port You can use LOCAL authentication. or TACACS+ authentication to protect a console port from unauthorized access. execute the retry command to specify the Retry value for the modem. execute the initstring command to specify the initialization string for the modem. execute the dialout number command to specify the number that the modem will dial to connect with the Network Element on the Public Network. In the Modem Command Mode. for example: Modem 5-5:0 >>dialout number 19785558371 9. Setting Up Local Authentication Under LOCAL authentication. TACACS+.) You can enable LOCAL authentication on a console port by doing the following: 1. a username/password combination is validated against the local security database.Setting Up Remote Console Management 8.

The RADIUS security database is stored on the RADIUS server for the LX unit. refer to “Setting Up Fallback” on page 57. You can enable RADIUS authentication on a console port by doing the following: 1. a username/password combination is validated against the RADIUS user and client database. 451-0311B 55 . Setting Up Remote Console Management 2. In order to use RADIUS authentication on a port. you must have RADIUS set up for the LX unit. For more information. Execute the following command to enable LOCAL authentication on the port: Async 5-5:0 >>authentication outbound local enable Setting Up RADIUS Authentication Under RADIUS authentication. you may want to implement a backup method (Fallback).) 2. Access the Asynchronous Command Mode for the asynchronous port that you want to configure. Refer to “Setting Up RADIUS” on page 33 for information on setting up RADIUS for the LX unit. Fallback switches to Local Authentication when there is no reply from the RADIUS server(s) after 3 attempts. (Refer to “Asynchronous Command Mode” on page 19 for information on accessing the Asynchronous Command Mode. which will be used if the RADIUS server is unreachable. RADIUS authentication is disabled by default on console ports. Execute the following command to enable RADIUS authentication on the port: Async 5-5:0 >>authentication outbound radius enable NOTE: If RADIUS authentication is enabled.

you must have TACACS+ set up for the LX unit. For more information. Setting Up SecurID Authentication Under SecurID authentication. (Refer to “Asynchronous Command Mode” on page 19 for information on accessing the Asynchronous Command Mode. TACACS+ authentication is disabled by default on console ports. In order to use SecurID authentication on a port. Fallback switches to Local Authentication when there is no reply from the TACACS+ server(s) after 3 attempts.) 2. 56 451-0311B . Refer to “Setting Up TACACS+” on page 38 for information on setting up TACACS+ on the LX unit.Setting Up Remote Console Management Setting Up TACACS+ Authentication Under TACACS+ authentication. refer to “Setting Up Fallback” (below). Execute the following command to enable TACACS+ authentication on the port: Async 5-5:0 >>authentication outbound tacacs+ enable NOTE: If TACACS+ authentication is enabled. Refer to “Setting Up SecurID” on page 43 for information on setting up SecurID on the LX unit. which will be used if the TACACS+ server is unreachable. Access the Asynchronous Command Mode for the asynchronous port that you want to configure. a username/password combination is validated against the SecurID user and client database. you must have SecurID set up for the LX unit. The SecurID security database is stored on the SecurID server for the LX unit. You can enable TACACS+ authentication on a console port by doing the following: 1. you may want to implement a backup method (Fallback). a username/password combination is validated against the TACACS+ user and client database. In order to use TACACS+ authentication on a port. The TACACS+ security database is stored on the TACACS+ server for the LX unit.

The LX unit will make three attempts to log in the user via RADIUS. TACACS+. 451-0311B 57 . or SecurID) are disabled on the port.e. or SecurID must be enabled on a port in order for Fallback to function on the port.. When all three methods (i.. TACACS+. (Refer to “Asynchronous Command Mode” on page 19 for information on accessing the Asynchronous Command Mode. Fallback is ignored by the port. When a user logs in via Fallback. RADIUS. TACACS+. You can enable SecurID authentication on a console port by doing the following: 1. Fallback switches to Local Authentication when there is no reply from the SecurID server(s) after 3 attempts. RADIUS. Access the Asynchronous Command Mode for the asynchronous port that you want to configure.e. the username/password combination will be validated against the LOCAL security database for the LX unit. refer to “Setting Up Fallback” (below). Setting Up Fallback Fallback Authentication can be used as a mechanism for authenticating users when the configured authentication method (i. RADIUS. After the third attempt at logging in via the configured authentication method (RADIUS. Execute the following command to enable SecurID authentication on the port: Async 5-5:0 >>authentication outbound securid enable NOTE: If SecurID authentication is enabled. For more information. or SecurID). Setting Up Remote Console Management SecurID authentication is disabled by default on console ports. or SecurID before it implements Fallback. which will be used if the SecurID server is unreachable. his or her username/password combination is validated against the LOCAL security database for the LX unit. TACACS+. TACACS+.) 2. or SecurID) fails because the authentication server is unreachable. you may want to implement a backup method (Fallback).

In the Subscriber Command Mode. he/she must have specific access rights. (Refer to “Subscriber Command Mode” on page 21 for information on creating or accessing a subscriber record. Access the Asynchronous Command Mode for the asynchronous port on which you want to enable Fallback. (Refer to “Asynchronous Command Mode” on page 19 for information on accessing the Asynchronous Command Mode. refer to “Specifying Access Methods” on page 59. for example: Subs_mark >>access console enable 4.) 2. do the following to set up the neccessary access rights for the subscriber: 1.) 2. and 6: Subs_mark >>access port 2 3 5 6 58 451-0311B . For more information. or access.Setting Up Remote Console Management Do the following to enable Fallback on a port: 1. If local authentication is used. 3. Execute the access port command to specify the console ports that the subscriber can access. configure a Service-type of Outbound-User for the subscriber on the RADIUS server. 5. specify one or more access methods for the subscriber to use in connecting to the LX unit. 3. Execute the following command to enable Fallback authentication on the port: Async 5-5:0 >>authentication fallback enable Creating Subscribers for Remote Console Management In order for a subscriber to do remote console management. Execute the access console enable command to specify that the subscriber will have console access to the LX unit. Create. the access port command specifies that the subscriber mark can log on to ports 2. If RADIUS is the outbound authentication method. the subscriber record of the subscriber that you want to configure for console-port access. In the following example.

the Telnet Mode is set to character: Subs_mark >>telnet mode character 451-0311B 59 . 6. it is recommended as the access method for subscribers who will be sending sensitive data to the LX asynchronous ports. execute the password enable command. for example: Subs_mark >>password enable When the subscriber logs in to the LX unit for the first time. Setting Up Remote Console Management 5. Because SSH includes data encryption capabilities. Specifying Telnet As an Access Method 1. and confirm. for example: Subs_mark >>access telnet enable 2.) Specifying Access Methods You can specify SSH. his or her new password. and re-enter it at the Re-enter prompt. or the Web (or any combination of SSH. and the Web) as the method(s) that the subscriber can use to access LX asynchronous ports for remote console management. Execute the access telnet enable command. he/she will be asked to enter. Execute the telnet mode command to set the Telnet Mode. Telnet. Telnet. In the following example. for example: Subs_mark >>password The following prompts are displayed: Enter your NEW password : Re-enter your NEW password: 7. (This is the password that the subscriber will be required to enter when he/she logs on to a console port. Enter the new password at the Enter prompt. execute the password command. If you want the subscriber to create his or her own login password. If you want to create a login password the subscriber.

and BLOWFISH respectively: Subs_mark >>ssh cipher triple-des Subs_mark >>ssh cipher any Subs_mark >>ssh cipher blowfish Refer to the ssh cipher command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for more information on the Triple-DES. for example: Subs_mark >>access ssh enable 2. for example: Subs_mark >>access web enable 60 451-0311B . ANY. Execute the access ssh enable command. the SSH encryption type is set to Triple-DES. ANY. Execute the ssh cipher command to specify the SSH encryption type for the subscriber. In the following examples.Setting Up Remote Console Management In the following example. Specifying the Web As an Access Method Execute the access web enable command. and BLOWFISH encryption types. the Telnet Mode is set to line: Subs_mark >>telnet mode line Specifying SSH As an Access Method 1.

After the Config. a file to tell from where the configuration is to be taken (the ConfToBootFrom file). Configuration.prm file has been created on one unit. This directory contains the SSH keys. Where the Configuration is Stored All files related to the unit configuration are located in the directory /config. etc. you can change the IP settings (i. The SHA encryption lets the administrator know if a modified file is being loaded by issuing an alert message when a file not matching the original algorithm is being loaded. you can copy its contents as appropriate for the new unit. Menus. All other settings will be imported when the LX unit is rebooted. When the Config.prm) is saved in a format that is readable in WordPad and the vi editor in UNIX. edit. it can be copied to other units. and load the configuration file. Subnet Mask.) to the IP settings of the new unit. 451-0311B 61 . the file is signed with a digest using the SHA encryption algorithm.prm file is created when you configure the LX unit.prm file resides on a new unit. and the zone information directory (time and date). The Config. Because anyone can easily modify it. For example. as well as some basic maintenance functions. This way the administrator knows the file was modified and can take the appropriate action.. Backup and Recovery This section explains how to save. Saving the Configuration File The configuration file (Config.e. IP Address. Chapter 3 System Administration This chapter explains how to upgrade the software.

To edit the files: 1.zip file contains everything previously described except for the SSH keys.zip file. Use the following command to save the configuration to the network: save configuration network filename tftp_server_address NOTE: The filename that you specify in the save configuration network command must not include a . Open the .prm file appears. it is usable by WinZip or UNIX Unzip.” The . Use the touch command to create the configuration file as a . Since the format is a .zip The Config. Consequently. The configuration format differs slightly from that described in “How the Configuration is Organized. 62 451-0311B .System Administration Saving the Configuration Into the Flash To save the configuration into the flash.zip file. Editing the Files on a Unix Host You can edit the Config. if you are saving to a UNIX host.prm file so that you can bring multiple units online at one time.zip file once the LX unit attempts the TFTP put process. a configuration file must already exist on the TFTP server. execute the save configuration flash command in the Superuser command mode. Windows-based workstations will automatically create the . for example: InReach:0 >>save configuration flash Saving the Configuration to the Network The TFTP protocol is used to save the LX configuration to a network host. since they belong to the unit itself and cannot be used on a different unit. the Menu file also appears.zip extension. If you have configured menus.zip file into the directory by entering the following command: unzip filename.

copy an existing user.prm file that you want to modify: • Users that have access to all new LX units • PPP configurations 451-0311B 63 . Select and copy the section of the Config. 3.prm file appears.prm file so that you can bring multiple units online at one time. Open the .g.zip file into the directory using winzip. vi or emacs). To edit the files: 1. Select and copy the section of the Config. the Menu file also appears.. 2. Editing the Files in Windows You can edit the Config.prm file with the WordPad editor. Open the Config. 5. or TACACS+ configurations • Specific Async Port configurations 4. and make the necessary modifications to the copy. If you have configured menus. The Config. SecurID. If you are adding a new user to the Config. 3.prm file.prm file that you want to modify: • Users that have access to all new LX units • PPP configurations • Broadcast Groups • Interface configurations • RADIUS. System Administration 2. paste it into the section directly below the last user. Follow the same steps for any other changes you make to the Config.prm file with any text editor (e. Open the Config.prm file.

paste it into the section directly below the last user. file2.zip (you can name this whatever you want) is the archive you are writing the files to. Recreating the Zip File in Order to Upload It Onto the LX NOTE: To perform this procedure. To recreate the zip file. copy an existing user. 5. Loading the Configuration At the Config prompt. and file1. or TACACS+ configurations • Specific Async Port configurations 4. SecurID. load the configuration as follows: Config:0:>>boot configuration from network tftp_server_address filename Config:0:>>end InReach:0:>>save configuration flash InReach:0:>>reload 64 451-0311B . 1. 2.System Administration • Broadcast Groups • Interface configurations • RADIUS.prm file. Right click on the selected files and select Add to Zip.prm file. In Windows. Follow the same steps for any other changes you make to the Config. you must be in the directory in which the files to be zipped reside. type the following command in UNIX: zip -o filename. 3. If you are adding a new user to the Config. and make the necessary modifications to the copy. and file3 are the files you are adding to the archive. select the files you want to add to the zip file by clicking on them while holding down the Ctrl key.zip file1 file2 file3 where filename.

System Administration After the LX has reloaded.prm). If a TFTP server is accessible. Restoring the Default Configuration File to a New Unit The unit looks on the TFTP server specified in ppciboot. 451-0311B 65 .prm file as a template to configure multiple units at one time by changing the last six digits of the mac address to reflect that of the specific unit.prm (e. If the default file does not exist. you can save the unit configuration to the network. Once this is complete.prm).prm (e. For further information.g. it is detected at startup and the unit checks that a TFTP server was passed by ppciboot. lx12ab9f. you can use this . refer to “Saving the Configuration to the Network” on page 62. the LX unit loads it into its configuration table. If this file exists..g. the Quick Start menu is displayed. Enter the following command: InReach:0:>>show system status Applying Default Configurations to Other Units This section explains how to create a default configuration file with which you can load multiple units. Creating a Default Configuration File After your first LX unit is up and running. You must rename this .zip file to lx last six digits of the mac address. lx12ab9f. the LX unit connects to it and tries to download a default file named lx last six digits of the mac address. If the configuration is defaulted. check the system status screen to make sure that the LX loaded from the proper place.

The ppciboot filename is ppciboot.System Administration Scripting On External Units The LX unit supports Expect scripting. You can use it to write simple scripts to automate interactive applications. One MB must be available to update ppciboot. refer to “Upgrading Software with the Command Line Interface” for further instructions. Eight MB must be available to update software. • To upgrade software via the ppciboot Menu. make the LX unit dial out. set up the configuration for any port. For example.img. refer to the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. command line scripting language. 66 451-0311B . simple. you can write an Expect script that can automatically log you in. For information on the LX commands. NOTE: In superuser mode a check is performed to determine how much space is available before updating the software or ppciboot. How to Upgrade the Software You can upgrade the software and enter the IP information on your LX unit via two methods. containing the software image and the ppciboot image. and establish a PPP configuration to a remote site. refer to “Upgrading Software with the ppciboot Main Menu” and “Using the IP Configuration Menu” for further instructions. etc. modify the IP configuration. depending upon your specific needs: • To upgrade software via the Command Line Interface. Make sure you have a TFTP server up and running. Expect is a common.img. Upgrading Software and ppciboot with the Command Line Interface NOTE: The default filename for the software is linuxito.

the software stores in memory the IP address of the TFTP server from which it has booted. you do not need to include the TFTP server IP Address or the TFTP server name in the update ppciboot command. Now you must upgrade the software. log in again. Type the following and press <Enter>: InReach:0>>update software tftp_server_ip_address/name 3. NOTE: You can load a default configuration file from a TFTP server while the unit is at its default setting. The “TFTP Download complete. If the check is successful. Bad ppciboot file” message appears). do the following: 1. 451-0311B 67 . The loaded file is checked for integrity. Type the following and press <Enter>: InReach:0>>update ppciboot tftp_server_ip_address/name NOTE: If the LX unit has a TFTP server address configured. You must reboot the unit for the new ppciboot to take effect. Type the following and press <Enter> to save your configuration locally: InReach:0>>save config flash This stores the parameters. The new software is activated. copying boot image to flash” message appears (if the check finds a problem. 2. You have upgraded ppciboot. the “File OK. Type the following and press <Enter> to save your configuration locally: InReach:0>>reload When the reload is complete. this argument becomes optional. System Administration To download the ppciboot from the command line interface (you must be in superuser mode). If this occurs. By default. the “Verify failed. 4. verifying file integrity” message appears.

in seconds 8 IP Configuration Menu Configura. Factory Default Setting tion IP Assignment method #1 DHCP IP Assignment method #2 BOOTP IP Assignment method #3 RARP IP Assignment method #4 User Defined NOTE: For defaults on specific commands. Main Menu Configuration Factory Default Setting Boot from Network yes Save boot image to flash no Boot from flash yes Time Out. Each LX Series unit is configured at the factory to use a default set of initialization parameters that sets all ports to operate with asynchronous ASCII terminal devices. 68 451-0311B .System Administration ppciboot Factory Default Settings The following table lists the factory default settings. refer to the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide.

you need only connect a terminal using a console port cable to the DIAG port (port 0) and press <Enter> one or two times. the graphic user interface (GUI). and the IP address assignment preferences.x Main Menu [1] Boot from network: yes [2] Save software image to flash: no [3] Boot from flash: yes [4] Time Out. When you set ppciboot parameters. This section explains how to use the ppciboot Main menu to set up the boot configuration. the DIAG port (port 0) is used to configure the loading method (network or flash) of the Software image. Use it as a reference for how to use specific menu entries. You can access the ppciboot commands through the DIAG port (port 0). in seconds (0=disabled): 8 [5] IP Configuration Menu [6] Update ppciboot Firmware [7] Ethernet Network Link [*] Reset to System Defaults [S] Save Configuration [B] Boot System Make a choice: __ If you want to accept the defaults. ppciboot image. To access the menu. or in the Configuration Command Mode of the CLI. the software is not loaded on the unit yet. Use the ppciboot menu to set load parameters that allow you to get up and running. 451-0311B 69 . System Administration Upgrading Software with the ppciboot Main Menu NOTE: At boot. The Main Menu appears: Welcome to In-Reach ppciboot Version x. press B or wait eight seconds.

Press B to Boot the system. To boot from the flash: 1. 2. 70 451-0311B . Saving the Boot Image to Flash The Saving the software image to Flash option lets you save the software image from the network to flash. 2. Press B to Boot the system. type the number corresponding to the configuration action you want to perform. Do this only after you have configured the ppciboot options and saved the configuration. To boot from the network.System Administration At the "Make a choice" prompt of the Main Menu. choose yes. Do this only after you have made all configuration changes to the LX and saved the configuration. Press 2 to toggle between yes and no. To boot from flash. 2. By doing so. To boot from the network: 1. Booting from the Network The Boot from network option lets you boot your software image file from the network. choose yes. To save the software image to flash. The sections that follow describe each option in detail. NOTE: MRV recommends that you leave Boot from flash on if you are booting from the network. To save the software image to flash: 1. Booting from Flash The Booting from Flash option lets you boot your software image from the flash. Press 1 to toggle between yes and no. Do this only after you have configured the LX and saved the configuration. choose yes. Press B to Boot the system. Press 3 to toggle between yes and no. Booting the system can take five or more minutes. you provide a fallback method of booting in the event the network becomes unreachable.

ip mask. The ppciboot firmware begins loading from the TFTP server. 3. in seconds). (Note: Entering 0 will disable the timeout. A verification check of the firmware is performed. in seconds option lets you set the amount of time the system waits for you to press Boot before booting automatically. and thus disable the timeout. Add a time in seconds and press <Enter>. To set the timeout (the default is eight seconds): 1. 3. Press the number 4 (Time Out. Updating the ppciboot Firmware NOTE: Updating ppciboot firmware from the Main menu works only if you have already set up an ip address. Refer to the “Using the IP Configuration Menu” section for details. If the firmware loads successfully (taking only a few seconds). the ppciboot image may be corrupt. The Update ppciboot Firmware option lets you update the firmware via the Main Menu. Press S to save the configuration. 2. Press the number 6 (Update ppciboot Firmware). 4. System Administration Setting the Timeout in Seconds The Time Out. An Enter Time Out prompt appears. 2.) 4. If an error message appears. You should not enter 0. Press B to boot the system. the Main menu reappears. IP Configuration Menu The IP Configuration Menu option lets you change addresses and settings if you do not want to accept the defaults. To update ppciboot firmware: 1. 451-0311B 71 . for remotely located units. and TFTP server. Press S to save the configuration.

If you select [2] Reset Linux System Configuration. Press S to save the configuration. Press the asterisk (*) (Reset to System Defaults). 72 451-0311B . 100 half -for 100TX half duplex 100 full -for 100TX full duplex 10 half -for 10TX half duplex 10 full -for 10TX full duplex 2. The following options appear: [1] Reset ppciboot Configuration [2] Reset Linux System Configuration 2. except for the ppciboot configuration. The following speed/duplex options are displayed: Auto. which is access. Do this only after you have configured the ppciboot options and saved the configuration. the command sets the ppciboot configuration to system defaults. 3. Resetting to System Defaults The Reset to System Defaults option lets you reset the unit to system defaults. If you enter the password. If you select [1] Reset ppciboot Configuration. you are prompted for the password. but it does not save the configuration to flash. 3. Press the number 7 (Ethernet Network Link). Refer to “Booting from Defaults” on page 76 for further information on defaulting from ppciboot and defaulting from the CLI. Select 1 or 2. Press B to Boot the system. To set the speed or duplex mode of your Ethernet Network Link: 1. Select one of the speed/duplex options from the above display. the command erases all of the configurations you have saved. To reset to the system defaults: 1.System Administration Setting the Speed and Duplex Mode of the Ethernet Network Link The Ethernet Network Link option lets you set the speed and duplex mode of the Ethernet Network Link.

Choose the number of the field you want to change. See the following sections for specific details. Using the IP Configuration Menu The IP Configuration Menu option lets you change addresses and settings if you do not want to accept the defaults. Booting the System The Boot System option lets you boot the system. When you are finished configuring the Main menu. 451-0311B 73 . enter 5 to open the IP Configuration menu. press S to save the configuration. Do this only after you have configured all necessary ppciboot options and saved the configuration. System Administration Saving the Configuration The Saving Configuration option lets you save the ppciboot configuration. At the Main menu. Press B to boot the system.x IP Configuration Menu [1] IP Assignment method #1: DHCP [2] IP Assignment method #2: BOOTP [3] IP Assignment method #3: RARP [4] IP Assignment method #4: User Defined [5] Unit IP Address: [6] Network mask: [7] Gateway: [8] TFTP Server IP Address: [S] Save Configuration [R] Return to Main menu Make a choice: 2. To configure the IP settings: 1. Be sure to save the configuration and choose a boot method before you boot the system. Welcome to In-Reach ppciboot Version x.

Changing the Unit IP Address The Unit IP Address option lets you change the unit IP address (this applies only to the user-defined IP method). BOOTP. Press R to return to the Main Menu. 3. When you reach the option you want. 2. press S to save the configuration. Type the new address and press <Enter>. Select the IP Assignment method you want to change. 2. and None) by repeatedly pressing the option number. Press the number 5 (Unit IP Address). The IP Configuration menu reappears. press S to save the configuration. and tog- gle the options (DHCP. User Defined. 3. If you are finished configuring the IP settings. 2. To change an IP Address: 1. Press 1.System Administration Choosing an IP Assignment Method The IP Assignment Method option lets you set the method by which you want to assign IPs. 74 451-0311B . etc) to the other IP Assignment methods and make the changes you want in the same way. Press R to return to the Main Menu. To configure an IP Assignment method: 1. you will need to complete additional configuration. stop toggling the options for that IP Assignment method and go on to press the numbers corresponding (2 for IP Assignment method #2:. RARP. NOTE: If any of the four IP Assignment methods are set to “User Defined”. 3. The IP Configuration menu reappears. A Unit IP Address prompt appears. If you are finished configuring the IP settings. or 4 to see the options for IP Assignment method #1-4:.

Type the new Gateway address and press <Enter>. A Network Mask prompt appears. To change a Gateway address: 1. Changing the TFTP Server IP Address The TFTP Server IP Address option lets you change the TFTP Server IP address (the address from where you load the boot image). Type the new network mask and press <Enter>. To change the TFTP Server IP address: 1. press S to save the configuration. System Administration Changing the Network Mask The Network Mask option lets you change the Network Mask (this applies only to the user-defined IP method). Press the number 6 (Network Mask). If you are finished configuring the IP settings. 451-0311B 75 . Type the new TFTP Server IP address and press <Enter>. Changing the Gateway Address The Gateway option lets you change the Gateway address (this applies only to the user-defined IP method). press S to save the configuration. The IP Configuration menu reappears. If you are finished configuring the IP settings. 3. Press the number 7 (Gateway). Press the number 8 (TFTP Server IP address). A TFTP Server IP address prompt appears. The IP Configuration menu reappears. This applies only to the user-defined IP method. Press R to return to the Main Menu. 3. Press R to return to the Main Menu. press S to save the configuration. Press R to return to the Main Menu. If you are finished configuring the IP settings. A Gateway prompt appears. 3. The IP Configuration menu reappears. To change a Network Mask: 1. 2. 2. 2.

System Administration

Saving the Configuration
The Saving Configuration option lets you save the ppciboot
configuration. To save the configuration:

1. When you are finished configuring using the IP Configuration menu,
press S to save the configuration.

2. Press R to return to the Main Menu.

NOTE: The IP Assignment method #1-4 has precedence over user
defined assignment, but the user defined settings are used as soon
as the User Defined method comes up.

Booting from Defaults
The first time you boot a unit takes longer because the system computes
the SSH keys server and client. The process takes a few minutes. The keys
are saved into the flash.

You can default the configuration in two ways:

• From the Main Menu.

• From the Command Line Interface.

Depending on where you default the configuration from, the effect is not
the same.

Defaulting from CLI
When you default from the CLI, only the configuration (Config.prm) is
erased. The SSH keys are preserved. To default from the CLI, enter the
default configuration command in the Configuration command
mode.

Defaulting from the Main Menu
When you default from the Main Menu the entire configuration, including
the SSH keys, is erased. The next reboot must take the extra time needed
to recompute the SSH keys.

76 451-0311B

System Administration

1. Choose the (*) Reset to System Defaults option from the ppci-
boot menu.

2. Choose [2] Reset Linux System Configuration. The following
display appears:

[2] Reset Linux system configuration
WARNING: This will erase all configuration data in
the system. Do not use unless the configuration is
unusable.

3. Enter the password, which is access. The Main Menu appears.

4. Press B to boot the unit. Various lines of data are displayed on the screen
while the default ppciboot loads. This may take a few minutes.
NOTE: This display is generated by the operational software. The system
must be booted before this occurs.

The default from ppciboot completes.

Acquiring the IP Configuration
The LX software gets its IP configuration from ppciboot or from the
configuration. If the configuration is not loaded yet, the LX unit uses the
IP configuration from ppciboot. Once the configuration file is found and
loaded, the IP is modified according to the configuration. Therefore, if the
configuration is already set, it always overrules the ppciboot configuration.

You can use two commands to display interface information. The show
interface 1 status command displays the actual setting of the
interface. The show interface 1 characteristics command displays
the configuration for the interface. Refer to the LX-Series Commands
Reference Guide for details on how to use these commands.

451-0311B 77

such as in. 451-0311B 79 .Sources of Event Messages Facility Description all Generate messages for all system events. Table 5 . and local or remote syslogd files. email addresses. daemon A system daemon. For example. Chapter 4 Setting Up the Notification Feature The Notification Feature is used to send syslog messages of LX system events to pagers. user User processes. syslog The syslog daemon (syslogd). outbound asynchronous ports. This is the default facility. authpriv The Superuser authentication process. Overview of the Notification Feature The Notification Feature uses the syslog daemon (syslogd) to generate event messages. SNMP trap clients.ftpd. Event Messages can be generated for events that occur in any of the Linux facilities listed in Table 5. The event messages that are sent to any given destination can be filtered according to the facility and priority (severity level) of the message. a destination could be configured to receive only those messages that originate in a daemon and have a priority of crit. kern The Linux kernel. cell phones.

such as a hard device error alert A condition that the system administrator needs to correct immediately. sigsnotice Indicates a state transition of the serial input signals CTS or DCD/DSR.Supported Priorities Priority Description none No messages will be logged. crit A critical condition. informational messages notice Conditions that are not errors. such as a corrupted system database. emerg A severe condition. Note: When this priority is specified. the facility for the User Profile must be set to kern. but which might require specific procedures to adjust them warning A warning message err A software error condition. This is the kind of condition that can immediately affect the users’ ability to work on the LX.Setting Up the Notification Feature Table 6 lists the priorities that can be specified as filters for the Notification Feature. Table 6 . This setting effectively disables syslog for this User Profile. 80 451-0311B . info Normal. refer to the userprofile facility command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. This is the default priority. To set the facility for a User Profile to kern.

you can create several Service Profiles of the TAP type. SMTP) or an on-board feature (e.g. cell phones. For most event notification processes. In the Notification Command Mode. to send event messages to pagers via the Telocator Alphanumeric Protocol (TAP). with each Service Profile specifying a different Short Message Service Center (SMSC) for sending messages. refer to “Creating Service Profiles” on page 82. the Service Profile also defines the destination to which event messages will be sent. A Service Profile must be fully configured. outbound asynchronous ports). refer to “Overview of User Profiles” on page 88. A User Profile also specifies the destinations (i.. You can create more than one Service Profile for each method of sending event messages. you can create Service Profiles of the following types: • SNPP – Used to send event messages to pagers with the Simple Network Pager Protocol (SNPP) (see “Configuring SNPP Service Profiles” on page 84). A User Profile specifies a facility/priority filter for a destination. Setting Up the Notification Feature Configuring the Notification Feature In order to use the Notification Feature. For more information. Service Profiles A Service Profile must be created for each desired method of sending event messages to a destination.g. 451-0311B 81 . as described in “Creating Service Profiles” on page 82. addresses and telephone numbers) for event notification processes that send event messages by email.. a Service Profile of the TAP type must first be created. before a User Profile can be associated with it. This method is typically a protocol (e. and pagers. you must do the following: • Create a Service Profile. • Create a User Profile.. A Service Profile defines a method for sending event messages to a destination. For example.e. For example. For more information on User Profiles.

• SNMP – Used to send event messages to SNMP trap clients (see “Creating Service Profiles” on page 82). using the SNPP protocol: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile Skytel protocol snpp You can use the serviceprofile protocol command to create a Service Profile of any of the following types: SNPP. TAP. • SMTP – Used to send event messages to email addresses (see “Configuring SMTP Service Profiles” on page 87). ASYNC. 82 451-0311B . Creating Service Profiles To create a Service Profile. Under this method. (Refer to “Notification Com- mand Mode” on page 23 for information on accessing the Notification Command Mode. Users can receive the event messages by logging in to the outbound asynchronous port. WEB. Access the Notification Command Mode. For example. syslog messages will be sent out the specified asynchronous port(s) as they occur. do the following: 1.Setting Up the Notification Feature • WEB – Used to send event messages to pagers or cell phones via a Web Driver (see “Configuring WEB Service Profiles” on page 86). • REMOTESYSLOG – Used to send event messages to syslogd on a remote host (see “Configuring REMOTESYSLOG Service Profiles” on page 86). • ASYNC – Used to send event messages to outbound asynchronous ports on the LX unit (see “Configuring ASYNC Service Profiles” on page 85). • TAP – Used to send event messages to pagers via TAP (see “Configuring TAP Service Profiles” on page 84).) 2. the following command creates a Service Profile called Skytel. or SMTP. SNMP. REMOTESYSLOG. Use the serviceprofile protocol command to create a Service Profile. • LOCALSYSLOG – Used to send event messages to a local file on the LX unit (see “Configuring LOCALSYSLOG Service Profiles” on page 83). LOCALSYSLOG.

For example. in order for an SNMP trap client to receive event messages from an LX unit. This step will vary. and the trap client community command. 451-0311B 83 . you would go to /var/log/Build5 to read the contents of the local file specified in the above serviceprofile file command. refer to the trap client version command. You can create User Profiles to filter. you can use the serviceprofile file command to specify the local file to which the event messages will be sent. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile local file Build5 The local syslog writes event messages to the default directory /var/log. For more information. by facility and priority. the event messages that will be sent to the local file. For more information. To read the contents of the file. refer to the following sections: • “Configuring LOCALSYSLOG Service Profiles” on page 83 • “Configuring SNPP Service Profiles” on page 84 • “Configuring TAP Service Profiles” on page 84 • “Configuring ASYNC Service Profiles” on page 85 • “Configuring REMOTESYSLOG Service Profiles” on page 86 • “Configuring WEB Service Profiles” on page 86 • “Configuring SMTP Service Profiles” on page 87 NOTE: SNMP Service Profiles do not require any configuration after they are created with the serviceprofile protocol command. refer to “Creating a User Profile” on page 88. go to /var/log/<filename> in the shell. However. Configure the Service Profile. in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. Configuring LOCALSYSLOG Service Profiles After you have created a LOCALSYSLOG Service Profile. For more information. it must be a Version 1 trap client with a community name of public. depending on the type of the Service Profile. Setting Up the Notification Feature 3.

you can configure it by doing the following: 1. and the domain name command. refer to the primary dns command.com NOTE: If you specify a symbolic name (e.g. Use the serviceprofile port command to specify the LX TCP port that will be used to send messages to the SNPP server.Skytel. configured for the LX unit. Use the serviceprofile parity command to specify the bit parity setting for the Service Profile.. Configuring TAP Service Profiles After you have created a TAP Service Profile. snpp. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon parity even 84 451-0311B . 2. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile Skytel port 7777 In order to send messages to a pager.Setting Up the Notification Feature Configuring SNPP Service Profiles After you have created an SNPP Service Profile. and a domain name suffix. For more information. Use the serviceprofile smsc command to specify the SMSC that will be used to send the event messages to the pager.com) as the SNPP server. you must create a User Profile that specifies the pager pin number as its contact field. (The pager mes- sages will be forwarded to the user by the service provider’s server. Use the serviceprofile server command to specify the SNPP server to which syslogd will send the log messages. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon smsc 18668230501 2.) The service provider’s server can be specified as an IP Address or as any symbolic name that can be resolved by DNS.Skytel. you can configure it by doing the following: 1. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile Skytel server snpp. in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. refer to “Creating a User Profile” on page 88. you must have a primary DNS server. For more information.

For more information. you can use the serviceprofile async port command to specify the outbound asynchronous ports to which event messages will be sent. you must create a User Profile that specifies the cell phone number to which event messages will be sent. refer to “Creating a User Profile” on page 88. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile serialport async port 5 7 You can create User Profiles to filter. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon bits 7 4. 451-0311B 85 . must match the bits-per-byte setting of any modem port specified in a User Profile based on this Service Profile. In order to send event messages to a pager or cell phone via TAP. the event messages that will be sent to the outbound asynchronous ports. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon stopbits 2 NOTE: The bits-per-byte setting. refer to “Creating a User Profile” on page 88. that you specify for a Service Profile. Setting Up the Notification Feature 3. Use the serviceprofile stopbits command to specify the stop bits setting for the Service Profile. For more information. by facility and priority. and the stop bits setting. Configuring ASYNC Service Profiles After you have created an ASYNC Service Profile. as well as the LX modem port that will be used to send the event messages to the SMSC. Refer to “Creating a User Profile” on page 88 for more information on specifying a modem port for a User Profile. Use the serviceprofile bits command to specify the bits-per-byte setting for the Service Profile.

Create an empty log file as follows: #touch /tftpboot/test/user.warning /tftpboot/test/user. PROXIMUS_WEB. PAGENET_WEB.conf and add the following entry for user. you can use the serviceprofile host command to specify the remote UNIX host to which the event messages will be sent. Edit the file /etc/syslog. the event messages that will be sent to the remote host.conf file take effect: # ps –ef|grep syslog # kill –HUP pid# You can create User Profiles to filter.179. CINGULAR_WEB. by facility and priority. you can use the serviceprofile driver command to specify the web driver that will be used to send the event messages to the pager or cell phone. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile freds driver VERIZON_WEB The supported web drivers are ATT_WEB. Configuring WEB Service Profiles After you have created a WEB Service Profile. For more information.warning: user.warning.log 2.log 3. CELLNET_WEB. ORANGE_WEB. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile syslogvenus host 10.170. Restart the syslog daemon to make changes to the syslog. 86 451-0311B .log #chmod 777 /tftpboot/test/user.warning. and VERIZON_WEB. refer to “Creating a User Profile” on page 88.253 Do the following on the UNIX host that you specify in the serviceprofile host command: 1.warning.Setting Up the Notification Feature Configuring REMOTESYSLOG Service Profiles After you have created a REMOTESYSLOG Service Profile.

179. (In addition. refer to the date command and the clock command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide.) The server can be specified as an IP Address or as any symbolic name that can be resolved by DNS. the LX unit will need to have a fully qualified domain name suffix.) In order to send messages to an email address. 451-0311B 87 .21 NOTE: If you specify a symbolic name (e.176. you must create a User Profile that specifies the pager number or cell phone number as its contact field. For more information. mrv.. In order to send event messages to a pager or cell phone via a Web Driver. refer to “Creating a User Profile” on page 88.com) as the SMTP server. you can use the serviceprofile server command to specify the SMTP server to which syslogd will send the log messages. Setting Up the Notification Feature NOTE: You must set the date and time for the LX unit. you must create a User Profile that specifies the email address as its contact field. refer to “Creating a User Profile” on page 88. For more information. Refer to the primary dns command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for more information on configuring a DNS server for the LX unit. for example: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile mrvemail server 10. (The messages will be forwarded by the server to a specific email address. you must have a DNS server configured for the LX unit.g. or some wireless providers will reject event messages that are sent from it. To set the date and time for the LX unit. Configuring SMTP Service Profiles After you have created an SMTP Service Profile.

Use the userprofile serviceprofile command to create a User Profile. TAP. and link. pager. or WEB type.g. 88 451-0311B .e. 3.) for User Profiles that are created for Service Profiles of the SNPP. for example: Notification:0 >>userprofile adminscell serviceprofile verizon NOTE: You must create. and pagers. the User Profile adminscell is created.g. (Refer to “Notification Command Mode” on page 23 for information on accessing the Notification Command Mode. cell phones. In the above example.Setting Up the Notification Feature Overview of User Profiles A User Profile filters event messages by the type (facility) and severity level (priority) of the event message.. or WEB type. the Service Profile verizon. cell phone. If the User Profile is for a Service Profile of the SNPP. for example: Notification:0 >>userprofile adminscell contact 9785552222 The contact field specifies the destination (e. Creating a User Profile Do the following to create a User Profile: 1. • Email Address (e. 8875551212) for User Profiles that are based on Service Profiles of the SNPP type. a User Profile to an existing Service Profile.. The allowable values for this field are the following: • Pager Pin Number (e.g.com) for User Profiles that are based on Service Profiles of the SMTP type. jstraw@mrv. A User Profile also specifies the destinations (i. and linked to. addresses and telephone numbers) for event notification processes that send event messages by email. SMTP. you must use the userprofile contact command to specify the contact field for the User Profile.) 2. etc.. SMTP. TAP. Access the Notification Command Mode. The LX unit supports a maximum of 20 User Profiles..

notice. for example: Notification:0 >>userprofile adminscell priority warning The allowable values for the priority characteristic are info. 9785552222) for User Profiles that are based on Service Profiles of the TAP or WEB type. The information that can be displayed includes the characteristics of Service Profiles and the characteristics of User Profiles. err.. to display the characteristics of Service Profiles. and have the specified priority (see step 4). Use the userprofile priority command to specify a priority characteristic for the User Profile. and none. will be sent to the destination. kern. and all. 4. The allowable values for the facility characteristic are authpriv. Setting Up the Notification Feature • Pager Number or Telephone Number (e. 6. for example: Notification:0 >>userprofile adminscell facility user Event messages that originate from the specified facility. for example: Notification:0 >>userprofile adminscell modem port 17 Displaying Information on the Notification Feature This section describes how to display information about the Notification feature. 5. for example: InReach:0 >>show notification serviceprofile jacklocal 451-0311B 89 .g. Displaying Characteristics of Service Profiles Use the show notification serviceprofile command. emerg. crit. you must use the userprofile modem port command to specify the modem port that the LX unit will use to send event messages to the SMSC. alert. daemon. Use the userprofile facility command to specify a facility characteristic for the User Profile. If the User Profile is for a Service Profile of the TAP type. in the Superuser Command Mode. user. warning. syslog.

Use the following syntax to display the characteristics of all User Profiles on the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show notification userprofile all 90 451-0311B . for example: InReach:0 >>show notification userprofile grogers In the above example. ServiceProfile: syslog Protocol: localsyslog File: syslog ServiceProfile: messages Protocol: localsyslog File: messages ServiceProfile: jackremote Protocol: remotesyslog Remote Host: ServiceProfile: jackasync Protocol: async Async Port: 5 ServiceProfile: jack Protocol: tap SMSC: 18668230501 Bits/Parity/StopBits:8N1 Modem Port(s): 33 ServiceProfile: webjack Protocol: web Driver: verizon_web Figure 3 .Service Profile Display Displaying Characteristics of User Profiles Use the show notification userprofile command.Setting Up the Notification Feature In the above example. the characteristics are displayed for the User Profile grogers@mrv. to display the characteristics of User Profiles. Use the following syntax to display the characteristics of all Service Profiles on the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show notification serviceprofile all Figure 3 shows an example of the Service Profile display. the characteristics are displayed for the Service Profile jacklocal. in the Superuser Command Mode.

UserProfile: messages ServiceProfile: messages Contact: Facility: all Priority: notice UserProfile: debug ServiceProfile: debug Contact: Facility: all Priority: debug UserProfile: grogers@mrv ServiceProfile: N/A Contact: Facility: kern Priority: emerg UserProfile: mark ServiceProfile: N/A Contact: Facility: kern Priority: emerg Figure 4 . the locallog home directory is /var/log/Build5. Setting Up the Notification Feature Figure 4 shows an example of the User Profile display.User Profile Display Configuration Examples This section contains examples of each type of Service Profile. along with the commands for creating a User Profile based on the Service Profile. Localsyslog Example The following commands configure the logging of events to the local syslogd: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile local protocol localsyslog Notification:0 >>serviceprofile local file Build5 Notification:0 >>userprofile locallog service local Notification:0 >>userprofile locallog facility user Notification:0 >>userprofile locallog priority warning NOTE: In the above example. Each example includes the commands for creating the Service Profile. 451-0311B 91 .

you would do the following on the remote host: 1. # ps –ef|grep syslog # kill –HUP pid# 92 451-0311B .warning. Add the following entry to the /etc/syslog.conf file: user.170. Restart the syslog daemon.179.conf take effect. 6. and 7: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile 3serialport protocol async Notification:0 >>serviceprofile 3serialport async port 5 6 7 Notification:0 >>userprofile serialport service 3serialport Notification:0 >>userprofile serialport facility user Notification:0 >>userprofile serialport priority warning Remotesyslog Example The following commands configure the logging of events to syslogd on a remote host: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile Rlogvenus protocol remotesyslog Notification:0 >>serviceprofile Rlogvenus host 10. Create an empty log file as follows: #touch /tftpboot/log/user.warning.log 2. to make changes to the syslog.log #chmod 777 /tftpboot/log/user.Setting Up the Notification Feature Outbound Asynchronous Port Example The following commands forwards the logging of events to ports 5. using the following commands.log 3.253 Notification:0 >>userprofile venus service Rlogvenus Notification:0 >>userprofile venus facility user Notification:0 >>userprofile venus priority warning After you executed the above commands.warning.warning /tftpboot/log/user.

Setting Up the Notification Feature SNPP Example The following commands configure the logging of events to a text pager: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile Skytel protocol snpp Notification:0 >>serviceprofile Skytel server snpp.Skytel.com Notification:0 >>serviceprofile Skytel port 7777 Notification:0 >>userprofile johnpager service Skytel Notification:0 >>userprofile johnpager contact 8875551212 Notification:0 >>userprofile johnpager facility user Notification:0 >>userprofile johnpager priority warning NOTE: In order to resolve the provider’s address. DNS must be configured on the LX unit. TAP Example The following sequence of commands could be used to configure the logging of events via a wireless provider such as Verizon. or AT&T: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon protocol tap Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon SMSC 18668230501 (provider’s service phone #) Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon bits 7 Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon stopbit 1 Notification:0 >>serviceprofile verizon parity even Notification:0 >>userprofile gina’scell service verizon Notification:0 >>userprofile gina’scell contact 785551212 Notification:0 >>userprofile gina’scell facility user Notification:0 >>userprofile gina’scell priority warning Notification:0 >>userprofile gina’scell modem port 17 Notification:0 >>exit Now configure the modem port that will be used for sending messages: Config>>port async 17 Async 17-17:0 >>no apd 451-0311B 93 . Sprint.

n 866-823-0501 @vtext. 1.net Cingular 7.att.nextel. e 801-301-6683 @messaging. e 800-841-8837 @mobile. e 800-909-4602 @Cingular. 1. e.57 Snmp:0 >>trap client 0 community public Snmp:0 >>trap client 0 version 1 The Service Profile and the User Profile can then be created in the Notification Command Mode: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile ricksnmp protocol snmp Notification:0 >>userprofile ricksnmp service ricksnmp 94 451-0311B .179.com Skytel 8.com NOTE: MRV Communications is not responsible for these SMSC phone numbers and cannot guarantee their service. Please contact your provider for a number near you.com Sprint 7. 1. SNMP Example The following commands configure the logging of events to an SNMP trap client (the LX unit must first have a trap client configured): Snmp:0 >>trap client 0 10. n 800-679-2778 pin@skytel. e 888-656-1727 @sprintpcs. 1.com Verizon 7. 8.170. 1. 1.com Nextel 7. 1.Setting Up the Notification Feature Async 17-17:0 >>access remote Async 17-17:0 >>modem Modem>>modem enable Modem>>type dialout A list of wireless SMSC phone numbers is provided here for your convenience: Carrier SMSC Number Email Address SMSC Phone#@ AT&T 7.

Web Example The following commands configure the logging of events to a web driver: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile cingular protocol web Notification:0 >>serviceprofile cingular driver cingular_web Notification:0 >>userprofile kevin service cingular Notification:0 >>userprofile kevin contact 9785551313 Notification:0 >>userprofile kevin facility user Notification:0 >>userprofile kevin priority warning NOTE: The date and time must be set for the LX unit. a DNS server address. and a primary gateway address. (If the date and the time are not set. 451-0311B 95 . some wireless providers will reject the message.com (verizon text phone) Notification:0 >>userprofile jsmith facility user Notification:0 >>userprofile jsmith priority warning NOTE: You may need to configure the LX with a Domain suffix.10. The supported web drivers can be retrieved from the CLI help.) The date and time are set with the date and clock commands in the Configuration Command Mode.10. Setting Up the Notification Feature Notification:0 >>userprofile ricksnmp facility user Notification:0 >>userprofile ricksnmp priority warning Email Example The following commands configure the logging of events to an email address: Notification:0 >>serviceprofile youremail protocol smtp Notification:0 >>serviceprofile youremail server 10.21 Notification:0 >>userprofile jsmith service youremail Notification:0 >>userprofile jsmith contact 785551111@vtext.

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The Master Ports then broadcast the data to the Slave Ports in the Broadcast Group. to a Master Port. any data that a Slave Port receives is forwarded to the Master Ports in the Broadcast Group. The source of the data broadcast can be a direct serial connection. Access the Configuration Command Mode in the LX CLI. it can still receive data from sources other than the Master Ports in its Broadcast Group. All Slave Ports and Master Ports belong to a Broadcast Group. (For more information. refer to “Configuration Command Mode” on page 18. or a Telnet connection. By default. for example: Config:0 >>broadcast group 4 BrGroups 4:0 >> 451-0311B 97 . or TCP port. and send data broadcasts to. Any asynchronous port. Chapter 5 Configuring the Data Broadcast Feature The Data Broadcast Feature allows you to specify ports as Slave Ports that receive data broadcasts from. Master Ports on the same LX unit. Use the broadcast group command to create a Broadcast Group. Setting Up Broadcast Groups Do the following to set up a Broadcast Group: 1.) 2. When a port is configured as a Slave Port. The Slave Ports in a Broadcast Group can only receive data broadcasts from a Master Port in the same Broadcast Group. on the LX unit can be configured as a Slave Port or a Master Port. Users can receive data broadcasts by Telneting to a TCP port that is configured as a Slave Port.

for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>exit Config:0 >> 7. Use the slave port command to specify the Slave Ports for the Broadcast Group. 4. 98 451-0311B . are specified as Master Ports for Broadcast Group 4. Use the master port command to specify the Master Ports for the Broadcast Group. 6. the Telnet mode can also be specified as character. Use the mode command to specify the Telnet mode for the Broadcast Group. the Broadcast Group Command prompt (BrGroups 4:0 >>) indicates that you are in the Broadcast Group Command Mode for Broadcast Group 4. for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>master port async 5 BrGroups 4:0 >>master port tcp 1500 In the above example. asynchronous port 5. Use the broadcast group enable command to enable the Broadcast Group that you just created. and TCP port 1500. for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>mode line In the above example. for example: Config:0 >>broadcast group 4 enable NOTE: In order to enable a Broadcast Group. In the above example.Configuring the Data Broadcast Feature This enters the Broadcast Group Command Mode. Use the exit command to return to the Configuration Command Mode. the Broadcast Group must contain at least one Master Port and one Slave Port. 3. the Telnet mode is specified as line. are specified as Slave Ports for Broadcast Group 4. 6. and TCP port 2500. 5. and 7. for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>slave port async 4 6 7 BrGroups 4:0 >>slave port tcp 2500 In the above example. asynchronous port 4.

This section describes how to configure these features. • A maximum of 20 ports. • A TCP port that is already in use cannot be added to a Broadcast Group. • No more than one TCP socket may be open on a single TCP port. Specifying Port Options You can specify that a timestamp will be appended to each line of data that is broadcast from a Master Port. • To prevent data overruns. it is recommended that the Master Port(s) and Slave Port(s) in a Broadcast Group be set to the same port speed. • A maximum of 16 TCP ports can be configured for a Broadcast Group. for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>master port async 4 6 7 timestamp 451-0311B 99 . Configuring the Data Broadcast Feature Usage Guidelines Keep the following in mind as you add Slave Ports and Master Ports to a Broadcast Group: • You cannot specify a the DIAG port (port 0) as a Slave Port or a Master Port. including Masters and Slaves. You can also specify that non-broadcast data will be discarded by Slave Ports and that Slave Ports will echo any data that comes into them. • You cannot add a port to a Broadcast Group if it is already a member of another Broadcast Group. Appending a Timestamp Use the timestamp option of the master port command to specify that a timestamp will be appended to each line of data that is broadcast from a Master Port. can be configured for a Broadcast Group.

specify the discard option in the slave port command. execute the no slave port command in the Broadcast Group Command Mode. However. the discard option is specified for the asynchronous ports 5 and 7 and the TCP port 2500. This data is then broadcast to all of the Slave Ports in the Broadcast Group. To do this.Configuring the Data Broadcast Feature Discarding Non-Broadcast Data By default. any data that a Slave Port receives is forwarded to the Master Port(s) in the Broadcast Group. in the Broadcast Group 4. for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>slave port async 5 7 discard BrGroups 4:0 >>slave port tcp 2500 discard In the above example. asynchronous port 7 and TCP port 2500 are removed from Broadcast Group 4. execute the no master port command in the Broadcast Group Command Mode. 100 451-0311B . for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>no slave port async 7 BrGroups 4:0 >>no slave port tcp 2500 In the above examples. asynchronous port 5 and TCP port 1500 are removed from Broadcast Group 4. for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>no master port async 5 BrGroups 4:0 >>no master port tcp 1500 In the above examples. you can configure Slave Port(s) to discard data without forwarding it to the Master Port(s). Echoing Incoming Data at Slave Ports Use the localecho option in the slave port command to specify that Slave Ports will echo any data that comes into them. for example: BrGroups 4:0 >>slave port async 5 7 localecho Removing Ports from Broadcast Groups To remove Master Ports from a Broadcast Group. To remove Slave Ports from a Broadcast Group.

you can remove all of the ports from the Broadcast Group and then disable the broadcast Group. Displaying Broadcast Group Characteristics Use the show broadcast group characteristics command to display the characteristics of Broadcast Groups. execute the no broadcast group command in the Configuration Command Mode.) For more information on the show broadcast group characteristics command. Use the following syntax to display the Broadcast Group characteristics of all Broadcast Groups on the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show broadcast group all characteristics 451-0311B 101 . Displaying Broadcast Group Characteristics This section describes how to display information about Broadcast Groups. Broadcast Group 4 is disabled. Disabling Broadcast Groups To disable a Broadcast Group. for example: Config:0 >>no broadcast group 4 In the above example. the Broadcast Group characteristics are displayed for Broadcast Group 1. refer to “Displaying Broadcast Group Characteristics” on page 101. In lieu of deleting a Broadcast Group. execute the show broadcast group characteristics command. The information includes Broadcast Group characteristics and Broadcast Group Summaries. NOTE: You can not delete a Broadcast Group. Configuring the Data Broadcast Feature To verify that Master Ports or Slave Ports have been deleted from a Broadcast Group. for example: InReach:0 >>show broadcast group 1 characteristics In the above example. (The deleted ports will not be listed in the Broadcast Group Characteristics Display.

5-7 TCP Slave port(s) with Discard: TCP Slave port(s) without Discard: TCP Slave port(s) with Local Echo: TCP Slave port(s) without Local Echo: Figure 5 .4 TCP Master port(s) with Timestamp: TCP Master port(s) without Timestamp: Async Slave port(s) with Discard: Async Slave port(s) without Discard: 2-3.Configuring the Data Broadcast Feature Figure 5 shows an example of the Broadcast Group Characteristics Display. Time: 08 Nov 2002 16:29:26 US/EASTERN Broadcast Group Number: 1 Mode: Line Mode State: Disabled Async Master port(s) with Timestamp: Async Master port(s) without Timestamp: 1.Broadcast Group Characteristics Display 102 451-0311B .5-7 Async Slave port(s) with Local Echo: Async Slave port(s) without Local Echo: 2-3.

for example: InReach:0 >>show broadcast group summary Figure 6 shows an example of the Broadcast Group Summary Display. to display summary information for all Broadcast Groups on the LX unit. in the Superuser Command Mode.Broadcast Group Summary Display 451-0311B 103 . Configuring the Data Broadcast Feature Displaying Broadcast Group Summaries Use the show broadcast group summary command. Broadcast group number: State: 1 Enabled 2 Disabled 3 Disabled 4 Disabled 5 Disabled Figure 6 .

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0.0 This would enable you to include the LX unit in three different networks (i. For more information.0 3 178. For example.45..IP Interface Examples Interface IP Address Broadcast Subnet Mask Number Address 1 119.45. You can access an LX unit via the Address of the IP interface.0.255.19.0. Table 7 .23. The network treats an IP interface as a network element that is no different from an actual server.112.23 119.255.123 119.20.0 in ppciboot. a Broadcast address of 117.e.0.112.3 119.0 2 124.65. 119. and 178.5.255. You could then create the IP interfaces shown in Table 7 for the LX unit. You can configure up to 4 IP interfaces on an LX unit.255.255.255.0.0.123.255 255. Chapter 6 Configuring IP Interfaces An IP interface is a logical interface for accessing the LX unit from a network.255.255 255.0.0.255.123. 124. IP interfaces can be configured as rotaries. and the subnet mask of 255.0. or by the ppciboot (server) Address of the LX unit. you could have an LX unit with an IP address of 117. Each IP interface has its own IP characteristics.20. 451-0311B 105 .0.255 255.255. refer to “Configuring Rotaries” on page 113.0).87.65.87.

3 mask 255. When you are in the Interface Command Mode. for the interface. or SecurID). Refer to “Specifying the Subscriber Access Methods” on page 123 for more information. However.112. You can authenticate connections via IP interfaces with the same authentication methods that are configured for the LX unit (LOCAL.20. the IP Address is specified as 119.20.) Setting Up IP Interfaces IP interfaces are created and configured in the Interface Command Mode.0. do the following: 1. on the LX unit via an IP interface. and Subnet Mask.0. refer to “Configuring Local Authentication on an IP Interface” on page 110 and “Configuring RADIUS.g.Configuring IP Interfaces An IP interface has the same subscriber database as the LX unit on which it was created. 106 451-0311B . or virtual ports.112. A subscriber can connect to asynchronous ports. IP interfaces support SSH and Telnet as methods for connecting subscribers to the LX unit..0 In the above example.3 and the subnet Mask is specified as 255.0. or SecurID Authentication on an IP Interface” on page 110. You can enter the Interface Command Mode by executing the interface command in the Configuration Command Mode. To configure an IP interface. TACACS+. Intf 1-1:0 >>) is displayed.0. Execute the interface command in the Configuration Command Mode. (For more information. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>address 119.0. the Interface Command prompt (e. 2. for example: Config:0 >>interface 1 This enters the Interface command mode for the specified IP interface (IP interface 1 in the above example). TACACS+. RADIUS. you must enable the authentication method on the IP interface before you can use it on the IP interface. Use the address command to specify an IP Address.

execute the ssh keepalive interval command. execute the ssh keepalive count command. refer to the following sections: • “Configuring Local Authentication on an IP Interface” on page 110 • “Configuring RADIUS. Specifying the SSH Keepalive Count To specify the SSH Keepalive Count. RADIUS.255 4.255. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>ssh keepalive interval 30 451-0311B 107 . Use the broadcast command to specify the Broadcast Address for the IP interface. or SecurID) for the IP interface. Configuring IP Interfaces 3. TACACS+. Configure an authentication method (LOCAL. TACACS+. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>broadcast 119. The SSH Keepalive Interval is the length of time. or SecurID Authentication on an IP Interface” on page 110 Refer to the following sections to configure optional parameters for an IP interface: • “Specifying SSH Keepalive Parameters” on page 107 • “Specifying Socket Numbers” on page 108 • “Specifying Maximum Transmission Units (MTU)” on page 109 Specifying SSH Keepalive Parameters The SSH Keepalive Count is the number of times that an SSH client will attempt to make an SSH connection to an IP interface. For more information. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>ssh keepalive count 8 Specifying the SSH Keepalive Interval To specify the SSH Keepalive Count.255. in seconds. between attempts at making an SSH connection to the IP interface.

for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>serial 6 ssh 1297 In the above example. Table 8 . This is typically done to prevent hackers from accessing LX ports via default SSH Socket Numbers or default Telnet Socket Numbers. 108 451-0311B . Specifying a Telnet Socket Number for a Serial Port To specify a Telnet Socket Number for a serial port. Table 8 lists the default SSH and Telnet Socket Numbers for LX serial ports.Default Socket Numbers for Serial Ports LX Serial Default Default SSH Port Telnet Port Port 0 0 0 1 2100 2122 2 2200 2222 3 2300 2322 4 2400 2422 5 2500 2522 6 2600 2622 7 2700 2722 8 2800 2822 This section describes how to specify SSH Socket Numbers and Telnet socket Numbers for IP interfaces and LX (asynchronous) ports.Configuring IP Interfaces Specifying Socket Numbers IP interfaces have a default SSH Socket Number of 22 and a default Telnet Socket Number of 23. execute the serial command with the telnet modifier. the Telnet Socket Number for serial port 6 is set to 1297.

Specifying a Virtual Port Socket Number for Telnet To specify the Virtual Port Socket Number for making a Telnet connection to the IP interface. execute the ssh port command. execute the serial command with the ssh modifier. Configuring IP Interfaces Specifying an SSH Socket Number for a Serial Port To specify an SSH Socket Number for a serial port. the Virtual Port Socket Number for making an SSH connection to the IP interface is set to 988. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>serial 4 ssh 983 In the above example. the Virtual Port Socket Number for making a Telnet connection to the IP interface is set to 1743. Frames that are larger than the designated MTU size are fragmented before transmission. the SSH Socket Number for serial port 4 is set to 983. The default MTU size is 1500. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>ssh port 988 In the above example. 451-0311B 109 . for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>telnet port 1743 In the above example. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>mtu 1200 You can specify any number from 1000 through 1500 as the MTU size. (Note that the software fragments frames on the transmit side only.) Use the mtu command to specify the MTU for an IP interface. execute the telnet port command. Specifying a Virtual Port Socket Number for SSH To specify the Virtual Port Socket Number for making an SSH connection to the IP interface. Specifying Maximum Transmission Units (MTU) The Maximum Transmission Units (MTU) is the maximum size (in bytes) of frames that can be transmitted on the IP interface.

in the Interface Command Mode. local authentication is enabled as the method of inbound authentication for asynchronous port 4. the authentication method must be configured for the LX unit and enabled as the method of inbound authentication for the asynchronous port. RADIUS. and TACACS+ for the LX Unit” on page 33 and the authentication enable command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. it must be enabled as the method of inbound authentication for the asynchronous port. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>authentication local enable Configuring RADIUS.Configuring IP Interfaces Configuring Local Authentication on an IP Interface Local authentication can be used when a subscriber logs in to a specific asynchronous port via an IP interface.e. Execute the authentication enable command. to enable local authentication on the IP interface. for example: Async 4-4:0 >>authentication inbound local enable In the above example. In order to use local authentication. SecurID. To enable RADIUS authentication on the IP interface. Then it must be enabled for the IP interface. in the Interface Command Mode. TACACS+. TACACS+. For more information. refer to “Setting Up RADIUS. or SecurID) can be used when a subscriber logs in to an asynchronous port via an IP interface.. or SecurID Authentication on an IP Interface Server-based authentication methods (i. In order to enable server-based authentication for an IP interface. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>authentication radius enable 110 451-0311B . Execute the authentication local enable command. execute the authentication radius enable command. The authentication enable command is executed in the Asynchronous Command Mode. with the inbound and local modifiers. to enable local authentication for inbound asynchronous ports.

For more information. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>authentication tacacs+ enable Configuring RADIUS Accounting on an Interface RADIUS Accounting allows you to log user account information to a remote server in a per-client file. port number. RADIUS accounting can be used when a subscriber logs in to an asynchronous port via an IP interface. In order to enable RADIUS accounting for an IP interface. execute the authentication tacacs+ enable command. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>radius accounting enable Configuring TACACS+ Accounting on an Interface TACACS+ Accounting allows you to log user account information to a remote server in a per-client file. the duration of the session. in the Interface Command Mode. The file or record can contain information such as the user who logged in. execute the authentication securid enable command. to enable RADIUS accounting on the IP interface. RADIUS accounting must be configured for the LX unit. Client IP address. in the Interface Command Mode. in the Interface Command Mode. and the number of bytes/packets that were processed by the LX unit. 451-0311B 111 . refer to “Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting” on page 161. Execute the radius accounting enable command. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>authentication securid enable To enable TACACS+ authentication on the IP interface. For more information on TACACS+ accounting. For more information on RADIUS accounting. refer to “Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting” on page 161. Configuring IP Interfaces To enable SecurID authentication on the IP interface. refer to “Setting Up RADIUS” on page 33.

Configuring IP Interfaces Execute the tacacs+ accounting enable command. to enable TACACS+ accounting on the IP interface.) When all three methods (i. or SecurID before it implements Fallback. (Refer to “Configuring RADIUS. The LX unit will make three attempts to log in the user via RADIUS. in the Interface Command Mode. or SecurID) fails because the authentication server is unreachable. When a user logs in via Fallback. to enable Fallback on the IP interface. RADIUS. in the Interface Command Mode.e. TACACS+.. his or her username/password combination is validated against the LOCAL security database for the LX unit. TACACS+. TACACS+. or SecurID) are disabled on the interface. TACACS+. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>authentication fallback enable 112 451-0311B . RADIUS. or SecurID. TACACS+.. the username/password combination will be validated against the LOCAL security database for the LX unit.e. Fallback is ignored by the interface. TACACS+. Execute the authentication fallback enable command. or SecurID must be enabled on an IP interface in order for Fallback to function on the interface. or SecurID Authentication on an IP Interface” on page 110 for information on enabling RADIUS. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>tacacs+ accounting enable Configuring Fallback on an IP Interface Fallback Authentication can be used as a mechanism for authenticating users when the configured authentication method (i. RADIUS. After the third login attempt.

to the IP address of an IP interface that has been configured as a rotary. When a user attempts such a connection.. Figure 7 . with LX asynchronous ports as the multiple destinations of the rotary. Figure 7 illustrates a rotary on an LX unit. an IP interface can be configured as a rotary. The user is connected to an available port in the rotary port list. Configuring IP Interfaces Configuring Rotaries The term “rotary” refers to the assignment of an IP address to multiple destinations that offer the same type of service. Create a new IP interface. and the LX unit sets up the connection with one of the available ports in the rotary group. Do the following to configure an IP interface as a rotary: 1. A user simply requests a connection to an IP address. The Interface Command prompt (e. On an LX unit.Rotary Connections on an IP Interface The rotary is transparent to users. Interface 1).. or access an existing one.g. Intf 1-1:0 >>) is displayed. or an SSH connection. for example: Config:0 >>interface 1 This enters the Interface Command Mode for the specified interface (i.e. A user can attempt to connect to an IP interface that is configured as a rotary. he/she is connected to an available port that has been configured as one of the destinations of the rotary. LX Unit The user initiates a Telnet connection. by executing the interface command in the Configuration Command Mode. 451-0311B 113 .

This identifies the socket that will be used to make Telnet connections to the rotary. 4. the TCP socket number for the rotary is specified as 3000. Use the address command to configure a server IP address for the IP interface. Use the rotary type command to specify the rotary type (Round Robin or First Available). NOTE: The default TCP socket is 1500. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>rotary tcp port 3000 In the above example. Use the rotary port command to configure the IP interface as a rotary. The allowable values are: first available An incoming call is connected to the First Available (non-busy) port in the rotary. round robin The LX unit will search the rotary for an available port. Use the rotary tcp port command to assign a TCP socket number to the rotary. 5. 2.10. starting with the lowest-numbered port in the rotary. 114 451-0311B . and 3 are assigned to the rotary. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>address 10. the LX asynchronous ports 1.Configuring IP Interfaces 2.100 3. and to assign LX asynchronous ports to the rotary. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>rotary port 1 2 3 In the above example.240. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>rotary type round robin The rotary type is identifies the port search method for the rotary.

and you can re-enable it by executing the rotary enable command in the Interface Command Mode. it will say “Disabled” in the “Rotary State” column of the display. Use the rotary ssh port command to assign an SSH socket number to the rotary. If the rotary is in fact disabled. NOTE: The default SSH socket is 1522. the asynchronous ports are removed from the rotary on Interface 1. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>no rotary port In the above example. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>rotary ssh port 3022 In the above example. the configuration of the rotary still exists. Configuring IP Interfaces 6. This identifies the socket that will be used to make SSH connections to the rotary. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>rotary enable Disabling Rotaries Execute the no rotary command in the Interface Command Mode to disable a rotary. 451-0311B 115 . Removing Ports from a Rotary To remove asynchronous ports from a rotary. Use the rotary enable command to enable the rotary. execute the show interface rotary command. the SSH socket number for the rotary is specified as 3022. For more information on the show interface rotary command. for example: Intf 1-1:0 >>no rotary When a rotary is disabled. it no longer functions as a rotary. NOTE: Disabling a rotary does not delete the rotary. execute the no rotary port command in the Interface Command Mode. To verify that a rotary has been disabled. 7. refer to “Displaying Rotary Information” on page 118.

0.0 IP Broadcast : 0.0.0.0.255 Interface Status: In Use Learned IP Gateway : 102. 22 Dec 1969 16:14:27 Interface Name: Interface_1 Bound to : eth0 IP MTU Size: 1500 IP Address : 0.0 Learned IP Broadcast: 102.169. Time: Mon.255. the Rotary type.19. in the Superuser Command Mode.0 Authentication: Local Radius Accounting: Disabled Authentication FallBack: Disabled Tacacs+ Accounting: Disabled SSH port: 22 Telnet port: 23 SSH Keepalive Interval: 0 SSH Keepalive Count: 3 Figure 8 .0. the interface characteristics are displayed for IP interface 1. the Rotary ports.169.1 Rotary Feature: Disabled Learned IP DNS : 0. they will not appear in the “Serial Ports” column of the display.169. refer to “Displaying Rotary Information” on page 118.0 Learned IP Address : 102. port mapping. Use the following syntax to display the interface characteristics of all IP interfaces on the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show interface all characteristics Figure 8 shows an example of the Interface Characteristics display. for example: InReach:0 >>show interface 1 characteristics In the above example.0. Displaying Interface Information This section describes how to display information about IP interfaces and rotaries. to display the characteristics of an IP interface.Interface Characteristics Display 116 451-0311B .0 Learned IP Mask : 255. execute the show interface rotary command.0. The IP interface information includes characteristics. For more information on the show interface rotary command.19. Displaying Interface Characteristics Use the show interface characteristics command.191 IP Mask : 0.255. statuses. If the asynchronous ports have in fact been removed.19. The rotary information includes the Rotary IP Address.0. and summaries.Configuring IP Interfaces To verify that asynchronous ports have been removed from a rotary. and the Rotary State.

to display the Telnet Socket Number. in the Superuser Command Mode.Interface Port Mapping Display Displaying Interface Statuses Use the show interface characteristics command. for example: InReach:0 >>show interface 1 status In the above example. associated with each serial port on the LX unit. to display the status information for IP interfaces. the port mapping for IP interface 1 is displayed. Use the following syntax to display the status information for all IP interfaces on the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show interface all status 451-0311B 117 . Configuring IP Interfaces Displaying Interface Port Mapping Use the show interface characteristics command. for example: InReach:0 >>show interface 1 port mapping In the above example. the status information for IP interface 1 is displayed. Use the following syntax to display the port mapping for all IP interfaces on the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show interface all port mapping Figure 9 shows an example of the Interface Port Mapping display. and the SSH Socket Number. in the Superuser Command Mode. Serial Port Telnet Port SSH Port 0 0 0 1 2100 2122 2 2200 2222 3 2300 2322 4 2400 2422 5 2500 2522 6 2600 2622 7 2700 2722 8 2800 2822 Figure 9 .

0 eth0:1 Figure 11 . for example: InReach:0 >>show interface summary Figure 11 shows an example of the Interface Summary display.0 0.169.0. for example: InReach:0 >>show interface 1 rotary In the above example.0.0.0. in the Superuser Command Mode.255.0.0.0.0.191 IP Mask: 255.0 0.19. the rotary information for IP interface 1 is displayed.0.0 eth0 Interface_2 0. Time: Mon. to display summary information for all of the IP interfaces on the LX unit. Use the following syntax to display the rotary information for all IP interfaces on the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show interface all rotary 118 451-0311B .0.255 Figure 10 .0 IP Broadcast Addr: 102. to display information on rotaries. Mask Bound to Interface_1 0.19.0 0.255. 22 Dec 1969 16:19:34 Interface Name: Interface_1 Bound to : eth0 IP Address: 102.0 0. in the Superuser Command Mode.Configuring IP Interfaces Figure 10 shows an example of the Interface Status display.169.Interface Summary Display Displaying Rotary Information Use the show interface rotary command.0.Interface Status Display Displaying Interface Summaries Use the show interface summary command. Name Address Broadcast Addr.0.

Rotary Ip Address TCP/SSH Port Rotary Type Rotary State Serial Ports 147.7 Figure 12 .4.132.145.3. Configuring IP Interfaces Figure 12 shows an example of the Rotary display.Rotary Display 451-0311B 119 .16 1500/1522 First Available Disabled 2.

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Creating Subscriber Accounts and Entering Subscriber Command Mode To create a subscriber account.) 451-0311B 121 . The subscriber name must contain at least 2 characters. and how to display information on subscriber accounts. how to modify subscriber accounts. for each command mentioned in this chapter. sup. use the subscriber command in the Configuration Command Mode. subs. The reserved words super and subscriber. and no more than 15 characters. for example: Config:0 >>subscriber jack where jack is an example of a subscriber name (user name). This chapter describes how to create and delete subscriber accounts. sub. The subscriber account defines a User Profile that includes the subscriber’s username and password. etc. cannot be used as subscriber names. (Variations of super and subscriber include su. The LX-Series Commands Reference Guide provides a detailed syntax. he/she must log in to the unit under a subscriber account. and any variation of super and subscriber. and description. Chapter 7 Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit In order for a user (subscriber) to use the LX unit. The User Profile also defines the subscriber’s Security Level (User or Superuser) and contains all of the settings that affect the subscriber’s use of the LX unit. or to access an existing subscriber account.

NOTE: You can not delete the subscriber InReach. Executing the subscriber command puts you into the Subscriber Command Mode for the subscriber. Deleting Subscriber Accounts Use the no subscriber command. 122 451-0311B .. Subs_jack >>) is displayed. 64 on a 32-port unit. the subscriber account jack is deleted. and edw. the maximum number of subscribers is 16 on an 8-port unit. 32 on a 16-port unit. billj. to delete a subscriber account.g. for example: Config:0 >>copy subscriber benw to jimk billj edw In the above example. The Subscriber Command prompt (e. and 96 on a 48-port unit. for example: Config:0 >>no subscriber jack In the above example. For example. in the Configuration Command Mode. The copy subscriber command creates new subscriber accounts by copying the configuration of an existing subscriber account. Creating Subscriber Accounts by Copying You can also create subscriber accounts by executing the copy subscriber command in the Configuration Command Mode.Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit The maximum number of subscribers on an LX unit is equal to double the number of ports on the unit. the subscriber account configuration of benw is copied to jimk.

its User Profile is based on the default User Profile of the InReach subscriber. and Console. For more information. Web Browser. refer to “Dialback Access” on page 127. refer to the following: • “Telnet Access” (see below) • “SSH Access” (see page 124) • “Web Browser Access” (see page 126) • “Console Access” (see page 127) You can also provide subscribers with access via Dialback. The methods include Telnet. 451-0311B 123 .) Refer to the following sections to specify new settings in a User Profile: • “Specifying the Subscriber Access Methods” on page 123 • “Setting Up the Session and Terminal Parameters” on page 128 • “Configuring the Subscriber Password” on page 132 • “Specifying a Preferred Service” on page 133 • “Specifying a Dedicated Service” on page 133 • “Enabling Login Menus” on page 134 • “Adding Superuser Privileges to a Subscriber Account” on page 133 • “Configuring the Subscriber Password” on page 132 • “Enabling Audit Logging” on page 134 • “Enabling Command Logging” on page 134 Specifying the Subscriber Access Methods You can specify up to four methods for the subscriber to access the LX unit. SSH. Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit The User Profile When you create a new subscriber account with the subscriber command. (The InReach subscriber is the default subscriber for the LX unit. For information on specifying each method.

do the following: 1. for example: Subs_jack >>access ssh enable 2. quiet. for example: Subs_jack >>access telnet enable 2.Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit Telnet Access In order to specify Telnet access for a subscriber. or blowfish. for example: Subs_jack >>ssh log level debug The above example of the ssh log level command specifies that SSH messages of the debug class will be logged to syslogd for the subscriber. verbose. Refer to “Console Access” on page 127 to give the user access to asynchronous ports on the LX unit. fatal. Set the ssh log level parameter to the class of SSH messages that will be logged to syslogd. any. SSH Access In order to specify SSH access for a subscriber. 3. Set the ssh access parameter to enabled. Set the telnet access parameter to enabled. for example: Subs_jack >>telnet mode line Subs_jack >>telnet mode character After you have executed the above commands. info. the subscriber will have Telnet access to virtual ports on the LX unit. Set the telnet mode parameter to line or character. for example: Subs_jack >>ssh cipher triple-des Subs_jack >>ssh cipher any Subs_jack >>ssh cipher blowfish 124 451-0311B . You can also specify SSH log levels of error. do the following: 1. Set the ssh cipher parameter to triple-des.

Hence the effective key length is only 56 bits. blowfish Specifies that BLOWFISH is the only SSH encryption type supported for this subscriber. In DES. See “Usage Guidelines” (below) for more information on the BLOWFISH encryption type. Refer to “Console Access” on page 127 to give the subscriber access to asynchronous ports on the LX unit. the block size for plaintext is 64 bits. any Specifies that any SSH encryption type is supported for this subscriber. we apply 3 stages of DES with a separate key for each stage.e.. The key length in Triple-DES is 168 bits. Decryption is done by applying the reverse transformation to the block of ciphertext using the same key. You can specify a unique SSH key for the subscriber. Overview of Triple-DES DES is a block cipher (i. the subscriber will have SSH access to virtual ports on the LX unit. 451-0311B 125 . Refer to “Specifying a Unique SSH Key for the Subscriber” on page 126 for more information. After you have executed the above commands. Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit Description of the Three Encryption Types triple-des Specifies that the Triple Data Encryption Standard (Triple- DES) is the only SSH encryption type supported for this subscriber. DES is a symmetric key cipher. it acts on a fixed-length block of plaintext and converts it into a block of ciphertext of the same size by using the secret key). The length of the key is also 64 bits but 8 bits are used for parity. Since the same key is used both in encryption and decryption. In Triple-DES. This method differs from algorithms like the RSA encryption which use different keys to encrypt and decrypt a message.

It is significantly faster than DES when implemented on 32-bit microprocessors with large data caches. It takes a variable-length key. making it ideal for both domestic and exportable use. the following prompt is displayed: Please enter your key: Type an SSH key at the above prompt. The SSH key can be any random string of characters. It is only suitable for applications where the key does not change often. (The only requirement is that the user must log on from the host on which his or her SSH key was generated. for example: Subs_jack >>access web enable 126 451-0311B . such as the Pentium and the PowerPC. without entering a password.Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit Overview of Blowfish Blowfish is a variable-length key block cipher. As an alternative to typing the SSH key. you can paste a generated SSH key at the above prompt. from 32 bits to 448 bits. set the access web parameter to enabled. he/she can log on to the LX unit. Specifying a Unique SSH Key for the Subscriber You can specify a unique SSH key for the subscriber by executing the ssh key command.) Web Browser Access In order to specify Web Browser access for the subscriber. like a communications link or an automatic file encryptor. (The SSH key must be generated on the host from which the subscriber will make SSH connections to the LX unit. via SSH. for example: Subs_jack >>ssh key When you execute the ssh key command. Refer to your Linux documentation for more information on generating an SSH key.) When a subscriber has a unique SSH key.

Refer to “Console Access” on page 127 to give the user access to asynchronous ports on the LX. a user can only access virtual ports on the LX when his or her subscriber account has been configured for Telnet. Dialback Access The LX unit supports Dialback as an access method for LX subscribers. and calls can be restricted to specific destinations) and to manage connection costs (central site billing). The subscriber is then logged in to the LX unit. the subscriber dials in to the LX unit and logs in as he/she would if he/she were a dialin subscriber. and 6. the access to those ports must be configured in the subscriber account. To configure a subscriber account for access to asynchronous ports. If the subscriber login is valid. for example: Subs_jack >>access port 2 4 6 enable In the above example. Dialback is used for security (the destination is recorded by the Telco for billing. refer to “Telnet Access” on page 124 and “SSH Access” on page 124. For more information. Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit In order for the subscriber to have access to virtual ports on the LX. In order for a subscriber to access asynchronous ports. or Web Browser access. the LX unit calls the subscriber back. Under Dialback. Execute the access port enable command to specify the asynchronous ports that the subscriber can access. do the following: 1. 451-0311B 127 . The LX unit then validates the login and terminates the call. for example: Subs_jack >>access console enable 2. Console Access By default. 4. the subscriber is given access to asynchronous ports 2. SSH. you must configure Telnet or SSH for the subscriber. Execute the access console enable command to enable asynchro- nous port access for the subscriber.

3. including the Local Command Mode (see “Setting Up the Session Switch Characters” on page 131). For more information. do the following: 1. for example: Subs_jack >>dialback retry 7 The dialback retry parameter is the number of times that the modem on the LX unit can attempt to answer a dialback call Setting Up the Session and Terminal Parameters The session and terminal parameters include all settings that affect the subscriber session and the operation of the subscriber terminal during a subscriber session. Set the dialback access parameter to enabled. for example: Subs_jack >>terminal ansi Subs_jack >>terminal vt100 128 451-0311B . You can set the terminal type to ANSI or VT100. screen pause. • Terminal Type – Use the terminal command to set the terminal type for the subscriber. These settings include the session timeouts and limits. Specify a dialback number for the subscriber. Subscriber session mode. Specify the dialback retry parameter for the subscriber. user prompts. for example: Subs_jack >>dialback number 19785551978 The dialback number is the telephone number that the LX modem will dial to call back the subscriber.Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit In order to specify Dialback access for a subscriber. refer to the following: • Function Keys for Switching Between Sessions – Used to switch between subscriber sessions. terminal type. and function keys for switching between sessions. for example: Subs_jack >>dialback enable 2.

Use the no shell command to change the Subscriber session mode from Shell to CLI. The syntax of the session timeout command is as follows: Subs_jack >>session timeout 36000 The allowable values are 0 through 65535. for example: Subs_jack >>prompt mxxxx9 In the above example. the subscriber’s default login prompt (e. when the Subscriber session mode is Shell. the subscriber can only access the Linux shell and the GUI. the subscriber is logged into the Linux shell when he/she accesses the LX unit. • Subscriber Session Mode – When the Subscriber session mode is CLI. The Maximum Subscriber Sessions cannot be changed from 1 until the Subscriber Session Mode is disabled with the no shell command (see below). Use the shell enable command to change the Subscriber session mode from CLI to Shell. execute the prompt command. for example: Subs_jack >>shell enable When the shell enable command is executed. jack:0 >) is changed to mxxxx9:0 >.. the subscriber is logged into the CLI when he/she accesses the LX unit. A value of 0 means that there is no limit to the length of a subscriber session.g. When the Subscriber session mode is Shell. the Maximum Subscriber Sessions is automatically set to 1. the subscriber cannot access the CLI. • User Prompts – You can specify a custom user prompt of up to 8 ASCII characters to replace the username field of the default login prompt for a subscriber. To specify a custom user prompt. Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit • Maximum Length of a Subscriber Session – Use the session timeout command to set the maximum length (in seconds) of a subscriber session. for example: Subs_jack >>no shell 451-0311B 129 .

The allowable values are 0 through 4.Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit When the no shell command is executed. he/she is logged out. If the subscriber does not enter keyboard data before the expiration of the Inactivity Timeout. for example: Subs_jack >>session 3 130 451-0311B . • Screen Pause – When this feature is enabled. the Maximum Subscriber Sessions is automatically set to 4. You can use the idletime command to set the Inactivity Timeout to any value from 0 through 65535. • Maximum Simultaneous Connections – You can configure 1 through 255 simultaneous connections for a subscriber. the screen will pause after displaying the number of lines specified in the “lines/screen” value for the terminal. To enable this feature for a subscriber. for example: Subs_jack >>pause enable • Inactivity Timeout – The Inactivity Timeout is the length of time (in seconds) that the subscriber has to enter keyboard data. Use the maxsubscriber command to set the maximum simultaneous connections for the subscriber. use the pause enable command. for example: Subs_jack >>idletime 1200 A value of 0 means that the Inactivity Timer is effectively disabled. where a value of 0 disables the subscriber’s access to the LX unit. for example: Subs_jack >>maxsubscriber 10 • Maximum Subscriber Sessions – Use the session command to specify the maximum number of sessions for a subscriber.

Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit

Setting Up the Session Switch Characters

The LX unit supports up to 4 sessions per subscriber. (Refer to “Setting Up the
Session and Terminal Parameters” on page 128 to configure the number of
sessions for a subscriber.) You can configure Control characters as function keys
for switching to the previous, or next, session. You can also configure a Control
character as a function key for switching to the Local Command Mode.)

To configure Session Switch characters for a subscriber, use the following
commands:

• backward_switch – to specify the Function Key for switching
(backwards) to the previous session; for example:

Subs_jack >>backward_switch ^I

• forward_switch – to specify the Forward Switch (i.e., Control-
character sequence for switching to the next session); for example:

Subs_jack >>forward_switch ^J

• local_switch – to specify the Local Switch (i.e., Control-character
sequence for switching to the Local Command Mode); for example:
Subs_jack >>local_switch ^K

The Session Switch character can be specified as an uppercase alphabetical
character with, or without, a caret (^) before it. When the Session Switch
character is preceded by a caret, the LX command parser interprets it as a
Control-character sequence. For example, ^I is interpreted as CTRL/I;
^J as CTRL/J; and ^M as CTRL/M.

Be sure that there are no conflicting uses for the character you select
(particularly with control characters that are used by applications programs,
or with the character you set for the FORWARD SWITCH, the LOCAL
SWITCH, or any Telnet command characters). If you specify a CTRL
character, when the user types the character, it will be displayed as ^<Key>
(e.g., if the user types CTRL/I, the terminal will echo the characters: ^I).

451-0311B 131

Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit

Configuring the Subscriber Password
The default password for an LX subscriber account is access. It is
recommended that you, or the subscriber, change the password from this
default before the subscriber uses it to log in to the LX unit. This prevents
unauthorized users (who might know the default password) from logging
on to the LX unit.

Changing the Subscriber Password

To change the subscriber password, execute the password command; for
example:
Subs_jack >>password

When the password command is executed, the following prompts are
displayed:

Enter your NEW password :
Re-enter your NEW password:

Enter the new password at the Enter prompt, and re-enter it at the
Re-enter prompt. The password string can be up to 16 characters in
length, and it will be masked when you enter it at the above prompts.

Enabling the Subscriber to Change His or Her Own Password

To enable the subscriber to change his or her own password, execute the
password enable command; for example:
Subs_jack >>password enable

The subscriber will be prompted to enter, and verify, his or her new
password the next time he/she logs in to the LX unit.

132 451-0311B

Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit

Adding Superuser Privileges to a Subscriber Account
By default, a subscriber password has user privileges on the LX unit. A
subscriber with user privileges can only access the User Command Mode,
or his or her assigned Login menu, when he/she logs in to the LX unit.
You can add Superuser privileges to a subscriber account. With Superuser
privileges, the subscriber can use the enable command in the User
Command Mode to enter the Superuser Command Mode.

Use the security level superuser command to add Superuser
privileges to the subscriber account; for example:

Subs_jack >>security level superuser

Specifying a Dedicated Service
If a dedicated service is specified for a subscriber, the subscriber will begin
running the dedicated service whenever he/she logs in to the LX unit.
Telnet must be enabled for the subscriber in order for him to run a
dedicated service. Refer to “Specifying the Subscriber Access Methods” on
page 123 to enable Telnet for a subscriber.

Use the dedicated service command to specify a dedicated service for
the subscriber; for example:

Subs_jack >>dedicated service 192.173.56.10

Specifying a Preferred Service
Use the preferred service command to assign a service to which the
subscriber will be connected whenever he/she makes a connect request
without specifying a service; for example:

Subs_jack >>preferred service 178.87.42.19

Telnet must be enabled for the subscriber in order for him to run a
preferred service. Refer to “Specifying the Subscriber Access Methods” on
page 123 to enable Telnet for a subscriber.

451-0311B 133

In order for a menu to display for a subscriber. Enabling Login Menus A Subscriber Menu is a menu that displays for a subscriber when he/she logs in to the LX unit. To enable command logging for a subscriber.Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit Enabling Audit Logging An audit log records all of the port activity for a subscriber. This includes the commands that the subscriber enters as well as the data that is output on the port for the subscriber. Enabling Command Logging Command logging creates an audit trail of subscriber input in a subscriber session. To enable audit logging for a subscriber. and the menu financegroup is specified for him. you must enable the Login Menu feature and specify a menu for the subscriber. refer to “Displaying the Audit Log for a Subscriber” on page 138. for example: Subs_jack >>command log enable 134 451-0311B . execute the audit log enable command. For more information. The audit trail is sent to the accounting log and to syslogd. execute the show audit log command in the Superuser Command Mode. the subscriber jack is enabled for the Login Menu feature. Use the menu enable command to enable the Login Menu feature and to specify a menu that will be displayed for a subscriber when he/she logs in to the LX unit. The financegroup menu will be displayed for the subscriber jack when he/she logs on to the LX unit. execute the command log enable command. for example: Subs_jack >>audit log enable To display the contents of the audit log. for example: Subs_jack >>menu financegroup enable In the above example.

Subscriber Characteristics Display 451-0311B 135 . subscriber summaries. the show subscriber characteristics command is used to display the characteristics for the subscriber tim. Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit To display the contents of the command log. to display subscriber characteristics. refer to “Displaying the Command Log for a Subscriber” on page 139. Displaying Subscriber Characteristics Use the show subscriber characteristics command. Use the following syntax to display the characteristics for all of the subscribers on the LX unit: demo:0 >>show subscriber all characteristics Figure 13 shows an example of the Subscriber Characteristics display. for example: demo:0 >>show subscriber tim characteristics In the above example. and the audit log and command log for a subscriber. in the Superuser Command Mode. subscriber status and TCP information. Displaying Subscriber Information This section describes how to display subscriber characteristics. Subscriber Name: tim Security: Super User Prompt: Demo Preferred Service: Dedicated Service: Command Logging: Disabled User Password: Disabled Maximum Connections: 50 Maximum Sessions: 4 Session Mode: Normal Screen Pause: Enabled Debug Feature: Disabled Debug File: /tmp/D_demo Idle Timeout: 0 Session Timeout: 0 Menu Feature: Disabled Menu Name: /config/M_demo Forward Switch: ^F Local Switch: ^L Backward Switch: ^B Dialback Feature: Disabled Dialback Retry: 4 Dialback Number: Dialback Timeout: 45 Audit Feature: Disabled Port Access list: 1-8 Remote Access list: Telnet Ssh Web_Server Figure 13 . execute the show command log command in the Superuser Command Mode. For more information.

the show subscriber status command is used to display the status information for the subscriber tim.Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit Refer to the show subscriber command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed descriptions of the fields in the Subscriber Characteristics display. Name: tim Number of Connections: 0 Configured TermType: Ansi Session Mode: Normal Figure 14 . Displaying the Subscriber Status Use the show subscriber status command. to display the status information for a subscriber. for example: demo:0 >>show subscriber tim status In the above command. 03 Jan 2003 17:44:21 Subs. Time: Fri. 136 451-0311B .Subscriber Status Display Refer to the show subscriber command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed descriptions of the fields in the Subscriber Status display. Use the following syntax to display the status information for all of the subscribers on the LX unit: demo:0 >>show subscriber all status Figure 14 shows an example of the Subscriber Status display. in the Superuser Command Mode.

Subscriber TCP Display Refer to the show subscriber command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed descriptions of the fields in the Subscriber TCP display. in the Superuser Command Mode. Time: Fri. 03 Jan 2003 17:46:32 Subscriber Name: mark Telnet Line Mode: Character Mode SSH Name: mark SSH Encryption: Any SSH Port: 22 SSH Log Level: INFO Figure 15 . 451-0311B 137 . to display the subscriber TCP information. Use the following syntax to display the TCP information for all of the subscribers on the LX unit: demo:0 >>show subscriber all tcp Figure 15 shows an example of the Subscriber TCP display. Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit Displaying the Subscriber TCP Information Use the show subscriber tcp command. for example: demo:0 >>show subscriber tim tcp In the above command. the show subscriber tcp command is used to display the TCP information for the subscriber tim.

Use the show audit log command. for example: demo:0 >>show subscriber summary Figure 16 shows an example of the Subscriber Summary display. Displaying the Audit Log for a Subscriber An audit log records all of the port activity for a subscriber. in the Superuser Command Mode. the show audit log command is used to display the audit log for the subscriber tim. This includes the commands that the subscriber enters as well as the data that is output on the port for the subscriber.Subscriber Summary Display Refer to the show subscriber summary command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for detailed descriptions of the fields in the Subscriber Summary display. for example: demo:0 >>show audit log tim In the above command. to display a Subscriber Summary. to display the audit log for a subscriber. Name Connections Terminal Type In-Reach 0 Ansi demo 1 Ansi jack 0 Ansi Figure 16 . 138 451-0311B .Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit Displaying the Subscriber Summary Information Use the show subscriber summary command. in the Superuser Command Mode.

to display the command log for a subscriber.Audit Log Display Displaying the Command Log for a Subscriber A command log is an audit trail of subscriber input in a subscriber session. Nov 18 16:08:32 tim ttyGN0 0 Subs_tim >>end Nov 18 16:08:50 tim ttyGN0 1 tim:0 >> Nov 18 16:08:50 tim ttyGN0 2 tim:1 > Nov 18 16:08:50 tim ttyGN0 3 tim:2 > Nov 18 16:08:55 tim ttyGN0 3 tim:3 >sho session Nov 18 16:08:55 tim ttyGN0 3 Number Device Program Pid Time Status Nov 18 16:08:55 tim ttyGN0 3 0 /dev/pts/0 Superuser 477 98 - Nov 18 16:08:55 tim ttyGN0 3 1 /dev/pts/3 User 481 5 - Nov 18 16:08:55 tim ttyGN0 3 2 /dev/pts/4 User 482 5 - Nov 18 16:08:55 tim ttyGN0 3 3 /dev/pts/5 User 483 5 * Figure 17 . the show command log command is used to display the command log for the subscriber tim. Configuring Subscriber Accounts for the LX Unit Figure 17 shows an example of the Audit Log. for example: demo:0 >>show command log tim In the above command.Command Log Display 451-0311B 139 . in the Superuser Command Mode. Figure 18 shows an example of the Command Log. Use the show command log command. Nov 11 12:47:30 tim 0 end Nov 11 12:47:33 tim 0 sho command log Nov 11 12:49:21 tim 23 modem Nov 11 12:49:29 tim 23 end Nov 11 12:49:39 tim 23 show command log tim Figure 18 .

.

in the Asynchronous Command Mode. Chapter 8 Configuring Ports for Temperature/Humidity Sensors You can configure ports to act as temperature and humidity monitors when connected to an In-Reach Temperature/Humidity Sensor. to do this. Displaying the Temperature and Humidity Use the show device status command. Configuring Sensor Access for an LX Port You must configure an LX port’s access as sensor before you can perform any temperature/humidity monitoring on the port. the temperature and humidity readings of the Sensor attached to port 4 are displayed. in the Superuser Command Mode. Use the access command. to display the current temperature and humidity readings on a Sensor port. Refer to Getting Started with the LX Series to connect a Temperature/ Humidity Sensor to an LX port. for example: Async 4-4:0>>access sensor NOTE: The DIAG port (port 0) cannot be configured as a Sensor port. for example: InReach:0 >>show device 4 status In the above example. Use the following syntax to display the temperature and humidity readings for all Temperature/ Humidity Sensors on the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show device all status 451-0311B 141 . The Temperature/ Humidity Sensor provides an accurate measurement of the temperature and humidity in the area in which your LX Series unit is placed.

for example: InReach:0 >>show device summary Figure 20 shows an example of the Device Summary display.Device Status Display for a Sensor Port Displaying Sensor Summaries Use the show device summary command.00 Temperature (Fahrenheit): 78.80 Figure 19 .00 Temperature (Celsius): 26. Time: 29 Aug 2002 17:35:17 US/EASTERN Device Number: 4 Device Type: Sensor Humidity Level(%): 39. the Device Summary Display will display information for the attached Power Management Device (IR-5100 or IR-5150).Device Summary Display for Sensors NOTE: If any of the ports on the LX unit are configured as Power outlets. Device Number Device Type Model Name 1 Sensor N/A Figure 20 . to display summary information for all of the Temperature/Humidity Sensors that are currently connected to the LX unit. 142 451-0311B .Configuring Ports for Temperature/Humidity Sensors Figure 19 shows an example of the Device Status display for a Sensor port. in the Superuser Command Mode.

This chapter describes how to configure ports as Power Masters.) NOTE: You can access the on-board CLI of an IR-5150 unit that is connected to a console port. and how to display information on Power Control units. Use the following syntax to configure an asynchronous port as a Power Master for an IR-5150 unit: Async 5-5:0>>access power model ir5150 451-0311B 143 . Power Control units are remotely managed from LX asynchronous ports that are configured as Power Masters. and the outlet group command in the “Superuser Commands” chapter of the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide. to configure an LX asynchronous port as a Power Master. port 5 is configured as a Power Master for an IR-5100 unit. in the Asynchronous Command Mode. and log on to the IR-5150 unit. Chapter 9 Configuring Power Control Units The In-Reach Power Control Units (IR-5100 and IR-5150) can be managed remotely from asynchronous ports on an LX unit. how to configure Power Control units via Power Masters. for example: Async 5-5:0>>access power model ir5100 In the above example. To do this. refer to the outlet command. Telnet to its LX console port. (For information on performing these tasks. The management tasks that can be performed remotely include rebooting Power Control Relays and turning Power Control Relays on and off. Configuring an LX Asynchronous Port as a Power Master Use the access power model command.

However. you can connect a Power Control unit to it. For more information. Refer to the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide for more information on the outlet group command and the outlet name command.Configuring Power Control Units When a port has been configured as a Power Master. Default Name for a Power Control Relay The default name for a Power Control Relay is derived from its Alarm Master and the number of the relay on the Power Control unit. You must specify the default name. or the descriptive name. You can specify a descriptive name for a Power Control Relay or a Power Control Relay group. of a Power Control Relay. you only need to specify the number. The connection to the Power Master port is made using the RJ-45 crossover cable that is supplied with the Power Control unit. in the outlet group command in the Configuration Command Mode. 5:7 is the default name of the 7th Power Control Relay on the Power Control Unit that is managed from Alarm Master port 5. This is because the LX software “knows” that the Alarm Master is the current asynchronous port. refer to the Getting Started guide for the Power Control unit. or descriptive name. You must power on the Power Control unit before you can configure it from the LX unit. 144 451-0311B . For example. of the Power Control Relay in the outlet name command in the Asynchronous Command Mode. A descriptive name is a unique text name of up to 15 alphanumeric characters. For more information. refer to “Naming a Power Control Relay” on page 146 and “Naming a Group of Power Control Relays” on page 147.

the Off Time for Outlet Group 14 is set to 20 seconds. for example: Config:0 >>outlet group 2 2:5 3:7 4:2 4:3 4:5 In the above example. This section describes how to assign Power Control Relays to a group and how to specify the Off Time for Power Control Relays. Assigning Power Control Relays to a Group When Power Control Relays are assigned to a group. 451-0311B 145 . for example: Config:0 >>outlet group 14 off time 20 In the above example. in seconds. they can be configured and managed as a group. that Power Control Relays must remain off before they can be turned back on. This section describes how to specify the Off Time for a Power Control unit or for a group of Power Control Relays. to specify the Off Time for a group of Power Control Relays. This can be more efficient than configuring and managing Power Control Relays individually. The Off Time for Power Control Relays can be specified using the LX CLI. Specifying the Off Time for a Group of Power Control Relays Use the outlet group off time command. the Power Control Relays 2:5 3:7 4:2 4:3 4:5 are assigned to Group 2. Specifying the Off Time The Off Time is the length of time. Use the outlet group command to assign Power Control Relays to a group. Configuring Power Control Units Configuring Power Control Units Power Control Relays can be assigned to a group and managed and configured as a group. in the Configuration Command Mode.

. (The CLI is in the Asynchronous Command Mode for port 5. NOTE: The power off time command can only be executed on a port that is configured as a Master Alarm port and has a Power Control unit attached to it. in the Asynchronous Command Mode. to specify a descriptive name for a Power Control Relay. the descriptive name Build5NTserver is assigned to Power Control Relay 2 on the Power Control unit that is managed from Alarm Master port 5. for example: Async 5-5:0>>power off time 15 In the above example. 5:2) because the Alarm Master port is implied to be the current port in the Asynchronous Command Mode. In the above example.g. Use the outlet name command. in the Asynchronous Command Mode. for example: Async 5-5:0>>outlet 2 name Build5NTserver In the above example. to specify the Off Time for all of the Power Control Relays that are managed from an Alarm Master port. NOTE: The Alarm Master number is not specified in the outlet name command (e. an Off Time of 15 seconds is specified for all of the Power Control Relays that are managed from asynchronous port 5.Configuring Power Control Units Specifying the Off Time for a Power Control Unit Use the power off time command. the implied Alarm Master is port 5. Naming a Power Control Relay You can assign a descriptive name of up to 15 alphanumeric characters to a Power Control Relay.) 146 451-0311B .

Displaying Information on Power Control Units This section describes how to display information on Power Control units and Power Control Relays. and statuses for groups of Power Control Relays. for example: Config:0 >>outlet group 14 TestEquipment In the above example. Refer to Figure 19 on page 142 for the status display for a Temperature/Humidity Sensor port. The information that can be displayed includes statuses and summaries for Power Control units. in the Superuser Command Mode. to specify a descriptive name for a group of Power Control Relays. in the Configuration Command Mode. for example: InReach:0 >>show device 4 status In the above example. Displaying Status Information for Power Control Units Use the show device status command. Use the outlet group name command. Use the following syntax to display the status for all of the Power Control units that are managed from the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show device all status NOTE: The show device status command displays the status of all Power Control units and Temperature/Humidity sensors that are connected to the LX unit. to display status information for a particular Power Control unit. Configuring Power Control Units Naming a Group of Power Control Relays You can assign a descriptive name of up to 15 alphanumeric characters to a group of Power Control Relays. the descriptive name TestEquipment is assigned to Power Control Relay Group 14. the status for the Power Control unit on port 4 is displayed. 451-0311B 147 .

0 1 5 plug5 Off 0.0 1 7 4 plug4 Off 0.0 4 5 14 plug14 Off 0. Time: Tue.0 2 4 6 plug6 Off 0. to display status information for groups of Power Control Relays.0 4 5 16 plug16 Off 0.0 1 6 10 3 plug3 Off 0. Use the following syntax to display the status for all groups of Power Control Relays that are managed from the LX unit: InReach:0 >>show outlet group all status 148 451-0311B . for example: InReach:0 >>show outlet group TestEquipment status In the above example.0 5 Figure 21 .0 3 11 plug11 Off 0.0 3 12 plug12 Off 0.0 2 7 plug7 Off 0.0 2 8 plug8 Off 0. the status for the group TestEquipment is displayed.0 3 13 plug13 Off 0.0 3 4 10 plug10 Off 0.0 4 5 15 plug15 Off 0.Configuring Power Control Units Figure 21 shows an example of the Device Status display for an Alarm Master port. 17 Sep 2002 20:05:47 Device Number: 4 Device Type: IR5100 Model Name: IR-5100-126 Total Outlet Strip Load: 0.0 Outlet Minimum Off Time: 15 Outlet Name State Load Assigned Groups 1 plug1 Off 0.Device Status Display for an Alarm Master Port Displaying Status Information for Groups of Power Control Relays Use the show device status command.0 2 9 plug9 Off 0.0 1 4 13 2 plug2 Off 0. in the Superuser Command Mode.

for example: InReach:0 >>show device summary Figure 23 shows an example of the Device Summary display. Device Number Device Type Model Name 4 IR5100 IR-5100-126 5 IR5100 IR-5100-255 Figure 23 . to display summary information for all of the Power Control units that are currently connected to the LX unit.Device Status Display for a Power Control Relay Group Displaying Summary Information for Power Control Units Use the show device summary command. Refer to Figure 20 on page 142 for the Summary Display for a Temperature/Humidity Sensor port. 451-0311B 149 .Device Summary Display NOTE: The show device summary command displays summary information for all Power Control units and Temperature/Humidity sensors that are connected to the LX unit. Time: Mon. 16 Sep 2002 17:55:19 Group Number: 2 Group Name: TestEquipment Group Off Time: 4 Port Outlet State 2 1 Not configured 2 2 Not configured Figure 22 . in the Superuser Command Mode. Configuring Power Control Units Figure 22 shows an example of the Device Status display for a Power Control Relay Group.

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On the LX unit (as on all Linux-based systems). which filters packets that are to be forwarded to another network. For this reason. denying. through an LX unit. or not pass. The iptables command is executed in Linux shell. Chapter 10 Configuring Packet Filters with the iptables Command Packet Filters are used to allow certain IP packets to pass. or from the LX unit itself. execute the shell command in the Superuser Command Mode. Packet Filters are known as chains. A chain consists of a series of rules that specify the criteria for accepting. NOTE: The LX unit also supports the FORWARD chain. the FORWARD chain is not covered in this chapter. To access the Linux shell. the OUTPUT chain filters packets from the LX destined for the LAN. Adding a Rule to a Chain Use the iptables command to add a rule to a chain. you can display the chains for the LX unit by executing the iptables command with the -L option. denying. The INPUT chain filters packets coming from the LAN to the LX. The FORWARD chain is used primarily in routing environments rather than in console management environments. The criteria for accepting. for example: InReach:0 >>shell When you are in the Linux shell. Packet Filters can be applied to IP packets that originate from the LAN side of the LX. or dropping a packet. for example: In-Reach:/# iptables -L 451-0311B 151 . the destination IP Address. and other characteristics. or dropping a packet can include the source IP Address.

152 451-0311B ..240: In-Reach:/# iptables -A INPUT -s 10. -j Specifies the action that is to be taken when a packet matching this criteria is received. Example: Dropping Packets Based on the Source IP Address The following iptables command creates a rule that will drop any packets coming to the LX from source address 10.10. In this case.10. Refer to “Notes on the iptables Command Options” on page 154 for a description of all of the allowable values (i.240. Refer to “Notes on the iptables Command Options” on page 154 for alternatives to the -A option. or DROP) of the -j option.10. the INPUT chain).240 -j DROP The options in the above command are the following: -A Specifies that the rule is to be appended to the specified chain (in this case. -s Specifies that the rule applies to the specified source IP Address (in this case. For detailed information on the iptables command.240. the packet is to be dropped. DENY. 10.240. refer to Appendix D (“Details of the iptables Command”) on page 151.Configuring Packet Filters with the iptables Command The following sections provide examples of how to create rules using various options of the iptables command.240).e. ACCEPT.

Example: Ignoring Telnet Requests from a Specific IP Address The following iptables command creates a rule that ignores Telnet requests from the IP address 143. DENY.104: In-Reach:/# iptables -A INPUT -s 143. Refer to “Notes on the iptables Command Options” on page 154 for a description of all of the allowable values (i. Refer to “Notes on the iptables Command Options” on page 154 for alternatives to the -A option. the INPUT chain).56. the packet is to be accepted.17.104 -p tcp --destination-port telnet -j DROP The options in the above command are the following: -A Specifies that the rule is to be appended to the specified chain (in this case.129: In-Reach:/# iptables -A OUTPUT -d 123.56.146.146.e. Refer to “Notes on the iptables Command Options” on page 154 for alternatives to the -A option.. 451-0311B 153 .129 -j ACCEPT The options in the above command are the following: -A Specifies that the rule is to be appended to the specified chain (in this case.114. Configuring Packet Filters with the iptables Command Example: Accepting Packets Based on the Destination IP Address The following iptables command creates a rule that will allow the LX unit to output packets to the destination IP address 123. 123. -d Specifies that the rule applies to the specified destination IP Address (in this case.146. -j Specifies the action that is to be taken when a packet matching this criteria is received.17.129). ACCEPT.114. or DROP) of the -j option. the OUTPUT chain). In this case.17.

143. the destination port is the Telnet port.104).240 -j DROP The rules that follow the new rule will be bumped up by 1. Refer to “Notes on the iptables Command Options” on page 154 for a description of the allowable values of the -p option.e. In the following example. In this case. to specify how the rule will be added to the chain.247.93 -j DROP 154 451-0311B . Refer to “Notes on the iptables Command Options” on page 154 for a description of all of the allowable values (i. --destination-port Specifies the TCP destination port to which the rule applies.56. Notes on the iptables Command Options • Alternatives to the -A Option – You can use the -I option or the -R option.) -j Specifies the action that is to be taken when a packet matching this criteria is received.240.Configuring Packet Filters with the iptables Command -s Specifies that the rule applies to the specified destination IP Address (in this case. the packet is to be dropped. ACCEPT. instead of the -A option. In the following example. DENY.10. the -R option specifies that the rule is to replace the 8th rule in the OUTPUT chain: iptables -R OUTPUT 8 -s 89. The -R option specifies that the rule will replace a specific rule in the chain. or DROP) of the -j option. the -I option specifies that the rule is to be inserted as the 11th rule in the INPUT chain: iptables -I INPUT 11 -s 10. -p Specifies that the rule applies to a particular protocol (in this case. TCP). The -I option specifies that the rule will be inserted at a specified location before the end of the chain.114.112.. (In this case.

Execute the shell command. DENY – The packet is not allowed to pass through the specified chain (i. in the Superuser Command Mode. INPUT or OUTPUT). To make this configuration persistent through the reboot.conf. A message indicating that the LX is not accepting connections is sent back to the source IP Address. Configuring Packet Filters with the iptables Command • Allowable Values of the -j Option – You can specify the following values for the -j option: ACCEPT – The packet is allowed to pass through the specified chain (i. DROP – The packet is not allowed to pass through the specified chain (i. Saving Changes in Rules The configuration is kept in the file /config/iptables. INPUT or OUTPUT). The configuration is dynamically applied when an iptables command is entered. This file is generated by the utility iptables-save upon reading the filter tables located in the Kernel. INPUT or OUTPUT).. The command iptables-save creates the new configuration file in /config/iptables. for example: InReach:0 >>shell 2.e.e.conf. it is necessary to save the configuration to the flash or the network from the Superuser command line.. A message is not sent back to the source IP Address. Verify the Iptables configuration with the iptables -L command. • Allowable Values of the -p Option – You can specify TCP. UDP. or ICMP as the value of the -p option. to access the Linux shell.. Do the following to save the iptables configuration: 1.e. for example: In-Reach:/# iptables -L 451-0311B 155 .

for example: In-Reach:/# exit 5. Save the Iptables changes to the /config/iptables. 156 451-0311B . for example: InReach:0 >>save configuration flash NOTE: You can use the network option of the save configuration command to save the configuration to a network server.conf file. in the Superuser Command Mode. for example: In-Reach:/# iptables-save -f /config/iptables.conf file to flash or the network.conf 4. Execute the save configuration command. For more information. refer to the save configuration command in the LX-Series Commands Reference Guide.Configuring Packet Filters with the iptables Command 3. to save the iptables. Execute the exit command to return to the Superuser Command Mode.

The username and password are authenticated by the RADIUS server. In this example. 1. The RADIUS server validates the request and then decrypts the password. 2. The RADIUS server maintains a database that contains user authentication and network service access information. The LX unit takes the username and password and creates an access- request packet identifying the LX unit making the request. The LX unit then sends the access-request packet to the designated RADIUS server for authentication. 4. NOTE: The user password is encrypted to prevent it from being intercepted and reused by an unwanted user. This is done by generating a random vector and placing it in the request header. the user attempts to gain access to an LX asynchronous port. Appendix A Overview of RADIUS Authentication RADIUS authentication occurs through a series of communications between the LX unit and the RADIUS server. and the port being used. the username and password. The user’s password is then encrypted by XORing it with the encoded copy of the random vector. the LX unit provides that user with access to the appropriate network services. 3. 451-0311B 157 . A copy of the random vector is MD5 encoded using the configured secret. Once RADIUS has authenticated a user. The LX unit prompts the user for a username and password. The following example describes the steps in the RADIUS authentication process.

6. the RADIUS server sends an authentication rejection to the LX unit and the user is denied access to the network. Radius Server Host - authenticates the user. LX unit sends access-request Access to packet for authentication. The LX unit then grants the user the services requested. Figure 24 shows an example of the RADIUS authentication process. desired services is granted.RADIUS Authentication Process 158 451-0311B . Upon successful authentication. User attempts to gain access. If at any point in the authentication process conditions are not met. Figure 24 . Access-accept returned to LX unit.Overview of RADIUS Authentication 5. the RADIUS server sends an access- accept packet containing any specific configuration information associated with that user.

This is true for local port access. The RADIUS secondary server is used when the RADIUS primary server cannot be accessed. Inter- face virtual port access and access using the GUI. Overview of RADIUS Authentication The LX implementation of RADIUS supports the use of RADIUS secondary servers. RADIUS Authentication Attributes Table 9 lists the RADIUS Authentication Attributes that are supported on the LX unit. The sup- ported types are the following: NAS-Prompt Allows local port access for interactive sessions. The user is prohibited from accessing the Superuser Com- mand Mode. 02 User-Password The password for the user to authenticate. but the majority of attributes appear in stop records (a few also appear in acct-on and acct-off records). Authenticate-Only Allows local port access for interactive sessions. NOTE: Some attributes appear in start records. RADIUS allows most authentication and configuration attributes to be logged. In each case. This Service Type is allowed for local port access. user is prohibited from accessing the Superuser Command Mode. 451-0311B 159 . 03 CHAP-Password Indicates the CHAP challenge value found in the CHAP-Challenge attribute. the user is prohibited from Superuser access. user is prohibited from accessing the Superuser Command Mode. Table 9 . No-Service-Type Allows local port access for interactive sessions. 06 Service-Type Type of service allowed for the connection.Supported RADIUS Authentication Attributes Attribute Name Description 01 User-Name Name of the user to authenticate. Interface virtual port access and access using the GUI.

08 Framed-IP-Address The address to be configured for the user. the LX requires the user's service-type to be Outbound-User. This is true for local port access. 07 Framed-Protocol Used with a framed service type. 24 State (challenge/response) Sent by the server to the client in an Access-Chal- lenge. Interface virtual port access and access using the GUI. The user is allowed access to Superuser and Configuration Command Modes. NOTE: All remote access ports on the LX require a Service Type of Outbound-User. If the asynchronous remote-accessed port is configured for outbound RADIUS authentication. 09 Framed-IP-Netmask The IP Netmask to be configured for the user when the user is a router to the network. 13 Framed-Compression The compression protocol for the circuit. Outbound-User Allows only remote port access. and must be sent unmodified from the client to the server in any Access-Request reply. PPP). Overview of RADIUS Authentication Administrative-User Allows local port access for interactive sessions. 60 CHAP-Challenge 160 451-0311B .g. otherwise the user’s access is rejected.. Framed Allows local port access for a Dial-in PPP user. Indicates the type of framed access (e.

It also provides a method for billing customers for account usage. As a result of the start request. port number. Appendix B Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting RADIUS Accounting. The following section describes RADIUS Accounting. The use of RADIUS Accounting. and the number of bytes/packets that were processed by the LX unit. This allows for greater expandability of accounting information in the future. an accounting request (a start request) is sent to the RADIUS accounting server. including a provision for vendor-specific extensions. solves the problems associated with local storage of large numbers of records. or TACACS+ Accounting. the duration of the session. RADIUS Accounting Client Operation If a user is validated under RADIUS. Client IP address. and TACACS+ Accounting. NOTE: RADIUS Accounting is a developing standard that is vendor extensible by design. are client/server account logging schemes that allow you to log user account information to a remote server in a per-client file. The file or record can contain information such as the user who logged in. Refer to “TACACS+ Accounting Client Operation” on page 163 for information about TACACS+ Accounting. a start record containing the following is created for each user session: • User-name • NAS-Identifier • NAS-IP-Address • NAS-Port 451-0311B 161 .

when the LX unit is shut down. if possible. 162 451-0311B . RADIUS Accounting Attributes Table 10 lists the RADIUS Accounting Attributes that are supported on the LX unit. and additional information. The stop record is created when the port is logged out.Supported RADIUS Accounting Attributes Attribute Name Description 01 User-Name Name of the user to authenticate. Table 10 . • Accounting-on – This record is logged when the LX unit is first booted. • Accounting-off – This record is logged. These records only contain the NAS-IP-Address. 04 NAS-IP-Address IP address associated with the LX unit. they are only attempted if the RADIUS protocol is enabled. There are two special records that are logged for RADIUS Accounting. provided that a matching start record was previously sent. The information in the stop record includes everything in the start record. such as session time and bytes/packets transferred. Since these accounting requests only relate to the LX unit using the protocol and not to accounting on a specific port.Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting • NAS-Port-Type • Acct-Status-Type • Acct-Session-ID • Acct-Input-Octets • Acct-Output-Octets • Acct-Input-Packets (PPP) • Acct-Output-Packets (PPP) The majority of the accounting record information appears in the stop record.

43 Acct-Output-Octets A count of the output octets for the session.Start 2 . 32 NAS-Identifier The ID that identifies the LX unit to the RADIUS server. As a result of the start request. The valid values are: 0 . an accounting request (a start request) is sent to the TACACS+ accounting server. Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting 05 NAS-Port Port or circuit number associated with the request. 47 Acct-Input-Packets A count of the input packets for a PPP session. 48 Acct-Output-Packets A count of the output packets for a PPP session. 40 Acct-Status-Type Indicates whether the session has started or stopped. 61 NAS-Port-Type The type of port being used.Asynchronous TACACS+ Accounting Client Operation If a user is validated under TACACS+.Stop 42 Acct-Input-Octets A count of the input octets for the session. a start record containing the following is created for each user session: • Start-time • Bytes • Bytes-in • Bytes-out • Paks (for PPP connections) • Paks-in (for PPP connections) • Paks-out (for PPP connections) 451-0311B 163 . 44 Acct-Session-ID Session Identifier for the user login. The valid values are: 1 .

provided that a matching start record was previously sent. and the following: • Stop-time • Elapsed-time TACACS+ Accounting Attributes Table 11 lists the TACACS+ Accounting Attributes that are supported on the LX unit. otherwise equals "shell" Protocol Equals "ip" in PPP connections only Task_id Each set of start. update. The stop record is created when the port is logged out. Start_time Time (in seconds since epoch) that the accounting started Stop_time Time (in seconds since epoch) that the accounting stopped Elapsed_time The number of seconds the user was logged on for Bytes The total number of bytes transferred Bytes_in The number of bytes received Bytes_out The number of bytes transmitted 164 451-0311B . Table 11 .Supported TACACS+ Accounting Attributes Attribute Name Description Service Either "ppp" for PPP connection. The majority of the accounting record information appears in the stop record.Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting Depending on the Accounting Period Interval. The information in the stop record includes everything in the start record. an accounting update request will be sent which will contain the same fields with the newer information. and stop entries should have unique IDs.

Overview of RADIUS and TACACS+ Accounting Paks The total number of packets transferred (for PPP connections) Paks_in The number of packets received (for PPP connections) Paks_out The number of packets transmitted (for PPP connections) 451-0311B 165 .

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and the TACACS+ superuser request is enabled. Authorization. Appendix C Overview of TACACS+ Authentication TACACS+ authentication occurs through a series of communications between the LX unit and the TACACS+ server. Authorization is the process of determining what the user is able to do. Usually a user is required to enter in a user name and password to be granted access. 451-0311B 167 . The TACACS+ server maintains a database that contains user authentication and network service access information. The TACACS+ superuser request attribute is independent from the TACACS+ login. the enable password will be authenticated against the TACACS+ server database. The TACACS+ superuser request attribute is used to indicate which database to authenticate the superuser password against after a user is logged in. The entire body of the packet is encrypted using a series of 16 byte MD5 hashes. Accounting records what the user has done and generally occurs after authentication and authorization. The profile in the TACACS+ server should have a service of exec and a priv-lvl of 15 in order to access Superuser privileges. the LX unit provides that user with access to the appropriate network services. and Accounting. TACACS+ uses the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) on port 49 to ensure reliable transfer. otherwise the user will only be able to be in user mode. otherwise it is checked against the LX database "system". Authentication is the process of determining who the user is. When a user types the enable command. The protocol is split up into 3 distinct categories: Authentication. Once TACACS+ has authenticated a user.

If a password is required. the user is prompted for one and the LX sends it to the server in an authentication continue packet. 4. 02 User-Password The password for the user to authenticate. the user attempts to gain access to an LX asynchronous port. The username is sent to the TACACS+ authentication start packet. Overview of TACACS+ Authentication Example of TACACS+ Authentication The following example describes the steps in the TACACS+ authentication process. The LX unit then grants the user the services requested. The server responds with an authentication reply packet. Table 12 .Supported TACACS+ Authentication Attributes Attribute Name Description 01 User-Name Name of the user to authenticate. which will either allow the user access or require a password. If the request is successful. otherwise the user will have two more chances to receive an authentication status pass back from the server. The LX unit prompts the user for a username and password. 1. 6. 168 451-0311B . the user will be allowed to log in. 7. The server responds with a packet that contains an authentication status pass or an authentication status fail. 2. 3. In this example. 5. TACACS+ Authentication Attributes Table 12 lists the TACACS+ Authentication Attributes that are supported on the LX unit.

LX unit initiates the Access to authentication process. The TACACS+ secondary server is used when the TACACS+ primary server cannot be accessed. the TACACS+ server denies access to the network. Figure 25 shows an example of the TACACS+ authentication process. Authentication server authenticates the user. Figure 25 . Overview of TACACS+ Authentication If at any point in the authentication process conditions are not met. User attempts to gain access. desired services is granted. 451-0311B 169 .TACACS+ Authentication Process The LX implementation of TACACS+ supports the use of TACACS+ secondary servers. TACACS+ Server - authenticates the user.

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which is introduced in “Configuring Packet Filters with the iptables Command” on page 151.IP packet filter administration SYNOPSIS iptables -[ADC] chain rule-specification [options] iptables -[RI] chain rulenum rule-specification [options] iptables -D chain rulenum [options] iptables -[LFZ] [chain] [options] iptables -[NX] chain iptables -P chain target [options] iptables -E old-chain-name new-chain-name DESCRIPTION Iptables is used to set up. Each chain is a list of rules which can match a set of packets. Several different tables may be defined. Each table con tains a number of built-in chains and may also contain user-defined chains. Refer to the man pages in this appendix for detailed information on the iptables command. iptables man Pages IPTABLES(8) IPTABLES(8) NAME iptables . and inspect the tables of IP packet filter rules in the Linux kernel. Appendix D Details of the iptables Command This appendix contains the Linux man pages for the iptables command. maintain. Each rule specifies what to do with a packet 451-0311B 171 .

an attempt will be made to load the appropriate module for that table if it is not already there. FORWARD (for packets being routed through the box). If the packet does not match. if it does match. DROP means to drop the packet on the floor.Details of the iptables Command that matches. TABLES There are current three independent tables (which tables are present at any time depends on the kernel configura tion options and which modules are present). This is called a `target'. --table This option specifies the packet matching table which the command should operate on. or RETURN. It consists of three built-ins: PREROUTING (for altering packets 172 451-0311B . It contains the built-in chains INPUT (for packets coming into the box itself). TARGETS A firewall rule specifies criteria for a packet. ACCEPT means to let the packet through. which may be a jump to a user-defined chain in the same table. If the end of a built-in chain is reached or a rule in a built-in chain with target RETURN is matched. then the next rule is specified by the value of the target. the target specified by the chain policy determines the fate of the packet. DROP. QUEUE means to pass the packet to userspace (if supported by the kernel). nat This table is consulted when a packet that creates a new connection is encountered. RETURN means stop traversing this chain and resume at the next rule in the previous (calling) chain. -t. QUEUE. The tables are as follows: filter This is the default table. and a target. the next rule in the chain is the examined. and OUTPUT (for locally-generated packets). If the kernel is configured with automatic module loading. which can be the name of a user-defined chain or one of the special values ACCEPT.

a rule will be added for each possible address combination. --delete Delete one or more rules from the selected chain. COMMANDS These options specify the specific action to perform. the command will fail. -A. -R. It has two built-in chains: PREROUTING (for altering incoming packets before routing) and OUTPUT (for altering locally- generated packets before routing). 451-0311B 173 . There are two versions of this command: the rule can be specified as a number in the chain (starting at 1 for the first rule) or a rule to match. Details of the iptables Command as soon as they come in). you need to use only enough letters to ensure that iptables can differen tiate it from all other options. and POSTROUTING (for altering packets as they are about to go out). mangle This table is used for special ized packet alteration. -D. OPTIONS The options that are recognized by iptables can be divided into several different groups. Only one of them can be specified on the command line unless otherwise specified below. --replace Replace a rule in the selected chain. Rules are num bered starting at 1. --append Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain. OUTPUT (for altering locally-generated packets before routing). For all the long ver sions of the command and option names. If the source and/or destination names resolve to multiple addresses. When the source and/or destination names resolve to more than one address.

it will attempt to delete every non-builtin chain in the table. 174 451-0311B . all chains are listed. This is also the default if no rule number is specified. If there are. you must delete or replace the referring rules before the chain can be deleted. It is legal to specify the -L. This is equivalent to deleting all the rules one by one. If no argument is given. --policy Set the policy for the chain to the given target.) -N. It is legal to specify the -Z (zero) option as well. --new-chain Create a new user-defined chain by the given name. the rule or rules are inserted at the head of the chain. -P. If no chain is selected. in which case the chain(s) will be atomically listed and zeroed. --insert Insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule number. -X. if the rule number is 1. --list (list) option as well. -Z. -F. --zero Zero the packet and byte counters in all chains. to see the counters immediately before they are cleared. --flush Flush the selected chain. --delete-chain Delete the specified user-defined chain. (See above. There must be no references to the chain.Details of the iptables Command -I. The exact output is affected by the other arguments given. See the section TARGETS for the legal targets. --list List all rules in the selected chain. There must be no target of that name already. So. -L.

a mask of 24 is equivalent to 255. 451-0311B 175 . --protocol [!] protocol The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check. The flag --src is a convenient alias for this option. A "!" argument before the protocol inverts the test. --source [!] address[/mask] Source specification. PARAMETERS The following parameters make up a rule specification (as used in the add. A protocol name from /etc/protocols is also allowed. The number zero is equivalent to all. Protocol all will match with all protocols and is taken as default when this option is omit ted. The specified protocol can be one of tcp. --rename-chain Rename the user specified chain to the user sup plied name. Address can be either a hostname. This is cosmetic. and has no effect on the structure of the table. insert. and neither built-in nor user-defined chains can be policy targets.0. Details of the iptables Command Only non-user-defined chains can have policies. udp. Thus. or all.255. Give a (currently very brief) description of the command syntax. repre senting one of these protocols or a different one. -p. or a plain IP address. -s. The mask can be either a network mask or a plain number. A "!" argument before the address specification inverts the sense of the address.255. replace and append com mands). -h Help. or it can be a numeric value. icmp. delete. -E. a network name. specifying the number of 1's at the left side of the network mask.

[!] -f. then matching the rule will have no effect on the packet's fate. then any interface which begins with this name will match. See the description of the -s (source) flag for a detailed description of the syntax. --out-interface [!] [name] Optional name of an interface via which a packet is going to be sent (for packets entering the FORWARD. --fragment 176 451-0311B . the string "+" is assumed. then any interface which begins with this name will match. the sense is inverted. When the "!" argu ment is used before the interface name. or an extension (see EXTENSIONS below). what to do if the packet matches it. -o.e. --jump target This specifies the target of the rule. OUTPUT and POSTROUTING chains). but the coun ters on the rule will be incremented. the sense is inverted. The target can be a user-defined chain (other than the one this rule is in). If the interface name ends in a "+". The flag --dst is an alias for this option. If the interface name ends in a "+". -j. If this option is omitted. --destination [!] address[/mask] Destination specification. one of the special builtin targets which decide the fate of the packet immediately. If this option is omitted in a rule. the string "+" is assumed.Details of the iptables Command -d. --in-interface [!] [name] Optional name of an interface via which a packet is received (for packets entering the INPUT.. -i. which will match with any interface name. FORWARD and PREROUTING chains). i. If this option is omitted. which will match with any interface name. When the "!" argument is used before the interface name.

such a packet will not match any rules which specify them. 1.000. with the suffix 'K'. -x. REPLACE operations) OTHER OPTIONS The following additional options can be specified: -v. this causes detailed information on the rule or rules to be printed. the rule options (if any). Since there is no way to tell the source or destination ports of such a packet (or ICMP type). --numeric Numeric output. When the "!" argument precedes the "-f" flag. net work names.000 multipli ers respectively (but see the -x flag to change this). The packet and byte coun ters are also listed. instead of only the rounded number in K's (multiples of 1000) M's (mul tiples of 1000K) or G's (multiples of 1000M). -c. 'M' or 'G' for 1000. --exact Expand numbers.000. the rule will only match head fragments. For appending. or services (whenever applicable). Display the exact value of the packet and byte counters. --verbose Verbose output. and the TOS masks. the pro gram will try to display them as host names. insertion. By default.000 and 1. 451-0311B 177 . Details of the iptables Command This means that the rule only refers to second and further fragments of fragmented packets. This option is only relevant for the -L command.000. deletion and replacement. -n. APPEND. --set-counters PKTS BYTES This enables the administrater to initialize the packet and byte counters of a rule (during INSERT. This option makes the list command show the interface address. IP addresses and port numbers will be printed in numeric format. or unfrag mented packets.

The flag --sport is an alias for this option. 178 451-0311B . after these. and you can use the -h or --help options after the module has been specified to receive help specific to that module. if the last is omitted. match extensions. use command to load any necessary modules (targets. --modprobe=<command> When adding or inserting rules into a chain. etc). This can either be a service name or a port number. "0" is assumed. You can specify multiple extended match modules in one line. The following are included in the base package. and most of these can be preceded by a ! to invert the sense of the match. followed by the matching module name. tcp These extensions are loaded if `--protocol tcp' is speci fied. MATCH EXTENSIONS iptables can use extended packet matching modules. If the first port is omitted. add line numbers to the begin ning of each rule. using the format port:port. various extra command line options become available. corresponding to that rule's position in the chain. when -p or --protocol is specified. or with the -m or --match options. "65535" is assumed. An inclusive range can also be specified.Details of the iptables Command --line-numbers When listing rules. depending on the specific module. These are loaded in two ways: implicitly. If the second port greater then the first they will be swapped. It provides the following options: --source-port [!] [port[:port]] Source port or port range specification.

451-0311B 179 . See the description of the --source-port option of the TCP extension for details.RST SYN will only match packets with the SYN flag set. but outgoing TCP connections will be unaffected. Hence the command iptables -A FORWARD -p tcp --tcp-flags SYN. It provides the following options: --source-port [!] [port[:port]] Source port or port range specification. The flag --dport is an alias for this option. and the ACK. The first argument is the flags which we should exam ine. FIN and RST flags unset. written as a comma-separated list. and the second argument is a comma-separated list of flags which must be set. Details of the iptables Command --destination-port [!] [port[:port]] Destination port or port range specification. blocking such packets coming in an interface will prevent incoming TCP connections.ACK. Flags are: SYN ACK FIN RST URG PSH ALL NONE.ACK SYN.FIN. for example.RST. If the "!" flag precedes the "--syn". [!] --syn Only match TCP packets with the SYN bit set and the ACK and FIN bits cleared. It is equivalent to --tcp-flags SYN. --tcp-option [!] number Match if TCP option set. the sense of the option is inverted. udp These extensions are loaded if `--protocol udp' is speci fied. Such packets are used to request TCP connection initiation. --tcp-flags [!] mask comp Match when the TCP flags are as specified.

180 451-0311B . which can be a numeric ICMP type. limit This module matches at a limited rate using a token bucket filter: it can be used in combination with the LOG target to give limited logging. `/hour'. A rule using this extension will match until this limit is reached (unless the `!' flag is used). with an optional `/second'. --limit rate Maximum average matching rate: specified as a num ber.Details of the iptables Command --destination-port [!] [port[:port]] Destination port or port range specification. It must be of the form XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX. See the description of the --destination-port option of the TCP extension for details. or `/day' suffix. FORWARD or INPUT chains for packets coming from an ethernet device. or one of the ICMP type names shown by the command iptables -p icmp -h mac --mac-source [!] address Match source MAC address. up to this number. --limit-burst number The maximum initial number of packets to match: this number gets recharged by one every time the limit specified above is not reached. It provides the following option: --icmp-type [!] typename This allows specification of the ICMP type. the default is 3/hour. Note that this only makes sense for packets entering the PREROUTING. icmp This extension is loaded if `--protocol icmp' is speci fied. `/minute'. the default is 5.

--port [port[. Details of the iptables Command multiport This module matches a set of source or destination ports.port]] Match if the both the source and destination ports are equal to each other and to one of the given ports. It can only be used in conjunction with -p tcp or -p udp.port]] Match if the destination port is one of the given ports. and even this some packets (such as ICMP ping responses) may have no owner. It is only valid in the OUTPUT chain. mark This module matches the netfilter mark field associated with a packet (which can be set using the MARK target below). --mark value[/mask] Matches packets with the given unsigned mark value (if a mask is specified. and hence never match. --gid-owner groupid Matches if the packet was created by a process with 451-0311B 181 . this is logically ANDed with the mark before the comparison). Up to 15 ports can be specified. owner This module attempts to match various characteristics of the packet creator. --source-port [port[. --uid-owner userid Matches if the packet was created by a process with the given effective user id. --destination-port [port[. for locally-generated packets.port]] Match if the source port is one of the given ports.

This is regarded as experimental. allows access to the connection tracking state for this packet. Possible states are INVALID meaning that the packet is associated with no known connection. unclean This module takes no options. --state state Where state is a comma separated list of the con nection states to match. (use 182 451-0311B . tos This module matches the 8 bits of Type of Service field in the IP header (ie. but attempts to match pack ets which seem malformed or unusual. --pid-owner processid Matches if the packet was created by a process with the given process id. --sid-owner sessionid Matches if the packet was created by a process in the given session group. or other wise associated with a connection which has not seen packets in both directions. and RELATED mean ing that the packet is starting a new connection. state This module. --tos tos The argument is either a standard name. when combined with connection tracking. or an ICMP error. including the precedence bits). ESTABLISHED meaning that the packet is associated with a connection which has seen packets in both directions. NEW meaning that the packet has started a new connection.Details of the iptables Command the given effective group id. but is associated with an existing connection. such as an FTP data transfer.

up to 29 letters long. --log-level level Level of logging (numeric or see syslog. --log-tcp-options Log options from the TCP packet header. --set-mark mark 451-0311B 183 . When this option is set for a rule. and useful for distinguishing messages in the logs. --log-ip-options Log options from the IP packet header.conf(5)). the Linux kernel will print some information on all matching packets (like most IP header fields) via the kernel log (where it can be read with dmesg or syslogd(8)). It is only valid in the mangle table. --log-prefix prefix Prefix log messages with the specified prefix. TARGET EXTENSIONS iptables can use extended target modules: the following are included in the standard distribution. or a numeric value to match. MARK This is used to set the netfilter mark value associated with the packet. LOG Turn on kernel logging of matching packets. --log-tcp-sequence Log TCP sequence numbers. This is a security risk if the log is readable by users. Details of the iptables Command iptables -m tos -h to see the list).

It is only valid in the INPUT. the option tcp-reset can be used on rules which only match the TCP protocol: this causes a TCP RST packet to be sent back. icmp-port-unreachable. --set-tos tos You can use a numeric TOS values. The option echo-reply is also allowed.Details of the iptables Command REJECT This is used to send back an error packet in response to the matched packet: otherwise it is equivalent to DROP. Note that the outgoing packets are NOT seen by any packet filtering 184 451-0311B . FORWARD and OUTPUT chains. Finally. FORWARD and PREROUTING chains. or use iptables -j TOS -h to see the list of valid TOS names. This is mainly useful for blocking ident probes which frequently occur when sending mail to broken mail hosts (which won't accept your mail otherwise). and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. MIRROR This is an experimental demonstration target which inverts the source and destination fields in the IP header and retransmits the packet. icmp-net-prohibitedor icmp-host- prohibited. icmp- proto-unreachable. and generates a ping reply. icmp- host-unreachable. This target is only valid in the INPUT. It is only valid in the mangle table. Several options control the nature of the error packet returned: --reject-with type The type given can be icmp-net-unreachable. it can only be used for rules which specify an ICMP ping packet. and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. which return the appropriate ICMP error message (port-unreachable is the default). TOS This is used to set the 8-bit Type of Service field in the IP header.

It specifies that the destination address of the packet should be modified (and all future packets in this connection will also be man gled). Where possible. an inclusive range of IP addresses. connection tracking or NAT. an inclusive range of IP addresses. a port range (which is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp). to avoid loops and other problems. and optionally. and rules should cease being examined. then the destination port will never be modified. a port range (which is only valid if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp). no port alteration will occur. If no port range is specified. in the PRE ROUTING and OUTPUT chains. and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. and rules should cease being examined. 451-0311B 185 . and other ports will be mapped to 1024 or above. If no port range is specified. and optionally. Details of the iptables Command chains. in the POSTROUTING chain. It specifies that the source address of the packet should be modified (and all future packets in this connection will also be mangled). then source ports below 512 will be mapped to other ports below 512: those between 512 and 1023 inclusive will be mapped to ports below 1024. It takes one option: --to-destination <ipaddr>[-<ipaddr>][:port-port] which can specify a single new destination IP address. It takes one option: --to-source <ipaddr>[-<ipaddr>][:port-port] which can specify a single new source IP address. SNAT This target is only valid in the nat table. DNAT This target is only valid in the nat table.

and user-defined chains which are only called from those chains. EXTRA EXTENSIONS The following extensions are not included by default in the standard distribution. It takes one option: --to-ports <port>[-<port>] This specifies a range of source ports to use. the destination port is never altered. This is the correct behavior when the next dialup is unlikely to have the same interface address (and hence any established connections are lost anyway). Mas querading is equivalent to specifying a mapping to the IP address of the interface the packet is going out. It should only be used with dynami cally assigned IP (dialup) connections: if you have a static IP address. you should use the SNAT target. It takes one option: --to-ports <port>[-<port>] This specifies a destination port or range or ports to use: without this. This is only valid with if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp).Details of the iptables Command MASQUERADE This target is only valid in the nat table. but also has the effect that connections are forgotten when the interface goes down.0.0.1 address). ttl This module matches the time to live field in the IP header. 186 451-0311B . This is only valid with if the rule also specifies -p tcp or -p udp). REDIRECT This target is only valid in the nat table. in the POSTROUTING chain. in the PRE ROUTING and OUTPUT chains. overriding the default SNAT source port-selection heuristics (see above). It alters the destina tion IP address to send the packet to the machine itself (locally-generated packets are mapped to the 127.

When this target is set for a rule. --ttl-dec ttl Decrement the TTL by the given value. It is only valid in the mangle table. Default value is 1. ULOG This target provides userspace logging of matching pack ets. Setting this value to. the Linux kernel will multicast this packet through a netlink socket.g. up to 32 characters long. e. --ttl-inc ttl Increment the TTL by the given value. regardless of its size. TTL This target is used to modify the time to live field in the IP header. and useful fro distinguish ing messages in the logs. --ulog-cprange <size> Number of bytes to be copied to userspace. Details of the iptables Command --ttl ttl Matches the given TTL value. 10 accumulates ten packets 451-0311B 187 . --ulog-nlgroup <nlgroup> This specifies the netlink group (1-32) to which the packet is sent. One or more userspace processes may then subscribe to various multicast groups and receive the packets. --ulog-prefix <prefix> Prefix log messages with the specified prefix. --ttl-set ttl Set the TTL to the given value. A value of 0 always copies the entire packet. Default is 0 --ulog-qthreshold <size> Number of packet to queue inside kernel.

Default is 1 (for backwards compatibility) DIAGNOSTICS Various error messages are printed to standard error. The exit code is 0 for correct functioning. The main difference is that the chains INPUT and OUTPUT are only traversed for packets coming into the local host and originating from the local host respec tively. Default is 0 --ulog-qthreshold <size> Number of packet to queue inside kernel. COMPATIBILITY WITH IPCHAINS This iptables is very similar to ipchains by Rusty Rus sell. This its size. e. iptables is a pure packet filter when using the default `filter' table. Hence every packet only passes through one of the three chains. and both are available for packets entering the FORWARD chain. 10 accumulates ten packets inside the kernel and transmits them as one netlink multpart message to userspace. The other main difference is that -i refers to the input interface. BUGS Check is not implemented (yet). Default is 1 (for backwards compatibility) 188 451-0311B . with optional extension modules. previously a forwarded packet would pass through all three.Details of the iptables Command inside the kernel and transmits them as one netlink multpart message to userspace. Setting this value to.g. -o refers to the output interface. Errors which appear to be caused by invalid or abused command line parameters cause an exit code of 2. and other errors cause an exit code of 1.

which details more iptables usage. 451-0311B 189 . BUGS Check is not implemented (yet). The exit code is 0 for correct functioning. The main difference is that the chains INPUT and OUTPUT are only traversed for packets coming into the local host and originating from the local host respec tively. Errors which appear to be caused by invalid or abused command line parameters cause an exit code of 2. which details NAT. and other errors cause an exit code of 1. and the netfilter-hacking- HOWTO which details the internals. iptables is a pure packet filter when using the default `filter' table. This should simplify much of the previous confusion over the combination of IP masquerading and packet filtering seen previously. with optional extension modules. Details of the iptables Command DIAGNOSTICS Various error messages are printed to standard error. the NAT-HOWTO. So the following options are handled differ ently: -j MASQ -M -S -M -L There are several other changes in iptables. COMPATIBILITY WITH IPCHAINS This iptables is very similar to ipchains by Rusty Rus sell. previously a forwarded packet would pass through all three. SEE ALSO The iptables-HOWTO. -o refers to the output interface. The other main difference is that -i refers to the input interface. and both are available for packets entering the FORWARD chain. Hence every packet only passes through one of the three chains.

James Morris wrote the TOS target. then wrote the mangle table.Details of the iptables Command AUTHORS Rusty Russell wrote iptables. The Netfilter Core Team is: Marc Boucher. -c. Harald Welte and Rusty Russell. Harald Welte wrote the ULOG target.Save IP Tables SYNOPSIS iptables-save [-c] [-t table] DESCRIPTION iptables-save is used to dump the contents of an IP Table in easily parseable format to STDOUT. Appendix 3 IPTABLES-SAVE(8) IPTABLES-SAVE(8) NAME iptables-save . and tos match. the mark stuff. in early consultation with Michael Neuling. Use I/O-redirection provided by your shell to write to a file. Marc Boucher made Rusty abandon ipnatctl by lobbying for a generic packet selection framework in iptables. James Morris. and ran around doing cool stuff everywhere. TTL match+target and libipulog. the owner match. Jozsef Kadlecsik wrote the REJECT target. --counters include the current values of all packet and byte counters in the output 190 451-0311B .

--noflush don't flush the previous contents of the table. the NAT-HOWTO. Appendix 4 IPTABLES-RESTORE(8) IPTABLES-RESTORE(8) NAME iptables-restore . 451-0311B 191 . Details of the iptables Command -t. and the netfilter-hacking- HOWTO which details the internals.2. BUGS None known as of iptables-1. If not specified.Restore IP Tables SYNOPSIS iptables-restore [-c] [-n] DESCRIPTION iptables-restore is used to restore IP Tables from data specified on STDIN. iptables(8) The iptables-HOWTO. output includes all available tables. Use I/O redirection provided by your shell to read from a file -c.org> SEE ALSO iptables-restore(8). which details NAT. which details more iptables usage. --table tablename restrict output to only one table. iptables-restore flushes (deletes) all previous contents of the respective IP Table.1 release AUTHOR Harald Welte <laforge@gnumonks. --counters restore the values of all packet and byte counters -n. If not specified.

which details more iptables usage. 192 451-0311B . which details NAT. iptables(8) The iptables-HOWTO.Details of the iptables Command BUGS None known as of iptables-1.1 release AUTHOR Harald Welte <laforge@gnumonks. the NAT-HOWTO. and the netfilter-hacking- HOWTO which details the internals.org> SEE ALSO iptables-restore(8).2.

accessing 19 creating 29. accessing 18 acquiring 77 configuration file IP Configuration menu saving 61 changing the gateway address 75 creating a default configuration file 29. 65 saving to the network 30 B defaulting from CLI 76 backup 61 defaults Broadcast Group command mode. See IP interfaces slave ports. displaying 103 Broadcast Groups. 65 autocompletion 15 loading 30. accessing 21 cables external units crossover 49 scripting on 66 straight-through 49 CLI F defaulting from 76 function keys. resetting to 47 characteristics. accessing 22 stored in 61 IP configuration Configuration command mode. H command syntax 14 Help. See Also Data Broadcast E feature Editing the Files in Windows 63 Editing the Files on a Unix Host 62 C Ethernet command mode. configuration saving to flash 62 I saving to the network 62 Interface command mode. See Online help. See CLI. 65 changing the network mask 75 changing the TFTP server IP address 75 D changing the unit IP address 74 Data Broadcast feature 97 choosing an IP assignment method 74 broadcast groups 97 IP configuration menu broadcast groups. displaying 101 disabling features and settings 24 summaries. using in the CLI 14 navigating 16 Command Line Interface. See slave ports timestamp parameter 99 A default configuration file Asynchronous command mode. setting up 97 saving the configuration 76 discard parameter 100 using 73 master ports 97 IP interfaces 105 master ports. INDEX Symbols slave ports 97 . displaying 116 451-0311B 193 . accessing 23 booting from 76 Broadcast Groups 97 defaults. See master ports characteristics.

accessing 20 configuring 113 modular adapters 51 disabling 115 information. accessing 22 via modem ports 53 Menu Editing command mode. configuring 110 O port mapping. 146. See Power control units. specifying 145 Telnet socket numbers 108 status information. displaying 118 off time. setting up 54 removing 100 subscriber creation 58 timestamp option 99 via direct serial connections 51 Menu command mode. displaying 148 IR-5100 units. specifying 114 Notification command mode. displaying 15 RADIUS authentication. configuring 143 L status information. accessing 22 Rotaries 113 Modem command mode. configuring 110 Rotaries. removing 115 no command 24 type. See Power control units. displaying 118 naming 144. accessing 23 Notification Feature S facility 79 saving configuration to the network 62 priority 80 scripting 66 SecurID authentication 194 451-0311B . accessing 20 boot from flash 70 boot from network 70 R configuring the IP configuration menu 71 RADIUS accounting saving the software image to flash 70 attributes 162 setting the timeout 71 overview 161 updating the ppciboot firmware 71 setting up 33 Main menu RADIUS Accounting Client Operation 161 booting the system 73 RADIUS authentication resetting to system defaults 72 attributes 159 saving the configuration 73 overview 157 setting the duplex mode of the Ethernet setting up 33 link 72 recreating zip files 64 setting the speed of the Ethernet link 72 Related documents 25 Master ports 97 remote console management configuring 98 security. See Rotaries P setting up 106 passwords. specifying 146 Power Master ports. displaying 147 loading a default configuration file 30. displaying 118 N rotary ports. displaying 149 loading the configuration 64 ppciboot factory default settings 68 ppciboot Main Menu M upgrading software with 69 Main Menu PPP command mode. Local authentication. 65 summary information. displaying 117 Online help. 147 summaries. off time. changing 31 SSH Keepalive parameters 107 Power Control Relays 144 SSH socket numbers 108 grouping 145 status. Power control units 143 IR-5150 units.

88. accessing 17 localecho option 100 User Profiles 81. displaying 139 facility parameter 89 creating 121 menus 134 deleting 122 password 132 status. 87 configuring 141 SNMP 82 humidity. displaying 135 dedicated service 133 command log. Superuser command mode. See User Profiles. 86 typographical conventions 14 Service Profiles 81 characteristics. 83 connecting the 141 REMOTESYSLOG 82. 84 summary information. See Service Profiles. See Temperature/Humidity sensors setting in Quick Start 27 Service Profile types setting in the LX CLI 29 ASYNC 82. accessing 18 W T Windows TACACS+ accounting editing files in 63 attributes 164 overview 161 setting up 38 TACACS+ accounting attributes 163 TACACS+ authentication attributes 168 overview 167 setting up 38 TCP/IP parameters 451-0311B 195 . 86 Temperature/Humidity sensors 141 SMTP 82. displaying 138 priority parameter 89 TCP information. 85 Temperature/Humidity sensor LOCALSYSLOG 82. See also User Profiles superuser privileges 133 Subscriber command mode. displaying 141 SNPP 81. accessing 21 User Profiles. 84 temperature. displaying 89 U configuring 83 UNIX host creating 82 editing files on 62 Service Profiles. displaying 138 creating 88 characteristics. setting up 43 obtaining from the network 27 Sensors. displaying 90 upgrading 66 command logging 134 Subscriber accounts 121 contact parameter 88 audit log. displaying 142 TAP 82. displaying 137 session and terminal parameters 128 Subscriber accounts. upgrading software Slave ports 97 upgrading software and ppciboot with the configuring 98 command line interface 67 discard option 100 User command mode. 123 removing 100 access methods 123 SNMP command mode. displaying 141 WEB 82. accessing 21 audit logging 134 software characteristics. displaying 136 preferred service 133 summary information.