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Maintenance management: literature
review and directions

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Amik Garg S G Deshmukh
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Indian Institute of Technology Delhi


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Maintenance management:
literature review and directions
Amik Garg and S.G. Deshmukh
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on maintenance management and
suggest possible gaps from the point of view of researchers and practitioners.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper systematically categorizes the published literature
and then analyzes and reviews it methodically.
Findings – The paper finds that important issues in maintenance management range from various
optimization models, maintenance techniques, scheduling, and information systems etc. Within each
category, gaps have been identified. A new shift in maintenance paradigm is also highlighted.
Practical implications – Literature on classification of maintenance management has so far been
very limited. This paper reviews a large number of papers in this field and suggests a classification in
to various areas and sub areas. Subsequently, various emerging trends in the field of maintenance
management are identified to help researchers specifying gaps in the literature and direct research
efforts suitably.
Originality/value – The paper contains a comprehensive listing of publications on the field in
question and their classification according to various attributes. The paper will be useful to
researchers, maintenance professionals and others concerned with maintenance to understand the
importance of maintenance management
Keywords Maintenance, Optimization techniques, Production scheduling, Performance measures,
Information systems
Paper type Literature review

Throughout the years, the importance of the maintenance function and therefore of
maintenance management has grown. The widespread mechanization and automation
has reduced the number of production personnel and increased the capital employed in
the production equipment and civil structures. As a result, the fraction of employees
working in the area of maintenance as well as the fraction of maintenance spending on
the total operational costs has grown over the years. In refineries, for instance, it is not
uncommon that the maintenance and operations departments are the largest, and each
comprises 30 percent of the total manpower. Furthermore, next to the energy costs,
maintenance costs can be the largest part of any operational budget. Yet, the main
question faced by the maintenance management, whether its output is produced more
effectively, in terms of contribution to company profits and efficiently, in terms of Journal of Quality in Maintenance
manpower and materials employed, is very difficult to answer. Engineering
Vol. 12 No. 3, 2006
A lot of literature is available from various resources in the field of maintenance pp. 205-238
management. Dekker and Scarf (1998) have presented various classifications of q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
maintenance optimization models by analyzing 112 papers. In the area of maintenance DOI 10.1108/13552510610685075

JQME performance measurement an overview of various performance measurement systems
12,3 (PMS), including indicators, reference numbers and surveys, has been discussed in
detail (Pintelon and Puyvelde, 1997). Various approaches for measuring maintenance
performance have also been reviewed (Tsang et al., 1999). In another invited review,
Wang (2002) has undertaken a survey of maintenance policies of deteriorating systems
and has finally summarized, classified and compared various existing maintenance
206 policies for both single- and multi-unit systems with emphasis on single unit systems.
The specific objectives of this paper are:
(1) To suggest a classification of available literature in the field of maintenance
(2) To identify critical observations on each classification.
(3) To identify emerging trends in the field of maintenance management.
(4) Based on above, to suggest directions for future researchers in this field.
(5) As far as possible to consolidate all available literature on maintenance

The organization of this paper is as follows:
(1) After a brief introduction, in the next section existing literature on maintenance
has been classified in to a number of areas and sub areas.
(2) Detailed discussion on these areas/sub areas along with critical observations on
each is undertaken in the next section.
(3) In the final section, changing trends in the area of maintenance management
have been identified along with recommendations for the future research work.

Outcome of the literature survey
A total of 142 papers were collected and analyzed. A broad classification of this
literature in to six areas giving year wise distribution is given at Table I. These areas
(1) (A) maintenance optimization models;
(2) (B) maintenance techniques;
(3) (C) maintenance scheduling;
(4) (D) maintenance performance measurement;
(5) (E) maintenance information systems; and
(6) (F) maintenance policies.

Maintenance optimization models can be both qualitative and quantitative. The former
includes techniques like total productive maintenance (TPM), reliability centered
maintenance (RCM), etc. while the later incorporates various deterministic/ stochastic
models like Markov Decision, Bayesian models, etc. There has been a long journey of
maintenance techniques evolution from corrective maintenance (CM) in 1940 to various
operation research (OR) models for maintenance as on today. A number of latest
techniques have been analyzed under this broad area. Unlike scheduling in production,
the maintenance schedule becomes immediately out of place as soon as an emergency job
is received. Maintenance scheduling is therefore another challenging area, which merits

. Area 2004-2006 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Others Total A Maintenance optimization models 3 5 6 2 4 2 3 1 – – 1 (1992) 27 B Maintenance techniques 6 8 9 15 5 6 4 3 2 – – 58 C Maintenance scheduling 1 1 2 2 2 1 – – – – – 9 D Maintenance performance measurement 3 4 1 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 – 23 E Maintenance information system 1 – 1 – – 3 – – 1 – – 6 F Maintenance policies 2 1 5 4 1 1 2 1 1 – 1 (1992) 19 Total 16 19 24 26 13 16 12 7 5 2 2 142 management Maintenance research areas Classifications of 207 Table I.

Markov decision models and delay time models. failure limit policy. the various maintenance policies can be classified as age replacement policy. An effective performance measurement system is essential for 12. periodic repair policy. maintenance optimization models cover four aspects: (1) a description of a technical system. block repair policy. Further sub classification of these areas in to several sub areas has also been attempted after critical scrutiny. or classified as in which a new model is put central and in which indications are given about applications of the model. Dekker and Scarf (1998) also present another classification of these models as age and block replacement models. and (4) an objective function and an optimization technique which helps in finding the best balance. or classified as in which model focuses on an application tool. advantages and disadvantages and requires extensive research. each of which has different characteristics. The later is further classified as stochastic models under risk or under warranty. They have further identified a total of 112 papers containing applications and classified them as case studies if models have been used with real data to provide advice on real problems to the management. like a decision support system or expert system and which mentions applications of the tool. The same has now become an essential component of any maintenance organization and thus merits investigation also under a separate area. (3) a description of the available information about the system and actions open to management. The first maintenance management information system (MMIS) appeared in the 1980s due to the full recognition of maintenance as an important business function. 208 Similarly. They also brought out that equipment overhauls comprised the largest group of applications (about 30) followed by the area of vehicle replacements (about ten). The models have been classified according to the modeling of the deterioration as deterministic or stochastic models. (A) Maintenance optimization models The quantitative approach to maintenance optimization is covered in detail in the literature with a total of 24 papers in past few years.3 effective functioning of any organization as whatever gets measured has a higher probability of its completion.JQME separate investigation. 1998). (2) a modeling of the deterioration of the system in time and possible consequences for this system. Analysis of research areas with observations Each of the above six areas and sub areas have been discussed in detail with critical observations in this section. etc. During the past few decades widespread mechanization and automation has reduced the number of production personnel while capital employed in production equipment has increased manifold (Dekker and Scarf. In general. A suggested sub classification of this area in to 12 sub areas is discussed as follows. . The detailed classification of the same is represented in Figure 1 and year-wise distribution tabulated in Table II. its function and importance.

Maintenance management classification tree showing various sub areas . Maintenance management 209 Figure 1.

8 Markovian deterioration – 2 1 – 1 – – – – – 4 – A.3 PM – – – 1 1 – – – – – – 2 (continued) .7 Outsourcing 1 – – – – 1 – 1 – – – 3 B. areas 12.3 210 JQME Table II.12 Miscellaneous(includes review paper) 1 – 1 – 1 – 2 – – – – 5 Sub total 3 5 6 2 4 2 3 1 – – 1 27 B Maintenance techniques 58 B.9 AHP – – – – 1 – 1 – – – – 2 A.3 MCDM – 1 – – – – – 1 – – – 2 A. Sub-classification of Sub-area Area Sub area 2004-2006 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Others total Total A Maintenance optimization models 27 A.1 PM 3 4 4 5 2 1 1 1 – – – 21 B.3 TPM 1 – – 7 2 1 – – – – – 11 B.5 Galbraith – 1 – – – – – – – – – 1 A.1 CBM 1 1 – – – – – – – – – 21 C.4 Fuzzy linguistic – 1 – 1 – – – – – – – 2 A.6 Predictive maintenance – 1 – – – 1 – – – – 2 – B.2 CBM 1 – 2 1 – 2 – – – – – 6 B.8 ECM – – 1 – – – – – – – – 1 B.1.1.1 Techniques C.2 MILP – 1 – – – – – – – – – 1 A.5 RCM – 2 – 1 1 – 1 – – – – 5 B.2 Predictive – – 1 – – – – – – – – 1 C.11 Maintenance organization modeling 1 – – – 1 – – – – – – 2 A.1.7 Simulation – – 2 – 1 – – – – – 1(1992) 4 A.1 Bayesian 1 1 – – – – – – – – – 2 A.6 MAIC – – 1 – – – – – – – – 1 A.10 Petri nets – – – – – 1 – – – – – 1 A.9 SMM – – 1 – – – – – – – – 1 B.10 RBM – 1 – – – – – – – – – 1 Sub total 8 8 9 15 5 6 4 3 2 – – 58 C Maintenance scheduling 9 C.4 CMMS – 1 – 1 – 1 1 1 2 – – 7 B.

.5 Maintenance personnel – – – – – 1 – – – – – 1 Sub total 1 1 2 2 2 1 – – – – – 9 D Maintenance performance measurement – D.4 Combining production and maintenance – – – – 1 – – – – – – 1 C.1. Sub-area Area Sub area 2004-2006 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Others total Total C.3 Repair rate modifying activities – – – 1 – – – – – – – 1 C.4 QFD – – – 1 – – – – – – – 1 D.3 Relation with maintenance strategy 2 – – 1 – – – – – – – 3 D.8 Maintenance productivity index – – – – 1 – – – – – – 1 D.1.5 MIS – – – – – – 1 – – – – 1 D.3 BSC – 1 – – – – 1 – – – – 2 D.2 Computerized data based info system to reduce MTTR/MTBF – – – – – – – – 1 – – 1 E.1.6 TMM – – – – – – – – – 1 – 1 D.2 Overall equipment/craft effectiveness – 2 – 1 – – 1 – – – – 4 D.1.5 Miscellaneous – 1 1 – – – – 1 1 – – 4 Sub total 3 4 1 3 1 3 3 2 1 2 – 23 E Maintenance information system 6 E.1 Opportunity created by IT – – – – – 1 – – – – – 1 E.2 VBM 1 – – – – – – – – – – 1 D.1.7 System audit approach – – – – – 1 – – – 1 – 2 D.1.2 Wear out components – – 1 – – – – – – – – 1 C.1.1 Various models – – – – – 1 – 1 – – – 2 D.4 Miscellaneous 1 – 1 – – 1 – – – – – 3 Sub total 1 – 1 – – 3 – – 1 – – 6 (continued) management Maintenance 211 Table II.4 Effect of failure on effectiveness – – – – – 1 – – – – – 1 D.3 Development of DSS in maintenance planning – – – – – 1 – – – – – 1 E.1.1 Techniques 23 D.

1 EMQ determination in imperfect PM – – – 1 – – 1 – – – – 2 F. RBM: risk-based maintenance. Sub-area Area Sub area 2004-2006 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Others total Total F Maintenance policies 19 F. PM: preventive maintenance. MAIC: Materially per Apparecchiature de Impiariti Chemiei. TPM: total productive maintenance. MCDM: multiple criteria decision making. DSS: decision support systems. VBM: vibration-based maintenance.3 212 JQME Table II. AHP: analytic hierarchy process. BSC: balanced score card. QFD: quality function deployment.2 Emerging maintenance concepts F. SMM: strategic maintenance management. RCM: reliability centered maintenance.3 New ideas 1 – – 1 – – 1 – – – – 3 1 F.3 Customized maintenance concept – – 1 – – – – – – – – 1 F.2.4 Miscellaneous (includes review papers) – – 2 – – – – 1 1 – (1992) 5 Sub total 2 1 5 4 1 1 2 1 1 – 1 19 Total 16 19 24 26 13 16 12 7 5 2 2 – 142 Notes: MILP: mixed integer linear programming.4 Object-oriented maintenance management – 1 – – – – – – – – – 1 F.1 Maintenance integration – – 1 2 1 1 – – – – – 5 F.2. EMQ: economic manufacturing quantity . 12. MTBF: mean time between failure.2 Simulation in maintenance 1 – 1 – – – – – – – – 2 F. ECM: electronic counter measures. CBM: condition-based maintenance. TMM: total maintenance management. MIS: maintenance information systems.2.2. MTTR: mean time to repair. ECM: effectiveness-centered maintenance. CMMS: computerized maintenance management systems.

Mechefske and Wang (2003.11) Analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Chen and Popova (2002) and Barata et al. (2002) have presented a knowledge-based decision support system.e.2) Mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation. Markovian probabilistic models for optimizing maintenance policy have also been discussed by Bruns (2002). A fully Bayesian i. (A.e. production and maintenance planning for a multi-process plant.6) Maintenance approach using fuzzy multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) and linguistic approaches.e.3 to A. MILP for the integrated design. Goel et al. and suggests maintenance can be a contributor to profits by use of information technology (IT) and showed that integrated IT permits co-planning of production with .9 to A. total quality management (TQM)/TPM/RCM model etc. (1998). This approach is in contrast with the classical probabilistic approach (for example: Ho and Silva (2006) have used unbiased estimators for MTTF) that assumes the existence of true probabilities and probability distributions. (1997) earlier reported similar approach. Balakrishnan (1992) demonstrates application of simulation models to evaluate maintenance policies (i. 2000) has also been developed to reduce maintenance and inventory costs for a manufacturing system with stochastic item failure. Chiang and Yuan (2001) and Lam (1999) in great detail. A simulation model (Sarker and Haque. which focus mainly on deriving an effective maintenance policy at the operational stage. the proposed integrated approach provides a designer with an opportunity to improve the operational availability at the design stage itself. Swanson (2003) has applied Galbraith’s information processing model to study how the maintenance function applies different strategies to cope with the environmental complexity.g. Similar attempts were made earlier by Labib et al. Pieri et al. 213 (A. (A. Materially per Apparecchiature de Impiariti Chemiei (MAIC) for maintenance of a chemical plant. Petri nets and maintenance organization modeling. (1999) utilize Petri nets for maintenance modeling of industrial systems. 2001) have used a fuzzy linguistic approach to achieve subjective assessments of maintenance strategies and practices in an objective manner. advanced terotechnological model (ATM). minimizing total service cost) and for modeling of continuously monitored deteriorating systems. Bevilacqua and Braglia (2000) describe an application of AHP for selecting the best maintenance strategy for an oil refinery.e. Eindhoven University of Technology model (EUT). 2003). subjective approach towards Maintenance straightforward means of presenting uncertainty related to future events to decision management makers in the context of an inspection maintenance decision problem has also been optimally discussed (Apeland and Scarf. A reliability allocation model at the design stage is coupled with the existing optimization framework to identify the optimal size and initial reliability for each unit of equipment at the design stage. selected out of opportunistic. (A. Al-Najjar and Alsyouf (2003) assess and select most informative (efficient) maintenance approach using fuzzy MCDM evaluation methodology. Triantaphyllou et al. (2003) present a new mathematical formulation i.1) Bayesian approach. failure and block) for an automated production line in a steel rolling mill. Rochdi et al. Marquez and Heguedas (2002). Sherwin (2000) reviews maintenance organization models. In contrast to earlier approaches. (2002) use Monte Carlo simulation to determine optimum maintenance policy (i. replacement and order lead times. e.(A.7 and A.8) Simulation and Markovian probabilistic models.

. each of which has been discussed in detail as follows. the methods of failure detection. (2005) have used an artificial neural network (ANN) 12. (A. This sudden rise is due to the fact that IT (both soft and hardware) is now becoming available at low cost and is rapidly developing. A series of tasks performed at a frequency dictated by the passage of time. . However. 2002. Recently. The rest of the papers (Hsieh and Chiu. Bevilacqua et al. No attempts have been made to integrate these quantitative approaches with qualitative ones. (B) Maintenance techniques Another classification of the work done on maintenance is on various techniques. 1998) were distributed in the areas of road maintenance. . like RCM. Engineers need to be taught economics of maintenance and principles of optimization. Sander and Wang.3 framework for failure rate prediction. . More application will be seen if models are developed in conjunction with the problem owner. that justify reasonableness of assumptions. lighting maintenance. These models have flourished only as a mathematical discipline with in operations research (OR). Some observations . etc. The applications of the same have been very limited so far as virtually no case studies have been published. Limited application is also attributed to inadequate definition of a problem by its owners and lack of training in education of engineers. It can be said that its impact on decision making within a maintenance organization has so far been limited. etc. the engineering management policies. machine condition that either extend the life of an asset or detect that an asset had critical wear and is going to fail or break down constitute PM. There are few problems in applying quantitative optimization models like: DSSs are needed to optimize maintenance. Dhillon and Liu 214 (2006) have reviewed extensively on human-related errors in maintenance. which presently focuses on the design of systems and not on maintenance. . However. many researchers are pursuing the development of various mathematical maintenance models to estimate the reliability measures and determine the optimum maintenance policies. A total of 54 papers are identified under this broad area. manpower requirement planning.12) Miscellaneous. the amount of production. scheduling of overhauls of electric power stations. and the applicability of model in a given system environment that can give greater confidence in estimates based on small numbers of production data. It seems that a number of papers have been published in the last five years in this area. data problems. limited work is directed towards developing an operational decision support system. these models may be useful to maintenance engineers if they are capable of incorporating information about the repair and maintenance strategy. Presently. 2000. Anderson et al. These techniques have been further sub classified in to ten areas.JQME maintenance. (B. A total of 20 papers have been published under this . and the gap between theory and practice.. etc. failure mechanisms. Thus applications of these models are very limited in industry. inspection in nuclear industry.1) Preventive maintenance (PM).

Qian et al. (2001) consider a Bayesian theoretic approach to determine an optimal adaptive PM policy with minimal repair. Dohi et al. Salameh and Ghattas (2001) determine the just-in-time (JIT) buffer level by trading off the holding cost per unit time and the shortage cost per unit time such that their sum is minimum. – – – – – -. Bloch-Mercier (2002) also proposes a PM policy with sequential checking procedure for a Markov deteriorating system. (2003) have shown the efficiency of an optimization method to minimize the PM cost of series parallel systems based on the time dependent Birnbaum importance factor and using Monte Carlo simulation (applied with programming tool APLAB) and genetic algorithm. In a more recent work Juang and Anderson (2004) consider a Bayesian theoretic approach to determine an optimal adaptive PM policy with minimum repair. Sheu et al. (2001a. (2005) discuss about optimal preventive policies for a shock model with pre-specified damage levels. It is shown that increased PM activity can lower total expected work-in-process (WIP) inventory on its own i. This is demonstrated for a production unit subjected to regular PM. doubtful. S) which are further classified as good. Gupta et al. Tsai et al. Gürler and Kaya (2002) suggest a control policy where the system is replaced when a component enters a PM due or down state (life time of each component is described by various stages (O. PM policy has also been suggested for a degradation system with an acceptable reliability level. Motta et al. (2003) propose a state and time dependent PM policy for a multistage Markovian deteriorating system. Badı́a et al. Chen et al. PM due and down). b) present an easy-to-implement state dependent PM policy consistent with the production environment. An age reduction model models degraded behavior of components and genetic algorithm is used for deciding the optimal activity combination at each PM. (2001) derive optimal PM strategies under intermittently used environment. (2002) demonstrate development of a model for minimizing the cost per unit time of inspection and PM through selection of a unique interval. (2003) demonstrate usefulness of simulation tool (simulator MELISSA Cþ þ ) for optimizing PM cost in a semiconductor-manufacturing environment. (2001) present the periodic PM of a system with deteriorated components. Hsu (1999) addresses the joints effects of PM and replacement policies on a queue-like . Ben-Daya and Alghamdi (2000) present two sequential PM models. PM intervals are defined in such a way that hazard rate is same for all. without accounting for the lower unplanned downtime. In first. Zhao (2003) has introduced degradation ratio to represent the imperfect effect assuming that the system after PM action starts a new failure process. Breakdowns occurring in combined corrective/PM context have been modeled and also both direct and indirect 215 maintenance costs estimated. (2002) present a statistical approach of analysis and decision that uses reliability techniques to define the best periodicity for PM of power system protective relays. Bris et al. The recent ones include a paper by Chelbi and Maintenance Ait-Kadi (2004) that presents a mathematical model for joint strategy of buffer stock management production and PM for a randomly failing production unit operating in an environment where repair and PM durations are random. (2000) has discussed application of the sequel method to determine the optimal policy as when to carry out PM action for an engine/replace the engine.category in the last seven years. age reduction of the system is assumed to depend on the level of PM activities.e. Lai et al. In the literature reported for the period 2001-1997. In second. Charles et al.

2) Condition-based maintenance. Some of the advantages of implementing TPM in an organization are better understanding of the equipment performance. These companies had followed Nakajima’s seven steps of autonomous maintenance. which uses an approach to determine the appropriate time for checking the performance of implementing TPM. (2000) show that in order to implement TPM successfully. Jamali et al.e.JQME production system with minimum repair at failures. measurement going beyond a predetermined limit. Finally. Barbera et al. (2005) evolve joint optimal periodic and conditional maintenance strategy. Cooke (2000) presents case studies in implementing TPM in four manufacturing companies. If a machine cannot hold a 216 tolerance. idling and minor stoppages of equipment. Marseguerra et al. within this level condition-based maintenance policy can be implemented. a condition-based maintenance is initiated. Wang and Lee (2001) discuss an application of TPM. Luce (1999) selects the best maintenance method using Weibull Law by comparing CM. poor raw material/processing defects and quality losses during machine starting. “ seven simple tools of TQM”. Finlow-Bates et al. The PM service is based on some reading. Gopalakrishnan et al. etc. In the recent works. four thinking models of “Kepner-Tregoe” and “Root cause analysis” are to be navigated as all three are complementary to each other. (2002) consider a continuously monitored multi-component system and use a generic algorithm for determining the optimal degradation level beyond which PM is to be performed. less adversarial approach between production and maintenance. Saranga and Knezevic (2001) use reliability condition predictor (RCP) for reliability prediction of condition-based maintenance systems. Gupta et al. In the still older . The methodology uses Markov models for reliability prediction. It is shown that maximization of OEE requires reduction of six big losses. set up and adjustment time loss. (2001) investigate the relationship between TPM and manufacturing performance (MP) through structural equation modeling (SEM). McKone et al. Chen and Trivedi (2002) explain condition-based maintenance in detail and also derive a closed form expression of system availability when device undergoes both deterioration as well as Poisson type failures. Das (2001) presents a case study where TPM is implemented in a step-by-step manner and also develops some parameters for measuring the effectiveness of TPM. (2001a. A total of six papers have been published in the last five years. These are ineffective maintenance resulting in breakdowns. originating from Japan centers on solving maintenance problems using quality circles method. operation at reduced speed. improved teamwork. In a little older work. Grall et al. three strong tools i.3 adapting JIT manufacturing systems to PM interruptions. (1999) discuss a condition-based maintenance model with exponential failures and fixed inspection intervals for a two-unit system in series. TPM. (2002) focus on the mathematical modeling of a condition based inspection/replacement policy for a stochastically and continuously deteriorating single unit system. systematic PM and conditional PM. (B. which maximizes the net savings from PM subject to workforce constraints. (B. Gupta and Al-Turki (1998) discuss 12. TPM benefits were modeled using AHP by Kodali and Chandra (2001) and Kodali (2001). b) address basics of TPM and its key issue overall equipment effectiveness (OEE).3) TPM. It is shown that there is a significant and positive indirect relationship between TPM and MP through JIT practices. (1997) present an approach to generate an adaptive PM schedule. Ireland and Dale (2001) discuss study of TPM in three companies.

Jones and Collis (1996) present findings of a questionnaire survey examining use of computers in maintenance management and concludes that computers are still not optimally utilized and there is considerable potential for future development. etc. Two important papers in the area of CMMS include a paper by Labib (1998) that uses a formalized decision analysis approach based on multiple criteria and rule-based system for finding the worst machines.6) Predictive McKone et al. Fernandez et al. TQM. (B. A total of two papers were found on . A total of seven papers have been published in the last eight years. Reliability centered approach was founded in the 1960s and initially oriented towards aircraft maintenance. (1999) propose a theoretical framework for understanding the use Maintenance of TPM and how it depends on managerial factors such as JIT. Wessels (2003) proposes a cost optimized scheduled maintenance interval that uses costs as the constraint and overcomes quantitative complexity by use of computer/software technology. which improves the life cycle profit. This interval enables an organization to implement a comprehensive RCM program effectively. employee management involvement (EI) and environmental/organizational factors such as country. Wickers (1996) presents a method called “Front end maintenance analysis” which has widely been applied in industry and proved to be an effective method of identifying parameters for condition monitoring and clearly shows the link between these parameters and a maintenance management system. Rausand (1998) present a structured approach to RCM and discuss its various steps at length. Older works include a paper by Singer (1999) that discusses a seven-step plan for using all the features of the CMMS package. Eisinger and Rakowsky (2001) discuss a probabilistic approach in the modeling of uncertainties in RCM. Swanson (1997) provides information regarding the characteristics and use of CMMS. (B. CMMS provide 217 capabilities to store retrieve and analyze information. (2003) present an improved RCM (automated environment) process as integrated with CMMS. Predictive maintenance consists in deciding whether or not to maintain a system according to its state.4) Computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS). Shamsuddin et al. industry/company characteristics. This policy emphasizes the fact that the best policy is the one. Hipkin and Cock (2000) discuss implementation of RCM and TPM with respect to TQM and business process re-engineering (BPR) and show as to how maintenance implementation follows the path of other interventions.5) RCM. (2003) propose a maintenance maturity grid to support the CMMS implementation. (2005) argue that TPM can go much beyond much maintenance and may encompass a host of business functions within an organization. A total of five papers have been published in the last few years. (B. leading to non-optimum maintenance strategies. They conclude by saying that these uncertainties in the decision making of RCM might be unacceptable in many practical applications. Gabbar et al. Leger and Movel (2001) deal with computer-aided integration of maintenance in an enterprise. Finally. The major components of the enhanced RCM process are identified and a prototype as integrated with the various modules of the adopted CMMS is implemented. The paper also includes literature review of CMMS. This framework is also tested for 97 plants. An alternative approach for some specified uncertainties are also discussed. It directs maintenance efforts at those parts and units where reliability is critical. It is now only in the past ten years or so that this concept has started coming to the industry.

It is composed of people participation. (1998) a general predictive replacement model based on dynamic programming is presented. Murthy et al. is more quantitative. these approaches to a large extent are qualitative or at the most semi-quantitative. Martin (1997) discusses in detail the various facets of maintenance outsourcing. computer science and socio technology all need to be involved at different stages as the issues of selecting suitable maintenance contracts.3 for implementing predictive maintenance in manufacturing industry. In addition. This approach overcomes some of the deficiencies of RCM and TPM approaches as these do not deal with issues like operating load on the equipment and its effect on the degradation process. determination of contractor capabilities. and maintenance strategy development and performance measurement.10) Risk-based maintenance.8) Effectiveness centered maintenance. commercial and operational aspects from business viewpoint. (2002) in a recent work outline this approach in detail with presentation of few case studies. Buczkowski et al. Effectiveness centered maintenance (ECM) stresses “doing the right things” instead of “doing things right”. The SMM approach in contrast. The ECM approach is more comprehensive as compared with TPM and RCM. operations management.9) Strategic maintenance management. McKone and Weiss (2002) have presented detailed guidelines 12. the number of customers to service and the number of service channels. Determination of ECM performance indices has also been attempted in this paper. As a result SMM views maintenance from a perspective that is broader than that of RCM or TPM. This approach focuses on system functions and customer service. etc. quality improvement. maintenance is viewed as a multi disciplinary activity. 218 (B. Paper also discusses various research issues from an industrial engineering point of view. In the strategic maintenance management (SMM) approach. (B. contract portfolio management and the design of a contractor’s maintenance function are all very much related to one another. (B. involving the use of mathematical models that integrate technical. The . long-term strategic issues and outsourcing of maintenance.JQME this type of maintenance. TPM and RCM. Khan and Haddara (2003) outline this approach in detail and contrast it with the current approaches. This refers to transferring workload to outsiders with the goals of getting higher quality maintenance at faster.7) Maintenance outsourcing. It is also shown that various scientific disciplines such as management accounting. They recommended that practitioners should not abandon the traditional maintenance methods but follow given guidelines for utilizing periodic maintenance with the new technologies. Pun et al. (B. Two papers are published in this area. (2002) review in detail various basic concepts of maintenance and discuss need of ECM approach. Murthy and Asgharizadeh (1999) deal with game theoretic formulation model to determine outsourcing agent’s optimal strategy with regards to the price structure. safer and lower costs. Risk-based maintenance ensures a sound maintenance strategy meeting the dual objectives of minimization of hazards caused by unexpected failure of equipment and a cost effective strategy. energy and resources in to areas called core competencies. and has several features that are practical to enhance the performance of maintenance practices and encompasses core concepts of quality management. The other goals are to reduce the number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) and concentrate organization’s talent. (2005) discuss the prioritized warranty repairs for an outsourcing context. In an older work by Chu et al.

SMM and RBM. . information needed to complete the job and the necessary permissions. a more integrated approach to maintenance involving a close linkage to reliability (R) and maintainability (M) was recognized. more work on its integration with CMMS can be attempted. CMMS appears to be used less often as a device for analysis and coordination. Preventive and condition-based maintenance continue to be the areas where the maximum number of papers have been published. At the same time the Japanese gave birth to TPM in the context of manufacturing. In the 1970s. . (2003) discuss development of a new probabilistic method based on the semi . Various simulation tools and mathematical models are attempted in recent past for minimizing the PM cost. various models for optimum PM policy determination have been attempted using selection of unique inspection interval. RCM has the potential to be utilized in an automated environment i. It comprises of three main Maintenance modules i. While it might be expected that maintenance personnel would be the primary users of CMMS. Since the 1950s. Maintenance is increasingly viewed as a multi disciplinary activity involving integration of existing techniques like TPM. . risk estimation module.e. The uses so far appear to be only a storehouse for equipment information. not many applications have been published. Dieulle et al. The area of maintenance outsourcing has tremendous potential for future work as more and more clients are becoming interested in contracting out maintenance and contractors take great interest in solving current problem areas. risk evaluation module and maintenance planning management module. etc. as a PM tool and a maintenance work-planning tool. A total of eight papers are published in the last few years.e. which gave birth to RCM. OR models for maintenance have appeared at an ever-increasing rate. Similarly. more work needs to be done to link CMMS design and use with actual maintenance performance. maintenance cost was considered as an unavoidable cost and the only maintenance carried out was CM. materials/parts. RCM. tools. A case study using this methodology is also presented.proposed methodology is comprehensive and quantitative.e. Up to about 1940. . . (C) Maintenance scheduling Scheduling means bringing together in the precise timing the six elements of a successful maintenance job i. . However. etc. Some observations . availability of unit to be serviced. . As a future scope. an opportunity exists for a more broad use of CMMS by production personnel. Increased use of analysis and coordination capabilities and greater use of CMMS by personnel outside maintenance function have the potential to improve maintenance responsiveness and equipment condition. introduction of degradation ratio. the mechanic(s). The term “R & M” became very popular. as is evident from the emergence of the new approaches like ECM. The evolution of OR and its 219 applications during the Second World War led to the widespread use of PM.

and semi-regenerative process theory. engineers will focus on techniques. However. Sloan and Shanthikumar (2000) deal with combined production and maintenance scheduling for a multiple product single machine production system. accountants will think of maintenance in terms of costs. In the area of PM scheduling. production on equipment availability and support responsiveness. Motivated by this. Integration of various scheduling models in to MMISs may be investigated as a future research area to ensure effective planning and scheduling of maintenance jobs. Most papers in the maintenance field are based on the assumption that machines are always available at constant speed. Grall et al. reference numbers and surveys. Tsang et al. These have been sub-classified as follows: . (D) Maintenance performance measurement In the past. This means that processing the data to obtain useful management information. (2001) 220 present a tabu search heuristic for PM scheduling while Greenwood and Gupta (2000) present workforce constrained PM scheduling using evolution strategies. (2006) use data management techniques for optimization in CBM.1) Measurement techniques. Luck and the maintenance management tool (MMT) have been presented along with case studies on MMT. Duffuaa and Al-Sultan (1999) deal with scheduling maintenance personnel using a stochastic programming model that is a stochastic version of the Robert and Escudero model for scheduling maintenance personnel. It is this stochastic nature that makes maintenance scheduling a challenging problem and distinguishes with production scheduling.g. The interval between maintenance for the components is optimized by minimizing the total cost. but seldom receive the information they need.JQME sequential property in a condition-based maintenance environment for scheduling. (2002) discuss a predictive maintenance scheduling structure for a gradually deteriorating single unit system.1. Elaborate models like Hibi. Another reason is that maintenance performance reporting is difficult. top management is interested in budget performance. Some observations .1) Review of various models. e.3 Inspection random time is chosen with the help of a maintenance scheduling function and a gamma process models deterioration. In this section various maintenance performance measurement techniques have been identified from the literature. which is based on regenerative. (D. This model is considered . Pintelon and Puyvelde (1997) present an overview of various PMS including indicators. 12. etc. Lee and Lin (2001) discuss scheduling problems involving repair and maintenance rate modifying activities for a problem commonly found in the surface mounted technology of electronic assembly lines. two works have been reported. . in applications it is very common for a machine to be in a subnormal condition after running for a certain period of time. a few typical performance indicators is a time-consuming business. (D. The maintenance performance perceived also depends on the perspective applied i. Artana and Ishida (2002) address a method for determining the optimum maintenance schedule for components in wear out phase. Maintenance managers often have access to many data. Gopalakrishnan et al. maintenance performance reporting was limited to minimum budget reporting.e.

to ensure cost effective actions and enhance continual improvement efforts cost effectively. an extensive list of indices for the maintenance manager with benchmarks for these indices has also been published in a paper of National Petroleum Refiners Association cited in the above work.7) PMS using total maintenance management (TMM) and systems audit approach.1.1.1. (2001) look at the role of PMS in maintenance with particular reference to developing a new PMS using QFD technique. MMT consists of a control board (CB) which allows a management quick evaluation of maintenance performance during a fixed duration.5) PMS using maintenance information systems. The balance scorecard (BSC) provides an alternative and holistic approach to measurement that is developed on the notion that no single measure is sufficient to indicate the total performance of a system. . A number of performance indices have been listed for maintenance performance measurement. Various approaches to measuring maintenance performance have been reviewed.1. Value-based performance measure attempts 221 to assess the impact of maintenance activities on the future value of the associated assets. In a recent work Liyanage and Kumar (2003) have applied BSC to develop operations and maintenance performance (O&M) management process in the oil and gas industry. . than other scientific approaches for maintenance Maintenance performance reporting.1. to be more proactive. A model is developed by Al-Najjar and Alsyouf (2004) for economic impact of vibration-based maintenance (VBM (part of condition-based maintenance)) and further utilized to develop relevant maintenance performance measures. (D. the application showed that it could easily be adapted for the needs of the company. . The paper emphasizes on the value rather than the cost of operations and maintenance in the emerging business environment. (1998) describe that MMIS is required to measure performance. and stresses that there is a need to move from a plant-based policy to a more or less long-term business oriented approach. The paper also highlights that although the framework might be complicated and may demand extra resources for small and medium-sized companies. in past one month and a network of detailed reports (DR). Raouf and Ben-Daya (1995) propose a systematic .1. . QFD uses a type of three-stage matrix diagram to present data and information and is also referred to as “a house of quality”. (1999) discuss pitfalls relating to indiscriminate use of common maintenance performance measures. (D. The model has utilized life cycle costs (LCC) as monitoring parameters to provide the required information for decision making. (D. Tsang (1998) also discusses the concept of BSC as a SMM tool for performance measurement in industry. (D. Arts et al.6 and D.3) Performance measures based on VBM model. Kutucuoglu et al. e. (D. Applying BSC for managing maintenance performance is potential research area that may be explored.g. Similarly. . The reason is that the matrix in QFD fits together to form a house-shaped diagram.2) Balanced scorecard. Systems audit and data envelopment analysis (DEA) are the other two approaches covered in detail.4) PMS using quality function deployment (QFD) technique. Tsang et al.

The author also says that the data collection problem has not been sufficiently treated in the literature and has suggested a method for collecting disturbance data where computerized systems are combined with manual recording. e. They present a new loss classification scheme for computing OEE for a capital-intensive industry and provide justification for this scheme. 2000).g. OEE can be said to be a measure of progress of TPM in an organization. Swanson (2001) reports results of a study of the relationship between maintenance strategies and performance. the output prices of the produced products and input prices (maintenance costs) are shown to change over time. it is more likely that the responsibility ad authority to carry out improvements is gained from management. lack of material input. Ljungberg (1998) argues that it should be beneficial to change focus and use a comprehensive model for losses and proposes a TPM model with eight equipment losses. including downtime and other production losses that reduce output/machine hour or capacity utilization and does not include factors that reduce capacity utilization. Peters (2003) has introduced overall craft effectiveness (OCE) like the concept of OEE.3) Performance measurement relationship with maintenance strategy.1. OCE ¼ Craft utilization £ Craft efficiency £ Craft service quality). This paper has discussed that in order to effectively address all six big losses and hence improve OEE. (D. (D. through the use of CFT. A partial maintenance productivity goal is that the firm should seek to maximize its maintenance productivity in economic terms.3 presentation of a methodology to measure the effectiveness of the current status of maintenance management.8) Maintenance productivity index. Additionally. (2003) explore the purpose of the OEE concept in modern operations. Results of a study of performance ratios from three industries are also presented. In a recent work. Expected changes in the prices of outputs and of current inputs are built into the model. They also present the methodology for designing the necessary data collection system that can serve as a template for any industry. The analysis has demonstrated a strong positive relationship between proactive (preventive and predictive) and aggressive (TPM) maintenance strategies . OCE deals with the productivity of labor resources (OEE ¼ Availability £ Performance £ Quality. etc. Presently. The paper further suggests that the systems audit approach for performance measurement can potentially overcome some of these problems. cross-functional team (CFT) is necessary. In the area of systems audit approach.2) Overall equipment/craft effectiveness. definition of OEE includes six big losses. CFT accordingly has the combined necessary skills and knowledge of entire system of manufacture to identify correctly the practices and activities that relate to the six big losses. and should aim at producing any level of output which is decided on at minimum maintenance cost with respect to the production system’s state (Löfsten.JQME approach to TMM and discuss various issues pertaining to TMM along with 12. (D. . Bamber et al. Jeong and Phillips (2001) highlight that accurate estimation of equipment utilization is very essential. planned downtime. Groote (1995) presents a maintenance evaluation approach based on a quality audit and quantifiable maintenance performance indicators. Another work on 222 systems approach by Dwight (1999) argues that an absolute definition of maintenance performance in terms of changes in value presents difficult practical problems. In another work. In the discussed partial productivity model. lack of labor.

decentralized maintenance. (D.4) Effect of maintenance induced failures on operational effectiveness. 1996) and space (Cooke and Paulsen. reference numbers. e. Pongpech et al. Some observations . maintenance performance reporting was limited to minimum budget reporting. It is therefore important to understand how they affect operational effectiveness of the system and what steps can be taken to avoid their effects. (E) Maintenance information systems The impact of IT on maintenance management is still relatively young in the business arena.g. Examining case studies on MMT can be a potential research area. The rest of the papers deal with various areas such as machine tools (Aronson. . query or time to draw required reports. . (2006) discuss various maintenance strategies for equipment under lease. Three possible applications suggested in the paper are BPR through workgroup computing technology for better performance. mill performance (Lamb. Pintelon et al. repair effectiveness and 223 maintenance-induced failures. managers may be more management comfortable in making these investments in maintenance. systems audit approach and data envelopment analysis. software maintenance (Bandi et al. surveys and various models (Hibi. A DEA approach will be appropriate for quantitative comparison of operational efficiencies of multiple maintenance organizations. (1999) address some important opportunities created by the IT (r)evolution for maintenance management.g. He has indicated how IT is actively used in a number of normal working situations and has pointed to new uses. So far. Crocker (1999) pays attention to three areas – inspection effectiveness. Pintelon et al. organizational transformations. Performance measures can also be classified as value-based performance measure. These areas are usually ignored during the design of the system and also during its operations. e. The maintenance manager also lacks the tools. 2002). 1997). Feasibility of applying BSC model for managing performance is still an unexplored area that needs further research. work has only been directed in the design of such a system. The paper concludes by saying that through demonstration of Maintenance impact these strategies can have on plant performance. balance scorecard. In addition. repair and operating supplies (MRO) stores utilizing integrated systems technology resulting in an . Problems and factors associated with implementation of PMS using QFD technique are also important and require further research.and performance. sound maintenance management requires a lot of interaction with other business functions as the era of enterprise-wide information management and business planning becomes a norm rather than an exception. (D. 2003). Popular PIs are indicators.. Luck and MMT) out of which MMT has gained lots of popularity in the recent past. Integration of PMS with an effective MMIS is presently lacking. . . In the past.5) Miscellaneous. Data accuracy and report timeliness are other problems in maintenance performance reporting. . (2006) have evaluated the effectiveness of various maintenance strategies. the remaining three approaches are useful for measuring the maintenance performance of an organization.

management execution systems). The whole system was developed for a powder coating factory. The initial MMIS. He . The system is menu-driven and user 224 friendly and with little modifications can be used for any industry.g. supporting mainly mainframe applications. 12. however. (2005) deliberate on the fundamental issues related to maintaining or not to maintain equipment with reference to the information needs of a decision maker. Evolution in middleware software is a recent trend that is much broader than MMIS. Some of the packages are R/5. (1999) report findings from a study of systems development and maintenance issues conducted in the UK. e. Nagarur and Kaewplang (1999) present a computerized decision support system to assist in maintenance planning. etc.g. Wang (2002) has undertaken a survey of maintenance policies of deteriorating systems. In the first. Problems relating to application and development of an object-oriented decision support system for maintenance management is another potential field for future. Bardey et al. Fitzgerald et al. . Rimes. Some observations . (F) Maintenance policies Two invited reviews are worth discussing under this sub section. In the early 1980s the first MMIS appeared due to full recognition of maintenance as an important business function. .g. .g. There are very promising developments in IT which can help to improve maintenance practice and create better competitiveness. ERP) and plant-floor (e. For spare parts management GUI-MMIS offers inventory administration in addition to inventory control models. is not specific to maintenance management information. SAP.g. equipment data. e. Paper relates to information system maintenance in general rather being on maintenance information systems.3 outsourcing through inter-enterprise technology resulting to extended business partnerships. these became even more user friendly with the use of graphical user interface (GUI) and multimedia applications. Buying sophisticated hardware or software is not the complete answer. The paper. it was found that the users found the system easy to operate because of the object-oriented style of using the icons for operating the system. work order planning etc. The system design and analysis and the decision support system design and development are all developed in an object-oriented environment. e.JQME integrated business function approach and redefining external relationships. Maximo. Maintenance software is commercially available either as a standalone package or as a module in integrated systems. more specific maintenance software containing modules. Westerkamp (2002) measures information engineered performance standards (EPS). became available. Recently. . In the implementation stages. . This software should manage the communications between corporate (e. Satyanarayana and Prasad (1996) have attempted to introduce maintenance information system for the maintenance department of a Fishing Fleet Company in order to reduce MTTR and increase MTBF. were mostly administratively oriented. Progressively.

quality improvement and manufacturing capabilities. Research activities in maintenance engineering have been conducted over the past 30 years and more than 40 mathematical imperfect maintenance models have been proposed for estimating the reliability measures and determining the optimum maintenance policies. A such integrated system has been shown to be developed and implemented in this paper using methods and principles of maintenance performance auditing. RCM planning and control. In order to illustrate the methodology. (F.e. each kind of policy has different characteristics. (2001) present a case study of an electronic manufacturing company that was lacking a sound maintenance management system.. JIT and TPM generally investigates the implementation and impact of these programs in isolation. Many companies using MRPII very often appear to be isolated from maintenance management activities. Strategy for integration of these two computerization areas in to logistics management is essential to take advantage of both modern maintenance strategy and production planning strategy.1) Maintenance integration. Imperfect maintenance study has indicated a significant breakthrough in reliability and maintenance theory.has said that in the past decades. which produces a single item. periodic PM policy. However. Jonsson (1999) re-emphasizes that integration of maintenance produces better results. cost recording and tracing. The same was demonstrated for a make-to-stock production system consisting of a single deteriorating machine. paper has also describes a lamp manufacturing company with highly sophisticated equipment that depends on modern maintenance strategies as well as MRPII type production and planning. Research on TQM. (2000) suggest designing an enhanced MRPII system that incorporates systematic integration of maintenance management with the use of the integration definition method (IDEF) model. block replacement policy. maintenance and replacement problems of Maintenance deteriorating systems have been extensively studied in literature. The authors have summarized various treatment methods and optimal policies on the imperfect maintenance in the paper along with a few important results. Thousands of management maintenance and replacement models have been created which can fall in to some categories of maintenance policies like age replacement policy. classified and compared various 225 existing maintenance policies for both single-unit and multi-unit systems with emphasis on single unit systems. The authors have said that the maintenance of deteriorating systems is often imperfect i. failure limit policy. advantages and disadvantages. condition monitoring and on-line feedback control and integrated planning and control. random age replacement policy. Iravani and Duenyas (2002) indicate that the common practice of making maintenance and production decisions separately can be rather costly and that there are significant benefits for making these decisions in an integrated fashion. the system after maintenance will not be as good as new. Data gathered and analyzed from 293 Swedish maintenance managers in manufacturing firms showed that integration and long-term planning of maintenance both affect prevention. Another important review was by Pham and Wang (1996) in which imperfect maintenance has been discussed in detail. but younger. many researchers believe and argue . The performance of maintenance and production system integrated using a Markov decision process and evaluated with help of approximate methods was found to work extremely well. Ip et al. Author has finally summarized. Tu et al. etc.

It is an interconnection of computational elements known as neurons. Application of ANN in maintenance management would certainly utilize all the above knowledge and methods. trend prediction. proper design of experiments and sound ways of output analysis.2) Simulation in maintenance. Emerging maintenance concepts are: neural management maintenance. (F. Tseng et al.1) Economic manufacturing quantity (EMQ) determination in an imperfect PM. A case has been examined for two commonly used maintenance strategies and it is shown that for both optimal maintenance policies can be obtained.2. (F. which would permanently monitor the system and suggest the most appropriate actions and strategies. (1998) investigate imperfect maintenance policies for deteriorating production systems such that the EMQ can be obtained. (F. A maintenance concept can be defined as the set of various maintenance interventions (corrective. matching and completion. preventive. A variety of future research studies are also possible in this area. El Hayek et al. These are as follows: . (2001) investigate the practices of the three programs simultaneously. . (2005) discuss performance of maintenance based on life cycle costs of complex machinery using simulation as a technique.3) Customized maintenance concept. Andijani and Duffuaa (2002) review the literature on the use of simulation in maintenance. This should add quality in the decision-making process and consequently reduce the overall maintenance costs. It is shown that there is evidence showing the compatibility of the practices in the three programs. The framework described in this paper offers some guidelines to develop such a concept and borrows some ideas from maintenance concepts in the literature. efficiency and fast responses. Polimac and Polimac (2001) highlight the above aspects and state that maintenance methods applied at present should be combined in a comprehensive neural management maintenance system. condition-based. ANNs embody computational networks based on biological metaphor to simulate the brain action.2) Emerging maintenance concepts.2. ranging from experience of maintenance workers to data captured by modern information and communication technology (ICT) means. A case in which maintenance action is imperfect and may lead a production system to a worse condition has been considered. . A number of maintenance concepts have 226 emerged in recent past. An important feature of the framework is that it allows incorporating all information available in the company.2. The reviewed literature has been evaluated with respect to the elements of sound simulation study and it is observed that many of the simulation studies on maintenance systems ignored model validation. etc.) and the general structure in which these interventions are foreseen. Cua et al. The main capabilities of ANN include superb pattern classification. . Waeyenbergh and Pintelon (2002) intimate that more and more companies are searching for a customized maintenance concept. capability to generalize and reliability.JQME conceptually the value of understanding the joint implementation of these 12. (F.3 manufacturing programs. They opined that the available models in the literature could be enhanced by focusing more on model validation and design of the experiment for the simulation study.

The proposed framework can be seen as built out of five modules. only few of these 227 systems developed or installed have actually considered maintenance strategies. maintenance policy decision step module. because overhauls and other PM actions tend to corrupt the recorded life lengths. During the last decade. Further research can be done using this approach to enhance MRPII system and improve logistics management and physical distribution functions of any organization. Most maintenance optimization models need an estimate of the so-called “naked” failure rate function as input.4) Miscellaneous.2. to the discipline of maintenance. which are Maintenance start-up module. Nikolopoulos et al. . McIntosh et al. (2003) highlight proper design and integration of maintenance management in to ERP systems enable enterprises to effectively manage their production.4) Object-oriented maintenance management. computer aided integrated maintenance management (CIMM) is needed by manufacturing companies to integrate. many companies have made large investments in the development and implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. performance measurement module and the continuous improvement module. where appropriate. (2001) highlight these aspects and assert that the maintenance community might give greater attention to what has occurred in the improvement of change over performance. identification of most important systems (MISs) and most management critical components (MCCs) module. The author has recommended including a simple question about the mean remaining life length on the work-order forms. expert judgment) to get credible input data. 1992). (F. 2002) and nuclear environment maintenance (Chockie and Bjorkelo. yet relatively little consideration has been given to the impact that each discipline can have on the other. However. 1997). Oien (1998) stresses the importance of utilizing the knowledge of maintenance engineer (i. In practice it is difficult to estimate the “naked” failure rate. Integration of maintenance management in to MRPII using appropriate system design is invaluable. schedule and control production and maintenance. (F. Limited research has been attempted to consider maintenance strategy in design of MRPII. By this approach the knowledge of maintenance engineers may be incorporated in a simple and cost-effective way.e. . (2005) have used a novel concept of expert system for aircraft maintenance that is viewed as service industry. . The rest of the papers not directly relevant are on maintenance strategy assessment (Jonsson.3) New ideas. well-documented improvement techniques that are used to enhance change over performance do not seem to be widely applied. Extensive literature on change over and maintenance as a separate subjects has been published. Maintenance management must be integrated with other functional departments like production and quality control. value of change in maintenance (Call. Some observations . Despite the manifest similarities in some changeover and maintenance tasks. Cheung et al. This work presents the design of an object oriented maintenance management model and its integration in to an ERP system. (F. planning and scheduling.

maintenance policy. The same will assist future researchers in the field of maintenance management to identify literature gaps and direct research efforts suitably. In the areas of performance measurement and information systems also. There appears to be similarities between changeover and maintenance tasks. During the 1950s only CM was undertaken i. Knowledge of maintenance engineers i. A glaring change in attitude towards maintenance from a necessary evil to “external and internal partnerships” is noticed. which will give a full understanding of relationship between TQM. etc. Directions for future work are as follows: (1) Modeling and optimization oriented: . there have been developments in the area of maintenance outsourcing. material selection. JIT and TPM are possible. condition-based maintenance. Design of this module has a future scope of research. Limited work is directed towards developing an operational decision support system utilizing a suitable maintenance optimization model. Concept of reliability came during 1980s in the form of RCM. Well-documented improvement techniques that are used to enhance changeover performance do not seem to be widely applied. very interested trends have been noticed. the expert judgment may be useful in the design of customized maintenance concept. The correlation between the two will be an interesting area for research. . . Problems related to implementation of an object-oriented maintenance management model and its integration to ERP may be taken as a future work. which revolved around solving maintenance problems using quality circles method. more modules. .e. Developing optimization models for maintenance engineers. which directed maintenance efforts at those parts and units where reliability is critical followed by TPM. data management. JIT and TPM. e. 12. . . .e. This modular approach should allow selection of modules for which a decision support module is foreseen. “fix it when it breaks”. Consolidated summary A consolidated summary highlighting emerging trends of various attributes is given in Table III. This was gradually translated to PM and its various forms like predictive maintenance. Emerging tend is towards integration of these various approaches in the form of ECM or SMM. should be added and the content of each module be carefully elaborated on. which are capable of incorporating information about the repair and maintenance .g. Future studies in the joint implementation of TQM. Similarly.JQME .3 Studies could help examining the close linkage among functions and also pinpoint exact nature of interactions among them. Further work in this direction is a potential research area. standardization etc. In future development of the customized maintenance concept framework. A new technique neural management maintenance is yet to be developed which will combine the already applied methods in maintenance and which should reduce 228 involvement of analysts/ engineers in processing the data and thus add quality in decision-making process. More and more organizations are resorting to this form of vertical contracting to further build up their core competency levels.

inter-enterprise technology Spare parts management Inventory administration Graphical user interface (GUI) – maintenance management information systems (MMIS) New maintenance policies Techniques in isolation Maintenance strategy in MRP system. quality data envelopment analysis (DEA) function deployment (QFD) PMS integration with information system Poor Developing Data collection in measurement of OEE Not sufficiently treated Designing of data collection system Evolution of MMIS Mainframe applications and mostly Evolution in middleware software (e. neural management maintenance. work group computing. Joint implementation of TQM. correlation between changeover performance and maintenance tasks management Maintenance management Emerging trends in Table III. Balance score card (BSC) approach. indicators. etc. integration with qualitative approaches Maintenance outsourcing Not existed Part of vertical contracting Maintenance scheduling Models in isolation Integration with MMIS Performance indicators Reference numbers. Maintenance optimization models (quantitative) Mathematical discipline with limited applications Application oriented.g. customized maintenance concept framework. knowledge of maintenance engineers utilization. models Maintenance management tool (MMT) model – Hibi and Luck Performance measurement approaches Value based approach. administration oriented communication between corporate and plant floor). surveys. SMM. e. 229 maintenance . ECM. integrated system technology. systems audit approach. object-oriented maintenance management model and its integration to ERP.g.Attribute Earlier Emerging Attitude towards maintenance Necessary evil Technical matter – profit contributor – partnership Maintenance strategy CM-PM-RCM-TPM Integration of various approaches. JIT and TPM.

(3) Information system oriented: . (5) Maintenance concept oriented: . Examining case studies on MMT with a view to allow quick evaluation of maintenance performance during a fixed duration. Feasibility of applying BSC model for managing maintenance performance and applications of BSC in military applications. Integration of PMS with an effective MMIS.e. . . . decentralized MRO stores) and recasting of external relationships. . .e. organizational transformations (e. JIT and TPM to examine their close linkage and pinpointing exact nature of interactions.g. Future studies in the joint implementation of TQM. the methods of failure 12. (2) Performance measurement oriented: 230 .3 detection. . .g. Problems related to implementation of object oriented maintenance management model and its integration to ERP. Integration of quantitative optimization models with qualitative ones like RCM. Designing of an effective data collection system for computing OEE in an organization and problems with its implementation. e. e. etc. . . RCM has potential to be utilized in an automated environment i. Problems relating to application and development of an object oriented decision support system for maintenance management. Evolution in middleware software. Problems and factors associated with implementation of PMS using QFD technique require further research. the engineering management policies. outsourcing through inter-enterprise technology. etc. TPM. Integration of maintenance management in to MRPII using appropriate system design that will improve logistics management and physical distribution functions of the organization. (4) Maintenance management integration oriented: . Use of CMMS by personnel outside maintenance function has the potential to improve maintenance responsiveness and equipment condition. . More work needs to be done to link CMMS design and use with actual maintenance performance. more work on its integration with CMMS can be attempted. . communications between corporate (i. . Future scope includes BPR through workgroup computing technology. Integration of various scheduling models in to MMISs may be investigated to ensure effective planning and scheduling of maintenance jobs. ERP) and plant-floor information systems.g.JQME strategy.

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