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School of Civil, Environmental and
Geological Engineering
Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Philippines




Argete, Ma. Cristina A.
Gicale, Patrick Emmanuel T.
Ilao, Patricia Ann Rae M.
Jumarang, Franc Jerome B.
Sepulvida, Bryan A.
Villegas, Ralph Don B.
Wong, Jansen D.

A Project Submitted to the School of CE – ENSE in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements in the Subject


September 2017



Flooding is a perennial problem in Metro Manila, various flood and drainage
system projects have been implemented in Metropolis in the last two decades, but it
seems only a little have been gained because the flood problems will persist. Flood
control and drainage system has yet effectively address due to the inadequate
capacity of existing drainage channels in conveying storm water to the dumping
stations. The drainage improvement measure has been hampered by the very limited
information in the present conditions of existing drainage channels. The study of
drainage system in Metro Manila specifically in District V will bring major benefits. As
the improvement of the drainage system, it reduces the damages to the houses and
public facilities. Minimize the loss of public and private properties will contribute greatly
to the improvement and standard of living to the stabilization of people’s livelihood and
the serious congestion resulting from the long flooding in Metro Manila.


Wong. VIVA MAPUA! Argete. Yet. Ronnie Encarnacion – their professor and mentor. Ralph Don B. to the ALMIGHTY GOD for providing the physical and the mental strength. Engr. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers wish to express their sincerest gratitude to the following persons who unselfishly gave their invaluable assistance towards the realization of this humble piece of work. Sepulvida. To them and to others who had some part in the writing of this paper. Our family – for being always there whenever the researchers needed them. Jumarang. Villegas. Bryan A. theirs is a life filled with a thousand and one “silent” and almost unnoticed heroism in the humdrum of everyday living. 2 . Ma. no other person has influenced their disposition towards life.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA ii. Gicale. Patrick Emmanuel T. Cristina A. inner drive and sense of direction and purpose in this endeavor and whom all good things come. for having been a moving power behind the writing and completion of this paper. once and for all go their sincere thanks. Ilao. Franc Jerome B. Foremost. as much they did. Jansen D. Patricia Ann Rae M.

2.3 FLOOD RISK STRATEGY AND ATTENUATION VALUE-----------------------------15 III.1 DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER DISCHARGE RATES 2.3.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA iii.2.1.1. OBJECTIVES---------------------------------------------------------------------------5 1. SITE DESCRIPTION 1.2. RECOMMENDATION 17 IV.1.3 FLOODING-------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 II.1 CONCEPTUALIZED FLOW DIRECTION--------------------------------------13 2.1.2 PROPOSED STORM DRAINAGE STRATEGY ------------------------------14 2.2 COMPREHESSIVE LAND USE----------------------------------------------------7 1.4 ROLES AND RESPONISIBILITIES------------------------------------------------6 1.2 SURFACE WATER DRAINAGE STRATEGY 2.3.3. SURFACE WATER DRAINS------------------------------------------------------11 2.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE-----------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION-----------------------------------------------------------5 1.1 LOCATION BACKGROUND---------------------------------------------------------6 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 4 1.1.2. SITE LOCATION AND USE BRIEF HISTORY-----------------------------------------------------------------------8 1. REFERENCES 22 3 . APPENDICES 18 APPENDIX A: MAPS---------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 V.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY--------------------------------------------------5 1. DETAILED DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL 10 2.


1. This therefore leads to come up with a study that will focus on the assessment about the problems regarding storm drainage systems and to how these can be improved in order to prevent cases such those of flooding.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1. catch basins and inlets are classified as area drains and are ideal for landscaping applications. Identify the factors causing the overflow of storm sewer systems 2.1. erosion on streams and creeks. especially on the areas covered by Metro Manila.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION This paper will be focusing on developing possible solutions to flooding and conceptualizing storm drainage system capable of accumulating and managing surface runoff of the fifth district of Manila. pollution and destruction of the drainage system itself. this study should then establish possible solutions to promote and enhance proper management protection with regard to the designs of storm water drainage and environmental premises as well. This project would like to produce the following: 1. As we know.1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Heavy downpour causing floods is one of the most common calamities that Philippines experience.2. and of course. Also. Provide adequate research on improving storm sewer systems for future studies 1. leading to its connected parts to be damaged. Propose potential remedies in current issues present in storm drainage area 3.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE 1. This study is also limited to the following: 5 . Water is being directed to the drain by the contours of the landscape. One of the factors that contribute to flooding is the improper storm drainage system management. Failure to install pipes accurately will cause problems on the system drainage. The Basin or inlet is connected to pipe that conducts the water to the discharge point.1. OBJECTIVES The general objective of this project is to find possible solutions to storm drainage system overflows in the fifth district of Manila and apply specific topics in storm sewer engineering.

data analysis and interpretation.2. 1.2. provide suggestions and feedback on the methodology. personal background. paper editing.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1. based on experience. • Member Responsibilities: The members will participate in team meetings. Paco Port Area. and knowledge on the project methodology.1 LOCATION BACKGROUND Manila is the capital of the Philippines.714 6 . SITE LOCATION AND USE 1.56 km²  Population (2015): 366. decision of each members. • Leader Responsibilities: The leader will provide leadership in every aspect of the project with support from his members. documentation.1. The 5th district consists of Ermita. Applying the Rational method in designing a storm drainage system 3. located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay. learning exchanges. coordinating research activities on storm drainage systems. data collection. and San Andres Bukid. Using the Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency of Manila 2. It is subdivided into six legislative districts. formulation of proposed flood control solutions. Costing of proposed storm drainage strategy 1.  Barangays: 649–828  Area: 11. Intramuros. and ensuring the dissemination of research findings. including Manila South Cemetery.4 ROLES AND RESPONISIBILITIES This project recognizes that roles and responsibilities differ among the group members. Malate. This includes overseeing the entire project. on the western edge of Luzon.

1 Manila's current fifth district highlighted The topographic map of District 5 illustrates the difference of elevation of the zones.2 Topographic Map of District 5 1. Figure 1.1.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 1. Below is the topographic map of District 5.2. The commercial zone and the university zone has a higher elevation than the residential zone.2.2. 7 .2 COMPREHESSIVE LAND USE District five’s land use is mainly composed of high intensity commercial/mixed use zone and university cluster zone on the half of the district 5 and residential zone on the other half. Below is the existing land use of District five.1.

Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) is the corporation supplying water and sewerage services to Metro Manila. SITE DESCRIPTION 1.3.1 BRIEF HISTORY In the past. as well as one of the oldest government- owned and controlled corporations in the Philippines. Ramos ordered the reorganization of the MWSS and encourage private sector participation in the privatization of MWSS operations and facilities.2. 1971. The water distribution and sewerage collection networks were deteriorating and urgently required rehabilitation and expansion to meet the demands. 8 . In December of that year President Fidel V. the MWSS charter was created and mandates that MWSS operate and maintain water and sewerage service in Metro Manila as an autonomous government owned and controlled corporation. finance privatization. and strengthening the government's anti-water pilferage efforts. By the early 1980s. Thus June 19. It is one of the oldest waterworks systems in Asia.3. In June 1995. Metro Manila was experiencing increased in industrialization and sustained population growth. This is to address the issues related to supply distribution.2 District 5 Comprehensive Land Use 1.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 1. the Philippine Congress passed the "Water Crisis Act" or Republic Act 8041.

2 Flood prone areas of district 9 . Furthermore.3.3.3. Based from the existing storm drainage system used in the study area.60 meter x 1 meter.3. Culverts of 1 meter x 1 meter to a maximum size of 1. The existing design of the storm drainage present in district five is made of the flowing: 1. Pipes for drainage main is 30” in diameter 2. Figure 1. Laterals made of concrete pipes the average size of which is 18” in diameter. it is insufficient and unable to prevent flooding whenever rainfall is experienced. 3.1 Flooding Map hazard of district 5 The drainage and flood control system in the city is made up of drainage main and laterals. Figure1.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1.2 FLOODING In district five. different areas experience flooding. Flood prone areas has increased flood damage potential due to the concentration of population and developed property at various areas. observations show that many portions of the pipe system have reduced its carrying capacity to lesser return period flows as a result of the debris clogging up the system.3.


it bisects the Philippine capital of Manila and its surrounding urban area into northern and southern halves. Its major tributaries are the Marikina River and San Juan River. It connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay.1.1 DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER DISCHARGE RATES 2.1.1. The total drainage basin of Pasig River. Napindan and Manggahan channels and up North to the Marikina river system. including the basin of Laguna de Bay which covers 4.1 Pasig River Some of the existing nearby esteros which serves as surface water drainages in district five are the following: Figure 2.678 square.1.2 Estero De Balete 11 . Figure 2. the main stream of Pasig river system starts from the river mouth to the upstream end along San Juan River.1.1.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 2. Stretching for 25 kilometers. SURFACE WATER DRAINS In the fifth district of Manila.

4 Estero de Paco Figure ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 2.5 Estero Tripa de Gallina 12 .1.3 Estero Provisor Figure 2.1.

1 CONCEPTUALIZED FLOW DIRECTION To uniformly distribute the amount of surface runoff in the fifth district. the whole study are was first divided into four parts at which the proposed design and drainage solution may be conceptualized.1 District Five Division Area 1 Area 2 13 . Figure 2.2.2 SURFACE WATER DRAINAGE STRATEGY 2.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 2.2.

As shown on the figure.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Area 3 Area 4 To develop an effective way of evenly distributing the storm water discharge despite the difference in elevation of the study area. Area 3: Since the third area would retains its existing storm drainage line. For this area. the existing main drain of areas 3 and 4 would be retained while the other areas far from the main drain such as 2 and 1 will have a newly constructed main storm drain discharging to nearby esteros. Pipes for drainage main is 30” in diameter 2.2. an improved storm water canals must be applied with the following standards used for storm drainage systems: 1. new drainage lines would be constructed and would discharge to the nearest surface water. Esteros and other drainage mains in Ermita and Malate are recommended to undergo the following: 1. the storm drainage lines would be to create additional lines which would discharge at the nearest surface water.2 PROPOSED STORM DRAINAGE STRATEGY Area 1: These kinds of areas are subjected to widespread flooding if ever extreme or heavy rainfall condition occurs. three of the main esteros present in district five is present. riprap 14 . dredging 2. Laterals made of concrete pipes the average size of which is 18” in diameter Area 2: For the second area. As proposed. 2.

riprap 3. Land use ordinances 2. dredging 2. 15 . the most effective way to manage flood risk is to take an integrated approach which combines both structural and non-structural measures. Strict enforcement of waterway easement laws 3.Floods in district five can be controlled by redirecting excess water to purpose-built canals or floodways. Furthermore. Slope protection 4. Increase local government and community awareness and participation. some of strategies which may be used to lessen the intensity of flux through any type of medium in which flood may be controlled and apply changes to the hydrograph are the following: 1. This includes: 1. Resettle informal settlers Area 4: As for the fourth area. which in turn divert the water to temporary holding ponds or other bodies of water where there is a lower risk or impact to flooding. the area should also undergo the following remedies: 1. Water catch Basin – Placing catch basins on flood prone areas in the district would greatly affect the peak flow and delay of storm water flow during rainfall. Diversion canals . the existing main storm drainage line still be used.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 3. Resettle informal settlers 2. 2. Slope protection 4. For the fifth district of Manila. The existing main drainage discharges to the Estero tripa de Gallina.3 FLOOD RISK STRATEGY AND ATTENUATION VALUE As part of the government protocol. like the third area.

2.1 Water catch basin placed at flood prone areas 16 .AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 2.


Change in pipe systems would cost a lot.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Recommendation For this project. and the design should also be maximized to have a more economical layout. but it should also conform to the requirements that is needed for a certain area. and it would not be rational and feasible to be careless in designing. Even if the design of the most gifted engineer is being laid out in the structure. storm sewer management systems. 18 . For in any case. in managing the storm sewer system. and design that are needed to be considered. the project itself is costly. effectiveness. Hence. There are certain factor like cost. if the public is still lacking of discipline. then there will be no proper layout and the design would be useless. the design of a storm sewer layout is not that easy. one must be able to have a creative layout in the pipe systems. it is important for the community to also take a step in a role in maintaining a healthy drainage system. Lastly.





there are members of our group that really extend their efforts to the fullest in order to have a good report. In september 9. we distributed the work that each member in our group must accomplish. In the following days. There are instances of cancellations of classes as well as work due to unpreventable events that's why we somehow slowdown a bit. On september 2. In the week before the submission. Before we proceed in gathering necessary informations regarding our project. we finalize first the things that needs to be done so that we will have a guideline on the things that we must do. Besides from that. After that. we are able to finalize little by little our project. In addition.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Appendix B: Journal The first that we did after being formed as a group is to give our thoughts regarding our research. we talked about the lectures that would help us in our research. we created a group chat so that we will have the means to communicate with one another. as well as if we have critics for a specific part. The parts which is assigned to us are also being supervised well. After our first meeting as a group. we started finalizing our analysis for our research. On august 27. our group talk about on where can we possibly get the data that we need for our project as well as the proper format of the research. Members of our group are very cooperative for we are very open for suggestions. we started gathering data and information that we need for our project. in will be all worthy because of the knowledge and experiences we have while making this research 23 . we are somehow making a progress because we are able to gather some important data and information. There are parts in our report that needs critical analysis that's why we are trying to help them. we also started to identify the things that needs to be analyze in our project. Making a research work is not easy but in the end. For the succeeding days. we started making the parts assigned to us and also. we started already making our research work. Gathering data from different offices is quite hard because there are times wherein the data that you need is not available in sub offices that's why we are being referred to main offices. we can say that each one of us has done their part and actually. Overall. We are helping one another in cases our groupmates are having a trouble in his part.

Manila gov’t to study drain system of flood-prone underpass.  E. pp. Rivera. (2002). “An Analysis of Public Perception of Floods in Manila City”. Mines and Geoscience Bureau (MGB)  Socioeconomic and Physical Profile of City Planning and Development Office of Manila (2005)  Contour.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA asks-congress-to-create-bureau-of-drainage-systems-and-services  Sauler. (2014). (2013. National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA)  Manila Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Regulations of 2006  Plans. Flood Control and Drainage System of Espana Boulevard in. E. R. Retrieved from MMDA Chief Asks Congress to Create "Bureau of Drainage Systems and Services" : http://www. Ganiron Jr. FEATI University. (2015). River and Road. 5. (2013).. Design and Project Monitoring Division by Metropolitan Manila Development Authority  Jr. REFERENCES  Hazard Data. C.  MMDA. 1-14. Guanzon. vol. Opena. 1. T. Manila. GOVPH Metro Manila Development Authority. 24 . U.mmda. October 7). International Journal of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity. Papio and A.  T. no. “Rehabilitation of the Drainage System and the Construction of Pumping Station that will serve as Flood Control in FEATI University for the Next Decades”. International Journal of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity. V. BS Thesis. Philippine Daily Inquirer. U. J. Hernandez. Civil Engineering Department. 17-28.