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School of Civil, Environmental and
Geological Engineering
Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Philippines




Argete, Ma. Cristina A.
Gicale, Patrick Emmanuel T.
Ilao, Patricia Ann Rae M.
Jumarang, Franc Jerome B.
Sepulvida, Bryan A.
Villegas, Ralph Don B.
Wong, Jansen D.

A Project Submitted to the School of CE – ENSE in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements in the Subject


September 2017



Flooding is a perennial problem in Metro Manila, various flood and drainage
system projects have been implemented in Metropolis in the last two decades, but it
seems only a little have been gained because the flood problems will persist. Flood
control and drainage system has yet effectively address due to the inadequate
capacity of existing drainage channels in conveying storm water to the dumping
stations. The drainage improvement measure has been hampered by the very limited
information in the present conditions of existing drainage channels. The study of
drainage system in Metro Manila specifically in District V will bring major benefits. As
the improvement of the drainage system, it reduces the damages to the houses and
public facilities. Minimize the loss of public and private properties will contribute greatly
to the improvement and standard of living to the stabilization of people’s livelihood and
the serious congestion resulting from the long flooding in Metro Manila.


Ralph Don B. Bryan A. for having been a moving power behind the writing and completion of this paper. To them and to others who had some part in the writing of this paper. Ronnie Encarnacion – their professor and mentor. Jansen D. as much they did. VIVA MAPUA! Argete. to the ALMIGHTY GOD for providing the physical and the mental strength. Our family – for being always there whenever the researchers needed them. 2 . theirs is a life filled with a thousand and one “silent” and almost unnoticed heroism in the humdrum of everyday living. Ilao. Gicale. Wong. no other person has influenced their disposition towards life. Foremost. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers wish to express their sincerest gratitude to the following persons who unselfishly gave their invaluable assistance towards the realization of this humble piece of work. Sepulvida. Cristina A. Franc Jerome B. Engr. Ma. Patricia Ann Rae M. inner drive and sense of direction and purpose in this endeavor and whom all good things come. Villegas. Jumarang.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA ii. once and for all go their sincere thanks. Yet. Patrick Emmanuel T. INTRODUCTION 4 1.2 PROPOSED STORM DRAINAGE STRATEGY ------------------------------14 2.1.1. SURFACE WATER DRAINS------------------------------------------------------11 2. REFERENCES 22 3 .4 ROLES AND RESPONISIBILITIES------------------------------------------------6 1. OBJECTIVES---------------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.2.1 LOCATION BACKGROUND---------------------------------------------------------6 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY--------------------------------------------------5 1.3 FLOOD RISK STRATEGY AND ATTENUATION VALUE-----------------------------15 III.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION-----------------------------------------------------------5 1.1. APPENDICES 18 APPENDIX A: MAPS---------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 V.1 BRIEF HISTORY-----------------------------------------------------------------------8 1.2 COMPREHESSIVE LAND USE----------------------------------------------------7 1.3 FLOODING-------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 II. SITE DESCRIPTION 1.1 CONCEPTUALIZED FLOW DIRECTION--------------------------------------13 2. RECOMMENDATION 17 IV.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE-----------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.3.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA iii.2.2. TABLE OF CONTENTS I.1 DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER DISCHARGE RATES SITE LOCATION AND USE 1.2 SURFACE WATER DRAINAGE STRATEGY 2. DETAILED DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL 10 2.2.


1. pollution and destruction of the drainage system itself. One of the factors that contribute to flooding is the improper storm drainage system management.1. OBJECTIVES The general objective of this project is to find possible solutions to storm drainage system overflows in the fifth district of Manila and apply specific topics in storm sewer engineering. Failure to install pipes accurately will cause problems on the system drainage. This therefore leads to come up with a study that will focus on the assessment about the problems regarding storm drainage systems and to how these can be improved in order to prevent cases such those of flooding. Propose potential remedies in current issues present in storm drainage area 3. Also.2. This project would like to produce the following: 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Heavy downpour causing floods is one of the most common calamities that Philippines experience. Identify the factors causing the overflow of storm sewer systems 2. The Basin or inlet is connected to pipe that conducts the water to the discharge point.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1. catch basins and inlets are classified as area drains and are ideal for landscaping applications. and of course. As we know. This study is also limited to the following: 5 .1.1. Provide adequate research on improving storm sewer systems for future studies 1. this study should then establish possible solutions to promote and enhance proper management protection with regard to the designs of storm water drainage and environmental premises as well. erosion on streams and creeks.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE 1. Water is being directed to the drain by the contours of the landscape. leading to its connected parts to be damaged.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION This paper will be focusing on developing possible solutions to flooding and conceptualizing storm drainage system capable of accumulating and managing surface runoff of the fifth district of Manila. especially on the areas covered by Metro Manila.

 Barangays: 649–828  Area: 11. documentation. The 5th district consists of Ermita. provide suggestions and feedback on the methodology. and ensuring the dissemination of research findings. on the western edge of Luzon. It is subdivided into six legislative districts. coordinating research activities on storm drainage systems. • Leader Responsibilities: The leader will provide leadership in every aspect of the project with support from his members. data analysis and interpretation.2. and San Andres Bukid.2.714 6 . Applying the Rational method in designing a storm drainage system 3. decision of each members. and knowledge on the project methodology. located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay. based on experience. personal background.56 km²  Population (2015): 366. Using the Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency of Manila 2.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1. learning exchanges. paper editing. formulation of proposed flood control solutions. data collection. • Member Responsibilities: The members will participate in team meetings.4 ROLES AND RESPONISIBILITIES This project recognizes that roles and responsibilities differ among the group members. This includes overseeing the entire project. 1.1 LOCATION BACKGROUND Manila is the capital of the Philippines. Intramuros. including Manila South Cemetery.1. Paco Port Area. SITE LOCATION AND USE 1. Malate. Costing of proposed storm drainage strategy 1.

2 COMPREHESSIVE LAND USE District five’s land use is mainly composed of high intensity commercial/mixed use zone and university cluster zone on the half of the district 5 and residential zone on the other half.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 1.2.2. Figure 1. Below is the existing land use of District five.2 Topographic Map of District 5 1.1 Manila's current fifth district highlighted The topographic map of District 5 illustrates the difference of elevation of the zones.2.1. 7 .1. Below is the topographic map of District 5. The commercial zone and the university zone has a higher elevation than the residential zone.

8 .AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 1. SITE DESCRIPTION 1. and strengthening the government's anti-water pilferage efforts. the MWSS charter was created and mandates that MWSS operate and maintain water and sewerage service in Metro Manila as an autonomous government owned and controlled corporation.3. the Philippine Congress passed the "Water Crisis Act" or Republic Act 8041. finance privatization. Ramos ordered the reorganization of the MWSS and encourage private sector participation in the privatization of MWSS operations and facilities. The water distribution and sewerage collection networks were deteriorating and urgently required rehabilitation and expansion to meet the demands. 1971. In June 1995. Thus June 19. as well as one of the oldest government- owned and controlled corporations in the Philippines.1 BRIEF HISTORY In the past.3. In December of that year President Fidel V. It is one of the oldest waterworks systems in Asia. Metro Manila was experiencing increased in industrialization and sustained population growth. Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) is the corporation supplying water and sewerage services to Metro Manila.2 District 5 Comprehensive Land Use 1.2. By the early 1980s. This is to address the issues related to supply distribution.

it is insufficient and unable to prevent flooding whenever rainfall is experienced.2 FLOODING In district five. Laterals made of concrete pipes the average size of which is 18” in diameter. Culverts of 1 meter x 1 meter to a maximum size of 1.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1. Furthermore.2 Flood prone areas of district 9 .3. different areas experience flooding. Figure1. Figure 1. 3. Flood prone areas has increased flood damage potential due to the concentration of population and developed property at various areas. observations show that many portions of the pipe system have reduced its carrying capacity to lesser return period flows as a result of the debris clogging up the system.3. The existing design of the storm drainage present in district five is made of the flowing: 1. Based from the existing storm drainage system used in the study area.3. Pipes for drainage main is 30” in diameter 2.1 Flooding Map hazard of district 5 The drainage and flood control system in the city is made up of drainage main and laterals.3.3.60 meter x 1 meter.


Stretching for 25 kilometers. The total drainage basin of Pasig River.1 DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER DISCHARGE RATES 2.678 square. it bisects the Philippine capital of Manila and its surrounding urban area into northern and southern halves. including the basin of Laguna de Bay which covers 4.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 2. Figure 2.1.1. Its major tributaries are the Marikina River and San Juan River.1.1 Pasig River Some of the existing nearby esteros which serves as surface water drainages in district five are the following: Figure 2. SURFACE WATER DRAINS In the fifth district of Manila.1.1.1. Napindan and Manggahan channels and up North to the Marikina river system. the main stream of Pasig river system starts from the river mouth to the upstream end along San Juan River.2 Estero De Balete 11 . It connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay.

4 Estero de Paco Figure 2.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure Estero Provisor Figure Estero Tripa de Gallina 12 .

2.2.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 2.1 District Five Division Area 1 Area 2 13 .1 CONCEPTUALIZED FLOW DIRECTION To uniformly distribute the amount of surface runoff in the fifth district. Figure 2. the whole study are was first divided into four parts at which the proposed design and drainage solution may be conceptualized.2 SURFACE WATER DRAINAGE STRATEGY 2.

dredging 2. the existing main drain of areas 3 and 4 would be retained while the other areas far from the main drain such as 2 and 1 will have a newly constructed main storm drain discharging to nearby esteros. Esteros and other drainage mains in Ermita and Malate are recommended to undergo the following: 1. new drainage lines would be constructed and would discharge to the nearest surface water. As shown on the figure.2 PROPOSED STORM DRAINAGE STRATEGY Area 1: These kinds of areas are subjected to widespread flooding if ever extreme or heavy rainfall condition occurs.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Area 3 Area 4 To develop an effective way of evenly distributing the storm water discharge despite the difference in elevation of the study area. For this area. riprap 14 . Area 3: Since the third area would retains its existing storm drainage line. the storm drainage lines would be to create additional lines which would discharge at the nearest surface water.2. Laterals made of concrete pipes the average size of which is 18” in diameter Area 2: For the second area. As proposed. an improved storm water canals must be applied with the following standards used for storm drainage systems: 1. Pipes for drainage main is 30” in diameter 2. 2. three of the main esteros present in district five is present.

like the third area. Diversion canals . which in turn divert the water to temporary holding ponds or other bodies of water where there is a lower risk or impact to flooding. the most effective way to manage flood risk is to take an integrated approach which combines both structural and non-structural measures. Increase local government and community awareness and participation.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 3.3 FLOOD RISK STRATEGY AND ATTENUATION VALUE As part of the government protocol. This includes: 1. Slope protection 4. Strict enforcement of waterway easement laws 3. the existing main storm drainage line still be used. Water catch Basin – Placing catch basins on flood prone areas in the district would greatly affect the peak flow and delay of storm water flow during rainfall. The existing main drainage discharges to the Estero tripa de Gallina. riprap 3. the area should also undergo the following remedies: 1.Floods in district five can be controlled by redirecting excess water to purpose-built canals or floodways. some of strategies which may be used to lessen the intensity of flux through any type of medium in which flood may be controlled and apply changes to the hydrograph are the following: 1. 15 . Resettle informal settlers Area 4: As for the fourth area. Slope protection 4. Resettle informal settlers 2. dredging 2. Furthermore. For the fifth district of Manila. 2. Land use ordinances 2.

2.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 2.1 Water catch basin placed at flood prone areas 16 .


Change in pipe systems would cost a lot. Hence. Lastly. but it should also conform to the requirements that is needed for a certain area. and it would not be rational and feasible to be careless in designing. 18 . and design that are needed to be considered. the design of a storm sewer layout is not that easy. then there will be no proper layout and the design would be useless. There are certain factor like cost. storm sewer management systems. effectiveness. For in any case. Even if the design of the most gifted engineer is being laid out in the structure. one must be able to have a creative layout in the pipe systems. in managing the storm sewer system. and the design should also be maximized to have a more economical layout. the project itself is costly. it is important for the community to also take a step in a role in maintaining a healthy drainage system.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Recommendation For this project. if the public is still lacking of discipline.





our group talk about on where can we possibly get the data that we need for our project as well as the proper format of the research. we started finalizing our analysis for our research. we also started to identify the things that needs to be analyze in our project. we are somehow making a progress because we are able to gather some important data and information. we distributed the work that each member in our group must accomplish. we started already making our research work. we created a group chat so that we will have the means to communicate with one another. Before we proceed in gathering necessary informations regarding our project. There are parts in our report that needs critical analysis that's why we are trying to help them. After our first meeting as a group. Making a research work is not easy but in the end. There are instances of cancellations of classes as well as work due to unpreventable events that's why we somehow slowdown a bit. After that.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Appendix B: Journal The first that we did after being formed as a group is to give our thoughts regarding our research. In the week before the submission. In the following days. On august 27. For the succeeding days. we started gathering data and information that we need for our project. In september 9. Besides from that. in will be all worthy because of the knowledge and experiences we have while making this research 23 . we talked about the lectures that would help us in our research. Gathering data from different offices is quite hard because there are times wherein the data that you need is not available in sub offices that's why we are being referred to main offices. The parts which is assigned to us are also being supervised well. We are helping one another in cases our groupmates are having a trouble in his part. there are members of our group that really extend their efforts to the fullest in order to have a good report. as well as if we have critics for a specific part. we finalize first the things that needs to be done so that we will have a guideline on the things that we must do. Members of our group are very cooperative for we are very open for suggestions. In addition. we are able to finalize little by little our project. Overall. On september 2. we started making the parts assigned to us and also. we can say that each one of us has done their part and actually.

R. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Papio and A. J. asks-congress-to-create-bureau-of-drainage-systems-and-services  Sauler. 24 .. Hernandez. GOVPH Metro Manila Development Authority. (2015). 17-28. Retrieved from MMDA Chief Asks Congress to Create "Bureau of Drainage Systems and Services" : http://www.mmda. Manila gov’t to study drain system of flood-prone underpass. (2013. U. 5. “An Analysis of Public Perception of Floods in Manila City”. (2014). Opena. National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA)  Manila Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Regulations of 2006  Plans. Design and Project Monitoring Division by Metropolitan Manila Development Authority  Jr. (2013). pp. October 7). “Rehabilitation of the Drainage System and the Construction of Pumping Station that will serve as Flood Control in FEATI University for the Next Decades”. Mines and Geoscience Bureau (MGB)  Socioeconomic and Physical Profile of City Planning and Development Office of Manila (2005)  Contour. 1. Flood Control and Drainage System of Espana Boulevard in. International Journal of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity. E. no. Manila. Civil Engineering Department.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA V. vol. (2002).  T. Rivera. BS Thesis. C. REFERENCES  Hazard Data. FEATI University. Ganiron Jr. 1-14. International Journal of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity.  E. River and Road.  MMDA. Guanzon. V.