School of Civil, Environmental and
Geological Engineering
Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Philippines




Argete, Ma. Cristina A.
Gicale, Patrick Emmanuel T.
Ilao, Patricia Ann Rae M.
Jumarang, Franc Jerome B.
Sepulvida, Bryan A.
Villegas, Ralph Don B.
Wong, Jansen D.

A Project Submitted to the School of CE – ENSE in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements in the Subject


September 2017



Flooding is a perennial problem in Metro Manila, various flood and drainage
system projects have been implemented in Metropolis in the last two decades, but it
seems only a little have been gained because the flood problems will persist. Flood
control and drainage system has yet effectively address due to the inadequate
capacity of existing drainage channels in conveying storm water to the dumping
stations. The drainage improvement measure has been hampered by the very limited
information in the present conditions of existing drainage channels. The study of
drainage system in Metro Manila specifically in District V will bring major benefits. As
the improvement of the drainage system, it reduces the damages to the houses and
public facilities. Minimize the loss of public and private properties will contribute greatly
to the improvement and standard of living to the stabilization of people’s livelihood and
the serious congestion resulting from the long flooding in Metro Manila.


AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA ii. to the ALMIGHTY GOD for providing the physical and the mental strength. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers wish to express their sincerest gratitude to the following persons who unselfishly gave their invaluable assistance towards the realization of this humble piece of work. VIVA MAPUA! Argete. no other person has influenced their disposition towards life. inner drive and sense of direction and purpose in this endeavor and whom all good things come. Our family – for being always there whenever the researchers needed them. Patrick Emmanuel T. for having been a moving power behind the writing and completion of this paper. 2 . Ma. Cristina A. Foremost. Engr. Bryan A. Jansen D. To them and to others who had some part in the writing of this paper. Sepulvida. theirs is a life filled with a thousand and one “silent” and almost unnoticed heroism in the humdrum of everyday living. Jumarang. Ilao. Gicale. Ralph Don B. Yet. Franc Jerome B. as much they did. Ronnie Encarnacion – their professor and mentor. Wong. Patricia Ann Rae M. once and for all go their sincere thanks. Villegas.

2. OBJECTIVES---------------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.1 DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER DISCHARGE RATES REFERENCES 22 3 . DETAILED DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL 10 2.3 FLOOD RISK STRATEGY AND ATTENUATION VALUE-----------------------------15 III. SURFACE WATER DRAINS------------------------------------------------------11 2. INTRODUCTION 4 1.1 BRIEF HISTORY-----------------------------------------------------------------------8 1.1.2 COMPREHESSIVE LAND USE----------------------------------------------------7 CONCEPTUALIZED FLOW DIRECTION--------------------------------------13 2. SITE LOCATION AND USE 1.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE-----------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.1 LOCATION BACKGROUND---------------------------------------------------------6 1. APPENDICES 18 APPENDIX A: MAPS---------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 V.3.2. SITE DESCRIPTION 1.2.1.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA iii.4 ROLES AND RESPONISIBILITIES------------------------------------------------6 1.2. TABLE OF CONTENTS I.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY--------------------------------------------------5 1.2 PROPOSED STORM DRAINAGE STRATEGY ------------------------------14 2.3 FLOODING-------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 II.2 SURFACE WATER DRAINAGE STRATEGY 2.3. RECOMMENDATION 17 IV.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION-----------------------------------------------------------5 1.2.1.


leading to its connected parts to be damaged.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION This paper will be focusing on developing possible solutions to flooding and conceptualizing storm drainage system capable of accumulating and managing surface runoff of the fifth district of Manila. and of course. Also. OBJECTIVES The general objective of this project is to find possible solutions to storm drainage system overflows in the fifth district of Manila and apply specific topics in storm sewer engineering. One of the factors that contribute to flooding is the improper storm drainage system management.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Heavy downpour causing floods is one of the most common calamities that Philippines experience.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE 1. The Basin or inlet is connected to pipe that conducts the water to the discharge point. This study is also limited to the following: 5 . pollution and destruction of the drainage system itself. 1. Identify the factors causing the overflow of storm sewer systems 2.1. This therefore leads to come up with a study that will focus on the assessment about the problems regarding storm drainage systems and to how these can be improved in order to prevent cases such those of flooding. Failure to install pipes accurately will cause problems on the system drainage. As we know.1. this study should then establish possible solutions to promote and enhance proper management protection with regard to the designs of storm water drainage and environmental premises as well. This project would like to produce the following: 1.2. erosion on streams and creeks. Propose potential remedies in current issues present in storm drainage area 3.1. Provide adequate research on improving storm sewer systems for future studies 1. especially on the areas covered by Metro Manila. Water is being directed to the drain by the contours of the landscape. catch basins and inlets are classified as area drains and are ideal for landscaping applications.

Applying the Rational method in designing a storm drainage system 3. • Leader Responsibilities: The leader will provide leadership in every aspect of the project with support from his members. Malate. • Member Responsibilities: The members will participate in team meetings. data collection. and ensuring the dissemination of research findings. and San Andres Bukid.1. formulation of proposed flood control solutions.  Barangays: 649–828  Area: 11. data analysis and interpretation.2. and knowledge on the project methodology. personal background. located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay. Intramuros. coordinating research activities on storm drainage systems. Paco Port Area.4 ROLES AND RESPONISIBILITIES This project recognizes that roles and responsibilities differ among the group members.714 6 . Costing of proposed storm drainage strategy 1. It is subdivided into six legislative districts. SITE LOCATION AND USE 1. decision of each members. provide suggestions and feedback on the methodology. 1. documentation. learning exchanges. This includes overseeing the entire project. paper editing. The 5th district consists of Ermita.1 LOCATION BACKGROUND Manila is the capital of the Philippines. on the western edge of Luzon. including Manila South Cemetery. based on experience.2.56 km²  Population (2015): 366.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1. Using the Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency of Manila 2.

AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 1.2 Topographic Map of District 5 1. Below is the topographic map of District COMPREHESSIVE LAND USE District five’s land use is mainly composed of high intensity commercial/mixed use zone and university cluster zone on the half of the district 5 and residential zone on the other half. Below is the existing land use of District five. The commercial zone and the university zone has a higher elevation than the residential zone.1.1 Manila's current fifth district highlighted The topographic map of District 5 illustrates the difference of elevation of the zones.2. 7 .2. Figure 1.

The water distribution and sewerage collection networks were deteriorating and urgently required rehabilitation and expansion to meet the demands. This is to address the issues related to supply distribution. By the early 1980s. the MWSS charter was created and mandates that MWSS operate and maintain water and sewerage service in Metro Manila as an autonomous government owned and controlled corporation.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 1. In December of that year President Fidel V. as well as one of the oldest government- owned and controlled corporations in the Philippines.3. SITE DESCRIPTION 1.3. Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) is the corporation supplying water and sewerage services to Metro Manila. 8 . 1971. finance privatization. and strengthening the government's anti-water pilferage efforts. Ramos ordered the reorganization of the MWSS and encourage private sector participation in the privatization of MWSS operations and facilities.1 BRIEF HISTORY In the past. Thus June 19. the Philippine Congress passed the "Water Crisis Act" or Republic Act 8041. In June 1995.2. It is one of the oldest waterworks systems in Asia. Metro Manila was experiencing increased in industrialization and sustained population growth.2 District 5 Comprehensive Land Use 1.

60 meter x 1 meter. Culverts of 1 meter x 1 meter to a maximum size of 1.3. different areas experience flooding. Based from the existing storm drainage system used in the study area. 3. Figure Flood prone areas of district 9 . The existing design of the storm drainage present in district five is made of the flowing: 1. Laterals made of concrete pipes the average size of which is 18” in diameter. Pipes for drainage main is 30” in diameter 2. it is insufficient and unable to prevent flooding whenever rainfall is experienced.1 Flooding Map hazard of district 5 The drainage and flood control system in the city is made up of drainage main and laterals. Flood prone areas has increased flood damage potential due to the concentration of population and developed property at various areas. observations show that many portions of the pipe system have reduced its carrying capacity to lesser return period flows as a result of the debris clogging up the system.3. Figure1.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 1. Furthermore.2 FLOODING In district five.


including the basin of Laguna de Bay which covers 4. The total drainage basin of Pasig River.678 square. SURFACE WATER DRAINS In the fifth district of Manila.1.2 Estero De Balete 11 .1 DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER DISCHARGE RATES 2. Its major tributaries are the Marikina River and San Juan River. Stretching for 25 kilometers.1.1.1. Napindan and Manggahan channels and up North to the Marikina river system. It connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay. Figure 2.1.1 Pasig River Some of the existing nearby esteros which serves as surface water drainages in district five are the following: Figure 2. the main stream of Pasig river system starts from the river mouth to the upstream end along San Juan River.1.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 2. it bisects the Philippine capital of Manila and its surrounding urban area into northern and southern halves. Estero Provisor Figure 2.5 Estero Tripa de Gallina 12 .1.4 Estero de Paco Figure 2.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 2.1.

Figure 2. the whole study are was first divided into four parts at which the proposed design and drainage solution may be conceptualized.1 District Five Division Area 1 Area 2 13 .AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 2.1 CONCEPTUALIZED FLOW DIRECTION To uniformly distribute the amount of surface runoff in the fifth district.2 SURFACE WATER DRAINAGE STRATEGY 2.2.2.

2. riprap 14 . three of the main esteros present in district five is present. Pipes for drainage main is 30” in diameter 2. Laterals made of concrete pipes the average size of which is 18” in diameter Area 2: For the second area. new drainage lines would be constructed and would discharge to the nearest surface water. 2. the storm drainage lines would be to create additional lines which would discharge at the nearest surface water. the existing main drain of areas 3 and 4 would be retained while the other areas far from the main drain such as 2 and 1 will have a newly constructed main storm drain discharging to nearby esteros. For this area. As shown on the figure.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Area 3 Area 4 To develop an effective way of evenly distributing the storm water discharge despite the difference in elevation of the study area. Esteros and other drainage mains in Ermita and Malate are recommended to undergo the following: 1. Area 3: Since the third area would retains its existing storm drainage line. an improved storm water canals must be applied with the following standards used for storm drainage systems: 1. As proposed.2 PROPOSED STORM DRAINAGE STRATEGY Area 1: These kinds of areas are subjected to widespread flooding if ever extreme or heavy rainfall condition occurs. dredging 2.

15 . some of strategies which may be used to lessen the intensity of flux through any type of medium in which flood may be controlled and apply changes to the hydrograph are the following: 1.Floods in district five can be controlled by redirecting excess water to purpose-built canals or floodways. the area should also undergo the following remedies: 1. like the third area. Resettle informal settlers Area 4: As for the fourth area. Furthermore. This includes: 1.3 FLOOD RISK STRATEGY AND ATTENUATION VALUE As part of the government protocol. which in turn divert the water to temporary holding ponds or other bodies of water where there is a lower risk or impact to flooding. Increase local government and community awareness and participation. The existing main drainage discharges to the Estero tripa de Gallina. Water catch Basin – Placing catch basins on flood prone areas in the district would greatly affect the peak flow and delay of storm water flow during rainfall. the existing main storm drainage line still be used.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA 3. Slope protection 4. riprap 3. For the fifth district of Manila. Resettle informal settlers 2. the most effective way to manage flood risk is to take an integrated approach which combines both structural and non-structural measures. Slope protection 4. Diversion canals . dredging 2. Land use ordinances 2. 2. Strict enforcement of waterway easement laws 3.

1 Water catch basin placed at flood prone areas 16 .AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Figure 2.2.


Hence. effectiveness. Even if the design of the most gifted engineer is being laid out in the structure. the design of a storm sewer layout is not that easy. For in any case. and design that are needed to be considered. Change in pipe systems would cost a lot. one must be able to have a creative layout in the pipe systems. but it should also conform to the requirements that is needed for a certain area. then there will be no proper layout and the design would be useless. it is important for the community to also take a step in a role in maintaining a healthy drainage system. in managing the storm sewer system.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Recommendation For this project. the project itself is costly. and the design should also be maximized to have a more economical layout. and it would not be rational and feasible to be careless in designing. storm sewer management systems. There are certain factor like cost. if the public is still lacking of discipline. 18 . Lastly.





we started finalizing our analysis for our research. Gathering data from different offices is quite hard because there are times wherein the data that you need is not available in sub offices that's why we are being referred to main offices. Overall. The parts which is assigned to us are also being supervised well. There are parts in our report that needs critical analysis that's why we are trying to help them. On september 2. For the succeeding days. In the following days. we are able to finalize little by little our project. as well as if we have critics for a specific part. we talked about the lectures that would help us in our research. there are members of our group that really extend their efforts to the fullest in order to have a good report. There are instances of cancellations of classes as well as work due to unpreventable events that's why we somehow slowdown a bit. we also started to identify the things that needs to be analyze in our project. We are helping one another in cases our groupmates are having a trouble in his part. we started making the parts assigned to us and also. we finalize first the things that needs to be done so that we will have a guideline on the things that we must do. we distributed the work that each member in our group must accomplish. In addition. In september 9. we created a group chat so that we will have the means to communicate with one another. our group talk about on where can we possibly get the data that we need for our project as well as the proper format of the research.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA Appendix B: Journal The first that we did after being formed as a group is to give our thoughts regarding our research. Members of our group are very cooperative for we are very open for suggestions. we started already making our research work. Making a research work is not easy but in the end. After that. After our first meeting as a group. we are somehow making a progress because we are able to gather some important data and information. we can say that each one of us has done their part and actually. On august 27. Besides from that. In the week before the submission. we started gathering data and information that we need for our project. Before we proceed in gathering necessary informations regarding our project. in will be all worthy because of the knowledge and experiences we have while making this research 23 .

International Journal of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity. Opena.  E. (2002). (2014). 24 . Philippine Daily Inquirer. Papio and A.mmda. Ganiron Jr. Manila gov’t to study drain system of flood-prone underpass. Civil Engineering Department.  MMDA. E. (2013. “An Analysis of Public Perception of Floods in Manila City”. Design and Project Monitoring Division by Metropolitan Manila Development Authority  Jr. J. V. pp. River and Road. 1-14. R. National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA)  Manila Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Regulations of 2006  Plans.  T. GOVPH Metro Manila Development asks-congress-to-create-bureau-of-drainage-systems-and-services  Sauler. (2015). vol. Rivera. International Journal of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity.. Hernandez. Guanzon. no. T. U. 1. “Rehabilitation of the Drainage System and the Construction of Pumping Station that will serve as Flood Control in FEATI University for the Next Decades”. October 7). 5. REFERENCES  Hazard Data. Flood Control and Drainage System of Espana Boulevard in. (2013). Retrieved from MMDA Chief Asks Congress to Create "Bureau of Drainage Systems and Services" : http://www. FEATI University.AN ASSESSMENT ON THE CURRENT STORM SEWER DESIGN DISTRICT V MANILA V. BS Thesis. Manila. 17-28. C. Mines and Geoscience Bureau (MGB)  Socioeconomic and Physical Profile of City Planning and Development Office of Manila (2005)  Contour.