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St.

Paul College of Bocaue
Bocaue, Bulacan

A Correlational Study: Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction
At CSP Enterprises & Development Inc., Co.

Research Paper
12- ABM

Submitted by:

Leia Amidala N. Santos
Deanna Mae T. Gicale
Marika Jeanne S.J. Perez
Gea Kaila S. Santos
Aliya Pauline D.C. Dela Torre

Submitted to:

Dr. Marilou L. Galman

(Lewin. 1930) established a framework to explain the different behavior of the leader. demands. orders. fair praise.. fair and encouraging. internal parts of machines or other machines that will be using by the other company. systematic.. limited decision-making time. task-assignment. empowering member and facilitating group deliberations while the followers . Its function includes unilateral rule-making. 1958). This leadership is gained through punishment. He then suggested that there are three different types of leader’s styles which are autocratic leaders. Marion and McKelvey. 1994) According to Gastil (1994). that the duties so performed provide the best channels for the efficient. 1981). concept of leadership changed and has evolved through years. rules and regulations. It composed of employees which guided by a leader to fulfill all the obligations needed on their work. and Operational Department. 1923). leadership style creates a stimulating work climate and makes the climate become supportive. This company is located at Araneta Avenue. The world of business is constantly faced with challenges by the external environment. democratic leaders. (Gastil. the researchers would like to conduct in CSP Development & Enterprises Co. Positively. Democratic leaders are characterized by collective decision- making. Its function includes distributing responsibility within the group or organization. demand for increased participation and competition. threat. while it is not suited to environment in which members desire to share their opinions and participate in decision-making processes. Autocratic or also called as Authoritarian leadership style are characterized as domineering. Leadership is defined as the ability to evaluate and or forecast a long-term plan or policy and influence the followers towards the achievement of the said strategy. It is the process so combining the work which individuals or groups have to perform with the facilities necessary for its execution. Inc. dryers. The leadership style used by a leader can also affect the organizational performance by creating a climate that is filled with tension and fear or that is an unsupportive and critical (Warrick. Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Background Introduction Organization is the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed. They tend to be distant from their group. each style determines what kind of leadership that a leader use in leading the employees. Finance. Warehouse. as the organization. resources etc. Employees are seen as intangible assets that contribute to the continued success and development of an organization. Leadership is also viewed as a process which influence people to bring out the best in themselves and result to a better-quality performance. A leadership style used by leaders can affect the organizational performance in a positive as well as in a negative way. It consists of 5 departments. Each department has its own head managers leading all the employees under of it. active member or follower involvement. positive and coordinated application of the available effort (Oliver Sheldon. defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives (Louis Allen. Service. and restrained criticism. As time goes by. so leaders should perform appropriate leadership to have a productive output at work. camaraderie. (Adeoya Mayowa. (Uhl-Bien. leadership has its own different styles. they facilitate collective decision-making. This leadership style is appropriate in setting with a new employee. They make policies and decide appropriate division of labor from afar. Since employees are the intangible assets of the company and employees are guided by a leader. Quezon City.. 2009). Accounting Dept.2007:299) In this study. and lastly laissez-faire leaders. It offers services such as selling and fixing compressors. Furthermore. and problem solving while the followers include adhering to the leader's instruction without question or comment.

. Ostroff. will allow the organization to become more effective by understanding the employees of the company that relate job satisfaction. willingness to maintain their group's autonomy and freedom. . oversight flexibility or praise. and other researchers.. This study would be beneficial to the organization. If employees are dissatisfied with their jobs it will show adverse results like withdrawal behavior. a democratic nation. in fact. laissez-faire leadership is an absence of leadership style. direction. it is appropriate in settings such as an international association. Job satisfaction has been characterized by researchers as essential to organizational performance (Mathieu. roles and practice. Its function includes trusting their members into the group or organization while the followers include self- monitoring. leaders. 1992). thereby adding to the competitive advantage in the company. In addition. anticipated or deserved (Oshagbemi. a worker-owner corporation. 1991. Furthermore. The other researchers would also be the one of the beneficiaries of this study because this study can be used as reference for a future research. in this study. 1999). It is appropriate in setting such as science laboratories or established companies with long-term employees while it is not appropriate with a setting in which the members require feedback. The more the employees are satisfied with their jobs. the researchers would like to identify the dominant leadership style among the five departments then later on will determine if the dominant leadership style used by the leaders are appropriate to those employees under it which would results to their job satisfaction. 2003). 2002). a public university and etc while it is not appropriate and not useful in groups and organization with clearly defined and unchanging guidelines. growing cost. Inc. This style makes no policies or problem solving and its leaders have very little to no authority within their group organization. In this case. Other researchers conducting similar studies would be able to compare their result to this study and can also add to what is already known in this area. lowering profits and finally customers’ dissatisfaction (Allen & Wilburn. the researchers would like to conduct a study regarding on the relationship between job satisfaction and leadership styles among the employees and leaders of CSP Development & Enterprises Co. An employee experiencing high levels of dissatisfaction may be unable to function effectively in his/her job. Findings of the study will contribute the effectiveness. Lastly. problem solving. employees. the more efforts they will exert to achieve organizational objectives (Blakely et al. Specifically. The study also intended on determining which leadership style influences the overall job satisfaction of an individual at the company. and producing successful end products. this study would benefit the employees. also the company itself. willingness to be held accountable for their actions and decisions.include willingness to take personal responsibility for the group or organization. It will also contribute to the future research that would be conducting by the other researchers. (Gastil 1994) Through all these leadership style which obtains by all the leaders can lead to have a satisfied job to all employees of the company. Laissez-faire leaders are characterized as uninvolved with their followers and members. willingness to take on the role of leader as needed or appropriate. It is an affective reaction to a job that results from a person’s comparison of outcomes with those that are desired. The major contribution of this study is to determine if the employees are satisfied with their job through the leadership of given to them by their leaders. and willingness to work with their leaders.

breaks.The employees’ status within the organization should be familiar and retained. Company Policies and administrative policies . Meaningfulness of the work . Responsibility . The motivators symbolized the psychological needs that were perceived as an additional benefit. These factors are called satisfiers. It should include flexible working hours. Fringe benefits .The working conditions should be safe. employee help programmes. Interpersonal relations . . Employees find these factors intrinsically rewarding. These factors motivate the employees for a superior performance.The employees must hold themselves responsible for the work. These are factors involved in performing the job.The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the managers. b. etc. interesting and challenging for the employee to perform and to get motivated. benefits for the family members. Sense of achievement . Motivational factors .The organization must provide job security to the employees. There should be no conflict or humiliation element present. The hygiene factors symbolized the physiological needs which the individuals wanted and expected to be fulfilled. hygiene factors are those factors which when adequate/reasonable in a job. pacify the employees and do not make them dissatisfied. Job Security . The work equipments should be updated and well-maintained.According to Herzberg.There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an organization to motivate the employees to perform well.The work itself should be meaningful. There must be a fruit of some sort in the job. Hygiene factors include: Pay . vacation. clean and hygienic. Promotional opportunities . Hygiene factors. These factors are inherent to work.Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for existence of motivation at workplace. the hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators.The company policies should not be too rigid.The relationship of the employees with his peers.The pay or salary structure should be appropriate and reasonable. Motivational factors include: Recognition . They should be fair and clear. Status . dress code. This theory is relevant to the study because it contains factors need to be considered for the employees obtain satisfaction to their work. Physical Working conditions . The managers should give them ownership of the work. Theoretical Framework Herzberg Two Factor Theory a. etc.The employees should be offered health care plans (mediclaim). This depends on the job.The employees must have a sense of achievement. superiors and subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable. They should minimize control but retain accountability. It must be equal and competitive to those in the same industry in the same domain. The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. These factors will help the researchers to know the needs of employees in order to get a high level of satisfaction from their work.

This theory also determines the needs of the employees that needed to be considered in order to obtain satisfaction. and have been used to explain job satisfaction. Although it could be seen as separate. lacks empirical supporting evidence. 1980) and embedded group (Thomas and Alderfer. Leadership Style Lewin’s Leadership Theory In the 1930. the progressions from one step to the next all contribute to the process of self-actualisation. Once satisfied. The final step is where the employee seeks to self-actualise. financial compensation and healthcare are some of the benefits which help an employee meet their basic physiological needs. Within an organisation. 1980) theories identified two different type of groups exits in organization which is identity group and organizational group. For example. makes it difficult to measure what the final goal is or when it has been achieved. Tucker. Alderfer. In addition. The theory suggests that human needs form a five-level hierarchy. However. Maslow’s needs hierarchy was developed to explain human motivation in general. When this is satisfied. Safety needs can manifest itself through employees feeling physically safe in their work environment. more recently this approach is becoming less popular as it fails to consider the cognitive process of the employee and. the employee will seek to feel as though they are valued and appreciated by their colleagues and their organisation. they need to grow and develop in order to be capable. This theory is relevant to the study because Job Satisfaction is connected to the hierarchy of needs. its main tenants are applicable to the work setting. This theory is relevant to the study because it indicated the three different types of leadership styles which determines the dominant leadership style used in the company. and Tucker. and whether or not they feel they are a part of their team/ organisation. the self-actualization.Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory was one of the first theories to examine the important contributors to job satisfaction. . He then suggested that there are three different types of leader’s styles which are autocratic leaders. Both intergroup (Alderfer. in general. The lack of a clear definition and conceptual understanding of self-actualisation. Therefore. Kurt Lewin established a framework to explain the different behavior of the leader. where they need to grow and develop in order to become everything they are capable of becoming. Each leadership has its own definition and styles which would be easily to identify which among the leadership style dominates in the company. However. as well as job security and/ or having suitable company structures and policies. others have found fault with the final stage of self-actualisation. This can come in the form of positive relationships with colleagues and supervisors in the workplace. the employee’s can focus on feeling as though they belong to the workplace. organisations looking to improve employee job satisfaction should attempt to meet the basic needs of employees before progressing to address higher-order needs. democratic leaders and lastly laissez-faire leaders. paired with a difficulty of measuring it.

It also improves the relationship between their leaders because of improved satisfaction. They can improve and develop their skills that allow them to a greater variety of work and increased their ability. Co. the researcher would like that through this study the CSP Enterprises & Development Inc. greater competitiveness and better benefits for their employees. Alternative Hypothesis: There is a relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction at CSP Enterprises & Development Inc... Significance of the Study This study will benefit the company and helps them improve their management.? Specific Problem: 1) What is the dominant leadership style used by leaders of each departments? 2) Is there a relationship between the leadership style used by the leaders and job satisfaction of the employees in each department? i) Finance Department ii) Marketing Department iii) Operation Department iv) Service Department v) Warehouse Department Hypothesis Null Hypothesis: There is no relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction at CSP Enterprises & Development Inc. Company. It can also improve the loyalty and commitment of the employees for the company to improve and profit more. In addition. Employees. service and operation itself. Employee’s satisfaction and leader’s leadership style can lead to a higher profitability. Co. Co attain good service and good leadership that can satisfy and fulfill the employee’s need which leads to a greater company.. Co.. . Statement of the Problem Main Problem: Is there a relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction at CSP Enterprises & Development Inc.

Good Job. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys. They can improve their leadership style to make the employees satisfied and the company better. Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept which can mean different things to different people. doing it well and being rewarded for one’s efforts. It is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal well-being. 2005) Operational Definition Job Satisfaction is measured by conducting a Job Satisfaction Survey. Researchers. Satisfaction is not the same as motivation. either quantitative or qualitative (Mullins. The emphasis was on relationship between the leadership style of leaders among each departments and job satisfaction of the employees under each department. Job satisfaction is the key ingredient that leads to recognition. Encourages other researchers to investigate areas of leadership style and job satisfaction that are not addressed in this research. Job Satisfaction Conceptual Definition Job satisfaction is a worker’s sense of achievement and success on the job. Definition of Terms Conceptual Definition 1. income. 2004). be associated with a personal feeling of achievement. Finance. and the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling of fulfillment (Kaliski. promotion. This study focuses on the dominant leadership style used by the leaders of five departments. Marketing. Job satisfaction is usually linked with motivation. It could.Leaders. democratic and laissez-faire leadership style. Operational. . for example. Job satisfaction is more of an attitude. It is only limited to the three-leadership style such as autocratic. the respondents are the whole individual working at this company even the leaders who manages it except to the president of this company.. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one’s work. Job satisfaction can be defined also as the extent to which a worker is content with the rewards he or she gets out of his or her job. Scope and Limitations of the Study The main purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. Bad Job.2007). In this study. OK Job. and Depressing Job. an internal state. job satisfaction measures into 5 classifications. It contributes to improved quality work as a result of loyal commitment to the company. They can benefit through this study by using this as a reference for their future research. particularly in terms of intrinsic motivation (Statt. Service and Warehouse Department at CSP Enterprises & Development Inc. Out of 30 questions on the Job satisfaction survey. Co. It will also encourage them to conduct the same research and use this study as reference. The researcher floats the survey among all the employees of the company. but the nature of this relationship is not clear. Great Job.

implementing plans.2. In this case. Leadership Styles Conceptual Definition Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction. it will have determined the leadership style of the leaders of the five departments including the vice president excluded the president of the company. autocratic. Rost (1993) also emphasized that leadership was a relationship process oriented to achieve some common goals: “Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes". and motivating people. it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader (Newstrom. As seen by the employees. (Adeoya Mayowa. Davis. 1993). Leadership is defined as the ability to evaluate and or forecast a long-term plan or policy and influence the followers towards the achievement of the said strategy. . Operational Definition The Leadership style is measured in which is the most dominant and less dominant leadership style of the leaders by the use of the three common styles of leadership. and sharing this vision with others: "A leader shapes and shares a vision which gives point to the work of others". 2009). democratic and laissez- faire leadership style using the Leadership Style Questionnaires. Handy (1992) insisted on the importance of the leader setting a vision.