St.

Paul College of Bocaue
Bocaue, Bulacan

A Correlational Study: Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction
At CSP Enterprises & Development Inc., Co.

Research Paper
12- ABM

Submitted by:

Leia Amidala N. Santos
Deanna Mae T. Gicale
Marika Jeanne S.J. Perez
Gea Kaila S. Santos
Aliya Pauline D.C. Dela Torre

Submitted to:

Dr. Marilou L. Galman

Its function includes unilateral rule-making. Warehouse. Its function includes distributing responsibility within the group or organization. systematic. active member or follower involvement. Leadership is also viewed as a process which influence people to bring out the best in themselves and result to a better-quality performance. A leadership style used by leaders can affect the organizational performance in a positive as well as in a negative way.. that the duties so performed provide the best channels for the efficient. (Adeoya Mayowa. camaraderie. Inc.. each style determines what kind of leadership that a leader use in leading the employees. they facilitate collective decision-making. as the organization. democratic leaders. empowering member and facilitating group deliberations while the followers . fair and encouraging. Since employees are the intangible assets of the company and employees are guided by a leader. so leaders should perform appropriate leadership to have a productive output at work. orders. task-assignment. Accounting Dept. Each department has its own head managers leading all the employees under of it. 2009). limited decision-making time. and lastly laissez-faire leaders. (Lewin. the researchers would like to conduct in CSP Development & Enterprises Co. and problem solving while the followers include adhering to the leader's instruction without question or comment. 1994) According to Gastil (1994). leadership style creates a stimulating work climate and makes the climate become supportive. resources etc. (Gastil. This company is located at Araneta Avenue. internal parts of machines or other machines that will be using by the other company.2007:299) In this study. while it is not suited to environment in which members desire to share their opinions and participate in decision-making processes. The world of business is constantly faced with challenges by the external environment. It is the process so combining the work which individuals or groups have to perform with the facilities necessary for its execution. Autocratic or also called as Authoritarian leadership style are characterized as domineering. It composed of employees which guided by a leader to fulfill all the obligations needed on their work. 1930) established a framework to explain the different behavior of the leader. They make policies and decide appropriate division of labor from afar. defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives (Louis Allen. demands. Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Background Introduction Organization is the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed. Quezon City. Service. It consists of 5 departments. Marion and McKelvey. positive and coordinated application of the available effort (Oliver Sheldon. threat. (Uhl-Bien. rules and regulations. This leadership is gained through punishment. 1981). 1958). They tend to be distant from their group. fair praise. He then suggested that there are three different types of leader’s styles which are autocratic leaders. concept of leadership changed and has evolved through years. Furthermore. Positively. and Operational Department. It offers services such as selling and fixing compressors. dryers. 1923). Democratic leaders are characterized by collective decision- making. Leadership is defined as the ability to evaluate and or forecast a long-term plan or policy and influence the followers towards the achievement of the said strategy. As time goes by. Finance. leadership has its own different styles. and restrained criticism. Employees are seen as intangible assets that contribute to the continued success and development of an organization. This leadership style is appropriate in setting with a new employee. demand for increased participation and competition. The leadership style used by a leader can also affect the organizational performance by creating a climate that is filled with tension and fear or that is an unsupportive and critical (Warrick..

The other researchers would also be the one of the beneficiaries of this study because this study can be used as reference for a future research. Findings of the study will contribute the effectiveness. employees. the more efforts they will exert to achieve organizational objectives (Blakely et al. Lastly. This style makes no policies or problem solving and its leaders have very little to no authority within their group organization. It is appropriate in setting such as science laboratories or established companies with long-term employees while it is not appropriate with a setting in which the members require feedback. An employee experiencing high levels of dissatisfaction may be unable to function effectively in his/her job. anticipated or deserved (Oshagbemi. a worker-owner corporation. Inc. the researchers would like to identify the dominant leadership style among the five departments then later on will determine if the dominant leadership style used by the leaders are appropriate to those employees under it which would results to their job satisfaction.. The major contribution of this study is to determine if the employees are satisfied with their job through the leadership of given to them by their leaders. lowering profits and finally customers’ dissatisfaction (Allen & Wilburn. 1992). 2003). leaders. 2002). a public university and etc while it is not appropriate and not useful in groups and organization with clearly defined and unchanging guidelines. in fact. The study also intended on determining which leadership style influences the overall job satisfaction of an individual at the company. roles and practice. this study would benefit the employees.. growing cost. Specifically. it is appropriate in settings such as an international association. the researchers would like to conduct a study regarding on the relationship between job satisfaction and leadership styles among the employees and leaders of CSP Development & Enterprises Co. Ostroff. In addition. This study would be beneficial to the organization. laissez-faire leadership is an absence of leadership style. will allow the organization to become more effective by understanding the employees of the company that relate job satisfaction. and other researchers. Furthermore. It will also contribute to the future research that would be conducting by the other researchers. Job satisfaction has been characterized by researchers as essential to organizational performance (Mathieu. willingness to be held accountable for their actions and decisions. also the company itself. If employees are dissatisfied with their jobs it will show adverse results like withdrawal behavior. in this study. 1999). Its function includes trusting their members into the group or organization while the followers include self- monitoring. and willingness to work with their leaders. Laissez-faire leaders are characterized as uninvolved with their followers and members. and producing successful end products. Other researchers conducting similar studies would be able to compare their result to this study and can also add to what is already known in this area. problem solving. willingness to take on the role of leader as needed or appropriate. a democratic nation. 1991. It is an affective reaction to a job that results from a person’s comparison of outcomes with those that are desired. (Gastil 1994) Through all these leadership style which obtains by all the leaders can lead to have a satisfied job to all employees of the company. direction. oversight flexibility or praise. thereby adding to the competitive advantage in the company. In this case. willingness to maintain their group's autonomy and freedom. .include willingness to take personal responsibility for the group or organization. The more the employees are satisfied with their jobs.

There should be no conflict or humiliation element present. These factors motivate the employees for a superior performance. It must be equal and competitive to those in the same industry in the same domain. Promotional opportunities .The employees must hold themselves responsible for the work. vacation.The employees must have a sense of achievement.According to Herzberg. the hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators. Sense of achievement . Meaningfulness of the work . Motivational factors include: Recognition . The motivators symbolized the psychological needs that were perceived as an additional benefit. These factors are inherent to work. Job Security .The working conditions should be safe. Hygiene factors include: Pay . interesting and challenging for the employee to perform and to get motivated.There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an organization to motivate the employees to perform well. Hygiene factors. clean and hygienic. It should include flexible working hours. . breaks.Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for existence of motivation at workplace. b. dress code. superiors and subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable. employee help programmes. etc. They should minimize control but retain accountability. The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. Interpersonal relations . The hygiene factors symbolized the physiological needs which the individuals wanted and expected to be fulfilled. Theoretical Framework Herzberg Two Factor Theory a.The employees should be offered health care plans (mediclaim). These factors will help the researchers to know the needs of employees in order to get a high level of satisfaction from their work. benefits for the family members. Employees find these factors intrinsically rewarding. These are factors involved in performing the job. This theory is relevant to the study because it contains factors need to be considered for the employees obtain satisfaction to their work. The managers should give them ownership of the work. This depends on the job. These factors are called satisfiers. Responsibility .The pay or salary structure should be appropriate and reasonable. Company Policies and administrative policies .The organization must provide job security to the employees. The work equipments should be updated and well-maintained.The relationship of the employees with his peers. hygiene factors are those factors which when adequate/reasonable in a job.The company policies should not be too rigid. There must be a fruit of some sort in the job. They should be fair and clear. Status . Fringe benefits . Motivational factors .The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the managers. Physical Working conditions .The employees’ status within the organization should be familiar and retained. pacify the employees and do not make them dissatisfied.The work itself should be meaningful. etc.

democratic leaders and lastly laissez-faire leaders. However. the progressions from one step to the next all contribute to the process of self-actualisation. more recently this approach is becoming less popular as it fails to consider the cognitive process of the employee and. Therefore. the self-actualization. and whether or not they feel they are a part of their team/ organisation. Safety needs can manifest itself through employees feeling physically safe in their work environment. Each leadership has its own definition and styles which would be easily to identify which among the leadership style dominates in the company. as well as job security and/ or having suitable company structures and policies. . The final step is where the employee seeks to self-actualise. paired with a difficulty of measuring it. others have found fault with the final stage of self-actualisation. This theory also determines the needs of the employees that needed to be considered in order to obtain satisfaction. organisations looking to improve employee job satisfaction should attempt to meet the basic needs of employees before progressing to address higher-order needs. Within an organisation. This can come in the form of positive relationships with colleagues and supervisors in the workplace. This theory is relevant to the study because it indicated the three different types of leadership styles which determines the dominant leadership style used in the company.Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory was one of the first theories to examine the important contributors to job satisfaction. The theory suggests that human needs form a five-level hierarchy. Kurt Lewin established a framework to explain the different behavior of the leader. where they need to grow and develop in order to become everything they are capable of becoming. Maslow’s needs hierarchy was developed to explain human motivation in general. Alderfer. Tucker. they need to grow and develop in order to be capable. makes it difficult to measure what the final goal is or when it has been achieved. 1980) and embedded group (Thomas and Alderfer. In addition. 1980) theories identified two different type of groups exits in organization which is identity group and organizational group. This theory is relevant to the study because Job Satisfaction is connected to the hierarchy of needs. Once satisfied. and have been used to explain job satisfaction. lacks empirical supporting evidence. However. When this is satisfied. For example. He then suggested that there are three different types of leader’s styles which are autocratic leaders. financial compensation and healthcare are some of the benefits which help an employee meet their basic physiological needs. Both intergroup (Alderfer. and Tucker. the employee’s can focus on feeling as though they belong to the workplace. The lack of a clear definition and conceptual understanding of self-actualisation. Leadership Style Lewin’s Leadership Theory In the 1930. the employee will seek to feel as though they are valued and appreciated by their colleagues and their organisation. its main tenants are applicable to the work setting. Although it could be seen as separate. in general.

Co. Significance of the Study This study will benefit the company and helps them improve their management. greater competitiveness and better benefits for their employees. the researcher would like that through this study the CSP Enterprises & Development Inc. service and operation itself. Employee’s satisfaction and leader’s leadership style can lead to a higher profitability.. They can improve and develop their skills that allow them to a greater variety of work and increased their ability.? Specific Problem: 1) What is the dominant leadership style used by leaders of each departments? 2) Is there a relationship between the leadership style used by the leaders and job satisfaction of the employees in each department? i) Finance Department ii) Marketing Department iii) Operation Department iv) Service Department v) Warehouse Department Hypothesis Null Hypothesis: There is no relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction at CSP Enterprises & Development Inc.. Alternative Hypothesis: There is a relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction at CSP Enterprises & Development Inc. In addition. Statement of the Problem Main Problem: Is there a relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction at CSP Enterprises & Development Inc. Employees. It can also improve the loyalty and commitment of the employees for the company to improve and profit more. Co.. Co attain good service and good leadership that can satisfy and fulfill the employee’s need which leads to a greater company.. Company. It also improves the relationship between their leaders because of improved satisfaction. . Co.

Scope and Limitations of the Study The main purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. 2004). Marketing. the respondents are the whole individual working at this company even the leaders who manages it except to the president of this company. Definition of Terms Conceptual Definition 1.. This study focuses on the dominant leadership style used by the leaders of five departments. Job satisfaction is usually linked with motivation. . Finance. and the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling of fulfillment (Kaliski. It is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal well-being. Satisfaction is not the same as motivation. Service and Warehouse Department at CSP Enterprises & Development Inc. income. Job Satisfaction Conceptual Definition Job satisfaction is a worker’s sense of achievement and success on the job.2007). job satisfaction measures into 5 classifications. It will also encourage them to conduct the same research and use this study as reference. It is only limited to the three-leadership style such as autocratic. Co. The emphasis was on relationship between the leadership style of leaders among each departments and job satisfaction of the employees under each department. They can benefit through this study by using this as a reference for their future research. It could. 2005) Operational Definition Job Satisfaction is measured by conducting a Job Satisfaction Survey. and Depressing Job.Leaders. Out of 30 questions on the Job satisfaction survey. democratic and laissez-faire leadership style. an internal state. In this study. OK Job. Encourages other researchers to investigate areas of leadership style and job satisfaction that are not addressed in this research. Great Job. Job satisfaction is the key ingredient that leads to recognition. for example. Job satisfaction is more of an attitude. Good Job. Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept which can mean different things to different people. Bad Job. particularly in terms of intrinsic motivation (Statt. Job satisfaction can be defined also as the extent to which a worker is content with the rewards he or she gets out of his or her job. Operational. They can improve their leadership style to make the employees satisfied and the company better. doing it well and being rewarded for one’s efforts. Researchers. either quantitative or qualitative (Mullins. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one’s work. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys. It contributes to improved quality work as a result of loyal commitment to the company. be associated with a personal feeling of achievement. promotion. The researcher floats the survey among all the employees of the company. but the nature of this relationship is not clear.

Rost (1993) also emphasized that leadership was a relationship process oriented to achieve some common goals: “Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes". Handy (1992) insisted on the importance of the leader setting a vision. Operational Definition The Leadership style is measured in which is the most dominant and less dominant leadership style of the leaders by the use of the three common styles of leadership. it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader (Newstrom. Davis. 2009). it will have determined the leadership style of the leaders of the five departments including the vice president excluded the president of the company.2. Leadership Styles Conceptual Definition Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction. 1993). (Adeoya Mayowa. and motivating people. As seen by the employees. In this case. Leadership is defined as the ability to evaluate and or forecast a long-term plan or policy and influence the followers towards the achievement of the said strategy. democratic and laissez- faire leadership style using the Leadership Style Questionnaires. and sharing this vision with others: "A leader shapes and shares a vision which gives point to the work of others". . autocratic. implementing plans.