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Hot spots – the carbon atlas

90
103
81
World total
51
This week’s Bali meeting highlighted just how difficult it will be to secure an 58 54 28.19bn tonnes of CO2

international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas levels by enough to save the
earth from catastrophic temperature rises. This map, showing countries accord-
Europe 59 20 Ukraine 28% growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005

ing to their emissions, shows why an international deal is needed — and why only 4.67bn tonnes of CO2 60 342.57 World carbon emissions are up from
18.3bn tonnes in 1980 — and with rapid
3 Russia
one binding the big polluters can succeed 9% industrialisation in the developing

1,696
growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005 world, those numbers will climb higher.
107
For the first time, there is hard scientific The effect is delayed, which means even
evidence of climate change affecting if we stopped emitting carbon now, it
Europe, said the Intergovernmental would go on increasing in the
178 Panel on Climate Change recently. atmosphere
7 Canada Freak weather events, such as the 6 Germany 26
631.26 844.17
heatwaves of 2003, will become ever Kazakhstan
more common
23 21 121
132
Netherlands Polan
nd 101
174 106 118
72 35
105

92 36
32 63
8 United Kingdom 43 4 Japan
64
65
577.17 86 52
71
Eurasia 1,230
13 France 79 39 2.58bn tonnes of CO2

1 United States 415.27 84
124 4% growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005

5,957
10 Italy 104
61 Russia’s carbon emissions dropped from

466.64 583 million metric tonnes of carbon in
207
1992 to 405 million metric tonnes in 47
57
1998, due to its then-deteriorating
25 economic situation. Now, the energy
million tonnes of 38
Turkey giant may make clean up trading carbon
carbon dioxide 176
50
17 Spain credits 2 China
387.11 9 South Korea

5,323
133
102

165
499.63
North America 125 87 62 11 Iran million tonnes of
6.99bn tonnes of CO2 49 450.68 34
carbon dioxide
14% growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005
82
40
134

The US as a major producer of green- 78
55 27 22
house gases has been reluctant to accept 68 45 Taiwan
that man-made climate change even Egypt
existed — and refused to accept the 190 158 196 5 India 187
Kyoto protocol. But freak weather events 41 14 Saudi Arabia
1,166
137
16 Mexico and an avalanche of scientific evidence
have forced it to rethink its position
190
188
116
175 37
99 171
149 412.35 76 66
398.25 184

159
156
160 110
112 146
186 122
109 152 100
173
91

Central &
141 162
181 120 117 170 129 56 143
127
119 142 182 169 167
85 24 42 147 155

South America
204
These latest UN figures for 212
80 95
140 203 75 Thailand 46
climate change emissions are 206 213 180
44
31
1.10bn
138 111
from 2005, but are already dated. 73 83 67 130 144 161
Reliable, but provisional
151
88 97 200 tonnes of CO2
135 194 12
28
166 93 33
29%
136
estimates for 2006 by Dutch 98 108 183 179
government researchers suggest 164 96 growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005 172 28
113 126
China’s CO2 emissions increased
208
Increased freak weather events mean the Malaysia
12 South Africa
89
Middle East Asia & Oceania
115
by 9% in 2006 and have now 69 192 195 154 185 145 202 148 IPCC is concerned South America will be 19 Indonesia 197 199

423.81
177

359.47
205
overtaken the US emissions, 29 hard-hit by climate change. Agriculture, 123
189
which declined by 1.4% in 2006.
US emissions per person are
Venezuela 153 150 163 water supplies and the unique natural
habitat could be affected by a tempera-
1.45bn tonnes of CO2 10.36bn tonnes of CO2
214 209 168

nearly three times as great as
Chinese
ture increase of up to 4C by the end of
the century
62% growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005 58% growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005
211
53 18 Brazil Africa The region is a major contributor to
global greenhouse gas emissions,
Rapid industrialisation combined with
greater numbers of people moving to
198

139 157
201

77
74
360.57 1.04bn tonnes of CO2
through an oil and gas industry which
produces over 30 percent of world oil
cities has provoked a huge rise in carbon
emissions — with China rapidly moving
28% growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005
supply and over 10 percent of its gas to become the world’s greatest carbon
emitter in the next two years — some
15 Australia
48 94 131 114 Its carbon emissions may be small but
this is the continent most vulnerable to
scientists say this has happened already
406.64
CO2 emission growth of the highest the effects of climate change, hitting Highest per person CO2 emissions,
20 emitters, 1995 to 2005 30 food and water supplies, causing coastal Top twenty plus UK, 2005, tonnes 70
Argentina flooding and an increase in tropical WORDS: SIMON ROGERS, GRAPHIC: MARK MCCORMICK
SOURCE: ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION
diseases such as malaria — as well as
87% 210 destroying parts of the ecosystem
61.94
76% 73%
69%
193
56%
36.58 35.51 33.73 32.84
43% 30.25
35% 26.79
32%
26% 25% 25% 20.24 20.14 19.24
23% 16.44 15.61 14.17 13.46 13.10 13.04 12.53 11.88
14% 13% 5% 4% 11.40 11.02 9.55 4.37
12% 9% Germany Ukraine
China Saudi Arabia Iran Indonesia Spain Australia India South Korea Brazil Mexico Canada South Africa Japan US France Italy Russia UK Qatar Bahrain Trinidad UAE Kuwait Singapore Lux- Australia US Canada Netherlands Saudi Estonia Bahamas Belgium Kazakhstan Taiwan Russia Norway Czech UK World
-4% & Tobago embourg Arabia Republic (36th)
-18%

The carbon list Asia & Oceania
83 Dominican Republic 1.95 17.77 183 Cayman Islands 8.68 0.38 38 Greece 9.67 103.16 174 Faroe Islands 14.54 0.68 14 Saudi Arabia 15.61 412.35 99 Sudan 0.29 10.79 156 Guinea 0.14 1.34 134 Nepal 0.11 2.95
88 Virgin Islands, U.S. 147.68 16.05 185 St Lucia 2.22 0.37 39 Romania 4.45 99.34 178 Greenland 10.47 0.59 31 United ArabEmirates 33.73 137.82 100 Kenya 0.28 9.88 158 Niger 0.10 1.23 139 New Caledonia 11.58 2.51
89 Panama 4.56 14.33 192 Grenada 2.71 0.24 43 Austria 9.55 78.17 40 Iraq 3.76 98.13 109 Cameroon 0.39 6.81 159 Sierra Leone 0.20 1.18 2 China 4.07 5,322.69 143 Macau 5.22 2.35
Rank Country Tonnes per Million 94 Bolivia 1.35 11.96 193 Antarctica NA 0.24 50 Portugal 6.15 64.97 45 Kuwait 32.84 76.69 110 Ghana 0.30 6.67 160 Burkina Faso 0.09 1.17 4 Japan 9.65 1,230.36 147 Guam 12.92 2.18
person tonnes CO2 96 Jamaica 4.22 11.55 195 StVincent/Grenadines 1.70 0.20 52 Hungary 5.98 59.84 Eurasia 49 Israel 10.36 65.01 112 IvoryCoast 0.37 6.42 161 Swaziland 1.00 1.14 5 India 1.07 1,165.72 155 Wake Island NA 1.36
North America 97 Netherlands Antilles 50.20 11.05 200 Saint Kitts & Nevis 3.42 0.13 54 Sweden 6.53 58.77 3 Russia 11.88 1,696.00 56 Qatar 61.94 53.45 116 Senegal 0.46 5.49 167 Seychelles 11.36 0.92 9 South Korea 10.27 499.63 157 Fiji 1.50 1.34
1 United States 20.14 5,956.98 98 Guatemala 0.90 10.96 202 Dominica 1.54 0.11 57 Serbia & Montenegro 4.85 52.56 20 Ukraine 7.30 342.57 62 Syria 2.70 49.78 117 Congo 1.47 5.31 169 Malawi 0.07 0.86 15 Australia 20.24 406.64 162 Laos 0.17 1.06
7 Canada 19.24 631.26 108 Honduras 0.99 7.13 206 Virgin Islands, UK 3.87 0.09 58 Norway 11.40 52.35 26 Kazakhstan 13.04 198.01 75 Oman 9.90 29.72 119 Gabon 3.55 4.95 170 Rwanda 0.08 0.78 19 Indonesia 1.57 359.47 165 Afghanistan 0.03 0.98
16 Mexico 3.75 398.25 113 El Salvador 0.92 6.16 208 Montserrat 7.42 0.07 59 Finland 10.00 52.25 35 Uzbekistan 4.39 117.97 76 Bahrain 36.58 25.18 120 Equatorial Guinea 9.20 4.87 171 Eritrea 0.17 0.78 22 Taiwan 12.53 284.40 168 French Polynesia 3.20 0.87
176 Bermuda 9.53 0.62 114 Uruguay 1.75 6.01 210 Falkland Islands NA 0.04 60 Denmark 9.38 50.96 51 Belarus 6.26 61.41 82 Jordan 3.24 18.67 122 Ethiopia 0.06 4.37 173 Somalia 0.09 0.75 24 Thailand 3.65 234.16 172 Maldives 2.19 0.76
207 St Pierre & Miquelon 11.85 0.08 115 Costa Rica 1.42 5.69 212 Turks & Caicos Is 0.60 0.01 61 Bulgaria 6.78 50.54 63 Turkmenistan 10.06 49.64 85 Yemen 0.83 17.15 128 Mauritius 3.26 4.01 175 Mali 0.06 0.66 28 Malaysia 6.49 155.51 177 American Samoa 10.34 0.60
126 Nicaragua 0.79 4.30 64 Switzerland 6.13 45.92 72 Azerbaijan 4.62 37.03 87 Lebanon 4.22 16.17 129 Tanzania 0.11 3.97 181 Liberia 0.18 0.53 33 Singapore 30.25 133.88 180 Cambodia 0.04 0.57
127 The Bahamas 13.46 4.06 65 Ireland 10.98 44.10 81 Estonia 14.17 18.89 130 Botswana 2.23 3.92 182 Burundi 0.05 0.41 34 Pakistan 0.77 121.49 187 Bhutan 0.14 0.32
Central & South America 131 Paraguay 0.61 3.85
Europe 71 Slovakia 6.96 37.81 90 Lithuania 3.87 13.94 135 Namibia 1.32 2.67 184 Guinea-Bissau 0.27 0.38 42 Vietnam 0.96 80.38 189 U.S. Pacific Islands 1.10 0.29
18 Brazil 1.94 360.57 145 Martinique NA 2.29 6 Germany 10.24 844.17 79 Croatia 4.77 21.46 101 Armenia 3.22 9.61 Africa 136 Reunion NA 2.65 186 Central African Rep 0.08 0.34 44 Philippines 0.89 78.06 197 Solomon Islands 0.35 0.19
29 Venezuela 5.99 151.29 148 Guadeloupe NA 2.02 8 United Kingdom 9.55 577.17 84 Bosnia & Herzegovina 3.94 17.45 103 Latvia 3.66 8.39 12 South Africa 9.56 423.81 137 Mauritania 0.85 2.63 188 The Gambia 0.19 0.30 46 Hong Kong 10.88 75.06 198 Nauru 13.51 0.18
30 Argentina 3.71 146.64 150 Suriname 4.04 1.86 10 Italy 8.03 466.64 86 Slovenia 8.34 16.77 106 Tajikistan 1.06 7.20 27 Egypt 2.09 161.79 138 Madagascar 0.14 2.54 190 Cape Verde 0.68 0.28 47 North Korea 3.21 73.50 199 Samoa 0.77 0.16
48 Chile 4.14 66.19 151 Haiti 0.21 1.75 13 France 6.59 415.27 92 Luxembourg 26.79 12.55 107 Moldova 1.65 7.16 37 Nigeria 0.82 105.19 140 Zambia 0.22 2.45 191 Western Sahara 0.76 0.28 66 Bangladesh 0.28 39.82 201 Tonga 1.14 0.13
53 Colombia 1.36 58.80 153 Guyana 2.07 1.58 17 Spain 9.60 387.11 102 Cyprus 11.30 8.81 118 Kyrgyzstan 1.03 5.28 41 Algeria 2.71 88.10 141 Togo 0.44 2.38 194 Lesotho 0.10 0.21 70 New Zealand 9.37 37.82 205 Vanuatu 0.46 0.09
67 Puerto Rico 9.97 39.02 154 Barbados 5.16 1.44 21 Poland 7.38 284.64 104 Macedonia 3.94 8.05 121 Georgia 1.01 4.72 55 Libya 9.27 53.47 142 Dem Rep Congo 0.04 2.37 196 Chad 0.02 0.19 91 Burma 0.30 13.87 209 Cook Islands 3.12 0.07
69 Trinidad & Tobago 35.51 38.18 163 French Guiana NA 1.04 23 Netherlands 16.44 269.66 124 Albania 1.22 4.35 68 Morocco 1.19 38.89 144 Mozambique 0.11 2.30 203 Comoros 0.15 0.10 93 Sri Lanka 0.60 12.38 211 Kiribati 0.31 0.03
73 Cuba 2.91 32.98 164 Aruba 10.46 1.01 25 Turkey 3.30 230.04 125 Gibraltar 155.76 4.34 78 Tunisia 2.21 22.24 146 Benin 0.30 2.27 204 Sao Tome & Principe 0.52 0.10 105 Mongolia 2.75 7.87 214 Niue NA 0.003
74 Peru 1.12 31.31 166 Belize 3.32 0.93 32 Belgium 13.10 135.81 132 Iceland 10.74 3.19 Middle East 80 Angola 1.74 20.39 149 Djibouti 4.09 1.95 213 St Helena 1.38 0.01 111 Brunei 17.84 6.44
77 Ecuador 1.79 23.90 179 Antigua and Barbuda 8.53 0.59 36 Czech Republic 11.02 112.83 133 Malta 7.59 3.02 11 Iran 6.96 450.68 95 Zimbabwe 0.97 11.78 152 Uganda 0.06 1.62 123 Papua New Guinea 0.79 4.35 World 4.37 28,192.74