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Oracle® Practitioner Guide

Building Cloud Services
Release 3.1
E49942-01

January 2014

Building Cloud Services, Release 3.1

E49942-01

Copyright © 2013, 2014 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Primary Author: Anbu Krishnaswamy Anbarasu and Mark Wilkins

Contributing Author: Dr. James Baty, Stephen Bennett, Scott Mattoon

Contributor: Cliff Booth, Dave Chappalle, Bob Hensle, Rob Reakes, Graham Mcmillan

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Contents

Send Us Your Comments ....................................................................................................................... vii

Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. ix
Document Purpose...................................................................................................................................... ix
Document Scope .......................................................................................................................................... x
Related Documents ..................................................................................................................................... xi
Document Map .......................................................................................................................................... xiii
Audience..................................................................................................................................................... xiii
Document Structure .................................................................................................................................. xiii
How to Use This Document..................................................................................................................... xiv
Conventions ............................................................................................................................................... xiv

1 Introduction
1.1 Differentiating Cloud Services.................................................................................................. 1-2
1.1.1 Specific Considerations for SaaS........................................................................................ 1-5
1.2 Program Level v. Project Level Activities ............................................................................... 1-5
1.3 Cloud Service Development Phases......................................................................................... 1-7

2 Program Level Activities Overview
2.1 Cloud Service Analysis .............................................................................................................. 2-1
2.2 Requirements Analysis .............................................................................................................. 2-2
2.2.1 Classification of Cloud service requirements .................................................................. 2-4
2.3 Cloud Service Identification ...................................................................................................... 2-5
2.3.1 Basic steps in Cloud service identification....................................................................... 2-6
2.3.2 Detailed activities in the Cloud service identification process ..................................... 2-7
2.3.2.1 Applications .................................................................................................................. 2-8
2.3.2.2 Platforms........................................................................................................................ 2-8
2.3.2.3 Database......................................................................................................................... 2-8
2.3.2.4 Infrastructure ................................................................................................................ 2-8
2.3.2.5 Extension services......................................................................................................... 2-9
2.3.2.6 Capacity Planning ........................................................................................................ 2-9
2.3.2.7 Development Cloud ..................................................................................................... 2-9
2.3.2.8 Cloud candidate services stack................................................................................ 2-10
2.3.2.9 Defining the service boundaries.............................................................................. 2-11
2.3.2.10 Determining the sourcing model ............................................................................ 2-12

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............................. 2.............................................................................................................................1 Cloud Services and SOA. 4-2 4................................................2...................................2 Packaging and Assembly................................. 2-13 2........3.................1 Cloud Service Implementation ..................2 Service Design Template ..................................2.......... 4-3 4.................................................... 2-17 2.............12 Workload validation ..............................................................1 Defining Deployable Entities .............................................................................................................4 SaaS API ............................................................................................. 4-2 4............3............1.............................................................................7......1..................................1 Design Choices .........................................................................2 IaaS API..................... 2-16 2............................................................................................................4 Cloud Service Portfolio Management and Release Planning ...........................................................7 An Example......................... 2-12 2.......................................5..........1 Defining Cloud Service Contracts ......... 2-15 2.................................................................................... 2-13 2..................2.....................................................5......................................3............1 Cloud Service Definition........................... 5-4 6 Transition 6............ 4-8 4..5 Cloud Architecture Refinement..........................1 User Acceptance Testing...........................1 Inception Phase Activities..........................................................................................2................2 Solution ............................................................ 2-14 2............3 Service Assembly Template .......2 Providers and Consumers ...1................................. 4-1 4.............................................................5... 4-6 4......... 4-6 4............................. 6-2 7 Operate 7....... 2-17 2..................................................................................................................1........................1..................... 5-1 5..................................................................................2 Defining Service metrics................... 5-3 5...........................................................................7..............2...............................................................................1 Template for Cloud service definition................................................. 4-2 4........................................................................1 Operations Best Practices.........................................3 Defining service specifications........2.....3........................ 4-3 4........1................2............................................................................2......... 4-5 4.1...... 2-17 2............................. 6-1 6..3 Architectural Capabilities..1 Problem ......11 Service justification..................2......2 Designing Cloud services ...............3 PaaS API................................................................................................... 2-17 3 Inception 3......1................................6 Other Program Level Considerations .............................................................................................. 4-10 4..................... 4-9 4............................3 Cloud Service Testing.................. 2-16 2.............................. 4-11 5 Construction 5.............................. 5-2 5...............................................................2 Cloud Service Deployment............ 3-1 4 Elaboration 4.......................1...............................................2....................2 Defining Service APIs ..........................................................................................................................................................1 Characteristics of good Cloud APIs..................................... 4-7 4.............................. 7-2 8 Summary iv .....................

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................................................................................................................ 1-8 2–1 Cloud Service Analysis Activities ...................................................................................................................................... 2-3 2–3 Cloud Service Development Influencing Factors. 4-1 4–2 Cloud Service Definition.................Programs and Projects......................................................... 2-15 3–1 Inception Phase Activities (SaaS)............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-5 4–5 Cloud Service Design ............ 5-1 5–2 Cloud Service Implementation ............................................................................................... 2-11 2–8 Cloud Service Portfolio Management and Release Planning .............................................................. 4-2 4–3 PaaS API ..................................................................................................................OA&M Phase Activities.................................... 3-2 4–1 Elaboration Phase Activities................................................................ 5-3 5–4 Cloud Service Testing......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-10 2–7 Cloud Candidate Services Stack Example.......... 3-2 3–2 Inception Phase Activities (IaaS and PaaS) ................................................................... 4-9 5–1 Construction Phase Activities ................................. 6-2 6–3 Cloud Service Deployment.................. 5-4 6–1 Transition Phase Activities .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................List of Figures 1–1 Cloud Service Development .............................................................................................................................................. 6-3 7–1 Operate .................. 1-7 1–3 Cloud Service Development Process .. 4-4 4–4 Cloud Application Integration............................................................................................................................................................ 2-2 2–2 Requirements Analysis ........................ 7-1 vi ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-14 2–9 Cloud Architecture Refinement..................... 2-6 2–5 Cloud Service Identification Process............................................................................................................... 1-6 1–2 Focus Areas and Program/Project Scope.............................. 2-6 2–4 Cloud Service Identification Steps............................................................................................................................... 5-2 5–3 Packaging and Assembly.............................................................................................................. 2-7 2–6 Cloud Candidate Services Stack Model.... 6-1 6–2 User Acceptance Testing......

You can send comments to us at: its_feedback_ww_grp@oracle. where? ■ Are the examples correct? Do you need more examples? ■ What features did you like most about this document? If you find any errors or have any other suggestions for improvement. Your input is an important part of the information used for revision. vii . and page number (if available). Send Us Your Comments Building Cloud Services.1 E49942-01 Oracle welcomes your comments and suggestions on the quality and usefulness of this publication. please indicate the title and part number of the documentation and the chapter.com. ■ Did you find any errors? ■ Is the information clearly presented? ■ Do you need more information? If so. Release 3. section.

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customer relationship management (CRM). through Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS). software at the lower levels of the IT stack. along with other documents that build upon these core concepts to describe more complex technology strategies. Please consult the ITSO web site for documents pertaining to Cloud and other technology strategies. This document is part of a series of documents that describe IT Strategies from Oracle (ITSO) Cloud strategy. operating system software belongs to IaaS while middleware software falls into the category of PaaS. Typically. enterprise resource planning (ERP). ORA does not include any implementation artifacts for the prescribed architecture. Such business applications commonly include financial accounting software. Since SaaS generally refers to application software at the top of the IT stack. to Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). however. human capital management (HCM). from Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Preface Oracle Reference Architecture (ORA) is a product-agnostic reference architecture based on architecture principles and best practices that are widely applicable and that can be implemented using a wide variety of products and technologies. this category of software will be referred to interchangeably as either "SaaS" or "application services" for the purposes of this document. ORA is an extensible reference architecture that describes many facets of IT. It is comprised of several documents that cover core concepts of technology. This is not to say that SaaS is necessarily constrained to business applications. referring most of the time at least. the term "SaaS" narrows the use of the word "software". For example. and a plethora of custom applications. The word "software". ix . ORA addresses the building of a modern. The ORA Cloud documents present the ORA concepts from the perspective of Cloud. consistent IT architecture while minimizing the risk of product incompatibilities and obsolescence. is a particularly broad term covering a wide range of categories of machine instructions spanning the layers of the traditional IT architecture stack. to a Cloud based delivery model for business applications. Document Purpose This document describes a methodological approach to building Cloud services spanning all the Cloud service models. In this way other technology strategies that follow ORA remain fully consistent and compatible with the resulting Cloud architecture. highlighting the specific details of Cloud as an elaboration of the ORA core concepts. in the context of cloud. in the context of SaaS. Rather. would typically belong to other cloud models. however.

Elaboration. While the focus of this document is Cloud Service projects. IaaS. In addition to covering all the project phases in the Implement focus area (Inception. Some example of different Cloud projects are "cloud platform services projects" (as in PaaS). In the context of Oracle Unified Method (OUM). It identifies the primary architecture and design concerns for engineering services for cloud (SaaS) and identifies the key technical criteria for selection of the underlying layers e. The diagram below shows how this document fits in the ITSO document set in relation to other ETS topics. For example the definition of Cloud service models and associated sub-models can be found in the Cloud Foundation Architecture document. rather than replace. This document describes the practices specific to the engineering of cloud services in the framework of a Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC). or traditional IT environment (PaaS on IaaS. etc. In addition. existing strategies for engineering and associated SDLC methods. platform selection. describing processes and procedures for the effective operation of Cloud services. Little attention is given to foundational cloud concepts since these are covered in other ITSO documents. and Maintain and Evolve phases) are introduced briefly to show how analysis and architecture support service projects at the program level.e.). Cloud Service Analysis and Cloud Architecture Refinement (from the Initiate. The broader subject of business justification for engineering Cloud services is beyond the scope of this document. this approach loosely follows an enterprise-class variation of the Unified Process (UP) and as such lends itself to integration with existing Iterative and Incremental Development (IID) methods including the Oracle Unified Method (OUM) and Agile development frameworks.g. the word "project" is used to refer to a variety of different types of projects associated with Cloud. "initial cloud build project". however. x . The approach presented in this document is intended to augment existing software development strategies by focusing on the aspects of cloud service construction that are distinct from existing engineering practices. is covered by the Cloud Operations document. Program level Envision considerations in this document are limited to concerns that directly impact implementation of Cloud service projects. and also projects that deploy applications to a cloud. SaaS on PaaS. Document Scope The focus of this document is engineering of Cloud services for delivery through any of the Cloud service models i. Construction. or traditional IT environment. and Transition). such as. the Operate focus area. PaaS. SaaS. While this document focuses on the aspects of service engineering that are unique to cloud it is intended only to augment. Where the specific type of project is not obvious from the context its description is expanded. this subject is covered in the document Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing. IaaS. it encompasses program and project level activities for building Cloud services. As such. this document describes the activities within the Envision and Implement focus areas. Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing also describes the project methodology and implementation phases used in this document. Similarly.

such as. Related Documents IT Strategies from Oracle (ITSO) is a series of documentation and supporting material designed to enable organizations to develop an architecture-centric approach to enterprise-class IT initiatives. these are included only insofar as they are concerns of any Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC). While this document necessarily touches some broader topics. standards. Some information on this subject can be found in Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing which introduces the topic of how to measure an allocate costs incurred. The importance of cost and benefits of Cloud to both providers and consumers is critical to the successful adoption of Cloud. are beyond the scope of this document. such as software architecture or operations. Other topic areas. such as business and strategy. what is measured will vary greatly depending on many factors. guidelines. principles. Given the complexity of the subject of costing it is beyond the scope of this document. ITSO presents successful technology strategies and solution designs by defining universally adopted architecture concepts. However. and patterns. xi . planning an enterprise wide cost savings initiative or an application migration for agility.

xii . They define the high level business processes. and achieve greater levels of adoption and success. technical. and services. business functions. They explain how to successfully execute a strategy by addressing concerns pertaining to architecture. It covers a broad spectrum of concerns pertaining to technology architecture. Enterprise Technology Strategies (ETS) offer valuable guidance on the adoption of horizontal technologies for the enterprise. Enterprise Solution Designs (ESD) are cross-industry (applicable to many industries) and industry-specific (focused on a single vertical industry) solution perspectives based on the Oracle Reference Architecture. In addition. Please consult the ITSO web site for a complete listing of ORA documents and associated materials in the ITSO series. ESDs map the relevant application and technology products against solutions to illustrate how capabilities in Oracle's complete integrated stack can best meet the business. This document is a practitioner guide within the Cloud Enterprise Technology Strategy. and governance. strategy. database. technology. including middleware. develop their strategy. each ETS extends the Oracle Reference Architecture by adding the unique capabilities and components provided by that particular technology. engineering. and software capabilities that are required to build enterprise-wide industry solutions. hardware. It offers a horizontal technology-based perspective of ORA. ITSO is made up of three primary elements: Oracle Reference Architecture (ORA) defines a detailed and consistent architecture for developing and integrating solutions based on Oracle technologies. They adhere to the ORA principles and also draw on the best practices and guidelines provided in ETS collateral. The reference architecture offers architecture principles and guidance based on recommendations from technical experts across Oracle. and quality-of-service requirements. processes. An organization can use this material to measure their maturity.

■ Chapter 2. This document is part of a set of practitioner guides that includes the following: ■ Creating a Roadmap to Cloud ■ Building Cloud Services (this document) ■ Building Cloud Infrastructure . Additional references can be found in the Appendices. Audience This document is intended for enterprise architects. project managers and developers.Implementation of Physical and Management Infrastructure ■ Cloud Operations ■ Cloud Governance ■ Cloud Security This document. supersedes the original document.1.Document Map The picture below shows the ITSO Cloud documents.0. The material is designed for a technical audience that is interested in learning about Cloud architecture and how to develop an approach for building enterprise class Cloud services. this chapter highlights the xiii ." outlines the more broadly scoped activities concerned with the enterprise-wide architecture encompassing all Cloud projects. Document Structure This document is organized into chapters based on the lifecycle phases of the Cloud service development methodology. "Program Level Activities Overview. application architects. Building Infrastructure and Platform Cloud Services Release 3. Building Cloud Services Release 3. their scope and relationships. The chapters are organized as follows: ■ Chapter 1." presents an overview of the Oracle methodological approach for Cloud service development. "Introduction. In the context of OUM.

each section is relatively self contained and may be read independently from the other sections. How to Use This Document This document is designed to be read from beginning to end." describes the transition phase of Cloud service development. "Summary. "References. ■ Chapter 5. Cloud-specific activities with the Initiate / Maintain and Evolve phases (within in the Envision focus area) for Cloud service development. In order to make this document self-contained many ancillary topics are incorporated without detailed explanations. However." describes project start-up activities including requirements analysis and verification of business objectives for a Cloud service development. or in both locations. ■ Chapter 4. "Elaboration. ■ Appendix A. Conventions The following text conventions are used in this document: Convention Meaning boldface Boldface type in text indicates a term defined in the text. ■ Chapter 8." describes the elaboration phase of Cloud service development. xiv ." provides a lists of additional resources. ■ Glossary provides a definition of the terms highlighted in bold throughout document. the ORA Master Glossary. "Inception. ■ Chapter 7." provides an introduction to the operational activities involved in Cloud development." provides a lists of additional resources. "Operate. ■ Chapter 3." describes the construction phase of Cloud service development. "Further Reading. ■ Chapter 6. ■ Appendix B. These broader topics however." is a brief summary and concluding remarks. "Transition. "Construction. are expanded in related documents which are listed in the appendix and cross-referenced in the text where appropriate. italic Italics type in text indicates the name of a document or external reference. underline text Underline text indicates a hypertext link.

The ITSO document Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing defines the process of creating a pragmatic roadmap for Cloud. if you do not currently use a formal process for software development. so organizations should make the choice of whichever approach works better for them. The process of developing Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). deploying. For example. and Software as a Service (SaaS) are somewhat different from traditional IT engineering practices. At the same time. Cloud Infrastructure and Platform services present new ways of developing. The intention of this document is not to provide a comprehensive end-to-end process that replaces the existing software development methodology used in enterprises but rather to highlight the variations required to successfully build Cloud services so that existing development process can be modified accordingly. such as the Oracle Unified Method (OUM). as the primary development process. Other organizations may need to look at the way they develop IT capabilities and make necessary changes to take advantage of Cloud. Successful adoption of Cloud Computing requires a) clearly defined roadmap and b) well-defined development and operational processes for building and operating Cloud infrastructure and Cloud services. Introduction 1-1 . the order in which Cloud services are identified and built may depend on the specific strategy of the organization. 1 Introduction 1 Most organizations have recognized Cloud Computing as a key strategy for enabling business agility and organizational efficiency. and Platform Cloud services where they are distinct from traditional software engineering. and managing applications. This guide focuses on the methodology for building Software (applications). Infrastructure. this process can be adopted in conjunction with any Iterative and Incremental Development (IID) method. Organizations that are already using Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) will typically find it easier to adopt Cloud. This doesn't mean that existing methodologies need to be replaced. Platform as a Service (PaaS). However. What should be determined first? Is it the service model or the deployment model? Each approach has its own merits and pitfalls. This methodology provides general guidance on what needs to happen. "One size fits all" approach may not be suitable for Cloud due to the variety of different forms and magnitudes that it can take. Building business applications as Cloud services provides many benefits to the corporations as well as Cloud service providers. The roadmap activity typically spins off several projects that include service development and infrastructure build out projects. since SOA and Cloud require several organizational and engineering discipline changes that are similar. but it is flexible enough to be customized if needed. The methodology described in this document is intended to be customized for the needs of your organization. This kind of a paradigm shift is hard to achieve without changes to traditional organization structure and development processes. but some adjustments may be needed to accommodate this shift.

For this reason. In general. Resource pooling is primarily a capability of the underlying Cloud infrastructure. architectural strategies must be established across the service tiers in order to make use of this capability by ensuring the resources can be consumed effectively and managed accordingly." NIST definitions and other broader characteristics are described in more detail in the ITSO Cloud Foundation Architecture document. Platform. on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e. and Infrastructure services. This form of centralized computing was called "time-sharing" or "utility computing". Information Technology Laboratory (NIST). select appropriate service levels.g. This approach helps an organization decide on its goals for Cloud and starts the formation of an enterprise-wide architecture definition. what characteristics of Cloud Computing will be most beneficial (and potentially which ones are not needed). starting with the NIST characteristics: ■ On-demand self-service: a consumer should be able to acquire Software. storage. providing application specialisms. however. they commonly run separate instances of an application for each customer. This is just the first of a number of differences between the ASP and SaaS provider. and offering rental-style pricing models over traditional hardware and license acquisition. or Infrastructure services. 1-2 Building Cloud Services .1 Differentiating Cloud Services The idea of hosting business applications to sell as a service has been around for a long time. The rapid growth of the Internet in the 1990s presented broader opportunities for centralized computing and the Application Service Provider (ASP) concept was created. a service must exhibit some or all of the characteristics of the widely accepted definitions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Before embarking on a Cloud service development program it is necessary to address the question "how cloudy do we want to be?". At the highest level NIST offers the following definition of cloud computing: "Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient. and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. servers. storage) that may be allocated from a pool as needed and released back to the pool when demand subsides.Differentiating Cloud Services 1. ■ Resource pooling: services should be provided from shared platform and infrastructure resources (compute. The following lists outline the ways in which the cloud characteristics manifest in services. ASPs have had little or no influence over the software architecture of the third party applications they host for their customers. applications.. To this end we start by looking at the characteristics of Cloud and what they mean in the context of Software. This approach is unable to fully optimize the use of resources and lacks scalability. networks. Ideally this growth and contraction of resource allocation occurs automatically within parameters agreed in advance between provider and consumer. ASPs typically host third-party applications on behalf of their customers relieving them of the burden of IT maintenance. administer its capabilities. Platform. As far back as the 1960s mainframe computers were used to share computing resources to run applications for multiple customers. network. In order to develop Cloud services it is necessary to consider what these differentiating characteristics mean in the context of the various tiers of cloud services. and manage service consumption with little or no involvement from the provider's personnel. In order to qualify under the general heading of "cloud". In other words it is important to decide in advance.

some level of harvesting of intelligence about user behavior. to elimination of friction in human processes through automation and abstraction. Specifically. without it many of the characteristics mentioned here would be impractical. or Infrastructure service development can executed by the developer as needed thus applying the cloud self-service strategy. Closely connected to scale is velocity. Platform. This enables consistent. standard network protocols (i. While accommodating disparate groups of users requires great attention to security and governance. sharing of reference data. not just in terms of raw computing resources. but also the capabilities associated with business growth in a cloud environment. Platform. and mechanisms for cooperation. however. ■ Broad network access: ideally the application service should be available anywhere (that matters to the consumer) on any device. ■ Automation: automation is a cornerstone of cloud computing. etc. Differentiating Cloud Services ■ Rapid elasticity: service capabilities may be rapidly scaled up and down as needed (ideally automatically). rapid elasticity is provided at the infrastructure level. Platform. end-to-end accounting of resource utilization. a highly secure environment supporting consumers via a private network). but the general implication is that the service should be accessible using widely adopted. but. but in Software. this capability must link architecturally across the service tiers.e. may offer benefits for the provider and consumers. In general. scale of course refers to the potential for great scalability in a cloud environment. or Infrastructure service terms. Naturally some real-world constraints should be applied. but it is important to establish the relationships between them when multiple tiers of services are being deployed. Resources available to the service consumer should appear unlimited (within the constraints of service level agreements). while the long-term success of Cloud in any given environment may hinge on this characteristic: the need for scale and velocity will help define the meaning and importance of the five NIST and other characteristics. separate user communities may be accommodated by cloud application services. Internet Protocols) using thin client (such as freely available browsers or other "thin" applications) fixed and mobile devices. regulatory or policy constraints may require that network access be quite narrow (e. and Infrastructure services. In terms of application services scale and velocity might include the ability to rapidly expand the use of an application: this has many implications ranging from the basic scalability of service through removal of technical constraints. part of this capability can still be achieved through the use of browser-based solutions and the essence of Rich Internet Applications can still be provided without the "Internet". Through automation many of the mundane. Self-service through automation and abstraction in software development is commonly called Introduction 1-3 . the requirements for this characteristic should be carefully assessed at an early stage. In some cases. Many architecture and design decisions will be critical to achieving scale and velocity. ■ Measured service (metering): Types of metrics vary widely across Software. time-consuming operational tasks required to support Software. ■ Scale and velocity: in this combined characteristic. as with the closely related resource pooling. The ITSO Cloud Foundation Architecture document extends the list of characteristics with: ■ Multi-tenancy: multiple.g. the greatly improved speed of getting things done in the cloud. this precludes legacy telecoms communications technologies and heavy-client applications commonly tied to a specific type of device (typical of the ASP model) and thus avoids the need for end-point maintenance by the provider. In some ways scale and velocity is merely a summary result of achieving other cloud characteristics.

■ Administrative functions: consumer concerns. ■ Declarative configuration: where possible the end-user / consumer experience aspects of Software. cost control & accounting. test environment build-out and deployment) is all but eliminated. to end user business processes can be most effectively monitored. By shifting certain controls to the developer and eliminating operator intervention the development cycle is transformed from a reactive one to a just-in-time approach in which the coordination of resource allocation (e. integrated. branding. or Infrastructure services. Other details specific to a particular application architecture. In this way processes at all levels from cloud component assembly. improved. Platform. aspects such as the look-and-feel. Some finer-grained details may be determined at the elaboration phase within a project and may become widely accepted design patterns. Some may not be required at all (permitted by the earlier statement "a service must exhibit some or all of the characteristics"). should be configurable without the need for programmatic code changes. while potentially very useful to the cloud application service development project. For example. flexible data elements. Platform. and adapted. such as user provisioning and maintenance should be transferred. Platform.Differentiating Cloud Services "dev-ops". Many characteristics (and architectural principles) from Service Oriented Architecture (see SOA Foundation document) are also relevant in the development of cloud services. such as support for transactions. and is not a result of SaaS. such as consumption. etc. It is worth mentioning that the evaluation of a characteristic should assess the benefits from point of view of both the provider and the consumer.g. through automation and abstraction. performance monitoring & reporting. or Infrastructure services should be highly configurable. along with non-functional requirements of the application (such as those concerned with scale and velocity). and Infrastructure services should provide a programmatic interface (API) for integration between service tiers and with management and security infrastructure. These characteristics must be evaluated by every potential provider wishing to develop cloud services. It is important to understand the context when considering cloud characteristics: Dev-ops (an aspect of self-service). ■ Management capabilities: all cloud services must enable the consumer to take responsibility for application management of concerns. to the users that manage them most effectively. This is another form of abstraction ultimately enabling transfer of control to other participants. ■ Process and rules abstraction: processes control should be abstracted to the highest appropriate level and should be managed through suitable process tooling. To work effectively. "Program Level Activities Overview". are typically found in design detail (Elaboration phase). automation requires great attention to standardization and governance. The following characteristics are also tightly linked to automation and/or abstraction. in Cloud application service development. Achieving such efficiencies in an application services project. This is explained in more detail in Chapter 2. but the case for rejecting (or deferring) specific characteristics should be clearly recorded. through development concerns such as packaging. is actually a function of cloud service tiers IaaS and/or PaaS. depends heavily on the underlying service tiers and/or infrastructure environment. ■ Programmatic control: Software. typically at the enterprise / program level and reviewed during the inception phase of each project. This is largely equivalent to the NIST "self-service" characteristic when it is applied in the context of Software. 1-4 Building Cloud Services . Some of these characteristics may be viewed as business drivers while others should be established as architecture principles. for example.

Program level activities are typically strategic initiatives that benefit multiple business units and projects. Cloud service portfolio management etc. 1.g.1. and operated. "transfer funds") from the technical ("non-functional") implementation needs (e. Emerging platform and infrastructure requirements must be evaluated at the earliest possible stage (Inception phase) so as not to be derailed by deficiencies in the environment later in a project. These concerns are covered in more detail in Chapter 2. An enterprise is typically a provider and consumer with very clear and specific needs. This is described in the document Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing.1 Specific Considerations for SaaS Application architectural requirements. Architectural strategies for integration should follow the enterprise-wide reference architecture while platform and infrastructure projects typically take requirements from applications and associated Cloud application service projects. particularly when used in the context of Infrastructure and Platform services. Technical requirements arising from such application projects have a major impact on the design of Infrastructure and Platform Cloud services. Projects represent discrete units of work that come together to create coordinated services. This is where program level activities are critical for structure. reference architecture development. These include roadmap creation. "Program Level Activities Overview". while a Commercial Cloud Service Provider (CCSP) is a provider-only and must develop more broadly applicable Cloud service offerings based on market analysis and commercial considerations. Project Level Activities It is worth noting at this point that the use of the word "functional" when referring to Cloud service requirements or capabilities takes on a slightly different meaning from that of traditional software engineering. Project Level Activities As explained already this document focuses primarily on project level concerns. However. The motivation for Cloud services may originate from a variety of sources. Instead.2 Program Level v. and coordination. In the case of IaaS and PaaS the consumer is no longer the end-user of an application. 1. Introduction 1-5 . Cloud services projects should be initiated using project identification strategies defined and coordinated by the program level. commonly involve some dependency on the platform and infrastructure capabilities. Cloud method development. "apply level 3 transaction consistency"). An enterprise SaaS project may simply identify Cloud services based on business requirements and a mandate that all new development should adhere to Cloud strategies. Infrastructure and Platform service consumers considers more technical capabilities (such as database consistency and concurrency) to be the function of the service. In software engineering "functional requirements" distinguish the business purpose of an application (e. standards. Program Level v. executed. whether they are enterprise-mandated Cloud strategy manifesting from the Cloud characteristics (above) or specific non-functional requirements of the application. Cloud governance. All these are program level concerns and can be found in other ITSO documents listed in the glossary. These requirements must be coordinated at the program level. while separate application projects must typically also be built to work together. Of particular concern are the choices of environment in which the Cloud application services will be developed. Cloud application services invariably rely on platform and infrastructure services (whether they are Cloud based or not).g.

existing servers may be consolidated and migrated to a private Cloud for agility and cost reduction reasons. and ■ Cloud infrastructure project Cloud infrastructure projects may be required to support the other types if it is not already established. ■ Business delivery project. Enterprises are typically both consumers (public Cloud services directly consumed by business or brokered by IT) and providers (private Cloud services built and operated by IT). So identifying services is relatively straight forward in this case. This use case is slightly different from a Commercial Cloud Service Provider (CCSP) as Commercial Cloud Service Providers predetermine commercial Cloud services based on the market drivers and their own business strategy. The service boundaries still need to be validated by the process and may result in further breakdown of services. IT initiatives such as modernization. to be precise) and technical requirements have a major impact on the design of Infrastructure and Platform Cloud services. Cloud development is supported by multiple projects. consolidation. Project Level Activities The significant requirements emerging from enterprise level strategic planning will drive the determination of (1) service model layering and (2) the SaaS deployment model and (3) the degree to which the enterprise will be a provider of SaaS. and rationalization may result in the identification of IT capabilities that could be implemented with new or existing Cloud services. This is outlined in Chapter 2 of this document while further guidance on this subject can be found in the ITSO document Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing.Programs and Projects Figure 1–1 shows multiple entry points into Cloud service development. infrastructure is out of scope for this document and is covered separately in Building Cloud Infrastructure. Figure 1–1 illustrates three types of projects - ■ Cloud services project. In addition to defining business functionality.Program Level v. an enterprise business delivery project identifies Cloud services based on the Infrastructure and Platform requirements of an application project. Figure 1–1 Cloud Service Development . For example. however. Non-functional (non-business functional. 1-6 Building Cloud Services .

Due to the high start-up costs for Cloud and the inability to predict all requirements from the outset. These focus areas are described in the Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing document. new assurance and security requirements. These requirements are further refined and implemented by the Cloud services project as well. however.Envision. to provide modular capabilities to facilitate alternative configurations. a Cloud Provider must ensure that there are sufficient resources available to support the scalability requirements of the Cloud. The service development should be aligned with portfolio management activities to ensure that Cloud services can support the needs of current and near-future projects. The "Building Cloud Infrastructure" document covers this topic in more detail. architecture. Figure 1–2 Focus Areas and Program/Project Scope The Envision focus area deals with development and maintenance of enterprise level IT strategy. This is explained in more detail in Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing. Cloud services must be designed to elastically scale on demand. Envision activities span both "Initiate" and Introduction 1-7 . that is. and roadmap. strategy. and governance. Implement. Envision also assists in the transition from enterprise-level planning and strategy activities to the identification and initiation of specific projects. It is this part of Envision that is of particular interest in the initiation and coordination of Cloud services projects. it is generally a good idea to plan for a phased roll-out.3 Cloud Service Development Phases The activities for building Cloud services are categorized under three major focus areas . These planning and cost management issues are covered in more detail in the document Creating a Roadmap to Cloud Computing. Cloud services should be designed to be "future proof". etc. Some program level activities in Envision are particularly important to the coordination of services projects and are briefly described in this document. This also reduces the problem of overlapping costs of providing large-scale services before consumers are able to migrate. to handle spikes in future load requirements. Cloud Service Development Phases Another entry point shown in the diagram is from the program scoped activities such as road map creation where Cloud services are strategically identified based on the business drivers. 1. and Operate. This document focuses primarily on the Implement focus area in which the services are developed.

Figure 1–3 Cloud Service Development Process At the program scope. Construction. can be found in Chapter 2. Cloud Operations is such a significant topic that it has a separate focus area (Operate) and a separate ITSO document. Construction. Cloud Service Analysis provides service identification and requirements for the initiation of projects.Cloud Service Development Phases "Maintain and Evolve" phases. 1-8 Building Cloud Services . Cloud Architecture Refinement assumes that a Cloud Reference Architecture already exists and provides a mechanism for maintaining it. this is not intended to be an exhaustive list). Elaboration. Cloud Operations is also introduced in Chapter 7. While the Initiate phase provides strategic guidance in the creation of Cloud projects. The Implement focus area provides an Iterative and Incremental Development (IID) framework to develop and implement business solutions with consistency and predictability combined with rapid deployment. and Transition. The key process of interest in building Cloud services is Enterprise Architecture. Elaboration. These phases closely align with Oracle Unified Method (OUM) and Unified Process (UP). At the project level Figure 1–3 shows four phases of Cloud service development - Inception. they are shown here in order to identify key inputs (however. and Transition. The project level phases are Inception. Cloud Service Analysis and Cloud Architecture Refinement. Figure 1–3 shows the relationship between program scoped analysis and architecture activities and the various types of projects (Cloud services and Cloud infrastructure) that follow them. it is the later Maintain and Evolve phase that enables the incorporation of feedback as new Cloud service requirements emerge from the projects themselves. the key activities of interest are Cloud Service Analysis and Cloud Architecture Refinement. While Envision activities are mostly beyond the scope of this document. The primary areas of interest in this document are indicated by the dotted line in Figure 1–2. This process creates and maintains an enterprise-level view of both the application and technical architecture of the systems. Cloud Operations. An outline of the program scoped activities.

Section 6. ■ The Elaboration phase focuses on design details. service interfaces. While the "focus" of these phases is outlined here. the goal of IID is to involve every discipline to create a tangible. incremental result in each iteration of each phase. Introduction 1-9 . requirements review.1. within the context of the OUM or UP framework. such as. Indeed. "User Acceptance Testing" It is important to remember that this method is intended to be implemented following Iterative and Incremental Development (IID) practices. One of the main concerns addressed in this phase is packaging and assembly of Cloud services into deployable entities that allow rapid provisioning and decommissioning. and building the project team. there is no intention to perform only a subset of the project disciplines. ■ The last phase of the Implement focus area is Transition in which User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and production deployment activities occur. project feasibility. such as. UAT of Cloud services is somewhat different from the traditional UAT. Cloud service testing is performed in this phase. ■ The Construction focuses on the development of the Cloud service. in particular the parts that are unique to Cloud service development. The statements in the foregoing list merely identify the focus of this document. This topic is discussed in more detail in. Cloud Service Development Phases The remainder of the document covers Cloud service project scoped activities by OUM/UP phase: ■ The Inception phase focuses on start-up concerns.

Cloud Service Development Phases 1-10 Building Cloud Services .

It is an investment that provides increasing returns as more applications are deployed to it. although not all applications will be suitable candidates for Cloud migration. In most cases. fall into the categories of "business analysis" and "enterprise architecture" respectively. Cloud service development differs from traditional engineering in a couple of ways. As with traditional software engineering. which means that the method should support identifying common requirements and isolating or refining them into enterprise requirements that can further be built as Cloud services. 2. not only for driving business analysis and concrete Cloud architecture definition into projects. just as SOA did. The OUM Envision Focus Area encompasses all the activities of the Initiate and Maintain & Evolve phases and provide a coordinated mechanism. both during the Initiate phase and iteratively through the Maintain and Evolve phase. Cloud service development also begins with requirements. However. In addition. Infrastructure and Platform services are enterprise scoped services shared by multiple projects within the enterprise. Cloud requirements should primarily be driven by business requirements for cost reduction and agility. but also a mechanism to refine these assets using feedback from projects and new requirements from business leadership. The benefits of Cloud increase with scale. Cloud Service Analysis and Cloud Architecture Refinement. 2 Program Level Activities Overview 2 The activities and work-products at the program level (Initiate. These work-products. program level Cloud Service Analysis and Cloud Architecture Refinement.1 Cloud Service Analysis Figure 2–1 shows the high level activities in Cloud Service Analysis. Some service requirements will be identified based on common requirements across multiple Program Level Activities Overview 2-1 . the needs of the existing application portfolio must be considered. Maintain and Evolve phases described in the Envision focus area in OUM) typically include the following: ■ Roadmap planning ■ Business analysis ■ Enterprise architecture ■ Cloud service candidate identification ■ Portfolio management ■ Governance While most of these activities are beyond the scope of this document it is important to ensure that projects are adequately supported by coordinated.

Requirement Analysis: Business and IT requirements are analyzed and in conjunction with the Cloud Reference Architecture and existing application portfolio. application portfolio. These inputs include project requirements. 2-2 Building Cloud Services . reference architecture. Cloud services should be built with reuse in mind. However. so future projects can use the Cloud service with little or no change. The Cloud Portfolio Management and Release Planning activity shown in the diagram covers these details. ■ Current and planned IT capabilities: IT will be aware of the capabilities provided not only for direct application support but also for crosscutting concerns such as security.Requirements Analysis in-flight projects. requirements analysis begins by gathering requirements. In any case the cloud reference architecture describes the basic cloud services and their requirements. and existing capabilities: ■ Cloud Reference Architecture: Even before the iterative process of cloud architecture refinement can begin some form of reference architecture must pre-exist. The result is a refined set of enterprise-wide Cloud requirements for and requirements for Cloud service projects. 2. in order to minimize future re-work it is important to look for unique needs arising in these projects. Many will be similar to those capabilities determined by the existing application portfolio and IT capabilities. ■ Requirements from current and planned projects: The requirements for existing projects must also be considered. etc. Cloud Service Identification: Cloud services are identified based on the requirements and justified for development by the Cloud service creation team. ■ Existing application portfolio: Many of the platform and infrastructure requirements can be determined from an analysis of the existing application portfolio. Cloud Service Portfolio Management and Release Planning: Cloud services identified are aligned with the migration of applications to the Cloud and Cloud service catalog is kept up to date. management and monitoring. IT requirements.2 Requirements Analysis As shown in Figure 2–2. In all cases. Figure 2–1 Cloud Service Analysis Activities The key activities in Cloud Service Analysis are listed below. The Oracle Cloud reference architecture should be used as a starting point in the absence of a more refined model.

This process is explained in more detail in the Building Cloud Infrastructure document. and disaster recovery Program Level Activities Overview 2-3 . and then can migrate all the applications to the Cloud running on modernized hardware. The requirements that are common across multiple projects are identified and classified into SaaS and PaaS/IaaS requirements. and Cloud capabilities first. By moving to Cloud. Cloud service scalability requirements . these organizations can build the virtualization layer. and then replace the underlying hardware. In order to minimize impact to the business. Typically an enterprise asset management or metadata management repository is used for this purpose. "non-functional" requirements mean that they are not functional-business requirements. For example. The resource requirements that come out of this analysis are fed back into the infrastructure project analysis.current and future demands. most of which are related to the Cloud characteristics. consolidation. business impact. business continuity. are important while identifying the Cloud services. These requirements typically stem from the IT cost reduction efforts that result in data center modernization. These requirements are to become enterprise assets and should be maintained at the enterprise scope. Requirements Analysis Figure 2–2 Requirements Analysis In the case of an enterprise. IT requirements also drive the need for Infrastructure and Platform Cloud services. Some organizations choose to rollout virtualization first. The following types of Cloud service requirements. business delivery projects receive requirements from the line of business for implementing specific business functionality. IT would perform this upgrade using a phased approach. business criticality. Commercial Cloud Service Providers define their requirements based on market demand and their business strategy.up time. In this context. Infrastructure and Platform services are primarily influenced by non-functional or technical requirements and architecture standards. and application rationalization initiatives. IT may decide to modernize the infrastructure to the latest hardware and storage technologies. One of the first steps in the Cloud service development process is to identify the common / shared requirements and refine them into enterprise Cloud requirements. anticipated spikes in load Cloud service Availability requirements .

this is typically not a directly stated business requirement but rather derived from the agility requirements such as time-to-deploy. "Devops" typically falls between these opposite ends of the process.2. Metrics .What metrics need to be collected? ■ Service business metrics . Self service management needs . Integration requirements . 2-4 Building Cloud Services . number of business units supported etc.Does the service require dynamic scaling up and scaling down? How fast does the service need to change capacity in response to demand? Security requirements . how data and application will be secured. utilization metrics etc. Elasticity requirements . health. encompassing packaging and promotion of releases to testing environments for example. initial analysis must be done to learn enough about the components to determine Cloud fit and to decide which kind of Cloud they should be deployed to.up time.1 Classification of Cloud service requirements Business requirements are categorized into one or more of the following: ■ Green-field requirements that require brand new "business" capabilities to be built. this will still need engagement with business users because at the very least they may need to be involved in a regression testing effort after a migration. Cloud security is covered in more detail in the document Enterprise Strategy for Cloud Security. new business services and IT capabilities need to be developed. management. and audit requirements. – This is a top-down scenario where new Cloud services are identified to enable the business capabilities. 2. and enhancing competitive advantage through time-to-market or agility improvements. – These requirements do not require new "business" capabilities to be delivered but are geared towards reducing overall IT cost and improving the performance of IT and business applications. entry into new markets. etc. – Application or Service components are not known initially in this case. Green-field requirements stem from business initiatives such as introduction of new products. Self service provisioning needs . To deliver these requirements.How the users (mostly the application developers) are going to use and manage the service. what would they be? Typically application management is performed by the business owners (or their IT delivery teams) while the operations of the platform and infrastructure are performed by the operations team. authentication.usage.If the development team or "devops" team can manage certain aspects of the application. While security is called out on its own.internal and external integration requirements.includes a definition of the security entities. ■ Requirements that aim to reduce cost or improve customer experience of existing business interactions (not by introducing new features or capabilities). ■ Service operational metrics . Many of the items listed here have inherent security requirements. So. authorization. reuse. ROI. it is also a consideration within self-service provisioning. – While these projects might aim to reduce IT costs.Requirements Analysis Service invocation requirements (API) .

For this reason. as cloud provider is reducing costs then this cost saving must be shared with the cloud consumer in the form of lower usage charges. Note that the benefits of the cloud need to be experienced by both the cloud provider (e.3 Cloud Service Identification The three key dimensions that influence Cloud service development are a) the service model b) the deployment model and c) the role. Program Level Activities Overview 2-5 . – Possibly migrate the services to run in the base Cloud. IT might benefit from cost savings while consumers see only constraints (either by IT dictating what application services are available or what applications can be deployed to the cloud).g. it might be useful to split this category of benefits into requirements that reduce cost (clarifying who gets the cost saving) from requirements that improve customer experience (clarifying who benefits and who pays for that improvement). ■ The third classification is where pre-built new services are added to the existing Cloud service portfolio. if the IT department. as shown in Figure 2–3.g. Cloud Service Identification – Note that this case may require new "IT" capabilities to be built to deliver cost reduction or to improve performance. rationalization. – Migration efforts may identify new Cloud services to be created using existing assets or existing Cloud services to be discovered for the migration of applications. or modernization initiatives. lower cost to manage and maintain) and cloud consumer (e. – Application or Service components are already known in this case and the key task is to identify if they are suitable for Cloud deployment and the type of Cloud based on the business requirements and architecture constraints. lower cost of using or flexibility and agility of the cloud). – This is a bottom-up scenario. – Some level of standardization is required to re-brand the acquired services and integrate with the common Cloud management infrastructure. 2. For example. if the consumer is getting the benefits of better customer experience then the IT provider may have to be paid for the improved level of service because they might need to provide more hardware etc. – Integration of these acquired Cloud services into the Cloud service catalog. This is a common scenario for Commercial Cloud Service Providers who often add new Cloud services through M&A. where existing IT capabilities are re-architected and migrated to Cloud architecture through IT consolidation. If only one party is benefiting then tensions are likely to arise in the adoption of cloud. Alternatively. In this case.

The roadmap planning process would normally determine the deployment model of applications to be migrated to Cloud. perceived benefits.Cloud Service Identification Figure 2–3 Cloud Service Development Influencing Factors The service model determines which layer or layers of the architecture will support the requirements. The deployment model determines where the Cloud service is going to reside and how it will be managed.1 Basic steps in Cloud service identification Once Cloud service requirements are documented. consumer. build and manage services differently than an enterprise that is building the Cloud for its own use. Figure 2–4 Cloud Service Identification Steps The deployment model could be determined either before identifying the service candidates or after. and architecture factors. An enterprise may decide to build SaaS Cloud on custom platform or deploy business applications on a PaaS Cloud. which makes their Cloud service development lifecycle unique. 2. The requirements may be fulfilled by custom in-house development or off the shelf Cloud offerings from external providers. Similarly. A commercial Cloud provider may gather requirements. Figure 2–4 illustrates the high level steps in the Cloud service identification process. an Intermediation Cloud broker plays the role of both consumer and provider. What happens in the development of Cloud services depends on roles such as builder. The choice of architecture depends on the enterprise guiding principles. Another aspect that has a major impact on how Cloud services are built is the role of the organization building the Cloud services. This choice has a major impact on Cloud service development. Enterprises define guiding 2-6 Building Cloud Services . and operator. Cloud service candidates can be identified.3.

"Requirements Analysis". non-functional requirements and architecture standards drive the platform. a Java application server platform may be identified as a potential PaaS. databases. Figure 2–5 Cloud Service Identification Process As described in the Section 2. Functional requirements primarily drive SaaS decisions. Cloud service identification deals with the procedures and guidelines that an enterprise adopts to identify new Cloud service candidates. or any combination. technology. Workload requirements validate the Cloud service definitions and ensure that the Cloud services being built are suitable for deploying the workload. Business requirements may drive the need for Infrastructure. Cloud Service Identification principles on choosing deployment models. Cloud service requirements are identified based on the requirements of the project and are refined to the enterprise scope. Functional requirements are implemented as SOA services or application components. you may decide to run the Java application server on dedicated hardware that is not exposed as IaaS. Deployment model decision made during the roadmap process is further validated and refined in this phase.2. For example. The final step in the process is identifying the workloads and their characteristics. In most cases.3. 2. Platform. This Cloud service may be designed to run on a "Compute" node that's offered as IaaS.2 Detailed activities in the Cloud service identification process As shown in Figure 2–5. Given the requirements. and Infrastructure (IaaS). but either a PaaS or a traditional platform can be deployed on IaaS. For example. SOA services can be Program Level Activities Overview 2-7 . Building PaaS does not require IaaS. some corporations favor public Clouds. Alternatively. These requirements are further analyzed by the service creation project team for validity before identifying services for implementation. public Cloud suitability is assessed based on architecture standards and principles. or Application services. while some discourage their use. and information decisions. Service model and service candidate identification is explained in detail in the next section. These decisions drive the choice of the platforms (PaaS).

Availability.Cloud Service Identification deployed as Cloud SaaS offerings.2 Platforms The platform on which the application will be run is determined based on the technical requirements and architecture standards. This is the application’s primary purpose. Nonfunctional application requirements must be specified in generic high-level terms using categories such as. Scalability. and network components. 2-8 Building Cloud Services . data redundancy.3.2. A number of key issues need to be considered while identifying database services.3. 2.2. Understanding nonfunctional application requirements on the other hand are critical to successful cloud adoption.2. If an organization chooses multiple numbers of smaller compute nodes. In this way the business needs can be specified first without regard for technological constraints or simply operating within existing capabilities. In addition it provides automated provisioning and self service benefits that are inherent to a Database as a Service (DBaaS) cloud. For example. If the project has reliability or store-and-forward requirements. and performance. there is most likely a need for a queuing platform. 2. The following sections provide some general ideas and guidelines to help identify the Cloud services. but functional application requirements analysis is a well-established discipline and is beyond the scope of this document.1 Applications Application requirements have traditionally been divided into "functional" and "nonfunctional". storage capacity. The applicability of each of the following services is dependent upon the specific requirements. Once these business level statements of nonfunctional requirements is established they may be considered in the context of the underlying platform and infrastructure and what capabilities can be offered to meet these requirements.2.3. Making the database available as a Cloud service is one way of enforcing these standards. latency and availability requirements may lead to the selection of a Java based application server and the architecture standards may narrow it down to Oracle WebLogic server platform.3. 2. Most applications require a database of some kind and architectural standards typically dictate the use of a standardized database version across the enterprise. and Performance (RASP). Functional refer to the business activities performed by the application. Infrastructure includes compute capacity. Application components may be custom developed or acquired as a COTS product. if available commercially.4 Infrastructure The next step is to identify the infrastructure needs of the project.3 Database Database presents another opportunity to leverage Cloud services. 2. A ballpark estimate of the resource requirements with an understanding of the low and high usage marks is helpful in deciding the infrastructure services. backup and restore. There is no clear-cut and prescriptive method to identify cloud services. it will be necessary to make sure that the workload can scale horizontally. Reliability. These include data availability.

For example. For example. Many organizations use a type of hybrid Cloud in which application development is performed on Cloud platforms and infrastructure. it must be ensured that there are sufficient compute resources available to handle current requirements and future growth. Network components are typically shared across multiple Cloud services and multi-tenancy is a key consideration when identifying such services. 2. the design must allow for horizontal scale out and scale back. Since Cloud services are typically shared across multiple tenants. their constraints must be clearly understood.7 Development Cloud Development platform is another area where there is a great opportunity to utilize Cloud services. providers are restrained from allowing the consumers to modify them. even if production is not. Cloud Service Identification The requirements also drive the type and size of the storage service. Capacity planning for Cloud is a very detailed topic in itself and is not covered in this document. in addition to ensuring that sufficient compute capacity is available.6 Capacity Planning Once the Cloud service candidates are identified. the needs are identified in this step. If development will be done on a platform Cloud service. The ITSO Cloud Foundation document describes the layering of Cloud services.2. 2. it is a good idea to make the development platform available as a Cloud service for quick deployment of the development environment. a SaaS service provider may offer a platform Cloud service so that the consumer could extend the functionality of the SaaS offering. Capacity planning should take into account the peak load and future growth requirements of all projects using the service.3. instead they allow the consumers to extend them with additional services in the layers below. The design of the storage service is influenced by factors such as: ■ Is the data mostly read-only or read-write? ■ Is data access "chatty" (small chunks of data accessed frequently) or is it large amounts of data accessed infrequently? ■ Performance requirements for data access that may further drive the physical characteristics of the storage technology ■ Monitoring and management needs Network components such as load balancers and routers also need to be considered. To determine the best suitable storage service. Security requirements drive the need for one or more firewalls in the architecture for example (Cloud security is covered in more detail in the document Enterprise Strategy for Cloud Security). For infrastructure services.3.2.5 Extension services Consumers of Cloud services often find a need to customize the functionality offered by the service. Program Level Activities Overview 2-9 . 2.3. it is not required to build a Platform service on an Infrastructure service. they need to be sized to ensure that they can operate within the model for scaling the Cloud. For platform services. Since most organizations standardize their development technologies. If not. it is essential to understand the nature of the workload. What's important to understand is that capacity planning must be performed as part of the Cloud method to ensure that the resources are sized appropriately.2. It also explains that it is not required to build a Cloud service on top of a lower layer Cloud service. Ideally the services should scale linearly as more resource is made available to them.

The red arrows illustrate the request flow across these services.Cloud Service Identification 2.3. 2-10 Building Cloud Services .8 Cloud candidate services stack A useful exercise is to build a Cloud candidate services stack model by identifying the Infrastructure and Platform services needed to support the applications and the dependencies between them. Figure 2–6 shows a conceptual view of the Cloud candidate services stack model.2. It illustrates that the JMS and Java platform services are running on a 2CPU/16GB RAM compute service while the database service is running on a dedicated Exadata node. Figure 2–6 Cloud Candidate Services Stack Model An example of the Cloud candidate services stack is shown in Figure 2–7.

It is necessary to fully define a service’s boundaries to ensure that it is a fully encapsulated. security. If WebLogic is deployed on a generic compute node. conversely. ■ Does the service candidate need to be redefined into two or more services based on architecture constraints or performance benefits? ■ Should the service be deployed on a dedicated hardware or a compute service? For example. existing services. Finally. It shows how the services (or service candidates) are stacked up and the dependencies between them. 2. Oracle WebLogic service may be deployed on an Exalogic engineered system or a generic compute node. ■ Is it necessary to combine two or more service candidates into one for performance. Cloud Service Identification Figure 2–7 Cloud Candidate Services Stack Example This model serves multiple purposes. or deployment reasons? ■ Should we impose any restrictions on the service candidate for security or scalability reasons? ■ Is the service candidate based on the principles defined by the reference architecture and governance framework? ■ What are the principles governing the Cloud strategy? Does the enterprise favor public SaaS services over building the services in house? Does the enterprise build SaaS over PaaS or over dedicated platforms? ■ Is there a difference in approach between core strategic functions and commodity support functions? Program Level Activities Overview 2-11 . it can be used to identify new services.9 Defining the service boundaries The service candidates identified can now be reviewed further to define or refine the service boundaries. then the service will be split into a WebLogic platform service (PaaS) and a compute infrastructure service (IaaS). autonomous unit that does not have unnecessary dependencies on other entities. The following list captures some of the considerations for defining service boundaries.2. when deployed with dedicated hardware the combined single PaaS service may provide greater scalability and performance. It also shows which services are built on other services and which ones are extension services.3. and modified services.

critically sensitive data may have a requirement to be hosted in the 'Restricted' security zone.Part of the requirements are matched to an existing service or part of the service matches the requirements. it could be acquired as a subscription based service. It takes into account several factors including architectural characteristics and affinity between services and highlights the best fit deployment model for application components. In this case an existing Cloud service has been discovered but it requires modifications before it could be used for this project. For example.the requirements are matched to an existing Cloud service within the enterprise or in the public domain ■ No Match . 2. If the chosen deployment model is Public.2. These services may be operational or in development. 2-12 Building Cloud Services . ■ Partial Match . ■ A Private Cloud Services Catalog maintains the list of Cloud services developed and operated internally. but also applies to internal enterprise Clouds which often utilize a multi-zone security model. ■ Enterprise standards narrow it down to selected group of services. ■ Full Match .11 Service justification The Cloud service repository plays a key role in discovering existing Cloud services based on the need of the project in question. This applies to consideration of external deployment models. the appropriate sourcing model should be determined.Cloud Service Identification ■ How will the service support multi-tenancy? In the extreme case of Public SaaS.10 Determining the sourcing model After identifying application components. which affects infrastructure and platform. The Oracle Cloud Candidate Selection Tool (CCST) assists with the process of identifying the deployment model for specific components. The requirements are validated against the following: ■ Deployment Guiding Principles state the preference of deployment model. If the requirements are available as a third party commodity service offered by a public Cloud provider. CCST is used to evaluate the architectural characteristics of components to determine a suitable deployment model. then public Cloud services from multiple vendors are compared to determine the best fit for the project requirements. Sourcing model determines how the services are selected to match the requirements in hand. These requirements may fall into one of the following categories. One of the critical evaluation metrics in deciding the deployment model is data sensitivity. the existing service could be used as part of a new composite service without modifications. 2. ■ A Public Cloud Services Catalog maintains the list of approved public Cloud services that are brokered by IT or available for direct consumption. In some cases.3. the mechanism for providing isolation between services (and tenants) is of critical importance. The requirements are checked for a match in the private and public Cloud service catalogs. Technology standards drive the vendor and technology selections. A new Cloud service needs to be built in this case.2. These policies affect how the services are eventually sourced.3. Some organizations prefer public Cloud services while some discourage the use of them.the requirements do not match with any existing services in the catalogs.

Cloud Service Portfolio Management and Release Planning

New Cloud services or modifications to the existing services need to be justified before
taken up for delivery by the Cloud service creation team. Resource constraints,
architecture constraints, and economic rationale are some of the factors influencing
this justification. If the Cloud service creation team decides not to build the Cloud
service, it is passed back to the project team for localized implementation.
If the discovered service requires modifications, an impact analysis should be
performed to assess how the change will affect the existing consumers. A well-defined
versioning approach is required to ensure that the new version is fully functional and
the old versions are phased out. Service versioning is also essential to isolating and
tracking modifications, and facilitating roll back to older versions.

2.3.2.12 Workload validation
The final step in the identification process is to identify the various types of workloads
to be supported and ensure that the service can support the workload requirements.
Following are some example workload characteristics that need to be considered in
service validation.
■ Batch processing workload that is going to be run at specific times of the day.
■ Transaction processing workload
■ Business continuity workload that is active only when the primary site goes down
■ Burst workload that is created as a result of peak load distribution
■ Development or test workload that is non-critical
■ Production workload that is mission-critical or business-critical
The examples of questions to ask about workload are as follows:
■ Is the workload permanent or transient?
■ Is it a batch program or OLTP application?
■ Is the workload going to have sudden spikes?
■ What business processes are run on the workload? This is important to identify
the business unit, criticality etc. of the workload.
■ Who has organizational ownership of the workload? This is important because
often cloud adoption is driven within organizations by a 'champion' - so can
directly affect the cloud service identification process.
■ Are there any constraints or restrictions on the workload? The service may not
support some of the features of the underlying service platform. For example, a
Java service provider may exclude the use of RMI and thread management.
■ What are the costs and charging models for different workload profiles?

2.4 Cloud Service Portfolio Management and Release Planning
Figure 2–8 shows the high level steps in Cloud Service Portfolio Management and
Release Planning. Cloud services and their dependencies should be maintained in a
catalog so that they can be discovered. The catalog also assists in synchronizing
projects release schedules and Cloud service delivery schedules.

Program Level Activities Overview 2-13

Cloud Architecture Refinement

Figure 2–8 Cloud Service Portfolio Management and Release Planning

Cloud projects often suffer the dilemma of whether to create the services first and wait
for the business units to start using them or build Cloud services as the need arises in
the first project. Cloud release planning ensures that services are planned and
developed in support of evolving business requirements.
Cloud service metadata should be managed in an enterprise asset management tool
such as an Enterprise Metadata Repository with associated dependencies. This goes a
long way in ensuring that services are planned in line with the demand and the project
teams utilize the services for effective cost control and maximal agility. A taxonomy to
describe Cloud services may include metadata elements such as:
■ Projects using the Cloud service
■ Lifecycle environments the Cloud service is deployed on (e.g. Dev, Test, Prod)
■ Business units using the Cloud service
■ Cloud service template associated with the service
■ Assembly or topology
Another aspect of Service Release Planning is to prioritize the service development
based on available resources.
Not all services identified by the Service Release Planning process are built in-house.
IT may decide to broker some of the services from a public Cloud provider based on
cost and time-to-deploy factors.
Service creation and project delivery need to be synchronized such that Cloud services
are ready and available for consumption when the business projects need them.
Sometimes a private Cloud would have the necessary infrastructure built already;
hence the deployment of Cloud services would be fast. However, there may be
instances where a service that doesn't currently exist is just identified for the needs of a
particular project.

2.5 Cloud Architecture Refinement
The Cloud architecture refinement activity assumes a reference architecture has
already been developed and provides means to maintain and evolve it. The scope of
the architecture is a definition of Cloud for the enterprise, including guidelines and
principles for all service tiers. As new Cloud service projects arise, new architectural

2-14 Building Cloud Services

Cloud Architecture Refinement

requirements are likely to emerge, but since these affect the enterprise architecture for
Cloud they must be considered at the enterprise level.

Figure 2–9 Cloud Architecture Refinement

Figure 2–9 depicts a simple sequence of steps in the architecture refinement activity. In
addition the existing reference architecture, inputs include the proposed changes from
the project and the application portfolio (in order to consider the impact of proposed
changes). If a change is adopted a refined reference architecture is produced. This may
also involve new infrastructure requirements to support the architectural change.
Some of the key considerations for Cloud architecture are explained in the following
sections.

2.5.1 Cloud Services and SOA
Organizations that are already adept at Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) will find
it easier to adapt to Cloud architecture and practices since SOA and Cloud rely on
similar principles and require many of the same disciplines.
Monolithic applications are difficult to integrate with other applications, constrain
scalability, and are inflexible when functionality needs to be changed. When
application functions are modularized, as they are in the case of SOA these concerns
are much more easily addressed. In a cloud environment many of the principles of
Service Oriented Architecture apply equally to Infrastructure and Platform services as
they do to SaaS.
SOA characteristics (and architectural principles) are as follows:
■ isolation (loosely coupled)
■ autonomy (atomicity, self-contained)
■ robustness/durability (not so relevant in cloud)
■ abstraction (getting the right granularity)
■ discoverable - yes but don't do it with centralized configuration management
■ reusable (infrastructure for example becomes more readily reusable when services
are standardized - unlike traditional data center finding leftover servers unsuitable
for the next project)
■ composable, modular, inter-operable
Al the about characteristics should be considered when creating or refining the
architecture for Cloud services.

Program Level Activities Overview 2-15

in varying degrees.2 Providers and Consumers Enterprises are typically both consumers (public Cloud services directly consumed by business or brokered by IT) and providers (private Cloud services built and operated by IT). In particular governance. In reality none of these are unique to commercial providers and while perhaps initially less important to in-house SaaS builders these concerns should be addressed by all providers. Another consideration specific to SaaS is whether the service provider is developing (or converting) in-house applications in a private cloud model or a commercial service provider (SaaS equivalent of an ASP) is developing services for a broader range of consumers. Scalability. Performance (RASP) ■ Transactions: ACID. BASE ■ Identity and Access Management: centralized. This scenario is slightly different from a Commercial Cloud Service Provider (CCSP) as these are exclusively service providers that determine commercial Cloud services needs based on the market drivers and their own business strategy. however. distributed.5. 2-16 Building Cloud Services . 2PC. it does typically have some significance in the approach to gathering requirements. The term "consumer" also encompasses a number of different roles. more attention to location and regulatory differences. Availability. 2. but typically with little scope for negotiation. since service implementation details should not be visible to a consumer: the only consumer considerations relevant to this document are concerned with what the service should look like to a consumer. whereas a commercial provider publishes a standard service level agreement (or menu of agreements) which the consumer can choose to accept or decline. Visibility. collecting and delivering functional and nonfunctional requirements. or brokered Guidance must be provided at a high level.5. a credit card processing application may require the highest level of transaction support. while a customer survey application does not need to incur the overhead and complexity of Two-Phase-Commit (2PC). the application (SaaS) consumer is typically the end user (this is not always the case however. since software services may be brokered or merely providing support to other software systems). Self-Service. synchronized. potentially with options for selecting options from within these categories to enable decisions to be made at project level. a greater need for isolation.3 Architectural Capabilities The following is a list of examples of architectural capabilities that may be required. federated. Transparency ■ Reliability. charging mechanisms. a greater emphasis on scale and. security. and User Acceptance Testing (UAT). Automation. monitoring and measurement should never be afterthoughts.Cloud Architecture Refinement 2. to be consumed (typically by SaaS applications) or provided (typically by IaaS and PaaS). For example. Unlike the case of Infrastructure and Platform services where the consumer is another IT layer. of course. Ultimately the only differences should lie in the nuances such as the order in which things happen. This document focuses primarily on the service provider. ■ Abstraction. an in-house development team is given service level requirements directly from the business. rather than the consumer. for example. In general this should not make great deal of difference to the method for building services.

More broadly how an Enterprise Architecture framework would be used in concert with the Cloud service development method. policy exceptions and escalations. ABC Bank had started building a private Cloud two years ago. ■ Cloud Governance . broad network access.Gates and check points in the process. Is funding coming from the central budget or is it based on a cost allocation model? ■ Architecture development methodology . and resource pooling. ■ IT demand management . The traders of the bank use remote trading desks. This low latency requirement is consistent across all three business lines (Equity. 2.management of the portfolio of Cloud services in the broader context of IT portfolio management.6 Other Program Level Considerations The following topics are out of scope for the purposes of this document. The elasticity and resource pooling are important because the different regions use the platform at different times. ■ IT portfolio management . Quotes must be provided really fast with less than 50ms delay. ■ Application migration . ABC Bank is already offering customers equity and Forex trading. 2. ■ Funding model .999% on trading days and the system should be able to accommodate additional load seamlessly as the quote volume varies widely. The business units have also dictated that the application must be up 99. measurement. The private Cloud embodies all essential characteristics of Cloud. Cloud migration policies and guidelines.migration of existing applications to the Cloud services being built. A number of smaller banks have also contacted ABC Bank in the recent months to ask if they could use the quoting engine platform for their customers. The management has taken a strategic decision to run their IT as a business and offer the quotes engine as a Service to the external consumers. elasticity. IT had built the necessary Cloud management infrastructure and a few Cloud services over the last two years.how enterprise architecture is developed at the enterprise and how it influences Cloud service development. However.7.2 Solution As part of a multi-year initiative. it is important to consider these subjects in the context of the service development method. and Options/Derivatives).1 Problem ABC Bank is expanding into new markets and is introducing an options trading product.how IT demand is managed and channeled into the Cloud service development process.7 An Example This section shows a simplified example of Cloud service identification. including self-service.how Cloud service development and operations will be funded. the broad network Program Level Activities Overview 2-17 . 2. ABC Bank is investigating whether Cloud is the right deployment option and if so. how the Cloud services can be identified. Forex. definition of roles and responsibilities (typically by means of a RACI chart or something similar). An Example 2.7. ABC Bank has presence in over 20 countries and different regions use the platform at different times.

Based on the non-functional requirements of the project the architecture team identifies OEP as a service candidate. The functional requirements did not have a match with existing services. these services are easily justified and accepted by the service creation team. This new service should support the internal customers.An Example access is important for remote trading desks. Oracle Event Processing (OEP) has been standardized as the preferred platform for Event Driven Architecture. 2-18 Building Cloud Services . The Cloud service creation team further analyzes the requirements and identifies an OEP service and an Oracle NoSQL database as a service. The Cloud service creation team also determines that the Oracle NoSQL database can be deployed on an existing Infrastructure cloud service without any modifications. the three business units and the external customers. The availability and low latency requirements also drive the need for a high performance database as a service. the measurement and monitoring is important for checking the QoS. IT has also determined that this functionality can be offered as a service to external consumers based on the requirements they have received from the smaller bank partners. The architecture team determines that these requirements can be fulfilled by a Complex Event Processing (CEP) product deployed on a hardware that supports low latency and high availability requirements. This component is the same as the one used in the equity and Forex trading applications. Based on the initial requirements analysis the project team identifies one SaaS candidate and two PaaS candidates and passes the requirements on to the Cloud service creation team. ABC Bank's IT has determined that one of the key components of the architecture is the Quotes Engine that provides option quotes. Further boundary analysis suggests that OEP deployed on Oracle Exalogic can better satisfy the business requirements. The service creation team also evaluates the workload requirements and ensures that the service can handle the load patterns. Since there is significant reuse of the OEP platform service and Oracle NoSQL database service. so a new Quotes Engine service needs to be built. the small banks. The architecture team has established middleware standards.

leads to great confusion resulting from inconsistent definitions across service tiers). However. 3 Inception 3 In traditional software engineering methods. just as in the case of SOA. In the case of SaaS. this chapter focuses on elements of the process that are specific to building Cloud services. the Infrastructure and Platform services are more appropriate to be developed by the operations team or "DevOps team" as opposed to the development teams in the case of Software. The inception activities are only slightly different for Software services v. Cloud services are enterprise scoped and shared by multiple IT projects within the enterprise. functional v. Traditional software engineering methods refer to functional and non-functional requirements. which means that the method should support identification of common requirements and isolating or refining them into enterprise requirements that can further be built as Cloud services. and cost of the project. non-functional. Cloud applications service development has many similarities to traditional software development. Inception is largely concerned with establishing a cohesive team and validating the requirements. 3. Infrastructure and Platform service development differs from traditional engineering in a couple of ways. scope. identifying risks. The majority of service requirements will have been identified already based on common requirements across multiple in-flight projects and/or based on existing portfolio capabilities. however. Cloud service development also begins with requirements. Cloud benefits arise largely from the economies of scale and velocity. application requirements are analyzed to separately identify functional requirements and application architectural requirements. While the functional requirements for the application.1 Inception Phase Activities Figure 3–1 shows the high level activities of the Inception phase. As with the rest of the document. On the other hand. The goals of the Inception phase directly relevant to building Could services are: ■ analyze Cloud service project requirements ■ confirm business objectives ■ identify Cloud specific requirements ■ define the scope and boundary conditions As with traditional software engineering. and migration to a Cloud service model is an investment that provides increasing returns as more services are deployed. In most cases. the distinction. Infrastructure or Platform services when view from a high level. the term "non-functional requirements" is no longer sufficient to encompass our needs in the Cloud environment (furthermore. and the process of Inception 3-1 . In addition. but SaaS specific concerns are also identified in the following sections.

Some examples of architectural capabilities were given in Section 2. The process shows the requirements being split into traditional "functional" requirements and the application architecture specification that determines the capabilities required from the underlying Platform and Infrastructure. (2) an alternative architectural strategy is proposed by EA. The primary input to this activity is the requirement for either a Platform or Infrastructure service. The outputs from this phase are (1) traditional use cases and (2) Cloud specific application architecture. (3) a new Infrastructure and Platform service project is identified to fill the gap. While most of these requirements should be established at the program level from an analysis of the application portfolio for architectural requirements. its API’s. The outputs for this phase are (1) technical architecture describing the required capabilities of the service. the application architectural requirements become much more significant in a Cloud environment.Inception Phase Activities gathering and validating them. 3-2 Building Cloud Services . The application architecture must specify the capabilities expected from the underlying platform and infrastructure (regardless of whether they are provided as-a-service or by traditional means) and determine whether or not sufficient support exists. Figure 3–2 Inception Phase Activities (IaaS and PaaS) A number of differences arise in the Inception phase for Infrastructure and Platform services. and (2) use cases describing how the service should be used. Figure 3–1 Inception Phase Activities (SaaS) Figure 3–1 shows the two primary inputs to this phase for SaaS: the application requirements and the Cloud service capabilities available from the Cloud architecture. these may also arise from additional discoveries during the inception phase of SaaS projects.3 and these are the types of capabilities that must be matched to the application requirements. including (1) the Cloud service project fails feasibility checks. etc. New requirements arising from application projects in this way must be considered at the program level with a number of possible outcomes.5. is no different from traditional software development practices. These are shown in Figure 3–2.

3. 4 Elaboration 4 Elaboration phase of Cloud service development includes definition and design activities as shown in Figure 4–1. "Cloud Service Identification" and further validated in the Inception phase in Chapter 3. Elaboration 4-1 . Figure 4–1 Elaboration Phase Activities 4. The output from the Inception phase forms the input for the Elaboration phase.1 Cloud Service Definition The next step in the process is to define the Cloud service identified in Section 2. Figure 4–2 outlines the activities in the Cloud definition step of the process. A key input to this phase is the Cloud reference architecture.

API specification is a key part of both Cloud services across all service tiers. APIs specify how the service will be provisioned. Furthermore. Although there are no dominant standards at this point. such abstractions enable consumers to both self serve and to operationally control these services without any significant administrator involvement.2. Service providers typically provide a master contract that covers the terms between the provider and all the consumers of the service.1. Even for private Clouds. providers must make their best effort to create and support standards based APIs for the management of infrastructure and platform. Contracts are the agreements between the consumer and provider. APIs are made available for the consumers to interact with the Cloud provider. an abstraction of the infrastructure resources become more relevant to address concerns of compliance and configuration.1 Characteristics of good Cloud APIs The following list captures the characteristics of good Cloud APIs ■ Minimalistic design ■ Simple but complete 4-2 Building Cloud Services . and accessed. It is the business definition of the Cloud service that is likely to appear in the consumer-facing service catalog. As IT deployments are becoming more complex.1 Defining Cloud Service Contracts Contracts define what the service offers and the SLA for the service from the consumer's view point. Commercial Cloud service providers must define the internal Quality of Service (QoS) requirements to meet the SLAs published to the consumers. 4. For Infrastructure and Platform Cloud services.Cloud Service Definition Figure 4–2 Cloud Service Definition 4.1.1. 4. contracts should be defined between the IT department and users (business or IT) of Cloud services. A Cloud service contract must also indicate how consumer's data and assets will be protected and what happens to the data when the consumer terminates the subscription.2 Defining Service APIs APIs are an important component of Cloud services. managed.

common resource attributes ■ Resource models. administration. error messages. Cloud Service Definition ■ Standards support ■ Good documentation ■ Abstract ■ Encapsulate multiple Cloud resource management tasks into one 4.2.1..2 IaaS API An IaaS API enables an infrastructure provider to service their customers by allowing them to ■ Browse templates that contain definitions and metadata of a logical unit of service ■ Deploy a template into the cloud and form an IT topology on demand ■ Perform operations on the resources ■ Take backups of the resources The specification of an IaaS Cloud API should include: ■ Common behaviors that apply across all requests and responses. monitoring and patching of applications in the cloud. SOAP.g. REST. running.1.3 PaaS API PaaS APIs are required to manage the building. e. which describe the data structures used in requests and responses ■ The requests that may be sent to cloud resources.2. Figure 4–3 shows PaaS consumers managing their PaaS instances using the self service PaaS APIs. Elaboration 4-3 . ■ Which communication protocols to support. WS-* 4. The platform implementation is responsible for translating the API request and orchestrating the underlying resources. and the responses expected.

and patch an application instance While patching an application instance is mentioned here.By standardizing the management API for the use cases around deploying. ■ Building and packaging an application in a local development environment ■ Building an application in a development environment running in the cloud ■ Importing a platform deployable entity into the cloud ■ Uploading application artifacts into the cloud ■ Run. These are application oriented use cases that assume an entire application is deployed to the platform. Over time. suspend. ■ Popular development environments could use the APIs to create plug-ins. recover. and updating applications. A standardized PaaS management API has the following benefits from the consumer point of view. etc. such generic implementations are likely to be of higher quality than the 4-4 Building Cloud Services . snapshot. stopping. starting. stop. This may not be the case. it is noteworthy that patching is at odds with the a common Cloud principle of application versioning and simple migration between older or newer versions: you do not patch in place in this model as it makes it significantly more difficult to test. where the platform is just a queuing service or data warehouse service. for example. ■ Portability . the standardized API increases consumers' ability to port their applications between PaaS offerings.Cloud Service Definition Figure 4–3 PaaS API The following is a non-exhaustive list of common PaaS use cases which PaaS providers may choose to support.

change resource priorities. Cloud Service Definition implementations written for solitary. Further examples of provider APIs might enable the provider to move resources around their infrastructure. Many of the management systems considerations for SaaS have been mentioned in the foregoing PaaS discussion (packaging. This is because Cloud application services are more likely to be highly distributed and even hosted by separate providers. increase or decrease capacity/capability. there may exist both provider APIs and consumer APIs.). A suitable architectural strategy forces application interactions through orchestration and mediation capabilities provided by the Platform layer. More unique to SaaS is the need for integration between applications and in a Cloud environment where the need for standardized API for this purpose becomes more important than ever before. API considerations focus on two main areas of concern: interfacing with management systems and integration between applications. deployment. Figure 4–4 Cloud Application Integration The need to eliminate point-to-point integrations between applications was established well before the emergence of Cloud (refer to Service Oriented Architecture in ITSO). etc.1. more valuable areas. effective integration with externally provided SaaS applications. start/stop. all demanding greater isolation. For PaaS providers a standardized management API would bring the following benefits: ■ Because the strength and features of a PaaS offering's application management API are unlikely to be perceived as key differentiators from other PaaS offerings. Ultimately.4 SaaS API When developing SaaS applications. Under a Cloud model however. but must also ensure secure. ■ By increasing the portability of applications between PaaS offerings. the existence of a standardized management API allows providers to leverage the experience and insight of the specification's contributors and invest their design resources in other. proprietary application management interfaces. Figure 4–4 depicts these application integration considerations for SaaS. Elaboration 4-5 . much more formal interactions between architectural layers (and service tiers) must be defined. This is not only required for interaction between applications within an enterprise. the management API helps "grow the pie" of the PaaS marketplace by addressing one of the key pain points for PaaS consumers. 4.2.

space used etc.3 Defining service specifications The service specification referred to in this step is a technical definition of the Cloud service which typically includes the technology attributes.g.CPU size/RAM size. memory/heap size ■ Define HA and elasticity requirements ■ Define any self service interfaces ■ User Interface specifications (primarily for SaaS.g.3. ■ Boundary analysis .break down services if necessary ■ Define the SLA for the service ■ Define the security aspects ■ Size the service – E. IaaS/PaaS/SaaS Sub-Type of Service e.storage capacity. # of CPUs – E. Compute/Storage/Java/DB/Queue Description <define what the service is intended to do> Deployment Model Public/private/hybrid Dependencies <list the service dependencies> Elasticity How the service capacity is managed based on demand variations? Security Security provisions and compliance statements Workload Define what workload is supported by this characteristics service Metrics Define the metrics used to measure this service (e. security policies.) Sizing Service sizing using the service-specific parameters 4-6 Building Cloud Services . CPU utilization.g.# of platform instances or cluster size. PaaS.Cloud Service Definition 4. ■ Identify IaaS.g.1 Template for Cloud service definition A sample template for capturing the Cloud service definition is provided below. Compute .identify the Cloud service boundaries by analyzing various influencing conditions against the Cloud service Candidate. – Platform . but some UI’s are also necessary for PaaS and IaaS) In addition to the technical specifications.1. Factors such as service scope. Cloud Service Name Name of the Cloud service Type of Service e. bandwidth. 4. Storage . The following are the key service definition activities. and SaaS services . and QoS requirements may affect service boundaries. functional specifications will also be necessary for SaaS.g.1. mirroring etc.

etc. Gold. a large VM hosing multiple Weblogic JVM's. data centers.g. Bronze) Deployment Zones This is a logical concept but can represent business units. a Database schema) Provisioning How is this service provisioned? What level of automation will be implemented? Subscription What's the best way to monetize this service? What subscription model is best suited? (business may choose to use a different model but this is the builder perspective of the subscription model) Monitoring and How is this service going to be monitored? diagnostics What kind of instrumentation and diagnostics will be provided? Scaling How is this service going to be scaled? Horizontal or vertical? Does the architecture support automation to provide elastic scaling capabilities? Language support What localized languages will be supported? 4.1. security zones. Silver. container level.3. etc. Cloud Service Definition Access Method How the service will be accessed? Routing information and load balancing Isolation Define isolation strategy . backup frequency.g. a Database hosting multiple schemas) Service Class/Tiers These are typically the operational characteristics (e.g. retention period. but composite will be typical for most services.1.1 IaaS Metrics IaaS services are specified broadly based on the fundamental resources such as compute capacity and storage capacity ■ CPU . (configurable to the enterprise within the management tooling) Unit of provision What is the consumer getting when this service is turned on? (e. Multi-tenancy How would this service handle multiple consumers? What level of multi-tenancy will be used? Resource Pool Describe the underlying resource pool (e.3. virtualized infrastructure hosting VM's.g.) or service quality metrics (e. process level etc.data level.2 Defining Service metrics One of the essential characteristics of Cloud services is the ability to be measurable. infrastructure pods.g. Service definitions should identify which metrics will be used to measure the cost as well as the usage of the service. This section presents some sample metrics for IaaS and PaaS. Metrics may be simple or composite. a VM with OS pre-installed.2. application level. 4.CPU utilization % Elaboration 4-7 . a Weblogic JVM. overprovisoining ratio) that form SLA's and are wrapped up into business language (e.

Service Invocations.3. GB – DDL requirements ■ Deployed Entities – # of . overall SLA compliance. 4.Designing Cloud services ■ CPU .2. # of invocations ■ Usage Cost .Transaction Cost. packets. managed. Average/Max DB. SLA).business metrics based on the functions performed by the application ■ Usage Cost . Figure 4–5 shows the key activities in Cloud service design.2.3. and self-serviced.configured Memory GB ■ Storage Disk space GB ■ Bandwidth Mbps ■ Other Costs System Count ■ Facility Base Facility charge $$ ■ Facility Base Utility Charge $$ ■ HA multiplier Times X 4. number of dropped operations (i.1.configured CPU Count # ■ Memory Usage GB ■ Memory . etc.e.1. transactions.ear. average time it took to close security findings or recovery from an outage. etc.based on business functions of the application Additional operational metrics common across the service models include service availability (vs.2 Designing Cloud services Cloud service design should include detailed static and dynamic behavior models that show how the services are provisioned. Data transfer characteristics – DML Statements. # of transactions 4.). DB Connections. 4-8 Building Cloud Services . pool Size. number of open security findings.2 PaaS Metrics ■ DB Usage – DML Operations. Exposed Services ■ Service Consumption . # of services – Number of Deployed Apps.3 SaaS Metrics ■ Number of users ■ Service Consumption .

■ Multi-tenancy is another key consideration. velocity. APIs and service integration components are designed next. for example. Lease need to be developed.1 Design Choices Cloud service design needs to consider several design choices and some of them are listed below. assembly templates are instantiated to create deployable entities. test cases and test scripts are also created during the Elaboration phase. table level. These service specific workflows are to be designed as well. In the case of Infrastructure or Platform services.Is security infrastructure shared across multiple consumers and multiple service types (e. SaaS templates for service instantiation may not involve deployable entities. Some Cloud services need workflows that are specific to those services. SaaS and PaaS)? How will the security identity domains be designed? Will the internal operators and administrators get their own identity domain? ■ How is the service going to be packaged and deployed? Can the packaging approach support the scale. what will be procured and what will be custom developed? Guiding principles around Buy vs. ■ Service model choices may change during the design process. How does the design support multiple consumers? For example. and elasticity requirements of the Cloud? Elaboration 4-9 . In a Test Driven Development (TDD) environment. service templates are created from reference configurations. ■ If IT is going to build the service. detailed design may identify the need for additional cloud services that were not previously anticipated. 4.2. Designing Cloud services Figure 4–5 Cloud Service Design For all Cloud services. This could be as little as configuration data in a database. In such a case it may be necessary to reconsider and application development in favor of a SaaS from an external provider. schema level. how is multi-tenancy handled? Is data isolation handled at the database level.g. or row level? ■ Security considerations . For example. but may simply identify the elements needed to describe the consumer’s configuration. in the case of a DBaaS. Build vs.

the number of business transactions performed. 4. flow diagrams> Elasticity Design Design that supports scale up and scale down of resources Security Design Security design aspects Metrics Collection Design of how metrics are collected Access Design Design details on how the service will be accessed Isolation design Design details on isolation strategy .How do we ensure that the service is highly available? How is redundancy handled? How are load distribution and failover accomplished? ■ Elasticity .Scale and velocity are two of the key design considerations for Cloud. CPU.g state change> Dynamic Behavior <dynamic behavior diagrams .g.Designing Cloud services ■ Scalability . process level etc Multi-tenancy Supporting multiple tenants/consumers at various design levels of architecture. a private Cloud might be located in a building owned by a hosting company providing services that are managed by someone else. how the requests from different tenants are routed. and how the critical components of architecture are isolated. 4-10 Building Cloud Services .e. ■ In the case of SaaS. How is the service going to be scaled over long term? What are the capacity requirements? What is the strategy for long term scaling? ■ High Availability . Service usage metrics might include.How will the service metrics be collected and pushed to the Cloud management and monitoring framework? Application service consumption by the consumer is measured and reported in terms of usage of the service (rather than consumption of underlying infrastructure metrics such as I/O.). how security infrastructure is shared. Cloud Service Name <name of the Cloud service> Design Overview <high level overview of the design> Static behavior <static diagrams of the service . How is this SaaS process/application interoperate with other enterprise applications? How is the data going to be shared (considering security and data transformation) and how would this process integrate with the other in-house business processes? ■ The location of the equipment can be different from the location of its owner which in turn may be different from who manages it.data level. for example. container level.Does the service design satisfy the self service requirements? How does it interact with the management infrastructure? ■ Metering and monitoring . storage.2 Service Design Template This template captures the key elements of the Cloud service design. an important consideration would be integration (both business process and data).How is the service going to scale up and scale down as the workload requirements change? Does the infrastructure support automatic scale up and down? Does the service design support the elasticity requirements? ■ Self Service . UML activity diagrams. the number of employees managed in a HR system. etc. This should cover design issues such as how tenant data will be organized.e. application level. the number of users using the service. etc.2. For example.

etc.2. From the user's perspective. HA design High availability and redundancy design. Programatic Control Design for programatic control rather than traditional human operations. particularly SaaS. Integration design Service integration design details including ecosystem integration points like DNS. should be configurable Configuration via documents external to the code. SAT lists the components of the deployable entity and how they are packaged. and concurrency. 4. Scaling design How the services will be scaled. DHCP. Users can create cloud resources by specifying a Service Template in a deployment request. Designing Cloud services Provisioning design How the services will be provisioned and managed. monitoring. Elaboration 4-11 . consistency. Transaction Control SaaS in particular must specify its needs for transaction management.3 Service Assembly Template A Service Assembly Template (SAT) is a collection of interrelated software components that are automatically configured to work together upon deployment. a SAT represents the definition of a deployable entity. The cloud provider instantiates the resources and their configurations as specified in the SAT. Declarative Cloud services. They are deployed onto a pool of hardware resources with minimal user input.

Designing Cloud services 4-12 Building Cloud Services .

5 Construction 5 Figure 5–1 shows the high level activities in the Construction phase of Cloud service development method. Construction 5-1 . These activities are Cloud service implementation. Packaging and assembly.1 Cloud Service Implementation Figure 5–2 shows the key activities in Cloud service implementation. Figure 5–1 Construction Phase Activities Each of the activities in service construction is elaborated in the following sections. and Cloud service testing. 5.

Create security entities.2 Packaging and Assembly Figure 5–3 shows the activities in the Packaging and Assembly step. For example. This step verifies that the necessary hardware and software resources are installed and configured. ■ Verify the network components and configure them if necessary. ■ Configure security infrastructure and create security identity domains.Packaging and Assembly Figure 5–2 Cloud Service Implementation ■ Hardware and software installations are usually covered as part of the infrastructure setup. ■ Provisioning infrastructure is installed and configured. but as in the case of business functional requirements gathering. ■ Build integration and functional components. they are installed and the necessary resources and resource pools are created. If not. SaaS services invariably require coding of business functional requirements. the Cloud environment should not change activities. the load balancers may need to be configured to route the consumer traffic to the respective service instances. ■ Build provisioning workflow components that are specific to the service. In the case of SaaS the coding of application functionality is also required. 5-2 Building Cloud Services . If the hardware and software are already in place the necessary resources may be instantiated from existing resource pools. Traditional software engineering strategies still apply and are therefore not elaborated here. 5. Most services require integration to databases or other services. Provisioning infrastructure is necessary for deploying the service when consumers subscribe to the service.

The assembly template is a collection of interrelated software components that are automatically configured to work together upon deployment. Firewalls. etc. A deployable entity is typically a set of virtual machine templates along with a set of metadata describing the interrelationships between these templates as well as surrounding IT artifacts such as volumes. in which the service instance of a subscriber is created by deploying a set of deployable entities that embodies the topology needed. 5.2. Deployable entities must provide a set of capabilities in order to be useful in a production environment. including: ■ Allow for the composition of components as well as external systems ■ Externalize configuration in the form of metadata that can easily be customized ■ Optionally define the start order of components to reflect interdependencies ■ Provide a management domain which integrates into existing management infrastructure allowing for metadata definition.1 Defining Deployable Entities The primary goal of the deployment infrastructure is to completely automate the actions required to deploy the functional components needed for a new service instance. Each deployable entity describes the complete topology for a service so that a new instance of the service can be brought into being by assembling the deployable entity for that service. The deployment Infrastructure relies on a set of pooled IT resources such as a pool of hardware incorporated into a virtual machine pool and a Network Attached Storage (NAS) for shared storage. Virtual IP addresses (VIPs). Each service in the Cloud will require a set of deployment entities that will be used to create each type of instance needed to provide the service. Assemblies (logically called as deployable entities) are deployed onto a pool of hardware resources with minimal user input. ■ The Cloud service catalog is updated with the information about the new Cloud service. deployment. Packaging and Assembly Figure 5–3 Packaging and Assembly ■ Assembly templates are created from a reference configuration. Load Balancers (LBRs). In order to achieve this automation a virtualization solution is typically used. oversight and diagnostics Construction 5-3 . ■ The Cloud service is deployed in the test environment for testing.

test and production environments ■ Replicated environments facilitate high-level standardization and consistency across application infrastructures. Tools that enable introspection of a running system in order to capture a metadata description of a known good configuration are especially valuable in making the process of defining deployable entities simple and reliable. ■ Test the service usage with test workloads that are similar to the anticipated consumer workloads. These include: ■ Ability to easily replicate deployable entities in production. This is not to be confused with Cloud Testing. ■ Test service scalability.Cloud Service Testing The notion of being able to create pre-built templates for deployment is extremely powerful and has a number of advantages that drive down operational costs and complexity. The focus of Cloud service testing is to test the concerns specific to Cloud enablement. Provisioning process orchestrates several resources behind the scenes and the test cases should cover validation of each of the resources provisioned. Figure 5–4 Cloud Service Testing Following list captures some of the key tasks involved in Cloud service testing. 5-4 Building Cloud Services . elasticity. which refers to the use of Cloud services for software testing. 5. even allowing for variations of the them without adding complexity ■ Reduced risk of configuration errors as deployable entities are moved between development. Specifically what is needed is tooling that allows for the composition of components as well as endpoint mapping of externalized systems and other larger non-virtual systems such as databases and identity management servers. The goal of this step is to test the platform and infrastructure Cloud services. ■ Test the provisioning of Cloud services beginning from discovering the service in the service catalog. and deployment of the service. a simple means of composing deployable entities of the components is required. ■ Accelerated deployment of new infrastructures and applications In order to realize these benefits.3 Cloud Service Testing Cloud service testing process is illustrated in Figure 5–4. allowing for simple implementation of best practices. and fault tolerance to ensure that the service level agreements can be met. ordering.

Once again. such as System Integration Testing (SIT). Test all the self-service management capabilities made available to the consumers. This includes both operational monitoring and self-service monitoring. The cloud will be evolving especially since initially it may not have all the cloud capabilities because it may take time to set up. This is a key concern for most consumers and testing these capabilities and publishing the results will provide the necessary assurance to the consumers. etc. ■ Test service termination and cleanup with particular focus on what happens to the consumer data after service termination. Construction 5-5 . ■ Test monitoring and management of the Cloud service. these activities have been omitted from the diagram because they are unchanged by the Cloud environment. Cloud Service Testing ■ Test multi-tenancy and security of services. SaaS development will also be accompanied by a list of traditional software engineering activities related to the application functional testing (business logic). User Acceptance Testing (UAT). ■ Regression test the pieces as new services or capabilities are introduced to the cloud.

Cloud Service Testing 5-6 Building Cloud Services .

Figure 6–2 shows the User Acceptance Test (UAT) activities. and usually implies structured testing designed to poke at all features in a service and test data is "throw-away".1 User Acceptance Testing The concept of UAT is another transformation triggered by Cloud. This testing phase usually comes after functional testing / regression testing. UAT typically suggests a closed cycle with control over access. These high level activities are shown in Figure 6–1. although not a "key" transformation. UAT is still suitable for a private Cloud service. but public Cloud services frequently rely on an open-beta testing phase. Transition 6-1 . 6 Transition 6 The transition activities are a) User Acceptance Testing and b) Cloud Service Deployment. and before revenue release. Figure 6–1 Transition Phase Activities 6. It's also a means to determine viability and works best for those applications where the consumer has a choice to not use the application (this is the "ROI Runway" criteria in CCST).

2 Cloud Service Deployment Cloud service is deployed to production next. elasticity. more generally. 6-2 Building Cloud Services . in the traditional sense. 6. The following issues must be considered with respect to this kind of trial or open-beta testing. The user might want to test data recovery after termination. is applicable more to the enterprise than a Commercial Cloud Service Provider (CCSP). ■ Test service scalability. A CCSP may allow a trial period during which the consumer may try the services and provide feedback. ■ Test service multi-tenancy and security. ■ What part of the lifecycle precedes and follows this testing? ■ What happens to the data? Is it retained and rolled forward to the next phase in the lifecycle. or thrown away? Or. Enterprise UAT steps are similar to Testing steps in the construction phase but are performed by the users of the service. ■ Test monitoring and management of the Cloud service ■ Test service termination and cleanup from the user's perspective.Cloud Service Deployment Figure 6–2 User Acceptance Testing UAT. and fault tolerance. or passive and informal? Cloud application builders may test the service to ensure that the applications they build will run on the Cloud service. are there any service level objectives. ■ Test service consumption by provisioning the service and testing its functionality. and if so. what are they? ■ What is the feedback mechanism? Is it active and formal. ■ Test the provisioning of services beginning from discovering the service in the service catalog and ordering the service. The activities involved in this deployment are shown in Figure 6–3.

during Transition an IT Alignment is conducted and the transition plan is implemented. This requires defining appropriate taxonomy for the services. The service catalog is integrated with the order management system to ensure that the latest service information is displayed to the subscribers. ■ Perform a final testing of the Cloud service in the production environment. ■ Configure the service catalog and publish the service. ■ Deploying the Cloud service is different from provisioning the Cloud service. minor revisions or changes to the software system may cause updates to any or all of the documentation work products. change and communication events targeted to specific audiences with the goal of mitigating identified risks and challenges are conducted. ■ Production go-live event to make the Cloud service available to the consumers. One of the first steps is to deploy the deployable entities to production environment and to ensure that all the infrastructure and process components of the service are in place. Cloud Service Deployment Figure 6–3 Cloud Service Deployment The deployment activities are listed below. which is really instantiating the Cloud service for the use of the consumers. If the platform services require software infrastructure to build and manage the workloads. Deployment deals with preparing the Cloud service for provisioning. ■ During the Transition phase. that infrastructure needs to be deployed as well. Transition 6-3 . In addition. ■ Continue to conduct user learning events to ensure that the operations and support staff are trained to perform their duties. ■ Ongoing throughout the project.

Cloud Service Deployment 6-4 Building Cloud Services .

Performance metrics should be regularly collected and reviewed for all components. Operate focus area has a phase called "Operations. change and communication events targeted to specific audiences with the goal of mitigating identified risks and challenges are conducted. Although the basic strategy may be in place. you conduct an effectiveness assessment to capture the efficiency of the work done during the project and highlight the change management work to continue after the Go Live to enable a shorter transition.OA&M Phase Activities Production Performance Management is an extension of Performance Management techniques and approaches identified and implemented prior to production implementation. In addition. variations in both requirements and performance are likely to be encountered. 7 Operate 7 Operation is an important aspect of Cloud Computing. For that reason. Since the services are shared across multiple consumers. as well as the IT Transition Plan prepared during Transition is implemented. and Management (OA&M)". Operate 7-1 . Proactive evaluation of variations to the baseline will help to identify potential performance issues before the user community notices the impact. Administration. Figure 7–1 shows the key activities in this phase. Ongoing throughout the project. during Production. Figure 7–1 Operate . the providers must develop policies around when the services can be upgraded and how the changes will be communicated to the consumers. Operate is a separate focus area in our method. Service management activities such as upgrades and patching are done by updating the deployment entities and redeploying them as opposed to patching the running instances.

Cloud service retirement should be well planned and the subscribers must be provided with sufficient notice to migrate to the newer versions if applicable. Any violations to the SLA must be automatically detected and escalated.1 Operations Best Practices Following list captures some of the Cloud operations best practices. Data and other assets must be backed up periodically and recovered when necessary. The principle of charge-back or at least show-back is a powerful transformational lever in the deployment of a cloud when the aim is cost reduction. market shift.Applying patches is not done the traditional way with Cloud. Additional capacity may be required to support the spikes in load. Cloud services may be retired for a variety of reasons such as technology obsolescence. Automated Provisioning . Diagnostics and troubleshooting also happens at multiple levels. it is diagnosed by the Cloud provider operations team or support analyst groups. 7. changes in business priorities.Capacity must be proactively managed by taking into account the current and future demand for services. hence can diagnose any issues related to the payload. Metrics are constantly collected and passed on to the respective systems for analytics or billing purposes. Any upgrades or patches are applied to the service template (deployable unit) and the service is redeployed. In a multi-tenant subscriber environment. The consumers monitor the service they deploy using the self-service management capabilities. Self healing . Backup and recovery capabilities are essential for any Cloud. Older versions of Cloud services are typically retired to make way to new versions of services.common issues must be automatically detected and systematically fixed using knowledge management techniques. Consumers have access to the self-service logs. 7-2 Building Cloud Services . The provider is responsible for monitoring the platform components on which the service is running. and migrations.Consumers must be provided with a self-service administration interface to manage their services. Self Service Administration .Provisioning must be automated through self-service capabilities Patch Management . "Operating a Cloud". The cloud will constrain consumers because they have to share these resources with other stakeholders and cost is an important driver to move them from dedicated kit and applications to a shared platform. Capacity management . If the issue is in the underlying infrastructure. Cloud Operations is covered in detail in the ITSO document. The underlying Cloud infrastructure must provide ways of collecting and conveying the service specific metrics.Operations Best Practices Services must be continually monitored to ensure that the SLAs are met. Cloud services may need to be retired at the end of their useful life.

In all cases. Cloud services are differentiated from traditional IT applications by the scale and velocity. Understanding both provider and consumer perspectives of the Cloud is necessary to successfully implement complex and highly-scalable Cloud infrastructures that support internal and external needs. structured approach for effective and consistent results. Building successful Cloud services requires well defined method. Most enterprises have either adopted or have plans to adopt Cloud as a strategic choice in support of their business and technology goals. This process can be used with a variety of development methodologies including a flavours of UP and Agile methods. extensive planning. and precise execution to ensure that the services meet and support the business goals. and the level of automation required. Most Cloud implementations are going to involve some kind of a hybrid approach where enterprise private Clouds are integrated with either other private Clouds or public Clouds. primary concerns should be ensuring Cloud Computing strategies are appropriate to providing expected benefits and that service development follows a architecture-led. Summary 8-1 . 8 Summary 8 Cloud is quickly becoming a key strategy for business and IT alignment and is starting to dominate architecture roadmap discussions. Infrastructure. The Cloud service development process for Application. and Platform Cloud services defined in this document is intended to augment the existing methodologies or to serve as a starting point where no methodologies are currently being used.

8-2 Building Cloud Services .

Also included are architectural principles. and auditing (AAA). Further Reading A-1 . In particular. It offers an array of views to define infrastructure for SOA.Infrastructure plays a key role in a successful enterprise SOA environment. It presents important basic concepts of SOA that are instrumental to building applications for a SOA environment. and entitlement management. as defined by the conceptual architecture. specifying architectural characteristics and expectations of Cloud at a business and operational level. ORA SOA Infrastructure . ORA SOA Foundation . message. invocation patterns.This document is suggested pre-reading for those wishing to get a deeper background to the SOA aspect of this document. including logical and physical views. and data security required to secure the modern IT environment. composite applications. ORA Cloud Infrastructure . A AFurther Reading The IT Strategies From Oracle series contains a number of documents that offer insight and guidance on many aspects of technology. to the Oracle infrastructure and provides a number of technical architecture views. service layering. and concepts. authorization. The SOA Infrastructure document describes the role of infrastructure and the capabilities it provides. as well as technology and product mapping. service types. role.This document describes important aspects of security including identity. the service model. the following Oracle Reference Architecture (ORA) documents may be of interest: ORA Cloud Foundation .This document relates the Cloud characteristics and requirements. It covers topics including the components of a service. ORA Security . and standards that apply to SOA. and transport. authentication.This document presents a conceptual architecture for Cloud. standards.

A-2 Building Cloud Services .

Oracle Whitepaper. By Sharma. Lehman References B-1 . Oracle Cloud Resource Model API - http://www.oracle. Palmeter.opengroup. June 2011. Rex Wang.html Database Consolidation onto Private Clouds. B BReferences IT Strategies from Oracle (ITSO) http://www. By Vengurlekar et al.pdf Oracle ExaLogic Elastic Cloud . Oracle whitepaper. Oracle Whitepaper.com/partners/en/products/applications/oracle-u nified-method/get-started/index. Service Oriented Cloud Computing Infrastructure. By Piech. Billing and Revenue Management for Cloud Computing. The Open Group - http://www.com/goto/ITStrategies Oracle Unified Method (OUM) - http://www.com/technetwork/topics/cloud/oracle-cloud-reso urce-model-api-154279. et al. Oracle BRM datasheet. ITIL Best Practices with Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g and Oracle PeopleSoft Help Desk. Oracle Whitepaper.org/projects/soa-soi/ Oracle Cloud Computing.oracle.A brief introduction.oracle.

B-2 Building Cloud Services .

everything below the operating system layer). The IaaS provider manages or controls the underlying physical Cloud infrastructure (i. and other fundamental computing resources. A capital expenditure occurs when a business spends money on tangible assets. OUM is an Iterative and Incremental Development approach similar to Unified Process. Operational expenditure refers to the running costs of a business. OPEX A common business term meaning operational expenditure. Oracle Unified Method (OUM) The engineering method used by Oracle and its partners for all Oracle product implementations. Glossary-1 . CAPEX A common business term meaning capital expenditure. A SaaS provider manages or controls the underlying software and infrastructure regardless of whether it is a traditional computing environment or some other PaaS/IaaS combination. and provisions processing. Please see the ORA Master Glossary for other terms used in the various ORA documents. Iterative and Incremental Development (IID) An engineering approach that enables its practitioners to develop a system through repeated cycles (iterative) and in small portions at a time (incremental). COTS Abbreviation for "commercial. storage. Unified Process (UP) A popular Iterative and Incremental Development engineering process. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) A Cloud service model in which consumers deploy and run arbitrary software. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) A Cloud service model in which consumers use applications in a computing environment exhibiting Cloud characteristics. referring to t a commercial product as opposed to a custom built one.e. networks. off-the-shelf". Glossary The following Cloud specific terms and abbreviations are included here for easy reference.

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) A Cloud service model in which consumers use programming languages and tools supported by the provider and then control the deployed application. The PaaS provider manages or controls the underlying Cloud platform. which includes everything below the run-time execution environment. Glossary-2 .