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Lesson 4 Symbol Systems: Nonverbal

Nonverbal Symbols
 Neither spoken nor written
 Do not include words
 Include vocal elements and visual
Functions of Nonverbal Symbols
 Simply repeat the message of verbal
 Complements the verbal symbol by
clarifying or explaining
 Serve as a means of accent
 Substitute for the message
 Contradict with verbal symbols
Two Types of Nonverbal Symbols

Articulation - formation of discrete speech
*To have the correct production of sounds, we
should start with the organs of speech.
Articulators - movable organs of the vocal tract
which is involved in articulation
Example: Tongue and lower lip
Points of Articulation - parts of the vocal tract
which cannot move but which are involved in
Example: Teeth
Other parts of the vocal tract include the
Resonance Chamber - where the quality of the
vocal sound is modified
 Pharynx
o Part of the vocal tract that connects
the larynx with the oral cavity
o Acts as resonance chamber for
vocal sound produced in larynx
 Oral Cavity
 Nasal Cavity
Voice - produced by vibrations of the vocal cords
Consonants - speech sound caused by
stoppage or hindrance of the voiced or voiceless

Classifications of Consonants
1. Voicing
2. Point of Articulation
3. Manner of Articulation
Voicing - may be voiced or voiceless

Voiced – the vocal folds are set in
vibration by the outgoing breath stream.
Voiceless – the vocal folds do not vibrate,
and the resultant sound is composed
exclusively of the noise of friction.

Point of Articulation - tells where the sound
is produced
1. Bilabials – produced with the lower lip or
against the upper lip (p, b)
2. Labio-dentals – produced with the lower lip
near the upper teeth (f, v)
3. Interdentals – produced with tongue tip
between the upper and lower teeth, but
not touching them
4. Alveolars – produced with the tip of the
tongue near the alveolar ridge (t, d, n, s, z,
5. Alveo-palatals – produced with the front of
the tongue near the hard palate
6. Retroflex – produced with the tip of the
tongue going upward and backward
towards the hard palate (r)
7. Prepalatal – produced with the dorsum or
upper surface of the tongue near velum
8. Velars – produced with the back of the
tongue against the velum (k, g)
9. Glottal – produced with the narrowing of
the glottis so that the air passing through
causes friction but not sufficient vibration
to produce voice (h)
Manner of Articulation - tells how the sound
is produced
1. Stops – produced by closing and opening
the mouth with an explosion (p, b, t, d, k,
2. Nasals – produced by the explosion of the
vocalized breath stream through the nose
3. Fricatives – produced by forcing the air in
a continuous stream through a restricted
passage way (f, v, s, z, h)
4. Affricates – produced when the
articulatory mechanism combines the
movements for the stop and fricative so
rapidly that two sounds are heard as a
single unit

inanimate object or absent person of how people use space and distance for purposes of communication .loudness or softness of a voice Rate .towards. Height of the tongue 3.muscles of the tongue and neck are relaxed ORAL INTERPRETATION Paralanguage - - Refers to those extra linguistic elements such as voice quality.part of the tongue is raised at a relatively middle level d. Shape of the lips 4.coined by Edward T.back of the tongue is higher than the other parts of the tongue Height of the tongue a. Closed Focus . Lateral – produced with the tip of the tongue pressed lightly against the upper teeth (l) Voiceless Aspirated Stops / p. god. Front Vowels.directly to the defined characters Example: Dialogues. and other artifacts that have communicative potential Environmental Factors .5.Communicating through our looks and gestures . but not directly to the audience Example: Soliloquies 4. y. t. jewelry.front of the tongue is higher than the other parts of the tongue b. Articulatory muscle quality Section of the tongue a.sound of the voice Pitch .ideally towards the back-wall Example: Address to muses.neither the front nor the back of the tongue is raised c. Hall Haptics .highness or lowness of a voice Volume .part of the tongue is raised at a relatively lower-high level c. Rounded Vowels. Mid Vowels. Central Vowels. Lower-high Vowels.represent voice modified in various ways by the shape of the oral cavity shape is determined largely by the position of the lips and that of the tongue Classifications of Vowels 1. VISUAL ELEMENTS Kinesics . High Vowels.expressing a tremendous range of feeling through touching Chronemics . r) 6. asides 2. rate of speech that exist alongside the formal language structure Goes beyond words Voice Quality . Unrounded Vowels.Coined by Ray L.display of ornaments. Birdwhistell o Facial Expression o Hand Gesture o Head Movement o Posture o Facial Expression and Gesture Oculesics . glasses. Tense Vowels.both upper and lower lops are so positioned that they may form a circular or somewhat circular opening b. pitch. Semi-closed Focus . Inner-closed Focus .part of the tongue is raised at a relatively high level b. Open Focus .both upper and lower lips are not so positioned as to form a circular opening Articulatory muscle quality a.muscles of the tongue and neck are taut b.directly to the audience Example: Narration. Lax of how eyes and eye movements can communicate Proxemics . Low Vowels. volume. k /  A sound is aspirated when accompanied by a strong puff of air Vowels . Section of the tongue 2. Back fast or slowly a person talks The Use of Focus in Oral Interpretation (offstage focus) 1. Semi – vowels – produced by a smooth but marked and rapid movement of the articulators during the production of the sound (w.part of the tongue is kept low Shape of the Lips of time in communication Objectics . dramatic monologues 3.

communicating through a person’s clothing .- how physical environments reveal the characteristics of the owner of the place and affect one’s way of communication Physical Appearance .