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WELDER QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION

WHAT IS CERTIFICATION?
The term “CERTIFICATION” as it applies to welders refers to a document that states “I or We
certify that” the indicated welder or welding operator has successfully completed a practical test of
their abilities to perform a sound weld in accordance with some predetermined standard.
The term QUALIFICATION means that a welder or welding operator has met the requirements of a
given STANDARD and is qualified to perform welds to within the scope of the STANDARD.
To become certified the Welder must posses the skills necessary to produce a sound weld that is
visually acceptable and meets the testing requirements.
KEY POINT: TO GET A JOB OR KEEP A JOB WELDERS OFTEN HAVE TO MAKE A WELD TO SHOW THEY
ARE CAPABLE WELDERS

The Testing Procedure involves the welder making a weld that is then tested by an Inspector, to ensure
the weld conforms to a particular Code, Standard, or written Welding Procedure Specification.
Testing Methods include Visual inspection, and may involve either destructive or non-destructive
testing.
CODE: Rules or laws that may have legal status and are considered mandatory especially when
language like shall, Will or Must is used.
STANDARD: A document, sample or thing that describes or shows exactly what the outcome should
be.
SPECIFICATION: A detailed description of the parts or variables to be controlled.
An example of Destructive Testing is when the inspector prepares a specimen from the weld and bends
the specimen against the weld to determine if it meets the requirements of the Standard.
An example of non destructive testing is when a completed weld joint undergoes an X ray and the
inspector reads the X ray film to determine if it meets the requirements of the standard.
In a typical welding Test or Certification, the welder must weld follow a set of written instructions
contained in the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) to produce the Weld Specimen for testing.
A simple test may involve the following steps;
1 Ensure the proper safety equipment and welding supplies.
2 Set the welding parameters on the welding machine.
3 Ensure the appropriate supplies are available.
4 Obtain the appropriate supplies and metal pieces to be welded.
5 Prepare and assemble the joint to be welded.
6 Place the weld in the proper welding position.
7 Follow the indicated procedure to fill the joint with Weld.
8 Prepare or help prepare the specimens to be tested.
The Welding Inspector (Test Supervisor) will guide the preparation of the pieces, assembly, and
periodically check progress to ensure conformity to the Standard.
KEY POINT: Your weld coupons will be examined and tested to make sure they are good welds
There is no one universal test to Certify Welders to all welding conditions. Welders may have to Cerify
for each process (stick, mig, tig etc) used, and for each group of steels (mild steel, stainless, aluminum).
In addition some tests cover all positions of welding while some restrict positions.

DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES is an accredited testing facility. Delta certified Welders also receive a test report in the form of an actual certificate with all the variables listed. KEY POINT: You are only certified to do what you tested for. WHO CONDUCTS CERTIFICATION? A Certification may be given by a testing facility’s Inspector or authorized personnel or by a companies representative such as quality control personnel. WHO NEEDS TO BE CERTIFIED? Welders who wish to work for a company that requires Certification as part of their minimum requirements for employment (an increasing number of companies now require welders to demonstrate their skills and. may need to be recertified.When a welder becomes certified through a testing facility they usually receive a document called a Welder Test Report that details the welder’s qualification range. either at another company or have not welded for a period of time. or engineers as long as they are in accordance with the Code or Standards requirements for Qualified Testing personnel. . or be Certified) Welders currently working for companies that must show certification to their clients or general contractors need to be certified. KEY POINT: You may not see or receive any documentation if a company pays for testing THE AWS CERTIFIED WELDER PROGRAM The AWS (American Welding Society) has developed a program for certifying Welders to National Standards that is recognized by many Industries and allows certifications to be transferable or accepted by Companies without further testing. Welders who wish to prove their abilities or further their career goals will take a certification or additional certifications. KEY POINT: BE PROUD TO BE A WELDER PROVE YOUR ONE OF THE BEST WHAT DOES MY CERTIFICATION MEAN? Certification is very specific to a particular Code. supervisors. Standard or Welding Procedure and any changes in the variables used in welding may require re-certification. Some welders are required to take periodic tests to determine their continued competency. ask questions about your qualification. Some companies require certification to be specific to their needs and they maintain the records of certification. A database of currently Certified Welders is maintained by the AWS for verification of a welders certification status. listed as Delta Welding And Engineering on the AWS list of authorized testing Facilities. In many cases Welders that have been certified. SEE OUR LINK FOR AWS CERTIFICATION KEY POINT: YOU RECEIVE A WALLET CARD DESCRIBING YOUR CERTIFICATION AND THE CERTIFICATION BELONGS TO YOU. Personnel familiar with the governing document usually determines if the certification is valid for the work being performed. A welder may have many certifications covering a wide range of variables.

The variables used in qualification and the qualification range of the certification is listed on the following documents. Certification is specific to variables such as. joint design. Filler metal. Welding position. The document if followed removes all variables except the skill of the welder. Base metal. The document and supporting information proves that the joint can be welded and tested to meet the specific Standard or Code requirements. WHAT A CERTIFICATION IS NOT? A certification is not a license to weld anything at anytime under any circumstances. The one inch single Vee groove test with a backing bar is an AWS D1. The assumption is that the welder has the ability to reproduce results in an actual work environment. joint configuration and thickness of material. Welder Qualification Test Report WQTR The WQTR describes the results of the welding test. including what the welder is qualified to do. A certification is not a guarantee that welders will not make mistakes. It certifies that the tester has witnessed the welder demonstrate a specific skill level and produced a sound (good or acceptable) Weld. The test qualifies the welder to weld fillets or grooves of unlimited thickness in the process the welder used to weld the joint. The Welding Procedure specification WPS The WPS describes the rules. should know in general what their certification covers so they don’t mislead clients or run into difficulty on the job. The WPS is like a Blueprint or set of written instructions for the test. Certification to one code does not mean certification to all codes. PREPARATION: Under the direction of the Test Supervisor. A certification is specific to a certain code and set of variables that allow repetition of demonstrated skills. For example a welder certified in SMAW (Stick) is not certified to weld with GMAW (mig) The welder may have the skills but he has not demonstrated them in a testing environment and is not Certified.1 pre-qualified joint. Welding Procedure Qualification Report WPQR The WPQR documents the variables and tests that have been performed by a qualified individual to prove the test is valid. or how the pieces should be assembled and welded.1 SINGLE VEE GROOVE WITH BACKING WELDED IN THE VERTICAL UP 3G POSITION. welding parameters and details of the test. Certification in one Process does not extend to other welding process. The completed joint is visually inspected and specimens are destructively tested by bend testing.Welders however. This document and its variables are used to construct the WPS. get two pieces of 1x7x3 that have been beveled on one side and assemble and tack weld them in the arrangement shown: . TYPICAL TESTING PROCEDURES AWS D1. vertical direction of travel.

under the direction of the test Supervisor. two pieces 1” by 3/8” are cut from the welded test piece. PREPARING BEND TEST COUPNS As the picture shows. The acceptance criteria for bend tests in accordance with the AWS D1. . This test is often used to test welds produced with the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (STICK) Process. The backing bar and weld face reinforcement are ground flush and the pieces are bent to test the weld. The Test supervisor evaluates the bent pieces for acceptability and conformance to the requirements of the Code. The test Supervisor will ensure the proper supplies are being used and periodically inspect the welders progress.1 are as follows.The position the test is welded in determines the positions the Welder is Qualified to weld Grooves and Fillets. The test Supervisor will inspect the assembled joint for conformity to the Code and assist in placing the joint in the position for Welding. INSPECTION: The completed joint will be visually inspected according to the requirements of the Code and the bend test coupons shall be cut from the joint.   The convex surface of the bend test specimen shall be examined for surface discontinuities exceeding the following dimensions: 1/8 inch measured in any direction on the surface.

cracks.  3/8 inches . The piece is visually examined and a macroetch test is conducted on one end piece. has a fracture surface showing complete fusion to the root of the joint with no inclusion or porosity larger than 3/32 of an inch in greatest dimension. if fractured. The broken specimen shall pass if:    The specimen bends flat upon itself. To pass the visual examination prior to the break test. a fillet weld break test in all positions instead of a groove test may be the only requirement for the job. When the welder is only welding fillet welds as is often the case with the GMAW (MIG) and GTAW (TIG) processes. There shall be no porosity visible on the weld surface. or excessive undercut as defined by the Code. 1/4 inch the maximum corner crack. the weld shall present a reasonably uniform appearance and shall be free from overlap. . the welder must pass a separate break test in the vertical and the overhead positions. To perform the test. The fillet weld.the sum of the greatest dimensions of all discontinuities exceeding 1/32 inch but less than or equal to 1/8 inch. The welding position qualified works like the positions for grooves discussed earlier. The sum of the greatest dimension of all inclusions shall not exceed 3/8” of an inch in the 6 inch long specimen. FILLET WELD BREAK TEST ALL POSITION QUALIFICATION The fillet weld break test is a simpler test that qualifies the welder to weld fillets with the process used during the test. then the 1/8 inch maximum shall apply. the welder weld a T joint on one side with a restart near the center as shown. The acceptance criteria for fillet weld break tests in accordance with the AWS D1. except when that crack resulted from visible slag inclusion or other fusion type discontinuities. The piece is then broken to visually inspect for complete fusion and to ensure there are no discontinuities according to the acceptance criteria of the Code. To qualify all positions fillet welding.1 are as follows.