International Journal of Education and Research

Vol. 2 No. 8 August 2014

CORRELATES OF PERFORMANCE IN THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
OF SELECTED PUBLIC AND PRIVATE TEACHER
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

RUBEN E. FALTADO III, ED. D.
rfaltadoiii@yahoo.com.ph
College of Education, Technological Institute of the Philippines
938 Aurora Blvd. Cubao, Quezon City

Abstract
This study generally aimed to determine the correlates of performance of selected
public and private teacher education institutions in the licensure examination from 20102012 which served as basis in formulating theories and their corresponding theory
modelings.
A combination of descriptive and correlational research design was employed. The
study utilized both quantitative and qualitative approaches which were supplemented with
documentary analysis and semi-structured interview. Furthermore, numerical accreditation
ratings of the teacher education institutions were used, however, there were some teacher
education institutions (TEIs) which have not yet applied for accreditation and some refused
to divulge their ratings, thus, status of TEIs were assessed through hard data with the aid
of the research instrument. The independent variables in the study include admission and
retention policy, curriculum and instruction, faculty competence, research and extension,
physical plant and facilities, administration, and school culture.
The results of the study divulged that type of school is not a factor in passing the
Licensure Examination for Teachers. Admission and retention policy, curriculum and
instruction and faculty competence are significantly correlated with the teacher education
program performance in the licensure examination.Two theories were formulated based on
the results of this study and were represented through models for clarity and better
understanding.
Keywords: Licensure Examination for Teachers, Teacher Education Institutions, Theory
Modeling
Introduction
The preparation of future teachers for both elementary and secondary educational
sectors becomes the very important function assigned to pre-service educators of TEI’s.
Indeed, the teachers are accountable in providing quality instruction and to ensure that the
right and quality education is inculcated to the learners. The teachers’ crucial roles in
molding and producing competent graduates still remain the most influential factor in
attaining excellence in education.
167

This study aimed to determine the correlates of performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) of the selected public and private teacher education institutions (TEI’s) in Manila City. its 24. curriculum and instruction. who are not only fully prepared but also committed to do their tasks. What is the status of the teacher education institutions with respect to admission and retention policy. faculty competence. the need to assure the supply of teachers who could live up to the expectations and trust of society. The Philippines prohibits any individual from practicing or offering to service the teaching profession without having previously obtained a certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) to ensure that the student teachers become competent teachers (www. For the past three years since 2010 which is composed of six (6) LET administrations (April 2010-September 2012).71%. Which among the aforementioned aspects. This statement is supported by the dismal performance of the takers of the licensure examination for teachers. Specifically. These are clear indications that teacher education institutions are not producing equipped teachers.com In this regard. Is there a significant difference between the status of the selected public and private teacher education institutions with respect to the aforementioned aspects and in the performance in LET? 4. predict the teacher education program performance of the selected public and private teacher education institutions? 6. teachers whose competencies are at par with the national standards as confirmed by the results of the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). the average national passing percentage is only 28. singly or in combination. administration. he mentioned that the present educational system is confronted with teachers or teacher applicants who are graduates of courses from certain colleges or universities but do not seem to have equipped themselves with the necessary skills in communication and teaching competencies.com/teacherlicensureexam). In the study conducted by Castro (2006). in 2011. it sought answers to the following questions: 1. What theory could be formulated based on the analysis made utilizing the status of the selected public and private teacher education institutions and the LET results for the past three years? 168 . How do the deans and faculty respondents assess their teacher education institution with respect to the abovementioned variables? 3. This is the ultimate reason why the commission conducts the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to regulate the profession and to provide license to deserving individuals who passed the LET (http:// www.pinoytest.01%. In the 2012 LET.pinoytest.04%. Quezon City and Rizal province for the past three years which served as basis in formulating theory modeling.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. research and extension. and school culture? 2. How do the selected public and private teacher education institutions cluster with respect to the abovementioned status variables and in terms of the LET results for the past three years? 5. physical plant and facilities. there is a realization that these efforts often fall short of attaining the expected results. More so. the national passing percentage is 41.com).ijern. in 2010 its 21. Many schools have developed and implemented elaborate school improvement plans however.08%.

International Journal of Education and Research Vol. The study relates the performance of the teacher education institutions with the analysis of the aforementioned areas. This research also conducted an intensive and in-depth analysis of the policies on admission and retention. and after the in-depth analysis and interview. administrative support on the various activities and undertakings of the college and on how the school culture affects the teaching-learning process. the curriculum and delivery modes of instruction. Procedure of the Study To determine the level of the selected teacher education institutions. the strategies in physical plant and facilities upgrading. This study followed the exploratory approach that combined theoretical study office and review of the literature in the field of research. Upon retrieval of questionnaires. the researcher acted the role of an accreditor and assessed the TEIs based on the documents and hard data presented. computed. The study extensively looked on how research outputs were utilized to improve instruction. More so. analyzed. data were tallied. the researcher requested for the accreditation numerical rating of the TEIs for the areas included in this study. For the institutions with no accreditation yet or refused to give their numerical ratings. the researcher conducted a semi-structured interview with the deans/heads and key teachers of the selected teacher-education to solicit qualitative data that supported and enhanced the discussion and interpretation of findings in this study. 169 . Furthermore. and Rizal Province in the point of view of deans and faculty members. 8 August 2014 Research Design The researcher obtained quantitative data by employing descriptive approach through field survey in the form of researcher-made questionnaire checklist which aimed to appraise the status of teacher-education institutions in Manila City. and interpreted. and faculty academic preparation or vertical articulation. qualitative data were obtained through in-depth analysis and semi-structured interview (triangulation) with the deans and key teachers of selected teacher-education institutions. in addition to the method of field survey. Quezon City. Documentary analysis was employed to determine the performance in the licensure examination for teachers of the selected teacher education institutions for the past three years. Statistical investigation using descriptive statistics. 2 No. cluster analysis and regression analysis were conducted to address the different problems of the study.

5 3. and administration as Highly Evident.9 3. it was assessed that teacher education institutions possess Positive Culture. curriculum and instruction. with respect to faculty competence.6 3. it was assessed that teacher education institutions possess Positive Culture. curriculum and instruction. it was rated as Very Good. it was assessed that the faculty members are Highly Competent. with respect to school culture.3 3. with respect to school culture. and administration as Highly Evident. research and extension.ijern.1 4 3.3 Private Public Overall 170 .9 3.2 3. Graph 2 Composite Graph on the Status of Teacher Education Institutions As Assessed by the Deans and Faculty Members 4.1 Public Private Overall The status of teacher education institutions with respect to their provisions in admission and retention policy.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www.5 3. with respect to physical plant and facilities. it was assessed as Very Good.8 3. research and extension.7 3.7 3.8 3. with respect to physical plant and facilities. It can be noted on graph 2 that the respondents assessed the status of teacher education institutions with respect to their provisions in admission and retention policy. it was assessed that the faculty members are Highly Competent. with respect to faculty competence.6 3.4 3.com Results and Discussions Graph 1 Composite Graph on the Status of Teacher Education Institutions 4.4 3.1 4 3.

82 37. with regard to the physical plant and facilities.957 Accept Not Significant .50 18. This is in concomitant with the study of Cynthia and Megan (2008) who confirmed a strong positive relationship between quality and school facilities and student achievement. Table 1 Significant Difference Between the Status of the Selected Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions with Respect to the Independent Variables Group Mean Sd T Df Sig HO Private 3.379 199 .656 196. However.99 43.055 10 .International Journal of Education and Research Vol.93 53.942 .95 0.932 Accept Public 4.80 .590 Accept Not Significant .270 190. public and private teacher education institutions do not differ significantly with respect to admission and retention policy.528 .001 Reject Public 3.05 0.98 0.82 24.82 t Df Sig HO VI . 2 No. Moreover.30 23.339 199 .75 Private 3.00 38. Ibanez (2008) opined that the strength of the curriculum does not only depend on the relevant content of the course and the qualifications of faculty but also in the quality and adequacy of its facilities and equipment. and school culture.75 and Private 3.958 Accept Not Significant .89 .702 .91 0.054 10 .99 0.43 26.72 57.556 10 .085 201 .83 0. administration.46 20.95 0.67 Private 4. research and extension.93 51. 8 August 2014 It can be seen in the table.099 Accept Public 3.03 0.56 0.90 0.79 and Private 3.841 10 .71 0. faculty competence. the table displays that there is a significant difference between public and private teacher education institutions.43 26.74 Private 3.98 24.324 189. curriculum and instruction.171 10 .436 .42 39.71 .84 1.92 Sd 31.92 1.746 Accept Public 3.56 0.71 Private 3.420 Accept Not Significant .94 3.45 25.917 Accept Not Significant 171 .411 188.51 31.160 Accept Public 3.06 29.69 40.705 Accept Admission and Retention Policy Curriculum and Instruction Faculty Competence Research Extension Physical Plant Facilities Administration School Culture VI Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Significant Not Significant Not Significant Table 2 Significant Difference Between the LET Performance of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions for the Past Three Years Type Private Public SEPT2010 Private Public APR2011 Private Public SEPT2011 Private Public MAR2012 Private Public SEPT2012 Private APR2010 Mean 29.16 27.82 .735 Accept Public 4.09 40.107 10 .01 0.868 Accept Not Significant .

28 4.75 Faculty Competence 3.665 6.ijern.92 .68 4.48 25. the TEI’s were grouped into three clusters.35 4.87 4.60 School Culture 3.208 3.79 With respect to the administration of the Licensure Examination for Teachers from April 2010 to September 2012.53 4. This finding is in agreement with the study conducted by Catura (2007) when she revealed that there is no significant difference between passers and non-passers in LET in terms of type of school where they graduated from.665 4.42 20.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) Overall www.13 3.45 3.72 With respect to the abovementioned variables.40 Physical Plant and Facilities 3.35 3.40 Administration 3.60 Research and Extension 3.79 44.995 Accept Not Significant Public 43. Cluster 3 which is composed of X11 and X3 has the highest status in all the aforementioned aspects and in the LET performance followed by Cluster 2 which is made 172 .32 Private 43.629 8.149 12.38 20.com Public 56.972 3.678 3.167 4. there is no significant difference between the LET performance of public and private teacher education institutions for the past yhree years.65 4.665 6.43 83.25 3.00 4.25 3.174 3.488 3.007 10 .756 Table 3b Final Clustering of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions as to the Status and Performance in LET Variables Cluster 1 2 3 Admission and Retention Policy 3.80 4. Table 3a Cluster Analysis of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions as to the Status and Performance in LET Case Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 School Type Public Public Public Public Public Public Private Private Private Private Private Private TEI X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11 X12 Cluster 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 Distance .40 LET Performance 21.23 3.60 Curriculum and Instruction 3.

when they emphasized that LET performance of the graduates is affected curriculum factor. TEIs must improve its status holistically.774 15. and that that performance in the licensure examination was related to teaching performance. the higher the grade point average (GPA). the higher status of the TEIs in terms of the aspects included. From this finding. 001 -4.000 77.879 .582 2. (2011). 2 No.385 4.196 2.899 18.024 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction Admission and Retention Faculty Competence -130.003 -49. The lowest among the three clusters in all aspects and in LET performance is Cluster 1 which is composed of X1. and faculty competence are significantly correlated with the LET performance. therefore. -3. More so.182 4.044 4. it can be said that in order to obtain a high passing percentage in LET.585 -2.131 . It can be inferred from the table.687 . X6. X4.814 20. The findings is supported by the study of Pascua and Belen (2011) when they found out that degree of course is associated with LET performance.721 . curriculum and instruction.094 6. the better is the performance in the licensure examination for teachers.945 -6.439 32.International Journal of Education and Research Vol. the higher the expected LET performance.888 22.001 B -80.749 25. X7.858 2. X8.095 . and X12. 173 .127 -1.842 It can be gleaned from the table.361 -1.003 -55.516 9.010 . X5.370 .940 .006 21. 8 August 2014 up of X2.045 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction . and X10. it can be concluded that these aspects can predict the performance of teacher education institutions in the licensure examination. admission and retention policy.769 -3.246 .497 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction Admission and Retention -124.936 Std Error 25.078 . it is fortified by the study of Espino et al.958 18. Table 4 Regression Analysis on the Teacher Education Program Performance of the Selected Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Beta T Sig.570 90.

The Holistic TEI theory states that in order for a teacher education institution to perform better in the licensure examination.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. It states that the performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers is predicted by three aspects.com Based from the findings of this research. 2013 ) 174 . administration and school culture. Meaning to say. 2013) The second theory is the Three-Tiered Theory on LET Performance Enhancement. it must have a holistic package. curriculum and instruction. research and extension.ijern. the admission and retention policy. two theories are hereby formulated: the Holistic TEI Theory and the Three-Tiered Theory on LET Performance Enhancement with their corresponding theory modelings. curriculum and instruction and faculty competence. physical plant and facilities. Holistic TEI Theory Model (Faltado. teacher education institutions must improve and further enhance its status with respect to admission and retention policy. Three-Tiered Model on LET Performance Enhancement (Faltado. faculty competence.

Type of school is not a factor in passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers. school culture. research and extension. pre-board exams and mock examinations. the following conclusions were formulated: 1. Refresher courses must be integrated in special topics which will be handled through team teaching. 3. improving and finding ways and means on how physical plant and facilities will be at par with the national standards. 3. 175 . TEIs must also maintain a serious retention policy on who can stay in the program. the following recommendations are hereby suggested: 1. 4.International Journal of Education and Research Vol. vision and philosophy of their respective schools which may be done by integrating additional subjects 4. Activities related to the licensure examination for teachers may be institutionalized like the conduct of qualifying exams. Teacher education institutions may have rigorous selection and hiring process to come up with a competent teaching force. they significantly differ with respect to physical plant and facilities with the private TEIs having an advantage. 5. Public teacher education institutions may make systematic provisions on physical plant facilities maintenance and upgrading. A parallel study may be conducted to revalidate the findings of the present study. 2. result of admission test or aptitude test and interview. There public and private teacher education institutions are just comparable in terms of admission and retention policy. administration. They should also observe the vertical alignment of the degrees obtained by the faculty members and assign teaching loads within their field of expertise only. Recommendations Based on the results of this study and the conclusions formulated. Other researches may also be performed which will include variables not employed in this study like the age of school. TEIs with greater mean status and higher LET performance cluster together and TEIs with lower mean status and lower LET performance cluster together. A separate department may be created and sustained whose responsibility is mainly on maintaining. There must be strict measures on who can enter the teacher education program based on the general average in high school. TEIs may make it sure that they have a curriculum which is constructively aligned with the framework set not only by the CHED but also by the PRC. They must also enrich their curriculum relevant to the needs of the community anchored on the mission. However. Teacher education institution may have a system for selective admission and retention of students. faculty competence. Admission and retention policy. 2 No. 6. curriculum and instruction. 2. 8 August 2014 Conclusions Based on the findings of this study. accreditation level and the non-cognitive factors of the LET takers. curriculum and instruction and faculty competence are the predictors of teacher education program performance in the licensure examination.

teachers enhancement program (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. (2011). 6. Belen. R. B. G. 1(1). Naga Campus: An evaluation. 14-20. U and T. Ruben E. http://www. LET review program of the Camarines Sur Polytechnic College. 20-27. his Master’s Degree in Education from University of the Philippines-Diliman and his Doctorate Degree in Education (with Academic Excellence Distinction) from URS . V. (2011). Ibañez.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. In current capacity. and J. The walls speak: The interplay of quality facilities. Journal of Educational Administration. Cynthia. BPSU Research Journal. and G. Megan (2008). (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. 46(1). (2007). M. Roman. Faltado III obtained his Bachelor’s Degree in Secondary Education major in General Science (Magna Cum Laude) from University of Rizal System (URS). and work performance of BSED Graduates: An analysis. licensure examination for teachers results from 2004-2008. school climate and student achievement.pinoytest.. A. he is an associate professor in the College of Education of Technological Institute of the Philippines. Pascua. R. A. L. Vol. Magno. S. Determinants of performance of public elementary schools in the Division of Rizal. University of Rizal System. Castro.com References Catura.com/teacherlicensureexam Researcher’s Bio-sketch Dr. M. University of Rizal System 2008). 3(7). 176 . Espino. 5573. Academic performance. J. N. Determinants of the performance of the student teachers in selected state universities and colleges: Input to student.ijern. Determinants of LET performance of the teacher education graduates in a state university. 2006). Research and Extension Journal. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Journal. C.