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International Journal of Education and Research

Vol. 2 No. 8 August 2014

CORRELATES OF PERFORMANCE IN THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
OF SELECTED PUBLIC AND PRIVATE TEACHER
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

RUBEN E. FALTADO III, ED. D.
rfaltadoiii@yahoo.com.ph
College of Education, Technological Institute of the Philippines
938 Aurora Blvd. Cubao, Quezon City

Abstract
This study generally aimed to determine the correlates of performance of selected
public and private teacher education institutions in the licensure examination from 20102012 which served as basis in formulating theories and their corresponding theory
modelings.
A combination of descriptive and correlational research design was employed. The
study utilized both quantitative and qualitative approaches which were supplemented with
documentary analysis and semi-structured interview. Furthermore, numerical accreditation
ratings of the teacher education institutions were used, however, there were some teacher
education institutions (TEIs) which have not yet applied for accreditation and some refused
to divulge their ratings, thus, status of TEIs were assessed through hard data with the aid
of the research instrument. The independent variables in the study include admission and
retention policy, curriculum and instruction, faculty competence, research and extension,
physical plant and facilities, administration, and school culture.
The results of the study divulged that type of school is not a factor in passing the
Licensure Examination for Teachers. Admission and retention policy, curriculum and
instruction and faculty competence are significantly correlated with the teacher education
program performance in the licensure examination.Two theories were formulated based on
the results of this study and were represented through models for clarity and better
understanding.
Keywords: Licensure Examination for Teachers, Teacher Education Institutions, Theory
Modeling
Introduction
The preparation of future teachers for both elementary and secondary educational
sectors becomes the very important function assigned to pre-service educators of TEI’s.
Indeed, the teachers are accountable in providing quality instruction and to ensure that the
right and quality education is inculcated to the learners. The teachers’ crucial roles in
molding and producing competent graduates still remain the most influential factor in
attaining excellence in education.
167

This study aimed to determine the correlates of performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) of the selected public and private teacher education institutions (TEI’s) in Manila City. More so. This statement is supported by the dismal performance of the takers of the licensure examination for teachers.ijern. How do the deans and faculty respondents assess their teacher education institution with respect to the abovementioned variables? 3.71%.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. Which among the aforementioned aspects. How do the selected public and private teacher education institutions cluster with respect to the abovementioned status variables and in terms of the LET results for the past three years? 5. curriculum and instruction. in 2010 its 21.04%. Many schools have developed and implemented elaborate school improvement plans however. predict the teacher education program performance of the selected public and private teacher education institutions? 6. administration. Specifically. faculty competence. the need to assure the supply of teachers who could live up to the expectations and trust of society. What theory could be formulated based on the analysis made utilizing the status of the selected public and private teacher education institutions and the LET results for the past three years? 168 . What is the status of the teacher education institutions with respect to admission and retention policy. the national passing percentage is 41. and school culture? 2.com).pinoytest.com/teacherlicensureexam). Is there a significant difference between the status of the selected public and private teacher education institutions with respect to the aforementioned aspects and in the performance in LET? 4.08%. In the 2012 LET. These are clear indications that teacher education institutions are not producing equipped teachers.01%. research and extension. the average national passing percentage is only 28. he mentioned that the present educational system is confronted with teachers or teacher applicants who are graduates of courses from certain colleges or universities but do not seem to have equipped themselves with the necessary skills in communication and teaching competencies. physical plant and facilities. Quezon City and Rizal province for the past three years which served as basis in formulating theory modeling. who are not only fully prepared but also committed to do their tasks. in 2011. there is a realization that these efforts often fall short of attaining the expected results. For the past three years since 2010 which is composed of six (6) LET administrations (April 2010-September 2012).com In this regard. it sought answers to the following questions: 1. In the study conducted by Castro (2006). its 24. The Philippines prohibits any individual from practicing or offering to service the teaching profession without having previously obtained a certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) to ensure that the student teachers become competent teachers (www. This is the ultimate reason why the commission conducts the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to regulate the profession and to provide license to deserving individuals who passed the LET (http:// www.pinoytest. singly or in combination. teachers whose competencies are at par with the national standards as confirmed by the results of the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET).

analyzed. Statistical investigation using descriptive statistics.International Journal of Education and Research Vol. and after the in-depth analysis and interview. This research also conducted an intensive and in-depth analysis of the policies on admission and retention. 169 . More so. qualitative data were obtained through in-depth analysis and semi-structured interview (triangulation) with the deans and key teachers of selected teacher-education institutions. and Rizal Province in the point of view of deans and faculty members. computed. Quezon City. the researcher requested for the accreditation numerical rating of the TEIs for the areas included in this study. The study extensively looked on how research outputs were utilized to improve instruction. the researcher acted the role of an accreditor and assessed the TEIs based on the documents and hard data presented. Upon retrieval of questionnaires. Documentary analysis was employed to determine the performance in the licensure examination for teachers of the selected teacher education institutions for the past three years. administrative support on the various activities and undertakings of the college and on how the school culture affects the teaching-learning process. 2 No. For the institutions with no accreditation yet or refused to give their numerical ratings. Furthermore. and interpreted. the strategies in physical plant and facilities upgrading. in addition to the method of field survey. This study followed the exploratory approach that combined theoretical study office and review of the literature in the field of research. cluster analysis and regression analysis were conducted to address the different problems of the study. the researcher conducted a semi-structured interview with the deans/heads and key teachers of the selected teacher-education to solicit qualitative data that supported and enhanced the discussion and interpretation of findings in this study. and faculty academic preparation or vertical articulation. the curriculum and delivery modes of instruction. 8 August 2014 Research Design The researcher obtained quantitative data by employing descriptive approach through field survey in the form of researcher-made questionnaire checklist which aimed to appraise the status of teacher-education institutions in Manila City. data were tallied. Procedure of the Study To determine the level of the selected teacher education institutions. The study relates the performance of the teacher education institutions with the analysis of the aforementioned areas.

3 Private Public Overall 170 .8 3. it was assessed that teacher education institutions possess Positive Culture.1 4 3. it was rated as Very Good.com Results and Discussions Graph 1 Composite Graph on the Status of Teacher Education Institutions 4. it was assessed that teacher education institutions possess Positive Culture.3 3. with respect to physical plant and facilities.4 3.9 3.1 4 3. with respect to physical plant and facilities.2 3.9 3. with respect to faculty competence. and administration as Highly Evident.ijern. it was assessed that the faculty members are Highly Competent.1 Public Private Overall The status of teacher education institutions with respect to their provisions in admission and retention policy.7 3.5 3.7 3. with respect to school culture. with respect to school culture.4 3. It can be noted on graph 2 that the respondents assessed the status of teacher education institutions with respect to their provisions in admission and retention policy.6 3. curriculum and instruction. it was assessed as Very Good. curriculum and instruction.5 3.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. it was assessed that the faculty members are Highly Competent.6 3.8 3. with respect to faculty competence. research and extension. Graph 2 Composite Graph on the Status of Teacher Education Institutions As Assessed by the Deans and Faculty Members 4. and administration as Highly Evident. research and extension.

107 10 . faculty competence.436 .735 Accept Public 4.160 Accept Public 3. the table displays that there is a significant difference between public and private teacher education institutions.590 Accept Not Significant .01 0. research and extension.05 0.89 .06 29.56 0.99 0.84 1.30 23. administration.055 10 .42 39. curriculum and instruction.09 40.82 .74 Private 3. Moreover.91 0.942 .420 Accept Not Significant .270 190.83 0.82 t Df Sig HO VI . Table 1 Significant Difference Between the Status of the Selected Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions with Respect to the Independent Variables Group Mean Sd T Df Sig HO Private 3.82 37.International Journal of Education and Research Vol.99 43.75 Private 3.411 188.528 . 8 August 2014 It can be seen in the table.324 189.746 Accept Public 3.03 0.71 Private 3.339 199 .71 .16 27.67 Private 4.95 0.50 18.702 .90 0.656 196.171 10 .56 0.958 Accept Not Significant .932 Accept Public 4.00 38.379 199 .93 53. public and private teacher education institutions do not differ significantly with respect to admission and retention policy.957 Accept Not Significant . Ibanez (2008) opined that the strength of the curriculum does not only depend on the relevant content of the course and the qualifications of faculty but also in the quality and adequacy of its facilities and equipment. and school culture.95 0.94 3.705 Accept Admission and Retention Policy Curriculum and Instruction Faculty Competence Research Extension Physical Plant Facilities Administration School Culture VI Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Significant Not Significant Not Significant Table 2 Significant Difference Between the LET Performance of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions for the Past Three Years Type Private Public SEPT2010 Private Public APR2011 Private Public SEPT2011 Private Public MAR2012 Private Public SEPT2012 Private APR2010 Mean 29.43 26. However. This is in concomitant with the study of Cynthia and Megan (2008) who confirmed a strong positive relationship between quality and school facilities and student achievement.82 24.46 20.72 57.45 25.98 0.69 40.51 31.98 24.054 10 .556 10 . with regard to the physical plant and facilities.93 51.841 10 .917 Accept Not Significant 171 .79 and Private 3.75 and Private 3.001 Reject Public 3.92 Sd 31.085 201 .099 Accept Public 3.92 1.71 0. 2 No.80 .868 Accept Not Significant .43 26.

53 4.80 4. Cluster 3 which is composed of X11 and X3 has the highest status in all the aforementioned aspects and in the LET performance followed by Cluster 2 which is made 172 .42 20.87 4.678 3.45 3. there is no significant difference between the LET performance of public and private teacher education institutions for the past yhree years.32 Private 43.92 .25 3.13 3.665 6.35 3.25 3.629 8.167 4.40 Administration 3.149 12. This finding is in agreement with the study conducted by Catura (2007) when she revealed that there is no significant difference between passers and non-passers in LET in terms of type of school where they graduated from.38 20.756 Table 3b Final Clustering of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions as to the Status and Performance in LET Variables Cluster 1 2 3 Admission and Retention Policy 3.972 3.35 4.72 With respect to the abovementioned variables.007 10 .665 6.995 Accept Not Significant Public 43. the TEI’s were grouped into three clusters.665 4.00 4.488 3.43 83.60 School Culture 3.48 25.79 With respect to the administration of the Licensure Examination for Teachers from April 2010 to September 2012. Table 3a Cluster Analysis of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions as to the Status and Performance in LET Case Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 School Type Public Public Public Public Public Public Private Private Private Private Private Private TEI X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11 X12 Cluster 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 Distance .40 Physical Plant and Facilities 3.68 4.75 Faculty Competence 3.28 4.com Public 56.174 3.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) Overall www.60 Curriculum and Instruction 3.23 3.208 3.79 44.40 LET Performance 21.65 4.60 Research and Extension 3.ijern.

therefore.585 -2.078 .000 77. The lowest among the three clusters in all aspects and in LET performance is Cluster 1 which is composed of X1.095 .131 . the higher status of the TEIs in terms of the aspects included.814 20. X4. the higher the grade point average (GPA).006 21.003 -55.945 -6.385 4. From this finding. and X10.044 4. X7. the better is the performance in the licensure examination for teachers.940 .196 2.842 It can be gleaned from the table.769 -3. admission and retention policy.182 4. The findings is supported by the study of Pascua and Belen (2011) when they found out that degree of course is associated with LET performance. it is fortified by the study of Espino et al.879 .516 9.024 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction Admission and Retention Faculty Competence -130. 173 .749 25.858 2. and X12.001 B -80.246 .International Journal of Education and Research Vol.370 . the higher the expected LET performance. (2011). it can be said that in order to obtain a high passing percentage in LET.003 -49.497 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction Admission and Retention -124. 001 -4.582 2.570 90.010 .127 -1.888 22.094 6. it can be concluded that these aspects can predict the performance of teacher education institutions in the licensure examination.721 .774 15. Table 4 Regression Analysis on the Teacher Education Program Performance of the Selected Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Beta T Sig. X6.958 18. TEIs must improve its status holistically.361 -1.899 18. X8. when they emphasized that LET performance of the graduates is affected curriculum factor.045 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction . and faculty competence are significantly correlated with the LET performance. 8 August 2014 up of X2.936 Std Error 25. and that that performance in the licensure examination was related to teaching performance. It can be inferred from the table. 2 No.439 32. X5. -3. curriculum and instruction.687 . More so.

two theories are hereby formulated: the Holistic TEI Theory and the Three-Tiered Theory on LET Performance Enhancement with their corresponding theory modelings. 2013) The second theory is the Three-Tiered Theory on LET Performance Enhancement. curriculum and instruction. administration and school culture. The Holistic TEI theory states that in order for a teacher education institution to perform better in the licensure examination.ijern. physical plant and facilities. 2013 ) 174 . it must have a holistic package. Holistic TEI Theory Model (Faltado. Meaning to say.com Based from the findings of this research. teacher education institutions must improve and further enhance its status with respect to admission and retention policy. faculty competence. Three-Tiered Model on LET Performance Enhancement (Faltado. the admission and retention policy. research and extension. It states that the performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers is predicted by three aspects.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. curriculum and instruction and faculty competence.

Public teacher education institutions may make systematic provisions on physical plant facilities maintenance and upgrading. 175 . A separate department may be created and sustained whose responsibility is mainly on maintaining. They should also observe the vertical alignment of the degrees obtained by the faculty members and assign teaching loads within their field of expertise only. 8 August 2014 Conclusions Based on the findings of this study. There must be strict measures on who can enter the teacher education program based on the general average in high school. TEIs with greater mean status and higher LET performance cluster together and TEIs with lower mean status and lower LET performance cluster together. There public and private teacher education institutions are just comparable in terms of admission and retention policy. vision and philosophy of their respective schools which may be done by integrating additional subjects 4.International Journal of Education and Research Vol. 5. 4. Recommendations Based on the results of this study and the conclusions formulated. curriculum and instruction and faculty competence are the predictors of teacher education program performance in the licensure examination. Admission and retention policy. improving and finding ways and means on how physical plant and facilities will be at par with the national standards. Teacher education institution may have a system for selective admission and retention of students. A parallel study may be conducted to revalidate the findings of the present study. Activities related to the licensure examination for teachers may be institutionalized like the conduct of qualifying exams. curriculum and instruction. pre-board exams and mock examinations. Refresher courses must be integrated in special topics which will be handled through team teaching. result of admission test or aptitude test and interview. Other researches may also be performed which will include variables not employed in this study like the age of school. they significantly differ with respect to physical plant and facilities with the private TEIs having an advantage. They must also enrich their curriculum relevant to the needs of the community anchored on the mission. school culture. the following conclusions were formulated: 1. the following recommendations are hereby suggested: 1. administration. 2. research and extension. accreditation level and the non-cognitive factors of the LET takers. 6. 3. TEIs may make it sure that they have a curriculum which is constructively aligned with the framework set not only by the CHED but also by the PRC. TEIs must also maintain a serious retention policy on who can stay in the program. faculty competence. 2. Teacher education institutions may have rigorous selection and hiring process to come up with a competent teaching force. However. Type of school is not a factor in passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers. 3. 2 No.

Journal of Educational Administration. and J. G. his Master’s Degree in Education from University of the Philippines-Diliman and his Doctorate Degree in Education (with Academic Excellence Distinction) from URS . Belen. school climate and student achievement.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. 46(1). Cynthia. A. Magno. licensure examination for teachers results from 2004-2008. J. http://www. and G. Faltado III obtained his Bachelor’s Degree in Secondary Education major in General Science (Magna Cum Laude) from University of Rizal System (URS). (2011). 176 . R. BPSU Research Journal. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Journal. B. C. 6. 20-27. Research and Extension Journal. he is an associate professor in the College of Education of Technological Institute of the Philippines. The walls speak: The interplay of quality facilities. (2011). 3(7)..pinoytest.ijern. Determinants of LET performance of the teacher education graduates in a state university. and work performance of BSED Graduates: An analysis. 14-20. V. Ibañez. Espino. Castro. S. Vol.com References Catura. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Pascua. 5573. In current capacity. Megan (2008). (2007). 2006). L.com/teacherlicensureexam Researcher’s Bio-sketch Dr.teachers enhancement program (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Ruben E. University of Rizal System 2008). N. M. Determinants of performance of public elementary schools in the Division of Rizal. LET review program of the Camarines Sur Polytechnic College. A. University of Rizal System. Academic performance. M. Determinants of the performance of the student teachers in selected state universities and colleges: Input to student. Naga Campus: An evaluation. Roman. U and T. 1(1). R.