International Journal of Education and Research

Vol. 2 No. 8 August 2014

CORRELATES OF PERFORMANCE IN THE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
OF SELECTED PUBLIC AND PRIVATE TEACHER
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

RUBEN E. FALTADO III, ED. D.
rfaltadoiii@yahoo.com.ph
College of Education, Technological Institute of the Philippines
938 Aurora Blvd. Cubao, Quezon City

Abstract
This study generally aimed to determine the correlates of performance of selected
public and private teacher education institutions in the licensure examination from 20102012 which served as basis in formulating theories and their corresponding theory
modelings.
A combination of descriptive and correlational research design was employed. The
study utilized both quantitative and qualitative approaches which were supplemented with
documentary analysis and semi-structured interview. Furthermore, numerical accreditation
ratings of the teacher education institutions were used, however, there were some teacher
education institutions (TEIs) which have not yet applied for accreditation and some refused
to divulge their ratings, thus, status of TEIs were assessed through hard data with the aid
of the research instrument. The independent variables in the study include admission and
retention policy, curriculum and instruction, faculty competence, research and extension,
physical plant and facilities, administration, and school culture.
The results of the study divulged that type of school is not a factor in passing the
Licensure Examination for Teachers. Admission and retention policy, curriculum and
instruction and faculty competence are significantly correlated with the teacher education
program performance in the licensure examination.Two theories were formulated based on
the results of this study and were represented through models for clarity and better
understanding.
Keywords: Licensure Examination for Teachers, Teacher Education Institutions, Theory
Modeling
Introduction
The preparation of future teachers for both elementary and secondary educational
sectors becomes the very important function assigned to pre-service educators of TEI’s.
Indeed, the teachers are accountable in providing quality instruction and to ensure that the
right and quality education is inculcated to the learners. The teachers’ crucial roles in
molding and producing competent graduates still remain the most influential factor in
attaining excellence in education.
167

In the study conducted by Castro (2006). What theory could be formulated based on the analysis made utilizing the status of the selected public and private teacher education institutions and the LET results for the past three years? 168 . What is the status of the teacher education institutions with respect to admission and retention policy. Which among the aforementioned aspects.71%.pinoytest. physical plant and facilities. predict the teacher education program performance of the selected public and private teacher education institutions? 6. More so. This is the ultimate reason why the commission conducts the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to regulate the profession and to provide license to deserving individuals who passed the LET (http:// www. research and extension. The Philippines prohibits any individual from practicing or offering to service the teaching profession without having previously obtained a certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) to ensure that the student teachers become competent teachers (www. the national passing percentage is 41. In the 2012 LET. and school culture? 2. How do the selected public and private teacher education institutions cluster with respect to the abovementioned status variables and in terms of the LET results for the past three years? 5. who are not only fully prepared but also committed to do their tasks. For the past three years since 2010 which is composed of six (6) LET administrations (April 2010-September 2012). This statement is supported by the dismal performance of the takers of the licensure examination for teachers.com/teacherlicensureexam). This study aimed to determine the correlates of performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) of the selected public and private teacher education institutions (TEI’s) in Manila City. Many schools have developed and implemented elaborate school improvement plans however. in 2011.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www.com In this regard.ijern. teachers whose competencies are at par with the national standards as confirmed by the results of the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). he mentioned that the present educational system is confronted with teachers or teacher applicants who are graduates of courses from certain colleges or universities but do not seem to have equipped themselves with the necessary skills in communication and teaching competencies. its 24.pinoytest. Specifically. singly or in combination. in 2010 its 21. These are clear indications that teacher education institutions are not producing equipped teachers.04%. there is a realization that these efforts often fall short of attaining the expected results. the need to assure the supply of teachers who could live up to the expectations and trust of society. Is there a significant difference between the status of the selected public and private teacher education institutions with respect to the aforementioned aspects and in the performance in LET? 4.com). Quezon City and Rizal province for the past three years which served as basis in formulating theory modeling. the average national passing percentage is only 28. administration. curriculum and instruction. faculty competence.01%. it sought answers to the following questions: 1.08%. How do the deans and faculty respondents assess their teacher education institution with respect to the abovementioned variables? 3.

cluster analysis and regression analysis were conducted to address the different problems of the study. 2 No. the researcher acted the role of an accreditor and assessed the TEIs based on the documents and hard data presented. Upon retrieval of questionnaires. Quezon City. 8 August 2014 Research Design The researcher obtained quantitative data by employing descriptive approach through field survey in the form of researcher-made questionnaire checklist which aimed to appraise the status of teacher-education institutions in Manila City. the strategies in physical plant and facilities upgrading. and Rizal Province in the point of view of deans and faculty members. Furthermore. qualitative data were obtained through in-depth analysis and semi-structured interview (triangulation) with the deans and key teachers of selected teacher-education institutions. Procedure of the Study To determine the level of the selected teacher education institutions. This study followed the exploratory approach that combined theoretical study office and review of the literature in the field of research. The study extensively looked on how research outputs were utilized to improve instruction. computed. administrative support on the various activities and undertakings of the college and on how the school culture affects the teaching-learning process. analyzed. Statistical investigation using descriptive statistics. This research also conducted an intensive and in-depth analysis of the policies on admission and retention. and after the in-depth analysis and interview. More so. The study relates the performance of the teacher education institutions with the analysis of the aforementioned areas. 169 .International Journal of Education and Research Vol. data were tallied. Documentary analysis was employed to determine the performance in the licensure examination for teachers of the selected teacher education institutions for the past three years. the researcher conducted a semi-structured interview with the deans/heads and key teachers of the selected teacher-education to solicit qualitative data that supported and enhanced the discussion and interpretation of findings in this study. the researcher requested for the accreditation numerical rating of the TEIs for the areas included in this study. in addition to the method of field survey. and faculty academic preparation or vertical articulation. and interpreted. the curriculum and delivery modes of instruction. For the institutions with no accreditation yet or refused to give their numerical ratings.

8 3. it was assessed that the faculty members are Highly Competent. Graph 2 Composite Graph on the Status of Teacher Education Institutions As Assessed by the Deans and Faculty Members 4. it was rated as Very Good. with respect to faculty competence.5 3.3 3. and administration as Highly Evident.4 3.1 4 3. with respect to school culture.9 3.8 3.2 3.7 3. with respect to faculty competence.com Results and Discussions Graph 1 Composite Graph on the Status of Teacher Education Institutions 4. and administration as Highly Evident. research and extension. with respect to physical plant and facilities.6 3. it was assessed that the faculty members are Highly Competent.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www.1 Public Private Overall The status of teacher education institutions with respect to their provisions in admission and retention policy.3 Private Public Overall 170 .6 3. with respect to school culture. It can be noted on graph 2 that the respondents assessed the status of teacher education institutions with respect to their provisions in admission and retention policy. curriculum and instruction.7 3.5 3. it was assessed that teacher education institutions possess Positive Culture. curriculum and instruction.1 4 3. research and extension. it was assessed that teacher education institutions possess Positive Culture.ijern.4 3. it was assessed as Very Good.9 3. with respect to physical plant and facilities.

50 18.01 0.71 .89 .942 .80 .83 0.411 188.06 29.001 Reject Public 3.67 Private 4. research and extension. Moreover.90 0.171 10 .379 199 .98 24.03 0.92 1.735 Accept Public 4.72 57.82 t Df Sig HO VI .93 51.82 .56 0.702 .30 23.75 and Private 3. with regard to the physical plant and facilities.82 24.107 10 . faculty competence.055 10 . However.42 39.16 27.868 Accept Not Significant .43 26.932 Accept Public 4.92 Sd 31.420 Accept Not Significant . 8 August 2014 It can be seen in the table.746 Accept Public 3.05 0.International Journal of Education and Research Vol.98 0.75 Private 3.71 Private 3.590 Accept Not Significant .93 53.00 38. public and private teacher education institutions do not differ significantly with respect to admission and retention policy.958 Accept Not Significant .528 .556 10 . and school culture.95 0. 2 No. curriculum and instruction.09 40.324 189.82 37.99 0.69 40.957 Accept Not Significant .054 10 .841 10 .46 20.94 3.74 Private 3.56 0.91 0.45 25.656 196.436 .270 190.917 Accept Not Significant 171 .95 0.160 Accept Public 3.99 43.51 31.84 1.71 0.339 199 .085 201 . the table displays that there is a significant difference between public and private teacher education institutions. administration. This is in concomitant with the study of Cynthia and Megan (2008) who confirmed a strong positive relationship between quality and school facilities and student achievement.099 Accept Public 3.43 26.79 and Private 3.705 Accept Admission and Retention Policy Curriculum and Instruction Faculty Competence Research Extension Physical Plant Facilities Administration School Culture VI Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Significant Not Significant Not Significant Table 2 Significant Difference Between the LET Performance of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions for the Past Three Years Type Private Public SEPT2010 Private Public APR2011 Private Public SEPT2011 Private Public MAR2012 Private Public SEPT2012 Private APR2010 Mean 29. Ibanez (2008) opined that the strength of the curriculum does not only depend on the relevant content of the course and the qualifications of faculty but also in the quality and adequacy of its facilities and equipment. Table 1 Significant Difference Between the Status of the Selected Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions with Respect to the Independent Variables Group Mean Sd T Df Sig HO Private 3.

60 Curriculum and Instruction 3.48 25.149 12.756 Table 3b Final Clustering of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions as to the Status and Performance in LET Variables Cluster 1 2 3 Admission and Retention Policy 3.665 6. the TEI’s were grouped into three clusters.678 3.40 Administration 3.665 4.60 School Culture 3.65 4.87 4.45 3.25 3.35 3.167 4.629 8.40 LET Performance 21.68 4.42 20.35 4.ijern.995 Accept Not Significant Public 43.40 Physical Plant and Facilities 3.32 Private 43.92 .28 4.23 3.488 3. there is no significant difference between the LET performance of public and private teacher education institutions for the past yhree years.208 3.13 3.72 With respect to the abovementioned variables.25 3.80 4.43 83.com Public 56.79 44.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) Overall www. Cluster 3 which is composed of X11 and X3 has the highest status in all the aforementioned aspects and in the LET performance followed by Cluster 2 which is made 172 . This finding is in agreement with the study conducted by Catura (2007) when she revealed that there is no significant difference between passers and non-passers in LET in terms of type of school where they graduated from.665 6.79 With respect to the administration of the Licensure Examination for Teachers from April 2010 to September 2012.00 4.38 20.75 Faculty Competence 3. Table 3a Cluster Analysis of Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions as to the Status and Performance in LET Case Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 School Type Public Public Public Public Public Public Private Private Private Private Private Private TEI X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11 X12 Cluster 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 Distance .007 10 .60 Research and Extension 3.174 3.53 4.972 3.

X5.721 .006 21. More so.439 32. it can be concluded that these aspects can predict the performance of teacher education institutions in the licensure examination.940 .044 4.385 4. and that that performance in the licensure examination was related to teaching performance.010 .127 -1.749 25. X6.858 2. the higher the grade point average (GPA). X4. Table 4 Regression Analysis on the Teacher Education Program Performance of the Selected Public and Private Teacher Education Institutions Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Beta T Sig.246 . -3.095 .945 -6. and X12.001 B -80.003 -55. (2011).196 2. 001 -4. The findings is supported by the study of Pascua and Belen (2011) when they found out that degree of course is associated with LET performance. therefore. the higher status of the TEIs in terms of the aspects included.361 -1.516 9.570 90.000 77. 173 . it is fortified by the study of Espino et al.094 6.International Journal of Education and Research Vol.769 -3.936 Std Error 25.078 .814 20.024 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction Admission and Retention Faculty Competence -130. 2 No.888 22.585 -2.003 -49.045 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction . and X10.497 (Constant) Curriculum and Instruction Admission and Retention -124.879 . X7.687 .582 2.131 . The lowest among the three clusters in all aspects and in LET performance is Cluster 1 which is composed of X1. the better is the performance in the licensure examination for teachers. 8 August 2014 up of X2.182 4. From this finding. X8. when they emphasized that LET performance of the graduates is affected curriculum factor.899 18.774 15. TEIs must improve its status holistically.958 18. the higher the expected LET performance. and faculty competence are significantly correlated with the LET performance. admission and retention policy. It can be inferred from the table.842 It can be gleaned from the table. it can be said that in order to obtain a high passing percentage in LET.370 . curriculum and instruction.

Three-Tiered Model on LET Performance Enhancement (Faltado. Meaning to say. administration and school culture. two theories are hereby formulated: the Holistic TEI Theory and the Three-Tiered Theory on LET Performance Enhancement with their corresponding theory modelings. Holistic TEI Theory Model (Faltado. physical plant and facilities.ijern. 2013 ) 174 . It states that the performance in the Licensure Examination for Teachers is predicted by three aspects. 2013) The second theory is the Three-Tiered Theory on LET Performance Enhancement.ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. it must have a holistic package. teacher education institutions must improve and further enhance its status with respect to admission and retention policy. research and extension. curriculum and instruction and faculty competence. curriculum and instruction. the admission and retention policy. faculty competence. The Holistic TEI theory states that in order for a teacher education institution to perform better in the licensure examination.com Based from the findings of this research.

International Journal of Education and Research Vol. A parallel study may be conducted to revalidate the findings of the present study. 4. 175 . 8 August 2014 Conclusions Based on the findings of this study. faculty competence. accreditation level and the non-cognitive factors of the LET takers. 5. administration. curriculum and instruction. 2. they significantly differ with respect to physical plant and facilities with the private TEIs having an advantage. Admission and retention policy. Teacher education institution may have a system for selective admission and retention of students. improving and finding ways and means on how physical plant and facilities will be at par with the national standards. school culture. 6. 3. 3. They must also enrich their curriculum relevant to the needs of the community anchored on the mission. Type of school is not a factor in passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers. TEIs with greater mean status and higher LET performance cluster together and TEIs with lower mean status and lower LET performance cluster together. result of admission test or aptitude test and interview. the following conclusions were formulated: 1. A separate department may be created and sustained whose responsibility is mainly on maintaining. 2 No. vision and philosophy of their respective schools which may be done by integrating additional subjects 4. Recommendations Based on the results of this study and the conclusions formulated. 2. Activities related to the licensure examination for teachers may be institutionalized like the conduct of qualifying exams. Other researches may also be performed which will include variables not employed in this study like the age of school. However. curriculum and instruction and faculty competence are the predictors of teacher education program performance in the licensure examination. Refresher courses must be integrated in special topics which will be handled through team teaching. Teacher education institutions may have rigorous selection and hiring process to come up with a competent teaching force. There public and private teacher education institutions are just comparable in terms of admission and retention policy. TEIs may make it sure that they have a curriculum which is constructively aligned with the framework set not only by the CHED but also by the PRC. Public teacher education institutions may make systematic provisions on physical plant facilities maintenance and upgrading. TEIs must also maintain a serious retention policy on who can stay in the program. the following recommendations are hereby suggested: 1. research and extension. There must be strict measures on who can enter the teacher education program based on the general average in high school. They should also observe the vertical alignment of the degrees obtained by the faculty members and assign teaching loads within their field of expertise only. pre-board exams and mock examinations.

Vol. R. University of Rizal System. N. (2011). Journal of Educational Administration. M. U and T. G. school climate and student achievement. and work performance of BSED Graduates: An analysis. 176 . R. LET review program of the Camarines Sur Polytechnic College. and J. 14-20. 3(7). his Master’s Degree in Education from University of the Philippines-Diliman and his Doctorate Degree in Education (with Academic Excellence Distinction) from URS . Castro. B. licensure examination for teachers results from 2004-2008.pinoytest. Academic performance. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Journal. Roman. BPSU Research Journal.teachers enhancement program (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. 46(1). S. 1(1). Megan (2008). Pascua. (2011).ISSN: 2201-6333 (Print) ISSN: 2201-6740 (Online) www. Espino. he is an associate professor in the College of Education of Technological Institute of the Philippines. The walls speak: The interplay of quality facilities. L. Determinants of performance of public elementary schools in the Division of Rizal.com/teacherlicensureexam Researcher’s Bio-sketch Dr. V. 5573. Ibañez. http://www. A. 2006). Determinants of LET performance of the teacher education graduates in a state university. University of Rizal System 2008). C. Belen.com References Catura. 6. Magno. M. 20-27. (2007). Faltado III obtained his Bachelor’s Degree in Secondary Education major in General Science (Magna Cum Laude) from University of Rizal System (URS). (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Determinants of the performance of the student teachers in selected state universities and colleges: Input to student. Naga Campus: An evaluation. and G. Ruben E..ijern. J. Research and Extension Journal. A. Cynthia. In current capacity.