1

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

2

Fayyaz Ahmed

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

3

The Person:
Hello Everybody This is Fayyaz Ahmed and the first thing I would like to tell you is that I
am not a book Writter, I am just a professional like everyother professional in the field and
student of CISCO Acadmey like you.
I completed my CCNA, & CCNP certifications by the Grace of ALLAH just some while
ago. And I Try to write a book on CCNA & CCNP in Roman Urdu which make easy
and helpful for every-one who knows english or not.

Why this book?
The resason to write a book because I did lots of cources, but in after few years I lost every thing which I learn,I forgot
everyything. S0 In 2013 when I did my CCNA, I decide to capture my all Classes so that its recordable for lifetime. So
if I forgot this again after few years. I have my book just read it again in a few days and I got my knowledge back.

How I Write?
I read CCNA Book (Offical Cisco book) and 1 year personal research about CCNA on the internet then I made my
personal notes and try to maintain all my notes in a single book, which makes easiser for reading again. So please take
it serious because its all about CCNA if you really want to learn CCNA s0 read this clearful its not a book its my 1 year
personal reeasech about CCNA and I invest my losts of time & Efforts here I learn that topic first and then translate to
Roman, for others so that you guyss learn very easily and clear your concepts. My simple philosophy is shearing my
knowledge with others becasues when you share your knowledge its always increased.

Book desing?
The book desing 10 moudles (115) Pages like a classes in any academy you make your To DO list to read this book
and learn CCNA day by day.

Feedback Information:
As you read this Book and you think that this has helped you in any way then it would be great if you give me your
feedback and even if you think that it has been poorly conceived and written I would like to hear your Feedback and
your comments. Mail me on fayyazahmed007@outlook.com & Feel free to go my site which is “http://fayyazahmedccna.weebly.com/” for online learning & share it with others.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

4

OSI Refrence Moudle
U

Contant

U

U

Page.No

OSI Overview:

05

7) Application Layer:
o Telnet:
23
o SSH:
22
o FTP:
21
o TFTP:
69
o HTTP:
80
o HTTPS:
443
o NTP:
123
o
6) Presentation Layer:
o Encryption:
o Compression:
o Translation:
5) Session Layer:
4) Transport Layer:
o TCP:
o UDP:
o Flow Control:
o Segmentation:
o Fragmentation:
3) Network Layer:
2) Data Link Layer:
1) Physical Layer:
Protocol Data Unit (PDU)

06

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

07

08

09

OSI Reference5 Module:
OSI Reference Module:
Soo Start with OSI because CCNA ki starting yahi sy hoti hy or essy samjhna important bhi hy qk essa keh sakty hy k
ye base hy CCNA ki. So what is OSI? Basically ye eak module hy jessy hum OSI Reference Module k naam sy janty
hy. OSI means (Open System Interconnection) network communication k ley hamray do networks module bany thy the
1st one is DOD (Department of Defense) or 2nd is OSI module. OSI Module ISO (International Organization
Standardization) ny developed kia tha, IOS jo k eak American company hy us ny 1 standard banaya k agar network py
koi communication hogi to wo is process sy or sequence ko follow kary gi or is process ko pher 7 hessu my divide kia
gaya jinhy aaj hum 7 layers k nam sy bhi janty hy yaha her layer ko kuch responsibilities assign ki gai hy or sari hi
layer bhut important task perform karti hy agar in my sy koi 1 layer bhi hata di jaye to network communication
impossible hojaye gi. Is standard per 1977 py kam hona choru howa tha or pher 1984 my essy globally approved kia
gaya. Hum in ki detail dekhyee gy or start kary gy upper layer sy qk network my communication start wahi sy hoti hy
jo
k
hy
Application
Layer.

Layer 7: Application Layer:
Computers ki sari hi application wessy to application layer py perform hoti hy but important point jessy hum assani sy
samajh saky wo ye hy k koi bhi application jo computer per installed ho ya over the internet hu jessy Facebook, yahoo,
Gmail is tarha ki jitni bhi sites hum internet py search karty hy wo sub bhi application layer py perform hoti hy. Kuch
protocols Jo k application layer py work karty hy un ki details nechy mention hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

6

Application Layer Protocol
Telnet:
Telnet protocol banna tha 1969 my telnet 1 protocol hy Jo port number 23 py work karta hy. jessy hamari window my
1 service hy remote desktop connection ki to essi tarha Cisco k IOS py bhi 1 service hy jessy hum telnet khty hy telnet
bilkul wesa hi hy jessye remote desktop. Remote desktop sy hum window ka remote ly lyty hy or us py kam kar lyty hy
same essi tarha telnet sy hum router ka remote ly lyty hy or kahi sy bhi apny router ko configure kar sakty hy pher
chahye wo kessi dosri country my hi q na rakha ho or telnet session line VTY or IP address sy configure hota hy or is
ka port name hy 23.
SSH:
SSH means (Secure shell) SSH bhi same telnet hy or telnet k sath hi work karta hy bs without SSH telnet py jo traffic
ja rahi hoti hy wo plan text yani simple wording my hoti hy jessy koi bhi catch kar k uski information ko read kar sakta
hy or SSH ka benefit ye hy k is my sari traffic encrypted hoti hy matlab k secure hoti hy or ye port number 22 py work
karta hy or ye 1 secure tunnel banna k dyta hy jis sy traffic securely flow hoti hy.
FTP:
FTP means (File Transfer Protocol) jessy k hum apny computer py rehty howy hi apni files ko copy paste karty hy
same essi tarha agar hamara 1 computer kessi or country py rakha hy or 1 computer hamary branch office my is
condition my agar hamy remote office waly computer sy kuch files copy karni ho to waha hum FTP server ka use karty
hy and over the internet file ko remote pc sy copy karty hy apny computer py or hum jo internet sy files ko download
karty hy ya internet per apni files ko store karty hy ye bhi FTP server sy hi kiya jata hy or is ka port number hy 21.
TFTP:
TFTP means (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) TFTP sever 1 application hy jessy hum internet sy download karty hy or
direct use karty hy ye hota is ley hy jessy k hamary CISCO k router hoty hy un my jo IOS run hota hy matlab us my jo
running configuration chal rahi hoti hy us ka backup save karny k ley use hoti hy or wahi sy restore bhi hojati hy or
hum apny router ko upgrade bhi essi application ki help sy karty hy or ye port number 69 py kam karti hy.
HTTP:
HTTP means (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) i.e word, excel ki files MS office per run hoti hy essi tarha HTTP ki files
web browser k ley use hoti hy jessy k hum lekhty hy www.google.com to computer don’t know what is google they
know k ye HTTP per base hy HTTP backhand py communication karta hy or pher essy hamary browser py open karta
hy or ye port number 80 py kam karta hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

7

HTTPS:
HTTPS means (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure) ye bhi same HTTP ki tarha hi hy per HTTPS use hota hy hamari
secure websites per jessy hamari banks ki site hogai qk is ka link secure hota hy matlab ye 1 tarha sy 1 tunnel create
karta hy jis my sari traffic encrypted hoti hy jessi koi hack nahi kar pata or ye port 443 py work karta hy.
NTP:
NTP means (Network Time Protocol) jessy hamry network py bhut sary switches or Routers ya servers hy to in sub py
logs generate hoty hy to ye bhi must hy k sub servers per time same hona chahye taky wo servers apny statistics ko
accurate time per record kar saky to is k ley 1 protocol use hota hy jessy hum NTP khty hy ye bs hum kessi bhi router
ya server py run karty hy or jaha ye run hy waha hum jo time set karty hy sary server or switches py wohi time auto set
hojata hy or seconds ka bhi fark nahi aatta so NTP protocol is ley use hota hy or ye port number 123 py work karta hy
or ye sary hi protocols OSI ki application layer per work karty hy or yahi application layer ki responsibility hy.

Layer 6: Presentation Layer:
Presentation Layer check the format of data jessy hamary data k format hoty hy docx, JPG, MP3, MP4 ya koi bhi
format hu to presentation layer ki responsibility ye hy k data ka format ko check kary k network my jo file send ho rahi
hy us ka format kia hy. Presentation layer ki kuch or responsibility bhi hy jo k nechy describe hy.
 Encryption:
Network my do tarha k text follow hoty hy 1) Plan Text or 2) Cypher Text. Plan text wo hoty hy jinhy hum samajh
sakty hy jessy English/Urdu ya any language jessy human easily read kar saky but Cypher text essi language hoti hy
jinhy hum samajh nahi sakty like *&^###@@ symbol wording kuch is tarha sy to is sy hamara data secure hojata hy
jis sy agar koi hamara data capture kar ley ya koi file hack bhi kar ly to wo hamari information ko read na kar saka qk
wo encrypted hoti hy. presentation layer my encryption or decryption hoti hy to encryption k process my data plan sy
cypher my convert hota hy or decryption my cypher sy wapas plan jis sy travelling k doran data secure hota hy or pher
destination py pouch k wapas cypher sy plan my ho jata hy or pher hum us language ko easily read kar sakty hy ye sara
kam backhand py hota hy. Hamari kuch sites bhi is process ko follow karti hy like banks ki sites or her wo site jis k
start my HTTPS laga ho S means Secure jaha encryption & decryption ho rahi hoti hy. Or wo sites jin k start my just
HTTP lekha hota hy wo sites plan text my access ho rahi hoti hy.
 Compression:
Compression means jis sy hamary data ka size reduce hojata hy or commutation easily hojati hy kam bandwidth my qk
bary size ka data choty size my hojata hy or travelling k doran km bandwidth ko use karta hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

8

 Translation:
Translation bhi presentation layer my hoti hy jessy koi bhi language ho to computer ussy translate kar sakta hy suppose
Information convert to Data and data convert to Signals to is tarha data communication bhi translation ki form my hi
hoti hy.

Layer 5: Session Layer:
Session layer hamary sessions ko create ko create karti hy jaissy hum apny browser py multiples TABs open karty hy 4
sy 5 to her TAB my hum kuch naya search kar rahy hoty hy to ussy sessions khty hy sessions layers her TAB py 1 alag
session create karti hy. jis sy har TAB py hum kuch new search kar rahy hoty hy or wo session jab tak rehta hy jab tak
hum wo TAB close nahi kar dyty. Essy hum yu bhi samajh sakty hy k jb hum internet sy koi file download py lagaty
hy to waha hamy 1 time dekhta hy k file 5 mint my download hojaye gi to ye bhi session layer my hi perform hota hy k
5 minute tak hamara session connect rahy ga us server sy jaha sy ap us file ko download kar rarhy hoty hy. Or agar is
doran session break hota hy to ERROR aata hy Session time out ka.

Layer 4: Transport Layer:
Transport Layer hamari end to end transmission karti hy from source to destination message ko bilkul sahi tarha deliver
karti hy or ussy 1 way means roadmap Provide karti hy jis py data flow hota hy. Or jab hum transport layer ki bat karty
hy to is k 2 main protocol hoty hy 1) TCP or 2) UDP jo is layer py kam karty hy. Transport layer ki kuch or
responsibilities bhi hy jessy Flow control, Segmentation, Fragmentation jo k nechy describe hy.
 TCP:
TCP means (Transmission Control Protocol) zada tar networks ki communication my TCP use hota hy qk ye hamy
Acknowledgment dyta hy like agar my ny kessi computer py message send kia hy to waha sy mujhy 1
Acknowledgment milti hy k data sahi tarha send ho chukka hy ye sara process packets my hota hy jessy hi 1 packet
dosry computer tak pouch jata hy to dosra computer ACK dyta hy k packet receive hogaya hy. Essi ley ye transmission
reliable hoti hy or trusted hoti hy.
 UDP:
UDP means (User Datagram Protocol) UDP kam to same TCP ki tarha hi karta hy per iska disadvantage ye hy k ye
ACK send nahi karta matlab koi guaranty nahi k data dosray end py received howa bhi hy ya nahi ye sirf packets ko
agye throw kar dyta hy or koi ACK received nahi karta or ye zada reliable bhi nahi hota. voice or video communication
k ley mostly UDP protocol use hota hy like Skype, Audio or Video Calling k ley qk waha ACK ki need hi nahi hoti bat
karty waqt agar 1 sy 2 packet miss bhi hojaye to itna fark nahi parta.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

9

 Flow Control:
Transport layer hamy flow control provide karti hy matlab limited data send karti hy jinti k hamari speed hoti hy data
receiving ki us sy zada nahi karti warna conjunction ka khatra hota hy essi ley wo flow control ko use karti hy data
sending or receiving k doran Traffic k Flow ka 1 control hota hy.
 Segmentation:
Transport layer hamy Segmentation bhi provide karti hy matlab jessy k agar bhut bara data send ho raha ho like 10MB
ka to wo us 10MB k data k phly 10 packets banati hy choty choty or pher ussy Arrange karti hy sequence my like 1 to
10 or her packet py 1 number laga dyti hy jis sy agar koi packet miss hojaye to ussy recover karny my aasani hu or sirf
wohi packet recover ho jo miss howa hy to is process ko hum segmentation khty hy.

Fragmentation:

Fragmentation opposite hota hy segmentation k segmentation my bara data choty choty packets my convert hota hy or
Fragmentation my wohi choty choty packets dobara destination py pouch k bary data my wapas convert hojaty hy.

Layer 3: Network Layer:
Network Layer my hamari IP add hojati hy jis sy communication hoti hy like source and destination IP address from
host to host. Routers network layer py work karty hy or essi ley hum router ko layer 3 device bhi khty hy qk routers
network my best path ko search karty hy IP ki or routing protocols ki base py or data ko us ki destination py send bhi
karty hy in a different network. Router use karta hy IP or IPx ko bhi IP ka matlab (internet Protocol) or IPX matlab
(Internet Packet Exchanged) jo routers k bech my packets exchange hoty hy wo IPX protocol ki help sy hoty hy.

Layer 2: Data Link Layer:
Data link layer work karti hy hamary switches py ye work karti hy MAC Address per switches my jo frames banty hy
us my IP address to nahi hoti per MAC Address hoty hy jis sy data destination host tak pouch pata hy is frame my
source MAC or Destination MAC address hota hy jis sy switch py communication hoti hy. Hamary network switches
work karty hy data link layer per jabhi network switches ko Layer 2 device bhi kaha jata hy.

Layer 1: Physical Layer:
Physical layer 1 essi layer hy jaha actual data network interface sy physically move hota hy. Physical layer cables or
connector sy related standard ko specify karti hy. Kessi cable or transmission technic ko use karna hy media wire hy ya
wireless hy kon sy connections ko use karna hy ye sub hi physical layer k functions my aata hy. Jessy repeater, hub,
media convertor etc subhi chezy physical layer py perform hoti hy jo k physical layer ki responsibilities hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

10

PDUs:
PDUs means (Protocol Data Unit) PDUs hamy hamary packet ki form bataty hy 7 layer my jab data Application,
Presentation, Session layers py hota hy to wo sirf Data hi hota hy per jab Data Transport layer py ata hy to wo convert
hojata hy Segment my or pher jab Data Network layer py hota hy tab data khlata hy packet or pher jab Data Data link
py hota hy to data khelata hy Frame or physical layer py data bits ki form my hota hy essy khty hy PDUs matlab
protocol data unit.
1) Data on Transport Layer called Segment.
2) Data on Network Layer called Packet.
3) Data on Data link Layer called Frame.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

11

LAN Switching Technologies
Contant

U

U

Page.No

What is Switch



11

Switch Overview:
Process of Working Switch:
Benefit of using switch:
Working of Switch how Switch builds a mac address:

Swithcing Information

12

 HUB?
 Switch?
 Types of Switches?
o Manageable Switch:
o Unmanageable Switch:
 CISCO Hierarchical Model?
o Access Layer:
o Distribution Layer:
o Core Layer:
 Switching Mode/ Switches Techniques?
o Fragment Free Switches:
o Store & Forward Switches:
o CUT Throw Switches:

13

Interface Modes
 Types of Switch Interface Modes?
o Administrative Mode:
o Operational Mode:
 Administrative Mode?
o Access Mode:
o Trunk Mode:
o Dynamic Auto / Dynamic Desirable:
 Operational Mode?
o Access Mode:
o Trunk Mode:
 Configuration Modes?
 Cisco device modes?

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

14

15

12
What is Switch:

Switch:
Network switch 1 essi device hy jo computers ko dosry switches ko or network devices ko aapas my connect karti hy.
switch ko multi-port bridge bhi kaha jata hy or hamara switch OSI ki data link layer matlab layer 2 py work karty hy
lekin aajkal hammy essy switch bhi dekhny ko milty hy jo k layer 3 or layer 4 py bhi work karty hy essy switches ko
layer 3 switches ya multi-layer switches kaha jata hy agar kahi sirf switch word use hota hy to matlab k wo layer 2
switch ki bat ho rahi hy jo sirf LAN py connectivity provide karta hy routing wagera perform nahi karta. Switch ki
working bhut simple hoti hy switch apni port py messages ko receive karta hy in the form of frame or ussy transmit
karta hy ussi device ko jis device py wo message send kia jata hy yani 1 to 1 communication ye hub ki tarha nahi hy
qk hub py jo bhi message receive hota tha wo ussy broadcast kar dyta tha pory network py to jis k ley wo message hota
tha wo us message ko receive kar lyta tha or baki sub us message ko discard kardy ty thy to hub as a dumb kam karta
tha or switch as a intelligent kam karta hy jo sirf message ko ussi device py direct send karta hy jaha ussy jana hota hy
or yahi hub or switch ka sub sy bara difference hy, switch essa is ley kar pata hy qk switch apny andar 1 table banata
hy jessy Forwarding table ya MAC table bhi kahty hy is table my ye khud sy connect sari devices ki information ko
save rakhta hy taky messages ko direct ussi device py send kar saky jaha ussy jana hota hy.

Process of Working Switch:
Switch apni her port py 1 alag collision domain ko create karta hy. Collision domain means jaha data k darmiyan kabhi
bhi takrao ho sakta hy. To essi ley switch advance hy to is ki sari ports khud my hi 1 alag collision domain hoti hy jis ki
waja sy data apaas my takra kar crash hony matlab collision ka khatra nahi hota 1 switch jis my 24 ports hy to wo sari
ports 1 hi broadcast domain ka hissa hogi per per switch ki her 1 port 1 alag collision domain my hoti hy.

Benefit of using switch:
1)
2)

3)

Switch hamy lan py connectivity provide karta hy or switch plug and play hota hy mtalab jessy hi
switch py cables connect hoti hy switch apni working auto hi start kar dyta hy.
Switch hamy lan py high-speed py data ko exchange karny ki facility provide karta hy qk ye work
karty hy 100, to 1000 Giga bits per. Is k elawa ye full duplex communication use karty hy (Sending
receiving both same time)
Switch hamy point to point data communication bhi provide karta hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

13

Working of Switch How Switch builds a mac address:
Switch ON hoty hi sub sy phly apny ander1 Mac-table banaty hy jis my
wo khud sy connect sary PCs ki information ko save karty hy or pher ussi
address py direct data ko transfer karty. Suppose mery network my 1
switch hy or 4 pc’s hy or ye charo pc’s mery switch k sath connect hy to
switch 1 forwarding ya Mac-table banata hy jis my wo her port sy connect computer ka Mac-address apny Mac-table
my ussi port k sath jis sy wo connect hy port or Mac-address donu ko hi save kar lyta hy jissy data Sending and
Receiving aasan hojati hy. Ab dekhty hy ye kam kessye karta hy first time jab switch on hota hy to switch ka Mac-table
bilkul Empty hota hy jessy hi pc A data send karta hy pc B ko to switch first time kam karta hy as a HUB or wo us
frame ko broadcast kar dyta hy or sirf pc B us frame ko receive kar k ussy accept kar lyta hy or baki sub us frame ko
discard kar dyty hy pc B frame receive karny k bad 1 acknowledgment send karta hy switch ko k data my ny receive
kar liya hy tu is sy pc B or pc A ka MAC-address switch apny mac table my save kar lyta hy uski connected port k sath
tu next time pher wo broadcast nahi karta direct ussi pc ko data send karta hy jaha ussy jana hota hyqk us k Mac-table
my us ki information save ho jati hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

Swithcing Information:
14
HUB:
Hub is a Dummy Device jo MAC address ko learn nahi karta. Or ye Layer 1 py work karta hy in the form of 1 or 0
HUB hamesha broadcast karta hy. Bandwidth ko sary pcs py share karta hy or is my 1 hi Collision Domain or 1 hi
Broadcast Domain hota hy.

Switch:
Switch apni her port py MAC address ko learn karta hy. Or ye layer 2 py work karta hy. Switch jab on hota hy to first
time Broadcast karta hy or pher us k bad Unicast karta hy broadcast nahi. Switch k andar 1 chip hoti hy jis ko ASIC
(Application Specific Integrated Circuit) khty hy jis ki waja sy ye essa kar patta hy or ye apny andar 1 MAC table
banata hy jis sy ye direct ussi pc ko data send karta hy jis ko wo jana hota hy yani unicast karta hy broadcast nahi. ye
fixes bandwidth py work karta hy bandwidth ko shared nahi karta. Switch my 1 Broadcast Domain hota hy or per port
py 1 single Collision Domain hota hy.

Types of Switches:
 Manageable Switch:
Manageable switch ko hum Command sy configure kar sakty hy apni Network requirement k according changes kar
sakty hy. NIC Slots adds kar k uski ports ko increase kar sakty hy or manage karny k ley IP dy sakty hy.
 Unmanageable Switch:
Unmanageable switch means jin ko hum manage nahi kar sakty ye fixed hoty hy or plug and play hoty ap is my khud
sy koi changes nahi kar sakty.

CISCO Hierarchical Model:
CISCO k hierarchical design my 3 layers hoti hy jinhy segments k according divide kar k design kia jata hy jis my
Access Layer, Distribution Layer or Core Layers Design hoti hy hy. Hierarchical module mai Switches ko unki Series
un ki Powers or technic k According design kia jata hy. layers ko samjhny sy phly hum switches ki technics or modes k
barry my thori information gain karty hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

15

Switching Mode/ Switches Techniques:
Switches switching karty waqt kuch internally Process ya Techniques ko use karty hy jinhy hum Switching Mode ya
Techniques khty hy.

 Fragment Free Switches:
Switches py jo Frame send hoty hy yani k jo Data link layer k Frame hoty hy wo over all 1500 Byte something hoty hy
tu jo switch Fragment Free Techniques ko use karty hy wo Frame ko check karta hy jaha py unki addressing
information store hoti hy. Research k mutabik essa pata lagaya gaya hy k frame my jo error hoty hy wo zada tar choru
k 64 bytes k ander hi hoty hy or ye sirf unhi bytes ko check karta hy agar inhee my koi error hota hy tu ye frame ko
wahi discard kar dyta hy or agye send nahi karta. Fragment Free Switches ki CPU Utilization bhi zada nahi hoti or ye
Bandwidth bhi Medium Use karty hy to is type k Switches yani Fragment Free Switches Access Layer py lagaye jaty
hy (1900 & 2900 Series k Switches).

 Store & Forward Switches:
Store and forward switch my 1 buffer laga hota hy jab ye frame ko receive karta hy apni port per to ye frame ko us
buffer my store karlyta hy or us k bad uski error checking karta hy agar frame my kuch error hota hy to ye frame ko
wahi discard kardyta hy or agye forward nahi karta. Store and forward types of Switches jo data transfer karty hy wo
sub sy zada reliable hota hy. Or Store & Forward types k Switches Hamesha Distribution Layer py lagaye jaty hy
(3000 & 5000 Series k Switches). QK ye CPU Utilization High use karty hy or ye Bandwidth bhi zada use karty hy to
jabhi is layer py High series k Switches lagaye jaty hy.
 CUT Throw Switches:
Jo switches cut throw technic ko use karty hy wo hoty bhut Fast hy or hamesha Core Layer py Cut Throw Techniques
k Switches hi lagaty hy. Ye kessi type ki error Checking nahi karty qk sari Checking Distribution layer sy clear hoky
Core layer k switches py aati hy jabhi ye koi error checking nahi katy just data ko speedily aagye forward karty hy qk
agar Core layer k switches bhi error checking kary gy to waha load zada barhy ga jo nahi hona chyee Core layer
hamesha bilkul Free or fast hi honi chayee jabhi hum waha Cut Throw Techniques k Switches use karty hy tu essi ley
iski CPU Utilization low hoti hy. So Cor layer py Cut Throw Techniques k Switches lagaye jaty hy (7000, 8000 &
10,000 Series k Switches).

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

16

Details of Layers:
 Access Layer:
Access Layer wo Layer hoti hy jis sy Direct Pcs connect hoty hy essi ley waha thory lowest end ki series k switches ko
lagaya jata hy jessy (1900 & 2900 Series k Switches).

 Distribution Layer:
Distribution Layer wo layer hoti hy jo Network k Middle my hoti hy Core Layer or Access Layer k darmiyan
Connectivity provide karti hy or waha sy network distribute ho raha hota hy. Essi ley hum waha thori achi
series k switches lagaty hy jessy (3000 & 5000 Series k Switches).

 Core Layer:
Core layer yani wo layer jo Network my sub sy important layer hoti hy jaha sy pora Network Manage ho raha hota hy
or dossri jagaho sy bhi Direct connect hota hy. Essi ley hum waha Best series k switches lagaty hy jo bhut hi Fast or
Powerful hoty hy jessy (7000, 8000 & 10,000 Series k Switches). So ye CISCO ka Hierarchical Design hy jis sy
Network bhut acha Design hota hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

17

Switch Interface Modes:
Types of Switch Interface Modes:
By default, switch k interface k 2 modes hoty hy.
1) Administrative Mode.
2) Operational Mode.

Administrative Mode:
Administrative mode my hum switch ki ports ko khud sy configure karty hy or is k 4 mode hoty hy.

 Access Mode:
Access Mode end user’s k connecting ports hoti hy jo direct switch sy user ki end devices yani computer k
sath connect hoti hy Access mode sy 1 hi Vlan ka data carry hota hy ye hamesha aapni 1 port sy 1 hi vlan
ka data travel karti hy multiple vlans ka nahi. Or Access ports security purpose k ley bhi banai jati hy qk ye
ports auto as a trunk configure nahi hoti.

 Trunk Mode:
Trunk Mode wo ports hoti hy jo 1 hi port per multiple vlans ka data send & receive kar sakti hy trunk port
py vlan tagging hoti hy jissy data ko pata lagta hy k ye data kon c vlan k ley hy. Or hum switch ki last port
ko jo k dosray switch sy connected hoti hu or switches per vlans banni hoti hy so un last ports ko hum
trunk port banaty hy taky wo multiple vlan’s ka data send or receive kar saky dosray switches per bhi.

 Dynamic Auto / Dynamic Desirable:
Ye donu hi mode hum switch py chor dyty hy or ye negotiable hoty hy means that k jo switch k 1 end py
port hogi ab ya to wo trunk ho ya pher access to dosry switch ki wo port bhi phly switch ki port ko dekh k
auto hi wo hojaye gi jo phly switch ki port thi. Matlab samny wali port k dekh k decide kia jata hy k port
kis role my configure hogi agar wo access hy to wo bhi khud ko auto access configure karly gi or ager
trunk hy to auto hi trunk configure hojaye gi. Or dono my difference ye hy k dynamic auto khud sy jab tak
khud ko trunk port nahi banati jab tak dosra switch us ko trunk ka message send na kardy or dynamic
desirable jesssy hi switch connect hota hy message ka wait nahi karti hy dekhti hy samny waly switch k
port Trunk hy tu khud ko bhi foren hi trunk port configures karlyti hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

18

Operational Mode:
Switch k 2 Operational Mode hoty hy basic mode 4 configure hoty hy but 2 Operational Mode hoty hy jis my wo port
configure ho k act karti hy.
1) Access Mode.
2) Trunk Mode.
Access or Trunk k elawa ports koi or ACT nahi karti ya to wo Trunk ACT kary gi ya pher Access.
Note:

IOS Configuration Modes:
By default Switch k ports Dynamic Auto mode my hoti hy jabhi wo khud sy trunk ya access nahi banti jab tak hum
ussy khud configure na kar dy.

Cisco device modes:
Window my jis tarha hamary users k kuch privileges hoty hy ye jessy user and admin essi tarha cisco ki devices ko
configure karny k ley bhi kuch privileged ko hammy access karna parta hy ye modes alag alag task perform karny k ley
use kiyee jaty hy. Cisco device wo chahyee router hu ya switch in k basic 3 mode hoty hy.

 User Exec Mode:
User Exec mode Security purpose k ley hota hy jaissy aager kessi ko router ya switch py sirf ye rights hy k wo
sirf running config dekh saky to wo sirf use Exec mode ko access kary ga kuch configuration karna chahye ga
to nahi kar paye ga. User Exec mode sirf show commands use karny k ley hota hy ap sirf dekh satky hy k
switch py kia configuration hy wo bhi kuch had tak. Qk user exec mode bhi limited commands ko accept karta
hy jessy ping wagera. This is the symbol of user exec mode “Switch>”

 Privilege Exec Mode:
Is mode py hum show ki sari commands use kar sakty hy or kuch had tk configuration bhi kar sakty hy. but
yaha py limited configuration hoti hy full rights yaha bhi nahi hoty leakin yaha per hum show ki sari
commands ko use kar sakty hy. This is the symbol of user Privilege mode “Switch#”

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

19

 Global Configuration mode:
Is mode ko access karny k bad humy full authority hoti hy router or switch ko configure karny ki. yaha sy hum
pory network ko configure kar sakty hy. This is the symbol of user Global Configuration mode
“Switch(config)#”

Console port:
Console port: Cisco k router or switches GUI base bhi hoty hy or CLI base jaha hum commands k throw router ko
configure karty hy CLI mode my koi graphic nahi hoti is my kuch bhi apko graphic my nahi dekhta to router ko
configure karny k ley hamy kessi computer la laptop ki need hoti hy jis ki help sy hum router ko configure kar sakty hu
tu console port router ka display ap k computer per dyti hy jis sy ap us router ko configure kar sakty hy.
Simply console port router ko configure karny k ley use hoti hy. Or router ka console lyny k ley hum kuch software use
karty hy jessy window XP my Hyper Terminal use karty thy or ab window 7 ya latest window k ley hum putty
software ka use karty hy router ka console lyny k ley so is tarha hum rotuer ya switch ki configuration kar sakty hy us
ka console ly k.

Changing Switch Modes Commands:
Router > enable
Router # configure terminal
Router (config)#

Interface mode (Router physical interface configuration mode)
Router(config-if)#

• Subinterface mode (Router sub-interface configuration mode)
Router(config-subif)#
• Line mode (Router line configuration mode - console, vty etc.)
Router(config-line)#
• Router configuration mode (Routing protocols configuration mode.)
Router(config-router)#

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

20

VLANs & VLan Trunking
U

U

Contant

U

Page.No

Vertual Local Area Network :
 Vlan Overview?
 Types of Vlan?
o Data Vlan
o Default Vlan
o Native Vlan
o Management Vlan
o SVI Vlan




U

U

Vlan ID’s Range?
Extended Range?
Trunks Port?
Router on a Stick?
Inter-vlan Routing?

17

18

VTP Protocol:
 VTP Overview?
 How VTP Work?
 VTP Modes?
o Sever Mode:
o Client Mode:
o Transparent Mode:
 Requirment for VTP?
o Always Port Trunk:
o Always same Domain:
o VTP Password:

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

20

21

Virtual Local Area Network
(Vlans)
21

VLAN Overview:
Vlan eak logical network ko kehty hy hy suppose jessy k mery
network my 5 depart hy 1) Sales 2) H.R 3) admin 4) accounts 5)
Designing or mujhy on sub departs ko seprate rakhna hy to
CISCO k switch my 1 technique use hoti hy jaisy hum Vlan yani
(Virtual local area network) khty hy ye 1 hi switch py rehty howy
us switch k ander hi 1 virtual LAN create kar dyta hy or wo lan 1
alag separate network hota hy tu is tarha sy agar my in pancho
depart ko alag alag rakhkna chata hu tu mujhy 5 switch ki zarorat nahi hy essa karny k ley my 1 hi switch py 5 vlans
bana doga or in sary depart ko vlan k mutabik alag alag depart my assign karduga so essy wo sary depart separate rahy
gy or appas my communicate nahi kar sakky gy. Is ka 1 or faida ye bhi hy k per vlan as a separate network hoti hy
separate broadcast domain hoti hy. Essi waja sy 1 hi switch py rehty howy hamari broadcast traffic bhi reduce hojati hy
qk 1 vlan1 alag boundary hy tu 1 vlan sy koi bhi broadcast kessi dosri vlan my nahi jati jiski waja sy hamari broadcast
traffic bhi reduce hojati hy.

Types of Vlan:
Data Vlan

: Data

Default Vlan

:

Native Vlan

:

Management Vlan

: Management vlan mai hum vlans ko IP dy sakty hy taky hum apny switch ko bhi

Vlan sirf User’s ka Data Carry karti hy Management/administration ka nahi ye
sirf control karti hy hamary data ko or hamari voice traffic ko.
Default Vlan hamray switches py by default bani hoti hy jis py phly sy switch ki sari
port assign hoti hy jessy hum vlan 1 khty hy Vlan 1 is by default vlan in every Cisco Switches.
Jab hum inter vlan routing perform karty hy matlab do different vlans k darmiyan
communicate karwaty hy to waha hum 802.1Q protocol ka use karta hy jo her vlan per us ki destination vlan ka
address tag kar dyta hy k ye traffic kon c vlan per jayegi. So essi tarha Vlan 1 koi different vlan nahi hoti yani hum
ussy khud sy create nahi karty wo by default hoti hy to agar vlan 10 sy data send hoga vlan 1 ko to wo untagged hoga
qk wo koi different vlan nahi hy switch ki apni default vlan hy to essi ley hum vlan 1 ko as a native vlan bhi khty hy qk
wo untagged hoti hy jis my kessi bhi destination vlan ki information nahi hoti switch ki apni vlan ki information hoti
hy. So Simple vlan 1 is Native Vlan or native vlan hum apni marzi sy bhi configure kar sakty hy.

router ki tarha remotely telnet session k throw configure kar saky to jis bhi vlan ko hum IP assign karty hy hamari wo
vlan management vlan khelat hy jaha sy hum switch ka remote ly k switch ko remotely bhi configure kar sakty hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

22

SVI Vlan

: SVI

means (Switch Virtual Interface) jab bhi hum apny switch ko IP dyty hy to wo
kessi vlan ko active kar k dyty hy or switch ko IP dyny sy switch hamy layer 3 ki functionality dyta hy sirf 1 vlan k ley
to jis Vlan py IP address configure hota hy us Vlan ko hum SVI vlan khty hy qk wo as a Router k virtual interface ki
tarha perform kar raha hota hy or ye by default off hoti hy essy hamy forcelly configure karna hota hy

Vlan ID’s Range:
 1 to 1005
 Vlan 1 (Default) Created by default con not be deleted.
 Vlan 1002 – 1005 (use for Token Ring and FDDI default) Created by default con not be deleted.
 Vlan information save in Vlan.DAT file in flash memory.
U

Extended Range:
 1006 - 4094
 Extended Vlan’s Range used for ISP’s.
 And vlan information stored in Running Configuration.

U

Trunks Port:
By default switch ki her port khud sy 1 hi vlan ka data access karti hy but agar hamari vlan kessi dosry switch py bhi
configure hy or different vlan’s hy to yaha hamy switch ki end ports ko Trunk Port banana parta hy qk trunk port 1
single port my hi multiple vlan’s ka data send and receive kar sakti hy. Agar hum switch ki last port lo trunk port nahi
bannye gy to different vlans k darmiyan communication nahi ho paye gi.

Router on a Stick:
Router on a stick ko inter vlan routing bhi khty hy jessy agar my
cha raha hu k 5 vlans my sy 2 vlans apas my communicate bhi kar
saky suppose Sales or Accounts depart to is conndition mai
hammy1 router device ki need hoti hy qk router 2 different
network k darmiyan communicate kar waata hy to essi ley hum is
process ko inter vlan routing bhi khty hy jis my 2 vlans 1
different network my rehty howy bhi apas my communicate kar
sakti hy is k ley my router py DOT1Q protocol ko use karty howy Sub Interfaces banta hy or pher virtual links create
karty hy jis ki help sy vlans communicate kar pati hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

23

Inter-vlan Routing:
Inter vlan routing my router my do interface ko use kia jata hy
vlans ko apas my communicate karwany k ley is ka disadvantage
ye hy k router my bhut kam interfaces hoty hy or agar humary
pass vlan 5 ya us bhi zada ho tu my waha my itny sary interfaces
to nahi use kar sakta essi ley hum router on a stick trick ko use
karty hy is my hum bs 1 hi interface ko use karty hy or ussi in
sub interface dot1q protocol ko use karty howy 1 hi interface my different virtual interface create kar dyty hy jissy 1 hi
interface py rehty howay sari vlans apas my communicate kar rhi hoti hy or zada interfaces bhi use nahi hoty.
U

LAB: Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)
Switch>enable
Switch # configure terminal
Switch(conf)# vlan 10
Switch(config)# name H.R
Switch(config)# exit
U

How to assign a port in VLAN

Switch (config)#int fa0/1
Switch (config-if)#switchport mode access
Switch (config-if)#switchport access vlan 10
Switch (config-if)#exit

Inter-vlan Routing:
Creating sub-interface for VLAN 10 on router:

U

Router > en
Router # config t
Router (config) Int fa0/0.10
Router (config-subif) encapsulation dot1Q 10
Router (config-subif) ip address 10.0.0.100 255.0.0.0
Router (config-subif) no shut

Configuring Router:

U

Router(config)#interface fa0/0
Router(config-if)#no shutdown
Router(config-if)#exit

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

24 Protocol (VTP):
VLAN Trunking

VTP protocol:
VTP means (Vlan Trunking Protocol) VTP cisco ka propriety
protocol hy VTP protocol kam ye karta yehy k jaisy suppose
hamary network my (40) Switches hy or hum ny 1 switch py
vlan create karni hy like vlan10 so 1 switch tak to ye thk hy per
agar mujhy is vlan ko apny network py rakhy or switches sy bhi
connect karna hy to waha mujhy yehi vlan or switches py
bhi configure karni hogi Right so to kia my (40) switches
py alag alag jaja k yahi Vlan sub py create karta rahu ga?
Ye koi best way nahi hy olta thaka dyny wala kam hy to
essi ley CISCO ny VTP protocol banaya hy VTP protocol
my hum apny sary switches py VTP protocol ko enable karty hy or VTP protocol my switches k mode set karty hy
jaissy k Server mode or Client mode so Server mode my jo switch hota hy hum bs ussi switch py 1 vlan create karty hy
or wo switch khud sy connect sary switch py auto hi wo vlan create kar dyta hy. yani k vlan ki information sync kar
dyta hy. To hammy her switch py jaja k wohi vlan create nahi karni parti or yahi sub sy bara benefit hy is protocol ka.
Or VTP sirf CISCO k swithes py hi chalta hy.

Describe VTP:
Vlan Trunking Protocol Cisco ka propriety protocol hy ye run karta hy sirf Trunk links py or synchronize karta hy vlan
k database ko sary switches py jo same domain ka part hoty hy. VTP domain 1 administrative group hota hy or jin
switches py VTP run karna hy un ka same domain my hona lazmi hy jabhi wo vlan k database ko sary switches py
synchronize kar saky gy or un ka name bhi same configure hona chayee. VTP work karta hy us k Revision number sy
or VTP my maximum 4.3 billion revision num ban sakty hy.
1) Network my sary switches VTP ki advertisement ko send karty hy her 5 minute k bad or aagar un k vlan
database my koi changing hoi hu to foren hi VTP update send karty hy pher 5 minute wait nahi karty.
2) VTP work karta hy us k Revision number sy Network my koi Vlan banny ya delete ho too us my revision
number hamesha 1 plus hota rehta hy or pher wo revision number network my advertise hota hy or bakki k
switches ussy apny revision number sy match karty hy aagar revision number zada hota hy to wo us switch ka
databse apny database sy replace kar lyty hy. or jis switch ka revision number higher hota hy to sary switches
us vlan database ho khud my overwrite kar lyty hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

25

VTP Modes:
 Server Mode:
By default Cisco k switches my VTP enable hota hy or ye Server mode my ACT kar raha hota hy. Server mode
my ap khud sy Vlan banna bhi sakty hy us my editing bhi kar sakty hy or ussy delete bhi kar sakty hy.
 Client Mode:
Client mode k switch my ap na to Vlan banna sakty hy na edit kar sakty hy or nahi delete kar sakty hy client
mode k switch hamesha khud my vlans ki information ko overwrite karty hy server mode k switch sy jessy hi
server mode k switch my 1 Vlan create hoti hy to wo Switch foren hi apny network my khud sy connect sary
switches ko 1 VTP update send karta hy or Client mode k sary switches us update ko accept karty hy or khud
my wohi Vlan update kar lyty hy jo server mode switch my forcefully configure hoi hoti hy.
 Transparent Mode:
Transparent jaissy k name sy hi show ho rha hy matlab cross yani Arr Paarr. Cisco k Sary Switches py VTP
enable hota hy or hum essy disable nahi kar sakty suppose (40) switches my sy kuch switches essy bhi hy jin
my my koi bhi vla nahi banna chata qk waha vlan ki koi need hi nahi hy to essy my ma us switch ko server
mode py bhi chor nahi sakty qk pher us switch ko full rights mil jaye gy or mai VTP ko disable bhi nahi kar
sakta to bs itnaa kar sakty hu k us switch ka mode Transparent configure kar sakty hy. wessy to sary hi
switches VTP ki update ko poray network py send karty hy or client mode k switches us update ko accept kar k
khud my wohi changing kar lyty hy per transparent mode my switch us update ko receive to karyga per khud
my kuch changing nahi karyga or wessy hi us update ko agye forward kardy ga or switches ko. So transparent
mode k switches ko hum as a disable man lyty hy qk wo VTP ki Update receive to karty hy or direct hi agye
forward kar dyty hy means transparent mode k switches my VTP ki Update us switch sy cross means Arr Paarr
ho jati hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

26

Three Requirement for VTP to Between Two Switches:
Requirements of VTP:
1) VTP ki phli requirement to ye hy k switches ki connecting ports jo kessi dosry switch sy connect ho rahi hu un
ka Trunk Port hona lazmi hy jab hi wo agye VTP ki Update ko send kar pay gy.
2) Dosri requirement ye hy k VTP ka kessi 1 Domain my hona lazmi hy matlab agar hum chty hy k VTP ki
update sary switches py same rahy tu un ka kessi 1 domain k name lazmi hy. hum apny network my 3 sy 4
Domain bhi bana sakty hy to jis bhi domain my VTP ki update hoi hogi to sirf unhi client py wo receive hogi jo
us domain ka part hongy. Is k ley hum switch py VTP configure karty waqt domain ka name configure karty hy
jabhi us switch ko pata lagta hy k wo kon sy domain ka part hy. Or ye domain name case sensitive hoty hy
matlab sary switches py name 1 jaisa hi hona chaye ager small letter my hy to small my hi or agar capital letter
my hy tu capital my hi.
3) (Optional) hum security purpose k ley VTP server my passwords bhi dy sakty hu or wo password bhi sary
switches py same hona chaye jabhi wo VTP ki update ko password match kar k agye forward kary gy.
Configuration of VTP Server:
Switch (config)#Vtp mode client, server, transparent
Switch (config)#Vtp domain cisco
(optional)
Switch (config)#Vtp password cisco
Switch (config)#Vtp version 1,2,3
(optional)
Switch (config)#Vtp pruning
Switch#Show VTP status
Switch#Show VTP password

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

27

Spanning Tree Protocol
U

U

Contant

U

Page.No

Spanning Tree Protocol:
 Spanning Tree Protocol Problums?
o Instable CAM Table:
o Broadcast Storming:
o Repeatable Delivery:



Describe Solution:
STP Overview (802.1D):
How’s Spanning Tree protocol Work’s:
Elections Process of STP:
o ROOT switch Election?
o ROOT Port Election?
o Designated switch Election?





Spanning tree Protocol Bridge I.D?
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU)?
TCN BPDU (Topology Change Notification)?
BPDU 3 Process?
BPDU Timer?
o Hello Timer:
o Max Age Timer:
o Forward Delay Timer:

 Describe Election of Root Switch?
 Describe Election Root Port?
 Describe Election Designated Switch/port?

U

U

23

24

25

26

Ether Channel:




Ether-Channel Overview?
How Ether-Channel Works?
Range of Ether-Channel?
Benefits of Ehter-Channel?
Ehter-Channel Protocols?
o PAGP:
o LACP:

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

27

28

28
Spanning Tree
Protocol:

Redundant Topology:
STP ko samjhny sy phly ye samjhna zarori hy k redundant topology kia hoti hy. So jab bhi hum apny network my
multiple switches ko connect karty hy to is condition my hum 1 hi single link py depend nahi karty qk agar essa hoga
to wohi 1 link down hony per hamari Network sy connectivity break ho jaye gi. to essi liye hum multiple links create
karty hy switches k bech my jesy hum backup links bhi kehty hy. jis sy agar 1 link down ho bhi jaye jo network ki
traffic auto hi dosray link sy flow ho jati hy. Essa hum kar to dyty hy but multiple links create karny sy switches k
darmiyaan multiple Frames bhi copy hojaty hy or essi topology ko hum redundant topology jo k Daigram1 my show
hy.

But is tarha ki topology my 3 tarha ki problem’s create hoti hy.
 Instable CAM Table:
CAM means (Content addressable memory) ye phly k switch my 1 memory hoti thi jis my switch khud sy connect sary
pc’s k Mac-address ko record karta tha or ab CAM table ko hum MAC-table bhi khty hy. To is table my switch sy
connect sary PC’s ki information un k MAC address or connecting port ki shakal my hoti hy. Instable CAM Table
matlab same Mac Address ka 2 bar milna 1 hi port py.
 Broadcast Storming:
Broadcast Storming matlab ager koi PC Network my broadcast karta hy to wo broadcast us switch k donu interface sy
out hogi jis ki waja sy her PC ko wohi broadcast 2 bar mily gi or ye broadcast 1 loop ki shakal my chalti hi jaye bar
bar.
 Repeatable Delivery:
Repeatable delivery matlab k JAB switch apni port per broadcast MAC address ko received kary ga jo k ye hota hy
“FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF” to her switch us frame ko khud sy sary connect PC’s ko wo information deliver to kar dyga
magar jab yehi frame dosray link sy bhi switch ko mily ga or us my broadcast MAC-address hoga to switch dobara sy
wohi frame repeatable Deliver kar dy pory network py to essi tarha wohi frame bar bar deliver hota rahy ga or looping
create hojaye gi.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

29

Solution:
So multiple links create karny sy hammy in problems ko face karna pary ga jo k network k ley bilkul bhi thk nahi hy
per agar hammy pher bhi multiple links create karny hotu CISCO ny hammy 1 Protocol provide kia hy jessy hum khty
hy “Spanning Tree Protocol” or ye CISCO k Switch my by default enable hota hy. To jaisy hi hum CISCO k switches
ko multiple links sy connect karty hy to wessy hi STP run hota hy or multiple links my sy 1 links ko auto hi down kar
dyta hy jis sy 1 time py 1 hi link up hota hy or jessy hi Up Link down hota hy to spanning Tree Protocol Foren hi us
dosray link ko auto hi UP kar dyta hy jo hum ny multiple Way k ley create kiya tha to is sy hum apny switch py
multiple links create kar sakty hy. per Spanning Tree Protocol 1 time py 1 hi link ko UP rakhty hy taky wo looping or
in 3 problem’s ko network my na hony dy,

STP Overview:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

STP Standard of IEEE.
STP Port Number 802.1D.
Avoids Switching Loops.
Auto enable in cisco switches.
Work Data link layer.

How’s Spanning Tree protocol Work’s:
Spanning Tree Protocol is process ko karny k ley apna 1 Algorithm chalata hy jis ka name hy “Spanning Tree
Algorithm” or is algorithm k throw wo election karta hy switches k darmiyan. Or pher network switches my 3 tarha k
Elections
hoty
hy.
First Election:
First election ye hota hy k network my mojood sary switches my sy ROOT switch kon banye ga jis k throw data travel
hoga or wo pory network ki responsibility lyga. ROOT Switch k sary interface Forwarding State my hoty hy us ka koi
bhi interface blocking state my nahi hota.
Second Election:
First election k bad jab network my sary switches my sy koi switch ROOT Switch ban jata hy tu us k bad network py
connect sary switch NON Root Switch hojaty hy. Or NON Root Switch ka koi 1 interface ka ROOT Port hona Lazmi
hy or ye Root port decide hoti hy interface ki Cost sy jessy k ager network py connect sari port Fast Ethernet hy to un
ki speed hogi 100Mbps to in interfaces ki cost hoti hy 19 or essi cost ko dekhty howay NON Root switch ye decide
karty hy k un ki kon c port Root port hogi jis sy wo Root bridge/switch tak kam time my pouch saky gy. Or Root port
bhi kabhi blocking state my nahi jatti ye hamesha forwarding state my hoti hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

30

Third Election:
3rd election process hota hy k kon sa switch Designated switch banny ga matlab k ager 1 link py 2 switches Connect
hy to un 2 switches my sy kon sa switch designated switch hoga jis ki taraf data throw hoga. Or network mai jo switch
designated switch banta hy us switch ki ports bhi designated ports ban jati hy Root Port ko chor k Designated ports bhi
forwarding state my hoti hy or switch ki wo port jo k PC’s sy connect hoti hy wo port designated khelati hy. Or wo
forwarding state my rehti hy blocking state my nahi jati. Ussi tarha agar hamary 2 switch apas my connect hy tu un my
sy koi 1 switch designated switch hoga jis sy data throw hoga or us ki port forwarding state my hogi or wo designated
switch banny ga apni port ki cost ko network my advertise kar k. or 1 switch hoga jo designated switch nahi hoga to us
ki port blocking state my chali jaye gi. Or agar in-case donu hi switch ki ports ki cost same hogi to jis switch ki Bridge
I.D choti hogi wo switch designated switch ban jaye ga. Root Switch ki sari Port Forwarding state my hogi or NON
Root switch ki 1 port Root Port hogi jo k forwarding State my hogi or 1 Switch essa hoga jo k designated switch hoga
or us ki connecting port bhi Forwarding State my hogi. So0o0o Spanning Tree Protocol ka algorithm chalny k bad bhi
agar koi port forwarding state my nahi jati to wo khud hi blocking state my chali jati hy STP ka Algorithm is tarha
work karta hy.

Spanning tree Protocol Bridge I.D:
Cisco ka ya kessi bhi switch ka apna 1 unique address hota hy 1 I.D hoti hy jessy hum Switch ki Bridge I.D khty hy. Or
bridge I.D is ley khty hy qk switch sy phly Hub or us sy bhi phly bridge use hoty thy tu jab sy hi hum switch ki I.D ko
Bridge I.D khty hy. Or ye bridge I.D 8byte ki hoti hy her switch my us ka apna 1 unique MAC-Address hota hy jessy
hum “Base Ethernet MAC address” bhi khty hy jo k 6 byte ka hota hy or 2 byte us switch ki priority filed k hoty hy to
is tarha total ye sub mil k 8 byte ki bridge I. D hoti hy. Hum essa bhi keh satky hy k switch ka MAC address or priority
mil k switch ki bridge banaty hy jessy hum bridge I.D khty hy. Or switch ki default priority “32768” hoti hy jo be
default sary switches py same hi hoti hy.

Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU):
BPDU switches k darmiyan 1 message ko khty hy jo k unki connectivity ka status ko appas my share karty hy. BPDU
ko hum hello message bhi khty hy jo k switch aappas my send karty hy takky un ko pata chal saky k sary switches UP
hy or jaha sy BPDU ka reply nahi atta matlab Hello Message ka reply nahi receive hota to essi BPDU message k throw
ye pata lag jata hy k kon sa switch network my down howa hy.

TCN BPDU (Topology Change Notification)
Network my kahi bhi koi link down hota hy ya koi failure hota hy to jab switches TCN BPDU ko send karty hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

31

BPDU Process:
BPDU k kuch rule hy jessy k.
1) Network my jo bhi switch Root switch hoga wo apni bridge I.D sary switches ko advertised kary ga or sary
switches apny BPDU my us Root Switch ki Bridge I.D OR apni bridge I.D aapas my exchange kary gy.
2) Jo bhi switch BPDU send karta hy to wo us BPDU message my apni khud ki Bridge I.D TAG kar k agye
forward karta hy or Receiving k doran bhi same yahi Process hota hy.
3) Her Switch jab BPDU exchange kary ga to us my wo Root Switch tak pouchny ki Cost jo hogi wo or us switch
sy ly kar Root switch tak ki jo cost hogi wo donu hi us BPDU message my TAG kar k agy send kary ga.

BPDU Timer:
BPDU my 1 timer hota hy jis sy wo auto us time k bad send and receive hoty hy or ye timer hum khud sy bhi set kar
sakty hy BPDU my 3 tarha k timer use hoty hy or hum inhy manually bhi apni requirement k mutabik configure kar
sakty hy.
1) Hello Timer:
Hello Timer matlab kitni dair k bad dosray switch ko Hello message send kiyee jayee gy or ye by default 2sec hota
hy.
2) Max Age Timer:
Max age timer matlab kitni dair tak agar dosray switch sy bhi BPDU message ka rply nahi aaya to hum ye man ly
gy k dosra switch down hogaya hy or ye by default 20sec ka hota hy.
3) Forward Delay Timer:
Suppose k agar hamary kessi switch ki port blocking state my hoti hy or hum ussy Up kary to wo port Direct UP
nahi hoti kuch time bad up hoti hy us port ki kuch states hoti hy jessy Blocking, Listening or Learning state jis my
wo switch Mac address ko learn karta hy or pher wo forwarding state my jata hy. To hamara switch kitni dair tak
lessening state my rahy ga kitni dair tak learning state my rahy ga ye depand karta hy “Forward Delay Timer” py jo
k by default 15 second ka hota hy. to agar hamara switch py koi interface agar blocking ya disable mode my jata hy
to wo 15 second tak lessening state my rahy ga or 15 second tak wo learning state my rahy ga or pher total 30
second bad my wo switch ya interface Forwarding state my aaye ga. So in sub process my jo time lagta hy ussy
forward & delay timer kehty hy.

Details about STP Election:
Jis Switch ki Bridge I.D lowest hogi wohi switch Root bridge banny ga. Jessy k hammary bridge I.D my 2 chezzy hoti
hy 1) Switch ka Mac address or 2) Us ki Priority value to Mac address to hum change nahi kar sakty hy tu jis bhi
switch ki priority low hogi wo switch khud ko as a root switch consider kar lyga. Or Cisco k sary Switches my us ki
priority Value “32768” sub my Same hi hoti hy tu is scenario my jaha switch ki priority value same hogi waha jis
switch ka MAC address lowest hoga wo switch election jeet jaye ga or network Root Switch ban jaye ga.
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

32
U

 1st Election Root Switch:
1st election hota hy root switch ka jo k bridge I.D sy hota hy. jo k decide hota hy switch ki priority or us k Mac
Address sy. or jab switch ki priority same hoti hy to pher switch k mac address ko compare kia jata hy or jis bhi switch
ka mac address lowest hota hy wo banta hy network mai Root Switch.

 2nd Election Root Port:
Root Port my hum jo sub sy phli chez dekhty hy wo hoti hy cost to reach Root switch matlab wo kon sa rasta hy jis sy
km cost per Root switch tak poucha ja sakta hy. or agar interfaces ki cost bhi same ho tu jaisy jitney bhi interfaces
lagye hy wo sary hi 100mpbs k hy to matlab unki cost hoi 19 ye to ye cost sub ki same hogi to essy my switch is bat ko
decide karye ga us port k interfaces sy. or jis interface ki value kam hogi wo port root port ban jaye gi jessy (example)
Fa0/1 or Fa0/2 sy switch connect hy to essy my Fa0/1 lower hy Fa0/2 sy Right to is condition my Fa0/1 Root port ban
jaye ga. To ager cost bhi same ho to Root port decide hoti hy switch k Lower interface sy.

3rd Election Designated Switch/port:

Is case my bhi Switch ye dekhty hy k kis rasty ki cost kam hy Root Switch tak pouchny k ley to wo Switch Designated
Switch ban jaye ga or us ki sari port Forwarding Sate my hoti hy jessy hum Designated Port bhi khty hy. Or agar cost
same hogi to jis switch ki Bridge I.D lowest hogi to wo Designated Switch ban jaye ga or in case ager Bridge I.D bhi
same hy to is case my hum pher us switch k lowest interface sy decide kary gy k kon sa switch Designated Switch
bannye
ga.
Or
in
cases
ko
hm
Tie
“Braker
bhi
khty
hy”.
To is tarha Spanning tree Protocol ka Algorithm work karta hy or STP ka election hota hy jis sy sub kuch decide hota
hy. Or jab tak inhy BPDU message milty rahy gy yahi process chalta rahy ga per agar 15 sec tak BPDU ka rply nahi
aya to switch consider kar ly gy k koi 1 switch down hogaya hy to jo port blocking state my hogi us k multiple links
my wo port up hojaye gi or traffic waha sy janna choro ho jaye gi. Or hamara Root Switch hi BPDU send karta hy sary
switches py or pher sary switches ussy aapas my exchange karty hy.
Commands of Enable BPDU Guard:
1) Spanning-tree portfast bpduguard defualt.
2) Spanning-tree bpduguard enable.
3) Show Spanning-tree summary totals.

Commands of Enable BPDU Filtering:
1) Spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter defualt.
2) Spanning-tree bpdufilter enable.

Commands of Enable Root Guard:
1) Spanning-tree guard root
2) Show spanning-tree inconsistent ports

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

33

T-Shoot Commands:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Show interfaces
Show spanning tree
Show bridge
Show process cpu
Debug spanning tree
Show mac-address table aging-time (Vlan #)
Show spanning tree vlan (Vlan #) detail

Ether Channel:
Ether-channel:
Jab hum multiple links create karty hy apny switches my network
disaster sy bachny k ley to waha hum multiple links create karty hy
jis sy network mai Loop create ho jatty hy. Or Cisco k Switches my
Loop sy bachny k ley Spanning Tree Protocol Work karta hy or
hum Loop ki problem Sy bach jaty hy per jo multiple links hum
create karty hy us my bs 1 hi link kam kar raha hota hy or bakki sub
down hoty hy ya ap chaye jitney bhi links create karly us my sy
work bs 1 hi karyga or baki k sary interfaces Down State my rahy
gy. To jo links down state my hy unki jo speed hy jo Bandwidth hy
wo bhi west hoti hy qk jab link down hoga to us ki Bandwidth bhi
use nahi ho rahi ho gi to essy my “Ether Channel 1 essa concept hy
jissy hum un links ki bandwidth ko bhi apny us single link py use kar sakty hy jo k us time py Down hoty hy” jessy
suppose mery network my 2 switch lagye hy or un py 2 links create hy per 1 link Up hy or 1 link Down Spanning Tree
Protocol ki waja sy to mujhy maximum speed bhi 100mbps hi mil rahi hogi or 100mpbs dosry link ki jo down hy wo
waste ho rahi hogi to my Ether Channel configure kar k us link ki speed bhi apni single link py use kar sakta hu to
mujhy 1 link py hi 200mpbs ki speed milygi 100 apny link ki speed jo us time up hoga or 100 us link speed jo us time
Down hoga. So ether channel k throw mai apny down links ki speed bhi us single link py ly sakta hu jo k us time Up
hoga.
In Short:
“Ether Channel 1 essa feature hy jo hamary multiple links ko bind kar k unhy 1 physical link bana dyta hy”
Ether Channel jo Technology hy ye 1990’s my 1 company ny invent kit hi jis ka name tha “Kalpana” lekin bad my
Cisco ny is company ko 1994 kharid lia or pher 2000 my is technology ko Cisco ny open Standard kardiya matlab ye
un switches py bhi configure ho sakta tha jo switch cisco k nahi hy. or pher IEEE ny essy 1 Number assign kia jo ab is
ki identity bhi hy or ab essy “802.3ad” k name sy bhi janna jata hy.
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

34

How Ether Channel Work:
Ether Channel configure karty hi switch un sary links ko jo k Foult Tolerance ya backup k ley lagaye jaty hy ether
channel un sub links ko 1 hi link samjhta hy or 1 hi link py un sub ki speed bhi hammy combine kar k dyta hy. Ether
Channel configure karty waqt hum un sari ports ko 1 channel my dalty hy jissy wo sari ports 1 physical link ya channel
ban k act karti hy.

Range of Ether Channel:
Ether channel mai Hum 2 sy ly kar 8 links ko configure kar k 1 physical link create kar sakty hy. jissy hammy un 8
links ki speed us single link py milly jo us waqt active hoga. suppose agar hum 100 mpbs ka link use kar rahy hy to
hammy 8 links ki speed us single interface py milye gi jo k 800 mbps ho gi essi tarha agar hum 1 gbps ka link use kar
rhy hy to 8 gbps ki speed hogi or agar hum 10 gbps ka link use kar rahy hy to wo singal link hamy 80 gbps ki speed
dyga.
U

Benefits of Ether Channel:
Ether Channel hammy Backup links yani load sharing or redundant topology provide karta hy or hum ye Ether Channel
Layer 2 or Layer 3 donu Switches py hi use kar sakty hy. Or is ka sub sy bara Faida ye hy k hum multiple links create
kar k zada sy zada speed ko use kar sakty hy jissy network my communication fast hogi.
U

Ether Channel Protocol:
Ether Channel 2 protocol ko use kartahy.
1) Port Aggregation protocol (PAGP):
PAGP protocol Cisco ka property protocol hy or ye protocol sirf Cisco k Switches py hi chalta hy.
2) Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP 802.3ad):
LACP 1 industry type matlab open standard protocol hy. jaisa k 2000 my aa k ye open standard hogaya
tha to agar 1 switch Cisco ka hy or 1 Switch Juniper ka ya kessi or brand to hum waha bhi LACP protocol ko
use kar sakty hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

35

Configuration Ether Channel:
U

U

Configuration PAGP Protocol on 3 links:
Configuring Switch-1:

U

Switch1> enable
Switch1# configure terminal
Switch-1(config)#interface range fa0/1 - 2
Switch-1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode on
Switch-1(config-if-range)#exit
Switch-1(config)#interface port-channel 1
Switch-1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
U

Configuring Switch-2:

U

Switch-2(config)#interface range fa0/1 - 2
Switch-2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode on
Switch-2(config-if-range)#exit
Switch-2(config)#interface port-channel 1
Switch-2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
U

<1 to 48>

<1 to 48>

Show Command:

Switch1# show ip interface brief
Switch1# show etherchannel 1 port
Switch1# show etherchannel detail
Switch1# show etherchannel summary
Switch1# show running-config int fa0/1
Switch1# show etherchannel summary
Switch1# show etherchannel load-balance

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

36

IP Version 4 Addressing
U

U

Contant

U

IPv4 Addressing?
Define Both IP’s?
Range of IP address?
Discussion about IPv4?
Subnet Mask?
WildCast Mask?
How to calculate wildcast mask?
Subnet CIDR?
How to define a Class by IANA?
Why Made Classes IANA?
Public& Private Address?
Private Address Range of Free ip’s?
Loopback Number (127)?

30

31

32

Subnetting:



U

Page.No

IP Address:












U

U

Define Subnetting?
Define Values?
Uses of Subnetting?
Subnetting of Class C:

33

34

VLSM:





Define VLSM?
VLSM for 4 Branches
First Branch 100 Host required
Second Branch 60 Host required
Third Branch 30 Host required
Forth Branch 10 Host required

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

35

36

37
IPv4 Addressing:

IPv4 Addressing:
IP address means k Ager hum apny kessi computers ko Network k sath connect karna chty hy or chty hy k wo
computers appas my data bhi share kary eak dosry k sath to waha hammy hamary computers ki identity chyee hogi us
ki source location or destination location ka computer ko pata hona chyee taky then wo destination computer sy
communicate kar saky. Example Jessy k hummary mobiles phones agar hummay kessi sy bat karni hoti hy to hammy
us person ka number chayee hota hy jis sy hammy bat karni hu Right. To same essi tarha hamary computer ko bhi
numbers chaye hoty hy taky computers appas my communicate kar saky so yaha hum computers k number k ley IP
address ka use karty hy jo un computers k ley un ka number ka kam karti hy or computers ko network sy connect kar k
data shearing or communication provide karti hy.

There are Two Types of IP address:
1)

IP Version 4

2)

IP Version 6

Define Both IP’s:
IPv6 implement hogya tha 1999 my but humary pass IPv4 ki range abhi bakki thi jabhi hum IPv4 ko hi ab tak use kar
rahy thy. Per ab ahista ahista IPv6 implement ho raha hy or kafi jagahu py ho bhi chukka hy. IPv4 hamara 32 bit ka
address hota hy jis my 4octet hoty hy or her 1 octet 8 bit ka hota hy so 8 multiply by 4 its equals to 32 is tarha hamra
IPv4 32bit ka 1 complete address banta hy IPv4 my 3 tarha sy communication hoti hy 1PstP is Unicast (One to one
communication) 2PndP Multicast (One to Many communication) &3rd is Broadcast (One to all communication) or
IPv6 128 bit ka 1 large address hota hy. Is my bhi 3 tarha sy communication hoti hy 1PstP is Unicast (One to one
communication) 2PndP Multicast (One to Many communication) & 3rd is Anycast (One to Closet) Anycast IPv6 1 new
addition hy.

Range of IP address:
IP Address

Network portion

Host portion

Class A

1 to 126

N.H.H.H/24 2 24 = 16,277,216

1 Network 3 host portion.

Class B

128 to 191 255.255.0.0/16

N.N.H.H/16 2 16 = 64,536

2 Network 2 host portion.

Class C

192 to 223 255.255.255.0/24

N.N.N.H/8 2 8 = 256

3 Network 1host portion.

Class D

224 to 239

Reserve for Research/Development

Class E

240 to 255

Reserve for Research/Development

255.0.0.0/8

P

P

P

P

P

P

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

38

Discussion about IPv4:
Ager hum IPv4 ki bat kary to IPv4 my 4 Octet hoty hy essi ley hum ussy 32 bit address khty hy or is ka Minimum
number hota hy 0 or Maximum number hota hy 255 IPv4 1989 mai implement hoi thi or tab ussy 5 classes my define
kiyaa gaya tha jis sy hum IPs ko apny network k according use kar saky. Class A, Class B & Class C ye wo Classes hy
jo hum apny network my use karty hy or Class D or Class E Research ya military Network k ley use ki jati hy. So agar
my yaha bat karu k is ka largest number 255 q hy so dekhy IPv4 my 4 octet hoty hy or her 1 octet 8 bit ka hota hy to
agar hum Class A ki IP ko Use kary or is k sary octet k bits ko open kar dy to IP hammy kuch is tarha dekhy gi
11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 jis my network ka portion 1 hoga or host k portion 0 hongy to ab agar my 1
ki powers nikalo in numbers ko calculate karny k ley like kuch is tarha sy
2P7P.2P6P.2P5P.2P4P.2P3P.2P2P.2P1P.2P0P to in ki powers calculate karny k bad final result kuch Is tarha aaye ga
128.64.32.16.8.4.2.1 so ab agar my in sub ko plus karo to mery pass in ki total value 255 aye gi jabhi ye IPv4 ka
Maximum Number hy is k bad koi bhi IP use nahi karty or essi ley jo network portion hota hy ussy hum 255 sy
represent karty hy or hamara subnet mask bhi essy sy represent hota hy.

Subnet Mask:
Subnet Mask represent hota hy hamary networks k ley k hum kon sy Network ki IP ko Use kar rahy hy agar Class A ki
IP hy us my sirf 1 Network Portion hy to uska Subnet Mask hota hy 255.0.0.0 or Class B my 2 Network Portion hoty
hy to us ka Subnet Mask hota hy 255.255.0.0 or Class C my 3 Network portion hoty hy to Class C ka Subnet Mask
hota hy 255.255.255.0 to subnet hammary Network ko represent karta hy k hum kon sy network ko use kar rahy hy. Or
essi tarha ye Router ko bhi help karta hy Broadcasting rokny k ley jessy hi kessi 1 network ki Broadcast Router k pass
jati hy to Router sub sy phly us IP ka Subnet Mask check karta hy agar wo Subnet Mask us k dosray interface sy
connect Network sy match hota hy to Router ussy agye Forward kar dyta hy Or agar Subnet Mask same nahi hota to
wo Broadcasting ko wahi rok dyta hy. Qk us ka Subnet Mask kessi or network ka hota hy.
Essi ley Class A ki jo IPs hoti hy us my Network portion 1 hota hy or baki k portion Host portions hoty hy jo k
computers k ley use hoty hy to network portion 1 matlab 8 bit full hy essi ley hum Class A ki Ip ko /8 ka Subnet Mask
bhi khty hy or Class B ki IP my 2 Portion full to hum ussy /16 ka Subnet Mask khty hy or or Class C k Subnet Mask ko
hum /24 ka network khty hy qk us my 3 Network portion use hoty hy so 8 multiply by 3 its equals to 24.

WildCast Mask:
Wildcast mask opposite hota hy subnet mask ky jaisy k hum subnet mask my 1 bit ko count karty hy or 0 bit ko ignore
karty hy essi tarha hum wildcast mask my 0 bit ko count karty hy or 1 bit ko ignore karty hy. Wildcast mask my 0 bits
check hoty hy or 1 bit ignores hoty hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

39

Class A ka Subnet Mask 255.0.0.0 hota hy so is Wildcast Mask mai 255 1 portion hy matlab ye 1 hy jo subnet mask
my count hota hy to wild cast k ley my 255 ki jaga 1 sy ussy 0 kar dy ga or bakki ki 0 bits ko 1 kar dy ga qk wildcast
mask opposite hota hy subnet mask k. So Class A ka Wildcast Mask banny ga 0.255.255.255 opposite of subnet.
Class B Subnet Mask 255.255.0.0 Wildcast Mask 0.0.255.255
But kabhi kabhi hummay is tarha ka bhi subnet dekhny ko milta hy like 255.192.0.0 to is condition my hum is mask ka
wiladcast mask nikalny k ley is mask ko minus karaty hy Globally subnet mask sy jo hy 255.255.255.255 so
255.192.0.0 minus 255.255.255.255 so wildcast mask aye ga 0.0.63.255 essi tarha 1 or example like mask hy
255.255.128.0 so again minus this mask into globally mask like 255.255.255.255 minus 255.255.128.0 so wildcast
mask is 0.0.127.255 as simple.

Subnet CIDR:
Hum jo subnet mask is tarha leakhty hy like /8 ya /16 to is tarha k mask ko CIDR matlab (Classless Inter Domain
Routing) khty hy.

Why Made Classes IANA:
IANA ny IPs ko Classes my divide kiya qk jitni hamary Network ki requirement hy hum ussy hisab sy ussi Class ki IP
ko use kar saky. suppose aagar mera Small Network hy to waha my Class C ki IP ko Use karlo ga Agar Medium
Network hy to waha my Class B ki IP ko use kar loga or agar Large Network hy to waha my Class A ki IP ko use karu
ga. Wo kessy? dekhy Class A ki my Network portion hoty hy 1 so us ka network portion howa hy /8 baki k jo 3 portion
bachy us ka host portion howa /24 ye howa Class A ka Host portion so agar ap 2 ki power logy 24 so result aaye ga
(16,277,216) to hum Class A ki IP ko use karty howy itny computers ko IP assign kar sakty hy After subnetting to essi
ley Class A use hoti hy Large network k ley. Or Class B my 2 Network Portion hoty hy /16 so pher hammy 2 Host
portion milty hy /16 so 2 ki power 16 so result aaye ga (65,536) to Class B ki IP ko use karty howy hum itny
Computers ko IPs assign kar sakty hy or Class C my hoty hy 3 Network Portion /24 so host portion k ley bachty hy just
/8 so 2 ki power 8 so result aaye ga (256) to Class C ki IP ko use karty howy ap itny Computers ko IPs dy skaty hy.
Essi ley Class C Small network k ley use kia jata hy qk us my computers ki Range bhut kam milti hy to IANA ny ye
Classes is ley bannai taky hum apny Network k mutabik Ussi Class ki IP ko use kar sakky.

How to define a Class by IANA:
IANA 1 essi international Organization hy jo IP Address ko Assign karti hy or ye organization IPs ko launch bhi karti
hy. So hum ab ye samjhty hy k IANA ny ye Classes kessy baanai. IANA ny in Classes ko divide karty waqt Class A
my sy is k koi bhi Bit use nahi kiyee essi ley Class A Start hoti hy 0 sy ly lekar 255 tak but pher jab IANA ny Class B
ko divide kia to IANA ny Class B k Bits ki 1 power ko use kia left to right so hamary 8 octet my sy last bit ki power
hoi 2 ki power 7 like 2P7 Pso its equals to 128 so is tarha IANA ny Class B ki IP Start ki 128 sy ly kar 191 tak. Ab
sawal ye othta hy k last ki IP kessy pata chali hammy k 191 hi hogi to IANA ny 5 Classes banni or phly un panchu
classes ko divide kia to ager IANA ny class B k ley us ki 1 power ko use kia or Class C nikalny k ley IANA ny ussi bit
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

40

ki 2 powers ko use kia like 2P7 P& 2P6 Pso ye hota hy 128+64 = 192 so essi ley Class C ki IP Start hoi 192 sy then
pher essi tarha Class D Start hoi 224 sy qk is my 3 bits ko use kia tha or Class E Start hoi 240 sy qk is my 4 bits ko use
kia tha. So is tarha IANA ny Classes ko Divide kia or new network milta raha to jaha sy wo new network start ho raha
tha us k last digit hamari phly class ka ending digit ban ga like Class A is 0 to 126 or 127 loopback number hota hy
jabhi hum essy IP my use karty nahi or hamara last word tha 128 jo k Class B ki IP my ja k lag gaya Simple.

Public& Private Address:
To ye jo IPs hy ye 2 tarha sy use hoti hy 1st Public IP or 2nd Private IP. Public IPs hammy IANA sy Purchase karni
parti hy jessy aaj jo hum apny ISP sy internet use karny k ley IPs lyty hy wo hammari Public IPs hoti hy jin ki payment
humy pay karni hoti hy Right jessy k Google k Servers hy Facebook k Serves hy in ki IPs Online hy to ye IANA sy
purchased hy or internet per available hy to Public Ip hammy IANA sy purchase karni parti hy hum or Private IP Free
hoti hy jo hum apny local Network k ley use karty hy or in my bhi kuch Range hoti hy.
U

Private Address Range of Free ip’s

1)

Class A

10.0.0.1

to

10.254.254.254

(1

Network)

2)

Class B

172.16.0.0

to

172.31.254.254

(15

Network)

3)

Class C

192.168.0.0

to

192.168.254.254

(254

Network)

So IANA na unhi IPs my sy kuch IPs ko Private k ley reserve kar diya or kuch IPs ko Public k ley reserve kar diya. To
Jab tak ap apny local network k indar hi communication kar rahy to tab to ap private Ip ko hi use kar sakty hu qk wo
internally communication k ley use ho rahi hy per jab hum internally communication sy nikal kar Externally
communication matlab out of the office kessi or branch sy ya kessi or Network ya internet ko access karna chahu gy to
waha hammy public IP ki required hogi jo hammy online connectivity provide kary gi.

Loopback Number (127):
Loop back 1 virtual IP address hoti hy jo k ping ki request ka rply karti hy or Loop Back IPs hamesha active rehti hy
kabhi down state my nahi jati. IPv4 my Loop back IP hy 127.0.0.0 ye IP hammy ping command ka response dyti hy.
agar hammy kessi computer ka NIC check karna ho k NIC proper work kar rha hy to hum waha loopback IP k throw us
ki connectivity check kar sakty hy. Hum Loop Back IP khud sy bhi configure kar sakty hy CISCO k Router per is sy
faida ye hoga k Client side k computers per hum Gateway IP “Loop back IP” configure kar dy to agar Router ka
1interface Down bhi hojata hy to hammy sary PCs py un ka Gateway Change nahi karna pary ga dosra interface UP
hony k bad wohi Virtual IP yani Loop Back IP as a Gateway ACT Karna Start kardyti hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

Subnetting
41 FLSM:

Define Subnetting:
Subnetting means large Network/Class divide into Smaller Networks. eak hi Class ki IPs ko use karty howy ussy
multiple network my divide karny ko subnetting khty hy. suppose mery 4 offices hy or charu my hi mujhy class C k
network ki IP ko use karna hy to waha mai subnetting ko use karu ga or Class C ki IP ko 4 different networks my
divide karu ga suppose agar mujhy apny her office my 60 computer require hy charu office my 60\60 computer to is
tarha ki subnetting ko FLSM(Fix Lenght Subnet Mask) khty hy agar equal portion karny ho tu or agar different portion
karny hy jaisy 1 office my 100 computer or dosry office my 50 computer to is tarha ki subnetting ko VLSM (Variable
Length Subnet Mask) khty hy. Subnetting karny sy phly kuch basics bhut important hy jaisy k Class A my 1 Network
bit hoty hy or 3 Host bit hoty hy. To agar my un 8 bit ki power lyta hu to mujy kia value milti hy 255 Right. But
subnetting my hamary subnet mask change hoty hy. Jessy subnetting my subnet mask kuch is tarha bhi aata hy k /9,
/10, /23, /28 to suppose agar yaha /9 ka mask hy to 8 bit my tu mujy 255 mil raha tha right or 1 bit my us k baraber
waly portion sy ly lo ga jo k host portion hy 1 bit waha sy liya matlab 2 ki power 7 aai thi 128 right to 1 bit waha sy
liyaa tu /9 ka subnet mask howa 255.128.0.0 after subnetting or is my host ki value bhi barh jaye gy. Essi tarha agar /10
ka mask hy to 8 bit 1 portion sy complete hogaye or 2 bit us k baraber wally host portion sy ly lu ga to 128 one bit after
taking power or 64 second bit to 2 bit lyny k bad in ki power ko plus kar du ga to /10 ka subnet mask aye ga
255.192.0.0 after subnetting. Or is ko yad karny ka asan tarika hy k ap bits ki power phly calculate kar k yad kar ly k
agar itny bit lyny hy to kia value aaye gi to is sy asani hojati hy subnetting karny my.
So agar 1 bit lyna hy tu Value hogi
agar 2 bit lyna hy tu Value hogi
agar 3 bit lyna hy tu Value hogi
agar 4 bit lyna hy tu Value hogi
agar 5 bit lyna hy tu Value hogi
agar 6 bit lyna hy tu Value hogi
agar 7 bit lyna hy tu Value hogi
agar 8 bit lyna hy tu Value hogi

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

Subnetting my required ye hy k jitney bhi bits kaam pary baraber waly host portion sy utny bit ly ky un ki value ko
pick kar ly jaisy agar 5 value pick ki hy tu mask aye ga 255.248.0.0 is tarha sy bs host portion k bits ko 0 sy 1 count
karna hota hy.

In Short:
“Subnetting eak way hota hy jis sy hum bary network ko choty choty networks my break karty hy”

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

42

Uses of Subnetting:
1)
2)
3)
4)
U

Ip address ko separate karny k ley use hona
1 bary network ko small networks my karna
easy to trouble shoot
Decrease size of broadcast domain

Subnetting of Class C:

Requeird Host 40.
192.168.10.0/24
to subnetting karny k ley hamy ye dekhna parta hy k kis 2 ki power my wo mujhy 40 host asani
sy mil sakty hy, to phly apko Required host nikalny hy jo k subnetting my H sy represent hoty hy.

1) Required Host:
So phly hamy H ki Value nikalni parti hy yani Host bit k kis power ko ly k ap apni requirement pori kar sakty hy. to
agar my yaha 2 ki power 6 lyta ho to 2P6P so its equals to 64 so yaha meri requirement pori horahi hy to yaha my H ki
value yahi rakh sakta hu.

2) Converted Network bits:U

Formula (Total Host bits – Required Host H Value)

Class C my mujhy Host bits mil rahy thy 8 to mai un bits ko minus kardu ga apni H ki value sy jo meri required host hy
so 8 - 6 its equals to 2 to mera N yani Network bits 2 nikla ye 2 bits hum network portion my add karata hy.

3) Full Formula of subnetting:
So Total network bits + converted Network bits jo H k value k Minus karny k bad aye hy.
So Class C k Network my phly total network kitny thy 24 Right to converted N/W bit kitny aye hy mery pass 2 bits jo
H k value k Minus karny k bad aye hy so fomula apply karny k bad yani 24 + 2 = 26 to after subnetting Class C ka
network ab present hoga /26 sy to agar ab network /26 hogaya hy to is ka subnet mask hoga 255.255.255.192 to /26 k
network ka subnet mask ya hoga after subnetting.

Subnetworks:
yani subnetting k bad ab mujhy Class C ki 1 single IP kitny networks dy rahi hy. To us ka formula hota hy (2 ki power
N) so N kia tha hamary pass 2 to yahi aajye ga hamary pass k 2 ki power 2 like 2P2P = 4 to after this subnetting mujhy
Class C ki Network I.D 4 subnetwork Network bana k dygi.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

43

Host Block Size:
yani ab is 1 network my mujhy ktiny computer mily gy to us ka formula hota y (2 ki power H) so H kia tha hamary
pass 6 so 2 ki power 6 like 2P6P = 64 to mujhy 1 network my 64 Hosts mily gy.

Range Network I.Ds:
jo subnet mask ho ko us ko 256 my minus kara do to 1 new network I.D mil jaye gi like 255.255.255.192 -256 so ye
aye ga 64 so 192.168.10.64 ye new network I.D hogi us k bad 64 ko + karty rahy new network milta rhy ga or ki last
stage hy 255 tak.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

44

Subnetting VLSM:

Define VLSM:
VLSM subnetting ki second type hy jis my um apni requirement k according subnetwork k size ko divide kar sakty hy
suppose hamary offices ki 4 branches hy or hammy un branches my different network ki IPs assign karni hy or jitney
host us branch my hy us sy bs kuch IP zada rakhni hy taky agar bad my kuch user add ho tu un ko bhi fulfill kar saky
or zada IPs waste na ho saky. jessy k subnetting my equal subnetwork hoty hy her subnetwork my equal size like 128
host ya 64 host to agar hamary kessi office my subnetting hoi v hy /26 k according jo k per branch my 64 host dy rahi
hy tu subnetting fixed hy agar kessi brach my sirf 10 computer hi hy to waha bakki ki IPs waste ho rahi hogi. Essi ley
VLSM my hum brachnes k according un ki IPs ki scheme ko design karty hy taky IPs waste na hu. Iska formula bhi
simple hy bus hammy jitney host chayee hoty hum hum host portion k utny bits ko 0 sy 1 kar k un ki powers ko count
kar lyty hy.

VLSM for 4 Branches:
IP Address
:
Subnet mask :

192.168.1.0 /24
255.255.255.0

First Branch 100 Host required:
Open subnet in Octat
Required 100 so borrow 1 bit in host portion
So new subnet mask is

:
:
:

255.255.255.00000000
255.255.255.10000000
255.255.255.128 /25

Yaha 1 bit hum ny is ley borrow kiya qk 128 my hamari 100 host ki requirement pori ho rahi thi or kuch extra IPs bhi
mil rahi thi so 27 = 128.
Network ID

First IP Address

Last IP Address

Brodcast IP Address

192.168.1.0

192.168.1.1

192.168.1.125

192.168.0.126

Second Branch 60 Host required:
Open subnet in Octat
Required 100 so borrow 1 bit in host portion
So new subnet mask is

:
:
:

255.255.255.00000000
255.255.255.11000000
255.255.255.192 /26

Yaha 2 bit hum ny is ley borrow kiya qk 64 my hamari 60 host ki requirement pori ho rahi thi or kuch extra IPs bhi mil
rahi thi so 26 = 64.
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

45

Network ID

First IP Address

Last IP Address

Brodcast IP Address

192.168.1.128

192.168.1.129

192.168.1.190

192.168.0.191

Third Branch 30 Host required:
Open subnet in Octat
Required 100 so borrow 1 bit in host portion
So new subnet mask is

:
:
:

255.255.255.00000000
255.255.255.11100000
255.255.255.224 /27

Yaha 3 bit hum ny is ley borrow kiya qk 32 my hamari 30 host ki requirement pori ho rahi thi or kuch extra IPs bhi mil
rahi thi so 25 = 32.
Network ID

First IP Address

Last IP Address

Brodcast IP Address

192.168.1.192

192.168.1.193

192.168.1.223

192.168.0.224

Forth Branch 10 Host required:
Open subnet in Octat
Required 100 so borrow 1 bit in host portion
So new subnet mask is

:
:
:

255.255.255.00000000
255.255.255.11110000
255.255.255.240 /28

Yaha 3 bit hum ny is ley borrow kiya qk 16 my hamari 10 host ki requirement pori ho rahi thi or kuch extra IPs bhi mil
rahi thi so 24 = 32.
Network ID

First IP Address

Last IP Address

Brodcast IP Address

192.168.1.225

192.168.1.226

192.168.1.239

192.168.0.240

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

46

Router & Routing Protocol
U

Contant

U

U

Page.No

Router Topics:
 What is Router?
 Function of Router?
1) Restrict broadcast to the Lan:
2) Act as a default Gateway:
3) Route or Move Data Between Network:
4) Learn and advertise Loop free path:
5) How we can connect routers?
6) Directly connected Router:
7) Static Router:
8) Dynamic Router:

40

41

Routing Protocol EIGRP:
 Routing Protocol concept?
1)
Distance Vector Routing Protocol:
2)
Link State Routing Protocol:
3)
Hybrid Routing Protocol:
 EIGRP Overview:
1) EIGRP Features?
2) EIGRP Concept?
3) EIGRP Table?
o Neighbor Table?
o Topology Table?
o Routing Table?
 EIGRP Message?
o Hello Message:
o Update Message:
o Query Message:
o Rply Message:
o Acknowledgment Message:
 EIGRP Transport?
 EIGRP Delay Time?
 Successor Route?
 Feasible Successor Route?
 Feasible Distance?
 Advertise Distance?

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

42

43

44

47







EIGRP Matricalculation K Value?
EIGRP Autonomous System Number?
EIGRP PDMs Protocol?
EIGRP Authentication?
EIGRP Authentication Feature?
EIGRP Load Balancing?
Unequal load Balancing (Variance command)?
Equal Load Balancing?

45

46

Routing Protocol OSPF:














OSPF Protocol Concept?
Quick View of OSPF?
OSPF Network Structure?
OSPF Features?
OSPF Areas?
1) Backbone Area:
2) Regular Area:
3) Stub Area:
4) Totally Stubby Area:
5) Not-so-Stubby Area (NSSA):
6) Totally NSSA:
OSPF Areas Routers?
1) Backbone Routes:
2) Internal Routes:
3) ABR Routers:
4) ASBR Routers:
5) Virtual Links:
6) Detail of Virtual links:
OSPF Routers Roles?
OSFP Matric Cost?
Link State Advertisements (LSA)?
LSA Operation?
OSPF Sequence Number?
OSPF LSA Types?
1)
Router LSA Type 1:
2)
Network LSA Type 2:
3)
Summary LSA Type 3:
4)
Summary LSA Type 4:
5)
External LSA Type 5:
6)
Not-so-Stubby Area Type 6:
7)
External Attributes LSA:
OSPF Operations?
OSPF Packets?
Hello Message?
Link State Request?
Database Description?
Link State Acknowledgment?

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

48










Detail of Hello Message?
Establishment Neighbors & Exchanging Routes?
Down State?
Init State?
Two-way State?
Exstart State?
Loading State?
Full State?
Designated Router in OSPF?
Selection of DR & BDR?
Basic OSPF Configuration?

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

55

49

What is Router:
What is Router?
Router:
Router 1 essy specialize computer ko bolla jata jo different networks ko apas my connect karwata hy. essy hum
internetworking device bhi kehty hy.Router 1 essi device hy jo 2 different network ko apas my connect karta hy taky
wo appas my communicate kar saky. Router my 1 operating system use hota hy jessy IOS khty hy jis sy router operate
hota hy or routing wagera perform karta hy data ko 1 jaga sy dosri jaga move karta hy. Router Routing karny k ley
switch ki tarha 1 table create karta hy jessy routing table kehty hy or is routing table ki help sy wo 1 jaga sy dosri jaga
data send karta hy. Router OSI ki layer 3 Network layer py kam karta hy jessy hamary repeater or cables layer 1 py
kam karty hy Switches layer 2 py kam karty hy essi tarha router layer 3 network layer py kam karta hy. Router bhut
sary function perform karta hy per is ka main function kessi dosry network k sath communicate karwana hy. Or essi
tarha router ka dosra main function hy k ye broadcast traffic ko rokta hy bhut sari companies router banati hy jessy k
Junipher, 3COM, HP, Nortel or Cisco or is k elawa bhi bhut c companies router banati hy per most popular Cisco
router hy jo common best network k ley use worldwide use kiyee jaty hy.
U

Function of Router:
1)

Restrict broadcast to the Lan:

Broadcast 1 essi transmission hy jis ka message network py sary PCs 1 sath receive karty hy yani 1 to all
communication. Lan my broadcast msg bhut hi common hoty hy or ye broadcast transmission physical layer, data link
layer, or network layer my use ki jati hy. without broadcasting k network my commination karna bhut hi mushkil ho
jata hy qk bhut sy protocol broadcast communication ko use karty hy jessy k ARP, RARP, DHCP or bhi bhut sary
protocol broadcast commination ko use karty hy networks my communicate karny ka essi wajja sy hum broadcasting
ko LAN sy to bilkul khatam nahi kar sakty hy qk ye zarori bhi hy. but hum essy restrict kar sakty hy throw the router
Qk router her 1 interface 1 alag broadcast domain hota hy.
2)

Act as a default Gateway:

Eak network sy kessi network tk ya data ko kessi dosri jaga jany send karny k ley hum default Gateway use karty hy.
Agar hamry sary PC lan sy connect hy or wo aapas my communicate kar rahy hy to jab hamy default gateway ki
zarorat nahi hy qk wo sari pc 1 hi switch k sath lan sy connect hy per agar hamy internet py rakhy kessi server ya
computer ko use karna hy matlab agar hamy lan sy nikal k wan py jana hy tu waha hamy 1 gate ki zarorat hogi jaha sy
hamari request bahar ja saky or request ka response ander bhi aa saky to is k ley hum router ka use karty hy.

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50
3)

Route or Move Data Between Network:

Router 1 network sy dosray network tak jany k ley best route search karta hy or pher help karta hy k data router sy
dosry router tak 1 achy rasty sy travel ho k waha tak pouch saky. Router k bhut sary interfaces hoty hy jessy k Ethernet
interface, Serial interface, Router best path apny route table ko use kar k search karta hy or data ko uski destination per
move karta hy.
4)

Learn and advertise Loop free path:

Router apny her interface py dosray router ko learn kartay hy taky ussy 1 road mil saky jis sy data ko uski destination
location per send kar saky jessy. Commonly hum essy neighbor router kehtyh hy matlab us router k baraber my kon sa
router hy or us k agye kitny routers lagye hy. jessy hi do routers apas my connect hoty hy to wo apas my apna routing
table exchange karty hy dosray router k sath taky commination dono taraf sy aasan hu or yaha sy waha jany k rasty
donu router k pass mojood hu. Routers route learns karny k ley 3 proccess ka use karty hy jo k nechy describe hy.
U

How we can connect routers:
 Directly connected Router:
Is process my router ye detkhta hy k kon sa router is router k sath directly connected hy throw the wire or usko
apny routing table my save kar lyta hy.
 Static Router:
Is process my router khud sy koi route learn nahi karty balky network administrator manually sary routers ko apny
router my save karta hy taky dono routers ko aapas my connect kar saky.
 Dynamic Router:
Is process my network administrator router my sirf Routing protocol ko enable karty hy or sary router is protocol k
throw hi dosray routers k addresses ko auto learn kar lyty hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

Routing protocol
EIGRP:
51
Routing Protocol concept:
Terminology which use Routing Protocols:
 Distance Vector Routing Protocol:
Distance vector routing protocol my Router apna pora Routing Table pori topology my exchange karty hy her 30
second k bad. (Example) :
IGRP, RIP & RIPv2
 Link State Routing Protocol:
Link state routing protocol my router apna pora router table exchange nahi karty sirf Router my hoi changing ya
updates ko send karty hy. Benifit ye hota hy k kam bandwidth utilize hoti hy. (Example) :
OSPF
 Hybrid Routing Prtocol:
Hybrid routing protocol my distance or link state donu hi routing protocol ki khososiyat hoti hy. (I.E) EIGRP

EIGRP Overview:
EIGRP sy phly IGRP hota tha jo k 1 (Distance Vector Routing Protocol) tha pher essi protocol ko Enhance kiya gaya
essy or better banaya gaya or pher IGRP ko Update kar k hi EIGRP yani (Enhance Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
Cisco ny developed kia or EIGRP (Hybrid Routing Protocol) hy jo sirf router my hoi changing ya update ko send karta
hy pora routing table send nahi karta.

EIGRP Features:
1)
2)
3)
4)

EIGRP matriculation karta hy based on Bandwidth or Delay.
EIGRP Multiple Network Layer ko support karta hy jessy “IP,IPX & Apple Talk”
EIGRP 1 wahid essa protocol hy jo Equal on Unequal load balancing provide karta hy.
EIGRP best path to calculate karta hy per 2nd best path bhi phly sy hi calculate kar k rakhta hy taky Delay time
kam lagye.
5) EIGRP ki Conversation bhut fast hy qk ye 2nd best path phly sy hi wo calculate kar k apny topology table
rakhta hy.
6) EIGRP Loop free Topology create karta hy.
7) EIGRP Classless Routing Protocol hy or ye manual Summarization or VLSM ko bhi support karta hy.
8) EIGRP py hum kessi bhi router per Summarization kar sakty hy or OSPF my Summarization sirf ABR router
per hoti hy.
9) EIGRP jab bhi koi Update packet send karta hy tu wo broadcast nahi balky Multicast IP py send karta hy jo hy
224.0.0.10.
10) Fast conversation changing form update.
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

52

11) Only Update share pora routing table nahi.
12) No broadcast unicast & Multicast Only.
13) Multiple Network Layer support or sub k alag alag Routing Table.
14) EIGRP k Routes routing Table D symbol sy represent hoty hy.

EIGRP Concept:




EIGRP phly sirf CISCO Propriety protocol tha but ab cisco ny essy open standard kar diya hy.
EIGRP ka Administrative Distance yani A.D hota hy 90 or is ka protocol number hy 89.
EIGRP ka Algorithm hy DUAL (Diffusion Update Algorithm).
Best Path calculate based on Bandwidth & Delay.
Bandwidth zada delay km its equals to Best Path.

EIGRP Tables:
EIGRP routing karny sy phly 3 tarha k tables create karta hy.
 Neighbor Table:
Neighbor Table my Router khud sy directly connected router ki information ko save karta hy k us k baraber my kon sa
Router laga hy or us tak janny ki kia information hy ya kia rasta hy. Or Router pher apny us neighbor Router k
interface py jis sy wo connect hota hy us interface py wo HELLO packets ko send karta hy jis sy Router ko pata lagta
rehta hyk us ka neighbor Router UP hy ya down hy essy KEEPALIVE message bhi khty hy. Or ye message her 5
second k bad auto send hoty hy. Or is ka dead timer hota hy 3 time load yani 15 second tak agar hello message ka
response nahi aata hy to router samajh jata hy k us ka nighbor Router down hogaya hy. Or ye HELLO packets bhi
Multicast IP py send hoty hy 224.0.0.10.
(Show ip eigrp nieghbors)

 Topology Table:
Topology table my Routers apny pory network diagram rakhta hy or us my sary router ki information hoti hy or pori
topology information bhi save hoti hy. Or EIGRP ka 2nd best path bhi topology table my hota hy.
(Show ip eigrp Topology)
U

 Routing Table:
Routing Table my sary Routers ki information hoti hy or best path bhi routing table my hota hy. Router table ko hum
router ka brain khty hy qk router wahi sy sary decision lyta hy.
(Show ip Route)

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

53

EIGRP Message:
EIGRP 5 tarha k Messages ko send karta hy.
1) Hello Message:

Neighbor Relationship build karny k ley.
2) Update Message:

Networks my jab bhi koi update hoti hy tu waha Update message Multicast send kiye jaty hy.
3) Query Message:

Query message my jab best path down hojata hy to router 2nd best path ko up kar dyta hy or pher sy
second best path ko search karny k ley dosray routers ko query message send karta hy or wo dosry router sy
best route ki information k bary my pata karta hy.
4) Rply Message:

Rply message my router Hello message ka rply karty hy hello message sy hi.
5) Acknowledgment Message:

ACK message my router ko jab Update message mil jta hy to router ACK message send karty hy k
unhy update packets mil gaye hy.
U

EIGRP Transport:
Jessy IP ki transport TCP sy guzarti hy Voice ki traffic UDP sy guzarti hy wessy hi EIGRP ki Transport us k apny
protocol RTP (Reliable Transport Protocol) sy guzarti hy. Update Message, Query Message or Rply Message my RTP
use hota hy qk waha sy response milta hy to us ki traffic wow aha sy carry karta hy.

EIGRP Delay Time:
Kessi bhi 1 Router sy dosry Router tak data ko pouchny my jo time lagta hy ussy Delay Time khty hy. Serial interfaces
py by default Delay Time hota 20,000 in milliseconds or Fast-Ethernate py delay time hota hy 100 milliseconds/Ms.
 Successor Route:
Jo first path hota hy EIGRP my ussy hum Successor Route khty hy. Or Successor Route ki information Routing Table
my hoti hy qk wo best path hota hy.
 Feasible Succssor Route:
Jo second best path hota hy EIGRP my ussy hum Feasible Successor Route khty hy. Or us ki information Topology
table my hoti hy Qk wo 2nd best path hota hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

54

Routers how to Calculate Second best path?
Ye samajhny sy phly hum ye samajhty hy k Feasible Distance or Advertise Distance kia hota hy.
 Feasible Distance: Source Router sy ly kar Distention Router tak jo cost hoti hy links ki ussy hum Feasible
Distance khty hy.
 Advertise Distance: Next Hope yani Source Router k Neighbor Router sy ly kar Distention Router tak jo
cost hoti hy links ki ussy hum Advertise Distance khty hy.
Second best path chose karny k ley that’s a Rule k agar kessi router ko 2nd best path banna hy tu us ka Advertise
Distance chota hona chayee best path k Feasible Distance sy. Jab ja k wo 2nd best path banny ga or essi waja sy
EIGRP my hammy loop free topology milti hy.

EIGRP Matricalculation:
EIGRP 5 chezzo ko use karta hy apni Matricalculation k ley jis sy wo best path wagera ki selection karta hy.
K1
K2
K3
K4
K5

=
=
=
=
=

Bandwidth
Delay
Load
Reliability
MFU

Value 1
Value 1
Value 0
Value 0
Value 0

Formula of Calculate Matri-calculation:

K1

K2 Bandwidth + K3 Delay
Bandwidth +256 –load

K5

256
K4 + reliability

That is Book Formula:
Easy Formula to Calculate Matricalculation:
 Matric = (107 / Minimum Bandwidth +
Sum of Delays ) * 256
 Bandwidth 1544 Kbits ,
Delay 200000 U’sec
U

EIGRP Autonomous System Number:
EIGRP Configure karty waqt hum us ka A.S number dalty hy jo k us network ki boundary hoti hy ya u samajh ly k us
network ki identity hoti hy. A.S number bhi Private or Public hoty hy agar hum internally EIGRP configure kar rahy hy
jo sirf ap k office tak hi hy to ap waha private A.S number ko use kar sakty hy but agar ap Externally EIGRP configure

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

55

kar rahy hy jo over the Internet hoga to waha ap ko IANA sy A.S number Purchase karna parta hy to ussy hum Public
A.S khty hy. Or is ki range 1 to 65535 tak hoti hy or hum 1 A.S my Maximum 255 Router laga sakty hy.

EIGRP PDMs Protocol:
PDMs (Protocol Department Module’s) ye protocol work karta hy EIGRP my deferent networks layers k ley. Qk
EIGRP Different Routing table banata hy essi ley wo different routing table create karta hy IP k ley alag Table, IPX k
ley alag Table or Apple Talk k ley alag Table.
U

EIGRP Authentication:

EIGRP Authentication k ley MD5 yani (Message Digest 5) Algorithm ko use karta hy jis my us ka password encrypted
ho k Hash value my change hojata hy hash value encrypted hoti hy or jab ye hash value dosry Router k hash value sy
match hoti hy jabhi data flow hota hy warna nahi.

EIGRP Authentication Feature:
EIGRP apni Authentication k ley Key-Chain bhi Create karta hy jis my hum multiple passwords create kar satky hy
multiple keys k throw like Key 1, Key 2, Key 3. Is ka faida ye hoga k jaisy company ka rule hy k her month k bad
password ko change karna hy to waha ap manually password ko change karny sy acha hy Key-chains bana dy or us ka
life time set kar dy to her month k bad key password auto hi renew hojaye ga apko manually nahi karna pary ga.

Cammands of Authentication Key-Chain:
R1(config)# Key-chain (Name)
“Create”
R1(config)#Key 1
R1(config)# Key-string (Password)
R1(config)# exit
R1(config)# int s0/0
“Assign Interface”
R1(config)# ip authentication mode eigrp 100 md5
R1(config)# ip authentication key-chain eigrp 100 (Key Name)

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

56

EIGRP Load Balancing:
Unequal load Balancing (Variance command)
Jessy hamary pass eak Router 4 hy or ussy jana hy Router 5 py to ussy 3 path mil rahy hy routing table mai waha tak
janny k ley.
1) Router 1 ki metric hy 50 or is ka A.D hy 30
2) Router 2 ki metric hy 90 or is ka A.D hy 40
3) Router 3 ki metric hy 120 or is ka A.D hy 60

NOTE:

(FIRST RELAX YOUR MIND AND READ THIS CAREFULLY)

To yaha tak janny k ley 3 path ussy mil rahy hy tu router sub sy lowest metric k path ko as Best Path consider kary ga
or wahi sy data send kary ga. Or is ka Feasible Distance hoga 50 Right to ab hum dekhty hy k is ka second best path
kon bannye ga to second best path banny k ley condition ye hy k jis router ka A.D means (Advertise Distance) lowest
hoga best route k F.D (Feasible Distance) sy to wo second best banny ga jo is case my Router 2 hy qk is ka A.D lowest
hy best route k F.D sy.
To jab bhi hum unequal load balancing ki bat karty hy tu hum sirf feasible successor path ko hi consider karty hy
unequal cost load balancing k ley. To hum kia karty hy yaha py k jo variance ki value hy wo by default 1 hoti hy to
agar my variance ki value ko barha k kar do 2 kar do or pher ussy multiply kardu Rotuer 1 ki metric sy jo hamara best
path hy to variance ki value kitni aye gi 100 Right. To ab kia hoga hammary essy path jin ki metric 100 sy kam hy to
wo outh k routing table my chaly jaye gy. Jis sy Load balancing start ho jaye gi variance value ko hammy itna barhana
hota hy k hamara jo second route hy us ka F.D sy lowest hojaye successor Route k F.D sy. jabhi hum ny variance ki
value 2 consider ki thi takky 50 ko cross kar k wo 100 hojaye means multiply k bad or pher Router 2 ki Matric us sy
kam hojaye taky wo Route oth k Routing table my aajye or load balancing start hojaye. Agar hum essa nahi karty to
Router 2 wessy bhi hamara 2nd best path tha per wo load balancing nahi kar raha tha qk wo routing table my nahi tha
wo topology table my tha qk 2nd best path topology table my hoty hy routing table my nahi to jabhi hum unequal load
balancing k ley variance command ko use karty hy or us ki metric ko multiply kar k highest karty hy taky 2nd path
topology table sy oth k router table my aajye. Or hamesha feasible successor hi topology table sy oth k routing table
my aty hy koi or router nahi or hum Maximum 16 path ko routing table my la k load balancing kara sakty hy.

Commands of Unequal load Balancing:
R1(config)# Router eigrp 100
R1(config)# variance 2
R1(config)# exit

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

57

Equal Load Balancing:
Equal load balancing matlab k agar router ko us k donu links py same Cost mily gi distention route tak janny k ley to
wo auto hi laod balancing start kar dy ga us my wo 1 packet first link sy bhejye ga or 1 packet dosry link sy is tarha wo
alternate packets ko send kar k equal load balancing kary ga jis sy traffic ka load divide hojaye ga.

EIGRP Commands:
Adding networks for EIGRP on Router R1:
R1(config)#router eigrp 100
R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#exit
Note: All directly connected networks will be issued in the router eigrp mode. Autonomous System number must be
same on all the routers in the network.

U

Adding networks for EIGRP on Router R2:

U

R1(config)#router eigrp 100
R1(config-router)#network 20.0.0.0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#exit
U

Show Commads on EIGRP:
R1# show ip route
R1# show ip eigrp topology
R1# show ip eigrp neighbors
R1# show ip eigrp interfaces
R1# show ip protocol

Hello Message or Delay Time Set Command:
R1 (config)# ip hello-interval eigrp (A.S number) or (Time seconds my)
R1(config)# ip hold-time eigrp (time)

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

OSPF Protocol
Concept:
58
OSPF Protocol Concept:
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) open standard protocol hy hum essy kessi bhi Router py run kar sakty hy chahye 1
taraf Juniper ho or 1 taraf CISCO k routers ho OSPF run kar jaye ga. OSFP bhi EIGRP ki tarha Classless routing
protocol hy. EIGRP matric calculation ko use karta hy best path calculate karny k ley or OSPF links ki cost ko use
karta best path calculate karny k ley.
OSPF link state routing protocol hy or ye SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm ko use karta hy best path ko calculate
karny k ley k pory network my sy best path kon sa hoga. Link state routing protocol router ki information ko get karty
hy us k network structure sy.
Quick View:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

Open Standard.
Only IP base routing not IPX or Apple TAC like EIGRP.
Classless routing protocol.
Support VLSM.
Link state routing protocol.
No Feasible Successor.
No unequal load balancing.
OSPF Cost based upon bandwidth.

OSPF Routers aappas my Hello Message ko send karty hy apni neighbor relationship ko build karny k ley. Her 1 router
apny neighbor router ko learn karta hy us ki RID sy yani Router ID or us ki Cost sy. Or wo uski neighbor information
ko save rakhta hy apny Adjency Database my.
IMPORTANT POINT:
 Neighbor table ko OSPF my “Adjency database” khty hy.
 OSFP my Topology Table ko LSDB yani “Link State Database” khty hy qk is my topology same nahi hoti her
area my 1 alag topology hoti hy.
 Her router SPF algorithm ko use karta hy best path ko calculate karny k ley or jab wo best path search kar lyta
hy to wo ussy apny Forwarding database my move kar dyta hy. Routing Table ko OSPF my “Forwarding
Database” khty hy.
U

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

59

OSPF Network Structure:
OSPF my networks ko broke kar dia jata hy area wise or in areas ki starting hoti hy Area 0 sy pher Area 1 Area 2 or ess
tarha Areas chalty hy. Jo bhi update hoti hy wo sirf ussi Area my flood hoti hy jaha koi update ya changing hoti hy
bakki area my nahi. OSPF ko 2 hierarchal design my divide kia gaya hy.
1) Area 0 jo k pory network ka backbone hota hy or sari traffic Area 0 sy hi aagye forward hoti hy.
2) Others Area jo k directly connected hoty hy backbone area sy unhy others area khty hy.
OSFP my ap 1 Area k ander 50 sy 100 routers tak connect kar sakty hy ye hamary network design py depend karta hy.

U

OSPF Features:
1) Link State Protocol.
2) Routing Table is to short qk her area my sirf apny hi routes show hoty hy.
3) Router 1 to just Router 1 information and Router 2 to Router 2 information yaha her router apna separate
routing table banata hy or just ussi ki information rakhta hy sary routers ki nahi.
4) Update Customize yani jis Area my changing hoi hogi updates sirf ussi Area Flood hogi bakki k Areas my
nahi.

U

OSPF Areas:
Several Types of Ares in OSPF.
 Backbone Area:
Area 0 hamara Backbone Area khelata hy jo k sary Areas sy connected hota hy.
 Regular Area:
Wo Routers jo backbone area my nahi hoty wo regular area my hoty hy like Area 1 or area 2 or in k database my
Internal routes bhi hoty hy or External routes bhi.
 Stub Area:
Stub Area k database my sirf default routes hoty hy or internal routes ki information hoti hy.

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60

 Totally Stubby Area:
Ye CISCO prosperity hy or CISCO ka Design hy jis my routers k database my un k apny Areas my jo routers hy
unki information hoti hy or Default Routes hoty hy.
 Not-so-Stubby Area:(NSSA)
Is k database my Internal Routes hoty hy, Redistributed Routes hoty hy jo is k routes sy connected hoty hy. Or
optionally hy k ap is my default route bhi agar agar rakha chahu tu rakh sakty hu.
 Totally NSSA:
Ye CISCO ka Propriety Area hy. Is k Database my is k Area k Routes ki information hoti hy or Redistributed
Routes ki bhi information hoti hy jo is k Routes k sath Connected hu or Defualt Route ki bhi information hoti hy.

OSPF Areas Routers:
Backbone Routes: Wo Routers jo Backbone Area k Ander ho unhy “Backbone Routers” khlaty hy.
Internal Routes: Jo routers 1 hi Area k ander ho unhy “Internal Routers” khty hy.
ABR Routers : Jo Router 1 Area sy nikal kar kessi dosry Area sy Connect hu unhy“Area Border Routers” khty hy
ASBR Routers : jo Routers apny Area k sath connect hu or kessi or Domain k sath bhi connect ho ya kessi protocol k sath
like EIGRP to wo routers ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router) router khlaty hy.

Virtual Links : Essy Router jo k direct connect nahi ho sakty Backbone Area sy to essy my hum ABR router per Virtual
Links create karty hy or then pher unhy Backbone Area sy connect karty hy. But that is a temporary
solution.

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61

Detail of Virtual links:
OSPF my requirement tu ye hoti hy k sary Area directly connected hu Area 0 sy. Per jab essa Possible nahi hota kuch
Scenarios my to waha hum Virtual links ko create karty hy jo as a bridge kam karta hy. Area 0 or Regular Area k
darmiyaan. But this is a temporary solution Figure 3-3 Show OSPF Virtual links.

Configuration of Virtual Links:
On Router 1
R1(config)# router ospf 1
R1(config-router)# area 1 virtual-link 10.20.20.20

On Router 3
R3(config-router)# router ospf 1
R3(config-router)# area 1 virtual-link 10.10.10.10

Verify Virtual-links
R3# show ip ospf virtual-links
U

OSPF Routers Roles:
OSPF ny Routers ko kuch rules bhi assign kiye hy or 1 router per multiple Rules bhi ho sakty hy.

Internal Routers apny

sary Interfaces ko 1 hi Area my rakhy or Link state database maintain kary sirf

apny Area ka.

Backbone Routers at

least apna koi 1 interface kesi dosray routers jo k backbone Area my na hu un k
sath jo Area 0 hy us k sath koi interface zaroor rakhy.
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62

Area Border Roter (ABR) Routers

apna 1 interface Backbone Area my rakhy or 1 Interface us Area
my rakhy jis Area ko Backbone Area sy connect kia gaya ga
Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) Router k interface inside or outside donu ki taraf hona
lazzmi hy qk us ka 1 interface kessi or domain k sath bhi connect hota hy.

OSFP Matric Cost:
By default Cisco ny sary interfaces ki cost 100 Mbps hi rakhi hy. Or agar hammy khud sy Cost ko calculate karna hu to
uska formula hy Link Cost = 100 Mbps divide by Bandwidth Value. Is cost ko ap auto bhi adjust kar sakty hy links k
hisab sy router k global mode py command chalye gi “auto-cost” or is ki cost manually bhi set kar sakty hy ”ip ospf
cost 27” is command sy.

Link State Advertisements (LSA):
OSPF ka her router apny links k state ko dosry routers k sath advertise karty hy jessy hum LSA yani (Link State
Advertise) khty hy. Her router apny ander 1 Database ko contain karta hy jessy hum LSDB (Link-State Data Base)
khty hy. OSPF my her router 1 spreate LSDB ko khud my maintain karta hy or dosray routers ko latest LSA send karta
hy or apny link k state ko advertised karta hy.

LSA Operation:
Her LSA 1 sequence number k sath hoti hy or 1 time k bad auto send hoti hy or iska default timer 30 minute hota hy.
Her router 30 minute k bad LSA ko send or dosray routers sy Receive bhi karty hy. Jab routers LSA ko receive karty
hy to pher wo ussy apny LSDB sy compare karty hy agar wo LSA new hoti hy to wo ussy apny LSDB py save/add kar
lyty hy or pher SPF algorithm ko run karty hy. Agar router k pass uski router ID phly sy hi hoti hy to wo pher LSA ka
sequence number apny oldest LSA k sequence number k sath match karta hy or then changing karta hy agar wo new
hoti hy to wo porani LSA ko discard kar k new LSA ko update kar lyta hy.

OSPF Sequence Number:
OSPF Sequence number 32 bit ka hota hy. Or us ka first legal Sequence number 0x80000001 ye hota hy Sequence
number change hoty hy per sirf do hi condition per.
 K router k Link ki State my koi changing hoi ho jeassy koi Router new lagaya gaya hu ya Delete kai
gaya hu jab sequence number change hota hy jab network my koi changing hoi hu.
 Ya LSA ki jo age hy wo OUT hogai hu (Matlab jo LSA Update hy wo her 30 minute bad network my
flood ho rahi hu per network koi changes nahi ho rahi wohi LSA bar bar send ho rahi hu jab sequence
number khud hi change hojata hy)
 The Command “Show ip OSPF database” apko LSA k sequence number show kardy gi.
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

63

OSPF LSA Types:
OSPF different type ki LSA ko advertise karty hy different types of Routes k ley jaissy k Internal Routes, External
Routes or ye sary hi routes represent hoty hy un k routing table my or ye un k prefix sy phchany jaty hy k wo kon c
LSA hy.
1) Router LSA Type 1:
Ye LSA sirf 1 hi Area k ander Flood hoti hy ABR router ko Cross nahi karti. Or ye “O” Prefix sy Show hoti hy
Routing Table my.
2) Network LSA Type 2:
Network LSA sirf DR router yani Designated Router hi send karty hy or ye hamesha Broadcast karty hy. Lekin ye
LSA bhi 1 hi Area k ander Flood hoti hy ABR Router ko Cross naih karti. Or ye bhi “O” Prefix sy Show hoti hy
Routing Table my.
3) Summary LSA Type 3:
Ye LSA pory Network my Flood hoti ABR Routers ko bhi Cross kar jati hy or ye LSA ABR Router generate karty
hy or apni Router ID laga k essy agye send karty hy. Or ye “O IA” Prefix sy Show hoti hy Routing Table my show
hoti hy.
4) Summary LSA Type 4:
Is LSA sy tamam Area ko ye pata lagta hy k ASBR (Autonomous System Boundary Route) Router kaha laga hy or
us ki Router ID kia hy. QK is Summary LSA my Router ID ASBR ki hoti hy or bakki routers bhi ASBR ki Router
ID laga k hi agye send karty hy. Or ye bhi “O IA” Prefix sy Show hoti hy Routing Table my show hoti hy.
5) External LSA Type 5:
Is LSA my ASBR khud Poray Network my Network ki Update ko Flood karty hy ABR router nahi karty. Or ye 2
prefix sy show hoti hy routing table my 1) “O EI” pory network my jab ye LSA pass hoti hy to is ky Matrix bhi
increase hoty hy her router py. To ye LSA show hoti hy “O EI” sy or “O E2”.
6) Not-so-Stubby Area Type 6:
Ye LSA Flood hoti hy un Routers py jo kessi or Domain ka part hoty hy ya kessi or protocol ko bhi run kar rahy
hoty hy. Or ye LSA ASBR router hi generate karty hy or ye sirf NSSA my hi Flood hoti hy.
N1-Metrix Increase as it passed through the network.
O N2- Matrix is not increase (By-default)
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64

7) External Attributes LSA:
Ye LSA OSPF jab use karta hy jab OSPF or BGP k darmiyan Connectivity hu.
 (O IA) prefix sy dosray Area k router my show hogi. (O EI) prefix sy External Routes my show
hogi.
OSPF Operations:
OSPF Different type k Messages ko use karta hy apny Neighbor Relationship ko build karny k ley or correct routing
information ko get karny k ley. Or OSPF packets type or neighbors Relationship kessy build karta hy ye janna bhut
zarori hy.
OSPF Packets:
OSPF use five types of packets ye apny packet ko UDP ya TCP my Forward nahi karta OSPF ki transport us k apny
OSPF road map sy forward hoti hy or ye IP (protocol number 89) py apny OSPF headaer laga k data aagye forward
karta hy.

Hello Message:

Build a Neighbor Relationship & send a Keep alive message.

Link State Request:

Update Request jab send hoti hy network my to jab “LSR” Message Flood hoty hy.

Database Description:

Is Message my database ki pori summary hoti hy. Including Router ID or her LSA ka sequence number
bhi hota hy us k LSDB my.

Link State Update:

Is message my network ki Update information send hoti hy like topology information router ID or
neighbor Router RID or us ki cost. Or 1 LSU apny ander multiple LSAs ko contain kar sakti hy.

Link State Acknowledgment:

(LSA ack) ye Message sary Routers send karty hy jab bhi un ko koi OSPF ka packet milta hy.
including Hello Message.

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65

Detail of Hello Message:
 Hello Message my Router ki ID.
 Hello or Dead interval (dead interval = time duration when other router response to hello message by
default is 5 sec agar 5 second my rply nahi aya to Relationship Down)



Area ID
Router Priority
DR Router or BDR Router ID authenticate ID.
Packet State

NOTE:

OSPF Traffic Multicast hoti hy 2 addresses py OSPF k jo sary Routers hy wo Packet ko Multicast karty hy 224.0.0.5
address py or OSPF my jo Designated Router hoty hy wo message ko Multicast karty hy 224.0.0.6 address py.

Establishment Neighbors & Exchanging Routes:
OSPF Link State:
Down State

:

Jab Link Down hota hy or Hello Message bhi sent nahi howy hoty.

Init State

:

Jab Routers apny sary interfaces py Hello Messge ko Send kar raha hota hy.

Two-way State:

Jab Router Hello Message ko receive karty hy dosray router sy jis my us ki Router ID bhi hoti
hy Or agar sari requirements pori hoti hy routers Neighbors ban jaty hy.

Exstart State

Jab Router apny Routes ko exchange karta hy to wo ye dekhta hy k kis ny phly exchanging
process start kia hy.

:

Loading State :

Jab Router Unknown State my hota hy.

Full State

Jab router k database my us k neighbor ki sari information hoti hy to wo Full State my hota hy.

:

Basic OSPF Configuration:
OSPF ki Configuration bhi bhut simple hy Router k Global mode py ap OSPF ko configure karty hy or us k sary
interfaces ko define karty hy k ye kon sy Area my run hongy. OSPF ki configuration my OSPF ki process ID dalna
lazmi hoti hy like EIGRP but EIGRP ki process ID sary network py same hona lazmi hy but OSPF my change bhi hoti
hy like Area wise. & OSPF my hum wildcard mask use karty hy. EIGRP my optionally hy but OSPF my hum wildcard
mask hi use karty hy. Here show the ABR router configuration:
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

66
R1(config)# router ospf 8
R1(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0
R1(config-router)# network 172.16.1.0

0.0.0.255 area 0
0.0.0.255 area 1

 us k bad ap kessi single interface py bhi OSPF ka process run kar sakty hy like.
R1(config)# int s0/0/0
R1(config-router)# ip ospf 8 area 0
 And if you want to clear OSPF process the command is.
R1(config)# clear ip ospf process *
 Configure Virtual interface ya Loopback Interface command is.
R1(config)# interface loopback 0
R1(config-router)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
 If you want to change a Rotuer ID so command is.
R1(config)# router ospf 8
R1(config-router)# router-id 10.0.0.1

Verify & Troubleshoot OSPF Process:
 If you want to see the neighbor initialization process so the command is.

R1# debug ip ospf adjacencies
 if you want to view all the OSPF packet in real time so command is.
R1# debug ip ospf packet
 if you want to see the neighbor table so command is.
R1# show ip ospf neighbors

(This command also show the Designated Router & Backup Designated Router)

 if you want to see the OSPF route table the command is.
R1# show ip route
 & if you want to filter the Routing Table & show only that routes who learn OSPF Process the command is.
R1# show ip route ospf
 If you any routing protocol issue. Use this command to verify parameters, timer values, identified network, and
OSPF Neighbor (routing information source) the command is.
R1# show ip protocol
 If you want to see the Router ID timers & counters the command is.
R1# show ip ospf

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67
 If you want to see all OSPF interfaces the command is.
R1# show ip ospf interfaces

Designated Router in OSPF:
Jaha multiple Routers lagye hoty hy waha 1 router ka election hota hy as Designated Router (DR) or 1 ka election hota
hy as a Backup Designated Router (BDR) DR or BDR k select hony k bad Network my sary Router Other Routers
khlaty hy. DR LSA (type 2) ko Network my Flood karta hy or apni Router ID advertise karty hy. NON DR means
other router DR router sy communicate karty hy 224.0.0.6 Multicast address sy or DR Router other Routers ko
information send karty hy 224.0.0.5 is multicast address sy.
 Higher Priority

=

 2nd Higher Priority

DR Router
=

BDR Router

 (if priority is same so the 1st higher IP is DR router & 2nd higher IP is BDR Router)
 (Router ki priority set karny k bad OSPF process ko clear kary gy taky sary router pher sy OSPF k process ko
run kary or New DR router ko select kary)
 (Agar apni marzi sy DR Router bannana ho tu us router ki priority increase kar dygy jaissy DR Router bannana
hu)
 (Or agar hum kessi Router ki priority 0 kar dy gy to wo router na to kabhi DR router bannye ga or na hi BDR
Router banny ga wo as a Other Router hi act kary ga)
 If you want to set a priority on DR router so command is.
R1(config)# int fa0/1
R1(config-router)# ip ospf priority 2

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

68

Network Security
U

Contant

U

U

Page.No

Port Security:



Port Security Overview?
Why port security?
Modes of Violation?
Modes of port security?
1)
Shutdown:
2)
Restricted:
3)
Protect:

58

LAB: Port-Security (Commands)

59

Access Control List:
Access Control List Overview?

60

 Types of ACL?
1)
Standard ACL?
o Where to apply standard ACL?
o Important for standard ACL?
 Extended ACL?
61
o Where to apply Extended ACL?
o Advantage of Extended ACL direct HTTP Block? 62
o Advantage of Extended ACL direct TELNET Block?
 Named ACL on Cisco Router?
o Benefit of Named ACL?
o Criteria Of Applying ACL?
o Selection of ACL?
o Direction & Action of ACL?
o In Bound?
o Out Bound?

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

63
64

69

Network Address Translation (NAT):

65

 NAT Overview?
 Types of NAT?
o Static NAT?
o Dynamic NAT?
o NAT over Loading / PAT?
 NAT Terminology?
o Inside Local?
o Inside Global?
o Outside Local?
o Outside Global?
o

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

66

What is Port
70 Security:
Port Security:
Port security 1 essa feature hy cisco switches my jis sy ap apny network environment ko secure kar sakty hy. Is feature
ko apply karny k bad switch sirf unhi computer ko recognize karta hy jis ko hum allow karty hy. Or agar us computer k
elawa koi unknown computer agar us switch ki port py connect hota hy tu switch us port ko auto hi shutdown yaw o
action perform karta hy jo hum manually set karty hy. Port security computer k MAC address py lagayi lagti hy jis sy
switch sirf unhi computers ko network sy connect karta hy jis MAC address sy us port ko bind kia jata hy. Ya essa
samjh ly k wo computer jo us swtich ki port sy connect hota hy jo ussy assign ki gai hy.

Why port security:
Port security network my security purpose k ley use ki jati hy taky koi unknown computer ya switch hamary network
my access na ho saky sirf wo computer ya switch access ho saky jo k hamry network ka part hy.
Modes of Violation:

Port Security network administrator ko security k kuch modes allow karti hy jo bhi action network administrator us
port py set karta hy port wohi action unknown computer k connect hoty hy perform karti hy is chez ko hum violation
kehty hy.

Modes of port security:

Shutdown:

Agar switch py port security enable hy or us py violation mode shutdown set hy to Shutdown mode jessy hi koi
unknown computer hamary network sy connect hony ki koshish karta hy to switch us port ko shutdown kar dyte hy or
us unknown computer ko network py nahi any dyta. Is violation ka disadvantage ye hy k ye port agar shutdown hogai
tu essy manually network administrator ko commands dy k up karna parta hy. Ye khud sy up nahi hoti.

Restricted:

Restrict mode my jessy hi unknown computer network sy connect hota hy to network administrator ko notification mil
jata hy. Or switch koi new MAC address learn nahi karta agar us ko koi new MAC address milta bhi hy to switch us
MAC address ko discard/ignore kar dyta hy.

Protect:

Protect mode my switch sirf ussi computer ko allow karta hy jis ka mac address ussy pta hota hy new computer milty
hi wo port ko auto shutdown kra dyta hy. Ye same shutdown mode ki tarha hy but is ka advantage ye hy k is my jessy
hi wo computer dobara is port k sath connect hota hy or ussy wo porana MAC address milta hy to switch auto hi us
port ko again up kar dyta hy administrator ko manually commands sy up nahi karna parta.
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

71
U

LAB: Port-Security (Commands)

CISCO>enable
CISCO # configure terminal
CISCO(config)#interface fa0/1
CISCO(config-if)#switchport mode access
CISCO(config-if)#switchport port-security
CISCO(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky
CISCO(config-if)#switchport port-security maximum 1
CISCO(config-if)#switchport port-security violation shutdown
CISCO(config-if)#exit
CISCO(config)#interface fa0/2
CISCO(config-if)#switchport mode access
CISCO(config-if)#switchport port-security
CISCO(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky
CISCO(config-if)#switchport port-security maximum 1
CISCO(config-if)#switchport port-security violation shutdown
CISCO(config-if)#exit

What happens if violation osccurred:
When a new PC is attached to the port on which port-security is enabled then Switch will take an action which is set in
the violation mode.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

Access Control
List:
72

Access Control List:
Access Control list sy hum Packet Filtering ka function perform karty hy. Or ACL Router per configure hoti hy jab tak
ACL nahi hy matlab hamary network mai koi Filtering nahi hy. is case mai koi bhi Traffic network k router per throw
ho sakti hy per jab hum ACL apply karty hy tu us my hum packets ki filtering karty hy k kon c traffic router py access
hogi or kon c nahi.
There are Two Type of ACL:

Standard ACL:
Standard ACL my hum filtering kar sakty hy base upon the “Source IP Address” matlab kessi bhi computer ki IP dy
kar us ki Traffic k access ko block kai ja sakta hy. Standard ACL my hamy control bhut kam milta hy hum is py hum
blocking kar sakty but sirf us computer ki source IP py k Traffic kis IP sy aarahi hy kis Traffic py jaraha hy us py nahi.
To yaha hammy is ka bhut bara disadvantage face karny ko milta hy qk hum Router k interface py is source IP ko
block to kar dyty suppose k ye PC hamary Server ko access na kar saky to is condition my hum ny 1 ACL laga di or us
computer ki Source IP waha define kar di to Disadvantage ye hoga k pher wo PC server ko access nahi karye ga qk
ACL Apply hy per wo PC us k sath sath waha rakhy kessi Computer ko bhi Access nahi kar paye. jo k important hy qk
Standard ACL to Source IP dekh rahi hy Destination nahi ussy sirf ye pata hy k kis IP k Traffic ko block karna hy ye
nahi pata k kis k ley block karna hy to essy my wo us sub computer k ley us ki PC ki Traffic ko Block kar dygi jo
Router k dosray End py hy qk waha Router us packet ko filter kary ga or dekhy ga ACL hy sirf Source IP to waha wo
us IP ki sari Traffic ki Discard karta rahy ga or Traffic aggy pass nahi kary ga to essi ley hammy Router ki Selection
bhut dekh k karni parti hy matlab k wo Router hamry network per to hu per Client side sy na connect hu warna Client
side ki bhi Traffic Block hojaye gi hammy Router ko Select karna hoga jo k Server Side py laga ho qk wahi ki traffic
ko Block karna hy. TO essi ley hum zada tar Extended ACL ko Use karty hy qk waha hum pher Source or Destination
IP donu bataty hy manually to waha itni problem nahi hoti Per Router Selection waha bhi bhut important hy. ACL my
hum 1 single IP ko bhi Block kar sakty hy ACL ki 1 Statement sy pory Network ki IP ko bhi block kia ja sakta hy agar
us Source IP my apny Pory Network ki IP lekh dy ya Range define kardy like 192.168.0.10/20 Deny is tarha sy to 10
sy ly kar 20 tak k PC ki Traffic Block hojaye gi 1 single Statement sy. Or is tarha k Range PC ko Block karny k ley
hum use karty hy Wildcard Mask.
Range of Standard ACL is 1 to 99

&

1300 to 1999 (Expended Range)

Matlab hum jo bhi statement configure kary gy Router per us k statement number ki range 1 sy ly kar 99 tak hogi or
hum 1 hi statement per different actions laga sakty hy. Matlab k statement ka number 1 hi rahy or us py action change
ho yani Deny or Permit.
Where to Apply standard ACL?

“As close as possible to Destination Host”
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

73

Important for ACL:
ACL my hum jab bhi koi Statement lagaty ho like Deny ki to us k bad Router khud sy us Statement k bad 1 Statement
or add karta hy All Traffic deny to agar ap ny koi 1 ACL lagai hy Deny ki to wo ACL apki sari Traffic ko hi Deny kar
dygi qk ap ny Router ko ye to bata diye k is IP ki Traffic ko Block karna hy per ye nahi bataya k or Kon c IP’s ko
Permit karna hy agar ap essa samjhty hy k Router bs unhy IP’s ko Deny kary ga jinhy hum Forcely ACL my deny kary
gy or bakki sub ko khud hi Permit kar dyga to essa bilkul nahi hy 1 Deny list create k bad Router us Statement k bad 1
apni statement laga dyga or sari hi traffic ko Deny kar dyga. Is problem sy bachny k ley hum Deny statement k bad 1
statement or lekhty hy jis my hum bakki ki statement ko Permit karty hy jab Router ko pata lag jata hy or wo bakki ki
IP’s permit kar dyta hy or Router ACL list ko hamesha Oper sy Nechy ki taraf Check karta hy. Or jaha humari koi bhi
statement ACL sy match karti hy Router foren Action Dekhta hy Deny hy to Discard or Permit hy to traffic ko Allow
kar dyta hy.
Example & Confirmation of Standard ACL:
Router(config)# Access-list 1 Deny 192.168.0.1 0.0.255.255
Router(config)# Access-list 1 Deny 192.168.0.2 0.0.255.255
Router(config)# Access-list1 permit 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255
Router(config)# int fa0/0
Router(int-config)# ip access-group 1 out
Router(int-config)# exit

Extended ACL:
Extended ACL is good for implementation because Extended ACL my hum filtering kar sakty hy base upon the.
1)
2)
3)
4)

Source IP Address.
Destination IP Address.
Protocol Base Blocking like HTTP, FTP, ICMP, UDP, TCP.
Blocking via Port Number.

To is my hammy control bhut zada milta hy is ley ye zada use hoti hy or ye 2nd type hy hamari ACL ki.
Range of Extendard ACL is 100 to 199 &

2000 to 2699 (Expended Range)

Where to apply Extended ACL?

“As close as possible to Source Host”

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74

Configuration of Extended ACL:
Router(config)# Access-list 100 deny ip host 192.168.0.1host 192.168.0.10
Router(config)# Access-list 100 Permit Any Any
Router(config)# int fa0/0
Router(int-config)# ip access-group 100 in
Router(int-config)# exit

(1st Source & 2nd Destination IP)

1st Advantage of Extended ACL:

Phla advantage to hammy ye milla k hum direct hi us ki Destination IP ko Block kar sakty hy sirf ussi PC k ley or
bakki ki Communication permit hi rahy gi or bs us Destination Ip k ley hi deny hojaye gi.
2nd Advantage of Extended ACL:

Dosra advantage hammy ye milla Extended ACL ka k hum protocol base blocking bhi kar sakty hy jessy koi ping na
kar saky to waha hum ny ICMP ko Deny kar diya. Or 2nd k koi Browsing na kar saky to waha hum ny port number 80
dy HTTP ko Block kar diya matlab pori connectivity nahi block hoi just protocol ko block kia jo hum chaty thy.
Configuration Deny HTTP Protocol in Extended ACL:
Router(config)# Access-list 100 deny ICMP host 192.168.0.2 host 192.168.0.10
(1st Source & 2nd Destination IP)
Router(config)# Access-list 100 deny tcp host 192.168.0.3 host 192.168.0.10 eq 80 (HTTP Protocol Blocking here)
Router(config)# Access-list 100 Permit ip Any Any
Router(config)# int fa0/0
Router(int-config)# ip access-group 100 in
Router(int-config)# exit

Bad Way To Configure This Type of Telnet:

Is Configuration mai problem ye hy k hum ny Telnet ko is my block kia per is my Problem ye hy agar is router my koi
Dosra interface Up hoga to waha sy Telnet hojaye ga wo kessi dosray interface sy telnet ka console ly lyga to agar
hammy Telnet rokna hoga to hum pher 1 Statement configure kary gy or pher waha us interface ki destination IP ko
configure kary gy to ye koi good solution nahi hy matlab Router per jitney bhi interfaces hongy hammy utni hi
Statement Again & Again Configure karni pary gi Telnet ko block karny k ley.
Configuration Deny Telnet Protocol in Extended ACL:
Router(config)# Access-list 100 deny tcp host 192.168.0.3 host 192.168.0.10 eq 23
Router(config)# Access-list 100 Permit ip Any Any
Router(config)# int fa0/0
Router(int-config)# ip access-group 100 in
Router(int-config)# exit

(Telnet Protocol Blocking here)

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75

Best Way to configure telnet here:

Bajaye is k k hum her interface per blocking kary telnet ki 1 simple or best way ye hy k hum us line ko hi block kar dy
jaha telnet use hoti hy or wo line hy line vty jaha telnet use hoti hy to best way ye hy k hum us Router per us line ko hi
Deny kar dy to jitney bhi interfaces hongy us Router per sub py auto hi Telnet deny hojaye ga.
Configuration Deny Telnet Protocol in Extended ACL in Best Way:
Router(config)# access-list 1 deny host 192.168.0.1
Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any
Router(config)# line vty 0 4
Router(config)#access-class 1 in

(Here is Source PC IP Which You Want to Block Telnet)

Named ACL on Cisco Router:
Wessy to ACL ki 2 hi type hy 1st Standard or 2nd Extended but in donu ACl my hi hum editing ya kessi 1 statement ko
delete ya edit nahi kar skty agar koi new statement add bhi karni hotu to dobara sy sari ACL ko list wise dobara
configure karna parta hy or agar delete bhi karna hotu koi 1 single statement ko hum delete nahi kar sakty to essi ley
CISCO ny hamari Aasani k ley inhe ACL ko Modify kar k 1 new ACL ka Concept diya hammy jessy hum “Named
ACL” khty hy or ye sirf CISCO k Routers per hi work karti hy.
Benefit of Named ACL:
Named ACL ka sub sy bara benefit ye hy k hum is my editing bhi kar sakty hy or kessi 1 single statement ko delete
bhi kar sakty hy. Standard or Extended my tu hum us k number ki range dyty hy jis sy router ko pata lagta hy k ye
Standard ACL hy ya Extended ACL hy per Named ACL my hum ACL ka 1 name dyty hy hy jis sy router us name ko
dekhta hy or us k bad hum ACL ki type lekhty hy hum jo bhi use karna chahye Standard ya Extended or pher us ACL
ko 1 number dyty hy. Named ACL ko use karty howay hum Apni sari ACL ko edit bhi kar sakty hy or kessi single
statement ko Delete bhi kar sakty hy ussi configuration my rehty howay dobora sy pori Configuration karny ki zarorat
nahi parti.
Configuration of Named ACL for Standard ACL:
Router(config)# ip access-list standard Blocking-List
Router(config-std-nacl)# deny host 192.168.0.1
Router(config-std-nacl)# 12 deny host 192.168.0.3
Router(config-std-nacl)# deny host 192.168.0.2
Router(config-std-nacl)# Permit any
Router(config-std-nacl)# show access-list
Router(config-std-nacl)# 12 deny host 192.168.0.3
Router(config-std-nacl)# no deny host 192.168.0.1
Router(config-std-nacl)# no 10
Router(config)# int fa0/0

(Blocking-List is the Name of ACL)
(Suppose ACL number is 10)
(ACL number is
12)
(Suppose ACL number is 20)
(Suppose ACL number is 30)
(Editing in ACL after Configuration)
(1st Method of Delete Single Statement)
(2nd Method of Delete Single Statement with ACL number)

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76
Router(int-config)# ip access-group Blocking-List in
Router(int-config)# exit

Note That:

Cisco ny named ACL my her ACL ko 1 number diya hy wo jab hum “Show access-list” ki command chalaty hy to
hammy wo number dekhty hy. or ye 10 sy start hoty hy or aagyee barhty jaty hy. Ye gape is ley hota hy taky agar
hammy koi statement bad my add karani hoi to hum us sy phly ka number use kar k us statement ki placement waha
kar sakty hy agar hum essa nahi kary gy or koi statement configure kar dygy to wo statement us list k last my ja kar lag
jaye gi jo permit statement k bad hogi or ussy number bhi us k bad ka hi milly ga to wo run nahi hi hopaye gi essi ley
hummy number bhi ussi gape ko use karty howy dyna hota hy jaha hammy wo statement place karni hu jaisy my ny
oper diya hy 10 or 20 k bech ka number taky wo statement jo my ny bad my configure ki hy wo waha ja k place ho
saky.
Configuration Of Named ACL for Extended ACL:
Router(config)# ip access-list extended Blocking-HTTP
(Blocking-HTTP is the Name of ACL)
Router(config-etd-nacl)# deny tcp host 192.168.0.1 host 192.168.0.10 eq 80
Router(config-etd-nacl)# Permit any
Router(config)# int fa0/0
Router(int-config)# ip access-group Blocking-HTTP in
Router(int-config)# exit

Operator in Extended ACL:
Operator in the access-list command
Eq
Neq
it
gt
range

Meaning
Equals to
Not equals to
Less Then
Greater Then
Range of port Numbers

Criteria of Applying ACL:
ACL ko Apply karny k ley hammy phly network diagram ko samjhna hota hy k jis computer ki Traffic ko hum block
karna chty hy to kitny essy Rasty hy hamary network ki Topology my jaha sy wo Traffic access ho rahi hy ya throw ho
rahi hy qk agar hum essa nahi kary gy to suppose jis computer ko hum block karna chty thy us ki traffic k ley multiple
links sy throw hoti hu. Right or ye bhi dekhna hota hy k Traffic k entrance kaha sy ho rahi hy to ussy point py matlab
Router k ussi interface py jaha wo traffic access ho rahi hoti hy ussi interface py ACL laga k hammy ussy Block karna
hota hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

77

Selection of ACL:
1) Step k kon sy Router py ACL lagani hy agar ap k Network my multiple Router hy to phly to Router ki selection
hogi k kon sa router py ACL Apply karni hy.
2) Step k us Router k kon sy interface py ACL ko Apply karna hy like agar apky Rotuer per Multiple Ports hy to
waha apko ye bhi dekhna hoga k Router k kis interface py ap ACL ko Apply karo gy.

Direction & Action of ACL:
Kessi bhi tarha ki ACL ho Standard ya pher Extended donu hi ACL sirf (2) Direction py hi lagti hy.
1) In Bound:

Means traffic jaha sy aarahi hu agar wo side Block karni hy tu waha hum “InBound” Direction ko use karty hy
ACL Apply karny k ley. Inbound direction ki ACL work karti hy Routing Decision sy phly. Jab koi bhi packet
Router py in hota hy to phly wo ussy match karta hy apni Routing table my or pher ACL statement ko check karta
hy k wo Deny hy ya Permit Deny hota hy Packet Discard kar dyta hy or Permit hota hy to Packet aagye Forward
kar dyta hy.
2) Out Bound:

Means traffic jaha sy Bahar ja rahi hu us side py Blocking lagany k ley hum “Outbound” Direction ko use karty hy
ACL Apply karny k ley. Or outbound direction ki ACL work karti hy Routing Decision k Baad.
Router k her (1) Single interface py hum sirf (2) ACL ko hi use kar saty hy wo bhi jab un donu ki directions different
hu yani 1 interface py 1 hi ACL lagi ho. incoming Traffic ko Block karny k ley or 1 ACL lagi hu Outgoing Traffic ko
Block karny k ley. Wo bhi jab agar hum 1 hi protocol ko use kar rahy hy blocking k ley like TCP is IP base. Ap
multiple statement k numbers same rakh sakty hu like statement 1 my hi bhut sari statement bana sakty hy per jab ap us
ko interface py configure karty hy to waha us k group py ap bs 1 hi action use kar sakty hy ya to inbound ya pher
outbound.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

Network Address
Translation:
78

Network Address Translation (NAT):
NAT hum log use kart hy network address ko translate karny k ley. Jaisy kessi private IP ko public IP my translate
karna hu. kessi Ipv4 ko Ipv6 my translate karna hu. Ya address ki over Lapping ho rahi hu tu over Lapping matlab
(jaissy hamary office my 10 ka subnet chal raha hy or 1 dosri company thi waha per bhi 10 ka subnet chal raha tha to
agar hum essi branches ko connect kary gy to abhi same IP ki waja sy conflict aye ga qk hum idher bhi same wohi
network ko use kar rahy hy to is tarha k scenario my bhi hum translation ko use kar sakty hy 1 private IP ko 1 dosri
private IP sy translate karna ho. Matlab kahi jagga per Nat use ho sakta hy per is ka popular use hy Private IP address
ko public address my translate karna ya Kessi 1 network ko dosry network my translate karna apni private IP address
ko hide kar k public address my translate karna or other benefit security Provide karna network k structure ko or apni
personal IP address ko hide karna.
Types of NAT:
There are Three types or NAT.
1) Static NAT
2) Dynamic NAT
3) Nat Over Load/PAT (Port Address Translation)

Static NAT:
Static NAT my network administrative khud sy IP ki mapping karta hy k agar Source IP ye hy to is ko translate kar k is
ki public IP ye hojaye is tarha wo sari IP khud sy configure karta hy manually. To yaha py 1 to 1 mapping hoti hy
matlab k her 1 private IP k ley 1 public IP or ye IP us k sath permit yani bind hojati hy. Example jessy mery pass Web
server rakha hy or my cha raha hu k wo internet py access ho saky tu my 1 IP purchase kar k apny server ki private IP
ko us Global IP k sath mapping kara do ga. one to one mapping Jitney computer utni hi IPs.

Dynamic NAT:
Dynamic NAT my hum 1 pool create karty hy or us my public IPs ko configure kar dty hy to jab koi computer internet
py janny ki request send karta hy router ko to router us computer ki exiting IP ko hide kar k ussi pool my sy 1 public IP
assign kar dyta hy. Is ki range hy k ap dynamic NAT my sirf 50 IPs ka pool bana sakty hy. difference ye hy k bs is my
hammy static NAT ki tarha one to one mapping nahi karni parti just one time pool create karna hota hy or IPs auto us
pool my sy assign hoti rehti hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

79

NAT over Loading / PAT:
Static or Dynamic my disadvantage ye hy k ye 1 to 1 mapping karty hy matlab jitni IPs hogi hamary pass hammy utni
hi public IPs chyee hogi us k sath map karny k ley tu ye bhut costly hy per is ka Benefit ye hy k confusion nahi hy
hammy saaf pata hota hy k is IP ka address is IP k sath map hy.
PAT ka benefit ye bhi hy k hammy public IP zada purchase nahi karni parti hum 1 public IP ko use karty howy
multiple IP ki translation us 1 single public IP py kara sakty hy qk ye 1 to 1 mapping nahi hy. or is process ko different
rakhny k ley computer us same IP address k agye port address lag adyta hy jis sy her page k sath 1 port number auto
generate hota hy jis sy us ki identity deferent hojati hy. IP 1 hi rehti hy bus computer auto hi us IP k agye port numbers
generate kar k packet agye forward karta rehta hy.
Easy Wording:
Nat over load my ye hota hy k agar hamary pass 1 hi public IP hy to public IP to change nahi hogi qk 1 hi hy essy my
NAT over load 1 hi public IP rakhta hy or us k bad computers k port numbers assign kar dyta hy to computers k port
number pher us 1 IP ki alag alag identity banty hy qk her session py port number alag hota hy to computer ko ye pata
lag jata hy k data kis PC ko send karna hy. Matlab Many to one, like ISP Internet IP & Gateways.

NAT Terminology:

Inside Local:: matlab jo apka private network hy wo apka inside local address hota ga.

Inside Global: matlab jo public address humny apni private IP k sath map kar k rakha hy.

Outside Local : jis server ko ap access kar rahy hu agar us py bhi tranlate hoi ho gi to us k bhi 2 address hogy

jinhy hum Local or Global kahaye gy,

Outside Global: agar wo server jis ko hum access kar rahy hy us py koi translation nahi hogi to us k address

ko hum globally address hi kahy gy.

LAB: Static

NAT
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

80

Objective: To Show Static Translation from Public Ip Address to Private Ip Address by
Implementing Static Nat

Configuration R0
Router#configure terminal
Router(config)#ip nat inside source static 10.0.0.1 172.16.1.3
Router(config)#interface f0/0
Router(config-if)#ip nat outside
Router(config-if)#ex
Router(config)#interface f0/1
Router(config-if)#ip nat inside
Router(config-if)#exit

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

81

Ping from pc 1 to server 1 after that run the show command Router(config)#do sh ip nat translation
Pro
icmp
icmp
icmp
icmp
icmp

Inside global
172.16.1.3:1
172.16.1.3:2
172.16.1.3:3
172.16.1.3:4
172.16.1.3:5

Inside local
10.0.0.1:1
10.0.0.1:2
10.0.0.1:3
10.0.0.1:4
10.0.0.1:5

Outside local
200.1.1.1:1
200.1.1.1:2
200.1.1.1:3
200.1.1.1:4
200.1.1.1:5

Outside global
200.1.1.1:1
200.1.1.1:2
200.1.1.1:3
200.1.1.1:4
200.1.1.1:5

LAB: Dynamic NAT
Objective: To Show Dynamic Translation from Public Ip Address to Private Ip Address by
Implementing Dynamic Nat

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82
Router(config)#ip nat pool abc 172.16.1.3 172.16.1.4 netmask 255.255.255.0
Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 10 pool abc
Router(config)#access-list 10 permit 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255
Router(config)#interface f0/0
Router(config-if)#ip access-group 10 out

Ping from Pc1 & from Pc2 but not from Pc3
Router# show ip nat translations
Pro Inside global
tcp 172.16.1.3:1025
tcp 172.16.1.4:1025

Inside local Outside local Outside global
10.0.0.1:1025 200.1.1.1:80 200.1.1.1:80
10.0.0.2:1025 200.1.1.1:80 200.1.1.1:80

LAB: PAT Objective: To Show Translation from One Public Ip Address to Many Private Ip
Address by Implementing Pat

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

83

Configuration on R1
Router(config)#ip nat pool abc 172.16.1.3 172.16.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.0
Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 10 pool abc overload
Router(config)#access-list 10 permit 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.255
Router(config)#interface f0/1
Router(config-if)#ip nat inside
Router(config-if)#ex
Router(config)#interface f0/0
Router(config-if)#ip nat outside
Router(config-if)#ex
Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 f0/0

Ping 200.1.1.1 and then check the router translation
Router(config)#do sh ip nat translation
Pro
Inside global Inside local
Outside local Outside global
icmp 172.16.1.3:5 10.0.0.1:5
200.1.1.1:5
200.1.1.1:5
icmp 172.16.1.3:6 10.0.0.1:6
200.1.1.1:6
200.1.1.1:6
icmp 172.16.1.3:7 10.0.0.1:7
200.1.1.1:7
200.1.1.1:7 i
cmp 172.16.1.3:8 10.0.0.1:8
200.1.1.1:8
200.1.1.1:8

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

84

First Hop Redundancy Protocol
Contant

Page.No

First Hop redundancy Protocol:

72

 HSRP Overview?
 Router Modes in HSRP?
o Active Router?
o Standby Router?
o Listening Router?
 Selection of Active Router?
 HSRP States?
o Disable
o INIT
o Learn
o Listen
o Speak
o Standby
o Active
Lab of HSRP

73

VRRP Topics:
 VRRP Overview?
 VRRP Features?

75

GLBP Topics:
 GLBP Overview?
 GLBP Features?

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

77

First Hop Redundancy
Protocol:
85
HSRP:
HSRP (Hot standby routing protocol) Cisco ka propriety protocol hy or ye protocol Cisco ny 1994 my developed kia
tha is ka default hello timer 3 second hota hy or dead timer 10 second hota hy. Cisco phli company thi jis ny is tarha ka
koi protocol developed kia tha jo routers my redundancy provide karta tha
Is scenario my 2 routers eak sath lagaye jaty hy per un mai sy work sirf eak router hi karta hy or second router standby
my rehta hy. Routers her 3 second k bad hello message send karty hy ye dekhny k ley k neighbor routers proper
working kar rahy hy ya nahi or aagar 10 second tak kessi router sy hello message ka rply nahi ata tu routers ye maan
lyty hy k un ka neighbor router down ho gaya hy or pher second router jo standby my hota hy wo default router ki
responsibility apny oper ly lyta hy or network pory network ki traffic apny interfaces sy forward karna start kar dyta
hy. So0o HSRP kuch is tarha work karta hy. HSRP ko configure karty waqt hum us ka group number assign karty hy
or group ki range define karty hy jo hoti hy 0 to 255 in number ko use karty howy hum HSRP my group create kar k
HSRP ko configure karty hy.
IN HSRP Hello Message send this Multicast IP 244.0.0.2 over UDP port 1985.

Router Modes in HSRP:
 Active Router:
Network mai jo router active hota hy or sari traffic ko apny interfaces sy throw kar raha hota hy wo router active mode
my hota hy.
 Standby Router:
Active router k sath 1 router hum redundancy k ley use karty hy jab tk active router active rehta hy second router auto
standby mode py hota hy or jab active router down hojata hy to stand by router auto hi active mode aa jata hy.
 Listening Router:
Active or Standby router k elawa network my jo baki sary router hoty hy wo listening mode my hoty hy.

Selection of Active Router:
Jis router ki priority sub sy zada hoti hy HSRP my wo router kehlata hy active router. Or agar routers ki priority same
hogi to jis router ki highest IP hogi wo router active router ban jaye ga.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

86

HSRP States:
Disable: Suppose bhut sary routers hamary 1 hi group my chal rahy hy to active or standby router ko hata k hum baki
k routers ki port hum shutdown kar dyty hy to us condition my un routers per HSRP Disable mode my hota hy.
INIT : jab hum us group my koi new router lagaty hy or us ki ports ko up karty hy then jab HSRP INIT mode my
hota hy. This is a starting state when an interface is first boot up.
Learn : jab routers on hoty hy or active router sy hello message ko learn kar rahy hoty hy.
Listen : jab router us hello message ko learn kar lyta hy tu tab wo listening mode my hota hy or virtual IP ko listen kar
rahy hoty hy.
Speak : jab router pori tarha sy up ho jata hy learning or listening state sy agye barh jata hy jab wo speak mode my
aajata hy or Hello message ko apny neighbor router k sath share karna start kar dyta hy.
Standby: ab router finally ye decide karta hy k ab mujhy standby router banna hy ya active router. Agar us sy highest
IP ya priority ka router network my mojood hota hy tu tab wo standby mode my chala jata hy.
Active : yaha router un sub state ko cross kar k finally active mode my aajata hy or active state my act karta hy.

LAB: Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP): Objective: How to show Redundancy by using
HSRP

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

87

Configuring WAN-RT:
WAN-RT(config)#interface Loopback0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 200.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#router rip
WAN-RT(config-router)#version 2
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 200.0.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
WAN-RT(config-router)#exit

Configuring Master-RT:
Master-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#standby 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Master-RT(config-if)#standby 1 priority 110
Master-RT(config-if)#standby 1 preempt
Master-RT(config-if)#standby 1 track FastEthernet0/1
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit

Master-RT(config-if)
Master-RT(config )#interface FastEthernet0/1
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit
Master-RT(config)#router rip
Master-RT(config-router)#version 2
Master-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

88

Configuring Backup-RT:
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.9 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#standby 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Backup-RT(config-if)#standby 1 priority 95
Backup-RT(config-if)#standby 1 preempt
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit
Backup-RT(config)#router rip
Backup-RT(config-router)#version 2
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary

VRRP:
VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) ye protocol IETF ny developed kia tha 1999 my open standard protocol
hy or iska RFC hy 2338. HSRP k bad IETF ko 5 saal lagyee essa protocol developed karny my jo HSRP ki tarha
redundancy kar saky but wo industry standard hu matlab k essy sary vender use kar saky to VRRP 1 essa protocol jo
cisco k elawa other vender k routers per bhi run ho sakta hy. Is ka benefit hi ye howa k agar 1 router cisco company ka
hy or dosra router kessi or vender ka hy to hum waha bhi VRRP ko run kar sakty hy gateway redundancy k ley. Or is
ka 2nd benefit ye hy k ye HSRP sy fast hy is ka hello timer hy 1 second or dead timer hy 3 second to is ki conversion
bhi HSRP sy fast hy.

VRRP Features:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

The router with the highest priority becomes the Master Router.
All other router becomes backup Router.
By default, the virtual MAC address is 0000.5e00.01XX, where xx is the hexadecimal VRRP group number.
Hellos are send 1 second by default.
VRRP hellos are sent to multicast address 224.0.0.18 using UPD port 112,
In VRRP preempt by default.
Group Range 1 to 1024
In VRRP cannot track the interface.

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89

LAB: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) Objective: How to show Redundancy
by using VRRP

Configuring WAN-RT:
WAN-RT(config)#interface Loopback0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 200.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#router rip
WAN-RT(config-router)#version 2
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 200.0.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
WAN-RT(config-router)#exit

Configuring Master-RT:
Master-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#vrrp 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit

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90

Master-RT(config-if)
Master-RT(config )#interface FastEthernet0/1
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit
Master-RT(config)#router rip
Master-RT(config-router)#version 2
Master-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary

Configuring Backup-RT:
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.9 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#vrrp 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit
Backup-RT(config)#router rip
Backup-RT(config-router)#version 2
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary

GLBP:
GLBP (Gateway Load Balancing Protocol) Cisco propriety protocol hy cisco ny eak or redundancy protocol developed
kia 2005 my jo gateway ki load balancing kar saky HSRP or VRRP my tu just 1 router hi up hota hy or dosra router
standby py hota hy but GLBP my hamary donu router hi active hoty hy or load balancing provide karty hy. Or aager
essy my donu router my sy koi eak router down ho jata hy tu dosra router as a fault tolerance use hota hy or sari traffic
apny interface sy agye forward karta hy.

GLBP Features:
1) Multicast IP 224.0.0.102
2) Group number 1 to 255
3) All routers are active

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91

LAB: Gateway Load Balancing Protocol Objective: How to show Redundancy by using
GLBP

Configuring WAN-RT:
WAN-RT(config)#interface Loopback0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 200.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
WAN-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
WAN-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
WAN-RT(config-if)#exit
WAN-RT(config)#router rip
WAN-RT(config-router)#version 2
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#network 200.0.0.0
WAN-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
WAN-RT(config-router)#exit

Configuring Master-RT:
Master-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#glbp 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit
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92

Master-RT(config-if)
Master-RT(config )#interface FastEthernet0/1
Master-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
Master-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Master-RT(config-if)#exit
Master-RT(config)#router rip
Master-RT(config-router)#version 2
Master-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Master-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

Configuring Backup-RT:
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.9 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#glbp 1 ip 10.0.0.100
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit
Backup-RT(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Backup-RT(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.2 255.255.255.0
Backup-RT(config-if)#no shutdown
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit
Backup-RT(config)#router rip
Backup-RT(config-router)#version 2
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
Backup-RT(config-router)#no auto-summary
Backup-RT(config-if)#exit

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

93

Network Management
Contant

Network Mangment:

Page.No

78

 SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)?
 SNMP Access?
 Read-Only (RO)?
o Read-Write (RW)?
o SNMP Configuration:

 Syslog Server?

81

 In short Description of Syslog Server?
 Logging states?
 Syslog Configuration?

 DHCP Overview?
 DHCP Explain?
 Configuration of DHCP server on Cisco Router?

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82

Simple Network Management
protocol:
94
SNMP:
SNMP application layer ka protocol hy jo hammy communication ka format provide karta hy. SNMP is based on
TCP/IP networks or ye protocol 1988 my developed howa tha or is ka RFC hy 1065.
SNMP monitoring ka protocol hy jo IP k network per chalta
hy. Is my sari information record hoti hy k kon c port up ho
rahi hy kon c down ho rahi hy and so on. Ye network my
mojood sari devices ki information ka record rakhta hy ye sirf
switches ya router tk hi limited nahi hy network devices jaissy
servers, computer, printers and so on ye sub devices apny
states ko share kar sakti hy us computer ya us server k sath jis
py SNMP manager Install kia gaya hy. SNMP Manger bs eak
software hy or jis computer per hum SNMP manager ko
install karty hy wo computer hamara As a SNMP Manager
ACT karna start kar dyta hy. Jab ap 1 computer ko SNMP
Manager bana lyty hy to network my lagi sari devices pher
SNMP agent khelati hy or hamy un devices py SNMP Agent
software install karna parta hy taky wo apny statistics SNMP
manager ko send kar saky. SNMP k throw hum devices ki sirf monitor hi nahi balky unhy configure bhi kar sakty hy.
Suppose apko router ka koi interface down karna h ya up karna hy so ye bhi kar sakty hy ye depend karta hy k ap ko
privilege kia mila hy ap SNMP ka kon sa version use kar rahy hy. SNMP manager MIB k name sy apny ander 1
database banata hy jis my wo her activity ko monitor or record karta hy MIB stands for (Management Information
Base) or SNMP ka console hamy hamary browser per dekhta hy us k ley flash player bhi hona zarori hy.

SNMP Access:
Read-Only (RO):
Read only my hum sirf MIB variables k database ko sirf read kar sakty hy change nahi kar sakty.
Read-Write (RW):
Provide Read and Write access to all objects in the MIB.

SNMP Configuration:
R1 (config) # snmp-server community string RO|RW (community is kind of string or password)

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

95

Syslog Server in CISCO:
Syslog:
Jab hum router ya switches py koi bhi chez configure karty
hy tu us k bad foren 1 message generate hota hy jo ye define
karta hy k router py ye configuration hoi hy. To by default
wo hamary router per hi generate hota hy or ussi my save
hota hy router my eak buffer hota hy ye syslog message
waha save ho jaty hy. Buffer? (Hamary router ki memory
my sy hi kuch hissa nikal diya jata hy jessy hum buffer kehty
hy jaha hamary logs save hoty hy logs matlab jo
configuration hum ny ki hy us k messages. To agar hum
chahyee to wo logs kessi computer ya server per bhi bhej
sakty hy matlab jo bhi configuration hum router per kary gy wo us k logs 1 computer py save karta rahye ga k ye ye
configuration hoi is date ko hoi is time ko hoi and so on. Tu is tarha k logs ko hum syslog kehty hy or agar hum inhy
dekhna chahy tu command hy “R1#show logging” tu agar ap chahu k ap k ye sary logs router per save na hu balky 1
dedicated server per save hu ya ap k network my 5 sy 6 router lagyee hy tu ap ye cha rahy hu k sub k log ap us 1
computer per hi monitor kary tu is k ley hum syslog ka concept use karty hy. Is k ley hum apny computer per TFTP
server ko use karty hy or in sub logs ko hum waha sy moitor karty hy.
In short
Cisco device my hum ny jo bhi configuration kia us ka message wo logs my save krta hy jessy hum syslog kehty hy.
Or agar hum chty hy k hamary router ya switches py koi log save na hu tu hum command use kary gy “R1(config) #no
service timetamps” or agar hum chty hy k ye sary logs hamary computer per bany taky my uss log ko apny computer
sy hi monitor kar saky to command hy “R1(config) #logging 192.168.0.100” bs logging k agye hum us computer ki IP
dal dy gy jaha hum logs ko monitor krna chty hy.

Logging states:
Syslog message k sath 1 number hota hy jo hamary message ki state ko define karta hy jis sy hamy pata lagta hy k agar
message generate howa hy tu is ki state kia hy.
Level
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

States
Emergency
Alert
Critical
Error
Warning
Notification
Informational

Explanations
The system may be unusable.
Immediate action may be required.
A critical event took place.
The router experienced is error.
A condition might warrant attention.
A normal but significant condition occurred.
A normal event occurred.
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

96
7

Debugging

The output is a result of a debug command.

Agar hum chayee to sirf particular states ko bhi monitor kar sakty hy jaisy my cha raha hu k sirf Emergency, Warning
ya Error state k syslog message mujhy show hu tu hum command use karty hy “R1(config) #logging trap 4” Trap k
agyee us message state ka number hum configure karty hy to jaissy yaha my ny 4 configure kia hy to mujhy ya 0 sy ly
kar 4 state tk k syslog message show hongy bss Notifications Informational or Debugging k message mujy show nahi
hongy is ka benefit ye hy k my sirf un states ko monitor kar sakta hu jaisy forcelly configure karu ga so that is all about
syslogs.
LAB: SYSLOG OBJECTIVE: To Implement Syslog and to Show The Output it Generates On the
Syslog Server

Configuration on Router
Router>enable
Router#conf t
Router(config)#int fa0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config-if)#no shut
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#int fa0/1
Router(config-if)#ip address 20.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config-if)#no shut
Router(config)#service timestamps log datetime msec
Router(config)#logging host 20.0.0.2
Router(config)#logging trap debugging
Router(config)#end
*Mar 01, 00:04:47.044: *Mar 01, 00:04:47.044: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console Enter
configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. 83 Copyright@ CTTC

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

97

In order to generate the log do some configuration as below.
Router(config)#router eigrp 10
Router(config-router)#exit
Router(config)#int fa0/0
Router(config-if)#shutdown
*Mar 01, 00:05:50.055: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to administratively down *Mar
01, 00:05:50.055: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to down
Router
(config-if)#no shutdown
Router(config-if)#
*Mar 01, 00:05:52.055: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up *Mar 01, 00:05:52.055:
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up Now

Click the server to see the syslog messages.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

98

DHCP on Cisco Router:
Explain:
Jaissy k Microsoft my hum DHCP yani (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol) configure karty hy taky hammay
manually IP’s assign na karni pary apny network my or sary
Host py IP Dynamically Assign hojaye yani auto hi hojaye
mujhy alag alag PC py ja k khud sy IP ko assign na karny
pary. To essi tarha same is server ki configuration hum apny
Cisco Router per bhi kar satky hy.
Apny Router per hammy DHCP configure karny k ley hammy sub sy phly apny Router per IP’s ka 1 pool create karna
parta hy jis my hum IP’s ki Range bataty hy Like 100 sy ly kar 200 tak IP’s assign ho jay hamary networks py tu jitney
bhi computer hy unhy 100 sy ly kar 200 tak ki IP’s auto assign hojaye gi. Ye 1 pool banana pary ga. Hum 1 hi router
py rehty howay 2 different networks k DHCP server bhi configure kar sakty hy jessy my cha raha hu 1 side py IP’s
mily 10 k Network ki or dosry side py IP mily 20 k Network ki to my DHCP essy bhi configure kar sakta hu tu hamara
Router 2 Different network ki IP’s hi Assign kary ga 10 k Network my 10 ki IP or 20 k Network my 20 ki IP. Is my
hum router k alag alag interface ko use karty hy jaisy 1 interface py my 10 ka DHCP configure karu ga or Dosry
interface oy my 20 ka to jis computer py my 10 ka Gateway dallo ga un Computers ko 10 k Network ki IP milly gi or
Jin computer py my 20 ka Network dallu ga un Computer ko 20 ki IP milye gi.
DHCP 2 port number ko use karta hy apni working k ley 1) 68 jo k use hota hy client ki request k ley jab client IP
address ki request karty hy DHCP server sy or 2) 67 jo use hota hy Server Response k ley. Microsoft k DHCP 1
feature provide karty hy jessy hum khty hy DHCP reservation ye is ley hota hy k my cha raha hu 100 sy ly 120 tak ki
IP client ko nahi milly ye mery servers k ley hy client ko IP milly 120 k bad sy to DHCP my hum IP ko Reserve kara
dyty hy jis sy router wo IP jo reserve hy wo IP client ko nahi dyta to same Microsoft ki tarha ye feature Cisco k Router
per bhi perform hota hy. But 100 sy 120 tak ki IP’s hamy manually apny servers py configure karni hogi qk wo DHCP
k Network ka part to hogi per DHCP un IP’s ko khud sy assign nahi kary ga.

Configuration of DHCP server on Cisco Router:
Router(config)#ip dhcp pool Marketing
Router(dhcp-config)#network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
Router(dhcp-config)#default-router 10.0.0.100
Router(dhcp-config)#dns-server 8.8.8.8
Router(dhcp-config)#exit
Router(config)#ip dhcp excluded-address 10.0.0.101 10.0.0.200
Router(config)#service dhcp
Router(config)#no service dhcp
Router#show ip dhcp binding
Router#show ip dhcp server statistics
Router#clear ip dhcp binding *
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

99

WAN Encapsulation Protocol
Contant

Transmission Technics:

Page.No

87

 Transmission Technics?
 Three Types of Transmission Technics?
 First how to data transfer one place to another place?
o Simplex:
o Duplex:
 Second how to bits transfer in channel?
o Serial Transmission:
o Parallel Transmission:
 Third how to sync data between transmitter & receiver?
o Synchronic Transmission:
o A synchronic Transmission:

Wan Encapsulation Protocol:

88

 Lease Line/Dedicated Line?
 Lease Line Protocols?
o PPP
o HDLC
 Packet Switching?
 Circuit Switching?
89
 WAN Technology\Terminology?
 DCE and DTE devices?
 CSU\DSU Device?
90
 WAN Encapsulation Protocols?
o HDLC?
91
o HDLC Disadvantage?
o PPP?
o Features of PPP?
o PPP Authentication?
 PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
 CHAP (Challenge Handshaking protocol)

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

100

Frame Relay:
 Frame Relay?
 PVC (permanent Virtual Circuit)?
 SVC (Switch Virtual Circuit)?
 Frame-Relay Mapping?
 DLCI Technical detail?
 CIR (Committed information rate)?
 LAR (Local Access Rate)?
 LMI (Local Management Interface)?
 LMI Types?
 Version IOS?
 LMI States?

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

93

94

95

101

Modes of Transmission:
Three types of Transmission Technics.
“First Technic k Data 1 jaga sy dosri jag kessy transfer ho raha hy”

This type of transmission includes;
1)

Simplex

I.E (keyboard) qk keyboard py hum koi output nahi dekh sakty hum just keyboard ko input dyty hy key press kar k or
or wire k throw wo bits transmission ho k computer tk pouchty hy or hammy screen per show hoty hy. it’s like simplex
transmission technic jis my bits eak jaga sy move hoky kessi dosri jagga receive hoty hy.
2)

Duplex

Half duplex: Data 1 hi channel mai receive or send hu sakta hy but same time nahi one by one like (wokitoki) Calling.
Full duplex: Data 1 hi channel sy 1 hi time my receive bhi ho sakta hy or send bhi ho sakta hy like (mobile) Calling.

“Second Technic k Bits 1 channel py kitny send ho rahy hy”

Yaha ye dekha jata hy k 1 hi channel sy 1 jaga sy dosri jaga kitni bits ko transfer ho rahy hy. Is ko hum 2 categories my
divide karty hy like Serial & Parallel.
1) Serial Transmission;
Just 1 bit 1 jaga sy dosri jaga transfer hota hy. Jo data transfer hoga wo bit by bit hoga 1 sath sari bits transfer nahi
hosakti to is type ki communication ko serial type of communication kehty hy. I.E (COM Port).
2) Parallel Transmission;
Jaha 1 sath number of bits transfer ho saky. to is type ki communication ko Parallel type of communication kehty hy
I.E (Parallel Port)

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

102

“Third Technic hy k Transmitter or receiver k bech my data synchronize kessy ho raha hy”

1)

Synchronic Transmission;

Synchronic way wo hota hy jaha transmitter or receiver 1 hi sath 1 hi time 1 hi clock or 1 hi interval k bad data send
kar rahy hu. I.E jessy hamary Army man jab PT karty hy to wo 1 hi sath apny pao ko othaty hy pr rakhty hy or sub 1 hi
tarha chal rahy hoty hy to is tarha ki transmission Synchronic transmission khlati hy.

2)

A-synchronic Transmission;

Asynchronic way wo hota hy jaha sender or receiver k darmiyan data transfer karny ka jo interval hota hy wo fix nahi
hota jessi requirement hoti hy data wessy hi move kia jata hy. I.E (Keyboard) hamra jab dil karta hy hum button press
Address Resolution Protocol:
karty hy koi fix time nahi hy k itny time button dabana hy or 1 sath dabana hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

103

Address Resolution Protocol:
ARP resolve the known IP address to MAC address.
There are 5 types of ARP.
1) ARP
2) Proxy ARP
3) Gratuitous ARP
4) RARP
5) Inverse ARP
1) ARP Works

ARP packet hamesha broadcast hota hy jab bhi hum kessi computer ko ping karty hy us ki network connectivity ko
check karny k ley tu PC ko nahi pata k IP kiaa hy ussy apna MAC address pata hy so ARP karta ye hy k computer
ki IP ko us computer k MAC address my resolve kar dyta hy taky switch py connectivity easily ho saky. In short
ARP resolve the IP address into Computer MAC address.
2) Proxy ARP (PARP)

Routers Lan ki broadcast ko agyee forward nahi karta qk wo Lan py broadcast ko restrict karta hy essy my agar
hammy kessy different network sy communicate karna ho tu Router apna MAC address laga k us request ko agyee
forward karta hy or communication karwata hy ye process Proxy ARP kehlata hy. Qk router different network py
communicate karty waqt apna MAC address laga k sary packet send kar raha hota hy.
3) Gratuitous ARP (GARP)

Gratuitous ARP matlab jab hum apny network py kessi computer ko ya router ko same IP address dobara dyty hy
by mistake to GARP hammy notify karta hy k ye Ip address phly sy kahi use ho rahi hy GARP jab hum same IP
dyty hy to ussy notify karta hy.
4) RARP (Reverse ARP)

Reverse ARP like essy hum u samjhty hy k jab hum internet py search karty hy google.com to yaha computer ko
sirf us ka MAC address pata hota hy Google ka IP address nahi pata hota to essy my RARP ka packet send hota hy
to reverse ARP MAC address ko IP address my resolve karta hy or communication karata hy.
5) Inverse ARP (IARP)
Inverse ARP layer 2 address ko layer 3 address my resolve karta hy. Frame Relay inverse ARP ko use karta hy.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

104 Protocols:
WAN Encapsulation

WAN Technologies:
WAN Technology ko use karty howy hum kuch Protocols or kuch ways/line ko use karty hy.

Lease Line/Dedicated Line:
Jab hamy different branches ko connect karna hota hy tu hum lease line ya dedicated line purchase karty hy. Lease
Line direct 1 hi link hoti hy jo hamary apny router sy connect hoty howy hamary branch office k router sy direct
connect hoti hy. Ye sub sy zada reliable hota hy per costly bhi hoti hy qk wo line hamari personal tunnel hoti hy jaha sy
data sy sirf hamara data move ho raha hota hy jabhi essy dedicated line kehty hy.
Lease Line Protocols:

1) PPP
2) HDLC

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

105

Packet Switching:
Packet Switching Wan network yani ISP k Network my use hoti hy qk waha hamara packet multiple routers or
different switches k ho k agye forward hota hy so it’s like a packet switching.

Circuit Switching:
Packet switching my tu hamary packets multiple router sy forward hoty hy but Circuit switching 1 specific path define
hota hy 1 circuit design hota hy jis sy sary packets us 1 hi circuit sy ho k agyee forward hoty hy eak road map k throw.
WAN Technology\Terminology:

DCE and DTE devices:
DCE means (Data Communication Equipment) and DTE means (Data Termination Equipment) DCE device like a
modem or DTE is like a Router. DCE generate a Clock rate or DTE us Clock rate per work karta hy. ager hammy do
router ko connect karna hota hy to hum waha serial cable ka use karty hy to serial cable 1 taraf sy DCE device sy
connect hoti hy or dosri taraf sy DTE py to DCE device clock rate ko generate karti hy or DTE device us clock rate ko
use karti hy process k doran. agar hammy do routers ko connect karna ho jo different country my hy or do branches ko
hammy 1 sath connect karna hy to waha hum ISP k throw connect hoty hy jaha bech my 1 ISP ka modem laga hota hy
jaha sy clock rate generate hoty hy or dosri taraf hamari company ka router hota hy or wo us clock rate per work karta
hy. So DCE device hamari Modem hoti hy or DTE device hamary Routers hoty hy. DCE device jessy DSL Modem,
Cable Modem, CSU/DSU and DCE is a Service Provider side and DTE is a Customer side.

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106

CSU\DSU Device:
CSU (Channel Service Unit) DSU (Data Service Unit) ye na to hamara source point hy or na hi destination point hy ye
bs 1 bridge hy jo hamari WAN sy communication karwata hy. WAN sy jo bhi hum connection lyty hy wo direct hum
apny router per terminate nahi kar sakty hum us link ko CSU\DSU device sy connect karty hy or pher hum ussy apny
router sy connect karty hy to CSU\DSU device hamay WAN sy connect karti hy like a modem. Jessy ISP ka
connection hamary pass aaya ab ya tu wo hamary modem sy connect hoga ya pher router sy connect hoga agar
CSU\DSU sy connect hoga tu digital circuit hona chayee or agar analog hy tu modem k thorw connect hoga or ab
modem sy 1 cable aaye gi jessy hum serial cable kehty hy or jo cable ISP hamay provide kary ga wo bhi 1 special
cable hoti hy jis my RJ48 connector use hota hy wo connect hota hy hamary CSU\DSU ya modem sy qk router direct
in signals ko nahi samajh sakta jabhi hum is device ko use kary gy or pher waha sy serial cable hamary router sy
connect hogi or pher LAN sy so that is all about CSU\DSU.

WAN Encapsulation Protocols:
1) HDLC
2) PPP
3) Frame Relay

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107

WAN Encapsulation Protocol Physical or Data link layer py perform hoty hy is ka matlab k jo ap ny frame send kia hy
wo is way my WAN connection sy send ho k destination my pouchye ga.

High Level Data-link Control (HDLC):
HDLC (High-Level Data-Link Control) IOS Standard hy jessy 1970 my developed kia gaya tha HDLC protocol by
default Point-to-Point serial interfaces py enable hota hy. HDLC open standard protocol hy or 1 HDLC protocol cisco
ka propriety bhi hy jo sirf cisco k routers per hi chalta hy jab cisco k routers sy data send hota hy or donu taraf cisco k
hi routers hy tu by default serial interfaces py WAN encapsulation k ley HDLC protocol use hota hy jis k throw data
WAN py move hota hy.
HDLC Disadvantage:
1) No Error Deduction.
2) No Authentication.
3) Only IP network Support.

Point to Point (PPP):
PPP (Point-to-point protocol) HDLC ka Alternative hy jo kessi bhi brand ya vendor k router per support karta hy. Qk
HDLC my kuch disadvantage thy jessy k wo layer 2 py authentication ko support nahi karta tha na data ko compress
karta tha or na hi multiple network ko support karta tha ye sirf IPs k network per hi chalta tha essi ley PPP ko
developed kia gaya. Routing protocol jo apni authentication karty hy wo application layer py karty hy or jitney bhi
routing protocol hoty hy sub application layer py work karty hy. PPP open standard protocol hy or CISCO bhi is
protocol ko support karta hy WAN Encapsulation k ley or OSI ki data link layer py work karta hy.
Features of PPP:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Physically deferent types ki cables ko support karta hy.
LCP (Link Control Protocol) Error Deduction karta hy.
NCP (Network Control Protocol) Multiple networks ko support karta hy (IP, IPX, Apple Talk).
Support Authentication.
Data compress bhi kar sakta hy data ko send karny sy phly.

PPP Authentication:
1) PAP (Password Authentication Protocol):

PAP protocol my hamara username or password plan text my hota hy or routers password match karty hi data ko
send karna start kar dyty hy essi ley PAP zada Secure nahi hy.

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108

2) CHAP (Challenge Handshaking protocol)

CHAP my password Encrypted hota hy or Hash value my convert ho jata hy or jab tk routers us hash value ko
match na karly jab tk data send nahi karty routers phly hash value ko match karty hy or pher us k bad three way
handshake ka process run karty hy us k bad data ko send karty hy essi ley CHAP kafi secure hy as compare to
PAP.

LAB: WAN Encapsulation OBJECTIVE: To Implement authentication method and
encapsulation used for WAN

Configuring R1:
R1(config)#int s0/3/0
255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000
R1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
R1(config-if)#ppp authentication chap pap
R1(config-if)#no shutdown
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#username
R2 password cisco

R1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1

Configuring R2:
R2(config)#int s0/3/0
R2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.252
R2(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
R2(config-if)#ppp authentication chap pap
R2(config-if)#no shutdown
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#username
R1 password cisco

Note: Username R2 must be created on Router R1 and username R1 must be created on Router R2, where usernames
R1 and R2 are the hostname of their respective Routers. Passwords on both the routers must be same.

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

Frame-Relay:
109
Frame Relay:
Frame Relay is a packet switching Technology Suppose 3 branches hy in a different location to is scenario my agar
hamy un branches ko connect ho tu jitni branches hogi hamy utni hi lease line ya dedicated line purchase karni hogi jo
k bhut hi costly bhi pary ga or bhut sari cables bhi hamy apny router k serial interface sy connect hogi to Frame Relay
eak essa feature hy jis my ap apny eak hi serial link ko use karty howy apny multiple remote Offices sy connect ho
sakty hu. tu ye eak basic overview hy k Frame Relay hota kia hy. Frame Relay packet Switching k throw hamari cost
ko reduce karta hy. Frame Relay packet switching py based hy per is my bhi circuit create hoty hy jessy hum kehty hy
Virtual Circuit VC jab bhi hum remote office sy connect hoty hy tu VC Virtual Circuit generate hota hy jis k throw
communication hoti hy. Hum bs apna router ISP sy connect karty hy or apny remote office ka router bhi ISP sy connect
karty hy or is tarha hamari do branches jo k different countries my hy wo appas my connect hojati hy bech my ISP ka
network hota hy jo k packet switching or Frame-Relay ka task perform karta hy.

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110

PVC (permanent Virtual Circuit):
PVC agar eak router remote office py data send karna chehta hy tu bech my ISP k jitney bhi routers hongy un k bech
my 1 circuit phly sy hi design hoga jis k throw hamara data send hoga. PVC my wohi circuit hamary link py permanent
hoty hy matlab k ab hamara router jitney bhi packets ko send kary ga sary packet us same circuit ko hi use kary gy or
ussi path k throw data ko forward kary gy is circuit my VC fix hota hy.

SVC (Switch Virtual Circuit):
SVC my router khud sy decide karta hy k packets ko kaha sy send karna hy is my koi bhi path fix nahi hota packets
kessi bhi router sy ho kar guzar sakta hy inside of ISP network agar koi eak link down hy to kessi dosray link sy data
ko send kar dy ga to her eak individual packet individual decision ly sakta hy wo kehlata hy hamara Switch Virtual
Circuit (SVC).

Frame-Relay Mapping:
LAN py data link layer MAC address ko use karti hy us ki destination identity k ley essi thrha WAN py eak
protocol use hota hy jessy hum DLCI (Data link connection Identity) kehty hy. hota kia hy jessy humay
multiple Virtual circuit bany hy hamara branch router multiple remote routers k sath connect hy tu essy
my locations ko identify karny k ley DLCI Frame Relay number us ki Destination IP address
k sath bind kar diya jata hy. ye DLCI Frame Relay number ISP assign karta hy to essy my jab
bhi
hamara Router kessi Remote Office k Router ko data send
karta hy jo kessi or country my hy tu us ki destination IP
address k sath wo us Frame Relay ka number bind kar dyta
hy jo us k packets ki identity hoti hy DLCI number k throw link ki identity hoti hy.
DLCI Technical detail:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Data link connection identifier.
Identify virtual circuit.
Range (16 - 1007)
Given by Service Provider.
Local DLCI MAP with remote IP address.
Manual or Automatic Mapping.

CIR:
Committed information Rate (CIR) ISP jo hamy link provide karta hy Frame Relay k connection k ley us ki jo speed
hoti hy suppose 2MBPS tu CIR matlab ye bandwidth fix hy zayada ho sakti hy is sy per 2mbps sy km nahi ho sakti
CIR my bandwidth fix hoti hy but jitni apki link ki speed hogi jo CIR ap select kary gy ussi hisab sy pher apko
payment bhi karni hoti hy.
---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

111

LAR:
Local Access Rate (LAR) hamary office router sy jo cable ISP sy connect ho rahi hy us ki physical cable py jo speed
hoti hy ussy hum khety hy (LAR) means Local Access Rate.

LMI (Local Management Interface)
ISP sy hamary router py LMI messages send hoty hy jessy hum keep alive message kehty hy jo k Frame Relay switch
sy connectivity ko check karta hy ye internal hy jessy LAN my Hello messages hoty hy wessy hi WAN py LMI
Messages send hoty hy Frame Relay sy Rotuer k bech us ki connectivity ko check karny k ley.

LMI Types:
Three types of LMI.
1) Cisco LMI
2) ITU-T LMI (International Telecommunication Union-Telecom)
3) ANSI LMI (American National Standard institute)
Frame Relay connection my ISP k Routers or hamary Routers k bech my LMI ki type same honi chyee

Version IOS:
(11.0) sy ly kar (11.3) tak LMI ko hamy manually configure karna parta tha apny router per.
(12.0) sy still jo LMI type ISP k router per hy hamary Router per bhi wohi LMI type auto hi detect ho jati hy.

LMI States:
1) Active
2) In-Active
3) Deleted

(Link Ok)
(Frame-Relay Switch sy hamary Router tak k link my problem hy)
(hamara link ok hy destination router or us k Frame-Relay Switch k link my problem hy)

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

112

LAB:Frame Relay OBJECTIVE: To Show How Router Connects With Each Other Over Cloud
Using Frame Relay

Configuring R1:
R1(config)#int s0/3/0
R1(config-if)#no shutdown
R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#interface s0/3/0.122 point-to-point
R1(config-subif)#ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 122
R1(config-subif)#exit
R1(config)#interface s0/3/0.123 point-to-point
R1(config-subif)#ip address 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 123
R1(config-subif)#exit
R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#version 2
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.2.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.3.0
R1(config-router)#exit

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113

Configuring R2:
R2(config)#int s0/3/0
R2(config-if)#ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R2(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 221
R2(config-if)#no shutdown
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#version 2
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary
R2(config-router)#network 10.1.2.0

Configuring R3:
R3(config)#int s0/3/0
R3(config-if)#ip address 10.1.3.2 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R3(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 321
R3(config-if)#no shutdown R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#version 2
R3(config-router)#no auto-summary
R3(config-router)#network 10.1.3.0
R3(config-router)#exit

Configuring WAN Emulation Cloud:

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114

Note:

Click on WAN cloud then click on Config tab. You will see all the interfaces on the left hand side. Now click on
Serial0 button and add the DLCI value and Name as shown above and press ―Add‖ button. Serial0 is linked to two
DLCI value, therefore both the DLCI values must be added. Now repeat the same procedure for Serial1 and Serial2.

Configuring Frame Relay:

Note:

Now click on ―Frame Relay‖ button and map the DLCI accordingly as shown above and press the ―Add‖ button.
You can now verify the connectivity by sending ping packets as follows.
On Router R1:

On Router R2:

On Router R3:

R1#ping 10.1.2.2
R1#ping 10.1.3.2

R2#ping 10.1.3.2

R3#ping 10.1.2.2

---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------

115

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---------------------This Book is written by Fayyaz Ahmed---------------------