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Katie Reddington

EDET 650 Internship in Educational Technology

Dr. Smyth
November 30, 2015

Technology in education is becoming the topic of conversation all throughout our society.
Many teachers fear the implementation of technology because it is new to them and they
are unsure if it can truly enhance instruction. Many studies have been performed to
determine the impact technology has had on student engagement in the classroom.
Several schools have implemented the 1:1 initiative providing each student with their
own device to use for learning. With this new implementation, it is important to
determine whether or not technology can positively effect student engagement. The
following research articles I have selected go into detail explaining the impact technology
has on student engagement. As an educator we know if students are engaged they are
more inclined to learn. The topic of student engagement and technology relates back to
my internship with online resources. All of the programs we are currently utilizing at
Myrtle Beach Elementary School play a major role in how attentive the students are with
their learning. These articles will provide me with more insight on ways technology can
be implemented into instruction and the most effective way for implementation. The
findings discuss student engagement with technology at all age levels beginning at the
elementary level all the way up to higher education. Some articles below also focus on
games with technology which is a topic of discussion at Myrtle Beach Elementary
School. As teachers we are always searching for the most educational programs that are
engaging for the children.
Technology and Student Engagement in Elementary Schools
Boyce, C. J., Mishra, C., Halverson, K. L., & Thomas, A. K. (2014). Getting Students
Outside: Using Technology as a Way to Stimulate Engagement. Journal Of
Science Education And Technology, 23(6), 815-826. Retrieved from
Boyce, Mishra, Halverson, and Thomas indicate the need for students to be more active
in exploring science outside the classroom. There is not a high interest in school science
and the hope was for technology to increase this interest when presented in an informal,
natural environment. The study focused on using mobile tablet technology to engage fifth
grade students in science while on nature walks. The devices were used to assist the
students in collecting data and other tasks related to findings on the hike. Findings
showed that on the initial hike with the ipads, student focus was more on playing with the
technology than it was with nature. However, after this study students became more
interested in exploring nature and less fixated on playing with the device. Data gathered
on the second hike also indicated the devices were used more purposefully towards
science and taking photographs or notes on nature, than they were on the first hike.
Technology is shown here to be effective even out of the classroom setting for

Brunvand, S., & Byrd, S. (2011). Using VoiceThread to Promote Learning Engagement
and Success for All Students. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(4), 28-37.
Retrieved from
This scholarly article discusses the importance of increasing student engagement and
motivation through the use of a web-based learning tool. VoiceThread is an interactive
tool that is used in general education classrooms and with students who have special
needs. This tool allows students to collaborate with their peers by creating images,
recording their thoughts and commenting on another students work. The article offers
many ideas for how the tool can be used in various subject areas to increase student
engagement even in those who are at risk and have little motivation in school. This tool
encourages all students to actively participate and is different than the traditional
assignments students receive in class.
Cumming, T. M., & Draper Rodriguez, C. (2013). Integrating the iPad into Language
Arts Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Engagement and Perspectives.
Journal Of Special Education Technology, 28(4), 43-52
Cumming and Draper note the use of the iPad in special education and the benefits. This
study focuses on the impact the iPad has on students engagement with students that have
language disabilities. Students used a language builder application to construct sentences
about the picture they viewed on the iPad. The paraprofessionals prompted students to
remain on task throughout this phase. After the students constructed sentences using the
application, they had to complete the task without the iPad. Results from this study
found that when the students took part in the phase that utilized the iPads, levels of
satisfaction and engagement were much higher. Teachers noted an advantage of using the
iPads was that it allowed students to work on the task independently and at their own
House, J. D. (2012). Science Achievement of Elementary-School Students in the United
International Journal Of Instructional Media, 39(3), 263-274. Retrieved from
House explains the use of technology in an elementary science classroom to increase
student engagement and achievement. Research has shown the design of numerous
computer science programs have the ability to improve problem solving skills and
provide the opportunity for students to use research strategies. This study focused on
various instructional strategies and computer programs that were used in the science
classroom. Students in this study had the opportunity to use the computer programs at
home after school hours to gain a deeper understanding of the science curriculum. The

results from this study showed that students who used the science programs at home
displayed greater achievements in science than the students who did not.
Kucirkova, N., Messer, D., Sheehy, K., & Fernndez Panadero, C. (2014). Children's
engagement with educational iPad apps: Insights from a Spanish classroom.
Computers & Education, 71, 175-184. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2013.10.003.
Retrieved from
Kucikova, Messer, Sheehy, and Fernndez Panadero investigate iPad applications when
used with four and five year olds and their engagement. With the immense amount of
applications available for instruction, it is difficult for educators to determine which are
best suitable for the classroom. The study wanted to determine which app had a higher
effect on the engagement and collaboration with children. Applications that were more
open ended were found to be more successful than those that had a structured design.
When children interacted with the more open ended application, having to create their
own project, they engaged in more meaningful dialogue with the other children and
improved problem solving skills. This study showed applications that allow children to
learn for themselves without teacher directed instruction could be very valuable with
young children.
Mango, O. (2015). iPad Use and Student Engagement in the Classroom. Turkish Online
Journal Of Educational Technology - TOJET, 14(1), 53-57. Retrieved from
Mango discusses the impact of iPads on student engagement and collaboration from the
students perspective. The students from this study were those in college level language
courses. They were given the iPads to present projects using various applications to be a
part of a more hands on project in the classroom. The article makes a claim stating that
student engagement is linked with active learning in the classroom. Students were given
a questionnaire, to obtain responses from the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional
engagement of the participants. The results from the study concluded that students
enjoyed using the iPads in class and felt that they promoted their collaboration with their
peers. The iPads were an effective tool to utilize during instruction.
Muis, K. R., Ranellucci, J., Trevors, G., & Duffy, M. C. (2015). The effects of
technology-mediated immediate feedback on kindergarten students' attitudes,
emotions, engagement and learning outcomes during literacy skills development.
Learning & Instruction, 381-13. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.02.001.
Retrieved from
The authors of this article report that it is indeed true that technology is readily available
for educators to use but they question if it is being used properly to enhance student

achievement. It is noted that various applications have been shown to increase student
motivation and engagement in the early elementary grades yet are students truly
benefitting from these applications. The study focused on whether applications that
provide immediate feedback actually support the learning of early literacy skills. The
authors explained students who receive negative feedback from the application may not
react well and it will have a ripple effect on the remainder of the lesson. Two groups of
students participated in this study, one receiving immediate feedback from using the
technology and the other did not receive immediate feedback. The conclusion from the
study reported higher levels of student achievement overall with those who received
feedback from the applications even though some students stated they did not enjoy
hearing the negative feedback. The authors advice when selecting applications for
instruction it that it is important to select ones that are appropriate for the grade level and
maintain student engagement,
Ya-Hui, H., Yi-Chun, L., & Huei-Tse, H. (2015). Exploring Elementary-School Students'
Engagement Patterns in a Game- Based Learning Environment. Journal Of
Educational Technology & Society, 18(2), 336-348. Retrieved from
Ya-Hui, Yi-Chun, and Huei-Tse investigated the use of game based learning on student
engagement in elementary schools. In order for games to be appealing to students they
must include a variety of elements to sustain the learners attention. Resource
classification was the topic of this game, providing the students with a mission to solve at
the beginning and obtain correct ideas along the way to the ending of the story. Feedback
was given as well to remind the learners of their progress throughout the mission.
Including a game that was challenging and motivating which was a big factor in the
success of the technology. The observations obtained were both nonverbal and verbal
from the students, which provided teachers with feedback on how to create meaningful
learning and also to provide additional instruction on how to respond when faced with a
challenge with a technology based game.
Technology and Student Engagement in Middle and High Schools
Barkatsas, A. (., Kasimatis, K., & Gialamas, V. (2009). Learning secondary mathematics
with technology: Exploring the complex interrelationship between students
attitudes, engagement, gender and achievement. Computers & Education, 52(3),
562-570. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.11.001. Retrieved from
This study focused on the relationship between a culmination of factors including the use
of technology, student confidence, and performance in mathematics. Research has shown
the use of technology in mathematics can be beneficial in instruction from increasing
problem solving skills to exploring various mathematical topics. Teachers have to
determine the best way to implement the technology to ensure it has a positive effect.
The study showed that even students who had a low level of confidence in mathematics,

and a negative attitude towards the subject, displayed confidence with using computers
and an optimistic attitude towards learning mathematics through the use of technology.
Miller, B. T., Krockover, G. H., & Doughty, T. (2013). Using iPads to teach inquiry
science to students with a moderate to severe intellectual disability: A pilot study.
Journal Of Research In Science Teaching, 50(8), 887-911. Retrieved from
This article discussed the use of the iPad with science electronic notebooks as compared
to the traditional style science notebooks. Students in this study had a moderate to severe
learning disability and were examined to see the differences of engagement using each of
the notebooks. The electronic notebooks supported students in science inquiry and
guided them towards higher-level thinking. With the support of this technology students
with intellectual disabilities were able to engage in other tasks not available to them
through a traditional style science notebook. The study reported students were more
engaged when using the iPad for instruction and they were able to display their thoughts
using applications, such as the dictation application, the iPad offered. They were
provided with assistance that the iPad offered for them to more easily display their
findings and knowledge,.
Perry, D. R., & Steck, A. K. (2015). Increasing Student Engagement, Self-Efficacy, and
Meta-Cognitive Self-Regulation in the High School Geometry Classroom: Do
iPads Help?. Computers In The Schools, 32(2), 122-143.
doi:10.1080/07380569.2015.1036650. Retrieved from
Perry and Steck wanted to determine the effect iPads would have on student engagement
and academic achievement in a high school geometry class. Research stated that the iPad
has been proven to enhance instruction due to applications that allow students to apply
mathematical concepts to real world situations. The educational games that are available
through the iPad have the ability to provide immediate feedback and personalized
instruction based on students needs. There are a variety of applications available for the
high school level geometry class that allow students to view and practice skills that are
more efficient than using traditional pencil and paper. The study reported students who
utilized the iPad displayed more off task behaviors and did not show an increase in
academic performance. The discussion includes ways teachers can monitor student usage
to decrease off task behaviors in future use.
Technology and Student Engagement in Higher Education
Carley, A. (2015). Using technology to enhance nurse practitioner student engagement.
Nurse Practitioner, 40(7), 47-54. doi 10.1097/01.NPR.0000465119.04536.0e.
Retrieved from

Carley reports the need to improve the way instruction is delivered in the classroom. It is
stated that lecture based delivery is no longer the most efficient way for students in
todays society to learn. Nurse practitioner learners, similarly to all learners, need to take
part in well-designed learning experiences. Carley explains one way to engage students
is with the use of hand-held clickers or web-based polling. Each of these applications can
provide students an opportunity to voice their thoughts and for instructors to gain
feedback to derive their next class session. The use of web and video conferencing is
also discussed showing how they augment communication among peers. Nurse
Practitioner students indicate the desire to be more in charge of their own learning and
there are many examples in this article of how technology fulfills this need.
Bangert-Drowns, R. L., & Pyke, C. (2002). Teacher ratings of student engagement with
educational software: An exploratory study. Educational Technology Research
and Development, 50(2), 23-37. Retrieved from
Bangert and Pyke studied the different levels of student engagement with educational
software. Teachers were asked to note how often students displayed the certain levels of
engagement when interacting with the software. Standardized test scores were also
recorded from the students who used the program to determine if it had an impact on their
academic achievement. Teachers noted student performance on standardized tests had a
high correlation with their engagement using the software, concluding that achievement
was indeed impacted. It is noted in this study that students can display enthusiasm when
interacting with a computer program yet that enthusiasm may not always result in
significant learning. Determining whether the proper level of engagement is displayed,
assists educators when deciding to continue the practice in their classrooms.
Diemer, T. T., Fernandez, E., & Streepey, J. W. (2013). Student perceptions of classroom
engagement and learning using iPads. Journal of Teaching and Learning with
Technology, 1(2), 13-25. Retrieved from
This article presents students perspectives of using iPads during instruction. The
authors state there is little research done on whether this device truly impacts student
engagement even though many universities are very quick to adopt them for classroom
use. The study had students participate in activities using the iPads and then gained their
overall feedback on how it improved their engagement and also learning in the
classroom. The instructors installed various applications in the iPads that were intended
to enhance collaboration and communication among peers. Findings from this study
showed that students reported higher engagement when using the iPad and also they felt
it positively impacted their learning. In addition, students who stated they were
uncomfortable with e-learning technology found that they would be included when using
the iPad more in the future after participating in this study.

Gunuc, S., & Kuzu, A. (2015). Confirmation of Campus-Class-Technology Model in

student engagement: A path analysis. Computers In Human Behavior, 48114-125.
doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.041. Retrieved from
This article discusses the relationship between technology and student engagement. It
explains the theoretical background behind the study and focuses on students becoming
more engaged and involved in their college courses. The authors stated positive
outcomes overall from the Campus-Class Technology theory and through this theory
students felt a sense of belonging with their university. Educators involved in higher
education need to determine ways to continually keep their students engaged since there
are a number of factors in college that can be a distracter. Ways to continuously keep
them engaged include various uses of technology and ways for students to collaborate
with one another through technology. The study conducted reported that students who
utilized the technology had a higher level of engagement than those who were less
involved with the technology.
Junco, R., Heiberger, G., & Loken, E. (2011). The effect of Twitter on college student
engagement and grades. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(2), 119-132.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00387.x. Retrieved from
Junco, Heiberger, and Loken explore the use of Twitter in a college level course to
determine if it increases student engagement and grades, overall. Twitter, like many
social media sites, facilitates discussion and interaction among peers. It is a blogging
application focusing more on the communication aspect than some other social
networking sites. Teachers in higher education are searching for more ways to implement
the use of social media in classes since it is such a popular trend among the current
generation. Findings concluded that the use of Twitter had a positive effect overall and
should be used as an educational tool. The authors hoped this study would encourage
others to take part in utilizing other technologies in the educational setting.
Kates, F. R., Byrd, M. D., & Haider, M. R. (2015). Every Picture Tells a Story: The
Power of 3 Teaching Method. Journal Of Educators Online, 12(1), 189-211.
Retrieved from
This article digs deeper into flipping a classroom and focuses on the flipped classroom
with the constructivist theory. The authors note that students are more inclined to learn
when they are hands on participants constructing knowledge rather than just sitting
through a traditional lecture setting. Educators are switching from positivism to
constructivism allowing students to create their own learning experiences. The Power of
3 Discussion Starter Technique was the focus of the study, which has students present
their knowledge in an effective and brief manner using digital storytelling. The study
reports the impact this technique has on student attraction, cognitive engagement, and

emotional engagement. Students overall reported this would be a beneficial technique to

implement in the classroom.
Perry, D. R., & Steck, A. K. (2015). Increasing Student Engagement, Self-Efficacy, and
Meta-Cognitive Self-Regulation in the High School Geometry Classroom: Do
iPads Help?. Computers In The Schools, 32(2), 122-143.
doi:10.1080/07380569.2015.1036650. Retrieved from
Perry and Steck describe the use of online discussions in college classrooms to increase
student engagement. Students are able to post in the discussion forum and communicate
with their peers. Professors have to make the decision whether they want their
discussions to be more structured, posting a question for students to respond to or
unstructured. The students were required to post three times per week, and the topics
were related to the chapter they discussed in class. The use of this technology showed an
increase in student engagement overall, more towards the discussions that were structured
rather than unstructured. Students enjoyed receiving feedback from the discussions and
used the forums to assist them with their exams. This study reported that the use of
technology had a positive impact on student engagement.
Sun, J. C. Y., Martinez, B., & Seli, H. (2014). Just-in-time or plenty-of-time teaching?
Different electronic feedback devices and their effect on student
engagement. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 234-244.
Retrieved from
This article discusses the use of electronic feedback and how they can enhance student
engagement in a lecture setting. Sun, Martinez, and Seli discuss the use of both clickers
and web-based polling citing how both can have benefits in education. The authors
note though that the use of clickers allows the student and instructor to receive
immediate feedback on the material rather than waiting till the class has ended. The use
of clickers encourages those who do not normally participate, to participate for the
responses are anonymous. The study supported this argument in stating that the levels
of student engagement were higher in those that participated in the use of in class
clickers but student engagement was also high in those who participated in web-based
polling. Both methods of engagement showed positive outcomes, the use of web-based
polling provided instructors with necessary information on students understanding
before the lecture began. In doing this, the instructor was able to modify his or her
lessons and gauge it towards the specific learning needs. The clickers also had an
impact on students self-efficacy towards learning which could result in positive
outcomes. The article does not favor one device more than the other yet offers educators
various ways to provide feedback during, before, and after instruction.
Technology and Student Engagement in All Ages
Lim, C. P. (2008). Spirit of the game: Empowering students as designers in schools?.
British Journal Of Educational Technology, 39(6), 996-1003. doi:10.1111/j.1467-

8535.2008.00823_1.x. T. Retrieved from
Lim explores how the use of computer games could be implemented into the classroom to
enhance student instruction. The intent of the article was not to put down traditional
teaching styles but to offer insightful ideas on how to meaningfully utilize a game in the
classroom to support learning. Lim noted in order for students to be engaged they need
to see the relevance and meaning behind what they are learning. The article suggests
having students take part in designing the games used in instruction. In doing this, it
would switch from textbook based or teacher-designed games to incorporating the way
students view curriculum. Having the students take part in designing the games could
also enhance their technology skills as well as lead to better understanding the material
In reviewing the twenty articles I selected regarding technology and student engagement I
have found that technology impacts levels of engagement at all ages. I found numerous
examples of the positive effects technology has on student engagement and motivation
from kindergarten all through higher education. Technology has also been used with
students who have learning disabilities to enhance their abilities in the classroom and
assist them with tasks that traditional teaching styles are unable to do. Researchers in
many articles do note the importance of selecting meaningful applications to utilize to
ensure the technology not only increases engagement but also increases student
achievement. In one of the above articles it was noted that there was not a significant
difference in student engagement when using technology and students actually seemed
more off task. This is something that should be monitored by educators and applications
are strategically selected to ensure instructional time is not wasted. The majority of
findings concluded that the applications and devices increased students academic
achievement and educators were also optimistic about the use in their classrooms.
Technology has the power to transform our students education when used appropriately
with students of all ages. I was able to gain valuable information and feedback that I will
implement into my work through my internship and teaching in the classroom.