You are on page 1of 12

BRIEF HISTORY OF TEST AND MEASUREMENTS

The human beings are very creative in developing new ideas, techniques with their intellectual abilities. The human being take ideas from the history and develop these ideas with the help of science and technology. This develops to research work and invent new techniques to co-op the circumstances and different conditions. Tests and Measurement is one of that technology which human being uses to check the quality. Many types of measurement technique are used from the very first start of Sports and Physical education. Mainly the start of measurement is from the mid of 19th century. This was adopted to emphasis on human talent, ability, efficiency and accuracy to perform the physical activities. Assessment is the main aspect of the training programme that occurs after an athlete has been trained but if you want to know where you are going, first need to determine where you are ? Assessment-before, during and after training

programmes, allows the athlete and coach to test various abilities and their status. A historical aspect of varies techniques of measurements used in sports is given below:

TECHNIQUE OF MEASUREMENT Anthropometry Muscular Strength Endurance Athletics Ability Testing Cardiovascular Measurement Sports skill testing Power measurement Medical Test Social Measurement Programme Evaluation Reaction time and Speed of movement Balance measurement Physical Fitness Knowledge Testing Somato Typing Flexibility testing 1861 1880 1900 1900 1913 1921 1921 1930 1930 1936 1939 1940 1940 1940 1941

There tests have been discussed at international level in Dec. 1984 and Dec. 1987 in the meeting of exercise physiologists in London. Similarly modification to various method of muscular strength testing, anaerobic power testing have resulted in the development of a large number of new laboratory and field equipment in many of the developed countries like USA, Canada, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, France, England etc. Likewise the somatotype method of measuring human physique has been modified a number of times mainly by health centre 1967, 1974, 1980, Kansal, 1983. Now reference to some important modern development of practical utility in measurement methodology which are

frequently applied on the student of sports and physical education person, has been given in the following section: • Somatotype • Body Composition • Cardiovascular function testing • Lung function testing • Aerobic power testing • Anaerobic power testing • Performance testing

BASIC TERMS
Before we explore more fully other purposes for evaluation. It seems appropriate to identity and discuss the following basic terms. Test:- A test is a form of questioning and measuring used to assess retention of knowledge and capability or to measure ability in some physical Endeavour. Measurement:- Measurement is an aid to the evaluation process in what various tools and techniques are used in the collection of data. Evaluation:- Evaluation transcends mere measurement in that basically subjective judgments are based upon the data collected in the measurement process. Such judgements may aid us in determining the extent to which we are accomplishing our objectives. Research:- Research is used to designate those careful investigations conducted to exited knowledge or to further explore and verify that which has already been explored. From the above we can see that a test is merely one form of measurement, while measurement itself involves all the tools which may be employed in the collection of data. While testing may be thought of as being conducted in a formal manner, a measure may be made informally as well as

formally. Thus tests and measurements provide information about a specific act which has taken place at a specific time. Evaluation is a more general concept indicating a consistent level of performance while giving meaning to the tests and measures conducted in order to make an intelligent evaluation, one must know the desired objectives, know which tools are most effective for collection of data and made unbiased judgements concerning educational significance. Research has to rely on scientifically constructed tests and measuring instruments in order to reach a satisfactory conclusion. Thus tests and measuring instruments are basic tool of research and the measurements course should be thought of one of the prerequisites to search. It should also be pointed out that it is through research, that the physical education is able and to determine effective means each of area

measurements

evaluation.

Consequently,

complement the other.

THE NEED FOR MEASUREMENTS IN EVALUATION PROCESS
There are many reasons for employing tests and

measurements. Moreover, once the data have been collected, the interpretation and utilization of the information may have varied application. To be more specific, a test that is given for the purpose of improving the learning process may be put to further use by the teacher in grading and in interpreting the programme to pupils, administrators, teachers and other interested groups. Some of the reasons for the utilization of tests and measurements in the evaluation process are to:
1.

To motivate students when there appears to be leveling off of interest in the instruction. Test also helps the teacher to end the unit of instruction with a high level of interest.

2. 3.

Help the teachers to assess students performance. Enable the teacher to objectively measure improvement by testing before and after the unit of instruction.

4.

Assist the teacher in pinpointing the limitations as well as the strong points in a program.

5.

Aid the teacher in evaluating different method of instruction.

6.

Provide a basis for the classification of players and teams for practice and competition.

7.

Diagnose needs in relation to body mechanics, fitness and motor skills.

8. 9.

Collect data for research. Help establish age, sex and grade level norms for use within a school or school district as well as for

comparison with national norms. 10. Enable the teacher to evaluate his own teaching

effectiveness. BASIC CONCEPTS IN TEST EVALUATION As in any area of specialization, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of the terms that are used. Four of the most basic concepts are involved in test and construction objectivity and and

evaluation

validity,

reliability

standardization. VALIDITY Validity refers to the degree to which a test measures what it designed to measure. RELIABILITY Reliability may be thought of as the repeatability of a test. OBJECTIVITY

Objectivity of a test pertains primarily to the clarity of the directions for administering and scoring the test. STANDARDIZATION Standardization are values considered to be representative of a specified population.

AREAS OF TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS
An assessment of result is necessary to determine the level of varies abilities in different areas. The selection of test in different areas would be determined primarily by the designed objectives. The following are the areas of test and measurements:1. 2. 3. I. Psychological Tests Physiological Tests. Anthropometrical tests. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS:a. Simple Visual Reaction Time:This time is

measured on chronoscope or reaction timer. b. Concentration:- It is measured by "know' cube imitation test." c. Sports Competition Anxiety Test:- It is measured by an idea by scat in a "questionnaire." II. PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS

Base line test:- Aerobic capacity graded exercise Vo2 standard protocol. Monitoring Test:- 9% max 4x2 cycling weth/minute rest in between 40 based Hr, Hr max, O2 dept, VO2, Atvo2 (MIY, ATHR Rec – M.R.) III. (i) (ii) ANTHROPOMETRICAL TEST Body weight measured by weighing machine. Stature or to measure the standing height by stadia meter. (iii) IV. Somatotype. BIO-CHEMICAL TEST:

Bio chemical test is as follows; (i) (ii) (iii)
(iv)

HB Urea Uric Acid HD2 C/H/Ratio Cholesterol

(v) (vi) V. 1. 2. 3. 4.

BIO-MECHANICAL TESTS Punch measurements Physical Fitness tests. Specific fitness tests. Skill tests.

Martin (1980) has divided these tests into the following five groups. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sports motor tests. Bio-mechanical testing procedures. Standardised Competition and game observation. Testing procedures of sports medicine and bio-chemistry. Psychological testing procedures. Bio-chemical testing procedures have proved an

immense value in assessing the efficiency of technical skills. Testing procedures of sports medicine bio-chemistry and psychological can give additional information about the personality, health and performance capacity of the

sportsperson. Experience and training practice has shown again and again that sports motor tests conducted on the field are more reliable and valid for the assessment of training

state than the test conducted in the laboratories. A coach should have a basic knowledge of tests of all the groups. And he should be able to conduct specific motor tests and skill tests (standardized competition and game observation). Sports motor test are indispensable for the assessment of physical fitness, technical and tactical skills. The sports motor test are important pre-requisities for the regulation of sports training. Sports motor tests can aim at

the measurements tactical skills.

of motor abilities, technical skills and

GENERAL TEST IN BOXING 1 Endurance Test -1000 meters

Test Aim: To determine level of the general endurance of the boxer. Equipment: Stop watch, whistle Marking: