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BRIEF HISTORY OF TEST AND

MEASUREMENTS
The human beings are very creative in developing new

ideas, techniques with their intellectual abilities.

The human being take ideas from the history and develop

these ideas with the help of science and technology. This

develops to research work and invent new techniques to co-op

the circumstances and different conditions.

Tests and Measurement is one of that technology which

human being uses to check the quality.

Many types of measurement technique are used from the

very first start of Sports and Physical education. Mainly the

start of measurement is from the mid of 19th century. This was

adopted to emphasis on human talent, ability, efficiency and

accuracy to perform the physical activities.

Assessment is the main aspect of the training programme

that occurs after an athlete has been trained but if you want to

know where you are going, first need to determine where you

are ? Assessment-before, during and after training

programmes, allows the athlete and coach to test various

abilities and their status.

A historical aspect of varies techniques of measurements

used in sports is given below:
TECHNIQUE OF MEASUREMENT

Anthropometry 1861
Muscular Strength Endurance 1880
Athletics Ability Testing 1900
Cardiovascular Measurement 1900
Sports skill testing 1913
Power measurement 1921
Medical Test 1921
Social Measurement 1930
Programme Evaluation 1930
Reaction time and Speed of movement 1936
Balance measurement 1939
Physical Fitness 1940
Knowledge Testing 1940
Somato Typing 1940
Flexibility testing 1941

There tests have been discussed at international level in

Dec. 1984 and Dec. 1987 in the meeting of exercise

physiologists in London. Similarly modification to various

method of muscular strength testing, anaerobic power testing

have resulted in the development of a large number of new

laboratory and field equipment in many of the developed

countries like USA, Canada, Germany, Japan, Switzerland,

France, England etc. Likewise the somatotype method of

measuring human physique has been modified a number of

times mainly by health centre 1967, 1974, 1980, Kansal, 1983.

Now reference to some important modern development

of practical utility in measurement methodology which are
frequently applied on the student of sports and physical

education person, has been given in the following section:

• Somatotype

• Body Composition

• Cardiovascular function testing

• Lung function testing

• Aerobic power testing

• Anaerobic power testing

• Performance testing
BASIC TERMS
Before we explore more fully other purposes for

evaluation. It seems appropriate to identity and discuss the

following basic terms.

Test:- A test is a form of questioning and measuring used

to assess retention of knowledge and capability or to measure

ability in some physical Endeavour.

Measurement:- Measurement is an aid to the evaluation

process in what various tools and techniques are used in the

collection of data.

Evaluation:- Evaluation transcends mere measurement

in that basically subjective judgments are based upon the data

collected in the measurement process. Such judgements may

aid us in determining the extent to which we are accomplishing

our objectives.

Research:- Research is used to designate those careful

investigations conducted to exited knowledge or to further

explore and verify that which has already been explored.

From the above we can see that a test is merely one form

of measurement, while measurement itself involves all the

tools which may be employed in the collection of data. While

testing may be thought of as being conducted in a formal

manner, a measure may be made informally as well as
formally. Thus tests and measurements provide information

about a specific act which has taken place at a specific time.

Evaluation is a more general concept indicating a

consistent level of performance while giving meaning to the

tests and measures conducted in order to make an intelligent

evaluation, one must know the desired objectives, know which

tools are most effective for collection of data and made

unbiased judgements concerning educational significance.

Research has to rely on scientifically constructed tests

and measuring instruments in order to reach a satisfactory

conclusion. Thus tests and measuring instruments are basic

tool of research and the measurements course should be

thought of one of the prerequisites to search. It should also be

pointed out that it is through research, that the physical

education is able to determine effective means of

measurements and evaluation. Consequently, each area

complement the other.
THE NEED FOR MEASUREMENTS IN
EVALUATION PROCESS
There are many reasons for employing tests and

measurements. Moreover, once the data have been collected,

the interpretation and utilization of the information may have

varied application. To be more specific, a test that is given for

the purpose of improving the learning process may be put to

further use by the teacher in grading and in interpreting the

programme to pupils, administrators, teachers and other

interested groups.

Some of the reasons for the utilization of tests and

measurements in the evaluation process are to:

1. To motivate students when there appears to be leveling

off of interest in the instruction. Test also helps the

teacher to end the unit of instruction with a high level of

interest.

2. Help the teachers to assess students performance.

3. Enable the teacher to objectively measure improvement

by testing before and after the unit of instruction.

4. Assist the teacher in pinpointing the limitations as well as

the strong points in a program.

5. Aid the teacher in evaluating different method of

instruction.
6. Provide a basis for the classification of players and teams

for practice and competition.

7. Diagnose needs in relation to body mechanics, fitness

and motor skills.

8. Collect data for research.

9. Help establish age, sex and grade level norms for use

within a school or school district as well as for

comparison with national norms.

10. Enable the teacher to evaluate his own teaching

effectiveness.

BASIC CONCEPTS IN TEST EVALUATION

As in any area of specialization, it is necessary to have a

basic understanding of the terms that are used. Four of the

most basic concepts involved in test construction and

evaluation are validity, reliability and objectivity and

standardization.

VALIDITY

Validity refers to the degree to which a test measures

what it designed to measure.

RELIABILITY

Reliability may be thought of as the repeatability of a
test.
OBJECTIVITY
Objectivity of a test pertains primarily to the clarity of the
directions for administering and scoring the test.
STANDARDIZATION
Standardization are values considered to be
representative of a specified population.

AREAS OF TESTS AND
MEASUREMENTS
An assessment of result is necessary to determine the

level of varies abilities in different areas. The selection of test

in different areas would be determined primarily by the

designed objectives. The following are the areas of test and

measurements:-

1. Psychological Tests

2. Physiological Tests.

3. Anthropometrical tests.

I. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS:-

a. Simple Visual Reaction Time:- This time is

measured on chronoscope or reaction timer.

b. Concentration:- It is measured by "know' cube

imitation test."

c. Sports Competition Anxiety Test:- It is measured

by an idea by scat in a "questionnaire."

II. PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS
Base line test:- Aerobic capacity graded exercise Vo2

standard protocol.

Monitoring Test:- 9% max 4x2 cycling weth/minute rest

in between 40 based Hr, Hr max, O2 dept, VO2, Atvo2 (MIY,

ATHR Rec – M.R.)

III. ANTHROPOMETRICAL TEST

(i) Body weight measured by weighing machine.

(ii) Stature or to measure the standing height by stadia

meter.

(iii) Somatotype.

IV. BIO-CHEMICAL TEST:

Bio chemical test is as follows;

(i) HB

(ii) Urea

(iii) Uric Acid

(iv) HD2

(v) C/H/Ratio

(vi) Cholesterol

V. BIO-MECHANICAL TESTS

1. Punch measurements

2. Physical Fitness tests.

3. Specific fitness tests.

4. Skill tests.
Martin (1980) has divided these tests into the following

five groups.

1. Sports motor tests.

2. Bio-mechanical testing procedures.

3. Standardised Competition and game observation.

4. Testing procedures of sports medicine and bio-chemistry.

5. Psychological testing procedures.

Bio-chemical testing procedures have proved an

immense value in assessing the efficiency of technical skills.

Testing procedures of sports medicine bio-chemistry and

psychological can give additional information about the

personality, health and performance capacity of the

sportsperson. Experience and training practice has shown

again and again that sports motor tests conducted on the field

are more reliable and valid for the assessment of training

state than the test conducted in the laboratories.

A coach should have a basic knowledge of tests of all

the groups. And he should be able to conduct specific motor

tests and skill tests (standardized competition and game

observation). Sports motor test are indispensable for the

assessment of physical fitness, technical and tactical skills.

The sports motor test are important pre-requisities for

the regulation of sports training. Sports motor tests can aim at
the measurements of motor abilities, technical skills and

tactical skills.
GENERAL TEST IN BOXING

1 Endurance Test -1000 meters

Test Aim: To determine level of the general endurance of the

boxer.

Equipment: Stop watch, whistle

Marking: