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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Practice Statements and Descriptions
Chapter 2 Planning and Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Chapter 3 One Call Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Chapter 4 Locating and Marking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Chapter 5 Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Chapter 6 Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Chapter 7 Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Chapter 8 Public Education and Awareness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Chapter 9 Reporting and Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Chapter 10 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

Appendix A Glossary of Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Appendix B Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Appendix C Sample Forms, Reports, and Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Appendix D Additional References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Membership Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

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CGA Best Practices 12.0

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF USE

The CGA must make the Best Practices subject to the following limitations:
1: The CGA does not endorse any company, technology, technique or
product. No inference of endorsement shall be taken from any CGA
Best Practice or from the CGA generally.
2: The CGA reserves the right to alter, modify, or repeal the Best
Practices at any time. Further, the CGA reserves the right to fix
technical inaccuracies, typographical errors or make other
modifications without prior notice.
3: The Best Practices may contain trademarks of the CGA, as well as
CGA copyrighted material. We must insist you respect our copyrights
and trademarks.
4: The CGA Best Practices are provided “AS IS” and without any
WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY
WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.
5: The CGA Best Practices are presented as a general guide. The CGA
encourages all users to consult and consider not only the CGA Best
Practices, but also (i) employer practices, (ii) industry practices, (iii)
federal and state statutes and regulations, (iv) building and fire codes,
and (v) local laws, regulations and ordinances.
6: References in each Best Practice are those that were in effect at the
time the Best Practice was approved unless otherwise noted. Best
Practices are derived from existing multi-industry, governmental and
public practices that are determined to be “best” in enhancing safety
and damage prevention through rigorous review and evaluation
processes developed by the CGA.

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In essence. the stakeholders came together and the study was underway. minimizing damage to facilities during excavation activities was on the National Transportation Safety Board’s (NTSB) top 10 priorities for safety improvement. railroads. Locating and Marking. but after several months of fits and starts.S. the U. VA.CHAPTER 1 Introduction History of the Common Ground Alliance Common Ground Study In 1998. utilities. The nine study teams were charged with the study’s primary goal—identifying best practices in their respective areas of expertise.S. regulators. Reporting and Evaluation. At the time. USDOT charged the former Office of Pipeline Safety [OPS. electric. and ensuring public safety during excavation activities conducted in the vicinity of existing underground facilities. water. now the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA)] with conducting the study. Congress passed the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA 21). 1998. Department of Transportation (USDOT) was instructed to conduct a study of best practices in place nationwide for enhancing worker safety. This unprecedented gathering facilitated by the government provided a unique opportunity for affected industries to address serious issues that previously had not been addressed at the federal level by all parties involved. Mapping. cable TV. Another key element was that cooperation is essential and it works. –1– . and Emerging Technologies. to discuss how to implement the study. excavators. and that free-flow communication allows all stakeholders to focus on the common goals for safety and damage prevention. Major lessons learned during the CGS were that communication is the key to ensuring safety and protecting vital facilities. This team was known as the Steering Team. In this legislation. Each of the major stakeholder groups designated a representative to form a committee that would develop the processes and procedures to conduct the study. representing stakeholders from across the nation including oil and gas transmission and distribution. design engineers. state. telecommunications. protecting vital underground infrastructure. PHMSA invited stakeholders from underground utility safety and damage prevention industries to a kick-off meeting in Arlington. which oversaw and coordinated what became known as the Common Ground Study (CGS). the structure consisted of a 14-member Linking Team and 9 study teams. This was no easy task. The study’s chief success was overcoming two obstacles—fragmented information and the lack of stakeholder cooperation and collaboration. and local levels. sewer. the federal government brought these industries together and established an organizational structure to address the multiple facets of underground utility safety and damage prevention. In addition to the 8-member Steering Team. the U. Public Awareness and Education. In addition to designating “best practices. Excavation. as proven by the success of the study. One Call Centers. one call centers. locators. The most daunting task before the group was developing a process for identifying and designating “best practices. Those teams included Planning and Design. and government entities at federal.” the group had to address each stakeholder group’s responsibilities in the one call process. Compliance.” For the first time. On August 18. the government was giving industry an opportunity to get its house in order. There were 162 individuals participating in the study.

oil.” It was realized early on that the final product would not stand unless all stakeholders agreed with the content. When established. In July 1999. 2000. and continues to prove. locator. PHMSA was asked to facilitate and sponsor what became known as the Damage Prevention Path Forward. On June 15. it was decided that the work of the CGS should be continued and that the Best Practices document should become a living document. The CGA consists of working committees populated by the general membership.” all stakeholder groups must agree that they could live with the practice. Educational Programs. that all stakeholders can reach consensus on the best practices to enhance safety and prevent damages. Technology. public works. state regulator. road builder.0 One of the most controversial elements of the process for determining a “best practice” was the use of the consensus process.” This single element of the process is what arguably gives the CGA and the “best practices” document its integrity and ensures that all elements of an issue are vetted comprehensively. Establishment of the Common Ground Alliance After the CGS was presented to the Secretary of Transportation. and with the support of Senator Majority Leader Trent Lott who recognized the importance of this document. gas transmission. –2– . emergency services. Stakeholder Advocacy Committee. and products. equipment manufacturing. The CGA is a central clearinghouse for disseminating best practices. the Common Ground Alliance identified the following purposes: • Prevent damage to underground infrastructure and increase safety by fostering a sense of shared responsibility for the protection of underground facilities • Support research and development • Conduct public awareness and education programs • Identify and disseminate stakeholder best practices • Serve as a clearinghouse for damage data collection analysis and dissemination.CGA Best Practices 12. 11 months after the kick-off meeting in Arlington and after many intense meetings throughout the country. gas distribution. if one group disagreed. To this day. one call center. For a practice to become a “best practice. products. This ensures that each stakeholder group has an equal say in the outcome of committee work. Those committees include Best Practices.” CGA Today There are currently 16 stakeholder seats on the CGA Board of Directors: electric. engineeringhttps://www.scribd.com/design. and telecommunications. the practice would not become a “best practice. the CGS was presented to the Secretary of Transportation. The consensus process also proved. Regional Partner. insurance. railroad. a “Primary” is designated for each stakeholder group by its respective member on the Board of Directors. Even though any CGA member can participate in committee discussions. and information that enhance safety and keep damages to underground facilities to an ultimate minimum. decisions. The CGS and establishment of the CGA have given underground utility safety and damage prevention a home. The CGS identified and validated over 130 “best practices” to enhance safety and prevent damages to underground facilities. consensus is used by CGA committees and in identifying “best practices. the work of the team was completed when the Common Ground Alliance received its Certificate of Incorporation from the District of Columbia. excavator. and One Call Systems International. The Primary’s responsibility is to act as a spokesperson for their stakeholder group and to participate in consensus decisions when necessary. The organization’s motto was and continues to be “Damage Prevention Is a Shared Responsibility. Data Reporting and Evaluation.

the CGA added and amended multiple practices that appear in Version 12. 9-7. is clear. 9-14. the CGA retained the services of a technical writer to review the Best Practices Guide’s formatting and layout. the changes are reflected in subsequent versions. and is grammatically correct. 9-6. and 9-19 • Updated practice 5-13 • Added new practice 3-30 –3– . the CGA anticipated that there likely would be additional best practices developed by the interested participants. Best Practices 12. and national levels. 9-10. • the Locate Accurately campaign was nationalized. Working closely with CGA staff and the Best Practices Editorial Task Team. governments. the technical writer conducted a complete review of the Guide to ensure that it follows a standard common format. This was accomplished through a chapter-by-chapter review to ensure that no substantive changes were made. The birth of CGA led to major accomplishments within the area of damage prevention that can be directly attributed to the work and success of our organization. In addition.New Practices and Modifications During 2011.0 was the result of those efforts. numbered sequentially. and associated industries when addressing safety and damage prevention issues internally. we continue to celebrate years of positive.0 -. Best Practices Manual The Best Practices Committee developed the following guide based on the Common Ground Study. as well as on the local. 9-12. coordinated through the Editorial Task Team. 9-15. and successful cooperation in bettering our underground utility safety and damage prevention programs. During 2014. By this means we hope to provide a continuum that will permit the stakeholders in underground safety and utility damage prevention as well as the public to see the course of development over time. and • the Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) was developed and established as the long-awaited repository of data that helps to identify the root cause of incidents that occur as a result in breakdowns in the one call process. 9-17. has become a permanent Best Practices Committee asset. the Best Practices document is considered the “go to” resource by all stakeholders. effective. ensuring that all practices maintain a consistent format. The stakeholders involved with the original CGS never intended that the Best Practices would constitute a static model. • 811 was implemented and is promoted by the CGA.0. As best practices are added or amended. The verbatim restatement of all ancillary material contained in the original Study is available on the CGA Web site and is intended as an historical reference point for those persons interested in a more detailed background of the Best Practices. state. The following modifications were approved by the Best Practices Committee and CGA Board in 2014: • Introduction added to Chapter 9 • Modifications made to practices 9-2. • damages to underground facilities during excavation activities was removed from the NTSB’s Top 10. Rather. With this latest version of the Best Practices. • the Dig Safely campaign continued its successful implementation.Introduction Since the founding of the CGA. In addition. which includes the primary section with Practice Statements and Descriptions as well as Appendices A through D. The technical writer's input. Best Practices 9. they intended it to be a working document that would evolve over time as more was learned and as technology advanced.

To submit a comment or to propose a new practice or practice modification. organization.0 Use of Icons The CGA uses icons to assist readers in identifying the practices that pertain to their specific industry/stakeholder group. Our intent is to make the statement of best practices as easy to use as possible. and receives feedback thereafter 4: Editorial changes noted in paragraph 3b are only those that the BP Committee first determines are not substantive alterations to the best practice. 2: Although the team may edit punctuation.com. 3: The team receives input from the BP Committee in one of three ways: a) When it receives a best practice that has been adopted b) When it is instructed by the BP Committee to make non-substantive changes to the BP practice description c) When it makes the changes indicated in paragraph 2 above. 5: Allen Gray and William Boswell currently serve as and have been Editorial Task Team leaders since the CGA published Best Practices (1. the icons appear next to each practice and correspond to the following groups: Project Owners. However. Feedback and Proposed Modifications The CGA welcomes comments and suggestions on improving the format and updating the content of the best practices. but they are not referred to the CGA board for adoption.commongroundalliance. –4– . and Locators. Throughout the document. One Call Centers.CGA Best Practices 12. Guide to Editorial Task Team Procedures 1: The Editorial Task Team is a task force of the Best Practices (BP) Committee. Facility Owners. contact the CGA office (703-836-1709) to request a proposal form or visit the CGA web site at http://www. presents them to the BP Committee. grammar. the team does not make substantive changes to best practices or best practice descriptions. as would be the case for a new or amended best practice. any editorial changes are reported back to the BP Committee for review and comment. The icon legend is provided below and also is available at the start of each chapter. and display.0). Excavators. in that BP Committee members must agree by consensus. As such it acts in accordance with the BP Committee’s instructions. Designers. They are handled in the same manner as a best practice.

which is comprehensively reviewed and discussed. Each Primary is responsible for taking the proposal to their respective constituent group for review and position development. either through their stakeholder group primary or directly to CGA staff. It is not unusual for the practice to be sent back to the Task Team several times before it is moved forward or dismissed. The Committee decides whether the proposal is presented to the Board as a proposed Best Practice or whether it should go back to the Task Team for further consideration. In order to give each stakeholder group an opportunity to review the proposal. During the next scheduled meeting. The Committee reviews and discusses the proposal and decides whether it will be dismissed or considered for Best Practices designation. If the Committee agrees to consider the practice.Introduction Best Practices Process How Is a Best Practice Developed or Revised? Enter Here Best Practices Committee Members Board of Directors Dismissed No Best Practices Committee No Yes Yes Board of Directors Other Committees Ad Hoc Committee Editorial Sub-group Recommended Language Yes Publish Here Board of Directors Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Board of Directors Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Dismissed No Best Practices Committee Members Board of Directors Dismissed No Board of Directors Dismissed Best Practices Committee No Best Practices Committee Ad Hoc Committee Other Committees Task Team Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Best Practices Committee Task Team Anyone can submit a proposed best practice for review. as task team is formed and a transaction record is created. Each stakeholder group is asked to submit a response to the proposed Best Practice before the next scheduled meeting. This enables Committee members and their stakeholder group to review the proposal for discussion. the Task Team must submit it at least 30 days before the next scheduled meeting. The Task Team forwards the proposed Best Practice to the full Committee for consideration in the proper format. they are encouraged to submit as soon as possible. However. the Task Team presents the proposed practice. The proposed Best Practice is brought before the next scheduled meeting of the Committee as long as it has been presented to the Committee 30 days in advance of the meeting. –5– . The Board of Directors as well as other CGA Committees may also submit proposed Best Practices.

A cross-section of stakeholders is recommended for each task team to ensure input from as many stakeholder groups as possible. Yes Publish Here Board of Directors Dismissed No Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Best Practices Committee Task Team No Yes Board of Directors Yes Editorial Sub-group Recommended Language Once a Best Practice has been published.. Yes Publish Here The Best Practice proposals can be submitted through the CGA Web site. second TR 2011-02. If approved. the proposal is reviewed (taking into account the Board’s comments) and resubmitted as appropriate.CGA Best Practices 12. it would be numbered TR 2011-01. –6– . The Editorial Task team decides on the appropriate placement of the practice within the CGA Best Practices document and ensures that the language is consistent with Best Practice Committee protocols. The TR is numbered according to the year it is submitted to the Task Team (e. A Transaction Record (TR) is created to track progress of the proposal from submission to the Task Team to the final decision on the proposed practice. all stakeholders can rest assured it has been through the complete process. If the Committee reaches consensus approval of the wording. Board of Directors Dismissed No Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Best Practices Committee Task Team No Yes Yes Board of Directors Editorial Sub-group Recommended Language The final proposed Best Practice is then submitted to the Board of Directors for their consideration.e. TR 2011).0 Board of Directors Dismissed No Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Best Practices Committee Task Team Yes Editorial Sub-group Recommended Language A task team is created using volunteers from the full Best Practices Committee. and so on). Visit the online version of Best Practices at http://www. the Best Practice is forwarded to the Editorial Task Team. If returned to the Committee.commongroundalliance. if it was the first to be accepted. The process ensures the integrity of Best Practices and their place in enhancing safety and keeping damaged to an ultimate minimum.com/best-practices-guide to view the new practice and revised best practice proposal forms. and a team chair is appointed. and a chronological acceptance for consideration during the year (i. the practice becomes a CGA Best Practice and is published in the manual. the proposal is sent back to the Committee with comment.g. If not..

Minnesota. permanent signs or markers. This compromises the optimal use of the land and potentially compromises the integrity of the underground facility. The facility owner/operator may locate the underground facilities or provide locations of the underground facilities to the designer by other means. fax. manhole covers. Once the operators are identified.1/ Practice Description: Various items are required on the plats filed prior to the development of lands. and schedules of other work in the area. all available information is gathered from facility owners/operators. proposed project designs. such as by marking up design drawings or providing facility records to the designer. Identifying easements of underground facilities on the plat increases notice to developers and the public about the existence of the underground facilities. This information is gathered for the purpose of route selection and preliminary neighborhood impacts and as part of the process of impact analysis when evaluating different design possibilities. This includes maps of existing. and governmental agencies to help identify underground facility owners/operators in an excavation area. Methods of gathering information may include contacting entities such as a one call center. Notifying owners of underground facilities that a plat has been filed alerts underground facility owners/operators of the need to establish communication between the developers and operators that will facilitate a plan and design for the use of the land that complements the underground facility. The one call center provides a listing of operators directly to the designer or to the designer’s subsurface utility engineer. or Web site. such as voice. engineering societies. Where plats are required to be filed. cathodic protection and grounding systems. as-builts of facilities in the area if the maps are not current. e-mail. Gathering information also may include a review of the site for aboveground indications of underground facilities (e. the items required include the identification of the easements of underground facilities traversing the land described on the plat. and out-of-service facilities. zoning ordinances 2–2: Gathering Information for Design Purposes Practice Statement: The designer uses all reasonable means of obtaining information about underground facilities in the area of the planned excavation. pad-mounted devices.. References: • St Louis County. other designers. 2007 –7– . and valve covers).g. 1/ TR-2007-01: Modification to statement approved by the CGA Board on August 24. power and communication pedestals. coordinating committees/councils. the designer contacts the operators directly or uses the one call system.CHAPTER 2 Planning and Design 2–1: Plat Designation of Existing Underground Facility Easements Practice Statement: Plats prepared for the development of real property identify and show the alignment of any existing buried facilities and the presence and extent of any existing easements and/or rights of way. riser poles. Practice Description: During the planning phase of the project. abandoned. vent pipes. Benefits: Often underground facility owners/operators do not receive notice of developments impacting their facilities until excavation activity has commenced. facility owners/operators. This information is made available in formats that are accessible to all users.

Document No. The facilities shown include active. and identify conflicts.” Consolidated Edison. The planning documents include possible routes for the project together with known underground facility information. and work to produce the final project. and minimizes the cost to produce the final project. cost. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). • Facility relocations are minimized. existing facilities are shown on preliminary design plans. abandoned. underground facility surveys. February 1999. Office of Program Administration • Florida Department of Transportation Utility Accommodation Manual. References: • Wisconsin Sec. 186. Section 11. If information was gathered from field-located facilities. Benefits: Providing complete underground facility information and including this information on design drawings reduces hazards. The various facility owners/operators are then given the opportunity to provide appropriate feedback. New York. June 9. Practice Description: During the planning phase of the project. If an elevation was determined during information gathering. “Identifying Existing Facilities in Planning and Design” • “Construction Management Interference Control Manual. it is shown on the plan. or subsurface utility engineering.4. • Unexpected conflicts with facilities are eliminated.0 Benefits: • Gathering underground facility information and including this information in the planning phase minimizes the hazards. New York. clarify information. –8– . as amended by Act 187 of 1996 • See related Finding Number 3. 1997 • Subsurface Utility Engineering.CGA Best Practices 12. this is noted on the plans. During the design phase of the project. and proposed facilities. January 1999 2–3: Identifying Existing Facilities in Planning and Design Practice Statement: Designers indicate existing underground facilities on drawings during planning and design. including streets and a locally accepted coordinate system.0175 Stats • Minnesota Statute 216D • Pennsylvania Act 287 of 1974. underground facility information from the planning phase is shown on the plans. 710-020-001-d. The designer and the contractor both know the quality of the information included on the plans. The design plans include a summary drawing showing the proposed facility route or excavation. • Safety is enhanced. simplifies coordination. out-of-service. The plans are then distributed to the various facility owners/ operators to provide the opportunity to furnish additional information.

Planning and Design

2–4: Utility Coordination
Practice Statement: Project owners and facility owners/operators regularly
communicate and coordinate with each other concerning future and current
projects.
Practice Description: Utility coordination fosters an open exchange of
information among private and public facilities, governmental agencies, and
construction-related organizations. Utility coordination also promotes
cooperation among said groups in the planning, design, and construction of
projects affecting the overall good of participating parties, their organizations
and customers or constituents, and the general public. Utility coordinating
committees (or councils) include private utilities, public agency utilities,
engineering firms, contractor associations, and others with facilities or
business interests in public rights-of-way. Coordinating committees function
in multiple communities, counties, and states/provinces to promote
excavation project coordination. Typical items of discussion include facility
excavations in existing and recently paved roadways, disruption of essential
facility services, location of utility facilities, environmental impact of damages
to utilities, permit procedures, right-of-way access controls, and
underground facility damage prevention. Plans of future roadway
improvement and of future facility installations are reviewed regularly.
References:
• Wisconsin Administrative Rule Chapter Trans 220 “Utility Facilities
Relocations”
• Arizona Utility Coordinating Committee (AUCC) Public
Improvement/Project Guide, December 1996
• Highway/Utility Guide. Publication No. FHWA-SA-93-049. Office of
Technology Applications, FHWA, U.S. Department of Transportation,
June 1993.

2–5: Markers for Underground Facilities
Practice Statement: The presence and type of underground facilities are
indicated by permanent aboveground and belowground markers and
material.
Practice Description: A combination of aboveground and belowground
markers is used to identify and locate underground facilities. The purpose of
aboveground markers is to identify underground facilities, not to locate for
excavation or circumvent the one call process. However, designing
underground facilities for future location reduces the risk of an incorrectly
marked underground facility during an excavation project. Aboveground
markers are developed during the design process and include the company
name, type of facility, emergency contact, and the one call number. The
locations and types of markers are specified in the construction plans. The
design provides a marker system that includes, but is not limited to, stream
crossings, public road crossings, other facilities’ rights-of-way, railroad
crossings, heavy construction areas, and any other location where it is
necessary to identify the underground facility location. If nondetectable
facilities are being installed, the design includes a means to accurately
locate the underground facility from the surface. The facility is color-coded in
accordance with the American Public Works Association (APWA) guidelines
to assist in identifying the particular facility. Road decals, stencils, tracer
tapes, electronic markers, or other appropriate systems may mark areas
where traditional markers are considered impractical.
Benefits:
Provisions to aid in future locating requests are included in the design. In addition, an effective marker system is beneficial to the underground facility
owner/operator and first responders to an area involving more than one underground facility or an incident near underground facilities.
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CGA Best Practices 12.0

References:
• 49 CFR Parts 192 and 195
• Industry standards
• APWA, “Guidelines for Uniform Temporary Marking of Underground
Facilities”

2–6: Follow All Applicable Codes, Statutes, and Facility Owner/Operator
Standards
Practice Statement: When planning and designing the installation of new
or replacement of existing underground facilities, the designer follows all
federal, state/provincial, and local guidelines, codes, statutes, and other
facility owner/operator standards.
Practice Description: The designer of a facility project typically considers
only national industry codes, regulations, and practices applicable to that
particular facility and not of adjacent facilities. Regulations, codes,
standards, and other design documents generally specify depth of cover and
horizontal and vertical clearances between adjacent facilities. However, they
are not always prescriptive and can be subject to interpretation by the
designer. In addition, certain codes allow exceptions to the prescribed
minimum clearances, contingent upon approval between the affected facility
owners/operators. The designer also must consider the protection and
temporary support of adjacent facilities and any interference to existing
cathodic protection and grounding systems. Consequently, the designer
must provide specifications of safety measures to be taken and procedures
for emergency notification and repairs in case an adjacent facility is
damaged. Designers are aware of proposed and revised standards and
codes that may affect the project.
Benefits:
The designer who reviews codes pertaining to adjacent facilities minimizes
any potential conflict of code clearance requirements and facilitates future
locating efforts.

2–7: Use of Qualified Contractors
Practice Statement: Qualified contractors are used to excavate on and
near underground facilities.
Practice Description: Contractors that excavate on and near underground
facilities possess the qualifications necessary to conduct such activities in a
manner that is skillful, safe, and reliable. The requisite qualification of the
contractor serves to protect the public and the integrity of underground
facilities in the vicinity of the excavation. Using qualified contractors ensures
that all contractors who bid and work on a project employ safe work habits
and are capable of performing the requested work. When working with
contractors, the project owner is familiar with the contractors’ work
experience and financial abilities and does not ask the contractors to bid
beyond their capabilities. Allowing a competitive bidding process from
qualified and competent contractors ensures the best quality and pricing
available while reducing damages to underground facilities.
Benefits:
• Enhances safety
• Increases the quality of work
• Reduces damage to facilities
References:
• Florida Law (Chapter 337.14 FS) and Rules of the State of Florida,
Department of Transportation, Chapters 14–22
• Duke Energy of Houston, Texas, procedures

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Planning and Design

2–8: Mandatory Prebid Conferences
Practice Statement: A mandatory prebid conference is held and bids are
accepted only from attending contractors.
Practice Description: Depending on the level of impact of proposed
construction upon facilities in the excavation area, the project owner or
project designer requires potential contractors and facility owners/operators
to attend a mandatory prebid conference. This prebid conference is used to
discuss, among other things, the particular facilities in the area and the
requirements to properly protect, support, and safely maintain the facilities
during excavation. Official minutes are taken and disseminated as written to
all attendees.
Benefits:
Prebid conferences provide a forum for the contractor, owner, and other interested parties to discuss a project and record binding changes or clarifications to the scope of the project. The prebid conference also provides an
opportunity for all parties to review contract documents, regulatory requirements, schedules, and submittal formats. Most large projects involve multiple levels of subcontracting activity as well as multilayered regulatory
oversight. The prebid conferences traditionally address these issues in an
open forum so that all bidders are equally aware of the ground rules. The
ground rules can be both commercial and technical in nature, covering the
spectrum from performance bonds to safety practices.
References:
• Industry and governmental practices
• Florida Department of Transportation
• Duke Energy of Houston, Texas, procedures

2–9: Continuous Interface between the Designer and Potential
Contractors During the Prebid/Bid Phase
Practice Statement: Once a project design is completed, the designer
participates in the prebid/bid process.
Practice Description: The designer’s continuing involvement during the
prebid/bid phase with the potential contractor(s) allows for more effective
communications between all parties. The designer can assess whether the
interested bidders have the expertise needed and the correct understanding
of the intended design.
Benefits:
• By providing quality assurance, this practice minimizes potential safety
concerns and delays to project completion.
• The designer would have the opportunity to relay information not readily
shown on the plans, such as accommodations of facility adjustments
required to construct the project.
References:
• Industry practice
• Expert opinion

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Practice Description: Installation is made in accordance with the approved construction plans. retained. thereby minimizing subsequent modifications to the project design. Any deviation to the plans is documented and such changes are indicated on the as-built drawings. plastic gas lines. shields. then mitigating measures are taken to protect lines against damage that might result from proximity to other structures. of separation cannot be feasibly attained at the time of installation. Benefits: As-built drawings serve as an information source for future projects to minimize damage to existing facilities. and made available for subsequent excavation. costs. other fuel lines. and direct-buried electrical supply lines. and design changes. casing. a minimum of 12 in. Practice Description: This practice allows the designer to be available for preconstruction conferences.0 2–10:Continuous Interface between the Designer and the Contractor During the Construction Phase Practice Statement: The designer continues to interface with the selected contractor throughout the construction phase. • The designer’s inspections of the project during different stages are facilitated. Benefits: • Potential safety concerns are resolved more quickly. or spacers. the most stringent are applied. Examples may include the use of insulators. and for postconstruction conferences.CGA Best Practices 12. References: • Union Pacific Railroad procedures • Expert opinion. unforeseen conditions. and completion. If there is a conflict among any of the applicable regulations or standards regarding minimum separation. If 12 in. References: • Industry and government practice 2–11:As-built Drawings Practice Statement: As-built drawings are prepared and the information is recorded to aid future excavations and locates. radial separation is maintained between supply facilities. 2003 –12– . As-built information is recorded. • Industry and governmental practices 2–12:Supply-line Separation Practice Statement: When installing new direct-buried supply facilities in a common trench. such as steam lines.2/ References: • National Electric Safety Code IEEE C2-2007 (2007 Edition) • Industry practices 2/ TR-2001-04: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 25.

FHWA-IF-00-014 3/ 4/ 5/ TR-2002-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 16. the following is a brief summary of the quality levels defined therein: • QL-D involves utility records research and interviews with knowledgeable utility personnel. to gather and record approximate horizontal (and. SUE is applied in a structured manner in accordance with practices and quality levels found in ASCE 38-02 “Standard Guideline for the Collection and Depiction of Existing Subsurface Utility Data. Pub. Minimum clearances are equal to or greater than applicable standards. • QL-B involves application of “surface geophysical methods. vertical) positional data. and characterize all existing utility infrastructure (and other relevant nonutility features) found within a given project/area. • The project owner and design engineer coordinate with facility owners to design projects that maintain minimum radial clearances between the new facility and existing facilities. SUE results are integrated into the design process. thereby reducing the overall risk of conflicts and/or damage. it may be difficult or impossible to determine the locations of all utilities and/or impediments with sufficient accuracy to avoid damage or delay during construction. metal detectors. Although the standard is more detailed and comprehensive. valves. and after any trenchless excavation (as applicable). Department of Transportation—FHWA (12/1999). and hydrants.” The project owner dictates the required quality levels as well as the amount of effort expended by the SUE provider on each. 2005 TR-2007-02: Modification to statement approved by the CGA Board on August 24. GPR. • QL-A involves physical exposure via “soft-digging” (vacuum excavation or hand-digging) and provides precise horizontal and vertical positional data. such as manholes. Cost Savings on Highway Projects Utilizing Subsurface Utility Engineering.” such as EM-based locating instruments.5/ References: • U. SUE is applied during the design phase to locate. In these cases. 2005 –13– . radar tomography. 2007 TR-2004-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on March 4.Planning and Design 2–13:Trenchless Excavation Practice Statement: All stakeholders adhere to all best practices and the following general guidelines prior to. identify. during. and optical instruments. (See also Best Practices 4–19 and 5–29). Practice Description: • The project owner and design engineer take prudent measures to make the determination to use trenchless excavation installation. in some cases. • QL-C involves surface survey and identifying and recording aboveground features of subsurface utilities.S. No. Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) provides significant cost and damage-avoidance benefits and the opportunity to correct inaccuracies in existing facility records. in which design engineers use the information to create construction plans that accommodate existing infrastructure.3/ References: See Appendix D 2–14:Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) Practice Statement: When applied properly during the design phase.4/ Practice Description: In certain cases and environments. • The project owner and design engineer establish line and grade of the proposed excavation to maintain the established minimum clearances.

Such providers have knowledge and understanding of applicable CGA Best Practices and of the ASCE 38-02 SUE standard. project owners employ qualified designers and SUE providers. 2007 TR-2006-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 12.0 • U. standard and customary one call notification and locating practices. 6/ 7/ TR-2007-04: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on November 15. Subsurface Utility Engineering: Enhancing Construction Activities. Providers are qualified in application of the associated design practices and SUE processes.6/ See also • Practice Statement 2–3: Identifying Existing Facilities in Planning and Design • Practice Statement 2–7: Use of Qualified Contractors • Practice Statement 2–14: Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) References: • New Jersey Public Service Electric and Gas 2–16:Project Coordination7/ Practice Statement: Large and/or complex projects may require the use of specific processes established to enhance safety and to coordinate buried-facility damage-prevention efforts among all potentially affected stakeholders throughout the life of the project. and be used in addition to. No. specifically as they apply to ongoing locating and re-marking requirements. FHWA-IF-01-011 • ASCE 38-02 Standard Guideline for the Collection and Depiction of Existing Subsurface Utility Data • Pennsylvania state law 2–15:Use of Qualified Designers Practice Statement: Project owners employ qualified design and SUE providers.CGA Best Practices 12. Pub. related-scope. Practice Description: When new utility infrastructure is installed. short-term projects that impact facilities over a long period of time or over a large area. all involved stakeholders • Positive response The purposes for establishing such processes are to enhance safety and to optimize the utilization of locating resources on large/complex projects. The providers also are knowledgeable of the operation of any involved equipment and interpretation of results where applicable. Such projects pose a unique set of safety and damage prevention challenges when using standard one call practices. and on-going communication among. including (but not limited to) the following: • A method for identifying such projects • Preplanning and design coordination • Increased one call center involvement • A formalized communication process among all affected stakeholders • Project-specific marking agreements that address variance scenarios • Regularly scheduled meetings of. Use of qualified SUE providers provides higher quality information to designers. These unique challenges can be addressed by the establishment of special processes. Department of Transportation—FHWA (3/2001). Practice Description: A “large/complex” project is a single project or a series of repetitive. small. 2008 –14– . Such processes are intended to compliment. who in turn can minimize utility conflicts by better depicting actual subsurface conditions on the construction plans.S.

Planning and Design References: • Georgia Utility Protection Center (GAUPC) and Georgia Utility Facility Protection Act (GUFPA) • Pennsylvania One Call and Pennsylvania Underground Utility Line Protection Act –15– .

–16– .CGA Best Practices 12.0 .

and Damage Prevention Activities Practice Statement: The one call center has a documented and proactive public awareness. PB97-917003) 3–2: Specifically Defined Geopolitical Service Area with No Overlap Practice Statement: The one call centers serving a specifically defined geopolitical area are structured so that an excavator need only make one call. education. and damage prevention program.” to enhance awareness of responsibilities to safeguard workers and the public and protect the integrity of the buried infrastructure.CHAPTER 3 One Call Center 3–1: Proactive Public Awareness. Although this ease of use is enhanced when a one call center serves a specifically defined geopolitical area that does not overlap with the service area of another one call center. Practice Description: The one call center seeks opportunities to promote the need to “Call Before You Dig. Typical call center activities include the following: • Promotional items • Media advertising • Participation at safety meetings • Seminars and trade shows • Contractor awareness programs • Distribution of education material describing how the one call system works • Maintaining a database of active members of the local digging community • Mediating and rationalizing the expectations of both the facility owners/operators and the digging community • Participation in local damage prevention or facility location and coordination committees References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • OCSI Resource Guide 2009 (http://goo. Education. Practice Description: One call programs are designed to promote ease of use for members (facility owners/operators) and excavators.gl/kpIDT) • 49 CFR Part 192 • 49 CFR Part 198 • National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. to foster a cooperative approach between the owners of buried facilities and the digging community toward the prevention of damage to buried facilities. There are three requirements that a one call program must meet to be considered as having implemented this best practice: • The program permits an excavator to use a single point of contact to submit and follow up on a notice of intent to excavate and to notify affected facility owners/operators. non-overlapping service areas are not essential. and a facility owner/operator need only belong to a single one call center. and to promote the service it provides. –17– .

References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. The concept is to promote service. reports. such as facility owners/ operators. Topics for procedures can be classified as general. and duties of officers.CGA Best Practices 12. errors and omissions insurance. and government). simplicity is paramount. If bylaws are adopted. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. Any other required agreements are kept as simple as possible to facilitate understanding by all participants. financial matters. it contains controls. contractors/excavators. area served (with options to expand as planned). and publicity. and any special arrangements necessary. it is governed by a board of directors made up of representatives of the stakeholders. designers. PB97-917003) 3–4: One Call Center Governance Practice Statement: The one call center is governed by a board of directors representing the diverse makeup of the constituent groups (for example facility owners/operators. PB97-917003) 3–3: Formal Agreements with Members Practice Statement: Each member of the one call center abides by state/provincial statute where applicable or written agreement that states the rights and the responsibilities of the one call members and the one call center. and government representatives. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • OCSI Resource Guide 2009 (http://goo. Procedures for the operation of a one call center are simple. reimbursements. not paperwork. and balances. Items that can be incorporated include sections on membership (including rights). amounts of liability insurance. designers.gl/kpIDT) • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. • The program is designed so that all pertinent information is shared among one call centers in the event more than one exists. meetings. cost allocations. elections. Board members are from a variety of industry types. Bylaws vary. Practice Description: Operating procedures and bylaws are established. project owners. center operations. Practice Description: To ensure that a one call center functions to the best benefit of the entire community. communications. retention of records. These topics can be expanded to include guidelines and whatever else is needed for a particular system. Consideration is given to include “hold harmless” clauses. Each board member is knowledgeable in their own industry and of how it interacts with the one call center and all of the represented stakeholders. checks. depending on the type of organization.0 • The program permits a facility owner/operator to join a single one call center and receive all appropriate notices. In some instances they may prove unnecessary. If an agreement to contract the service to an outside concern is made. contractors. expenses. PB97-917003) –18– .

These factual records must be maintained and made accessible until the applicable statute of limitations in the state/province has expired. the records may be destroyed after the expiration of the statute of limitations. This number has nationwide access. References: • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • OCSI Resource Guide 2009 (http://goo. PB97-917003) 3–8: Retention of Voice Records According to Applicable Statutes Practice Statement: Voice records of all calls concerning requests to locate facilities are retained according to applicable statutes. PB97-917003) 3–6: Hours of Operation8/ Practice Statement: The one call center can process locate requests 24 hours per day. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. contact the one call center and have that request processed. Practice Description: A voice recording of telephone communications for locate requests is made to ensure that a precise record of the activity is retained. 8/ TR-2009-14: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 5. at anytime of the day or night. no specific time period is set forth as best practice.One Call Center 3–5: Single Toll-free Statewide Telephone Number with Nationwide Access Practice Statement: All one call centers have a single toll free statewide telephone number with nationwide access.gl/kpIDT) • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. 7 days per week. The one call center has a procedure for processing requests for voice information. PB97-917003) 3–7: Voice Record of All Incoming Calls Practice Statement: A voice recording is maintained of all voice transactions concerning requests to locate facilities. meaning that a caller can reach the center from anywhere in the country. every day of the year. Because these laws vary from state to state. Practice Description: There is only one statewide toll-free telephone number for one call centers to receive locate requests. This recording can be legally supported in court as well as used for damage investigations. In the absence of notice by some party to the contrary. 2013 –19– . Practice Description: The one call center has a process in place where an excavator who has a locate request can. Practice Description: Voice recordings are a factual record of the events that occurred between the caller and the one call center. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01.

When provided the names of the facility owners/operators. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. PB97-917003) 3–10:Printed Ticket Recall Practice Statement: The one call center can provide a printed copy of any ticket for a period of time determined by applicable statutes. and policies are on the premises in a designated area or place. The one call center has the ability to produce. PB97-917003) 3–11:Documented Operating Procedures. practices. Practice Description: Providing the locate request ticket number and the names of the facility owners/operators who will be notified enhances the efficiency of the one call process. Local governments have statutory requirements for record retention in such cases. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. Practice Description: In the event a damage investigation.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. Training manuals.CGA Best Practices 12. and Training Manuals Practice Statement: The one call center has documented operating procedures. human resource policies. human resource policies. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. and are available for reference. PB97-917003) 3–9: Caller Feedback Practice Statement: The one call center provides the caller with a ticket number and the names of facility owners/operators who will be notified for each locate request. and training manuals. This helps the excavator determine if the facility owners/operators have responded to the locate request. the excavator knows which owners/operators will be notified in the area of the planned excavation. or other event occurs. and training manuals. as necessary. procedures. it often is necessary to have a hard-copy printout of a locate request ticket. a copy of a location request ticket for the appropriate statutory period. Human Resource Policies. are dated. litigation.0 References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. Practice Description: The one call center has documented operating procedures. PB97-917003) –20– .

These boards conduct regular strategic planning sessions during which they review the current state of the center’s major systems. Many members of boards and center management teams stay informed about and involved in the one call industry by joining associations and attending conferences or other educational events that help them to better identify new opportunities for growth and change. programs. A board’s ability to respond to change is enhanced by drafting bylaws and operating procedures that reflect the current environment in which the one call center serves. The most successful boards review these documents on an ongoing basis to ensure they continue to reflect or respond to current conditions. according to that member. Practice Description: The one call center can work only with the information related to the existence of buried facilities that its members provide. and documentation of the change is returned to the member for verification prior to activation. PB97-917003) –21– . Regular verification of data is a part of the documented agreement or operating procedures between the owner/operator of buried facilities and the one call center. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. It is important that the one call center be able to produce evidence that a member’s data is accurate. Such assessments help the boards identify stakeholder needs for future growth and development. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. and outreach activities. Practice Description: A successful one call center maintains flexibility to respond to changes by forming and maintaining a responsive organization whose board of directors’ composition allows adequate representation of the needs of all stakeholders. Any deletions or additions made by the member are entered into the database.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. PB97-917003) 3–13:Flexibility for Growth and Change Practice Statement: The one call center’s operating plan is sufficiently flexible to accommodate growth and change.One Call Center 3–12:Documented Owner Verification of Data Submitted by Facility Owners/Operators Practice Statement: The one call center returns the geographic description database documentation to the facility owner/operator annually and after each change for verification and approval.

If a design request is received. such as the following: 1: City 2: County/parish/township 3: State/province 4: Street address –22– . the one call center indicates that a meeting is requested.CGA Best Practices 12. Practice Description: A locate request is a communication between an excavator and one call center personnel in which a request for locating underground facilities is processed. on a locate request: • Caller’s name and phone number • Excavator’s/company’s name. Once the list is identified. and phone numbers • Specific location of the excavation • Start date and time of the excavation • Description of the excavation activity. address. A meeting request does not necessarily eliminate the need for a locate request. the locate request includes any available information that will help establish the specific location of the excavation site. the one call center processes the request as designated by each facility owner/operator.gl/kpIDT) • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. project designers have a need for access to facility location information from facility owners/operators. This additional information could include the following. Practice Description: The one call center relays requests for job site facility meetings with facility owners/operators to the affected facilities owner/operator. References: • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • OCSI Resource Guide 2009 (http://goo. PB97-917003) 3–16:Locate Request Practice Statement: The one call center captures the following information. at a minimum. PB97-917003) 3–15:One Call Center Accepts Notifications from Designers Practice Statement: The one call center accepts design requests and has the ability to process them as designated by the facility owners/operators. for example: A: More detailed information to help determine the specific location of the excavation. In addition to the minimum required information identified in the preceding paragraph. Practice Description: To facilitate damage prevention. the one call center provides a listing of facility owners/operators directly to the designer. The one call center requires that the excavator provide sufficient information to fully identify the boundaries of the proposed work site. If a meeting is required to show the limits and schedule of the work.0 3–14:Meeting between the Excavator and Facility Operator(s) Initiated by One Call Notification Practice Statement: The one call center has a process for receiving and transmitting requests for meetings between the excavator and the facility operator(s) for the purpose of discussing locating facilities on large or complex jobs. References: • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01.

boring. but is not limited to. etc. the dig site must be wholly within the included area. what will be installed or built) F: Additional remarks References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century.e.e. an area or box. trenchless. To reduce overnotifications. These may be done automatically by the GIS subsystem or determined by a computer-assisted customer service representative..One Call Center 5: Street name 6: Length and direction of the excavation and the nearest adjacent cross streets (needed to bound area of excavation or extended excavation) 7: Subdivision and lot number (for new development) 8: Latitude/longitude coordinate(s) or specific address of the dig site.g. PB97-917003) –23– . the following: • Enables the one call center to define the proposed excavation site buffer to within approximately 800 ft • Enables the facility owner/operator to identify its desired area of notification to within approximately 100 ft References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. 9: Highway mile markers 10: Railroad mileposts 11: General directions/instructions 12: Map grids 13: Distance to nearest cross street 14: Any other pertinent references to help establish the location of the dig site B: The intended start date and time of the excavation (i. or a polygon. blasting. Practice Description: The one call center employs technology that enables the facility owner/operator to determine its desired area of notification by either polygons or grids.. The dig site can be a point.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01.) D: For whom the excavation work is being done E: The purpose of the work (i. trenching. technology includes. which may be later than when excavation can legally begin based on the ticket date) C: Type of excavation activity (e.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 3–17:Practices to Reduce Overnotifications Practice Statement: The one call center employs practices designed specifically to reduce the number of notices transmitted to facility owners/operators in which the reported excavation site is outside the owner’s/operator’s desired area of notification.. For a spatial rectangle (maximum/minimum latitude/longitude). the date excavation is actually expected to begin.

The one call center (the primary center) has a backup arrangement with another facility at a remote location (the secondary center). implements. • Database—the secondary center receives the primary center’s database. This process ensures that the ticket quality is maintained for all tickets.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. the disaster recovery plan is implemented to verify that it is operational. References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. Practice Description: The one call center has interactive data communications sufficient to permit remote data entry for members and excavators.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers 3–19:Direct Electronic Locate Practice Statement: The one call center provides users a means of direct. The remote interface validates the input information and allows the user to make corrections if necessary. The disaster recovery plan makes provisions for the one call center to process emergency locate requests for the areas affected by the disaster. on a random basis. • Staffing—a portion of the secondary center’s staff is cross-trained for the primary center’s operation at all times. on a regular basis and preferably in real time. • Software and hardware—the secondary center has compatible hardware with the primary center. Practice Description: The one call center develops and implements an effective disaster recovery plan that enables it to continue operations in the aftermath of a disaster affecting the facility. including locate requests.0 3–18:Disaster Recovery Practice Statement: A one call center develops.CGA Best Practices 12. This arrangement includes the following: • Telecommunications—alternate routing schedules are in place and ready to be activated within minutes of the primary centers’ failure. and maintains an effective disaster recovery plan that enables the one call function to continue in the event of a disaster. The secondary center always has a copy of the primary’s current software. electronic entry of locate requests that maintain comparable ticket quality to an operator-assisted entry. PB97-917003) –24– . This correction is accomplished by referencing the same geographic database used at the one call center when taking a called-in request. References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. • Simulated emergency testing—at least once a year. Excavators and underground facility owners/operators outside of the area affected by the disaster can continue to conduct business with minimum to no delays in the services provided by the one call center.

political and mail address (ZIP code) boundaries. latitude/longitude.). All stakeholders involved in the one call process receive a corresponding benefit when the one call center can define the excavation site as specifically as possible. etc. city. Practice Description: The one call center’s locate request-taking processes and computer system are designed to accept and process multiple types of reference points used by callers to (1) describe the location of their work and (2) define the excavation site. Because the one call center is a critical link in the communication chain between the excavating community and facilities. Security components could include the following: • Physical security for the building and its employees through locked operations areas. thereby helping to reduce overnotification.One Call Center 3–20:Accept Multiple Reference Points for Locate Requests Practice Statement: The one call center can accept multiple types of points of reference to define the exact location of an excavation site (e. The facility operator’s job of determining the existence of a potential conflict is expedited. street/cross street. county. field personnel can find and mark the affected area much easier. Reference: • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers –25– . References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. The one call center invests in systems and processes that permit inclusion of a variety of types of reference points in defining the excavation site. address. The one call center takes steps to link these reference points to the database used to register the facility operator’s desired area of notification.. and electrical protection to protect the one call center and its critical components. and the excavator receives timely markings covering the area of excavation. lighting. employee key cards. and guard patrols • Physical security for critical systems components that may include locating the facilities in locked enclosures and restricting access to necessary personnel • General fire protection for the one call center personnel and property • Specialized fire protection for critical systems components • Specialized theft protection for critical systems components • Telephone demarcation points in a protected area within the one call center • Passwords and protections to limit access to computers and other systems. township/range/section. latitude longitude. railroad mileposts. taking into account that it may well need to be operational in times of natural disasters or in the face of other threats. highway/railroad/pipeline mile markers. • Off-site storage of a duplicate database and necessary system software.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers 3–21:One Call Center Security Practice Statement: The one call center provides appropriate physical and systems security. Standardizing a limited set of criteria reduces the flexibility of the system to serve the excavator and facility owner/operator. valid address or street/cross street. etc. Examples of different types of reference points include highway mile markers. Practice Description: The one call center needs protection from natural disasters and other threats. fire protection. it is important that the one call center does whatever it can to provide adequate security.g.

A caller that has waited more than 60 seconds before hanging up is considered an abandoned call.CGA Best Practices 12. Callers have an expectation that there will be very few busy signals. 3: Busy Signal Rate The incidence of callers experiencing busy signals is a function of the number of incoming telephone lines to the one call center and the incoming call volume. A monthly average abandonment rate that is less than 5% is recommended.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers 3–23:One Call Quality Standards9/ Practice Statement: The one call center establishes and monitors performance standards for the operation of the center. but need not be limited to. References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. cost effectiveness. and ticket delivery. An ASA objective of 30 seconds or less is recommended. average speed of answer. and customer satisfaction. Meeting or exceeding a benchmark qualifies as a “best” practice. and efficiency are identified below. 2: Abandoned Call Rate The incidence of abandoned incoming calls is a function of the number of one call center customer service representatives actively processing locate requests and the volume of incoming calls. 1: Average Speed of Answer Average speed of answer (ASA) usually comprises the number of seconds between the time a caller is transferred from the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system and the time a voice welcomes the caller and begins the processing of a locate request averaged over a specified time interval and accumulated daily. Practice Description: A fault-tolerant system can withstand any single hardware malfunction without any interruption or degradation of service. such as ticket taking. monthly. These systems have the ability to identify the malfunctioning hardware component and permit its replacement while remaining online and processing normal applications. and year to date. Callers have an expectation that all calls will be answered within a reasonable time. These fault-tolerant systems maximize the probability that the one call center will be able to properly process an excavation request in the event of a failure or malfunction. The recommended benchmarks to fulfill a high quality of customer service while promoting accuracy. database access. Practice Description: A: Customer Quality of Service Performance Measurements One call centers monitor the quality of service provided to a customer who phones in a locate request. Key performance indicators include. 2008 –26– .0 3–22:Hardware Designed to Tolerate a Single Point of Failure Practice Statement: The one call center uses fault-tolerant hardware for its critical path operations. call abandonment rate. Service level objectives in the one call center industry are generally monitored daily. busy signal rate. 9/ TR-2005-05: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on November 14.

the one call center can transmit notifications in an electronic format that allows receiving stations to parse/extract data. The one call center makes all information/data collected on the quality of its performance available for review by the appropriate oversight authority and the public upon request. It is a best practice to send an audit report at least once every business day.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states one call centers 3–24:Web Services Solution10/ Practice Statement: The one call center provides a method by which a member operator can receive excavation notifications through a secure Web service that uses an accepted standard for its ticket format. C: Notification Delivery The one call center establishes and monitors criteria for the transmission of notifications and notification audit reports. B: Locate Request Quality The one call center has in place quality control and quality assurance programs to measure and monitor the accuracy and completeness of the information received by the one call center compared to the information transmitted by the one call center. Practice Description: In addition to all other methods and formats used by one call centers to communicate excavation notifications to underground facility owner/operators that do not have automated ticket management systems. such as Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1. 2006 –27– .” Periodic customer satisfaction surveys are conducted. one call centers can extract information on busy signals from their telephone systems or obtain the information from their communications service providers. notification transmission is immediate. Typically. The information usually comprises the number of callers experiencing a busy signal as a percentage of the total number of attempts to contact the one call center during normal business hours. Service level objectives are reported daily. Typically. and year to date.0. Providing e-mail and/or File Transfer Protocol (FTP) communications methods alone does not satisfy this practice. 4: Customer Satisfaction A fundamental principal in measuring quality is that “the customer defines quality. Notification audit reports are sent to receiving stations at a mutually acceptable frequency. 10/ TR-2006-02: Amendment approved by CGA Board on November 16. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. Establishing this method within the one call centers along with an accepted standard format such as Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1. A monthly average busy signal rate that does not exceed 1% is recommended.One Call Center Typically. monthly.0 satisfies this practice. one call centers also should provide a method that is consistently secure and reliable.

Practice Description: Underground damage prevention begins with a notice of intent to excavate submitted by an excavator to the appropriate one call center. The action taken could be as simple as renotifying all affected facility operators in the absence of any other specific requirement of state or local law. Inc.0 References: • Sunshine State One Call of Florida • Utility Protection Center of Georgia • Dig Safely New York • Ohio Utilities Protection Service • Arizona Blue Stake. Some state laws mandate that additional specific action be taken by the facility operators upon receipt of these types of notices (Arizona.” 3–26:One Call Membership12/ Practice Statement: Any entity that furnishes or transports products or services to a third party for its use or consumption by means of an underground facility or furnishes or transports products or services for its own internal use by means of an underground facility that occupies or crosses a right-of-way or utility easement is a member of a one call center. 3–25:Identification of Unknown Lines11/ Practice Statement: The one call center has a defined and documented policy for handling calls from excavators regarding the discovery of an unidentified line. such as railroad operating corridors that facilitate the transportation of freight or passengers. 2008 –28– .CGA Best Practices 12. Membership in the one call center by underground facility operators ensures that potential conflicts with existing facilities that may be encountered during excavation activities are identified by using a single regional point of contact. Delaware). References: • Many one call centers process a “Dig Up” request when an unidentified line has been exposed (Texas). The law requires that the one call center “establish a method of providing personnel from a facility owner qualified to safely inspect and verify that the facility is abandoned or active and a method for reimbursing the verifying facility owner for the cost incurred. 11/ 12/ TR-2002-04: Amendment approved by CGA Board on September 8. Practice Description: To facilitate damage prevention. one call centers have an established procedure that is implemented when an excavator calls and reports an unidentified facility. The following are examples of an underground facility that would probably not require one call center membership: • The internal use of owned underground facilities to provide safe operations in controlled rights of ways. and endanger excavators who may come into contact with these aforementioned underground facilities. 2006 TR-2007-05: Amendment approved by CGA Board on August 8. Others simply reissue the locate request with an appropriate remark (Maryland. which currently requires an “unknown line policy” to be in effect via the Arizona Blue Stake One Call Center). Operators of the aforementioned underground facilities who fail to become members of their local one call center risk public safety and damage to their facilities. The process of notification depends on all affected member facility operators being notified of intent to excavate through the regional one call center.

Many one call centers currently provide this data to the OCSI data collection tool. 2012 –29– . D. 3–28:One Call Center Data14/ Practice Statement: All one call centers annually submit their ticket and transmission volumes to the OCSI Data Collection Tool. New Jersey. Michigan. Tennessee. North Carolina. on a national level. Georgia. and Washington. is not within the purview of the CGA Best Practices. Iowa. Ohio. Virginia. Maryland. Florida. References: • BP 4-9 Positive Response Is Provided to Facility Locate Requests • Existing practice in Arizona. 2012 TR-2012-05: Addition approved by CGA Board on December 13. (Note: aboveground use of one’s rights of way or property. 1999 Common Ground Study 3–27:Electronic Positive Response13/ Practice Statement: The one call center provides a method for facility owner/operators to electronically post their positive response status to a notice of intent to excavate. Delaware. Practice Description: Ticket and transmission volumes from the One Call Systems International (OCSI) data collection tool are shared with the Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) to make a correlation between one call center ticket and/or transmission volume to damages or events that have occurred. Pennsylvania. Practice Description: By hosting an electronic positive response system. References: One call centers who participate currently: AL —Alabama 811 AR —Arkansas One Call System AZ —Arizona Blue Stake CA —USA North CA —USA South CO—Colorado 811 CT —Call Before You Dig FL —SunshineState One Call GA —UtilitiesProtectionCenter IA —Iowa One Call ID —Dig Line IN —Indiana 811 KS —Kansas One Call System KY —Kentucky 811 13/ 14/ LA —Louisiana One Call System MA —Dig Safe System ME —Dig Safe System MI —Miss Dig System MN —GopherState One Call MO —Missouri One Call System MS —Mississippi 811 NC —North Carolina 811 NH —Dig Safe System NM —New Mexico One Call NV —USA North NY —New York 811 NY —Dig Safely New York OH —Ohio Utilities Protection Service OR —Oregon Utility Notification Ctr PA —Pennsylvania One Call System RI —Dig Safe System SD —South Dakota One Call TN —Tennessee 811 TX —Texas 811 UT —Blue Stakes of Utah VA —Miss Utility of Virginia VT —Dig Safe System WA —Oregon Utility Notification Ctr WI —Diggers Hotline WV —Miss Utility of West Virginia TR-2011-02: Addition approved by CGA Board on August 10.C. Receiving ticket and transmission volumes from all one call centers allows all stakeholders to review. New Mexico. West Virginia. the one call center provides facility owner/operators the best means to communicate the status of their response to a notice of intent to the person initiating the notice. such as the transportation of freight or passengers by rail. Colorado. more accurate projections and to determine the cause and possible solutions for damages to subsurface installations.One Call Center • The internal use of an entity’s underground facilities by that entity solely on its own property.) References: State One Call Laws.

References: • North Carolina 811 • Pennsylvania 811 15/ 16/ TR-2011-01: Addition approved by CGA Board on October 24. and South Carolina (as examples) 3–30:Locate Information Shared with Excavator16/ Practice Statement: The one call center provides locate request information to the excavator. This is designed to prevent unnecessary locator effort and allow adequate time to locate and mark the affected underground facilities within the time frame and marking requirement of the appropriate state statute. operators. the excavator is able to verify the accuracy of the information. Pennsylvania. This information includes but is not limited to contact information. Practice Description: Designating a manageable locate request size (work area size/scope) along with clear locate instructions will reduce uncertainty and provide clarity to the utility operators and/or locators as to "what" and "where" needs to be located and marked.CGA Best Practices 12. References: • Existing state laws. Indiana. Practice Description: Providing locate request information to the excavator enhances the one call communication process. 2013 TR-2012-01: Wording approved by CGA Board on December 11. as well as the proposed location of excavation activities. 2014 –30– . including Georgia. and locators by the one call center in response to the excavator’s locate request. work type.0 3–29:One Call Facility Locate Request Size and Scope15/ Practice Statement: A maximum locate request area that is appropriate for a proposed excavation site is defined for a facility locate request. By providing the excavator with a record of information communicated to facility owners. ticket life. excavation activity duration.

”)18/ The December 1997 NTSB safety report cites the use of the APWA/ Utility Location and Coordination Council (ULCC) color code as the model example. DC. The corrections are submitted to the appropriate person or department in a timely manner. Proceedings of the Excavation Damage Prevention Workshop. then the facility locator provides information for updating records that are in error or for adding new facilities. Practice Description: A national standard is adopted defining color specifications relevant to facility type and marking symbols for identifying facilities. Washington. and access points for buried facilities within a requested area. Report of Proceedings NTSB/RP-95/01 (pp. The use of facility owner/operator-supplied records is an effective method of identifying facilities as part of the locating process. The method of notification is determined by the facility owner/operator and includes the following information: • Name (and company if contracted) • Contact phone number of the individual(s) submitting change • Location (either address or reference points) • Size and type of facility • Nature of the error or omission • Sketch of the change in relation to the other facilities Omissions and errors may occur as a result of misdrawn records. and delays in posting new records.CHAPTER 4 Locating and Marking 4–1: Available Records Practice Statement: Locators use available facility records at all times. Failure to note errors or omissions when found could result in damages to the facility at a later date. DC. The 1994 NTSB Excavation Damage Prevention Workshop stated that “facility operators should be required to update maps when excavation finds errors in the mapping system. Practice Description: Facility locators use available records at all times. Washington. “Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines. 4–2: Corrections and Updates Practice Statement: If a facility locator becomes aware of an error or omission. 17/ 18/ National Transportation Safety Board. Practice Description: During the course of a locating activity. 1995. 1994 September 8-9. (See Appendix B. Methods are in place to notify a facility owner/operator of that error or omission. number of facilities. a locator may become aware of errors or omissions. changes during construction at the job site.”17/ 4–3: Color Code Practice Statement: A uniform color code and set of marking symbols is adopted nationwide. repair or abandonment of facilities. Facility records indicate approximate location. TR-2001-05: Approved by the CGA Board on September 24. 2004 –31– .177-178).

Spooner. The use of a one call center allows locate requests for multiple facilities at an excavation site to be issued through a single point of contact. The use of a single locator to locate multiple facilities is analogous to the use of a one call center to handle locate requests from excavators. 4–5: Locator Training Practice Statement: Locators are properly trained. 2002. simplifying communications. with fewer links needed between excavator and locator. These advantages can include the following: • More responsive service to the excavation community • Better communication with the excavating community (fewer points of contact) • Improved safety as a result of less traffic on the road • Improved worker safety • Reduced environmental impact • Maps of multiple facilities Note: this best practice does not suggest that all facilities be located by a single locator. These guidelines and practices include the following: • Understanding system design/prints/technology • Understanding construction standards and practices for all types of facilities • Equipment training and techniques • Plant recognition training • Theory of locating • Daily operations • Facility owner/excavator relationships and image • Safety procedures per Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations/federal. Locator Training Standards and Practices.0 4–4: Single Locator Practice Statement: A single locator is used for multiple facilities. This practice has been employed by a facility owner in Michigan to enhance safety. Locator training is documented.. but rather that conditions exist in which locating multiple facilities with a single locator will reduce the likelihood of errors and resulting damage (e.CGA Best Practices 12.g. WI –32– . Documentation of all training is maintained to ensure that facility locators have been properly trained. Practice Description: This practice is employed when determined to be advantageous by the facility owner/operator. state/provincial and local laws • Written and field testing • Field training • Annual retesting The National Utility Locating Contractors Association (NULCA) Locator Training Standards and Practices19/ represent an accepted model within the locate industry. 19/ National Utility Locating Contractors Association. The use of a single locator to carry out locate requests for multiple facilities further simplifies communications. multiple facilities with the same owner or multiple facilities that are marked with the same or similar color codes). The use of a single locator to mark multiple facilities may provide several advantages to both the facility and the excavating communities. Practice Description: Minimum training guidelines and practices are adopted for locator training.

Information needed includes location and contact information for the nearest hospital. A: Pre-Work Safety Considerations 1: Site Background Data. Site characteristics that could affect locate work are analyzed. and other instruments and items are inspected from a safety perspective prior to use. Vehicular arteries (e. Means for working around such obstructions are defined. employee roles.A.A. etc. All hazards associated with performing a locate are identified.. fire department. Soil conditions and other factors (e. 3: External Resources. Employees are made aware of these hazards and are properly trained in worker safety standards. Information is gathered about safety-related resources that might be required in the event of an accident or other problem (such as an employee illness). 5: Job Briefing. This information may be gathered from the facility records and from visual inspection.. B: Locate Work Safety Considerations 1: Personnel Protection. Such attire provides for adequate visibility of the worker and personal protection against hazards. are thoroughly inspected. and any other public emergency response organization. state/ provincial. –33– . grounding. 4: Work Plan. Safety features such as locking devices. The site is analyzed to determine if physical obstructions are present on the property that would make locate work unsafe. 2: Equipment. Watchman/lookout capabilities are provided to ensure the safety of personnel in cases where locate work requires that working individuals disrupt traffic flow or otherwise occupy hazardous positions. Information developed as discussed in paragraphs 4–6. and/or other potential safety problems that might be encountered in connection with on-site locate work.A. 2: Site Familiarization. Items such as ladders. pits. electrical test devices. roadways.3.g.g. railways.) at the work site are identified to determine whether such traffic would pose any safety hazard to locating the site. and industry standards are established. b: Traffic. This work plan considers all of the safety related information developed in connection with paragraphs 4–6. police department. Appropriate measures conforming to federal. trenches. etc. time requirements. A work plan in which procedures. The job briefing focuses on safety aspects of the required work. exposures.1 through 4–6. Areas to be considered include the following: a: Obstructions.) that could affect the safety of the job site are identified.Locating and Marking 4–6: Safety Practice Statement: Locates are performed safely. Practice Description: It is the responsibility of the owner/operator and locator to establish when and how the underground facility will be identified. insulation.2 and 4–6.A.. In addition. local. All equipment used in connection with locate work is suitable for the intended uses. etc. highways. Methods are developed to identify and safely work around these hazards. and other factors are considered is developed to define the most efficient means for safely accomplishing required locate work. Site information is gathered to determine hazards. standing water. access routes and travel plans to emergency response facilities are defined. bores. equipment requirements. All working individuals wear proper safety attire.4 is used to conduct a job briefing prior to commencement of on-site locate work. c: Physical Site Conditions.

avoiding unnecessary risks. Markings may include one or any combination of the following: paint. All employees are thoroughly trained and briefed regarding safety measures such as minimizing exposures to potentially hazardous conditions. valves. Conditions that may affect markings are rain.CGA Best Practices 12. –34– . Proper training for all facility locators includes properly identifying the varying surface and environmental conditions that exist in the field and what marking methods should be used. adequate monitoring and/or ventilation devices are present and properly operating during occupancy. chalk. After locate work is completed. meters. high traffic. risers. The review looks at the safety aspects of all applicable work practices to determine if unnecessary exposures may have occurred and where improvements could be made. It is very important that visual inspections be completed in areas of new construction. or offsets. Practice Description: Facility locators match markings to the existing and expected surface conditions. where records may not indicate the presence of a facility. Any safety related equipment used in connection with the work is returned/restored to pre-work status. pedestals (including new cables found within the pedestals). snow. and no unsafe conditions remain at the site. the site is restored and left in such a condition that no safety hazards associated with the locate work activities remain. All marks extend a reasonable distance beyond the bounds of the requested area. All locate work activities are conducted with safety given first priority. etc. poles. In cases where locate work requires personnel to enter into spaces with potentially unsafe conditions. flags. dips. Practice Description: This inspection includes the following: • All facilities within a facility owner/operator’s service area (to evaluate the scope of the locate request) • Identification of access points • Identification of potential hazards • Assurance that plant facilities shown on records match those of the site A visual inspection helps determine if there are facilities placed that are not on record. appropriate testing is accomplished prior to entry.0 3: Exposures. All personnel and equipment used in connection with the work are accounted for. The visual inspection is necessary because the time between placing a facility in the field and placing it on permanent records varies by facility owner/operator and location. During times when such spaces are occupied. 4: Work Activities. a debriefing safety review of work activities is conducted. brushes. construction. and manholes. and giving priority to personal safety. but is not limited to. vegetation. 4–8: Facility Marking Practice Statement: Facilities are adequately marked for conditions. 4–7: Visual Inspection Practice Statement: A visual inspection is completed during the facility locating process. 2: Debriefing. stakes. Evidence of a facility not on record includes. enclosures. After completion of locate work. C: Post-Work Safety Considerations 1: Termination of Work Activities.

callback. When located or exposed. Practice Description: In general.Locating and Marking 4–9: Positive Response to Locate Request Practice Statement: Positive response is provided to facility locate requests. 20/ TR-2007-03: Modification to description approved by the CGA Board on August 24. It should be emphasized that recommendation of this practice is not an endorsement of the maintenance of records for abandoned facilities. fax. 2007 –35– . or automated response system. an attempt is made to locate and mark the abandoned facility. In circumstances where the total number of lines buried in the same trench by a single facility owner/operator may not be readily known. “Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines. A positive response allows the excavator to know whether all facility owners/operators have marked the requested area prior to the beginning of the excavation. Information regarding the presence or location of an abandoned facility may not be available because of updating or deletion of records. abandonment of an existing facility. or limited or non-existing access points may render an abandoned line non-locatable. damage to an abandoned facility. the number of lines marked on the surface equals the number of lines buried below. a corridor marker is used.”)20/ 4–11:Abandoned Facilities Practice Statement: Information on abandoned facilities is provided when possible. Practice Description: All facility locate requests result in a positive response from the facility owner/operator to the excavator. (See Appendix B. all abandoned facilities are treated as live facilities. A positive response may include one or more of the following: markings or documentation left at the job site. In addition. Practice Description: When the presence of an abandoned facility within an excavation site is known. The corridor marker indicates the width of the facility. 4–10:Marking Multiple Facilities in the Same Trench Practice Statement: Multiple facilities in the same trench are marked individually and with corridor markers.

radar-based technologies can be used. (See Appendix B. Applicable radar frequencies range from 200 MHz to 900 MHz. Using an induction clamp is not as effective at transmitting a signal as direct connection. because conductive soils and materials obscure radar signals. This usually results in a weak signal that will “bleed over” to any conductor in the area. and must use a higher power output. “Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines. where higher frequencies provide higher resolution but shallower depth of penetration.0 4–12:Locating Electromagnetically Practice Statement A: When locating electromagnetically. This method allows a greater range of frequency and power output options.CGA Best Practices 12. This practice facilitates a positive response for all facilities within the requested area. Direct connection is the process of connecting a direct lead from the transmitter to the target facility and connecting a ground lead from the transmitter to a ground point to complete a circuit. Practice Description: The preferred method of actively applying a signal onto a facility is to use direct connection.21/ Practice Description: In cases where non-conductive utilities cannot be located using electromagnetic means. This process provides the strongest signal on the line and is less likely to “bleed over” to adjacent facilities than other methods of applying a signal. use of an induction clamp (coupler) is the most effective method of applying a locate signal onto the target conductor. can only be used within certain frequency ranges. active/conductive locating is preferable to passive/inductive locating. This method is more limiting for the choices of frequency and power outputs than direct connection. the owner/operator of a facility is identified by markings at the time the facility is located. Practice Description: When feasible. It is good practice to use the lowest frequency possible at the lowest power output possible to complete the locate. It is important to note that these technologies are not applicable in all areas or conditions. If direct connection is not possible. 4–13:Facility Owner/Operator Identification Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator is identified. Users of these technologies should have the degree of knowledge and training required to operate the associated equipment and/or to interpret the results. 2005 –36– . The least-preferred method is induction or broadcast mode on a transmitter.”) 21/ TR-2004-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on March 4. radar-based methods such as ground penetrating radar and associated technologies can be used to determine the location of such utilities. Practice Statement B: When electromagnetic locating is not possible.

Careful documentation helps ensure that there is an accurate record of the work performed by the locator and helps eliminate confusion over what work was requested by the excavator. Practice Description: One call centers. Practice Description: A facility locator always documents what work was completed on a locate request. then a pre-location meeting is scheduled. 4–17:Forecasting/Planning for Predictable Workload Fluctuations Practice Statement: A plan is developed for managing unpredictable fluctuations. This pre-location meeting is on-site to establish the scope of the excavation. Note: this practice does not limit the number of one call requests from excavators. –37– . If the complexity of a project or its duration is such that a clear and precise understanding of the excavation site is not easily conveyed in writing on a locate request.Locating and Marking 4–14:Communication between Parties Practice Statement: Communication is established between all parties. Locators also schedule meetings if the complexity of the markings requires further explanation. and excavators all have clearly defined processes to facilitate communication between all parties. Written agreements between the excavator(s) and the locator(s) include the following information: • Date • Name • Company • Contact numbers for all parties • A list of the areas to be excavated • A schedule for both marking and excavating the areas • Any follow-up agreements that might be necessary Any changes to the areas that are to be located are in writing and include all parties responsible for the excavation and marking of the excavation sites. This assists in the locate process by requiring a locator to review what was located and then to verify that all facilities within the requested area were marked. a proper investigation is performed to determine not only the responsible party but also the root cause of the damage. Practice Description: Anytime a damage occurs. Practice Description: Facility owners/operators and/or their representatives develop methods to sufficiently forecast and plan for future workloads so that ticket requests may be completed in a timely manner. 4–16:Damage Investigation Practice Statement: A damaged facility is investigated as soon as possible after occurrence of damage. The information gathered from damage investigations is essential in preventing future damages. facility owners/operators. 4–15:Documentation of Work Performed Practice Statement: Documentation of work performed on a locate is maintained. This ensures that adequate personnel and equipment are available to complete all locate requests.

LTD. References: • Health Consultants Incorporated. Great Plains Locating. C: Measure timeliness.22/ Practice Description: The process of conducting audits for locates is a critical component to the protection of underground facilities. D: Check completion of a request.CGA Best Practices 12. (For additional Information. refer to Practice Statements 2–13 and 5–29. 2005 –38– . G: Check than an audit/survey is documented. E: Check evidence of accurate and proper communication. Practice Description: Locate in the area of the entrance pit the trenchless excavation path and the exit pit when trenchless excavation is being used. L: Verify that appropriate safety equipment and procedures were used by the locator. 2004 TR-2003-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 16. Utiliquest 4–19:Trenchless Excavation23/ Practice Statement: All stakeholders adhere to all best practices and the general guidelines stated in the following practice description prior to.0 4–18:Quality Assurance Practice Statement: Underground facility owners/operators have a quality assurance program in place for monitoring the locating and marking of facilities.) References: • See Appendix D 22/ 23/ TR-2003-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on March 26. contractual. B: Check accuracy to within. I: Trace audits for trend analysis. M:Verify that tools and equipment are in proper working order and properly calibrated. ATCO Gas. governed. The recommended components listed below are assembled from multiple sources and are meant to provide general guidelines for auditing the work of locators. J: Verify proper hook-up and grounding procedures where applicable. K: Verify the reference material used to document that the locate was up to date (electronic plans or paper plans). H: Communicate results to applicable personnel. and after any trenchless excavation (as applicable). during. Central Locate Services. Components: A: Conduct field audits and choose some locations to be audited/surveyed purely at random. F: Check that proper documentation exists. as defined by regulation/statute. and minimum tolerance levels.

directional boring. Markers include the words “Do Not Anchor or Dredge” and/or applicable warning language. material composition of the floor. and oil/gas pipelines. State of California Code. Communication between stakeholders is initiated through the one call center to reduce potential conflicts. and contact number of the facility operator are included on markers for all facility types.. State of Delaware Code. the facility contact is the one call center. OPS: 49 CFR 192. and/or fixed high-bank marks. dredging. or PVC markers are used by underwater facility owners to indicate the presence of an underwater facility in the area. and federal laws and regulations. The proper placement of visible temporary markers raises the awareness of these facilities and reduces likelihood of damage. such as dredging. Facility type. 24/ 25/ TR-2004-04A: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on April 15. GPS coordinates. 2005 TR-2004-04B: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 16.g. electric. and the public. state.. There are many excavating activities (e.707. Practice Description: The technology used to locate and mark the submerged facility is dependent upon the size of the facility. There are many excavating activities. anchors. name.) to indicate the presence of an underwater facility in the area. Benefits: • By alerting excavators to the presence of underwater facilities. State of Mississippi Code B: Temporary Markers for Underwater Facilities25/ Practice Statement: Temporary markers are placed within the areas of proposed excavations as close as practical over facilities that are submerged in bodies of water where facilities are at risk of being damaged without impeding or creating additional hazards. In some cases. sewer. and federal laws and regulations. 2005 –39– . Placement and removal of temporary markers for underwater facilities follow local. and other activities) that can damage these underwater facilities. For natural (and other) gas and hazardous liquids pipelines. and directional boring. References: • Tennessee Gas: 1995 Procedures.Locating and Marking 4–20:Locating and Marking in Navigable Waterways A: Permanent Markers for Underwater Facilities24/ Practice Statement: Permanent markers are placed as close as practical at the entrance and exit points of facilities located underneath bodies of water where facilities are at risk of being damaged. setting of anchors. water. depth of water. At times these markers may be supplemented with mapping. poles. and the depth the facility is positioned in or on the floor of the body of water. that can damage underwater facilities. etc. Sunshine State One Call of Florida. State of Alabama Code. It is critical for stakeholders to maintain communication throughout the excavation to ensure the safe and successful completion of the project.g. cable. permanent shoreline markers provide additional protection to the excavators. bridge construction. bridge construction. telecommunication. Temporary markers such as buoys. facilities. these affected bodies of waters are “commercially navigable waterways” that have been defined in 49 CFR 195. The proper placement and maintenance of visible permanent markers raise the awareness of these facilities and reduce the likelihood of damage. Markers for underwater facilities follow local.” Practice Description: Markers are used by underwater facility owners (e. state.450 for hazardous liquids pipelines as “waterways where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists.

State of Delaware Code. or 3) where the access to locate the line terminates. 03-SC-6827. Ltd. References: • Sunshine State One Call of Florida. Inc. References: • South Dakota Attorney General’s official opinion 8/11/08 • Minnesota DPS Rule Ch 7560 – 5/31/05 • Colorado appellate court case: Wycon Construction Co. References: • CenterPoint Energy/Minnesota. OH. 2011 –40– . City of Tallahassee • Oregon PUC Ruling 5/1/98 • State One Calls laws: AZ. State of Alabama Code. State of California Code.0 Benefits: By alerting excavators to the presence of underwater facilities. Michels Construction. A service line is marked in response to a locate request to a governmental entity that provides a product or service to an end-use customer via the service line. an easement. The service line is used by the following entities: • An operator who provides a product or service within a right-of-way. The operator or the governmental entity locates and marks these service lines within the bounds of the locate request up to either 1) the point of their operational responsibility.2d 496 (Ct. PA 4–22:Marking Newly Installed Facilities27/ Practice Statement: Facility operators ensure that new facilities in areas with continuing excavation activity are marked upon installation to indicate their presence. 1994) • Leon County. Practice Description: A service line is a type of underground facility that is connected to a main facility. County Court Case No. Practice Description: In areas of continuing excavation. 870 P. App.CGA Best Practices 12. facilities. Cornerstone of North Florida. temporary markers provide additional protection to excavators. State of Mississippi Code 4–21:Service Lines26/ Practice Statement: A service line is marked in response to a locate request to the operator who uses the service line to pursue a business that derives revenue by providing a product or service to an end-use customer via the service line. 2) the point the service line enters a building. Marking facilities upon installation gives notice to other excavators of the newly installed facilities that may not otherwise be marked in response to a notice of intent to excavate. GA. Wheat Ridge Sanitation District. WE Energies/Wisconsin 26/ 27/ TR-2008-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on March 3. Col. and the public. newly installed facilities can be damaged and safety can be compromised if the facilities are not marked. 2010 TR-2009-12: Addition approved by the CGA Board on June 17. MN. v. FL. V. or an allowed access to or through private property while pursuing a business that generates revenue by providing a product or service to an end-use customer (other than another operator of like kind or themselves) • A governmental entity that provides a product or service via that service line. as designated by the prevailing law. v. Mitchell Properties.

excavators. (See Appendix B for additional practice information) Reference: • Existing state laws. however.CHAPTER 5 Excavation 5–1: One Call Facility Locate Request Practice Statement: The excavator requests the location of underground facilities at each site by notifying the facility owner/operator through the one call center. The 1997 safety study “Protecting Public Safety through Excavation Damage Prevention” by the NTSB reached the conclusion that premarking is a practice that helps prevent excavation damage. including California. including Ohio and West Virginia 5–2: White Lining Practice Statement: When the excavation site cannot be clearly and adequately identified on the locate ticket. Missouri. Maine was one of the first states to have mandatory premarking for non-emergency excavations. Premarking allows the excavators to accurately communicate to facility owners/operators or their locator where excavation is to occur. the excavator calls the one call center at least two working days and no more than ten working days prior to beginning excavation. Facility owners/operators can avoid unnecessary work created when locating facilities that are not associated with planned excavation. and the environment. the excavator designates the route and/or area to be excavated using white premarking prior to the arrival of the locator. and others –41– . and can disrupt vital services provided by facility operators. Reference: • Existing state laws. stakes. Practice Description: Currently 50 states and 5 Canadian provinces have one call legislation and/or established one call centers recognizing that excavation performed without prior notification poses a risk to public safety. or a combination of these to outline the dig site prior to notifying the one call center and before the locator arrives on the job. Increased participation in this one call system provides for improved communication between excavators and facility operators necessary to reduce damage. Connecticut also adopted a premarking requirement. flags. New Jersey. the law provides for face-to-face meetings between operators and excavators on projects that are too large for or not conductive to premarking. Unless otherwise specified in state/provincial law. Practice Description: The route of the excavation is marked with white paint.

high-pressure gas. and major pipe or water lines. Such pre-job meetings are important for major. that progress from one area to the next. time. or unusual. The excavator records this number. it is proof of notification to the members. Each locate request ticket (notification) is assigned a unique number with that one call center. Practice Description: The meeting facilitates communications. Practice Description: All calls from excavators processed by the one call center receive a unique message reference number. but are not limited to. Reference: • Existing practice among one call centers –42– .0 5–3: Locate Reference Number Practice Statement: The excavator receives and maintains a reference number from the one call center that verifies that the locate was requested. Practice Description: Any temporary or permanent interruption requires the active participation by the facility owner/operator and the excavator to ensure protection of facilities through a joint preplanning meeting or conference call. which is contained on all locate request messages. all 50 states have one call centers and/or state statues • Existing operating procedures from various state one call centers 5–4: Pre-excavation Meeting Practice Statement: When practical. This number distinguishes this ticket from all other tickets so that it can be archived and retrieved upon request to provide the details of that request only. References: • Existing state laws. The computer-generated request identifies the date. facility owners/operators. high-voltage electric. the excavator requests a meeting with the facility locator at the job site prior to marking the facility locations. sewer. One call centers note on the ticket any special contractor requests for a joint meeting that require the facility owner/operator to initiate the process. and the facility owner/operator. Wilson & Sons. or other projects that cover a large area.CGA Best Practices 12. coordinates the marking with actual excavation. References: • Existing insurance carrier guidelines • Existing practice among excavators. Such facilities include. and ensures identification of high-priority facilities. This includes projects such as road. Inc. An on-site pre-excavation meeting between the excavator. and locators (where applicable) is recommended on major or large projects.F. 5–5: Facility Relocations Practice Statement: The excavator coordinates work that requires temporary or permanent interruption of a facility owner/operator’s service with the affected facility owner/operator in all cases. or that are located near critical or high-priority facilities. the requestor. excavations. fiber-optic communication. including Pauley Construction and W. and sequence number of the locate request. water.

but not limited to face-to-face communications. and others 5–7: One Call Access (24/7) Practice Statement: The excavator has access to a one call center 24 hours per day. Pennsylvania. or marking the excavation or demolition area. facsimile or other electronic means. Certain conditions may exist that require excavators to work during off-hours (city/road congestion. Michigan. Maryland. If an excavator has knowledge of the existence of an underground facility and has received an “all clear. or 2) notify the excavator that the facility owner/operator has no underground facilities in the area of excavation. Minnesota. they need to be able to call in future work locations after 5:00 p. it is imperative for each excavator to obtain a one call reference number before excavation to ensure that the specific areas have been appropriately marked by any affected underground facility owner/operator. The construction schedule may dictate different types of work requiring excavation from different specialty contractors simultaneously. and others (25 participating states or one call centers with 24/7 access) 5–8: Positive Response Practice Statement: The underground facility owner/operator either 1) identifies for the excavator the facility’s tolerance zone at the work site by marking. and the locator will make marking these facilities a priority before excavation begins. Practice Description: There are often several excavators on a job site performing work. Although most excavators are on the job site during regular work hours. Reference: • Existing state laws. phone or phone message.m. flagging. or other acceptable methods.Excavation 5–6: Separate Locate Requests Practice Statement: Every excavator on the job has a separate one call reference number before excavating. Kansas. In these situations. or flags. This process allows the excavator to begin work in a timely manner. or 2) notifies the excavator that no conflict situation exists. “Positive response” is a term used to describe the two types of action taken by a facility owner/operator after it receives notification of intent to excavate. paint. The facility owner/operator must 1) mark its underground facilities with stakes. off-peak utility service hours). Reference: Existing states laws. This allows them more flexibility to schedule work and to avoid peak hours of locate requests at the one call center. 7 days a week. including Ohio.” a prudent excavator will attempt to communicate that a conflict does indeed exist. Idaho. Practice Description: If a facility owner/operator determines that the excavation or demolition is not near any of its existing underground facilities. This takes place after the one call center notifies the underground facility owner/operator of the planned excavation and within the time specified by state/provincial law. Practice Description: Utilities service the public needs 24 × 7 and thus should be protected during that same time. it notifies the excavator that no conflict exists and that the excavation or demolition area is “clear. Better communication between the excavator and the facility owner/operator is required as an area of excavation becomes more crowded with new underground facilities. including Texas.” This notification by the facility owner/operator to the excavator may be provided in any reasonable manner including. posting at the excavation or demolition area. –43– . Illinois.

excavators verify that they are at the correct location. South Carolina. Wilson & Sons. the excavation can commence with confidence that the safety of the work crew and the public at large has been considered. Kansas. including Ohio. to the best of their ability. Inc. and new trench lines • Checks for any facilities that are not members of the one call center and contact someone to get them located. and others 5–10:Locate Verification Practice Statement: Prior to excavation. References: • Existing state laws. or corrupt (which could result in calamity)..g.0 When the excavator makes the request to the one call center. meters. provided the excavator exercises due care in all endeavors. it may indicate that the facility owner/operator did not receive a locate notice or that the one call center’s contact information for that facility owner/operator may be incorrect. including California. this does not preclude the excavator from continuing work on the project. including Pauley Construction and W.CGA Best Practices 12. such as pedestals. The excavator logs these facilities on a job sheet and identifies which facility owner/operators have responded by marking and which have cleared the area. Practice Description: The facility owner/ operator and the excavator partner together to ensure that facilities are marked in an acceptable time frame to allow for underground facility protection. risers. Reference: • Existing state laws. When the excavator has obtained all required information. Use of a pre-excavation checklist is recommended by insurers and practiced by responsible excavating contractors.F. When a facility owner/operator does not respond by marking or clearing. incomplete. check for unmarked facilities. –44– . unless otherwise specified in state/provincial law. Maryland. within the time specified by state/provincial requirements) or if the facility owner/operator notifies the excavator that the underground facility cannot be marked within the time frame and a mutually agreeable date for marking cannot be arrived at. and others • Existing operating procedure for various one call centers (31 participating states or one call centers) 5–9: Facility Owner/Operator Failure to Respond Practice Statement: If the facility owner/operator fails to respond to the excavator’s timely request for a locate (e. Michigan. The excavator may proceed with excavation at the end of two working days. then the excavator re-calls the one call center. Practice Description: Upon arrival at the excavation site and prior to beginning the excavation. the excavator is told which facility owners/operators will be notified. However. verify locate markings and. an excavator does the following: • Verifies that the dig site matches the one call request and is timely • Verifies that all facilities have been marked and reviews color codes if in doubt • Verifies all service feeds from buildings and homes • Checks for any visible signs of underground facilities. Nevada. Reference: • Existing practice by excavators.

a list of the facility owner members impacted at that dig site as identified by the one call center. Practice Description: Sharing information and safety issues during an on-site meeting between the excavator and the excavating crews helps avoid confusion and needless damage to underground facilities. References: • Existing state regulations including Michigan DOT 28/ TR-2011-11: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. each crew has the information. including Pauley Construction.Excavation 5–11:Documentation of Marks Practice Statement: An excavator uses dated pictures. Wilson & Sons. it is easier to resolve disputes if an underground facility is damaged as a result of improper marking. The primary purpose of this best practice is to avoid unnecessary litigation and expensive legal fees for all parties involved. should it become necessary. removed. Reference: • Existing practice by excavators. 5–13:One Call Reference at Site28/ Practice Statement: Except in case of an emergency. A&L Underground. or covered. and facilitates communications between the excavator and the one call center with respect to that particular locate request. It is important for excavators and locators to document the location of markings before excavation work begins. video tape. failure to mark. and W. and the one call center ticket number. Inc. the valid start time. or sketches before excavation work begins. the excavator reviews the location of underground facilities with site personnel. or sketches with distance from markings to fixed objects recorded. Practice Description: The availability of locate request details on site is useful because excavators can easily access information about the location and extent of work. 2014 –45– . including Pauley Construction 5–12:Work Site Review with Company Personnel Practice Statement: Prior to starting work. If locate markings are adequately documented through the use of photographs. When multiple crews are working on the same project at separate locations or when different employers have crews working at the same location. Practice Description: In most situations when underground facilities are not properly marked. excavators have no way of knowing where underground utilities are located. videos. the excavator at each job site has available a complete description of the dig site. provides quick references for excavation equipment operators.F. The documentation also provides an excavator with appropriate information for daily tailgate meetings for crews. and the list of operators notified. to document the actual placement of markings. or markings that have been moved. Reference: • Existing practice by excavators.

as part of its safety training. Excavators using caution around underground facilities significantly contribute to safe excavation of existing facilities.CGA Best Practices 12. and others 5–16:Federal and State Regulations Practice Statement: The excavator complies with all applicable federal and state/provincial safety regulations. If telephone communication is unavailable. including Michigan DOT 5–15:Facility Avoidance Practice Statement: The excavator uses reasonable care to avoid damaging underground facilities. Practice Description: Situations arise on the job site that require immediate notification of the facility owner/operator. To avoid costly delays. one call center. including Kansas. Reference: • Existing state laws. References: • Required by federal and state law • Existing practice by excavators and facility owners/operators –46– . These regulations include reference to training each employee to recognize and avoid unsafe conditions in the work environment and to control or eliminate any hazards or exposures to illness or injury.0 5–14:Contact Names and Numbers Practice Statement: The excavator’s designated competent person at each job site has access to the names and phone numbers of all facility owner/operator contacts and the one call center. Practice Description: Although most existing state/provincial damage prevention legislation does not include reference to federal and state/ provincial regulations. or local emergency personnel. the excavator ensures that the designated job site personnel have all appropriate names and phone numbers. is informed of the best practices and regulations applicable to the protection of underground facilities. it is important to include reference to worker safety and training in the best practices. The excavator plans the excavation so as to avoid damage or to minimize interference with the underground facilities in or near the work area. Therefore. and. when required. Ohio. provides training as it relates to the protection of underground facilities. Reference: • Existing state regulations. The “home office” also has immediate access to all appropriate names and telephone numbers. radio communication to the “home office” is available so that timely notification can be made. Practice Description: Foremost on any construction project is safety. the excavator’s crew. Excavators are required to comply with federal and state/provincial occupational safety and health requirements to protect employees from injury and illness. West Virginia.

including New Mexico. When a mark is no longer visible. Reference: • Existing state law. References: • Existing state law.) References: • Existing state laws. on either side of the outside edge of the underground facility on a horizontal plane. South Dakota. “Standard for Physical Location and Protection of Below-Ground Fiber Optic Cable Plant” (ANSI/TIA/EIA-590-A-1996) • American Public Works Association (APWA). including Southern Natural Gas.Excavation 5–17:Marking Preservation Practice Statement: The excavator protects and preserves the staking. Pennsylvania. Bell South. This practice is not intended to preempt any existing state/provincial requirements that currently specify a tolerance zone of more than 18 in. staking. Practice Description: During long. and others • Telecommunications Industry Association and Electronic Industry Association (TIA/EIA). “Guidelines for Uniform Temporary Marking of Underground Facilities” –47– . The excavator stops excavating and notifies the one call center for re-marks if any facility mark is removed or is no longer visible. and other marking techniques last only as long as the weather and other variables allow. the marks for underground facilities may need to be in place far longer than the locating method is durable. the excavator requests a re-mark to ensure the protection of the facility. Practice Description: (See Practice Statement 5–20. Practice Description: The excavator designates a worker (an observer) who watches the excavation activity and warns the equipment operator while excavating around a utility to prevent damaging that buried facility. or other designation of underground facilities until no longer required for proper and safe excavation. and Columbia Gas 5–19:Excavation Tolerance Zone Practice Statement: The excavator observes a tolerance zone that is comprised of the width of the facility plus 18 in. including Ohio 5–18:Excavation Observer Practice Statement: The excavator has an observer to assist the equipment operator when operating excavation equipment around known underground facilities. Painting. but work continues around the facility. marking. complex projects. including Ohio • Existing practice among large facility owners/operators.

or other technical methods that may be developed. New Hampshire. Each state/province must take differing geologic conditions and weather related factors into consideration when recommending types of excavation within the tolerance zone. soft digging. unless specified otherwise in state/provincial law. Methods to consider. If excavation continues. Reference: • Existing state laws. the excavator exercises such reasonable care as may be necessary for the protection of any underground facility in or near the excavation area. including W. the excavator may continue work if the excavation can be performed without damaging the facility. References: • Existing state/local laws. Some states specifically allow for the use of power excavating equipment for the removal of pavement. Hand digging and non-invasive methods are not required for pavement removal. Pennsylvania. Inc. include hand digging when practical (pot holing).F. A majority of states outline safe excavation practices to include hand digging or pot holing (16 states). Following this notification. including Arizona • Existing practice among excavators.CGA Best Practices 12. pneumatic hand tools. other mechanical methods with the approval of the facility owner/operator. Wilson & Sons. including Arizona. –48– . based on certain climate or geographical conditions. Practice Description: Safe. vacuum excavation methods. and others 5–21:Mismarked Facilities Practice Statement: The excavator notifies the facility owner/ operator directly or through the one call center if an underground facility is not found where one has been marked or if an unmarked underground facility is found. excavation stops in the vicinity of the facility and notification takes place. non-evasive methods that require the excavator to manually determine the actual location of a facility are considered “safe excavation practices” in a majority of state/provincial laws (38 states). prudent. the excavator plans the excavation to avoid damage and interference with other facilities and protects facilities from damage.0 5–20:Excavation within Tolerance Zone Practice Statement: When excavation is to take place within the specified tolerance zone. Practice Description: When an excavator finds an unmarked or inaccurately marked facility.

such as a cable television company and a telephone company. and others 5–23:Locate Request Updates Practice Statement: The excavator calls the one call center to refresh the ticket when excavation continues past the life of the ticket (sometimes. field personnel. by shoring the facility from below or by providing a timber support with hangers across the top of an excavation to ensure that the facility does not move or bend. or in some way affect the integrity of the facility. or removed as necessary to safeguard employees. Any excavation that covers a large area and will progress from one area to the next over a period of time is broken into segments when notifying the one call center in order to coordinate the marking with actual excavation. After all the excavation covered by a locate request is completed. In their pre-planning process. Utah. New York. Idaho. Arizona. bend conduit. which could result in the trench where employees are working to flood. This recognizes that it is a best practice to define ticket life.29/ Practice Description: Refreshing the ticket recognizes that markings are temporary and provides notification to facility owners/operators of ongoing excavation when a job is started but not completed as planned. Exposed facilities can shift. underground installations shall be protected. endangering the safety of employees.” For example. Any excavation not begun during the life of the ticket is recalled to the one call center. Virginia. Pennsylvania. Reference: • Existing state/local laws. Practice Description: Protecting exposed underground facilities is as important as preventing damage to the facility when digging around the utility.Excavation 5–22:Exposed Facility Protection Practice Statement: Excavators support and protect exposed underground facilities from damage. separate pipe joints. or attempt to move exposed facilities that could damage protective coatings. are planning to serve a new section of a subdivision. no additional locate request updates are generated. defined by state/provincial law). which could result in damage to the facility. at the same time. The possibility exists that new facilities have been installed in the area where the excavation is to be conducted after the original notification and marking. Each excavator (internal or external) calls the one 29/ TR-2009-16: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on July 16. If not currently defined in state/provincial law. separate. which states “While the excavation is open. damage cable insulation. damage fiber optics. This can be accomplished in different ways. workers are instructed to not climb on. Original locate request tickets are generated so that the minimum number of locate request updates are necessary for the duration of a project. strike. they see a vacant space in the right-of-way to place their new facility. supported. but not always. Protecting exposed underground facilities helps ensure that the utility is not damaged and. and clerical personnel is essential in accomplishing this task. including Washington. DC. or be damaged when they are no longer supported or protected by the soil around them. Communication between excavation project planners. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) also has addressed this issue in Subpart P—Excavation Standard 29 CFR 1926. Excavators support or brace exposed facilities and protect them from moving or shifting. causing the pipe joints to separate. This practice also helps in situations where multiple excavators are working in the same area at essentially the same time. for example. In addition. 2010 –49– . protects employees working in the vicinity of the exposed facility. ticket life is ideally 10 working days but does not exceed 20 working days. An example of when this can occur is when two facility owners. an unsupported sewer main could shift.651(b)(4).

grooves. Existing state laws that specify 15 working days include Virginia and Tennessee. the general public. leaks. Practice Description: A majority of states require notification for damage or substantial weakening of an underground facility (27 states). By excavators refreshing the locate ticket. Texas. or property by notifying the proper authorities to handle the emergency situation. including Arkansas. experience. The possibility of facility failure or endangerment of the surrounding population dramatically increases when a facility has been damaged. and understanding of the situation to protect themselves. training. property. This practice also gives the facility owner/operator another chance to identify the location of their facilities and to avoid possible damage and disruption of service if something was marked incorrectly or missed on a previous locate.30/ Reference: • Existing state laws that specify 10 working days include Kansas. Duke Energy of Houston. These contracted facility locators may not be aware of work planned in the near future. • Existing practices by Progress Energy. Ohio. For one reason or another. or property. and when returning to the job site to place the new facility. Idaho. 2001 TR-2001-02B: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 27. All breaks. Although the facility may not immediately fail. dents. or corrosive gas or liquid or endangers life. and the environment until help arrives. or other damages to facility lines. This practice minimizes the danger to life. Reference: • Existing state laws.32/ Practice Description: This practice is already required by many of the states’ one call legislation. and others 5–25:Notification of Emergency Personnel Practice Statement: If the damage results in the escape of any flammable. Inc. In these situations.31/ The excavator takes reasonable measures to protect everyone in immediate danger. Maryland.0 call center for locates and each facility owner/operator comes and marks their respective facilities indicating that nothing exists. 5–24:Facility Damage Notification Practice Statement: An excavator discovering or causing damage to underground facilities notifies the facility owner/operator and the one call center. conduits. and the environment until the facility owner/operator or emergency responders arrive and complete their assessment. one of the excavators gets delayed and does not start construction as planned. health. and Arizona Blue Stake. health. toxic. 2002 –50– . property. Excellent planning.CGA Best Practices 12. Wisconsin. the underground facility owner/operator is provided the opportunity to inspect the damage and make appropriate repairs.33/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ TR-2009-16: Final wording approved by the CGA Board on July 16. 2010 TR-2001-02A: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on November 30. 2002 TR-2001-02B: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 27. and Texas. gouges. nicks. and updating of tickets enhance safety and reduce the unnecessary use of locate resources. resources. people. finds new lines have been installed in the previously vacant space. The excavator takes reasonable measures based on their knowledge. The excavator responsible remains on-site to convey any pertinent information to responders that may help them to safely mitigate the situation. coatings. generation. Pennsylvania. the excavator responsible immediately notifies 911 and the facility owner/operator. the contract locator has another opportunity to identify newly placed facilities. or cathodic protection are reported. local authorities are able to evacuate as appropriate and command substantial resources unavailable to the excavator or underground facility owner/operator. Many facility owners/operators do not perform their own locates and utilize the services of a contracted facility locator.

or other material that could damage existing facilities or interfere with the accuracy of future locates are not buried in the excavation. or property or that require immediate correction in order to continue the operation of or ensure the continuity of public utility service or public transportation. and others –51– . This helps prevent inadvertent damage to the facility during the backfill process. including Ameritech. such as changes in depth of 6 in. For example. health. and large chunks of hard-packed clay or dirt. Sprint. West Virginia. Reference: • Existing operating practice among facility operators. including Colorado. including Kansas. it is common for the contractor to make adjustments in the location of the new facility when rocks or other underground obstructions are encountered or when the location of the new facility conflicts with another existing underground facility. Practice Description: This practice allows excavation to begin immediately to restore service or to stop a hazardous situation from getting worse in the case of a gas or pipeline leak. This change in plan can represent changes in horizontal or vertical distances from the specified plans. When this occurs. coiled wire. debris. it is critical that the contractor installing the new facility be required to notify the facility owner/operator of deviations to the planned installation. provided that the excavator notifies the one call center and facility owner/operator as soon as reasonably possible. References: • Michigan DOT specification • Existing insurance carrier guidelines 5–28:As-built Documentation Practice Statement: Contractors installing underground facilities notify the facility owner/operator if the actual placement is different from expected placement. Oregon. or other facility damage. Practice Description: Extra caution must be taken to remove large rocks. Some facility owners/operators do not require a full-time inspector and use a sampling process to ensure that a new facility is correctly installed in compliance to specifications. No trash or pieces of abandoned lines are backfilled into the trench. Practice Description: For a facility owner/operator to maintain accurate records of the location of their facilities. sharp objects. The facility owner/operator establishes standards that require notification if a deviation is beyond specified tolerances. This includes situations that involve danger to life. cut telephone cable. and Minnesota 5–26:Emergency Excavation Practice Statement: In the case of an emergency excavation. When these changes to the expected location are communicated to the facility owner/operator.Excavation Reference: • Existing state laws. it becomes much more critical for the contractor to notify the facility owner/operator of changes. Ohio. Columbia Gas. Reference: • Existing state laws. Trash. and others (49 participating states or one calls) 5–27:Backfilling Practice Statement: The excavator protects all facilities from damage when backfilling an excavation. or more and lateral measurement changes of greater than 1 ft. Nevada. it is the owner/operator’s responsibility to take appropriate action to update their records so that an accurate locate can be conducted in the future. maintenance or repairs may be made immediately.

and the general public. Accordingly. during. Minnesota • Public Service Electric and Gas. etc. Any actions taken by one stakeholder could adversely affect other stakeholders. • The trenchless excavation operator confirms and maintains the path and minimum clearances established by the project owner and design engineer by tracking and recording the path of the trenchless excavation until complete. owner/operators. trenchless excavation path. References: • XCEL Energy. there are many stakeholders involved: excavators. pipe lasers. • When existing facilities are known to be present but cannot be potholed as a result of local conditions. Practice Description: During emergency situations. visual inspection.CGA Best Practices 12. locators. 2005 TR-2005-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 8. Newark. (Refer to Practice Statements 2–13 and 4–19 for additional information. walking the trenchless excavation path prior to commencing work. and has a good understanding of the job. New Jersey. The excavator proceeds safely only after making positive identification. or other hidden hazard is encountered. first responders. Practice Description: • The excavator requests the location of underground facilities at the entrance pit. one call centers. water levels. and the exit pit by notifying the facility owner/operator through the one call center. the facility owner and the excavator meet to discuss how to safely proceed with the excavation. Gas Emergency Procedure Manual 34/ 35/ TR-2002-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 16. • The trenchless equipment operator performs a site inspection.0 5–29:Trenchless Excavation34/ Practice Statement: All stakeholders comply with all best practices and the following general guidelines prior to. • The excavator stops the trenchless excavation operations if an abnormal condition.) References: See Appendix D 5–30:Emergency Coordination with Adjacent Facilities35/ Practice Statement: Emergency response planning includes coordination with emergency responders and other aboveground and/or underground infrastructure facility owner/operators identified by the Incident Commander through the Incident Command System/Unified Command (ICS/UC) during an emergency. 2006 –52– . and after any trenchless excavation (as applicable). emergency planning and response are coordinated. unknown substructure. Means of tracking trenchless excavations include electronic locating/guidance devices.

• is operated by a worker trained and experienced in its operation.. • is operated in accordance with practices that provide appropriate levels of worker and public safety and prevent damage to buried facilities. locations of underground facilities are provided by operators at no cost to excavators. such as 811 and those promoted by one call centers and associated industries.S. Some underground facility owners/operators accept vacuum excavation as equivalent to hand excavation for exposing their facilities. Use of equipment also follows state/provincial laws and/or local ordinances. References: Minnesota state statutes. and • is used in compliance with state/provincial laws and/or local ordinances. Inc. Vacuum excavation is often an appropriate alternative. advise persons involved in excavation activities. is an efficient. 2008 TR-2009-09: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 10. Alberta pipeline 5–32:Vacuum Excavation37/ Practice Statement: Vacuum excavation. and effective alternative to hand digging within the designated underground facility tolerance zone. and others have restrictions on its use.Excavation 5–31:No Charge for Providing Underground Facility Locations36/ Practice Statement: Upon notification by one call centers. This service is critical to maintaining the communication between operators and excavators. Practice Description: The safe exposure of underground facilities within the tolerance zone is essential to damage prevention. 2010 –53– . Call-before-you-dig education and marketing campaigns. Practice Description: It is the basic underpinning of the call-before-you-dig process that persons involved in excavation activities receive facility locates at no charge when they contact their local one call center to give notice of intent to excavate. References: • Existing state laws including South Carolina and North Carolina • B. that the service is provided by facility operators at no charge to the person providing the notice of intent to excavate. safe.R. when used appropriately. Many underground facility owners/operators have specific criteria for safe excavation/exposure practices around their facilities. Site conditions may make the use of hand tools to expose underground facilities difficult or even impractical. including the public. Locates must be obtained prior to the commencement of work (see Practice Statement 5–1). homeowners. 36/ 37/ TR-2007-06: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on August 8. and professional excavators. Vacuum excavation is an appropriate method of excavating safely around underground facilities provided that the equipment • has been specifically designed and built for this purpose.

0 .CGA Best Practices 12. –54– .

The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Arizona. street/road name. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Ohio. 6–2: Latitude/Longitude Practice Statement: The land base and database use latitude/longitude (Lat/Long) coordinates. name changes. One Call Center A one call center uses an electronic mapping database system that includes the following: 6–1: Land Base Accuracy Practice Statement: The land base is accurate. The translation of Lat/Long information is automatic. South Dakota.. and Wisconsin. milepost marker. Ohio. Ohio. Locator. intersection. From this viewpoint. A map point (i. or milepost based upon Lat/Long information. street/road name. Minnesota. intersection. North Carolina. and a process is in place that periodically adds new street information. and Tennessee. and New Jersey. and Wisconsin. By consensus of the Mapping Task Team. –55– . Facility Owner/Operator.e. Excavator. all of the findings listed below are best practices. aliases. North Carolina. Missouri. etc. New Jersey. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Arizona. and municipal boundaries. a rural area not in the immediate vicinity of a road or known map landmark) can be identified by Lat/Long information. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Arizona. and Project Owner. 6–4: Timely Database Updating Practice Statement: The database is updated by information from facility owners/operators. The system can accept information in standard file format with minimal human intervention. Practice Description: The land base and database can produce Lat/Long information based upon street address. the best practices for mapping can be listed in five distinct areas: One Call Center. 6–3: Up-to-date Land Base Information Practice Statement: The land base is up-to-date. It also is possible to determine the street address. New Jersey.CHAPTER 6 Mapping The Mapping Team chose to look at mapping practices from the viewpoint of the different areas represented by team members. Practice Description: The database is promptly updated as information is provided or becomes available from the facility owner/operator. Practice Description: The land base is the most precise geographical information available to the one call center. Practice Description: The land base is kept up-to-date. Texas.

Practice Description: The locator provides to the one call center feedback on land base mapping and location discrepancies.CGA Best Practices 12. Practice Description: The electronic mapping system can produce a ticket for the smallest practical geographical area.0 6–5: Electronic Mapping Location Area Practice Statement: The electronic mapping system can produce a ticket for the smallest practical geographical area. and North Carolina. and Wisconsin. References: • Arizona Blue Stake law 6–9: Feedback Practice Statement: The locator supplies feedback to the one call center. 6–7: Training Practice Statement: Locators are trained in map reading and symbology. Oregon. Tennessee. The following association trains its members to carry out this practice: National Utility Locating Contractors Association (NULCA). –56– . Minnesota. 6–6: Availability Practice Statement: The land base is available to the public. Practice Description: The locator provides to the facility owner/operator the most precise facility location information obtained from a locate when there is a discrepancy. Tennessee. 6–8: Discrepancies Practice Statement: The locator provides precise facility location to the facility owner/operator when there is a discrepancy. Practice Description: Locators are trained in map reading and symbology to help determine the location of the buried facility. Locator Locators use maps to help find the excavation site and to help determine the general location of the buried facility. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Arizona. and South Dakota. The following states carry out this practice: Ohio. Ohio. Practice Description: The land base is available to the public for the identification of the excavation area. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: North Carolina. The land base and database are available to the one call center membership for the update of member database information.

Practice Description: The facility owner/operator provides access to a mapping system that can be used by both the locator and the facility owner/operator. Madison. References: • Michaels Pipeline Company. Wisconsin • Hooper Corporation. Pewaukee. These facility owners/operators follow this practice: AT&T. Sprint Long Distance. south. or other appropriately formatted information. This information includes a street address. Sprint Long Distance. Practice Description: The excavator provides details about the excavation area location. etc. –57– . If the excavator cannot meet the above criteria. Wisconsin Facility Owner/Operator 6–12:Mapping Data Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator provides mapping data to the one call center. Wisconsin • Intercon Construction. sides. Practice Description: The excavator takes responsibility for giving accurate location information to the one call center. such as starting and ending points. 6–11:Excavation Area Details Practice Statement: The excavator provides to the one call center basic attributes about the excavation area. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator provides the one call center with data that will allow efficient and accurate notification of excavation activities near the facility owner/operators’ infrastructure. front. and the side of the street. legal description. east. back. and latitude/longitude (if feasible). 6–13:Access to Mapping Data Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator provides mapping data access.). Facility owners/operators in all mandatory one call states follow this practice. west.Mapping Excavator 6–10:Accuracy of Location Information Practice Statement: The excavator provides accurate location information to the one call center. 6–14:Mapping Standards Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator adheres to mapping standards. Questar Regulated Services. street intersection. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator requires the designer to adhere to the facility owner/operator’s mapping standards. rear. the side of the property (north. the excavator directly coordinates with the one call center to establish the excavation area. These facility owners/operators follow this practice: Atlanta Gas Light. Brownsville. AT&T.

material. legal description. transformer. This information includes a street address.39/ 38/ 39/ TR-2008-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on July 16. and pressure • The number of utility lines or conduits owned by the facility owner/operator in a corridor or the size of the duct package bank (universally a general practice of major pipeline and long-distance telecommunication operators and railroads) • When available. and underpasses. overhead viaducts. and rivers • All road crossings. and maintenance of their longitudinal utility. construction. Basic information includes latitude and longitude and pertains to a physical attribute where available.0 6–15:Quality of Information Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator provides consistent. current information to the one call center. 2009 –58– . documentation. meter number. • Any new construction that was entered at the time of installation • The location of abandoned or sold facilities • Engineering stationing and milepost/marker post location (with latitude and longitude) using common mapping coordinate systems that allow conversion to latitude and longitude • Alignment of the utility with engineering stationing at each running line change or point of inflection (PI) including signs and markers • Bridges. street intersection. such as pedestal. size. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator captures through the electronic database the following information to ensure project safety in the plan. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator provides consistent. design. and mile-marker/marker-post designation • Small-scale maps showing the overall utility route • Physical characteristics and attributes of the system. such as a milepost marker. and latitude/longitude (if feasible). Practice Description: The project owner provides the excavator with accurate location information about the proposed excavation area using mapping information used by the one call center. or other appropriately formatted information. This facility owner/operator follows this practice: Sprint Long Distance. pole. any digital imagery that is used to identify facility locations in relation to the surrounding environment38/ Project Owner 6–17:Accuracy of Location Information Practice Statement: The project owner provides accurate information. including name of the street (public or private). culverts. product.CGA Best Practices 12. such as orthophotography. 2010 TR-2008-01: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on May 15. 6–16:Information Capture Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator collects detailed mapping information. location. anode bed. current information to the one call center for the proper receipt of ticket notification.

). conducts relational queries. and GPS coordinates of utility lines will allow one call centers. and satellite imagery. Advanced use of these technologies in combination with advances to locating technologies is expected to reduce damage to underground facilities. facility owners/operators. orthographic. and side of the street. excavators. etc. –59– . back. west. Emerging Technologies Technology is rapidly changing. addresses. and obtains additional information on a particular feature. south. Combining orthographic and satellite imagery with an overlay of a line map. rear. such as starting and ending points. Although the following technologies are now used in other applications. their use is not widespread in the damage prevention field: • Geographic Information System (GIS) • Global Positioning System (GPS) • Orthographic and satellite imagery GIS allows the integration of digital maps with other databases to view the relationship of physical features. street names. front. Practice Description: The project owner determines details about the excavation area location. The references listed in each best practice are not all inclusive. the side of the property (north. The GIS infrastructure or base will support all of the advanced technologies of GPS.Mapping 6–18:Excavation Area Details Practice Statement: The project owner determines the excavation area’s basic coordinates. east. locators. and project owners to view the accurate and relative location of utility lines. sides. • These are general practices of most National Utility Contractors Association (NUCA) members. Many of the best practices identified in this chapter could be obsolete in the near future. Reference: • These are general practices of the state departments of transportation regarding highway projects.

CGA Best Practices 12. –60– .0 .

. mandatory education is an effective alternative or supplement to civil penalties.. and to designate and mark facilities according to the provisions of this Part.” Arizona Corporation Commission policy. May be given a warning letter and Item C below. Mandatory education as an enforcement tool promotes compliance with damage prevention laws and regulations. References: • Arizona: “When a notice of violation (NOV) is issued. 16 NYCRR Part 753. “Notice of Violation.” New Hampshire Code.C. § 374:55(VIII) –61– . Reference: • New York: “Each one call notification system shall perform the following duties:…(b) Conduct a continuing program to: (1) Inform excavators of the one call notification system’s existence and purpose and their responsibility to notify the one call notification system of proposed excavation and demolition and to protect underground facilities. First Time Offenders: A.3(b)(1)-(2) B: Enforcement Education Practice Statement: Mandatory education is considered as an alternative or supplement to penalties for offenders of the damage prevention laws and regulations. Practice Description: A single entity is charged to promote comprehensive and appropriate programs to educate all stakeholders about the existence and content of the damage prevention laws and regulations. This is not meant to discourage individual stakeholders from providing educational programs.” New York Code.” § 1(A) and (C) • New Hampshire: “Any excavator or operator who does not comply with RSA 374:51-54 shall be required on first offense to go through either a Dig Safe training program or be subject to a civil penalty. (2) Inform operators of the responsibility to participate in the one call notification system. Practice Description: When a violation of the damage prevention laws or regulations has occurred.CHAPTER 7 Compliance 7–1: Public and Enforcement Education A: Public Education Practice Statement: Public education programs are used to promote compliance.. to respond to a notice relating to a proposed excavation and demolition. § 753-5.. Given the opportunity to attend Blue Stake Training Course provided by the Arizona Corporation Commission’s Pipeline Safety Section. the following may be followed: 1. RSA 374.

3. • Minnesota: The Gopher State One Call Center instituted a no-locate-required policy. 2(b) • Pennsylvania: Stakeholders who do not join the one call system in violation of state law are not permitted to recover damages for injury to their property: “If a facility owner fails to become a member of a One Call System in violation of this act and a line or lines of such nonmember facility owner are damaged by a contractor by reason of the contractor’s failure to notify the facility owner because the facility was not a member of a One Call System serving the location where the damage occurred. § 176 et.” Arizona Code.” but is successful because the Arizona Blue Stake (the one call center) goes the extra mile to assist the excavator in contacting the small facility owners. several states have made membership accommodations for smaller municipals and authorities. Article 6. The service level provided to the limited basis participation members by the one call notification center is limited to providing excavators with names and telephone numbers the excavator should contact to obtain facilities location. The right herein granted shall not be in limitation of any other rights of the contractor. pursuant to this article. costs. and public education. seq. by identifying the townships. which may be made available to all members. References: • Arizona: “If the owner or operator fails to locate or incorrectly locates the underground facility. Subd.06. § 40-360. ease of access to one call center.3. § 40-360.04.S. Each one call center shall establish fair and reasonable fees for limited basis participation members. in which it has facilities. Arizona’s system somewhat defeats the purpose of “one call. Practice Description: Incentives can include. membership and participation considerations. representation on one call boards. –62– . many of which do not have a manned telephone line. the owner or operator becomes liable for resulting damages. or for unincorporated county areas. Section 2(9) Incentive—Membership Accommodations: To avoid cost being a barrier to membership. References: • Arizona: “Each one call notification center shall establish a limited basis participation membership option.27(C) • Minnesota: “Reimbursement is not required if the damage to the underground facility was caused by the sole negligence of the operator or the operator failed to comply with section 216.” Minnesota Code. and expenses to the injured party. Incentive—Membership: Membership facilitates communication between an excavator and facility owner/operator. access to alternative dispute resolution (ADR). but which must be made available for any member serving less than one thousand customers or any member irrigation or electrical district. reasonable enforcement of regulations. which helps prevent damage to underground facilities. which credits the facility operator those charges for “not-involved” tickets. A facility owner who elects limited basis participation membership will provide to the one call center the location of its underground facilities by identifying the incorporated cities and towns.0 7–2: Incentives Practice Statement: Damage prevention programs include incentives to promote compliance with laws and regulations.CGA Best Practices 12. but are not limited to. Chapter 216D. 73 P. Article 6.” Arizona Code. such facility owner shall have no right of recovery from the contractor of any costs associated with the damage to its lines.. based on customer count. areas occupied or miles of underground facilities. safety and liability protection. It results in cost savings to the facility owners/operators because one call center membership rates are based on the number of tickets received by the facility owners/operators. Note.32. subdivision 3.” Pennsylvania Code.

S. (5) A contractor or industry representative. seq. (6) A designer or industry representative.1(b) Incentive—Safety and Liability Protection: Compliance with one call center requirements promotes worker safety and public safety and reduces exposure to liability. Representation of all stake holders in the governance of the one call center (although not necessarily in the administration of the one call center) ensures that the viewpoint of all stakeholders will be considered in the policies and programs of the one call center..” Pennsylvania Code. 73 P. The costs of operating the system shall be apportioned equitably among the members of the system. and other persons eligible to participate in the center.” Pennsylvania Code. operators. References: • Minnesota: “The nonprofit corporation must be governed by a board of directors of up to 20 members.03.” New York Code. by facility owner members as determined by a One Call System’s board of directors. seq. References: • New York: “The penalties provided for by this article shall not apply to an excavator who damages an underground facility due to the failure of the operator to comply with any of the provisions of this article nor shall in such instance the excavator be liable for repairs as prescribed in subdivision four of this section.S. –63– . seq. § 765(b). § 176 et.Compliance • New York: “3. Section 3(7).” Pennsylvania Code. The board shall include the following: (1) The Chairman of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission or his designee. to be chosen by the facility owners. the system shall take into account the number of customers. in an equitable manner for services received. 73 P. Subd.. Section 7. Political subdivisions with a population of less than two thousand persons or municipal authorities having an aggregate population in the area served by the municipal authority of less than five thousand persons shall be exempt from payment of any service fee. 16 NYCRR Part 753. or other persons who sustain injury to person or property as a result of the excavation or demolition planning work of the designer. Costs. § 176 et. (4) The Secretary of Transportation or his designee.. and frequency of use. The other board members must represent and be elected by operators. excavators. Section 2(8) Incentive—One Call Center Board of Directors: Boards are composed of representatives of all stakeholders. one of whom is the director of the office of pipeline safety. (2) The Director of the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency or his designee. No less than twenty percent of the seats shall be held by municipalities or municipal authorities. • Pennsylvania: “The designer who has complied with the terms of this act and who was not otherwise negligent shall not be subject to liability or incur any obligation to facility owners.S. owners. 73 P.. § 176 et. (3) The Secretary of Labor and Industry or his designee.” New York General Business Law Article 36.” Minnesota Code.. In apportioning such costs. 2(a) • Pennsylvania: “A one call system shall be governed by a board of directors. with the exception of municipalities and authorities that operate underground facilities and any operator of underground facilities that provides water service to less than four thousand customers. § 761 • Pennsylvania: “Operation costs for the One Call System shall be shared. Chapter 216D. extent of underground facilities.

” Arizona Corporation Commission policy. contractor. and to comply henceforth. excavator. “Any person.” New Hampshire Code. Performance and penalty incentives are equitably administered among stakeholders subject to one call provisions.CGA Best Practices 12. Second Offense: A. the Department may issue a warning letter notifying the Respondent of the probable violation and advising him or her to correct it. or be subject to enforcement actions under this Part. Flagrancy or magnitude of offense could cause pipeline safety to deviate from this policy.12(1) 7–3: Penalties Practice Statement: Compliance programs include penalties for violations of the damage prevention laws or regulations. 3.M.0 Incentive—Reasonable Enforcement of Regulations: Reasonable enforcement of regulations refers to actions by enforcement authority officials and enforcement processes. First Time Offenders: A. Any deviation to the above-stated policy will jointly be determined by the Chief of Pipeline Safety and the Investigator. Note: the investigator may use the NOV as a warning. § 99. § 374:55(VIII) A penalty system also uses a tiered structure to distinguish violations by the level of severity or repeat offenses (e. May be fined $250 per violation and C.” NY Public Service Commission policy (proposed code § 753-6. Given the opportunity to attend a Blue Stake Training Course provided by the Arizona Corporation Commission’s Pipeline Safety Section. without imposing unnecessarily high transaction costs on any participant. including the enforcement authority. there exists specific provisions for penalties for failure to comply with the damage prevention laws and regulations.. Any excavator whose subsequent violation occurs after 12 consecutive months of no violations shall be subject to a civil penalty of $500. Reference: • New Hampshire: “Any excavator or operator who does not comply with RSA 374:51-54 shall be required on first offense to go through either a ‘Dig Safe’ training program or be subject to a civil penalty. Given the opportunity to attend a Blue Stake Training Course provided by the Arizona Corporation Commission Pipeline Safety Section. “Notice of Violation.” Massachusetts Regulation. Practice Description: Within the context of one call statutes.R. References: • Arizona: “When a notice of violation (NOV) is issued. May be fined $250 per violation and B.. if they feel a warning would suffice. 2. A penalty system includes education as an alternative or supplement to civil or other penalties. or company found by the Department to have violated any provision of the Dig Safe law or regulation adopted by the Department thereunder shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $500 for the first offense and not less than $1. warning letters. 220 C.3) –64– . mandatory education.g. May be given a warning and Item C below or B. RSA 374.” section 1-3 • New York: “Warning letters: Upon determining that a probable violation(s) of a provision of Part 753 has occurred or is continuing. if it is correctable. Repeat Offenders: A. repeat offenders of the one call law can attain first-time offender status if they demonstrate compliance for a solid year.000 nor more than $5. Third Time: May be fined $500 per violation. the following may be followed: 1. civil penalty amounts). B. such as education and penalties that correspond to the gravity of the violation. a state where a violator’s “history” is considered when addressing a violation. Four or More Times: Could be fined up to $2000 per violation. both of which aim to fairly arrive at rational outcomes. Reference: • In Massachusetts.000 for any subsequent offense within a 12 month period after the Department issues a remedial order or executes a consent order for the first offense..

and gravity of the violation. circumstances. circumstances..M. circumstances. and other circumstance which would tend to less fault.12(2) • Minnesota: “In assessing a civil penalty under this part.the commission shall determine the amount of the penalty after consideration of the nature.. all stakeholders should be accountable). how quickly actions were taken to rectify the situation. the effect of the penalty on the person’s ability to continue business.” Massachusetts Regulation. and attorney general. history of prior violations. and the respondent’s level of cooperation with the requirements of this regulation.” New Hampshire Regulation. and such other matters as may be required and shall send a copy of its determination to the excavator. Chapter Puc 800. § 119-b(8) • Virginia: “In determining the amount of any civil penalty included in a settlement. the degree of the respondent’s culpability.. F. § 99. the degree of the Respondent’s culpability.” § 6 A penalty system does not allow any violator or class of violators to be shielded from the consequences of a violation (i.. operator.06(b)(1)-(3) • New York: “. good faith on the part of the person in attempting to remedy the cause of the violation. the nature. and G. and such other factors as may be appropriate shall be considered. D. how much control the company had over the situation.” New Hampshire Code.Compliance A penalty system also establishes mitigating and aggravating factors for determining the penalty for a violation by statute or regulation. and gravity of the violation. the Respondent’s history of prior offenses. the person’s ability to pay.R. the person’s history of previous offenses. Subpart 3 • New Hampshire: “In determining the assessment. (2) Mitigating circumstances: i.” New York Public Service Law. the office shall consider the following factors: A. 220 C. § 374:55(VIII) –65– . the Department shall consider the nature. safety or welfare.e. E. § Puc 805. B.0800. circumstances. 7560.e. the following factors shall be considered: (1) Severity of the consequences resulting from the violation: the more severe the consequences. and gravity of the violation.. past reports of damage to an underground facility by a person.” Minnesota Rules. the nature. and gravity of the violation.. References: • Massachusetts: “In determining the amount of the civil penalty. the respondent’s history of prior offenses. effect on public health.” Virginia “Rules for Enforcement of the Underground Utility Damage Prevention Act. RSA 374. the degree of the person’s culpability. commissioner of labor. Reference: • New Hampshire: “Any excavator or operator who does not comply with RSA 374:51-54 shall be required on first offense to go through either a ‘Dig Safe’ training program or be subject to a civil penalty. and (3) Prior violations of Puc 800. the higher the civil penalty. C.

198 (C.L. c. or to the formation of contracts or subcontracts to be entered into pursuant to P. A: Right of Recovery Practice Description: The statute recognizes an injured party’s right to recovery when damages and/or costs are incurred as the direct result of an entity’s failure to comply with the one call laws and regulations.3. § 40-360. 1997. Except for matters involving family law. Nothing in this section shall prevent the contracting unit from seeking injunctive or declaratory relief in court at any time. or non-binding arbitration pursuant to industry standards. the owner or operator becomes liable for resulting damages. and the federal government endorses ADR through the federal courts.” Arizona Code. § 484. costs. For example. 1971.L. and must provide an equitable means for the payment of fees and expenses for the use of alternative dispute resolution processes. The Supreme Court shall adopt rules governing practice.76 • New Jersey: “All construction contract documents entered into in accordance with the provisions of P.” New Jersey Code. Article 6. § 40-360. and expenses to the injured party. failing to take measures for protection of the facilities.” Arizona Code.40A:11-50) shall provide that disputes arising under the contract shall be submitted to a process of resolution pursuant to alternative dispute resolution practices.0 7–4: Damage Recovery Practice Statement: State damage prevention laws and regulations recognize the right to recover damages and costs resulting from noncompliance. Arizona endorses an injured party’s right to recover damages when the other party has failed to comply with the one call law.371 (C. New Jersey endorses ADR in construction contract documents.40A:11-1 et seq. binding arbitration. 198 (C. References: • Minnesota: “The Supreme Court shall establish a statewide alternative dispute resolution program for the resolution of civil cases filed with the courts. § 40A-11-50 –66– . Minnesota endorses ADR through the state court system. prior to being submitted to a court for adjudication. c. References: • Arizona: “If an underground facility is damaged by any person as a result of failing to obtain information as to its location.CGA Best Practices 12. Chapter Title: District Courts.).26(A) • Arizona: “If the owner or operator fails to locate or incorrectly locates the underground facility.3.40A:11-1 et seq. Title 40A. procedure. 1971. c. such as mediation. the person is liable to the owner of the underground facility for the total cost of the repair of the facility. pursuant to this article. the rules shall require the use of nonbinding alternative dispute resolution processes in all civil cases.L. except for good cause shown by the presiding judge.” Minnesota Code.28(C) B: Alternative Dispute Resolution Practice Description: Avenues for settlement of disputes include alternative dispute resolution.) after the effective date of P. Article 6. or failing to excavate in a careful and prudent manner as required by this article. and jurisdiction for alternative dispute resolution programs established under this section. The alternative dispute resolution practices required by this section shall not apply to disputes concerning the bid solicitation or award process.

Compliance

• Federal: “Congress finds that (1) alternative dispute resolution, when
supported by the bench and bar, and utilizing properly trained neutrals in
a program adequately administered by the court, has the potential to
provide a variety of benefits, including greater satisfaction of the parties,
innovative methods of resolving disputes, and greater efficiency in
achieving settlements; (2) certain forms of alternative dispute resolution,
including mediation, early neutral evaluation, minitrials, and voluntary
arbitration, may have potential to reduce the large backlog of cases now
pending in some federal courts throughout the United States, thereby
allowing the courts to process their remaining cases more efficiently; and
(3) the continued growth of Federal appellate court-annexed mediation
programs suggests that this form of alternative dispute resolution can be
equally effective in resolving disputes in the federal trial courts; therefore,
the district courts should consider including mediation in their local
alternative dispute resolution programs...Each United States district court
shall authorize, by local rule adopted under section 2071(b) 2071(a), the
use of alternative dispute resolution processes in all civil actions,
including adversary proceedings in bankruptcy, in accordance with this
chapter, except that the use of arbitration may be authorized only as
provided in section 654 [(1) the action is based on an alleged violation of
a right secured by the Constitution of the United States; (2) jurisdiction is
based in whole or in part on section 1343 of this title; or (3) the relief
sought consists of money damages in an amount greater than
$150,000.].” Alternative Dispute Resolution Act of 1998, enacted October
1998.

7–5: Enforcement
A: Authority
Practice Statement: An authority is specified through state statutes and
given the resources to enforce the law.
Practice Description: The enforcement authority in each state has the
resources to enforce the laws and regulations. Experience has
demonstrated that enforcement of the one call laws and regulations that did
not identify a specific authority other than the attorney general has not been
effective.
Characteristics of such an authority include the following:
• A process for receiving reports of violations from any stakeholder
• An operating budget source other than fine revenue, such as a line item in
the state budget, excluding fines as a source of income for the authority
• Stakeholder involvement in periodic review and modification of
enforcement processes
• Resources to respond to notifications of alleged violations in a timely
manner
• A method of investigating alleged violations prior to issuing a notice of
probable violation
• Impartial authority adjudicating violations
• An initial informal means of contesting a notice of violation
• A published violation review process and violation assessment
considerations
References:
• Arizona: The Pipeline Safety Division of the Arizona Corporation
Commission is funded by the Commission budget. “Any penalties
received by the state shall be deposited in the general fund.” Arizona
Code, Article 6.3, § 40-360.28
• Massachusetts: “... Any other person may report a suspected violation of
M.G.L. c. 82 s. 40 to the Department. All such reports shall be in a form
deemed appropriate and necessary by the Department.” Massachusetts
Regulation, 220 C.M.R. §99.01(1)
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CGA Best Practices 12.0

• Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications
and Energy investigates all complaints received from excavators and
facility owners/operators and conducts random field investigations. The
Department then issues a Notice of Probable Violation if, based on the
investigation, it has reason to believe that a violation has occurred or is
occurring. “The Department may begin a proceeding by issuing a notice
of probable violation (“NOPV”) if the Department has reason to believe
that a violation of the M.G.L. c. 82, § 40, has occurred or is occurring...The
NOPV shall state the factual basis for the allegation of a violation...”
Massachusetts Regulation, 220 C.M.R. § 99.07(1)
• Minnesota: “The office shall issue a notice of probable violation when the
office has good cause to believe a violation of Minnesota Statutes,
sections 216D.01 to 216.D.09 of this chapter has occurred...A notice of
violation must include: A. a statement of the statute or rule allegedly
violated by the person and a description of the evidence on which the
allegation is based.” Minnesota Rules, 7560.04000, Subp.1 - Subp. 2(A)
• Minnesota: See also Minnesota Rules, 7560.0400, Subp. 1, Notice of
Violation; 7560.0500 Response Options; 7560.0600, Director
Review; 7560.0800 Civil Penalties; Subp. 3, Assessment considerations
• New Hampshire: “Upon receipt of the NOPV [Notice of Probable Violation]
the respondent shall either: (1) Submit in writing, within 30 days, evidence
refuting the probable violation referenced in the NOPV; or (2) Request in
writing within 30 days, an informal conference with commission staff to
examine the basis of the violation, at which time the respondent may be
represented by an attorney or other person; or (3) Waive procedural
schedule by signing a consent agreement.” New Hampshire Regulation,
Chapter Puc 800, § Puc 805.02
• New Hampshire: See also New Hampshire regulations, Chapter Puc 800,
sections Puc 805.01, “Notice of Probable Violation”; Puc 805.02,
Alternative Responses to Notice of Probable Violation; Puc 805.03,
Notice of Violation; Puc 805.04, Response to Notice of Violation; Puc
805.05 Commission Action; Puc 805.06, Civil Penalties.
• Virginia: The Advisory Committee, which is established by statute to
include “representatives of the following entities: Commission staff, utility
operator, notification center, excavator, municipality, Virginia Department
of Transportation, Board of Contractors, and underground line locator,”
meets one day annually (in addition the monthly hearings) for “issue day,”
a day to discuss issues and make recommendations to the State
Corporation Commission (SCC) administrative three-judge panel on
issues related to damage prevention. Subteams of the Advisory
Committee are also formed to develop recommendations. “The purpose
of the Committee is to…make recommendations with regard to Public
Education and Awareness Programs that further public safety by the
reduction of damage to the underground utility facilities in the
Commonwealth and to monitor, analyze, influence, propose, support, or
oppose programs or regulations that directly affect damage to
underground facilities serving the citizens of the Commonwealth.” Bylaws
of the Advisory Committee, Article II
• Virginia: “Upon receipt of a report of a probable violation, the Commission
staff (“Staff”) shall conduct an investigation to examine all the relevant
facts regarding the reported probable violation. The investigation may
include, among other things, records verification, informal meetings,
teleconferences, and photo-documentation. Upon completion of the
investigation, the Staff shall review its findings and recommendations with
the Advisory Committee established in accordance with 56-265.31 of the
Act.” Virginia “Rules for Enforcement of the Underground Damage
Prevention Act,” § 3

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Compliance

B: Structured Review Process
Practices Statement: A structured review process is used to impartially
adjudicate alleged violations.
Practice Description: Two types of review processes currently used are
outlined below. These type of processes differ in terms of 1) who receives
reports of alleged violations, 2) who investigates the reports, 3) possible
outcomes of the investigation, 4) who conducts first tier (informal) hearings,
5) possible outcomes of first tier hearings, and 6) appeal rights following a
second tier (formal) hearing. It is important that review processes are
constructed to avoid abuses of authority and prevent any individual, industry,
stakeholder, or agency from exercising undue power or influence over the
process.
Type 1: Traditional Enforcement Authority—This system is currently used in
Arizona, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Reports of alleged violations are sent
to the State Agency. A state investigator investigates the reports. If the
investigator decides not to issue a NOPV (Notice of Probable Violation), the
matter is concluded. If not, the NOPV is issued, and the investigator
conducts an informal hearing or review. If the investigator determines that no
violation was committed, the matter is concluded. If the investigator
determines that a violation was committed, the NOV (Notice of Violation) is
issued. If the alleged violator does not contest the NOV, the alleged violation
is bound by the facts, findings, orders, and penalties set forth in the NOV. If
the alleged violator so requests, the State Agency conducts a formal
hearing. The alleged violator may appeal the decision reached in the formal
hearing to the state court system.
Type 2: Advisory Committee (made up of stakeholders) partnered with
State Agency—This system is currently used in Virginia. Reports of alleged
violations are sent to the State Enforcement Agency. The State Agency
investigates the alleged violations and reports to an advisory committee. The
Committee is made up of stakeholders representing the following statutorily
mandated fields: excavators, facility owners/operators, notification centers,
contract locators, local governments, State Department of Transportation,
the Board of Contractors, and the State Enforcement Agency. If the advisory
committee decides not to issue a NOPV (Notice of Probable Violation), the
matter is concluded, possibly with a “letter of concern” containing one call
information. If the advisory committee decides to issue an NOPV, it is issued
by the State Agency. If the alleged violator does not request a hearing, the
alleged violator is bound by the enforcement action set forth in the NOPV. If
the alleged violator so requests, an informal hearing is held by the advisory
committee. If the advisory committee decides that no violation was
committed, the matter is concluded, subject to the right of the State Agency
to contest that decision in an administrative proceeding conducted by the
agency. If not, the NOV is issued. If the alleged violator then settles the
matter with the advisory committee, the settlement is subject to approval by
the State Agency in an administrative proceeding. If there is no settlement,
the State Agency conducts a formal administrative hearing. The alleged
violator may appeal the decision reached in the formal hearing to the state
court system.

–69–

–70– .CGA Best Practices 12.0 .

A National One Call Number40/ Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes promoting the National One Call Number (811) and awareness campaign by communicating the number and “call before you dig” process to excavators and the general public. IL. OR. IA.CHAPTER 8 Public Education and Awareness 8–1: Marketing Plan Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes a comprehensive. Inc. prepared for the Damage Prevention Quality Action Team by The Daily Planit. 1998 Marketing Plan • Public Awareness Marketing Plan for Underground Utility Damage Prevention. and money) will be allocated to achieving each goal References: • Louisiana One Call Systems. November 20. WV. Stakeholder and marketing groups include the following: • One call notification centers • Owners and operators of underground facilities • Construction industry • Regulatory agencies Product and services representatives from the one call industry actions that lead to a successful incorporation of 811 into your marketing plan include the following: • Inclusion of the 811 logo on Web sites and newsletters • Placing the 811 logo on owner/operator vehicles and equipment • TV and radio promotions and public service announcements • Billboard advertising 40/ TR-2009-17: Addition approved by the CGA Board on December 4. and continuity of advertising/public relations programs and ensures the most effective and efficient use of limited resources. strategic marketing/advertising plan. GA. 2009 –71– . KY. and WI 8–2: Marketing 811 -. NM. OK. NC. people. Project 2000. control. These plans focus on setting realistic goals and allocating sufficient resources required to achieve those goals within a specified time frame. MO. CT. Practice Description: A comprehensive. Practice Description: Practice Statement 8–1 identifies the need for a marketing plan and specifies that the plan include the promotion of the 811 number. NY (City). strategic marketing/advertising plan enables better implementation. OH. 1997 • Underground Protection Center (UPC) of Georgia • Various one call centers including: AL. AZ. The marketing plan is a set of action steps based on a comprehensive situation analysis that clearly states the following: • What is to be achieved • How it will be achieved • When it will be achieved • Who is responsible for achieving each goal • What amount of resources (time.

ID. meal meetings. advertising. NC. NM. NY (City).) can most effectively be used to deliver the message. IA. OR. OH. brochures.. OK. 2009 –72– . door hangers. not one call members) • Agricultural industry members • Public officials • Planning. and AGA member companies • Associated General Contractors (AGC) chapters • Door hangers from TCS Communications. IL. CT. The following target audiences are identified as examples: • Professional designers • Surveyors • Construction management officials • Excavation equipment operators • Excavation equipment rental stores • Excavators • Public works excavators • Locators • Railroads • Participating facility owners/operators • Non-participating facility owners/operators (i. free advertising. FL. Practice Description: Identification of target audiences ensures maximum impact for the Dig Safely message.g. References: • Various one call centers including AL. INGAA.0 • Inclusion of the 811 logo on products and in service promotions References: • State one call centers • Krylon Industries • Colonial Pipeline 8–3: Target Audiences and Needs41/ Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes identification of target audiences and their individual needs. their specific needs can be more readily addressed. This helps identify which media (e. GA. and code enforcement officials • Public utility board members • Homeowners and associations • Schools • Landscape companies • Geotechnical and environments soil testing laboratories • Insurance industry members • Marine operators • Children • Property owners/tenants • Emergency responders/local emergency planning committee members • News media When target audiences are identified. AZ. yard cards. KY.CGA Best Practices 12. handouts. LLC.. licensing. MS. TX. This also facilitates customization of the message itself. permitting.e. of Florida • Yard cards from Ohio Utilities Protection Service 41/ TR-2009-17: Addition approved by the CGA Board on December 4. WV. MO. Coordination with other strategic partners can assist in reaching the greatest number of people. etc. CO. and WI • NUCA and various NUCA state chapters • API. zoning.

and National Telecommunications Damage Prevention Council (NTDPC) • Various contract locating firms 42/ TR-2009-19: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 4. • Guest speaker appearances are effective with property owners groups. NC. MS. • Contractor and construction trade shows are unique opportunities to deliver the damage prevention public education message. ID. KY. facility locators. MO. Practice Description: Damage prevention education programs that are structured to accommodate the needs of individual audiences are essential to effectively communicate the message of damage prevention for underground facilities. NY (City). customer service personnel. • Agricultural industry forums and events provide a good opportunity to educate farmers and equipment suppliers on the damage prevention message. CT. etc. excavators. Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA). References: • Various one call centers including AL. OR. Consider the following examples: • Structured education presentations in association with meal functions are an effective method to communicate with organized groups such as emergency responders and equipment operators. NUCA. • One call center tours are effective for educating the public. programs. • Training videos and multimedia presentations are effective to reach facility owner/operator locating staffs. civic clubs. and WI • Current industry materials. IL. TX. GA. and one call center liaisons. CO. AZ. 2009 –73– . OK. IA.Public Education and Awareness 8–4: Structured Education Programs42/ Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program is structured to accommodate the needs of individual audiences. • Involvement of all stakeholder groups in local and regional partner or utility coordinating meetings improves networking opportunities and damage prevention awareness. news media. and American Gas Association (AGA) member companies • Industry associations including AGC chapters. NM. WV. • Awareness videos are effective education tools for children’s groups such as scout troops and schools. OH. and operators about the overall one call system and damage prevention process. and practices • National Land Improvement Contractors Association • American Petroleum Institute (API).

safety. There are numerous software applications and databases available in the marketplace to support this. NC. space for a damage prevention message can be dedicated on the facility owners/operators’ newsletters that are often included with the billing statements. and key chains for rental equipment ignition keys. OK. • Target mailing lists are developed using a combination of facility owners/operators’ and one call center internal sources. OH. ID. and special requirements when excavations occur in agricultural or rural settings. OR. either in the form of letters or newsletters. heavy equipment sellers. References: • Various one call centers including AL. These mailings can offer support materials such as point of-purchase brochure displays for sales counters. Practice Description: Target mailings can effectively communicate essential damage prevention. WV. • An annual excavator newsletter.CGA Best Practices 12. IA. AZ. and emergency response information. Direct mailings containing local information can be mailed to residents and businesses that lie within a specified area. are effective in targeting audiences such as lumber yards and stores. hardware stores. • Specialized brochures or letters can be mailed directly to address such issues as failure to follow local damage prevention laws. safety. originated and mailed directly by the one call center to all identifiable excavators in the call center’s jurisdiction.0 8–5: Target Mailings Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program communicates vital damage prevention. • Additionally. NM. and emergency response information to target audiences through periodic mailings. and rental equipment stores. KY. IL. and 195 –74– . GA. and ZIP-code + 4/SIC code mailing lists. 194. MO. • Direct mailings. posters for retail aisles where digging equipment is found. Such mailings are especially useful for reaching those residents and businesses that are in the corridor of the underground facility or proposed excavation route. MS. Some examples are listed below: • Direct-mailed billing statements are ideal for including inserts provided by the one call center because the connection between underground facilities and Dig Safely can be readily made by the consumers. NY (City). support partner mailing lists. guidance to homeowners to understand the damage prevention process. keeps the customer base involved and informed of changes to the damage prevention system. CT. and WI • API Recommended Practice 1123 • 49 CFR Parts 192.

OR. Practice Description: Paid advertising through event sponsorships. References: • Various one call centers including AL. sponsorship of news and weather reports on radio and television. damage reduction/increases) • Election of new board members • Announcement of excavator safety program schedule • Announcement of a new utility member • Changes to the state/local damage prevention law • Seasonal “call before you dig” reminders A basic press release. record day) • Year in review (call volume statistics. free media can be highly effective to communicate the Dig Safely message at minimal cost. and print media is an effective means for communicating one call center information and safe-digging requirements to target audiences. Examples of occasions/events that are appropriate for press releases include the following: • Call center milestones (millionth call. Not-for-Profit Public Service Announcements (PSAs): Television and radio stations. ID. Measurements can include increased locate ticket volume or increased number of first-time callers to a one call center. To qualify. construction designers and managers. industry trade exhibits and events. safety around the home. See Appendix C for a sample press release. IA. NM. CT. Paid advertising is particularly effective for reaching general excavators. radio. GA. the use of paid advertising can be very costly. Examples include transit system signs. often are willing to donate air time or space for public service announcements (PSAs) to not-for-profit organizations. OK. NC. KY. and Equilon Pipeline Company 8–7: Free Media43/ Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program utilizes all available free media. record month. as well as billboard companies. 2009 –75– . Practice Description: When identified and used correctly. the organizations must have a safety-related message that benefits the general public. creative placement of the message can ease the expense of paid advertising and enhance its effectiveness. and a measurement for success should be implemented early in the advertising campaign to gauge effectiveness. farmers. property owners and tenants. OH. For organizations with limited budgets. and the general public. television. use of free media should be emphasized. NY (City). facility owners/operators. MS. Additionally. Press Releases: This tool is the preferred method to communicate “newsworthy” information about your damage prevention program to newspapers. including various oil pipeline companies such as Marathon-Ashland Pipeline Company. MO. IL. WV. and radio stations. and print messages in trade publications. and damage prevention actions related to severe weather. trade publications. However. and WI • Current facility owner practices. equipment operators. containing the damage prevention message and fundamental program information. CO. 43/ TR-2009-20: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 4. is on file for distribution to newspapers and other periodicals that often run special sections on topics such as home improvements.Public Education and Awareness 8–6: Paid Advertising Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes paid advertising to increase damage prevention awareness and practices. Northwest Pipeline Company.

WV.CGA Best Practices 12. IA. MO. MS. IA. ID.0 Member Facility Owners/Operators: The member facility owners operators of the damage prevention system are. CO. OK. beach towels are probably only effective in states or areas near beaches. TX. sponsored events. IL. TCI Cable Co. such as Media-One.KY. trade shows. clipboards. NC. and WI • Various one call center member companies. OH. OR. CT. MO. pens. GA. in effect. NM. Rolodex® cards. NY (City). sports towels work in many areas and with many audiences. GTE. OR. mouse pads. and WI –76– . Practice Description: Effective damage prevention education programs use giveaways to reach targeted audiences. ID. another source of free media for the Dig Safely message: • Major facility owners/operators who purchase paid advertising on television. OH. targeted mailings. and billboards can require that free Dig Safely PSAs be included in any media buy they make. Ameritech. and other methods. Examples include note pads. TX. and others • Proclamations from various state and local governments • Press release from Ohio Utilities Protection Service announcing Ohio’s Safe Digging Month (see Appendix C) 8–8: Giveaways Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program uses promotional giveaway items to increase damage prevention awareness. radio. ignition protectors. OK. Items used should reflect the unique needs and interests of the target audiences and the regions served. CO. In all cases. NM. GA. AZ. NY (City).” See Appendix C for a sample press release • Inclusion of safe-digging messages on state tollway/highway electronic message boards • Damage prevention messages in community newsletters of member municipal facility operators References: • Various one call centers including AL. WV. AZ. IL. State/Local Government: State and local governments can be yet another source of free media for your damage prevention education program. and magnets. CT. NC. Reference: • Various one call centers including AL. KY. However. • Cable TV members should be provided copies of any Dig Safely commercial and encouraged to run it as a PSA on their system. The following are successful examples of their use: • Use of proclamations by state and local governments to support “National Safe Digging Month. items should be usable both for work and recreation. For example.. (Many cable members have created their own messages for this purpose!) • All members facility owners/operators should be offered vehicle bumper stickers and posters to place on their locating and service vehicles promoting the “Call Before You Dig” phone numbers. MS. Giveaways can be distributed via awareness and safety meetings.

grass roots organizations. One example of such strategic relationships includes partnering with the state bureau of utilities. associations of all types. such as APWA/AGC and API/NTDPC 8–10:Measuring Public Education Success Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes structured annual or biennial (every two years) measurement(s) to gauge the success of the overall program. GA. media outlets. • Use of Arbitron Areas of Dominant Influence (ADI) boundaries to measure increases in one call center call volume and/or member facility owners/operators’ one call messages is also an effective measurement. Consider the following examples: • Use of a direct-mail or telephone survey to effectively determine how one call center and/or member facility customers are hearing and recalling the damage prevention message. KY. NY (City). the Equipment Manufacturers Institute (EMI) and original equipment manufacturers to install “North American Equipment Decals” on the dashboards of new excavating equipment. References: • Various one call centers including AL. CT. IL. Practice Description: Damage prevention education program effectiveness can be gauged in several ways. Practice Description: Strategic relationships can be defined as “Making Friends Before You Need Them. The OCSS represents the establishment of a strategic relationship among various one call systems stakeholders to further damage prevention education and awareness. CO. References: • Various one call centers including CT. IL. OH. WV. and WI • API Data Collection Initiative • INGAA Foundation Pipeline Safety Awareness Material Focus Group Research Report • “Presentation of Findings: OPS/DAMQAT Underground Facility Damage Prevention Study” (nationwide survey) • “Presentation of Findings: DAMQAT Pilot Evaluation Study” (regional survey) • Great Lakes Common Carrier Committee Six-State Survey • Virginia State Corporation Commission survey on why damages occur • PHMSA 9 Elements (PIPES ACT) –77– . ID. providing that other internal factors at a given facility owner/operator remain constant. NC. Successful damage prevention education programs establish strategic relationships with governmental agencies. and others. MO. MS.Public Education and Awareness 8–9: Establishing Strategic Relationships Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program establishes strategic relationships. • The collection and tracking of individual or collective facility owners/operators’ damage information from year to year is another outstanding method of measuring success. OR. one call centers. These relationships involve partnering to further damage prevention education efforts.” This means having working relationships in place to leverage common resources. For a given area. IA. OK. TX. MS. MO. IA. emergency responders. and WI • Illinois Commerce Commission • Existing strategic relationships. KY. these can be compared against the money and resources used in that area for further indications of program effectiveness. AZ. Another example is the One Call Systems Study (OCSS) for which this report is written. NC. GA. OK. OCSI members. OH.

CGA Best Practices 12.0 . –78– .

Understanding this is a partial list.S. From a national data perspective. Near Miss. and incident data. 2012 –79– . • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. or did. Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. lead to a damaged underground facility. Under each particular best practice is a partial list of examples identified during the creation of that best practice. excavators. 2014 TR-2010-02: Amendment approved by CGA Board on August 10. it should be recognized that other options may be available. or stakeholders with an interest in underground damage prevention report qualified information on events45/ that could have. near misses. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. Department of Transportation. Inc.CHAPTER 9 Reporting and Evaluation Best Practices Associated with Reporting Damage. locators. CGA Stakeholders recognize the CGA DIRT tool as the most beneficial source currently available for nationwide data regarding damages. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 44/ 45/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. 9–1: All Stakeholders Report Information Practice Statement: Facility owners/operators. • Tierdael Construction Company—General Contractors • U. Inc. and Incident Data44/ The following best practices related to reporting damage prevention data were reviewed by the CGA’s Data Reporting & Evaluation Committee (DR&EC). Inc. References: • API/Association of Oil Pipelines (AOPL) Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig.

Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. or did. Inc. and near misses. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–4: Person Reporting Provides Detailed Information Practice Statement: If all of the requested data is not available. Department of Transportation. Inc. 46/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. Reference: • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. locator. or one call notification center) so that this group can be targeted with education and training. Inc. the person reporting the information provides the most complete information possible. lead to a damaged facility. Inc. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. All stakeholders submit the same damage. downtime.CGA Best Practices 12. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. Inc.0 9–2: Standardized Information Is Reported by All Stakeholders46/ Practice Statement: The requested data is standardized and consists of essential information that can be analyzed to determine what events could. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig.S. Inc. excavator. (Refer to Appendix C for example form) References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–3: Identify the Noncompliant Stakeholder Practice Statement: It is important to identify the noncompliant stakeholder (facility owner/operator. This means that collected data includes damage information. It may not be necessary to pinpoint the names and addresses of the offenders for the purpose of improving the damage prevention program. • Tierdael Construction Company—General Contractors • U. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. near miss. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. 2014 –80– . Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. and downtime data via simple answers and check boxes.

• U. and other appropriate stakeholders. Inc. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • NC811 DIRT Lite Form • PA PDD (PA Damage Database) • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. (Refer to Appendix C for example form)47/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–6: A Standardized Form Is Adopted Practice Statement: A standardized form that includes the mandatory DIRT fields is adopted and distributed to all facility owners/operators. Inc. Department of Transportation. excavators. 2014 TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. to adapt to the changes in the state’s statutes. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • NC811 DIRT Lite Form • PA PDD (PA Damage Database) • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. as needed. • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • Tennessee One Call System.Reporting and Evaluation 9–5: Requested Information May Change Practice Statement: Requested information changes as additional or different data is deemed necessary for the evaluation process. The report is revised. the evolution of industry technology.S. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–7: The Form Is Simple Practice Statement: Data is reported using a simple. 2014 –81– . (Refer to Appendix C for a example form)48/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. the information is easy to complete. Check-boxes or other simple answering techniques help the person reporting the information and make the evaluation process easier. By limiting the number of hand-written responses. • United States Department of Transportation. Inc. standardized form. locators. Inc. Inc. and the awareness of root causes. Inc. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 47/ 48/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19.

• New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System.CGA Best Practices 12. excavators. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. locators. Inc. Inc. 9–9: Flexibility on Completing and Returning Form Is Provided Practice Statement: Flexible options are provided for both completing and returning the form. Inc. 2014 –82– . This may include providing self-addressed and Web page forms and enabling completed forms to be faxed or reported by telephone. 2014 TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Florida Sunshine State One Call • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. facility owners/operators. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–10:Vacant49/ 9–11:Stakeholders Complete the Same Form Practice Statement: If possible. Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. DIRT is currently recognized as the national repository for housing damage data. Department of Transportation. Reference: • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–12:An Organization Is Identified to Receive the Information Practice Statement: A centralized and independent organization is identified to receive and process completed forms. All stakeholders submit damage. near miss. Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 49/ 50/ TR-2010-02: Practice removal approved by the CGA Board on June 19. (Refer to Appendix C for example Form)50/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig.0 9–8: Training Is Provided Practice Statement: Training and education on how and when to complete the form are made available. Inc. and anyone else involved in the damage prevention process complete the same form. and downtime data via simple answers and check boxes.S. Inc. • U.

Inc. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. –83– .Reporting and Evaluation 9–13:The Organization Is Able to Interface with All Stakeholders Practice Statement: The organization collecting the information is able to interface with all groups to promote completion and return of completed forms. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Inc. Inc.

0 Best Practices Associated with Evaluating Damage Prevention Data The following best practices are related to evaluating damage prevention data and are developed by the Reporting and Evaluation Task Team. Inc. 51/ 52/ 53/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. 9–15:The Organization Has Representation from All Stakeholders Practice Statement: An organization such as the Data Reporting and Evaluation Committee. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–17:Data Is Used to Promote Underground Damage Awareness53/ Practice Statement: The reported data is not used to penalize or punish. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–16:Data Is Used to Improve Damage Prevention Efforts Practice Statement: The reported data is used to assess and improve underground damage prevention efforts. such as the Data Reporting and Evaluation Committee. it is used to promote underground damage awareness through recommended training and education. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. 2014 –84– . Inc. is identified to evaluate the completed forms and publish the data. 2014 TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. Inc. Under each best practice is a list of resources that were used as examples during the Task Team’s discussions and may not be inclusive of all stakeholders that utilize the best practice. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • Tennessee One Call System. Inc. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Inc.51/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. assists in the evaluation process. with representation from all interested stakeholders. • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System.52/ References: • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Inc. rather. 9–14:An Organization Evaluates the Data Practice Statement: A centralized and independent organization. 2014 TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19.CGA Best Practices 12. Inc. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc.

This risk factor may be based on factors such as the number of miles of line installed or the number of one call center notification tickets. Inc. 2014 –85– . For example. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. The risk factor considers a stakeholder’s exposure to potential damage. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Inc. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. Inc. Inc. Inc. • National Transportation Safety Board Safety Study: Protecting Public Safety through Excavation Damage Prevention (NTSB/SS-97-01) 9–21:Performance Levels and Trends Are Assessed Practice Statement: Performance levels and trends are assessed against those of other organizations. a risk factor may compare how many underground damages occurred in a certain time period versus the total number of notification tickets issued. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–20:Results Are Quantified Against a Standardized Risk Factor Practice Statement: Results are quantified against a standardized risk factor. Inc. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System.54/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc. Inc. Inc. 54/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. Inc. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York.Reporting and Evaluation 9–18:Data Is Summarized by Key Components Practice Statement: The reported data is summarized by key components. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–19:Root Causes Are Identified Practice Statement: Root causes of events are identified.

CGA Best Practices 12.0
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CHAPTER 10

Miscellaneous
10–1:Homeland Security
Practice Description: Many of the recommended practices contained
within the CGA’s Best Practices Manual require the sharing of critical
infrastructure information. This sharing is an important aspect of ensuring
that parties involved with the identification of, the excavation around, and the
general protection of underground facilities have adequate information to
protect underground infrastructures. However, in the interest of Homeland
Security, all parties must ensure that such information is shared only with
individuals who truly require this critical information.
To this end, parties who employ or contract with individuals who may have
access to such information should ensure that those individuals or
contractors have the appropriate credentials to prevent the information from
being accessed by individuals or groups that may intend to damage, alter, or
destroy the infrastructure in question.55/
References:
• Existing state laws including South Carolina and North Carolina

55/

Addition approved by the Best Practices Committee on April 8, 2003

–87–

CGA Best Practices 12.0
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to immediately alert the occupants of premises as to any emergency that such person may create or discover at or near such premises. cathodic protection. including. Cathodic Protection: The process of arresting corrosion on a buried or submerged structure by electrically reversing the natural chemical reaction. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Any process or procedure other than litigation that is agreed to by the disputing parties as the means for resolving a dispute. to an underground line or facility. or housing for the line. or any combination of these or other similar systems. Backfill: To fill the void created by excavating. mediation. a common set of definitions are used. and is binding or non-binding pursuant to the agreement by the disputing parties. Wiring is installed between the buried or submerged structure and all anodes and rectifiers. or adjacent. or other person who prepares or issues a drawing or blueprint for a construction or other project that requires excavation or demolition work. Business Day (or Working Day): Any day of the week except Saturday and Sunday and state/provincial and federal legal holidays. Digital Imagery: A computer-compatible version of land-related information including. mini-trials. for example. Damage Reporting: The immediate reporting to a one call center and the facility owner/operator of any damage caused or discovered in the course of excavation or demolition work. These definitions were arrived at through a consensus process similar to the methodology used to identify the best practices. and buried facility records. but is not limited to. road maps. but not limited to. 2012 –89– . aerial photographs. This includes. Compliance: Adherence to the statute and its regulations. survey plans. As-built Drawing: A detailed depiction of facilities as installed in the field. use of a rectifier based system. the protective coating.57/ 56/ 57/ TR-2009-08: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on October 16. advisory boards. Designer: Any architect.56/ Downtime: Lost time reported by a stakeholder on the Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) field form for an excavation project due to failure of one or more stakeholders to comply with applicable damage prevention regulations. engineer. wiring is also installed to test stations that are used to measure the effectiveness of the cathodic protection system. arbitration. lateral support. 2009 TR-2011-03: Addition approved by the CGA Board on December 13. to contact emergency responders. as quickly as practical. Attribute: Characteristic that helps describe the data. if necessary. partnering. Damage: Any impact or exposure that results in the need to repair an underground facility due to a weakening or the partial or complete destruction of the facility. Demolition Work: The partial or complete destruction by any means of a structure served by. device. topography. but is not limited to. or facility.APPENDIX A Glossary of Terms and Definitions For the purpose of the Common Ground Study. Abandoned Line or Facility: Any underground or submerged line or facility no longer in use. ADR includes. physical features. for example. satellite photographs. and standing neutrals. installation of a sacrificial anode bed. road/street networks. and buried facility networks obtained from a variety of sources including.

providing. ground level) upon which a structure is built or prepared. Facility: An underground or submerged conductor. and display all forms of geographically referenced information. or the blockage of transportation facilities that requires immediate action. authority. water. oil or oil product. or property (including the interruption of essential utility services or the blockage of transportation facilities) that requires immediate excavation. update.60/ Facility Owner/Operator: Any person. Geospatial Data: Data that identifies the geographic location and characteristics of natural or constructed features and boundaries on the earth. and equipment. but not limited to. Location information can be received using a GPS receiver.0 Electronic Positive Response: Communication by telephone. analyze. health. or structure used to provide electric or communications service (including. 2012 –90– . or downtime. 2013 TR-2011-05: Addition approved by the CGA Board on December 13. environment. and geographic data used to capture. the interruption of essential utility services.58/ Emergency: A sudden or unforeseen occurrence involving a clear and imminent danger to life. velocity. software. pipe. health. or other person or entity who owns. or gathering (typically between the wellhead and transmission line) gas. irrigation systems) and appurtenances thereto. Simple and inexpensive hand-held receivers provide an accuracy of ±100 meters of a true position.61/ 58/ 59/ 60/ 61/ TR-2009-12: Addition approved by the CGA Board on June 17. or property.e. and time information to users anywhere on earth. conductors. operates. or explosives in the movement of earth. storm drainage. or an underground or submerged pipe used in carrying. sewage. municipality.CGA Best Practices 12. Joint Trench: A trench containing two or more facilities that are buried together by design or agreement. or controls the operation of an underground line/facility. 2011 TR-2011-09: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on August 10. maintain. Emergency Notice: A communication to the one call center to alert the involved underground facility owners/operators of the need to excavate as a result of a sudden or unforeseen occurrence or national emergency involving a clear and imminent danger to life.. Excavate or Excavation: Any operation using non-mechanized or mechanized equipment. rock. e-mail or Internet from a facility owner/operator to an excavator providing the status of an owner/operator's statutorily required response to a notice of intent to excavate. or other liquid service (including. store. traffic control loops and similar underground or submerged devices). Global Positioning System (GPS): A system consisting of 25 satellites used to provide precise position. Event: The occurrence of facility damage. 2012 TR-2013-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 5. Grounding Systems: A system of one or more ground conductors or ground rods providing a low-resistance path-to-earth ground potential through a mechanical connection to structures. More sophisticated receivers that use additional technologies or that post-process the original GPS data can provide sub-meter accuracy. fax. demolition. Grade: The surface of the earth (i. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the earth’s surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. utility. Emergency Response: A facility owner/operator’s response to an emergency notice. or other material below existing grade. political subdivision. Geographic Information System (GIS): An organized collection of computer hardware. near miss. but not limited to.59/ Excavator: Any person proposing to or engaging in excavation or demolition work for himself or for another person.

Person: Any individual or legal entity. photographic image.65/ Notice: The timely communication by the excavatorhttps://www.scribd.com/designer to the one call center that alerts the involved underground facility owners/operators of the intent to excavate. Minor or Routine Maintenance of Transportation Facilities: The adding of granular material to unpaved roads. (See Appendix B. paint. Line: See “Geographic Information System (GIS)” Locate: To indicate the existence of a line or facility by establishing a mark through the use of stakes. road shoulders. or a series of repetitive. but a clear potential for damage was identified. hierarchical. Planning: An activity at the beginning of a project where information is gathered and decisions are made regarding the route or location of a proposed excavation based on constraints.”) Member Database: Structured collection of data defined for a particular use. small. Locator: A person whose job is to locate lines or facilities. flagging. user. and railroad roadbeds. and canal lock facility cracks or joints. adjusting ballast on top of railroad roadbed. Marking Standards: The methods by which a facility owner/operator indicates its line or facility in accordance with the APWA guidelines. distortion-free.64/ Longitude (Long): Distance measured east or west from a reference meridian (Greenwich). A multicolored. and yaw) of the camera. public or private. including the locations of existing facilities. Notification Period: The time beginning when notice is given and ending when the work may begin. runways. such as latitude and longitude. removal and application of patches to the surface of paved roads. system. Membership: Persons who participate voluntarily in a one call center because they have an interest in the protection of lines or facilities or because they have a statutory responsibility to protect lines or facilities. anticipated conflicts and the relative costs of relocating existing facilities. Orthophoto: An aerial photograph of a site that has been differentially rectified to correct the distortion caused by the terrain and attitude (tip.62/ Latitude (Lat): Distance measured north or south of the equator. replacing railroad ties and related appliances excluding road crossings. One Call Center: An entity that administers a system through which a person can notify owners/operators of lines or facilities of proposed excavations. Large/Complex Project: A single project. or some other customary manner that approximately determines the location of that line or facility. it may be sequential. whiskers. 2012 TR-2010-05: Addition approved by the CGA Board on August 26. tilt. network.Glossary of Terms and Definitions Land Base: Mapped data that depicts features of the surface of the earth and is tied to real-world geographic coordinates. cleaning of paved drainage inlets and paved ditches or pipes. airport taxiways. relational. 2011 –91– . airport. or more expensive construction for the proposed facility. Near Miss: An event where damage (as defined on page 89) did not occur. 62/ 63/ 64/ 65/ TR-2009-07: Addition approved by the CGA Board on October 16. and taxiways. short-term projects that are related in scope. “Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines. or semantic. 2011 TR-2011-06: Addition approved by the CGA Board on August 10. or program. that impact facilities over a long period of time or a large area. airport runways. cleaning and sealing road. 2009 TR-2010-04: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 1.63/ Locate Request: A communication between an excavator and one call center personnel in which a request for locating underground facilities is processed.

right of way. Ticket Number: A unique identification number assigned by the one call center to each locate request. bridges.68/ Root Cause: The primary reason an event occurred. 2012 TR-2009-09: Addition approved by the CGA Board on September 10. Pre-marking or Positive Site Identification: The marking of the proposed excavation site/work area consistent with APWA guidelines.70/ Tolerance Zone: The space in which a line or facility is located and in which special care is to be taken. alleys. with streets.67/ Railroad Operating Corridor: The property that is essential to a railroad company to enable it to discharge its function and duties as a common carrier by rail.0 Plat: A map or representation on paper of a piece of land subdivided into lots. stations. 2009 TR-2011-07: Addition approved by the CGA Board on August 10. Vacuum Excavation: A means of soil extraction through vacuum.CGA Best Practices 12.71/ 66/ 67/ 68/ 69/ 70/ 71/ TR-2009-01: Addition approved by the CGA Board on October 16. etc. 2009 TR-2009-05: Addition approved by the CGA Board on October 16. usually drawn to a scale. tracks. water or air jet devices are commonly used for breaking the ground. 2010 –92– . 2009 TR-2009-04: Addition approved by the CGA Board on October 16. and such like property. 2012 TR-2011-08: Addition approved by the CGA Board on August 10.. Project Owner: The person financially responsible for the undertaking of a project that involves excavation or demolition. Positive Response: Communication with the excavator prior to excavation to ensure that all contacted (typically via the one call centers) owner/operators have located their underground facilities and have appropriately marked any potential conflicts with the areas of planned excavation.69/ Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE): An engineering process for accurately identifying the quality of underground utility information needed for excavation plans and for acquiring and managing that level of information during the development of a project. Test Hole: Exposure of a facility by safe excavation practices used to ascertain the precise horizontal and vertical position of underground lines or facilities.66/ Public: The general population or community at large. It includes the road bed.

APPENDIX B Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines The information contained in this appendix is intended to supplement information for existing practices found within CGA Best Practices. Uniform Color Code73/ The following APWA uniform color code (ANSI Z535. This recommendation is not intended to preempt any existing state requirement that specifies other colors. References: • APWA Uniform Color Code • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • Existing one call laws from various states • ANSI Standard Z535. 72/ 73/ Information contained in this appendix approved by the CGA Board on September 24. 2004 TR-2001-05: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 24.1 Safety Color Code .72/ BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 4—LOCATING AND MARKING Practice Statement 4–3: Color Code: A uniform color code and set of marking symbols is adopted nationwide.1) shall be adopted as the uniform color code for marking excavation sites and underground facilities in conflict with an excavation. 2004 –93– .

0 BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 5—EXCAVATION Practice Statement 5–19: Excavation Tolerance Zone: The excavator observes a tolerance zone that is comprised of the width of the facility plus 18 in.CGA Best Practices 12. This practice is not intended to preempt any existing state/provincial requirements that currently specify a tolerance zone of more than 18 in. Tolerance Zone74/ The following examples are of tolerance zones for a 1 in. on either side of the outside edge of the underground facility on a horizontal plane. line: 74/ TR-2010-01A: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 10. 2010 –94– . and 12 in.

Single Stake Marking Center Point of Excavation Site When an excavation site is contained within a 50 ft maximum radius or less.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 5—EXCAVATION Practice Statement 5–2: White Lining: When the excavation site cannot be clearly and adequately identified on the locate ticket. whiskers. it can be delineated with a single stake that is positioned at the proposed center of the excavation. paint. diameter typically are used to define arcs or radii and may be placed at closer intervals in lieu of dashes.. abbreviations. or a combination of these) may be used to identify the excavation site. wide with interval spacing approximately 4 ft to 50 ft apart. Guidelines for Excavation Delineation75/ The following marking illustrations are examples of how excavators may choose to mark their area of proposed excavation. or dashes outlining the excavation project. to 12 in. flags. Single Point Excavations Markings Delineate in white paint the proposed area of excavation using a continuous line. Limit the size of each dash to approximately 6 in. long and 1 in. The use of white marking products (e. If the excavator chooses this type of delineation. Reduce the separation of excavation marks to a length that can reasonably be seen by the operator’s locators when the terrain at an excavation site warrants. the excavator designates the route and/or area to be excavated using white premarking prior to the arrival of the locator. dots marking the radius or arcs.g. 75/ TR-2001-05: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 24. stakes. This single stake is white in color and displays the excavator’s company identifier (name. 2004 –95– . Dots of approximately 1 in. or initials) and the radius of the excavation site in black letters on the stake or with a notice attached to the stake. they must convey that they have delineated the excavation site with a single stake at the center of the excavation and include the radius of the site in the notification to the one call center. dashes marking the four corners of the project.

Dots may be used for curves and closer interval marking. or Other Continuous-Type Excavations Continuous Excavation Marking Mark in white paint the proposed centerline of planned excavation using 6 in. or whiskers are white in color and display the excavator’s company identifier (name. Boring. arrows approximately 4 ft to 50 ft apart to show direction of excavation.0 Trenching. × 1 in. or when outlining the excavation project. Limit the interval spacing to approximately 4 ft to 50 ft. Stake. Flag. Reduce the separation of excavation marks to a length that can reasonably be seen by the operator’s locators when the terrain at an excavation site warrants. Stakes. abbreviations. to 12 in. or whiskers provided to illustrate arcs or radii may be placed at closer intervals to define the arc or radius. –96– . or Whisker Excavation Markers Delineate the proposed area of excavation using stakes. Reduce the separation of excavation marks to a length that can reasonably be seen by the operator’s locators when the terrain at an excavation site warrants. the four corners of the project.CGA Best Practices 12. flags. or whiskers instead of spray paint to mark radius or arcs. Stakes. flags. flags. Mark lateral excavations with occasional arrows showing excavation direction from centerline with marks at curb or property line if crossed. or initials).

the operator considers the type of facility being located. the terrain of the land. FO. 1. 2010 –97– . STL. facility. it is marked as a single facility. initials. When marking facilities.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 4—LOCATING AND MARKING Practice Statement 4–3: Color Code: A uniform color code and set of marking symbols is adopted nationwide. and the method required to adequately mark the facilities for the excavator. flags. 2. stakes.long and 1 in. The following marking examples illustrate how an operator may choose to mark their subsurface installations: a. This can be done in one of two ways—1) placing the marks over the approximate center of the facility: or 2) placing the marks over the approximate outside edges of the facility with a line connecting the two horizontal lines (in the form of an H) to indicate there is only one facility: These examples indicate an operator’s 12 in. spaced approximately 4 ft to 50 ft apart. Single Facility Marking: Used to mark a single facility.77/ 76/ 77/ TR-2001-05: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 24. 2004 TR-2010-01B: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 10. When a facility can be located or toned separately from other facilities of the same type. whiskers. wide. or a combination to identify the operator’s facility(s) at or near an excavation site. or abbreviation) when other companies are using the same color • The total number of facilities and the width of each facility • A description of the facility (HP. the type of excavation being done. Use paint. Marks in the appropriate color are approximately 12 in. Guidelines for Operator Facility Field Delineation76/ Operator markings of facilities include the following: • The appropriate color for their facility type • Their company identifier (name. to 18 in. etc).

.CGA Best Practices 12.0 b. where the separation does not allow for a separate tone for each facility.. Corridor Marking: Used to mark multiple facilities of the same type (e. bundled or intertwined in the same trench. Conduit Marking: Used for any locatable facility being carried inside conduits or ducts. indicating the actual left and right edges of the facilities d. in diameter (4/4" PLA) c. Example: a 12 in. The width of the corridor is the distance between the actual located outside edges of the combined facilities. Example: four plastic conduits that are 4 in. corridor (12" CDR) –98– .g. Marks are placed over the approximate center of the facilities and indicate the width of the corridor. apart. Example: four plastic facilities that are 4 in. in diameter (4/4" PLA). where the total number of facilities is not readily known (operator has no record on file for the number of facilities).g. electric). Marks are placed over the approximate center of the facilities and indicate the number and width of the facilities. electric). but the number and width of the facilities is known. The marks indicating the outer extremities denote the actual located edges of the facilities being represented. Multiple Facility Marking: Used to mark multiple facilities of the same type (e. and the marks are 16 in.

A radius is indicated with marks describing the arc.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines 3. When providing offset markings (paint or stakes). with an arrow indicating the path of the facility. show the direction of the facility and distance to the facility from the markings. Changes in direction and lateral connections are clearly indicated at the point where the change in direction or connection occurs. Example: radius Example: lateral connection Example: painted offset (off) –99– .

0 Example: staked offset (off) 4. Termination points or dead ends are indicated as such. subsequent operators using the same color mark their company identifier at all points where their facility crosses another operator’s facility using the same color. Examples: the number of ducts in a multi-duct structure. ELECO TELCO Information regarding the size and composition of the facility is marked at an appropriate frequency. inlets. and whether it is steel.CGA Best Practices 12. and lift stations that are physically larger than obvious surface indications are marked so as to define the parameters of the structure. plastic in 12 in. TELCO FO (4" STL) Structures such as vaults. Example: 8. In addition. Examples: CITYCO 5. TELCO 9/4" CAB 6. GASCO 4" PLA WATERCO 12" STL Facilities installed in a casing are identified as such. Examples: 6 in. steel and fiber optic in 4 in. Example: –100– . plastic. cable. etc. or initials) is placed at the beginning and at the end of the proposed work. abbreviation. An operator’s identifier (name. steel GASCO 6" PLA/12" STL 7. width of a pipeline. Reduce the separation of excavation marks to a length that can reasonably be seen by the operator’s locators when the terrain at an excavation site warrants.

The following abbreviations are used when appropriate: /G/D (gas distribution). fax. Caution: Allow adequate space for all facility mark-outs. TELCO) mark the area “NO” followed by the appropriate company identifier in the matching APWA color code for that facility. • If it can be determined through maps or records that the proposed excavation is obviously not in conflict with their facility. Example: –101– . the locator or operator of the facility may notify the excavator of “No Conflict” by phone. or through the one call center. When there is “No Conflict” with the excavation. Include on the flag the operator’s identifier. there are no facilities within the work area as described on the locate ticket. where electronic positive response is used.” Example: NO GASCO/G/D illustrates that GASCO has no gas distribution facilities at this excavation site. Operators of multiple facilities indicate on the flag which facilities are in “No Conflict” with the excavation (see the previous example). or e-mail. fax. a place to write the locate ticket number. When the excavation is delineated by the use of white markings.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines 9. “No Conflict” indicates that the operator verifying the “No Conflict” has no facilities within the scope of the delineation. place “No Conflict” markings or flags in or as near as practicable to the delineated area.. phone number. Operators of multiple facilities indicate a “No Conflict” for each facility (see the previous examples). or when there is no delineation. Example: NO TELCO • Operators of multiple facilities mark the area “NO” followed by the appropriate company identifier in the matching APWA color code for that facility with a slash and the abbreviation for the type of facility for which there is “No Conflict. and date. /G/T (gas transmission). or e-mail that there is “No Conflict” with your facilities. /E/T (electric transmission). • Place a clear plastic (translucent) flag that states “No Conflict” in lettering matching the APWA color code of the facility that is not in conflict. • Place “No Conflict” markings or flags in a location that can be observed by the excavator and/or notify the excavator by phone.g. /E/D (electric distribution). complete one or more of the following: • Operators of a single type of facility (e.

0 Color Code Identifiers Common Abbreviations Facility Identifier CH E FO G LPG PP RR S SD SS SL STM SP TEL TS TV W W Chemical Electric Fiber Optic Gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas Petroleum Products Railroad Signal Sewer Storm Drain Storm Sewer Street Lighting Steam Slurry System Telephone Traffic Signal Television Water Reclaimed Water “Purple” –102– .CGA Best Practices 12.

use the order described above but omit the slash and abbreviation that does not apply.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines Underground Construction Descriptions C CDR D DB DE JT HP HH MH PB R STR T Conduit Corridor Distribution Facility Direct Buried Dead End Joint Trench High Pressure Hand Hole Manhole Pull Box Radius Structure (vaults. the result would be TELCO/FO/PLA. because the orange marking would indicate that the facility was a communication line. –103– . The use of the abbreviation /TEL is not necessary. • To omit one or more of the abbreviation types. lift stations) Transmission Facility Infrastructure Material ABS ACP CI CMC CML CPP CMP CU CWD HDPE MTD PLA RCB RCP RF SCCP STL VCP Acrylonitrile . junction boxes.Butadiene . inlets. • Place the abbreviations in the following order: Company Identifier / Facility Identifier / Underground Construction Descriptions / Infrastructure Material Example: TELCO/TEL/FO/PLA indicates that TELCO has a telecommunication fiber optic line in a single plastic conduit.Styrene Asbestos Cement Pipe Cast Iron Cement Mortar Coated Cement Mortar Lined Corrugated Plastic Pipe Corrugated Metal Pipe Copper Creosote Wood Duct High Density Polyethylene Multiple Tile Duct Plastic (conduit or pipe) Reinforced Concrete Box Reinforced Concrete Pipe Reinforced Fiberglass Steel Cylinder Concrete Pipe Steel Vertrified Clay Pipe Guide for Abbreviation Use Follow these guidelines when placing abbreviations in the field: • Place the Company Identifier at the top or at the left of the abbreviations. Example: to omit /TEL). but its use is optional.

0 .CGA Best Practices 12. –104– .

locator. Reports.com. The approved DIRT form has been included in Appendix C. To review the electronic version and tool. and locators. excavator. • Tierdael Construction Company—General Contractors • Virginia State Corporation Commission –105– . The Data Reporting & Evaluation Committee approved minor modifications to the original 9-1 form when creating DIRT. Appendix C Sample Form The 9-1 form was the basis for the development of the CGA’s Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) launched in December 2003. Inc.cga-dirt. Inc. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. Inc. visit http://www. • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. facility. and industry group report forms. The team created this sample form (illustrated on the following page) using the best practices from one call center. the Reporting and Evaluation Task Team drafted a sample report form (originally referred to as figure 9-1) to demonstrate what may be reported when collecting damage prevention information. excavators. References: The following references were used as examples during the Task Team’s discussions and the development of the composite 9-1 reporting form.APPENDIX C Sample Forms. and Releases During the Common Ground Study. These sources do not include all stakeholders that may report any of the same information shown on the sample form. The form was created to enable data collection from all stakeholders involved in the damage prevention process. These modifications were later approved by the CGA Best Practices Committee. regulatory agency. including facility owners/operators. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • National Transportation Safety Board Safety Study: Protecting Public Safety Through Excavation Damage Prevention (NTSB/SS-97-01) • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System.

(Refer to Appendix C for example form) Sample Form: Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT)—Field Form –106– . and other appropriate stakeholders. locators.CGA Best Practices 12. excavators.0 BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 9—REPORTING AND EVALUATION Practice Statement 9–6: A Standardized Form Is Adopted: A standardized form that includes the mandatory DIRT fields is adopted and distributed to all facility owners/operators.

and Releases Sample Form for Reporting Data –107– . Reports.Sample Forms.

Sample Press Release –108– .CGA Best Practices 12.0 BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 8—PUBLIC EDUCATION AND AWARENESS Practice Statement 8–7: Free Media: An effective damage prevention education program utilizes all available free media.

D. American Society of Civil Engineers. Directional Crossing Contractors Association (DCCA). 89.” 1996. Como. S. R. DC. “Horizontal Directional Drilling Good Practices Guidelines. WI. –109– . December 1999. “Pipeline Crossings. California Department of Transportation. “Horizontal Drilling Safe Operations Guidelines. “CALTRANS Encroachment Permits—Guidelines and Specifications for HDD Installations. “Directional Drilling Damage Prevention Guidelines for the Natural Gas Industry.APPENDIX D Additional References The references contained in Appendix D are intended to be supplemental references for existing and/or new practices found within the CGA Best Practices.” HDD Consortium. 1999. Washington.” GRI-96-0368. Washington. 2003. ISBN 1-928984-13-4. TX. 2001. 1996. National Transportation Safety Board. National Utility Locating Contractors Association (NULCA). ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. TX.” 3rd Edition. National Utility Contractors Association (NUCA). Bennett.” July 14.” Dallas.” Spooner. 2004. DC. “Safety Study: Protecting Public Safety Through Excavation Damage Prevention.” Dallas. Directional Crossing Contractors Association (DCCA). Ariaratnam. December 30. “Trenchless Construction Methods and Soil Compatibility Manual. 1995. “Final Report—Guideline for the Application of Guided Horizontal Drilling to Install Gas Distribution Piping. September 1996. “Guidelines for Successful Directional Crossing Survey Standards. DC. CALTRANS.” Washington. “Excavation Practices & Procedures for Damage Prevention.T.” Technical Note.. and C. Trenchless Excavation Chapter 2: Practice Statement 2–13 Chapter 4: Practice Statement 4–19 Chapter 5: Practice Statement 5–29 References American Gas Association (AGA). Gas Research Institute.

CGA Best Practices 12.0 . –110– .

the Best Practices document continues to be regarded and utilized as the preeminent and trusted resource for damage prevention. Central to our focus is the continued identification of best practices as well as the maintenance and publication of the Best Practices document. Bob Kipp CGA President –111– . Because of this commitment and dedication. I know that we have made great progress in advancing our core programs. I would like to personally thank our current members for their consistent leadership and commitment to the Common Ground Alliance and to damage prevention. The Best Practices represent the culmination of CGA’s focus on shared responsibility. Thank you to all. Every practice in this document is agreed to by all 16 stakeholder groups who participate in the CGA. The tremendous accomplishments of the CGA are made possible through the financial contributions of our sponsors and the participation of our members. Identifying and gaining consensus approval for all new practices takes great commitment from our committee members and their respective stakeholder groups. but we do have a long way to go to reach our ultimate objective of zero incidents.MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION CGA Stakeholders: As I look back on CGA’s accomplishments. Best regards.

Citizens Gas & Coke Utility City of Mesa City Utilities of Springfield.CGA Best Practices 12. L. Cimarex Energy Co. Inc Associated General Contractors of America Association of American Railroads Association of Equipment Manufacturers Association of Oil Pipe Lines AT&T Atmos Energy Corporation Aux Sable Liquid Products Avista Corporation Badger Daylighting Corporation Baltimore Gas and Electric Company Blue Stakes of Utah Blueknight Energy Partners BP America Buckeye Partners. Inc.P. Missouri CobbFendley Colonial Pipeline Colorado 811 Consumers Energy Corinth Gas & Water –112– . (ACMP) Accu-Bore Directional Drilling AEGIS Insurance Services AGL Resources Air Products and Chemicals.0 CGA Member Organizations 3M Access Midstream Partners. LP Canadian Gas Association CenterPoint Energy Centurion Pipeline Safety Advisor CertusView Technologies Chaparral Energy Cheniere Pipeline Chesapeake Energy Corporation Chevron Pipe Line Company CHS. Alabama 1 Call Alberta One Call Corporation Alliance Pipeline Alliant Energy Ameren Illinios American Gas Association American Petroleum Institute American Public Gas Association American Public Works Association Arizona 811 Arkansas Oklahoma Gas Corporation Arkansas One Call Systems. Inc.

LLC Genesis Energy Georgia 811 Gopher State Once Call Center Grady Crawford Construction Greenville Utilities Commission Greer CPW Holly Energy Partner Indiana 811 InfoExcavation Infrastructure Resources Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Intermountain Gas Company (MDU Resources) INTREN. Inc. Inc. CPN Pipeline Crosstex Energy Dakota Gasification Company Danatec Inc. Inc. Inc. Iowa One Call IPS Engineering/EPC irth Solutions JULIE. Distribution Construction Distribution Contractors Association Ditch Witch (Charles Machines) Dominion East Ohio Dow Pipeline DTE Energy ELM Locating & Utility Services Enable Midstream Partners. Deere & Company Dial Before You Dig Australia Dig Safe System. Explorer Pipeline Company Exxon Mobil Pipeline Company G2 partners. Inc.CoServ Gas. Inc. (Illinois One-Call System) Kansas One Call Kentucky 811 Kern River Gas Transmission Kinder Morgan Knoxville Utilities Board Koch Pipeline Company LP Korterra –113– . LP Enbridge Energy Company. Diggers Hotline. Dig Safely New York Inc. CountryMark Cox Utility Services. Inc. Energy Transfer Enterprise Products Operating EOG Resources Inc Ericsson. Ltd.

L. Inc.0 Krylon Products Group Lake Apopka Natural Gas District Level 3 Communications LG&E Energy Liberty Utilities Lockton Companies. National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives National Fuel Gas National Grid National Telecommunications Damage Prevention Council NUCA National Utility Locating Contractors Association NCRA/Jayhawk Pipeline LLC Network Infrastructure. Inc Miss Utility of Delmarva Mississippi 811. LLC Master Locators.CGA Best Practices 12. (Call Okie) Olameter DPG One Call Concepts One Call Locators Canada One Call Wyoming One Calls of America ONEOK ONEOK Partners Opvantek. Inc. Middle Tennessee Natural Gas District Miller Pipeline MISS DIG System. Missouri One Call Mobile Gas Service Corp. Osinergmin Pacific Gas and Electric Company Paradigm –114– . Inc. LLC Louisiana One Call Magellan Midstream Partners. LLC LOOP.P. McLaughlin Group. Marathon Pipe Line. Inc. New Jersey Natural Gas New Mexico Gas Company New York 811 Nicor Gas NiSource North Carolina 811 North Shore Gas Company Northern Natural Gas Northwest Communications Cooperative NuStar Energy LP NW Natural Ohio Utilities Protection Service Okaloosa Gas District Oklahoma One Call System. Inc. Inc.

P.P. Inc. Inc. Team Fishel TECO-Peoples Gas Tennessee 811 Tesoro Logistics GP. Sunshine 811 Tallgrass Energy Targa Resources.Southern California United States Infrastructure Corporation –115– . Public Service Electric & Gas Company Puget Sound Energy Questar Gas Company Radiodetection Rhino Marking & Protection Systems Rust-Oleum Salt River Project SAMCO San Diego Gas & Electric Scana Corporation SeeScan Sefnco Communications Sensus Shell Pipeline Company LP Sierra Pacific Power Company South Jersey Gas Company Southern California Gas Company Southern Light Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline. L. Underground Safety Alliance (USA) Underground Service Alert . Spectra Energy Suncor Energy Sunoco Pipeline. LLC Philadelphia Gas Works Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC Piedmont Natural Gas Pinnacle West Capital Corp/APS Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Plains All American Pipeline. L. LLC Texas811 TransCanada TransMontaigne Operating Company L. Inc. Travelers UGI Utilities.Pennsylvania 811 Peoples Gas Peoples Natural Gas Company.P. Portland General Electric PPL Interstate Energy Company Premier Utility Services Protek Locating. Inc. Inc Southwest Gas Corporation SPEC Services.

Vivax-Metrotech Corporation Washington 811 Washington Gas WE Energies Westfield Gas & Electric Whiting Oil & Gas Corporation Williams Wisconsin Public Service Corporation Wolverine Pipe Line Company XCEL Energy Services XTO Energy –116– . Inc. Vectren Verizon Virginia Utility Protection Service.CGA Best Practices 12.0 USA North Utiliquest Vac-Con. Inc. Vac-Tron Equipment LLC Valero Energy Corp.

000) 2. 4 individual members)  Individual ($100)  Sponsorship  Bronze  Silver  Gold  Platinum Minimum: ($10. D.  Electric  Emergency Services  Engineering/Design  Equipment Manufacturing & Suppliers  Excavator  Gas Distribution  Gas Transmission  Insurance  Locator  Oil  One Call  Public Works  Railroad  Road Builders  State Regulator  Telecommunications THE CGA IS A WASHINGTON.000) ($25..Membership Form Complete and submit both sides of the membership form to become a member today! CUT HERE 1.000) ($50.000.C.000. 8 individual members)  Association ($3.000. Check the type of CGA membership you wish to register (annual fees are noted). 12 individual members)  Government/Municipality ($1.000) ($100. . NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION UNDER §501(C)(3) OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE.  Corporate/Company ($2. Check the stakeholder category/industry that you represent (choose only one).

Send this form along with your check to Common Ground Alliance 2300 Wilson Blvd. Provide the following information: Membership Contact LAST NAME FIRST NAME CUT HERE POSITION/JOB TITLE Company/Employer Information COMPANY/EMPLOYER NAME MAILING/STREET ADDRESS CITY STATE PHONE FAX ZIP E-MAIL 4. . Suite 310 Arlington.. NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION UNDER §501(C)(3) OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE. VA 22201 (Do not send cash or money orders) THE CGA IS A WASHINGTON. D.Membership Form Complete and submit both sides of the membership form to become a member today! 3.C..

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