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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Practice Statements and Descriptions
Chapter 2 Planning and Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Chapter 3 One Call Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Chapter 4 Locating and Marking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Chapter 5 Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Chapter 6 Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Chapter 7 Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Chapter 8 Public Education and Awareness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Chapter 9 Reporting and Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Chapter 10 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

Appendix A Glossary of Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Appendix B Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Appendix C Sample Forms, Reports, and Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Appendix D Additional References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Membership Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

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CGA Best Practices 12.0

TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF USE

The CGA must make the Best Practices subject to the following limitations:
1: The CGA does not endorse any company, technology, technique or
product. No inference of endorsement shall be taken from any CGA
Best Practice or from the CGA generally.
2: The CGA reserves the right to alter, modify, or repeal the Best
Practices at any time. Further, the CGA reserves the right to fix
technical inaccuracies, typographical errors or make other
modifications without prior notice.
3: The Best Practices may contain trademarks of the CGA, as well as
CGA copyrighted material. We must insist you respect our copyrights
and trademarks.
4: The CGA Best Practices are provided “AS IS” and without any
WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY
WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.
5: The CGA Best Practices are presented as a general guide. The CGA
encourages all users to consult and consider not only the CGA Best
Practices, but also (i) employer practices, (ii) industry practices, (iii)
federal and state statutes and regulations, (iv) building and fire codes,
and (v) local laws, regulations and ordinances.
6: References in each Best Practice are those that were in effect at the
time the Best Practice was approved unless otherwise noted. Best
Practices are derived from existing multi-industry, governmental and
public practices that are determined to be “best” in enhancing safety
and damage prevention through rigorous review and evaluation
processes developed by the CGA.

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This was no easy task. to discuss how to implement the study. the U. railroads.” For the first time. Reporting and Evaluation. The nine study teams were charged with the study’s primary goal—identifying best practices in their respective areas of expertise. At the time. The most daunting task before the group was developing a process for identifying and designating “best practices. In addition to the 8-member Steering Team. 1998. representing stakeholders from across the nation including oil and gas transmission and distribution.S. and that free-flow communication allows all stakeholders to focus on the common goals for safety and damage prevention. electric. water. minimizing damage to facilities during excavation activities was on the National Transportation Safety Board’s (NTSB) top 10 priorities for safety improvement. and Emerging Technologies. design engineers. which oversaw and coordinated what became known as the Common Ground Study (CGS). PHMSA invited stakeholders from underground utility safety and damage prevention industries to a kick-off meeting in Arlington. and ensuring public safety during excavation activities conducted in the vicinity of existing underground facilities. Another key element was that cooperation is essential and it works. Public Awareness and Education. There were 162 individuals participating in the study. as proven by the success of the study. protecting vital underground infrastructure. the federal government brought these industries together and established an organizational structure to address the multiple facets of underground utility safety and damage prevention.S. the stakeholders came together and the study was underway. Mapping. Excavation. sewer. excavators. In essence. Those teams included Planning and Design. one call centers. Compliance. telecommunications. One Call Centers. Major lessons learned during the CGS were that communication is the key to ensuring safety and protecting vital facilities. In this legislation. and government entities at federal. This unprecedented gathering facilitated by the government provided a unique opportunity for affected industries to address serious issues that previously had not been addressed at the federal level by all parties involved. now the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA)] with conducting the study. the structure consisted of a 14-member Linking Team and 9 study teams. –1– . USDOT charged the former Office of Pipeline Safety [OPS. state. and local levels. Department of Transportation (USDOT) was instructed to conduct a study of best practices in place nationwide for enhancing worker safety. On August 18. locators. the government was giving industry an opportunity to get its house in order. the U.” the group had to address each stakeholder group’s responsibilities in the one call process. VA. regulators. Congress passed the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA 21). This team was known as the Steering Team. but after several months of fits and starts. In addition to designating “best practices. utilities. Locating and Marking. cable TV. Each of the major stakeholder groups designated a representative to form a committee that would develop the processes and procedures to conduct the study.CHAPTER 1 Introduction History of the Common Ground Alliance Common Ground Study In 1998. The study’s chief success was overcoming two obstacles—fragmented information and the lack of stakeholder cooperation and collaboration.

The Primary’s responsibility is to act as a spokesperson for their stakeholder group and to participate in consensus decisions when necessary. one call center. oil. The organization’s motto was and continues to be “Damage Prevention Is a Shared Responsibility. On June 15. it was decided that the work of the CGS should be continued and that the Best Practices document should become a living document. that all stakeholders can reach consensus on the best practices to enhance safety and prevent damages. To this day. The CGS and establishment of the CGA have given underground utility safety and damage prevention a home. if one group disagreed. Those committees include Best Practices. Data Reporting and Evaluation. The CGA is a central clearinghouse for disseminating best practices. consensus is used by CGA committees and in identifying “best practices.” CGA Today There are currently 16 stakeholder seats on the CGA Board of Directors: electric. the CGS was presented to the Secretary of Transportation. 11 months after the kick-off meeting in Arlington and after many intense meetings throughout the country. public works. gas distribution. Stakeholder Advocacy Committee. railroad. and One Call Systems International. When established. and telecommunications. equipment manufacturing. a “Primary” is designated for each stakeholder group by its respective member on the Board of Directors. For a practice to become a “best practice. –2– .0 One of the most controversial elements of the process for determining a “best practice” was the use of the consensus process. the Common Ground Alliance identified the following purposes: • Prevent damage to underground infrastructure and increase safety by fostering a sense of shared responsibility for the protection of underground facilities • Support research and development • Conduct public awareness and education programs • Identify and disseminate stakeholder best practices • Serve as a clearinghouse for damage data collection analysis and dissemination. and continues to prove. insurance.” all stakeholder groups must agree that they could live with the practice. Regional Partner. The consensus process also proved. state regulator. the work of the team was completed when the Common Ground Alliance received its Certificate of Incorporation from the District of Columbia. Technology. engineeringhttps://www.scribd.com/design. PHMSA was asked to facilitate and sponsor what became known as the Damage Prevention Path Forward. The CGA consists of working committees populated by the general membership. locator.” This single element of the process is what arguably gives the CGA and the “best practices” document its integrity and ensures that all elements of an issue are vetted comprehensively. The CGS identified and validated over 130 “best practices” to enhance safety and prevent damages to underground facilities. This ensures that each stakeholder group has an equal say in the outcome of committee work. Educational Programs. Even though any CGA member can participate in committee discussions. and with the support of Senator Majority Leader Trent Lott who recognized the importance of this document. gas transmission. In July 1999. emergency services. and information that enhance safety and keep damages to underground facilities to an ultimate minimum. road builder.CGA Best Practices 12. 2000. Establishment of the Common Ground Alliance After the CGS was presented to the Secretary of Transportation. excavator. decisions.” It was realized early on that the final product would not stand unless all stakeholders agreed with the content. products. and products. the practice would not become a “best practice.

the CGA added and amended multiple practices that appear in Version 12. The stakeholders involved with the original CGS never intended that the Best Practices would constitute a static model. The technical writer's input. which includes the primary section with Practice Statements and Descriptions as well as Appendices A through D.0 was the result of those efforts. and • the Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) was developed and established as the long-awaited repository of data that helps to identify the root cause of incidents that occur as a result in breakdowns in the one call process. This was accomplished through a chapter-by-chapter review to ensure that no substantive changes were made. Working closely with CGA staff and the Best Practices Editorial Task Team. 9-17. as well as on the local.0 -. Best Practices Manual The Best Practices Committee developed the following guide based on the Common Ground Study. Rather. the Best Practices document is considered the “go to” resource by all stakeholders. and associated industries when addressing safety and damage prevention issues internally. In addition. The birth of CGA led to major accomplishments within the area of damage prevention that can be directly attributed to the work and success of our organization. 9-6. By this means we hope to provide a continuum that will permit the stakeholders in underground safety and utility damage prevention as well as the public to see the course of development over time. In addition. Best Practices 12. the CGA retained the services of a technical writer to review the Best Practices Guide’s formatting and layout. coordinated through the Editorial Task Team. Best Practices 9. During 2014. the CGA anticipated that there likely would be additional best practices developed by the interested participants. has become a permanent Best Practices Committee asset. As best practices are added or amended. governments. and national levels. 9-14. • the Locate Accurately campaign was nationalized. 9-15. With this latest version of the Best Practices. The verbatim restatement of all ancillary material contained in the original Study is available on the CGA Web site and is intended as an historical reference point for those persons interested in a more detailed background of the Best Practices. numbered sequentially. effective. • damages to underground facilities during excavation activities was removed from the NTSB’s Top 10. • the Dig Safely campaign continued its successful implementation. they intended it to be a working document that would evolve over time as more was learned and as technology advanced. 9-10. and successful cooperation in bettering our underground utility safety and damage prevention programs. ensuring that all practices maintain a consistent format. and 9-19 • Updated practice 5-13 • Added new practice 3-30 –3– . is clear. the changes are reflected in subsequent versions. we continue to celebrate years of positive. and is grammatically correct.New Practices and Modifications During 2011. 9-7. • 811 was implemented and is promoted by the CGA.Introduction Since the founding of the CGA. The following modifications were approved by the Best Practices Committee and CGA Board in 2014: • Introduction added to Chapter 9 • Modifications made to practices 9-2. the technical writer conducted a complete review of the Guide to ensure that it follows a standard common format. 9-12. state.0.

organization. as would be the case for a new or amended best practice. and Locators.commongroundalliance.com. any editorial changes are reported back to the BP Committee for review and comment. the team does not make substantive changes to best practices or best practice descriptions. 5: Allen Gray and William Boswell currently serve as and have been Editorial Task Team leaders since the CGA published Best Practices (1. Feedback and Proposed Modifications The CGA welcomes comments and suggestions on improving the format and updating the content of the best practices. –4– . One Call Centers. As such it acts in accordance with the BP Committee’s instructions. in that BP Committee members must agree by consensus. Throughout the document. contact the CGA office (703-836-1709) to request a proposal form or visit the CGA web site at http://www. presents them to the BP Committee.CGA Best Practices 12. 2: Although the team may edit punctuation. Our intent is to make the statement of best practices as easy to use as possible. Excavators. Designers. and receives feedback thereafter 4: Editorial changes noted in paragraph 3b are only those that the BP Committee first determines are not substantive alterations to the best practice. However. Facility Owners. grammar.0). 3: The team receives input from the BP Committee in one of three ways: a) When it receives a best practice that has been adopted b) When it is instructed by the BP Committee to make non-substantive changes to the BP practice description c) When it makes the changes indicated in paragraph 2 above. the icons appear next to each practice and correspond to the following groups: Project Owners. but they are not referred to the CGA board for adoption. Guide to Editorial Task Team Procedures 1: The Editorial Task Team is a task force of the Best Practices (BP) Committee.0 Use of Icons The CGA uses icons to assist readers in identifying the practices that pertain to their specific industry/stakeholder group. They are handled in the same manner as a best practice. and display. The icon legend is provided below and also is available at the start of each chapter. To submit a comment or to propose a new practice or practice modification.

which is comprehensively reviewed and discussed. However. The proposed Best Practice is brought before the next scheduled meeting of the Committee as long as it has been presented to the Committee 30 days in advance of the meeting. as task team is formed and a transaction record is created. Each stakeholder group is asked to submit a response to the proposed Best Practice before the next scheduled meeting. The Committee decides whether the proposal is presented to the Board as a proposed Best Practice or whether it should go back to the Task Team for further consideration. It is not unusual for the practice to be sent back to the Task Team several times before it is moved forward or dismissed. they are encouraged to submit as soon as possible. The Committee reviews and discusses the proposal and decides whether it will be dismissed or considered for Best Practices designation. the Task Team presents the proposed practice. –5– . the Task Team must submit it at least 30 days before the next scheduled meeting. Each Primary is responsible for taking the proposal to their respective constituent group for review and position development. The Task Team forwards the proposed Best Practice to the full Committee for consideration in the proper format. If the Committee agrees to consider the practice. either through their stakeholder group primary or directly to CGA staff. This enables Committee members and their stakeholder group to review the proposal for discussion. The Board of Directors as well as other CGA Committees may also submit proposed Best Practices.Introduction Best Practices Process How Is a Best Practice Developed or Revised? Enter Here Best Practices Committee Members Board of Directors Dismissed No Best Practices Committee No Yes Yes Board of Directors Other Committees Ad Hoc Committee Editorial Sub-group Recommended Language Yes Publish Here Board of Directors Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Board of Directors Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Dismissed No Best Practices Committee Members Board of Directors Dismissed No Board of Directors Dismissed Best Practices Committee No Best Practices Committee Ad Hoc Committee Other Committees Task Team Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Best Practices Committee Task Team Anyone can submit a proposed best practice for review. During the next scheduled meeting. In order to give each stakeholder group an opportunity to review the proposal.

Visit the online version of Best Practices at http://www. if it was the first to be accepted. the Best Practice is forwarded to the Editorial Task Team. the practice becomes a CGA Best Practice and is published in the manual. the proposal is reviewed (taking into account the Board’s comments) and resubmitted as appropriate. Yes Publish Here Board of Directors Dismissed No Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Best Practices Committee Task Team No Yes Board of Directors Yes Editorial Sub-group Recommended Language Once a Best Practice has been published.CGA Best Practices 12. and a team chair is appointed. and a chronological acceptance for consideration during the year (i. and so on). Board of Directors Dismissed No Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Best Practices Committee Task Team No Yes Yes Board of Directors Editorial Sub-group Recommended Language The final proposed Best Practice is then submitted to the Board of Directors for their consideration. A Transaction Record (TR) is created to track progress of the proposal from submission to the Task Team to the final decision on the proposed practice. If the Committee reaches consensus approval of the wording. it would be numbered TR 2011-01.g. –6– . The process ensures the integrity of Best Practices and their place in enhancing safety and keeping damaged to an ultimate minimum. If approved.commongroundalliance. If not. second TR 2011-02.0 Board of Directors Dismissed No Best Practices Committee Members Other Committees Best Practices Committee Task Team Yes Editorial Sub-group Recommended Language A task team is created using volunteers from the full Best Practices Committee. If returned to the Committee. Yes Publish Here The Best Practice proposals can be submitted through the CGA Web site.com/best-practices-guide to view the new practice and revised best practice proposal forms. A cross-section of stakeholders is recommended for each task team to ensure input from as many stakeholder groups as possible. all stakeholders can rest assured it has been through the complete process.. the proposal is sent back to the Committee with comment.e. The TR is numbered according to the year it is submitted to the Task Team (e. The Editorial Task team decides on the appropriate placement of the practice within the CGA Best Practices document and ensures that the language is consistent with Best Practice Committee protocols.. TR 2011).

Minnesota. pad-mounted devices. vent pipes. References: • St Louis County. e-mail. Benefits: Often underground facility owners/operators do not receive notice of developments impacting their facilities until excavation activity has commenced. such as voice. Where plats are required to be filed. facility owners/operators. Methods of gathering information may include contacting entities such as a one call center. proposed project designs. such as by marking up design drawings or providing facility records to the designer. coordinating committees/councils. zoning ordinances 2–2: Gathering Information for Design Purposes Practice Statement: The designer uses all reasonable means of obtaining information about underground facilities in the area of the planned excavation. and out-of-service facilities. and valve covers).1/ Practice Description: Various items are required on the plats filed prior to the development of lands. The facility owner/operator may locate the underground facilities or provide locations of the underground facilities to the designer by other means. This information is gathered for the purpose of route selection and preliminary neighborhood impacts and as part of the process of impact analysis when evaluating different design possibilities. This information is made available in formats that are accessible to all users. engineering societies. manhole covers. fax. 1/ TR-2007-01: Modification to statement approved by the CGA Board on August 24. Practice Description: During the planning phase of the project. the designer contacts the operators directly or uses the one call system. power and communication pedestals.CHAPTER 2 Planning and Design 2–1: Plat Designation of Existing Underground Facility Easements Practice Statement: Plats prepared for the development of real property identify and show the alignment of any existing buried facilities and the presence and extent of any existing easements and/or rights of way. The one call center provides a listing of operators directly to the designer or to the designer’s subsurface utility engineer. riser poles. and governmental agencies to help identify underground facility owners/operators in an excavation area. Gathering information also may include a review of the site for aboveground indications of underground facilities (e. cathodic protection and grounding systems. Once the operators are identified. This compromises the optimal use of the land and potentially compromises the integrity of the underground facility. the items required include the identification of the easements of underground facilities traversing the land described on the plat. other designers. or Web site. 2007 –7– . all available information is gathered from facility owners/operators.. and schedules of other work in the area. This includes maps of existing.g. Notifying owners of underground facilities that a plat has been filed alerts underground facility owners/operators of the need to establish communication between the developers and operators that will facilitate a plan and design for the use of the land that complements the underground facility. permanent signs or markers. as-builts of facilities in the area if the maps are not current. Identifying easements of underground facilities on the plat increases notice to developers and the public about the existence of the underground facilities. abandoned.

If information was gathered from field-located facilities. and proposed facilities. clarify information. Document No. underground facility surveys. The various facility owners/operators are then given the opportunity to provide appropriate feedback. New York.” Consolidated Edison. February 1999. existing facilities are shown on preliminary design plans. including streets and a locally accepted coordinate system. it is shown on the plan. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Practice Description: During the planning phase of the project.4.0175 Stats • Minnesota Statute 216D • Pennsylvania Act 287 of 1974. simplifies coordination. • Unexpected conflicts with facilities are eliminated. • Facility relocations are minimized. and work to produce the final project. The design plans include a summary drawing showing the proposed facility route or excavation. underground facility information from the planning phase is shown on the plans. or subsurface utility engineering. –8– . The planning documents include possible routes for the project together with known underground facility information. 710-020-001-d. as amended by Act 187 of 1996 • See related Finding Number 3. and minimizes the cost to produce the final project. and identify conflicts.CGA Best Practices 12.0 Benefits: • Gathering underground facility information and including this information in the planning phase minimizes the hazards. abandoned. 1997 • Subsurface Utility Engineering. Section 11. January 1999 2–3: Identifying Existing Facilities in Planning and Design Practice Statement: Designers indicate existing underground facilities on drawings during planning and design. out-of-service. The facilities shown include active. New York. • Safety is enhanced. Benefits: Providing complete underground facility information and including this information on design drawings reduces hazards. Office of Program Administration • Florida Department of Transportation Utility Accommodation Manual. If an elevation was determined during information gathering. cost. References: • Wisconsin Sec. During the design phase of the project. “Identifying Existing Facilities in Planning and Design” • “Construction Management Interference Control Manual. 186. this is noted on the plans. The designer and the contractor both know the quality of the information included on the plans. June 9. The plans are then distributed to the various facility owners/ operators to provide the opportunity to furnish additional information.

Planning and Design

2–4: Utility Coordination
Practice Statement: Project owners and facility owners/operators regularly
communicate and coordinate with each other concerning future and current
projects.
Practice Description: Utility coordination fosters an open exchange of
information among private and public facilities, governmental agencies, and
construction-related organizations. Utility coordination also promotes
cooperation among said groups in the planning, design, and construction of
projects affecting the overall good of participating parties, their organizations
and customers or constituents, and the general public. Utility coordinating
committees (or councils) include private utilities, public agency utilities,
engineering firms, contractor associations, and others with facilities or
business interests in public rights-of-way. Coordinating committees function
in multiple communities, counties, and states/provinces to promote
excavation project coordination. Typical items of discussion include facility
excavations in existing and recently paved roadways, disruption of essential
facility services, location of utility facilities, environmental impact of damages
to utilities, permit procedures, right-of-way access controls, and
underground facility damage prevention. Plans of future roadway
improvement and of future facility installations are reviewed regularly.
References:
• Wisconsin Administrative Rule Chapter Trans 220 “Utility Facilities
Relocations”
• Arizona Utility Coordinating Committee (AUCC) Public
Improvement/Project Guide, December 1996
• Highway/Utility Guide. Publication No. FHWA-SA-93-049. Office of
Technology Applications, FHWA, U.S. Department of Transportation,
June 1993.

2–5: Markers for Underground Facilities
Practice Statement: The presence and type of underground facilities are
indicated by permanent aboveground and belowground markers and
material.
Practice Description: A combination of aboveground and belowground
markers is used to identify and locate underground facilities. The purpose of
aboveground markers is to identify underground facilities, not to locate for
excavation or circumvent the one call process. However, designing
underground facilities for future location reduces the risk of an incorrectly
marked underground facility during an excavation project. Aboveground
markers are developed during the design process and include the company
name, type of facility, emergency contact, and the one call number. The
locations and types of markers are specified in the construction plans. The
design provides a marker system that includes, but is not limited to, stream
crossings, public road crossings, other facilities’ rights-of-way, railroad
crossings, heavy construction areas, and any other location where it is
necessary to identify the underground facility location. If nondetectable
facilities are being installed, the design includes a means to accurately
locate the underground facility from the surface. The facility is color-coded in
accordance with the American Public Works Association (APWA) guidelines
to assist in identifying the particular facility. Road decals, stencils, tracer
tapes, electronic markers, or other appropriate systems may mark areas
where traditional markers are considered impractical.
Benefits:
Provisions to aid in future locating requests are included in the design. In addition, an effective marker system is beneficial to the underground facility
owner/operator and first responders to an area involving more than one underground facility or an incident near underground facilities.
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CGA Best Practices 12.0

References:
• 49 CFR Parts 192 and 195
• Industry standards
• APWA, “Guidelines for Uniform Temporary Marking of Underground
Facilities”

2–6: Follow All Applicable Codes, Statutes, and Facility Owner/Operator
Standards
Practice Statement: When planning and designing the installation of new
or replacement of existing underground facilities, the designer follows all
federal, state/provincial, and local guidelines, codes, statutes, and other
facility owner/operator standards.
Practice Description: The designer of a facility project typically considers
only national industry codes, regulations, and practices applicable to that
particular facility and not of adjacent facilities. Regulations, codes,
standards, and other design documents generally specify depth of cover and
horizontal and vertical clearances between adjacent facilities. However, they
are not always prescriptive and can be subject to interpretation by the
designer. In addition, certain codes allow exceptions to the prescribed
minimum clearances, contingent upon approval between the affected facility
owners/operators. The designer also must consider the protection and
temporary support of adjacent facilities and any interference to existing
cathodic protection and grounding systems. Consequently, the designer
must provide specifications of safety measures to be taken and procedures
for emergency notification and repairs in case an adjacent facility is
damaged. Designers are aware of proposed and revised standards and
codes that may affect the project.
Benefits:
The designer who reviews codes pertaining to adjacent facilities minimizes
any potential conflict of code clearance requirements and facilitates future
locating efforts.

2–7: Use of Qualified Contractors
Practice Statement: Qualified contractors are used to excavate on and
near underground facilities.
Practice Description: Contractors that excavate on and near underground
facilities possess the qualifications necessary to conduct such activities in a
manner that is skillful, safe, and reliable. The requisite qualification of the
contractor serves to protect the public and the integrity of underground
facilities in the vicinity of the excavation. Using qualified contractors ensures
that all contractors who bid and work on a project employ safe work habits
and are capable of performing the requested work. When working with
contractors, the project owner is familiar with the contractors’ work
experience and financial abilities and does not ask the contractors to bid
beyond their capabilities. Allowing a competitive bidding process from
qualified and competent contractors ensures the best quality and pricing
available while reducing damages to underground facilities.
Benefits:
• Enhances safety
• Increases the quality of work
• Reduces damage to facilities
References:
• Florida Law (Chapter 337.14 FS) and Rules of the State of Florida,
Department of Transportation, Chapters 14–22
• Duke Energy of Houston, Texas, procedures

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Planning and Design

2–8: Mandatory Prebid Conferences
Practice Statement: A mandatory prebid conference is held and bids are
accepted only from attending contractors.
Practice Description: Depending on the level of impact of proposed
construction upon facilities in the excavation area, the project owner or
project designer requires potential contractors and facility owners/operators
to attend a mandatory prebid conference. This prebid conference is used to
discuss, among other things, the particular facilities in the area and the
requirements to properly protect, support, and safely maintain the facilities
during excavation. Official minutes are taken and disseminated as written to
all attendees.
Benefits:
Prebid conferences provide a forum for the contractor, owner, and other interested parties to discuss a project and record binding changes or clarifications to the scope of the project. The prebid conference also provides an
opportunity for all parties to review contract documents, regulatory requirements, schedules, and submittal formats. Most large projects involve multiple levels of subcontracting activity as well as multilayered regulatory
oversight. The prebid conferences traditionally address these issues in an
open forum so that all bidders are equally aware of the ground rules. The
ground rules can be both commercial and technical in nature, covering the
spectrum from performance bonds to safety practices.
References:
• Industry and governmental practices
• Florida Department of Transportation
• Duke Energy of Houston, Texas, procedures

2–9: Continuous Interface between the Designer and Potential
Contractors During the Prebid/Bid Phase
Practice Statement: Once a project design is completed, the designer
participates in the prebid/bid process.
Practice Description: The designer’s continuing involvement during the
prebid/bid phase with the potential contractor(s) allows for more effective
communications between all parties. The designer can assess whether the
interested bidders have the expertise needed and the correct understanding
of the intended design.
Benefits:
• By providing quality assurance, this practice minimizes potential safety
concerns and delays to project completion.
• The designer would have the opportunity to relay information not readily
shown on the plans, such as accommodations of facility adjustments
required to construct the project.
References:
• Industry practice
• Expert opinion

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2/ References: • National Electric Safety Code IEEE C2-2007 (2007 Edition) • Industry practices 2/ TR-2001-04: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 25. a minimum of 12 in. costs. Any deviation to the plans is documented and such changes are indicated on the as-built drawings. casing. Practice Description: Installation is made in accordance with the approved construction plans. then mitigating measures are taken to protect lines against damage that might result from proximity to other structures. References: • Union Pacific Railroad procedures • Expert opinion. If there is a conflict among any of the applicable regulations or standards regarding minimum separation. retained. thereby minimizing subsequent modifications to the project design. As-built information is recorded. and completion. shields. • Industry and governmental practices 2–12:Supply-line Separation Practice Statement: When installing new direct-buried supply facilities in a common trench. and direct-buried electrical supply lines. • The designer’s inspections of the project during different stages are facilitated. 2003 –12– .0 2–10:Continuous Interface between the Designer and the Contractor During the Construction Phase Practice Statement: The designer continues to interface with the selected contractor throughout the construction phase. Benefits: • Potential safety concerns are resolved more quickly. plastic gas lines. and made available for subsequent excavation. radial separation is maintained between supply facilities. other fuel lines. of separation cannot be feasibly attained at the time of installation. or spacers. and design changes. the most stringent are applied. If 12 in. such as steam lines. Examples may include the use of insulators. unforeseen conditions.CGA Best Practices 12. Benefits: As-built drawings serve as an information source for future projects to minimize damage to existing facilities. Practice Description: This practice allows the designer to be available for preconstruction conferences. and for postconstruction conferences. References: • Industry and government practice 2–11:As-built Drawings Practice Statement: As-built drawings are prepared and the information is recorded to aid future excavations and locates.

such as manholes. valves. Minimum clearances are equal to or greater than applicable standards. Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) provides significant cost and damage-avoidance benefits and the opportunity to correct inaccuracies in existing facility records.S. Pub. • The project owner and design engineer coordinate with facility owners to design projects that maintain minimum radial clearances between the new facility and existing facilities. Practice Description: • The project owner and design engineer take prudent measures to make the determination to use trenchless excavation installation. radar tomography. • QL-B involves application of “surface geophysical methods. Cost Savings on Highway Projects Utilizing Subsurface Utility Engineering. and characterize all existing utility infrastructure (and other relevant nonutility features) found within a given project/area. FHWA-IF-00-014 3/ 4/ 5/ TR-2002-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 16. Department of Transportation—FHWA (12/1999). and after any trenchless excavation (as applicable). metal detectors. and hydrants. and optical instruments. SUE results are integrated into the design process.Planning and Design 2–13:Trenchless Excavation Practice Statement: All stakeholders adhere to all best practices and the following general guidelines prior to. thereby reducing the overall risk of conflicts and/or damage. SUE is applied during the design phase to locate. 2005 –13– .” such as EM-based locating instruments.5/ References: • U. during. identify. GPR. No. • The project owner and design engineer establish line and grade of the proposed excavation to maintain the established minimum clearances. in some cases. in which design engineers use the information to create construction plans that accommodate existing infrastructure. In these cases. the following is a brief summary of the quality levels defined therein: • QL-D involves utility records research and interviews with knowledgeable utility personnel. it may be difficult or impossible to determine the locations of all utilities and/or impediments with sufficient accuracy to avoid damage or delay during construction. Although the standard is more detailed and comprehensive.4/ Practice Description: In certain cases and environments. to gather and record approximate horizontal (and. SUE is applied in a structured manner in accordance with practices and quality levels found in ASCE 38-02 “Standard Guideline for the Collection and Depiction of Existing Subsurface Utility Data. • QL-A involves physical exposure via “soft-digging” (vacuum excavation or hand-digging) and provides precise horizontal and vertical positional data.” The project owner dictates the required quality levels as well as the amount of effort expended by the SUE provider on each. vertical) positional data.3/ References: See Appendix D 2–14:Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) Practice Statement: When applied properly during the design phase. 2005 TR-2007-02: Modification to statement approved by the CGA Board on August 24. 2007 TR-2004-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on March 4. (See also Best Practices 4–19 and 5–29). • QL-C involves surface survey and identifying and recording aboveground features of subsurface utilities.

S. specifically as they apply to ongoing locating and re-marking requirements. all involved stakeholders • Positive response The purposes for establishing such processes are to enhance safety and to optimize the utilization of locating resources on large/complex projects. Pub. FHWA-IF-01-011 • ASCE 38-02 Standard Guideline for the Collection and Depiction of Existing Subsurface Utility Data • Pennsylvania state law 2–15:Use of Qualified Designers Practice Statement: Project owners employ qualified design and SUE providers. including (but not limited to) the following: • A method for identifying such projects • Preplanning and design coordination • Increased one call center involvement • A formalized communication process among all affected stakeholders • Project-specific marking agreements that address variance scenarios • Regularly scheduled meetings of. 2008 –14– . Practice Description: A “large/complex” project is a single project or a series of repetitive. Department of Transportation—FHWA (3/2001). standard and customary one call notification and locating practices. Such projects pose a unique set of safety and damage prevention challenges when using standard one call practices. 2007 TR-2006-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 12. Such processes are intended to compliment. Subsurface Utility Engineering: Enhancing Construction Activities. No. small. Such providers have knowledge and understanding of applicable CGA Best Practices and of the ASCE 38-02 SUE standard. and on-going communication among. Use of qualified SUE providers provides higher quality information to designers. Practice Description: When new utility infrastructure is installed. short-term projects that impact facilities over a long period of time or over a large area. related-scope.CGA Best Practices 12. 6/ 7/ TR-2007-04: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on November 15. who in turn can minimize utility conflicts by better depicting actual subsurface conditions on the construction plans. Providers are qualified in application of the associated design practices and SUE processes. and be used in addition to. These unique challenges can be addressed by the establishment of special processes. project owners employ qualified designers and SUE providers.6/ See also • Practice Statement 2–3: Identifying Existing Facilities in Planning and Design • Practice Statement 2–7: Use of Qualified Contractors • Practice Statement 2–14: Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) References: • New Jersey Public Service Electric and Gas 2–16:Project Coordination7/ Practice Statement: Large and/or complex projects may require the use of specific processes established to enhance safety and to coordinate buried-facility damage-prevention efforts among all potentially affected stakeholders throughout the life of the project. The providers also are knowledgeable of the operation of any involved equipment and interpretation of results where applicable.0 • U.

Planning and Design References: • Georgia Utility Protection Center (GAUPC) and Georgia Utility Facility Protection Act (GUFPA) • Pennsylvania One Call and Pennsylvania Underground Utility Line Protection Act –15– .

CGA Best Practices 12. –16– .0 .

Typical call center activities include the following: • Promotional items • Media advertising • Participation at safety meetings • Seminars and trade shows • Contractor awareness programs • Distribution of education material describing how the one call system works • Maintaining a database of active members of the local digging community • Mediating and rationalizing the expectations of both the facility owners/operators and the digging community • Participation in local damage prevention or facility location and coordination committees References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • OCSI Resource Guide 2009 (http://goo. and to promote the service it provides.gl/kpIDT) • 49 CFR Part 192 • 49 CFR Part 198 • National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. Practice Description: The one call center seeks opportunities to promote the need to “Call Before You Dig.” to enhance awareness of responsibilities to safeguard workers and the public and protect the integrity of the buried infrastructure.CHAPTER 3 One Call Center 3–1: Proactive Public Awareness. non-overlapping service areas are not essential. education. to foster a cooperative approach between the owners of buried facilities and the digging community toward the prevention of damage to buried facilities. Although this ease of use is enhanced when a one call center serves a specifically defined geopolitical area that does not overlap with the service area of another one call center. –17– . Education. There are three requirements that a one call program must meet to be considered as having implemented this best practice: • The program permits an excavator to use a single point of contact to submit and follow up on a notice of intent to excavate and to notify affected facility owners/operators. and Damage Prevention Activities Practice Statement: The one call center has a documented and proactive public awareness. and a facility owner/operator need only belong to a single one call center. and damage prevention program. PB97-917003) 3–2: Specifically Defined Geopolitical Service Area with No Overlap Practice Statement: The one call centers serving a specifically defined geopolitical area are structured so that an excavator need only make one call. Practice Description: One call programs are designed to promote ease of use for members (facility owners/operators) and excavators.

contractors/excavators. it is governed by a board of directors made up of representatives of the stakeholders. communications. These topics can be expanded to include guidelines and whatever else is needed for a particular system. expenses. cost allocations. The concept is to promote service. reports. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. it contains controls. project owners. amounts of liability insurance. In some instances they may prove unnecessary. and publicity.0 • The program permits a facility owner/operator to join a single one call center and receive all appropriate notices. and government). and balances. retention of records. financial matters. such as facility owners/ operators. reimbursements. errors and omissions insurance. and any special arrangements necessary. meetings. PB97-917003) 3–3: Formal Agreements with Members Practice Statement: Each member of the one call center abides by state/provincial statute where applicable or written agreement that states the rights and the responsibilities of the one call members and the one call center. Board members are from a variety of industry types. designers. and government representatives. Consideration is given to include “hold harmless” clauses.CGA Best Practices 12. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • OCSI Resource Guide 2009 (http://goo. Items that can be incorporated include sections on membership (including rights). elections. area served (with options to expand as planned).gl/kpIDT) • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. Any other required agreements are kept as simple as possible to facilitate understanding by all participants. not paperwork. and duties of officers. If bylaws are adopted. Procedures for the operation of a one call center are simple. PB97-917003) –18– . designers. Practice Description: To ensure that a one call center functions to the best benefit of the entire community. depending on the type of organization. Bylaws vary. Topics for procedures can be classified as general. checks. If an agreement to contract the service to an outside concern is made. contractors. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. simplicity is paramount. • The program is designed so that all pertinent information is shared among one call centers in the event more than one exists. center operations. PB97-917003) 3–4: One Call Center Governance Practice Statement: The one call center is governed by a board of directors representing the diverse makeup of the constituent groups (for example facility owners/operators. Each board member is knowledgeable in their own industry and of how it interacts with the one call center and all of the represented stakeholders. Practice Description: Operating procedures and bylaws are established.

PB97-917003) 3–6: Hours of Operation8/ Practice Statement: The one call center can process locate requests 24 hours per day. contact the one call center and have that request processed. Because these laws vary from state to state.One Call Center 3–5: Single Toll-free Statewide Telephone Number with Nationwide Access Practice Statement: All one call centers have a single toll free statewide telephone number with nationwide access. PB97-917003) 3–7: Voice Record of All Incoming Calls Practice Statement: A voice recording is maintained of all voice transactions concerning requests to locate facilities. 2013 –19– . The one call center has a procedure for processing requests for voice information. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. every day of the year. Practice Description: There is only one statewide toll-free telephone number for one call centers to receive locate requests. References: • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • OCSI Resource Guide 2009 (http://goo. the records may be destroyed after the expiration of the statute of limitations. 8/ TR-2009-14: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 5. PB97-917003) 3–8: Retention of Voice Records According to Applicable Statutes Practice Statement: Voice records of all calls concerning requests to locate facilities are retained according to applicable statutes. 7 days per week. This recording can be legally supported in court as well as used for damage investigations. These factual records must be maintained and made accessible until the applicable statute of limitations in the state/province has expired. This number has nationwide access. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. Practice Description: The one call center has a process in place where an excavator who has a locate request can. at anytime of the day or night. no specific time period is set forth as best practice.gl/kpIDT) • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. In the absence of notice by some party to the contrary. meaning that a caller can reach the center from anywhere in the country. Practice Description: A voice recording of telephone communications for locate requests is made to ensure that a precise record of the activity is retained. Practice Description: Voice recordings are a factual record of the events that occurred between the caller and the one call center.

procedures. PB97-917003) 3–10:Printed Ticket Recall Practice Statement: The one call center can provide a printed copy of any ticket for a period of time determined by applicable statutes. as necessary. Practice Description: Providing the locate request ticket number and the names of the facility owners/operators who will be notified enhances the efficiency of the one call process. it often is necessary to have a hard-copy printout of a locate request ticket. and Training Manuals Practice Statement: The one call center has documented operating procedures. When provided the names of the facility owners/operators. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. litigation. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. This helps the excavator determine if the facility owners/operators have responded to the locate request. PB97-917003) –20– . the excavator knows which owners/operators will be notified in the area of the planned excavation. and training manuals. Practice Description: In the event a damage investigation. and training manuals. Human Resource Policies.0 References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. human resource policies. a copy of a location request ticket for the appropriate statutory period. Local governments have statutory requirements for record retention in such cases. human resource policies. Practice Description: The one call center has documented operating procedures.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01.CGA Best Practices 12. practices. or other event occurs. PB97-917003) 3–11:Documented Operating Procedures. are dated. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. PB97-917003) 3–9: Caller Feedback Practice Statement: The one call center provides the caller with a ticket number and the names of facility owners/operators who will be notified for each locate request. Training manuals. The one call center has the ability to produce. and policies are on the premises in a designated area or place. and are available for reference.

A board’s ability to respond to change is enhanced by drafting bylaws and operating procedures that reflect the current environment in which the one call center serves. PB97-917003) 3–13:Flexibility for Growth and Change Practice Statement: The one call center’s operating plan is sufficiently flexible to accommodate growth and change. Practice Description: The one call center can work only with the information related to the existence of buried facilities that its members provide. and documentation of the change is returned to the member for verification prior to activation. according to that member. The most successful boards review these documents on an ongoing basis to ensure they continue to reflect or respond to current conditions.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. Such assessments help the boards identify stakeholder needs for future growth and development. These boards conduct regular strategic planning sessions during which they review the current state of the center’s major systems.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. programs. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. Any deletions or additions made by the member are entered into the database. PB97-917003) –21– . References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. It is important that the one call center be able to produce evidence that a member’s data is accurate. Many members of boards and center management teams stay informed about and involved in the one call industry by joining associations and attending conferences or other educational events that help them to better identify new opportunities for growth and change.One Call Center 3–12:Documented Owner Verification of Data Submitted by Facility Owners/Operators Practice Statement: The one call center returns the geographic description database documentation to the facility owner/operator annually and after each change for verification and approval. Practice Description: A successful one call center maintains flexibility to respond to changes by forming and maintaining a responsive organization whose board of directors’ composition allows adequate representation of the needs of all stakeholders. and outreach activities. Regular verification of data is a part of the documented agreement or operating procedures between the owner/operator of buried facilities and the one call center.

If a design request is received. at a minimum.CGA Best Practices 12. The one call center requires that the excavator provide sufficient information to fully identify the boundaries of the proposed work site. Practice Description: The one call center relays requests for job site facility meetings with facility owners/operators to the affected facilities owner/operator. PB97-917003) 3–16:Locate Request Practice Statement: The one call center captures the following information. If a meeting is required to show the limits and schedule of the work.gl/kpIDT) • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. References: • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • OCSI Resource Guide 2009 (http://goo. the one call center indicates that a meeting is requested. the one call center processes the request as designated by each facility owner/operator. PB97-917003) 3–15:One Call Center Accepts Notifications from Designers Practice Statement: The one call center accepts design requests and has the ability to process them as designated by the facility owners/operators. This additional information could include the following. for example: A: More detailed information to help determine the specific location of the excavation. Practice Description: A locate request is a communication between an excavator and one call center personnel in which a request for locating underground facilities is processed. Practice Description: To facilitate damage prevention. the one call center provides a listing of facility owners/operators directly to the designer. Once the list is identified.0 3–14:Meeting between the Excavator and Facility Operator(s) Initiated by One Call Notification Practice Statement: The one call center has a process for receiving and transmitting requests for meetings between the excavator and the facility operator(s) for the purpose of discussing locating facilities on large or complex jobs. In addition to the minimum required information identified in the preceding paragraph. A meeting request does not necessarily eliminate the need for a locate request. References: • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. on a locate request: • Caller’s name and phone number • Excavator’s/company’s name. and phone numbers • Specific location of the excavation • Start date and time of the excavation • Description of the excavation activity. project designers have a need for access to facility location information from facility owners/operators. the locate request includes any available information that will help establish the specific location of the excavation site. address. such as the following: 1: City 2: County/parish/township 3: State/province 4: Street address –22– .

” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01.One Call Center 5: Street name 6: Length and direction of the excavation and the nearest adjacent cross streets (needed to bound area of excavation or extended excavation) 7: Subdivision and lot number (for new development) 8: Latitude/longitude coordinate(s) or specific address of the dig site.) D: For whom the excavation work is being done E: The purpose of the work (i.. the dig site must be wholly within the included area.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • 49 CFR Part 198 3–17:Practices to Reduce Overnotifications Practice Statement: The one call center employs practices designed specifically to reduce the number of notices transmitted to facility owners/operators in which the reported excavation site is outside the owner’s/operator’s desired area of notification.. To reduce overnotifications. 9: Highway mile markers 10: Railroad mileposts 11: General directions/instructions 12: Map grids 13: Distance to nearest cross street 14: Any other pertinent references to help establish the location of the dig site B: The intended start date and time of the excavation (i. blasting. boring.. what will be installed or built) F: Additional remarks References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. For a spatial rectangle (maximum/minimum latitude/longitude). These may be done automatically by the GIS subsystem or determined by a computer-assisted customer service representative. technology includes.g. an area or box. PB97-917003) –23– . The dig site can be a point. which may be later than when excavation can legally begin based on the ticket date) C: Type of excavation activity (e.e. but is not limited to. trenchless. the date excavation is actually expected to begin. Practice Description: The one call center employs technology that enables the facility owner/operator to determine its desired area of notification by either polygons or grids.e. the following: • Enables the one call center to define the proposed excavation site buffer to within approximately 800 ft • Enables the facility owner/operator to identify its desired area of notification to within approximately 100 ft References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. etc. or a polygon. trenching.

The one call center (the primary center) has a backup arrangement with another facility at a remote location (the secondary center). This process ensures that the ticket quality is maintained for all tickets.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers 3–19:Direct Electronic Locate Practice Statement: The one call center provides users a means of direct.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • NTSB Safety Study (NTSB/SS-97/01. References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. Practice Description: The one call center develops and implements an effective disaster recovery plan that enables it to continue operations in the aftermath of a disaster affecting the facility. including locate requests. • Staffing—a portion of the secondary center’s staff is cross-trained for the primary center’s operation at all times.CGA Best Practices 12. and maintains an effective disaster recovery plan that enables the one call function to continue in the event of a disaster. The disaster recovery plan makes provisions for the one call center to process emergency locate requests for the areas affected by the disaster. The secondary center always has a copy of the primary’s current software. This correction is accomplished by referencing the same geographic database used at the one call center when taking a called-in request. The remote interface validates the input information and allows the user to make corrections if necessary. References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. Excavators and underground facility owners/operators outside of the area affected by the disaster can continue to conduct business with minimum to no delays in the services provided by the one call center.0 3–18:Disaster Recovery Practice Statement: A one call center develops. implements. This arrangement includes the following: • Telecommunications—alternate routing schedules are in place and ready to be activated within minutes of the primary centers’ failure. on a regular basis and preferably in real time. • Simulated emergency testing—at least once a year. Practice Description: The one call center has interactive data communications sufficient to permit remote data entry for members and excavators. PB97-917003) –24– . electronic entry of locate requests that maintain comparable ticket quality to an operator-assisted entry. on a random basis. • Software and hardware—the secondary center has compatible hardware with the primary center. the disaster recovery plan is implemented to verify that it is operational. • Database—the secondary center receives the primary center’s database.

References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. etc. The facility operator’s job of determining the existence of a potential conflict is expedited.). county. field personnel can find and mark the affected area much easier. The one call center takes steps to link these reference points to the database used to register the facility operator’s desired area of notification. • Off-site storage of a duplicate database and necessary system software. Because the one call center is a critical link in the communication chain between the excavating community and facilities. taking into account that it may well need to be operational in times of natural disasters or in the face of other threats. Practice Description: The one call center’s locate request-taking processes and computer system are designed to accept and process multiple types of reference points used by callers to (1) describe the location of their work and (2) define the excavation site. The one call center invests in systems and processes that permit inclusion of a variety of types of reference points in defining the excavation site. city. Security components could include the following: • Physical security for the building and its employees through locked operations areas. employee key cards. it is important that the one call center does whatever it can to provide adequate security..” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers 3–21:One Call Center Security Practice Statement: The one call center provides appropriate physical and systems security. valid address or street/cross street. All stakeholders involved in the one call process receive a corresponding benefit when the one call center can define the excavation site as specifically as possible. street/cross street. Practice Description: The one call center needs protection from natural disasters and other threats. railroad mileposts. lighting.One Call Center 3–20:Accept Multiple Reference Points for Locate Requests Practice Statement: The one call center can accept multiple types of points of reference to define the exact location of an excavation site (e. latitude longitude. and electrical protection to protect the one call center and its critical components. etc. thereby helping to reduce overnotification. and guard patrols • Physical security for critical systems components that may include locating the facilities in locked enclosures and restricting access to necessary personnel • General fire protection for the one call center personnel and property • Specialized fire protection for critical systems components • Specialized theft protection for critical systems components • Telephone demarcation points in a protected area within the one call center • Passwords and protections to limit access to computers and other systems. and the excavator receives timely markings covering the area of excavation. fire protection. latitude/longitude. township/range/section. political and mail address (ZIP code) boundaries. Examples of different types of reference points include highway mile markers. Reference: • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers –25– . Standardizing a limited set of criteria reduces the flexibility of the system to serve the excavator and facility owner/operator.g. highway/railroad/pipeline mile markers. address.

A monthly average abandonment rate that is less than 5% is recommended. An ASA objective of 30 seconds or less is recommended. Key performance indicators include. Meeting or exceeding a benchmark qualifies as a “best” practice.” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers 3–23:One Call Quality Standards9/ Practice Statement: The one call center establishes and monitors performance standards for the operation of the center. Practice Description: A: Customer Quality of Service Performance Measurements One call centers monitor the quality of service provided to a customer who phones in a locate request. such as ticket taking. busy signal rate. These fault-tolerant systems maximize the probability that the one call center will be able to properly process an excavation request in the event of a failure or malfunction. 2: Abandoned Call Rate The incidence of abandoned incoming calls is a function of the number of one call center customer service representatives actively processing locate requests and the volume of incoming calls. These systems have the ability to identify the malfunctioning hardware component and permit its replacement while remaining online and processing normal applications. Practice Description: A fault-tolerant system can withstand any single hardware malfunction without any interruption or degradation of service.CGA Best Practices 12. 3: Busy Signal Rate The incidence of callers experiencing busy signals is a function of the number of incoming telephone lines to the one call center and the incoming call volume.0 3–22:Hardware Designed to Tolerate a Single Point of Failure Practice Statement: The one call center uses fault-tolerant hardware for its critical path operations. Callers have an expectation that there will be very few busy signals. and ticket delivery. but need not be limited to. A caller that has waited more than 60 seconds before hanging up is considered an abandoned call. call abandonment rate. average speed of answer. The recommended benchmarks to fulfill a high quality of customer service while promoting accuracy. and efficiency are identified below. 2008 –26– . database access. cost effectiveness. Callers have an expectation that all calls will be answered within a reasonable time. and year to date. and customer satisfaction. References: • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. monthly. 9/ TR-2005-05: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on November 14. 1: Average Speed of Answer Average speed of answer (ASA) usually comprises the number of seconds between the time a caller is transferred from the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system and the time a voice welcomes the caller and begins the processing of a locate request averaged over a specified time interval and accumulated daily. Service level objectives in the one call center industry are generally monitored daily.

” AT&T (was available when the practice was created but is no longer available) • Existing operating practices from various states one call centers 3–24:Web Services Solution10/ Practice Statement: The one call center provides a method by which a member operator can receive excavation notifications through a secure Web service that uses an accepted standard for its ticket format. one call centers also should provide a method that is consistently secure and reliable. A monthly average busy signal rate that does not exceed 1% is recommended. 10/ TR-2006-02: Amendment approved by CGA Board on November 16. Typically.0 satisfies this practice. C: Notification Delivery The one call center establishes and monitors criteria for the transmission of notifications and notification audit reports. 4: Customer Satisfaction A fundamental principal in measuring quality is that “the customer defines quality. one call centers can extract information on busy signals from their telephone systems or obtain the information from their communications service providers. The information usually comprises the number of callers experiencing a busy signal as a percentage of the total number of attempts to contact the one call center during normal business hours.” Periodic customer satisfaction surveys are conducted. 2006 –27– . Practice Description: In addition to all other methods and formats used by one call centers to communicate excavation notifications to underground facility owner/operators that do not have automated ticket management systems.One Call Center Typically. and year to date. B: Locate Request Quality The one call center has in place quality control and quality assurance programs to measure and monitor the accuracy and completeness of the information received by the one call center compared to the information transmitted by the one call center. The one call center makes all information/data collected on the quality of its performance available for review by the appropriate oversight authority and the public upon request. Notification audit reports are sent to receiving stations at a mutually acceptable frequency.0. such as Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1. monthly. the one call center can transmit notifications in an electronic format that allows receiving stations to parse/extract data. References: • One Call Systems International Voluntary Recognition Program • “Model One Call for the 20th and 21st Century. It is a best practice to send an audit report at least once every business day. Providing e-mail and/or File Transfer Protocol (FTP) communications methods alone does not satisfy this practice. Typically. Establishing this method within the one call centers along with an accepted standard format such as Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1. notification transmission is immediate. Service level objectives are reported daily.

The process of notification depends on all affected member facility operators being notified of intent to excavate through the regional one call center.CGA Best Practices 12. Membership in the one call center by underground facility operators ensures that potential conflicts with existing facilities that may be encountered during excavation activities are identified by using a single regional point of contact. 2008 –28– . 2006 TR-2007-05: Amendment approved by CGA Board on August 8. Operators of the aforementioned underground facilities who fail to become members of their local one call center risk public safety and damage to their facilities. Practice Description: Underground damage prevention begins with a notice of intent to excavate submitted by an excavator to the appropriate one call center. Some state laws mandate that additional specific action be taken by the facility operators upon receipt of these types of notices (Arizona. The following are examples of an underground facility that would probably not require one call center membership: • The internal use of owned underground facilities to provide safe operations in controlled rights of ways. 3–25:Identification of Unknown Lines11/ Practice Statement: The one call center has a defined and documented policy for handling calls from excavators regarding the discovery of an unidentified line.” 3–26:One Call Membership12/ Practice Statement: Any entity that furnishes or transports products or services to a third party for its use or consumption by means of an underground facility or furnishes or transports products or services for its own internal use by means of an underground facility that occupies or crosses a right-of-way or utility easement is a member of a one call center. Inc. 11/ 12/ TR-2002-04: Amendment approved by CGA Board on September 8.0 References: • Sunshine State One Call of Florida • Utility Protection Center of Georgia • Dig Safely New York • Ohio Utilities Protection Service • Arizona Blue Stake. Practice Description: To facilitate damage prevention. The law requires that the one call center “establish a method of providing personnel from a facility owner qualified to safely inspect and verify that the facility is abandoned or active and a method for reimbursing the verifying facility owner for the cost incurred. References: • Many one call centers process a “Dig Up” request when an unidentified line has been exposed (Texas). such as railroad operating corridors that facilitate the transportation of freight or passengers. and endanger excavators who may come into contact with these aforementioned underground facilities. one call centers have an established procedure that is implemented when an excavator calls and reports an unidentified facility. Delaware). Others simply reissue the locate request with an appropriate remark (Maryland. The action taken could be as simple as renotifying all affected facility operators in the absence of any other specific requirement of state or local law. which currently requires an “unknown line policy” to be in effect via the Arizona Blue Stake One Call Center).

North Carolina. Maryland. Colorado. West Virginia. Virginia. on a national level. Pennsylvania.) References: State One Call Laws.C. New Mexico. such as the transportation of freight or passengers by rail. New Jersey. Iowa. References: One call centers who participate currently: AL —Alabama 811 AR —Arkansas One Call System AZ —Arizona Blue Stake CA —USA North CA —USA South CO—Colorado 811 CT —Call Before You Dig FL —SunshineState One Call GA —UtilitiesProtectionCenter IA —Iowa One Call ID —Dig Line IN —Indiana 811 KS —Kansas One Call System KY —Kentucky 811 13/ 14/ LA —Louisiana One Call System MA —Dig Safe System ME —Dig Safe System MI —Miss Dig System MN —GopherState One Call MO —Missouri One Call System MS —Mississippi 811 NC —North Carolina 811 NH —Dig Safe System NM —New Mexico One Call NV —USA North NY —New York 811 NY —Dig Safely New York OH —Ohio Utilities Protection Service OR —Oregon Utility Notification Ctr PA —Pennsylvania One Call System RI —Dig Safe System SD —South Dakota One Call TN —Tennessee 811 TX —Texas 811 UT —Blue Stakes of Utah VA —Miss Utility of Virginia VT —Dig Safe System WA —Oregon Utility Notification Ctr WI —Diggers Hotline WV —Miss Utility of West Virginia TR-2011-02: Addition approved by CGA Board on August 10. (Note: aboveground use of one’s rights of way or property. 2012 TR-2012-05: Addition approved by CGA Board on December 13. Receiving ticket and transmission volumes from all one call centers allows all stakeholders to review. References: • BP 4-9 Positive Response Is Provided to Facility Locate Requests • Existing practice in Arizona. more accurate projections and to determine the cause and possible solutions for damages to subsurface installations.One Call Center • The internal use of an entity’s underground facilities by that entity solely on its own property. 3–28:One Call Center Data14/ Practice Statement: All one call centers annually submit their ticket and transmission volumes to the OCSI Data Collection Tool. Many one call centers currently provide this data to the OCSI data collection tool. Delaware. Georgia. D. the one call center provides facility owner/operators the best means to communicate the status of their response to a notice of intent to the person initiating the notice. Practice Description: By hosting an electronic positive response system. Florida. Michigan. Ohio. is not within the purview of the CGA Best Practices. 2012 –29– . and Washington. Tennessee. Practice Description: Ticket and transmission volumes from the One Call Systems International (OCSI) data collection tool are shared with the Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) to make a correlation between one call center ticket and/or transmission volume to damages or events that have occurred. 1999 Common Ground Study 3–27:Electronic Positive Response13/ Practice Statement: The one call center provides a method for facility owner/operators to electronically post their positive response status to a notice of intent to excavate.

0 3–29:One Call Facility Locate Request Size and Scope15/ Practice Statement: A maximum locate request area that is appropriate for a proposed excavation site is defined for a facility locate request. Practice Description: Designating a manageable locate request size (work area size/scope) along with clear locate instructions will reduce uncertainty and provide clarity to the utility operators and/or locators as to "what" and "where" needs to be located and marked. including Georgia. 2014 –30– . References: • North Carolina 811 • Pennsylvania 811 15/ 16/ TR-2011-01: Addition approved by CGA Board on October 24. operators. This information includes but is not limited to contact information. Pennsylvania. Indiana. excavation activity duration.CGA Best Practices 12. 2013 TR-2012-01: Wording approved by CGA Board on December 11. This is designed to prevent unnecessary locator effort and allow adequate time to locate and mark the affected underground facilities within the time frame and marking requirement of the appropriate state statute. work type. By providing the excavator with a record of information communicated to facility owners. the excavator is able to verify the accuracy of the information. as well as the proposed location of excavation activities. References: • Existing state laws. Practice Description: Providing locate request information to the excavator enhances the one call communication process. ticket life. and South Carolina (as examples) 3–30:Locate Information Shared with Excavator16/ Practice Statement: The one call center provides locate request information to the excavator. and locators by the one call center in response to the excavator’s locate request.

Failure to note errors or omissions when found could result in damages to the facility at a later date.”)18/ The December 1997 NTSB safety report cites the use of the APWA/ Utility Location and Coordination Council (ULCC) color code as the model example. then the facility locator provides information for updating records that are in error or for adding new facilities. a locator may become aware of errors or omissions. and delays in posting new records. DC. Practice Description: During the course of a locating activity. changes during construction at the job site. (See Appendix B. DC. 1994 September 8-9. “Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines. number of facilities. Washington. Facility records indicate approximate location. The corrections are submitted to the appropriate person or department in a timely manner.CHAPTER 4 Locating and Marking 4–1: Available Records Practice Statement: Locators use available facility records at all times. Washington. Report of Proceedings NTSB/RP-95/01 (pp. Proceedings of the Excavation Damage Prevention Workshop. 17/ 18/ National Transportation Safety Board. 2004 –31– . TR-2001-05: Approved by the CGA Board on September 24. Practice Description: Facility locators use available records at all times. The use of facility owner/operator-supplied records is an effective method of identifying facilities as part of the locating process. 4–2: Corrections and Updates Practice Statement: If a facility locator becomes aware of an error or omission.177-178). 1995.”17/ 4–3: Color Code Practice Statement: A uniform color code and set of marking symbols is adopted nationwide. repair or abandonment of facilities. Practice Description: A national standard is adopted defining color specifications relevant to facility type and marking symbols for identifying facilities. The method of notification is determined by the facility owner/operator and includes the following information: • Name (and company if contracted) • Contact phone number of the individual(s) submitting change • Location (either address or reference points) • Size and type of facility • Nature of the error or omission • Sketch of the change in relation to the other facilities Omissions and errors may occur as a result of misdrawn records. and access points for buried facilities within a requested area. The 1994 NTSB Excavation Damage Prevention Workshop stated that “facility operators should be required to update maps when excavation finds errors in the mapping system. Methods are in place to notify a facility owner/operator of that error or omission.

with fewer links needed between excavator and locator. The use of a single locator to carry out locate requests for multiple facilities further simplifies communications. 4–5: Locator Training Practice Statement: Locators are properly trained. Documentation of all training is maintained to ensure that facility locators have been properly trained.. Practice Description: This practice is employed when determined to be advantageous by the facility owner/operator. 2002. These advantages can include the following: • More responsive service to the excavation community • Better communication with the excavating community (fewer points of contact) • Improved safety as a result of less traffic on the road • Improved worker safety • Reduced environmental impact • Maps of multiple facilities Note: this best practice does not suggest that all facilities be located by a single locator. 19/ National Utility Locating Contractors Association.CGA Best Practices 12. This practice has been employed by a facility owner in Michigan to enhance safety. Practice Description: Minimum training guidelines and practices are adopted for locator training.0 4–4: Single Locator Practice Statement: A single locator is used for multiple facilities. Locator Training Standards and Practices. The use of a single locator to mark multiple facilities may provide several advantages to both the facility and the excavating communities. state/provincial and local laws • Written and field testing • Field training • Annual retesting The National Utility Locating Contractors Association (NULCA) Locator Training Standards and Practices19/ represent an accepted model within the locate industry. multiple facilities with the same owner or multiple facilities that are marked with the same or similar color codes).g. Locator training is documented. Spooner. WI –32– . The use of a one call center allows locate requests for multiple facilities at an excavation site to be issued through a single point of contact. simplifying communications. These guidelines and practices include the following: • Understanding system design/prints/technology • Understanding construction standards and practices for all types of facilities • Equipment training and techniques • Plant recognition training • Theory of locating • Daily operations • Facility owner/excavator relationships and image • Safety procedures per Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations/federal. The use of a single locator to locate multiple facilities is analogous to the use of a one call center to handle locate requests from excavators. but rather that conditions exist in which locating multiple facilities with a single locator will reduce the likelihood of errors and resulting damage (e.

5: Job Briefing. All working individuals wear proper safety attire.4 is used to conduct a job briefing prior to commencement of on-site locate work. access routes and travel plans to emergency response facilities are defined. insulation. Methods are developed to identify and safely work around these hazards.A. A: Pre-Work Safety Considerations 1: Site Background Data. etc. This information may be gathered from the facility records and from visual inspection. Employees are made aware of these hazards and are properly trained in worker safety standards. state/ provincial. Items such as ladders. grounding. 3: External Resources. and any other public emergency response organization.) that could affect the safety of the job site are identified. and/or other potential safety problems that might be encountered in connection with on-site locate work.g. Information is gathered about safety-related resources that might be required in the event of an accident or other problem (such as an employee illness).. The site is analyzed to determine if physical obstructions are present on the property that would make locate work unsafe. All equipment used in connection with locate work is suitable for the intended uses. In addition. roadways.A. fire department. B: Locate Work Safety Considerations 1: Personnel Protection.3. local. Appropriate measures conforming to federal.Locating and Marking 4–6: Safety Practice Statement: Locates are performed safely. c: Physical Site Conditions. etc. Watchman/lookout capabilities are provided to ensure the safety of personnel in cases where locate work requires that working individuals disrupt traffic flow or otherwise occupy hazardous positions. Site information is gathered to determine hazards.) at the work site are identified to determine whether such traffic would pose any safety hazard to locating the site.g.A. This work plan considers all of the safety related information developed in connection with paragraphs 4–6. highways.1 through 4–6. 2: Site Familiarization. Vehicular arteries (e. time requirements. pits. All hazards associated with performing a locate are identified.. Information needed includes location and contact information for the nearest hospital. railways. and other instruments and items are inspected from a safety perspective prior to use. The job briefing focuses on safety aspects of the required work. Safety features such as locking devices. trenches. Practice Description: It is the responsibility of the owner/operator and locator to establish when and how the underground facility will be identified. equipment requirements. exposures. Such attire provides for adequate visibility of the worker and personal protection against hazards. bores.. and industry standards are established. police department. Soil conditions and other factors (e. b: Traffic. A work plan in which procedures. Information developed as discussed in paragraphs 4–6. Areas to be considered include the following: a: Obstructions.A. are thoroughly inspected. electrical test devices. and other factors are considered is developed to define the most efficient means for safely accomplishing required locate work. 4: Work Plan. Means for working around such obstructions are defined. etc. standing water. employee roles. 2: Equipment. Site characteristics that could affect locate work are analyzed. –33– .2 and 4–6.

brushes. but is not limited to. and giving priority to personal safety. –34– . flags. The visual inspection is necessary because the time between placing a facility in the field and placing it on permanent records varies by facility owner/operator and location. C: Post-Work Safety Considerations 1: Termination of Work Activities. It is very important that visual inspections be completed in areas of new construction. Any safety related equipment used in connection with the work is returned/restored to pre-work status. adequate monitoring and/or ventilation devices are present and properly operating during occupancy. Evidence of a facility not on record includes. pedestals (including new cables found within the pedestals). Markings may include one or any combination of the following: paint. meters. Practice Description: Facility locators match markings to the existing and expected surface conditions. appropriate testing is accomplished prior to entry. the site is restored and left in such a condition that no safety hazards associated with the locate work activities remain. where records may not indicate the presence of a facility. valves. poles. snow. Conditions that may affect markings are rain. All marks extend a reasonable distance beyond the bounds of the requested area. 4–7: Visual Inspection Practice Statement: A visual inspection is completed during the facility locating process. and no unsafe conditions remain at the site. In cases where locate work requires personnel to enter into spaces with potentially unsafe conditions. After completion of locate work. risers. etc. All personnel and equipment used in connection with the work are accounted for. dips. a debriefing safety review of work activities is conducted. avoiding unnecessary risks. After locate work is completed. 4: Work Activities. Practice Description: This inspection includes the following: • All facilities within a facility owner/operator’s service area (to evaluate the scope of the locate request) • Identification of access points • Identification of potential hazards • Assurance that plant facilities shown on records match those of the site A visual inspection helps determine if there are facilities placed that are not on record. Proper training for all facility locators includes properly identifying the varying surface and environmental conditions that exist in the field and what marking methods should be used. high traffic. construction. All locate work activities are conducted with safety given first priority.0 3: Exposures. and manholes. During times when such spaces are occupied. chalk. 2: Debriefing. 4–8: Facility Marking Practice Statement: Facilities are adequately marked for conditions. enclosures. stakes. or offsets.CGA Best Practices 12. All employees are thoroughly trained and briefed regarding safety measures such as minimizing exposures to potentially hazardous conditions. The review looks at the safety aspects of all applicable work practices to determine if unnecessary exposures may have occurred and where improvements could be made. vegetation.

20/ TR-2007-03: Modification to description approved by the CGA Board on August 24. or limited or non-existing access points may render an abandoned line non-locatable. Practice Description: In general. The corridor marker indicates the width of the facility. (See Appendix B.Locating and Marking 4–9: Positive Response to Locate Request Practice Statement: Positive response is provided to facility locate requests. Practice Description: When the presence of an abandoned facility within an excavation site is known. abandonment of an existing facility. all abandoned facilities are treated as live facilities. A positive response allows the excavator to know whether all facility owners/operators have marked the requested area prior to the beginning of the excavation. fax. Information regarding the presence or location of an abandoned facility may not be available because of updating or deletion of records. callback. Practice Description: All facility locate requests result in a positive response from the facility owner/operator to the excavator. When located or exposed. a corridor marker is used. 2007 –35– . In addition. “Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines. the number of lines marked on the surface equals the number of lines buried below. It should be emphasized that recommendation of this practice is not an endorsement of the maintenance of records for abandoned facilities. 4–10:Marking Multiple Facilities in the Same Trench Practice Statement: Multiple facilities in the same trench are marked individually and with corridor markers. damage to an abandoned facility. A positive response may include one or more of the following: markings or documentation left at the job site. or automated response system.”)20/ 4–11:Abandoned Facilities Practice Statement: Information on abandoned facilities is provided when possible. an attempt is made to locate and mark the abandoned facility. In circumstances where the total number of lines buried in the same trench by a single facility owner/operator may not be readily known.

The least-preferred method is induction or broadcast mode on a transmitter. because conductive soils and materials obscure radar signals. the owner/operator of a facility is identified by markings at the time the facility is located. It is important to note that these technologies are not applicable in all areas or conditions. 2005 –36– . Practice Description: The preferred method of actively applying a signal onto a facility is to use direct connection. Using an induction clamp is not as effective at transmitting a signal as direct connection. Practice Description: When feasible. 4–13:Facility Owner/Operator Identification Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator is identified. This process provides the strongest signal on the line and is less likely to “bleed over” to adjacent facilities than other methods of applying a signal.21/ Practice Description: In cases where non-conductive utilities cannot be located using electromagnetic means. and must use a higher power output. where higher frequencies provide higher resolution but shallower depth of penetration. (See Appendix B. “Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines. This method allows a greater range of frequency and power output options. This usually results in a weak signal that will “bleed over” to any conductor in the area. Practice Statement B: When electromagnetic locating is not possible.0 4–12:Locating Electromagnetically Practice Statement A: When locating electromagnetically. radar-based technologies can be used. It is good practice to use the lowest frequency possible at the lowest power output possible to complete the locate. If direct connection is not possible. Direct connection is the process of connecting a direct lead from the transmitter to the target facility and connecting a ground lead from the transmitter to a ground point to complete a circuit.CGA Best Practices 12. use of an induction clamp (coupler) is the most effective method of applying a locate signal onto the target conductor. Applicable radar frequencies range from 200 MHz to 900 MHz. radar-based methods such as ground penetrating radar and associated technologies can be used to determine the location of such utilities. can only be used within certain frequency ranges. active/conductive locating is preferable to passive/inductive locating. This method is more limiting for the choices of frequency and power outputs than direct connection. Users of these technologies should have the degree of knowledge and training required to operate the associated equipment and/or to interpret the results. This practice facilitates a positive response for all facilities within the requested area.”) 21/ TR-2004-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on March 4.

and excavators all have clearly defined processes to facilitate communication between all parties. a proper investigation is performed to determine not only the responsible party but also the root cause of the damage. Practice Description: Anytime a damage occurs. –37– .Locating and Marking 4–14:Communication between Parties Practice Statement: Communication is established between all parties. Written agreements between the excavator(s) and the locator(s) include the following information: • Date • Name • Company • Contact numbers for all parties • A list of the areas to be excavated • A schedule for both marking and excavating the areas • Any follow-up agreements that might be necessary Any changes to the areas that are to be located are in writing and include all parties responsible for the excavation and marking of the excavation sites. Practice Description: Facility owners/operators and/or their representatives develop methods to sufficiently forecast and plan for future workloads so that ticket requests may be completed in a timely manner. This assists in the locate process by requiring a locator to review what was located and then to verify that all facilities within the requested area were marked. Locators also schedule meetings if the complexity of the markings requires further explanation. then a pre-location meeting is scheduled. 4–17:Forecasting/Planning for Predictable Workload Fluctuations Practice Statement: A plan is developed for managing unpredictable fluctuations. Note: this practice does not limit the number of one call requests from excavators. Practice Description: One call centers. Careful documentation helps ensure that there is an accurate record of the work performed by the locator and helps eliminate confusion over what work was requested by the excavator. If the complexity of a project or its duration is such that a clear and precise understanding of the excavation site is not easily conveyed in writing on a locate request. Practice Description: A facility locator always documents what work was completed on a locate request. This pre-location meeting is on-site to establish the scope of the excavation. facility owners/operators. The information gathered from damage investigations is essential in preventing future damages. This ensures that adequate personnel and equipment are available to complete all locate requests. 4–16:Damage Investigation Practice Statement: A damaged facility is investigated as soon as possible after occurrence of damage. 4–15:Documentation of Work Performed Practice Statement: Documentation of work performed on a locate is maintained.

I: Trace audits for trend analysis. Central Locate Services. and after any trenchless excavation (as applicable). H: Communicate results to applicable personnel. and minimum tolerance levels. Components: A: Conduct field audits and choose some locations to be audited/surveyed purely at random. Practice Description: Locate in the area of the entrance pit the trenchless excavation path and the exit pit when trenchless excavation is being used. The recommended components listed below are assembled from multiple sources and are meant to provide general guidelines for auditing the work of locators. ATCO Gas. governed. M:Verify that tools and equipment are in proper working order and properly calibrated. K: Verify the reference material used to document that the locate was up to date (electronic plans or paper plans).) References: • See Appendix D 22/ 23/ TR-2003-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on March 26. E: Check evidence of accurate and proper communication. during. Great Plains Locating. as defined by regulation/statute. (For additional Information. refer to Practice Statements 2–13 and 5–29.22/ Practice Description: The process of conducting audits for locates is a critical component to the protection of underground facilities. References: • Health Consultants Incorporated. D: Check completion of a request.0 4–18:Quality Assurance Practice Statement: Underground facility owners/operators have a quality assurance program in place for monitoring the locating and marking of facilities. G: Check than an audit/survey is documented. B: Check accuracy to within. C: Measure timeliness.CGA Best Practices 12. contractual. F: Check that proper documentation exists. L: Verify that appropriate safety equipment and procedures were used by the locator. LTD. 2004 TR-2003-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 16. J: Verify proper hook-up and grounding procedures where applicable. 2005 –38– . Utiliquest 4–19:Trenchless Excavation23/ Practice Statement: All stakeholders adhere to all best practices and the general guidelines stated in the following practice description prior to.

State of California Code.) to indicate the presence of an underwater facility in the area. poles. For natural (and other) gas and hazardous liquids pipelines. Markers for underwater facilities follow local. electric. anchors. Practice Description: The technology used to locate and mark the submerged facility is dependent upon the size of the facility. Placement and removal of temporary markers for underwater facilities follow local. and contact number of the facility operator are included on markers for all facility types. permanent shoreline markers provide additional protection to the excavators. There are many excavating activities (e. Sunshine State One Call of Florida. State of Alabama Code. Facility type. OPS: 49 CFR 192. directional boring. 2005 –39– ..Locating and Marking 4–20:Locating and Marking in Navigable Waterways A: Permanent Markers for Underwater Facilities24/ Practice Statement: Permanent markers are placed as close as practical at the entrance and exit points of facilities located underneath bodies of water where facilities are at risk of being damaged. and federal laws and regulations. GPS coordinates. The proper placement of visible temporary markers raises the awareness of these facilities and reduces likelihood of damage. cable. the facility contact is the one call center.. 2005 TR-2004-04B: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 16. these affected bodies of waters are “commercially navigable waterways” that have been defined in 49 CFR 195. The proper placement and maintenance of visible permanent markers raise the awareness of these facilities and reduce the likelihood of damage. or PVC markers are used by underwater facility owners to indicate the presence of an underwater facility in the area. sewer. 24/ 25/ TR-2004-04A: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on April 15. etc. water. telecommunication. State of Mississippi Code B: Temporary Markers for Underwater Facilities25/ Practice Statement: Temporary markers are placed within the areas of proposed excavations as close as practical over facilities that are submerged in bodies of water where facilities are at risk of being damaged without impeding or creating additional hazards. dredging. State of Delaware Code. In some cases.g. There are many excavating activities. name. and directional boring. and oil/gas pipelines. state. material composition of the floor.g. such as dredging. setting of anchors. Communication between stakeholders is initiated through the one call center to reduce potential conflicts. and the public. depth of water.450 for hazardous liquids pipelines as “waterways where a substantial likelihood of commercial navigation exists. and/or fixed high-bank marks.707. Markers include the words “Do Not Anchor or Dredge” and/or applicable warning language. References: • Tennessee Gas: 1995 Procedures. bridge construction. Temporary markers such as buoys. It is critical for stakeholders to maintain communication throughout the excavation to ensure the safe and successful completion of the project. and the depth the facility is positioned in or on the floor of the body of water. At times these markers may be supplemented with mapping.” Practice Description: Markers are used by underwater facility owners (e. facilities. and other activities) that can damage these underwater facilities. bridge construction. Benefits: • By alerting excavators to the presence of underwater facilities. and federal laws and regulations. state. that can damage underwater facilities.

2010 TR-2009-12: Addition approved by the CGA Board on June 17. State of California Code. FL. The operator or the governmental entity locates and marks these service lines within the bounds of the locate request up to either 1) the point of their operational responsibility. 2011 –40– . or an allowed access to or through private property while pursuing a business that generates revenue by providing a product or service to an end-use customer (other than another operator of like kind or themselves) • A governmental entity that provides a product or service via that service line. as designated by the prevailing law. newly installed facilities can be damaged and safety can be compromised if the facilities are not marked. App. GA. an easement. References: • Sunshine State One Call of Florida. 2) the point the service line enters a building. PA 4–22:Marking Newly Installed Facilities27/ Practice Statement: Facility operators ensure that new facilities in areas with continuing excavation activity are marked upon installation to indicate their presence. Wheat Ridge Sanitation District. County Court Case No. Col.2d 496 (Ct. MN. References: • South Dakota Attorney General’s official opinion 8/11/08 • Minnesota DPS Rule Ch 7560 – 5/31/05 • Colorado appellate court case: Wycon Construction Co. State of Mississippi Code 4–21:Service Lines26/ Practice Statement: A service line is marked in response to a locate request to the operator who uses the service line to pursue a business that derives revenue by providing a product or service to an end-use customer via the service line. State of Delaware Code. A service line is marked in response to a locate request to a governmental entity that provides a product or service to an end-use customer via the service line. Ltd. 870 P. WE Energies/Wisconsin 26/ 27/ TR-2008-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on March 3. 1994) • Leon County. Michels Construction. v.0 Benefits: By alerting excavators to the presence of underwater facilities. v. or 3) where the access to locate the line terminates. Inc. Marking facilities upon installation gives notice to other excavators of the newly installed facilities that may not otherwise be marked in response to a notice of intent to excavate. References: • CenterPoint Energy/Minnesota. Practice Description: In areas of continuing excavation. City of Tallahassee • Oregon PUC Ruling 5/1/98 • State One Calls laws: AZ. and the public. Practice Description: A service line is a type of underground facility that is connected to a main facility. State of Alabama Code.CGA Best Practices 12. 03-SC-6827. V. The service line is used by the following entities: • An operator who provides a product or service within a right-of-way. Mitchell Properties. facilities. temporary markers provide additional protection to excavators. Cornerstone of North Florida. OH.

flags. Reference: • Existing state laws. and others –41– . however. the excavator designates the route and/or area to be excavated using white premarking prior to the arrival of the locator. including California. and the environment. the excavator calls the one call center at least two working days and no more than ten working days prior to beginning excavation. Increased participation in this one call system provides for improved communication between excavators and facility operators necessary to reduce damage. The 1997 safety study “Protecting Public Safety through Excavation Damage Prevention” by the NTSB reached the conclusion that premarking is a practice that helps prevent excavation damage. and can disrupt vital services provided by facility operators. Connecticut also adopted a premarking requirement. Practice Description: Currently 50 states and 5 Canadian provinces have one call legislation and/or established one call centers recognizing that excavation performed without prior notification poses a risk to public safety. Premarking allows the excavators to accurately communicate to facility owners/operators or their locator where excavation is to occur. Missouri. Facility owners/operators can avoid unnecessary work created when locating facilities that are not associated with planned excavation. stakes. New Jersey. excavators. the law provides for face-to-face meetings between operators and excavators on projects that are too large for or not conductive to premarking. Maine was one of the first states to have mandatory premarking for non-emergency excavations. Practice Description: The route of the excavation is marked with white paint. Unless otherwise specified in state/provincial law. (See Appendix B for additional practice information) Reference: • Existing state laws. or a combination of these to outline the dig site prior to notifying the one call center and before the locator arrives on the job.CHAPTER 5 Excavation 5–1: One Call Facility Locate Request Practice Statement: The excavator requests the location of underground facilities at each site by notifying the facility owner/operator through the one call center. including Ohio and West Virginia 5–2: White Lining Practice Statement: When the excavation site cannot be clearly and adequately identified on the locate ticket.

and the facility owner/operator. Reference: • Existing practice among one call centers –42– . and ensures identification of high-priority facilities. Practice Description: All calls from excavators processed by the one call center receive a unique message reference number. Practice Description: Any temporary or permanent interruption requires the active participation by the facility owner/operator and the excavator to ensure protection of facilities through a joint preplanning meeting or conference call. sewer. This includes projects such as road. This number distinguishes this ticket from all other tickets so that it can be archived and retrieved upon request to provide the details of that request only. The computer-generated request identifies the date. or other projects that cover a large area. Such pre-job meetings are important for major. and major pipe or water lines. One call centers note on the ticket any special contractor requests for a joint meeting that require the facility owner/operator to initiate the process. Inc. or unusual. and sequence number of the locate request. fiber-optic communication. and locators (where applicable) is recommended on major or large projects. Such facilities include.F. the excavator requests a meeting with the facility locator at the job site prior to marking the facility locations. 5–5: Facility Relocations Practice Statement: The excavator coordinates work that requires temporary or permanent interruption of a facility owner/operator’s service with the affected facility owner/operator in all cases. References: • Existing state laws. coordinates the marking with actual excavation. it is proof of notification to the members. water. the requestor. facility owners/operators. Wilson & Sons. including Pauley Construction and W.0 5–3: Locate Reference Number Practice Statement: The excavator receives and maintains a reference number from the one call center that verifies that the locate was requested. high-voltage electric. that progress from one area to the next. high-pressure gas. which is contained on all locate request messages. The excavator records this number. Each locate request ticket (notification) is assigned a unique number with that one call center. but are not limited to. time. all 50 states have one call centers and/or state statues • Existing operating procedures from various state one call centers 5–4: Pre-excavation Meeting Practice Statement: When practical. An on-site pre-excavation meeting between the excavator. or that are located near critical or high-priority facilities. References: • Existing insurance carrier guidelines • Existing practice among excavators. excavations. Practice Description: The meeting facilitates communications.CGA Best Practices 12.

including Texas. but not limited to face-to-face communications. it notifies the excavator that no conflict exists and that the excavation or demolition area is “clear.” a prudent excavator will attempt to communicate that a conflict does indeed exist. it is imperative for each excavator to obtain a one call reference number before excavation to ensure that the specific areas have been appropriately marked by any affected underground facility owner/operator. Practice Description: There are often several excavators on a job site performing work. facsimile or other electronic means. Practice Description: If a facility owner/operator determines that the excavation or demolition is not near any of its existing underground facilities. or flags. Although most excavators are on the job site during regular work hours. Better communication between the excavator and the facility owner/operator is required as an area of excavation becomes more crowded with new underground facilities. and the locator will make marking these facilities a priority before excavation begins. and others (25 participating states or one call centers with 24/7 access) 5–8: Positive Response Practice Statement: The underground facility owner/operator either 1) identifies for the excavator the facility’s tolerance zone at the work site by marking. “Positive response” is a term used to describe the two types of action taken by a facility owner/operator after it receives notification of intent to excavate. Minnesota. –43– . The facility owner/operator must 1) mark its underground facilities with stakes.” This notification by the facility owner/operator to the excavator may be provided in any reasonable manner including. including Ohio. If an excavator has knowledge of the existence of an underground facility and has received an “all clear. Michigan. Reference: • Existing state laws. or 2) notify the excavator that the facility owner/operator has no underground facilities in the area of excavation. Kansas. paint. they need to be able to call in future work locations after 5:00 p. Pennsylvania. 7 days a week. phone or phone message. or 2) notifies the excavator that no conflict situation exists.Excavation 5–6: Separate Locate Requests Practice Statement: Every excavator on the job has a separate one call reference number before excavating. Practice Description: Utilities service the public needs 24 × 7 and thus should be protected during that same time. Certain conditions may exist that require excavators to work during off-hours (city/road congestion. Illinois.m. This allows them more flexibility to schedule work and to avoid peak hours of locate requests at the one call center. Idaho. The construction schedule may dictate different types of work requiring excavation from different specialty contractors simultaneously. or other acceptable methods. In these situations. Reference: Existing states laws. posting at the excavation or demolition area. off-peak utility service hours). This process allows the excavator to begin work in a timely manner. and others 5–7: One Call Access (24/7) Practice Statement: The excavator has access to a one call center 24 hours per day. Maryland. flagging. or marking the excavation or demolition area. This takes place after the one call center notifies the underground facility owner/operator of the planned excavation and within the time specified by state/provincial law.

Reference: • Existing practice by excavators. Practice Description: The facility owner/ operator and the excavator partner together to ensure that facilities are marked in an acceptable time frame to allow for underground facility protection. and others 5–10:Locate Verification Practice Statement: Prior to excavation. provided the excavator exercises due care in all endeavors. such as pedestals.g. within the time specified by state/provincial requirements) or if the facility owner/operator notifies the excavator that the underground facility cannot be marked within the time frame and a mutually agreeable date for marking cannot be arrived at. an excavator does the following: • Verifies that the dig site matches the one call request and is timely • Verifies that all facilities have been marked and reviews color codes if in doubt • Verifies all service feeds from buildings and homes • Checks for any visible signs of underground facilities. South Carolina. –44– . However. The excavator may proceed with excavation at the end of two working days.CGA Best Practices 12. Practice Description: Upon arrival at the excavation site and prior to beginning the excavation. Reference: • Existing state laws. Kansas. meters. to the best of their ability.F. it may indicate that the facility owner/operator did not receive a locate notice or that the one call center’s contact information for that facility owner/operator may be incorrect. incomplete. this does not preclude the excavator from continuing work on the project. risers. verify locate markings and. References: • Existing state laws. The excavator logs these facilities on a job sheet and identifies which facility owner/operators have responded by marking and which have cleared the area. unless otherwise specified in state/provincial law. When a facility owner/operator does not respond by marking or clearing. then the excavator re-calls the one call center. excavators verify that they are at the correct location. Michigan. and new trench lines • Checks for any facilities that are not members of the one call center and contact someone to get them located. Inc. including Pauley Construction and W. Maryland.0 When the excavator makes the request to the one call center. Use of a pre-excavation checklist is recommended by insurers and practiced by responsible excavating contractors. When the excavator has obtained all required information. including California. Wilson & Sons. the excavation can commence with confidence that the safety of the work crew and the public at large has been considered. or corrupt (which could result in calamity). and others • Existing operating procedure for various one call centers (31 participating states or one call centers) 5–9: Facility Owner/Operator Failure to Respond Practice Statement: If the facility owner/operator fails to respond to the excavator’s timely request for a locate (e.. the excavator is told which facility owners/operators will be notified. check for unmarked facilities. including Ohio. Nevada.

Inc. The primary purpose of this best practice is to avoid unnecessary litigation and expensive legal fees for all parties involved. and facilitates communications between the excavator and the one call center with respect to that particular locate request. including Pauley Construction 5–12:Work Site Review with Company Personnel Practice Statement: Prior to starting work. Reference: • Existing practice by excavators. Practice Description: The availability of locate request details on site is useful because excavators can easily access information about the location and extent of work. a list of the facility owner members impacted at that dig site as identified by the one call center. or markings that have been moved. Practice Description: Sharing information and safety issues during an on-site meeting between the excavator and the excavating crews helps avoid confusion and needless damage to underground facilities. the excavator reviews the location of underground facilities with site personnel. Reference: • Existing practice by excavators. 5–13:One Call Reference at Site28/ Practice Statement: Except in case of an emergency. provides quick references for excavation equipment operators.Excavation 5–11:Documentation of Marks Practice Statement: An excavator uses dated pictures.F. Wilson & Sons. or sketches with distance from markings to fixed objects recorded. failure to mark. or sketches before excavation work begins. The documentation also provides an excavator with appropriate information for daily tailgate meetings for crews. each crew has the information. videos. excavators have no way of knowing where underground utilities are located. including Pauley Construction. References: • Existing state regulations including Michigan DOT 28/ TR-2011-11: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. and the one call center ticket number. When multiple crews are working on the same project at separate locations or when different employers have crews working at the same location. and W. the valid start time. or covered. video tape. to document the actual placement of markings. A&L Underground. should it become necessary. removed. 2014 –45– . If locate markings are adequately documented through the use of photographs. It is important for excavators and locators to document the location of markings before excavation work begins. and the list of operators notified. the excavator at each job site has available a complete description of the dig site. it is easier to resolve disputes if an underground facility is damaged as a result of improper marking. Practice Description: In most situations when underground facilities are not properly marked.

If telephone communication is unavailable. The excavator plans the excavation so as to avoid damage or to minimize interference with the underground facilities in or near the work area. the excavator ensures that the designated job site personnel have all appropriate names and phone numbers. is informed of the best practices and regulations applicable to the protection of underground facilities. These regulations include reference to training each employee to recognize and avoid unsafe conditions in the work environment and to control or eliminate any hazards or exposures to illness or injury. one call center. References: • Required by federal and state law • Existing practice by excavators and facility owners/operators –46– . the excavator’s crew. Excavators are required to comply with federal and state/provincial occupational safety and health requirements to protect employees from injury and illness. The “home office” also has immediate access to all appropriate names and telephone numbers. and others 5–16:Federal and State Regulations Practice Statement: The excavator complies with all applicable federal and state/provincial safety regulations. when required. Reference: • Existing state regulations. and. Therefore. Practice Description: Foremost on any construction project is safety. To avoid costly delays. Practice Description: Although most existing state/provincial damage prevention legislation does not include reference to federal and state/ provincial regulations. Practice Description: Situations arise on the job site that require immediate notification of the facility owner/operator. West Virginia. including Michigan DOT 5–15:Facility Avoidance Practice Statement: The excavator uses reasonable care to avoid damaging underground facilities.0 5–14:Contact Names and Numbers Practice Statement: The excavator’s designated competent person at each job site has access to the names and phone numbers of all facility owner/operator contacts and the one call center. or local emergency personnel.CGA Best Practices 12. Excavators using caution around underground facilities significantly contribute to safe excavation of existing facilities. it is important to include reference to worker safety and training in the best practices. including Kansas. radio communication to the “home office” is available so that timely notification can be made. Ohio. as part of its safety training. Reference: • Existing state laws. provides training as it relates to the protection of underground facilities.

Reference: • Existing state law. staking. Practice Description: During long. South Dakota. marking. and Columbia Gas 5–19:Excavation Tolerance Zone Practice Statement: The excavator observes a tolerance zone that is comprised of the width of the facility plus 18 in. including Ohio 5–18:Excavation Observer Practice Statement: The excavator has an observer to assist the equipment operator when operating excavation equipment around known underground facilities. Bell South. or other designation of underground facilities until no longer required for proper and safe excavation. Painting. and others • Telecommunications Industry Association and Electronic Industry Association (TIA/EIA). Practice Description: (See Practice Statement 5–20.) References: • Existing state laws. When a mark is no longer visible. Pennsylvania. and other marking techniques last only as long as the weather and other variables allow. but work continues around the facility. “Guidelines for Uniform Temporary Marking of Underground Facilities” –47– . “Standard for Physical Location and Protection of Below-Ground Fiber Optic Cable Plant” (ANSI/TIA/EIA-590-A-1996) • American Public Works Association (APWA). including Ohio • Existing practice among large facility owners/operators. including New Mexico.Excavation 5–17:Marking Preservation Practice Statement: The excavator protects and preserves the staking. This practice is not intended to preempt any existing state/provincial requirements that currently specify a tolerance zone of more than 18 in. on either side of the outside edge of the underground facility on a horizontal plane. The excavator stops excavating and notifies the one call center for re-marks if any facility mark is removed or is no longer visible. References: • Existing state law. complex projects. the excavator requests a re-mark to ensure the protection of the facility. Practice Description: The excavator designates a worker (an observer) who watches the excavation activity and warns the equipment operator while excavating around a utility to prevent damaging that buried facility. the marks for underground facilities may need to be in place far longer than the locating method is durable. including Southern Natural Gas.

Pennsylvania. Each state/province must take differing geologic conditions and weather related factors into consideration when recommending types of excavation within the tolerance zone. Practice Description: When an excavator finds an unmarked or inaccurately marked facility. the excavator plans the excavation to avoid damage and interference with other facilities and protects facilities from damage. Hand digging and non-invasive methods are not required for pavement removal. unless specified otherwise in state/provincial law. and others 5–21:Mismarked Facilities Practice Statement: The excavator notifies the facility owner/ operator directly or through the one call center if an underground facility is not found where one has been marked or if an unmarked underground facility is found. Methods to consider. including Arizona • Existing practice among excavators.CGA Best Practices 12. A majority of states outline safe excavation practices to include hand digging or pot holing (16 states). –48– . soft digging. Some states specifically allow for the use of power excavating equipment for the removal of pavement.F. include hand digging when practical (pot holing). including Arizona.0 5–20:Excavation within Tolerance Zone Practice Statement: When excavation is to take place within the specified tolerance zone. or other technical methods that may be developed. Inc. prudent. based on certain climate or geographical conditions. the excavator exercises such reasonable care as may be necessary for the protection of any underground facility in or near the excavation area. including W. pneumatic hand tools. non-evasive methods that require the excavator to manually determine the actual location of a facility are considered “safe excavation practices” in a majority of state/provincial laws (38 states). the excavator may continue work if the excavation can be performed without damaging the facility. Reference: • Existing state laws. If excavation continues. New Hampshire. vacuum excavation methods. excavation stops in the vicinity of the facility and notification takes place. Practice Description: Safe. Following this notification. Wilson & Sons. References: • Existing state/local laws. other mechanical methods with the approval of the facility owner/operator.

An example of when this can occur is when two facility owners. no additional locate request updates are generated. supported. ticket life is ideally 10 working days but does not exceed 20 working days. they see a vacant space in the right-of-way to place their new facility. Exposed facilities can shift. Excavators support or brace exposed facilities and protect them from moving or shifting. such as a cable television company and a telephone company. strike. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) also has addressed this issue in Subpart P—Excavation Standard 29 CFR 1926. Utah. Reference: • Existing state/local laws. 2010 –49– . protects employees working in the vicinity of the exposed facility.” For example. In addition. at the same time.651(b)(4). Communication between excavation project planners.29/ Practice Description: Refreshing the ticket recognizes that markings are temporary and provides notification to facility owners/operators of ongoing excavation when a job is started but not completed as planned. This can be accomplished in different ways. or attempt to move exposed facilities that could damage protective coatings. or removed as necessary to safeguard employees. damage cable insulation. Any excavation that covers a large area and will progress from one area to the next over a period of time is broken into segments when notifying the one call center in order to coordinate the marking with actual excavation. or in some way affect the integrity of the facility. This practice also helps in situations where multiple excavators are working in the same area at essentially the same time. Original locate request tickets are generated so that the minimum number of locate request updates are necessary for the duration of a project. damage fiber optics. bend conduit. Protecting exposed underground facilities helps ensure that the utility is not damaged and. for example. Arizona. by shoring the facility from below or by providing a timber support with hangers across the top of an excavation to ensure that the facility does not move or bend. or be damaged when they are no longer supported or protected by the soil around them. New York.Excavation 5–22:Exposed Facility Protection Practice Statement: Excavators support and protect exposed underground facilities from damage. which states “While the excavation is open. including Washington. Practice Description: Protecting exposed underground facilities is as important as preventing damage to the facility when digging around the utility. Idaho. an unsupported sewer main could shift. In their pre-planning process. separate pipe joints. The possibility exists that new facilities have been installed in the area where the excavation is to be conducted after the original notification and marking. defined by state/provincial law). but not always. underground installations shall be protected. which could result in the trench where employees are working to flood. and clerical personnel is essential in accomplishing this task. After all the excavation covered by a locate request is completed. Any excavation not begun during the life of the ticket is recalled to the one call center. DC. causing the pipe joints to separate. Each excavator (internal or external) calls the one 29/ TR-2009-16: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on July 16. are planning to serve a new section of a subdivision. workers are instructed to not climb on. and others 5–23:Locate Request Updates Practice Statement: The excavator calls the one call center to refresh the ticket when excavation continues past the life of the ticket (sometimes. Virginia. Pennsylvania. This recognizes that it is a best practice to define ticket life. which could result in damage to the facility. field personnel. If not currently defined in state/provincial law. endangering the safety of employees. separate.

Many facility owners/operators do not perform their own locates and utilize the services of a contracted facility locator. and the environment until help arrives.31/ The excavator takes reasonable measures to protect everyone in immediate danger. resources. 2002 TR-2001-02B: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 27. coatings.0 call center for locates and each facility owner/operator comes and marks their respective facilities indicating that nothing exists. All breaks. toxic. and the environment until the facility owner/operator or emergency responders arrive and complete their assessment. or cathodic protection are reported. or property. generation. Pennsylvania. training. By excavators refreshing the locate ticket. Practice Description: A majority of states require notification for damage or substantial weakening of an underground facility (27 states). health. The excavator takes reasonable measures based on their knowledge. property. Existing state laws that specify 15 working days include Virginia and Tennessee. the excavator responsible immediately notifies 911 and the facility owner/operator. The excavator responsible remains on-site to convey any pertinent information to responders that may help them to safely mitigate the situation. 2001 TR-2001-02B: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 27. In these situations. These contracted facility locators may not be aware of work planned in the near future. Duke Energy of Houston. nicks. and when returning to the job site to place the new facility. For one reason or another. or property by notifying the proper authorities to handle the emergency situation. one of the excavators gets delayed and does not start construction as planned. finds new lines have been installed in the previously vacant space. including Arkansas. local authorities are able to evacuate as appropriate and command substantial resources unavailable to the excavator or underground facility owner/operator.CGA Best Practices 12. Ohio. Maryland. and Texas. gouges. This practice minimizes the danger to life. dents. and updating of tickets enhance safety and reduce the unnecessary use of locate resources. • Existing practices by Progress Energy. Excellent planning. 5–24:Facility Damage Notification Practice Statement: An excavator discovering or causing damage to underground facilities notifies the facility owner/operator and the one call center. 2010 TR-2001-02A: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on November 30. grooves. Texas. the contract locator has another opportunity to identify newly placed facilities. and understanding of the situation to protect themselves. conduits. or corrosive gas or liquid or endangers life. 2002 –50– . health. experience. Inc. people. property. the underground facility owner/operator is provided the opportunity to inspect the damage and make appropriate repairs.33/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ TR-2009-16: Final wording approved by the CGA Board on July 16. and others 5–25:Notification of Emergency Personnel Practice Statement: If the damage results in the escape of any flammable. Although the facility may not immediately fail. This practice also gives the facility owner/operator another chance to identify the location of their facilities and to avoid possible damage and disruption of service if something was marked incorrectly or missed on a previous locate. Wisconsin.32/ Practice Description: This practice is already required by many of the states’ one call legislation. and Arizona Blue Stake.30/ Reference: • Existing state laws that specify 10 working days include Kansas. Idaho. Reference: • Existing state laws. or other damages to facility lines. The possibility of facility failure or endangerment of the surrounding population dramatically increases when a facility has been damaged. leaks. the general public.

it is common for the contractor to make adjustments in the location of the new facility when rocks or other underground obstructions are encountered or when the location of the new facility conflicts with another existing underground facility. cut telephone cable. or more and lateral measurement changes of greater than 1 ft. coiled wire. and Minnesota 5–26:Emergency Excavation Practice Statement: In the case of an emergency excavation. including Colorado. debris. including Kansas. and others –51– . it is the owner/operator’s responsibility to take appropriate action to update their records so that an accurate locate can be conducted in the future. including Ameritech. When this occurs. This change in plan can represent changes in horizontal or vertical distances from the specified plans. Trash. it becomes much more critical for the contractor to notify the facility owner/operator of changes. or property or that require immediate correction in order to continue the operation of or ensure the continuity of public utility service or public transportation. Practice Description: For a facility owner/operator to maintain accurate records of the location of their facilities. This helps prevent inadvertent damage to the facility during the backfill process. Ohio. such as changes in depth of 6 in. Reference: • Existing state laws. it is critical that the contractor installing the new facility be required to notify the facility owner/operator of deviations to the planned installation. The facility owner/operator establishes standards that require notification if a deviation is beyond specified tolerances. and others (49 participating states or one calls) 5–27:Backfilling Practice Statement: The excavator protects all facilities from damage when backfilling an excavation. References: • Michigan DOT specification • Existing insurance carrier guidelines 5–28:As-built Documentation Practice Statement: Contractors installing underground facilities notify the facility owner/operator if the actual placement is different from expected placement. or other facility damage. When these changes to the expected location are communicated to the facility owner/operator. Oregon. health. sharp objects. Sprint. provided that the excavator notifies the one call center and facility owner/operator as soon as reasonably possible. West Virginia. For example. Practice Description: This practice allows excavation to begin immediately to restore service or to stop a hazardous situation from getting worse in the case of a gas or pipeline leak. and large chunks of hard-packed clay or dirt. maintenance or repairs may be made immediately. Reference: • Existing operating practice among facility operators.Excavation Reference: • Existing state laws. or other material that could damage existing facilities or interfere with the accuracy of future locates are not buried in the excavation. Practice Description: Extra caution must be taken to remove large rocks. Nevada. Some facility owners/operators do not require a full-time inspector and use a sampling process to ensure that a new facility is correctly installed in compliance to specifications. Columbia Gas. No trash or pieces of abandoned lines are backfilled into the trench. This includes situations that involve danger to life.

• The excavator stops the trenchless excavation operations if an abnormal condition. Accordingly. emergency planning and response are coordinated. water levels.) References: See Appendix D 5–30:Emergency Coordination with Adjacent Facilities35/ Practice Statement: Emergency response planning includes coordination with emergency responders and other aboveground and/or underground infrastructure facility owner/operators identified by the Incident Commander through the Incident Command System/Unified Command (ICS/UC) during an emergency. there are many stakeholders involved: excavators. pipe lasers. and has a good understanding of the job. and the exit pit by notifying the facility owner/operator through the one call center.CGA Best Practices 12. 2006 –52– . Minnesota • Public Service Electric and Gas. or other hidden hazard is encountered. • When existing facilities are known to be present but cannot be potholed as a result of local conditions. Gas Emergency Procedure Manual 34/ 35/ TR-2002-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 16. the facility owner and the excavator meet to discuss how to safely proceed with the excavation. trenchless excavation path. owner/operators. unknown substructure. • The trenchless excavation operator confirms and maintains the path and minimum clearances established by the project owner and design engineer by tracking and recording the path of the trenchless excavation until complete. visual inspection. (Refer to Practice Statements 2–13 and 4–19 for additional information. • The trenchless equipment operator performs a site inspection. Practice Description: • The excavator requests the location of underground facilities at the entrance pit. New Jersey. Means of tracking trenchless excavations include electronic locating/guidance devices. one call centers. walking the trenchless excavation path prior to commencing work. The excavator proceeds safely only after making positive identification. and the general public. first responders. Any actions taken by one stakeholder could adversely affect other stakeholders. References: • XCEL Energy.0 5–29:Trenchless Excavation34/ Practice Statement: All stakeholders comply with all best practices and the following general guidelines prior to. Practice Description: During emergency situations. Newark. during. 2005 TR-2005-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 8. locators. etc. and after any trenchless excavation (as applicable).

Vacuum excavation is often an appropriate alternative.S. • is operated in accordance with practices that provide appropriate levels of worker and public safety and prevent damage to buried facilities.. and professional excavators. 2010 –53– .R. Many underground facility owners/operators have specific criteria for safe excavation/exposure practices around their facilities. Site conditions may make the use of hand tools to expose underground facilities difficult or even impractical. such as 811 and those promoted by one call centers and associated industries. Some underground facility owners/operators accept vacuum excavation as equivalent to hand excavation for exposing their facilities. References: • Existing state laws including South Carolina and North Carolina • B. Alberta pipeline 5–32:Vacuum Excavation37/ Practice Statement: Vacuum excavation. and others have restrictions on its use. is an efficient. Locates must be obtained prior to the commencement of work (see Practice Statement 5–1). homeowners. when used appropriately. Vacuum excavation is an appropriate method of excavating safely around underground facilities provided that the equipment • has been specifically designed and built for this purpose. • is operated by a worker trained and experienced in its operation. advise persons involved in excavation activities. References: Minnesota state statutes. Practice Description: The safe exposure of underground facilities within the tolerance zone is essential to damage prevention. Use of equipment also follows state/provincial laws and/or local ordinances. This service is critical to maintaining the communication between operators and excavators. and effective alternative to hand digging within the designated underground facility tolerance zone. Practice Description: It is the basic underpinning of the call-before-you-dig process that persons involved in excavation activities receive facility locates at no charge when they contact their local one call center to give notice of intent to excavate. safe. 36/ 37/ TR-2007-06: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on August 8. and • is used in compliance with state/provincial laws and/or local ordinances. 2008 TR-2009-09: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 10. including the public. locations of underground facilities are provided by operators at no cost to excavators. Inc. that the service is provided by facility operators at no charge to the person providing the notice of intent to excavate. Call-before-you-dig education and marketing campaigns.Excavation 5–31:No Charge for Providing Underground Facility Locations36/ Practice Statement: Upon notification by one call centers.

0 . –54– .CGA Best Practices 12.

CHAPTER 6 Mapping The Mapping Team chose to look at mapping practices from the viewpoint of the different areas represented by team members. Locator. 6–4: Timely Database Updating Practice Statement: The database is updated by information from facility owners/operators. Ohio. Ohio. Practice Description: The land base and database can produce Lat/Long information based upon street address.. milepost marker. and municipal boundaries. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Arizona. intersection. Facility Owner/Operator. Missouri. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Arizona. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Arizona. a rural area not in the immediate vicinity of a road or known map landmark) can be identified by Lat/Long information. New Jersey. –55– . North Carolina. etc. New Jersey. Practice Description: The database is promptly updated as information is provided or becomes available from the facility owner/operator. By consensus of the Mapping Task Team. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Ohio. all of the findings listed below are best practices. North Carolina. Texas. and Wisconsin. and a process is in place that periodically adds new street information. 6–3: Up-to-date Land Base Information Practice Statement: The land base is up-to-date. Excavator. The translation of Lat/Long information is automatic. aliases. One Call Center A one call center uses an electronic mapping database system that includes the following: 6–1: Land Base Accuracy Practice Statement: The land base is accurate. 6–2: Latitude/Longitude Practice Statement: The land base and database use latitude/longitude (Lat/Long) coordinates. intersection. street/road name. Minnesota. and Wisconsin. and Tennessee. or milepost based upon Lat/Long information. street/road name. the best practices for mapping can be listed in five distinct areas: One Call Center. It also is possible to determine the street address. Practice Description: The land base is the most precise geographical information available to the one call center. From this viewpoint. South Dakota. A map point (i. name changes. and Project Owner. The system can accept information in standard file format with minimal human intervention.e. Practice Description: The land base is kept up-to-date. and New Jersey.

Practice Description: The land base is available to the public for the identification of the excavation area. Practice Description: The electronic mapping system can produce a ticket for the smallest practical geographical area. Practice Description: The locator provides to the facility owner/operator the most precise facility location information obtained from a locate when there is a discrepancy.CGA Best Practices 12. 6–8: Discrepancies Practice Statement: The locator provides precise facility location to the facility owner/operator when there is a discrepancy. The land base and database are available to the one call center membership for the update of member database information. Locator Locators use maps to help find the excavation site and to help determine the general location of the buried facility. References: • Arizona Blue Stake law 6–9: Feedback Practice Statement: The locator supplies feedback to the one call center. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: Arizona. –56– . Practice Description: Locators are trained in map reading and symbology to help determine the location of the buried facility. Ohio. Minnesota. The following association trains its members to carry out this practice: National Utility Locating Contractors Association (NULCA). The following states carry out this practice: Ohio. The one call centers in these states follow this practice: North Carolina. Oregon. 6–6: Availability Practice Statement: The land base is available to the public. and South Dakota.0 6–5: Electronic Mapping Location Area Practice Statement: The electronic mapping system can produce a ticket for the smallest practical geographical area. and Wisconsin. Tennessee. Practice Description: The locator provides to the one call center feedback on land base mapping and location discrepancies. and North Carolina. Tennessee. 6–7: Training Practice Statement: Locators are trained in map reading and symbology.

the excavator directly coordinates with the one call center to establish the excavation area. References: • Michaels Pipeline Company. Pewaukee. Sprint Long Distance. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator requires the designer to adhere to the facility owner/operator’s mapping standards. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator provides the one call center with data that will allow efficient and accurate notification of excavation activities near the facility owner/operators’ infrastructure. the side of the property (north. 6–13:Access to Mapping Data Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator provides mapping data access. These facility owners/operators follow this practice: Atlanta Gas Light. 6–11:Excavation Area Details Practice Statement: The excavator provides to the one call center basic attributes about the excavation area. 6–14:Mapping Standards Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator adheres to mapping standards.). legal description. Practice Description: The excavator takes responsibility for giving accurate location information to the one call center. Wisconsin • Intercon Construction. such as starting and ending points. east. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator provides access to a mapping system that can be used by both the locator and the facility owner/operator. Wisconsin • Hooper Corporation. If the excavator cannot meet the above criteria. and the side of the street. sides. or other appropriately formatted information. street intersection. front. and latitude/longitude (if feasible).Mapping Excavator 6–10:Accuracy of Location Information Practice Statement: The excavator provides accurate location information to the one call center. Wisconsin Facility Owner/Operator 6–12:Mapping Data Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator provides mapping data to the one call center. rear. Practice Description: The excavator provides details about the excavation area location. etc. These facility owners/operators follow this practice: AT&T. –57– . Questar Regulated Services. Sprint Long Distance. AT&T. Facility owners/operators in all mandatory one call states follow this practice. back. west. Brownsville. This information includes a street address. south. Madison.

transformer. including name of the street (public or private). design. such as orthophotography. 2010 TR-2008-01: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on May 15. legal description. and underpasses. documentation.CGA Best Practices 12. • Any new construction that was entered at the time of installation • The location of abandoned or sold facilities • Engineering stationing and milepost/marker post location (with latitude and longitude) using common mapping coordinate systems that allow conversion to latitude and longitude • Alignment of the utility with engineering stationing at each running line change or point of inflection (PI) including signs and markers • Bridges. culverts. and rivers • All road crossings. such as pedestal. street intersection. 6–16:Information Capture Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator collects detailed mapping information. material. pole. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator captures through the electronic database the following information to ensure project safety in the plan. and maintenance of their longitudinal utility. or other appropriately formatted information. size. current information to the one call center for the proper receipt of ticket notification. construction. overhead viaducts. meter number. 2009 –58– . and pressure • The number of utility lines or conduits owned by the facility owner/operator in a corridor or the size of the duct package bank (universally a general practice of major pipeline and long-distance telecommunication operators and railroads) • When available. current information to the one call center. such as a milepost marker. Practice Description: The project owner provides the excavator with accurate location information about the proposed excavation area using mapping information used by the one call center. This information includes a street address. Basic information includes latitude and longitude and pertains to a physical attribute where available. location.39/ 38/ 39/ TR-2008-03: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on July 16. any digital imagery that is used to identify facility locations in relation to the surrounding environment38/ Project Owner 6–17:Accuracy of Location Information Practice Statement: The project owner provides accurate information. anode bed. and latitude/longitude (if feasible). This facility owner/operator follows this practice: Sprint Long Distance. product. Practice Description: The facility owner/operator provides consistent. and mile-marker/marker-post designation • Small-scale maps showing the overall utility route • Physical characteristics and attributes of the system.0 6–15:Quality of Information Practice Statement: The facility owner/operator provides consistent.

Although the following technologies are now used in other applications. etc. Emerging Technologies Technology is rapidly changing. back.Mapping 6–18:Excavation Area Details Practice Statement: The project owner determines the excavation area’s basic coordinates.). and GPS coordinates of utility lines will allow one call centers. –59– . the side of the property (north. front. Advanced use of these technologies in combination with advances to locating technologies is expected to reduce damage to underground facilities. their use is not widespread in the damage prevention field: • Geographic Information System (GIS) • Global Positioning System (GPS) • Orthographic and satellite imagery GIS allows the integration of digital maps with other databases to view the relationship of physical features. sides. street names. Reference: • These are general practices of the state departments of transportation regarding highway projects. east. orthographic. and satellite imagery. Practice Description: The project owner determines details about the excavation area location. • These are general practices of most National Utility Contractors Association (NUCA) members. Combining orthographic and satellite imagery with an overlay of a line map. locators. facility owners/operators. such as starting and ending points. The GIS infrastructure or base will support all of the advanced technologies of GPS. The references listed in each best practice are not all inclusive. south. excavators. and obtains additional information on a particular feature. addresses. and project owners to view the accurate and relative location of utility lines. and side of the street. rear. Many of the best practices identified in this chapter could be obsolete in the near future. west. conducts relational queries.

0 .CGA Best Practices 12. –60– .

Mandatory education as an enforcement tool promotes compliance with damage prevention laws and regulations.” New Hampshire Code.. “Notice of Violation. Given the opportunity to attend Blue Stake Training Course provided by the Arizona Corporation Commission’s Pipeline Safety Section. 16 NYCRR Part 753. RSA 374. mandatory education is an effective alternative or supplement to civil penalties..” Arizona Corporation Commission policy.. § 374:55(VIII) –61– . References: • Arizona: “When a notice of violation (NOV) is issued. This is not meant to discourage individual stakeholders from providing educational programs. May be given a warning letter and Item C below.CHAPTER 7 Compliance 7–1: Public and Enforcement Education A: Public Education Practice Statement: Public education programs are used to promote compliance. Practice Description: When a violation of the damage prevention laws or regulations has occurred.C. Practice Description: A single entity is charged to promote comprehensive and appropriate programs to educate all stakeholders about the existence and content of the damage prevention laws and regulations.” § 1(A) and (C) • New Hampshire: “Any excavator or operator who does not comply with RSA 374:51-54 shall be required on first offense to go through either a Dig Safe training program or be subject to a civil penalty. Reference: • New York: “Each one call notification system shall perform the following duties:…(b) Conduct a continuing program to: (1) Inform excavators of the one call notification system’s existence and purpose and their responsibility to notify the one call notification system of proposed excavation and demolition and to protect underground facilities.3(b)(1)-(2) B: Enforcement Education Practice Statement: Mandatory education is considered as an alternative or supplement to penalties for offenders of the damage prevention laws and regulations. to respond to a notice relating to a proposed excavation and demolition. First Time Offenders: A.” New York Code.. § 753-5. the following may be followed: 1. and to designate and mark facilities according to the provisions of this Part. (2) Inform operators of the responsibility to participate in the one call notification system.

several states have made membership accommodations for smaller municipals and authorities. 73 P. membership and participation considerations. Chapter 216D. Subd. and expenses to the injured party. safety and liability protection. but which must be made available for any member serving less than one thousand customers or any member irrigation or electrical district. A facility owner who elects limited basis participation membership will provide to the one call center the location of its underground facilities by identifying the incorporated cities and towns. 2(b) • Pennsylvania: Stakeholders who do not join the one call system in violation of state law are not permitted to recover damages for injury to their property: “If a facility owner fails to become a member of a One Call System in violation of this act and a line or lines of such nonmember facility owner are damaged by a contractor by reason of the contractor’s failure to notify the facility owner because the facility was not a member of a One Call System serving the location where the damage occurred.3. representation on one call boards. the owner or operator becomes liable for resulting damages. References: • Arizona: “Each one call notification center shall establish a limited basis participation membership option. costs. ease of access to one call center.04. subdivision 3.0 7–2: Incentives Practice Statement: Damage prevention programs include incentives to promote compliance with laws and regulations. which credits the facility operator those charges for “not-involved” tickets. or for unincorporated county areas. Incentive—Membership: Membership facilitates communication between an excavator and facility owner/operator.” Arizona Code.” Minnesota Code. It results in cost savings to the facility owners/operators because one call center membership rates are based on the number of tickets received by the facility owners/operators. but are not limited to. by identifying the townships.CGA Best Practices 12. which may be made available to all members.27(C) • Minnesota: “Reimbursement is not required if the damage to the underground facility was caused by the sole negligence of the operator or the operator failed to comply with section 216. Practice Description: Incentives can include. The right herein granted shall not be in limitation of any other rights of the contractor.06.” Pennsylvania Code.” Arizona Code. § 176 et. § 40-360. –62– . § 40-360. reasonable enforcement of regulations. pursuant to this article. such facility owner shall have no right of recovery from the contractor of any costs associated with the damage to its lines. The service level provided to the limited basis participation members by the one call notification center is limited to providing excavators with names and telephone numbers the excavator should contact to obtain facilities location. Note.S. References: • Arizona: “If the owner or operator fails to locate or incorrectly locates the underground facility. Article 6. and public education. Each one call center shall establish fair and reasonable fees for limited basis participation members. seq.” but is successful because the Arizona Blue Stake (the one call center) goes the extra mile to assist the excavator in contacting the small facility owners. • Minnesota: The Gopher State One Call Center instituted a no-locate-required policy. which helps prevent damage to underground facilities. areas occupied or miles of underground facilities. based on customer count. in which it has facilities. access to alternative dispute resolution (ADR). many of which do not have a manned telephone line.32. Arizona’s system somewhat defeats the purpose of “one call. Section 2(9) Incentive—Membership Accommodations: To avoid cost being a barrier to membership.3. Article 6..

2(a) • Pennsylvania: “A one call system shall be governed by a board of directors.1(b) Incentive—Safety and Liability Protection: Compliance with one call center requirements promotes worker safety and public safety and reduces exposure to liability.S.. References: • Minnesota: “The nonprofit corporation must be governed by a board of directors of up to 20 members. Section 2(8) Incentive—One Call Center Board of Directors: Boards are composed of representatives of all stakeholders. 73 P...03. § 765(b). Costs. the system shall take into account the number of customers. § 761 • Pennsylvania: “Operation costs for the One Call System shall be shared. References: • New York: “The penalties provided for by this article shall not apply to an excavator who damages an underground facility due to the failure of the operator to comply with any of the provisions of this article nor shall in such instance the excavator be liable for repairs as prescribed in subdivision four of this section.S. § 176 et. The board shall include the following: (1) The Chairman of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission or his designee. –63– . § 176 et. The other board members must represent and be elected by operators. Political subdivisions with a population of less than two thousand persons or municipal authorities having an aggregate population in the area served by the municipal authority of less than five thousand persons shall be exempt from payment of any service fee. In apportioning such costs. or other persons who sustain injury to person or property as a result of the excavation or demolition planning work of the designer. (6) A designer or industry representative. by facility owner members as determined by a One Call System’s board of directors.” Pennsylvania Code. (4) The Secretary of Transportation or his designee.” New York Code.. owners. in an equitable manner for services received. • Pennsylvania: “The designer who has complied with the terms of this act and who was not otherwise negligent shall not be subject to liability or incur any obligation to facility owners. Chapter 216D. Representation of all stake holders in the governance of the one call center (although not necessarily in the administration of the one call center) ensures that the viewpoint of all stakeholders will be considered in the policies and programs of the one call center. to be chosen by the facility owners. Section 7. seq. (2) The Director of the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency or his designee.S.. 16 NYCRR Part 753. No less than twenty percent of the seats shall be held by municipalities or municipal authorities. extent of underground facilities. § 176 et. seq. and frequency of use.” Pennsylvania Code. operators. seq. (5) A contractor or industry representative. The costs of operating the system shall be apportioned equitably among the members of the system.” Pennsylvania Code. and other persons eligible to participate in the center.Compliance • New York: “3. Section 3(7). 73 P. Subd. excavators. with the exception of municipalities and authorities that operate underground facilities and any operator of underground facilities that provides water service to less than four thousand customers.” Minnesota Code.” New York General Business Law Article 36. (3) The Secretary of Labor and Industry or his designee. one of whom is the director of the office of pipeline safety. 73 P.

if they feel a warning would suffice. 220 C. 2.CGA Best Practices 12..” section 1-3 • New York: “Warning letters: Upon determining that a probable violation(s) of a provision of Part 753 has occurred or is continuing. Third Time: May be fined $500 per violation.M. without imposing unnecessarily high transaction costs on any participant. “Any person. Performance and penalty incentives are equitably administered among stakeholders subject to one call provisions. Given the opportunity to attend a Blue Stake Training Course provided by the Arizona Corporation Commission’s Pipeline Safety Section.” New Hampshire Code. such as education and penalties that correspond to the gravity of the violation. 3.g. and to comply henceforth. the following may be followed: 1. A penalty system includes education as an alternative or supplement to civil or other penalties. Flagrancy or magnitude of offense could cause pipeline safety to deviate from this policy. if it is correctable.000 nor more than $5. including the enforcement authority. civil penalty amounts). RSA 374. contractor. May be fined $250 per violation and C. Any excavator whose subsequent violation occurs after 12 consecutive months of no violations shall be subject to a civil penalty of $500. there exists specific provisions for penalties for failure to comply with the damage prevention laws and regulations.000 for any subsequent offense within a 12 month period after the Department issues a remedial order or executes a consent order for the first offense..” NY Public Service Commission policy (proposed code § 753-6. May be fined $250 per violation and B.” Arizona Corporation Commission policy. Second Offense: A. both of which aim to fairly arrive at rational outcomes.. May be given a warning and Item C below or B. or company found by the Department to have violated any provision of the Dig Safe law or regulation adopted by the Department thereunder shall be subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $500 for the first offense and not less than $1. warning letters. Any deviation to the above-stated policy will jointly be determined by the Chief of Pipeline Safety and the Investigator.” Massachusetts Regulation. a state where a violator’s “history” is considered when addressing a violation. B. Reference: • New Hampshire: “Any excavator or operator who does not comply with RSA 374:51-54 shall be required on first offense to go through either a ‘Dig Safe’ training program or be subject to a civil penalty.12(1) 7–3: Penalties Practice Statement: Compliance programs include penalties for violations of the damage prevention laws or regulations. mandatory education. First Time Offenders: A. Note: the investigator may use the NOV as a warning. § 374:55(VIII) A penalty system also uses a tiered structure to distinguish violations by the level of severity or repeat offenses (e. “Notice of Violation. Given the opportunity to attend a Blue Stake Training Course provided by the Arizona Corporation Commission Pipeline Safety Section. References: • Arizona: “When a notice of violation (NOV) is issued. or be subject to enforcement actions under this Part. the Department may issue a warning letter notifying the Respondent of the probable violation and advising him or her to correct it. § 99.3) –64– . Practice Description: Within the context of one call statutes. repeat offenders of the one call law can attain first-time offender status if they demonstrate compliance for a solid year. Repeat Offenders: A.R. Four or More Times: Could be fined up to $2000 per violation.0 Incentive—Reasonable Enforcement of Regulations: Reasonable enforcement of regulations refers to actions by enforcement authority officials and enforcement processes. Reference: • In Massachusetts. excavator.

Compliance A penalty system also establishes mitigating and aggravating factors for determining the penalty for a violation by statute or regulation.. history of prior violations. § Puc 805.M. B. past reports of damage to an underground facility by a person. and other circumstance which would tend to less fault. Subpart 3 • New Hampshire: “In determining the assessment. circumstances.” § 6 A penalty system does not allow any violator or class of violators to be shielded from the consequences of a violation (i. how much control the company had over the situation.12(2) • Minnesota: “In assessing a civil penalty under this part. Reference: • New Hampshire: “Any excavator or operator who does not comply with RSA 374:51-54 shall be required on first offense to go through either a ‘Dig Safe’ training program or be subject to a civil penalty. and such other matters as may be required and shall send a copy of its determination to the excavator.” Virginia “Rules for Enforcement of the Underground Utility Damage Prevention Act. the nature. and the respondent’s level of cooperation with the requirements of this regulation. the effect of the penalty on the person’s ability to continue business. circumstances.” Minnesota Rules.” New York Public Service Law. the person’s history of previous offenses. the nature. circumstances. the higher the civil penalty. E. effect on public health.. 220 C. and G. circumstances. F. safety or welfare.R. § 99.e. the Department shall consider the nature. commissioner of labor.” New Hampshire Code. § 119-b(8) • Virginia: “In determining the amount of any civil penalty included in a settlement. how quickly actions were taken to rectify the situation.” Massachusetts Regulation. the degree of the Respondent’s culpability. References: • Massachusetts: “In determining the amount of the civil penalty. the degree of the respondent’s culpability. the following factors shall be considered: (1) Severity of the consequences resulting from the violation: the more severe the consequences. C..06(b)(1)-(3) • New York: “. good faith on the part of the person in attempting to remedy the cause of the violation.e.” New Hampshire Regulation. the office shall consider the following factors: A. D. and gravity of the violation. 7560. the person’s ability to pay. and gravity of the violation. operator.. and (3) Prior violations of Puc 800. and attorney general. RSA 374. and such other factors as may be appropriate shall be considered.the commission shall determine the amount of the penalty after consideration of the nature. Chapter Puc 800. (2) Mitigating circumstances: i. and gravity of the violation. the degree of the person’s culpability. the Respondent’s history of prior offenses. all stakeholders should be accountable). § 374:55(VIII) –65– . the respondent’s history of prior offenses. and gravity of the violation...0800.

1971. and jurisdiction for alternative dispute resolution programs established under this section. or failing to excavate in a careful and prudent manner as required by this article. A: Right of Recovery Practice Description: The statute recognizes an injured party’s right to recovery when damages and/or costs are incurred as the direct result of an entity’s failure to comply with the one call laws and regulations. Article 6.28(C) B: Alternative Dispute Resolution Practice Description: Avenues for settlement of disputes include alternative dispute resolution. References: • Minnesota: “The Supreme Court shall establish a statewide alternative dispute resolution program for the resolution of civil cases filed with the courts. such as mediation.L.” Minnesota Code. c. and the federal government endorses ADR through the federal courts. Title 40A.40A:11-1 et seq.3.CGA Best Practices 12.371 (C.0 7–4: Damage Recovery Practice Statement: State damage prevention laws and regulations recognize the right to recover damages and costs resulting from noncompliance. Nothing in this section shall prevent the contracting unit from seeking injunctive or declaratory relief in court at any time. procedure. Chapter Title: District Courts. costs. § 484. § 40-360. c. the rules shall require the use of nonbinding alternative dispute resolution processes in all civil cases. References: • Arizona: “If an underground facility is damaged by any person as a result of failing to obtain information as to its location. The alternative dispute resolution practices required by this section shall not apply to disputes concerning the bid solicitation or award process. New Jersey endorses ADR in construction contract documents.40A:11-50) shall provide that disputes arising under the contract shall be submitted to a process of resolution pursuant to alternative dispute resolution practices. the owner or operator becomes liable for resulting damages. 1971. 1997.L.” Arizona Code. or to the formation of contracts or subcontracts to be entered into pursuant to P.40A:11-1 et seq. § 40A-11-50 –66– . § 40-360. Article 6.L. c.” New Jersey Code.” Arizona Code.76 • New Jersey: “All construction contract documents entered into in accordance with the provisions of P.) after the effective date of P. except for good cause shown by the presiding judge. binding arbitration. 198 (C. the person is liable to the owner of the underground facility for the total cost of the repair of the facility. failing to take measures for protection of the facilities.3. The Supreme Court shall adopt rules governing practice. and must provide an equitable means for the payment of fees and expenses for the use of alternative dispute resolution processes. For example. pursuant to this article. 198 (C. prior to being submitted to a court for adjudication.26(A) • Arizona: “If the owner or operator fails to locate or incorrectly locates the underground facility. or non-binding arbitration pursuant to industry standards. Arizona endorses an injured party’s right to recover damages when the other party has failed to comply with the one call law. and expenses to the injured party.). Minnesota endorses ADR through the state court system. Except for matters involving family law.

Compliance

• Federal: “Congress finds that (1) alternative dispute resolution, when
supported by the bench and bar, and utilizing properly trained neutrals in
a program adequately administered by the court, has the potential to
provide a variety of benefits, including greater satisfaction of the parties,
innovative methods of resolving disputes, and greater efficiency in
achieving settlements; (2) certain forms of alternative dispute resolution,
including mediation, early neutral evaluation, minitrials, and voluntary
arbitration, may have potential to reduce the large backlog of cases now
pending in some federal courts throughout the United States, thereby
allowing the courts to process their remaining cases more efficiently; and
(3) the continued growth of Federal appellate court-annexed mediation
programs suggests that this form of alternative dispute resolution can be
equally effective in resolving disputes in the federal trial courts; therefore,
the district courts should consider including mediation in their local
alternative dispute resolution programs...Each United States district court
shall authorize, by local rule adopted under section 2071(b) 2071(a), the
use of alternative dispute resolution processes in all civil actions,
including adversary proceedings in bankruptcy, in accordance with this
chapter, except that the use of arbitration may be authorized only as
provided in section 654 [(1) the action is based on an alleged violation of
a right secured by the Constitution of the United States; (2) jurisdiction is
based in whole or in part on section 1343 of this title; or (3) the relief
sought consists of money damages in an amount greater than
$150,000.].” Alternative Dispute Resolution Act of 1998, enacted October
1998.

7–5: Enforcement
A: Authority
Practice Statement: An authority is specified through state statutes and
given the resources to enforce the law.
Practice Description: The enforcement authority in each state has the
resources to enforce the laws and regulations. Experience has
demonstrated that enforcement of the one call laws and regulations that did
not identify a specific authority other than the attorney general has not been
effective.
Characteristics of such an authority include the following:
• A process for receiving reports of violations from any stakeholder
• An operating budget source other than fine revenue, such as a line item in
the state budget, excluding fines as a source of income for the authority
• Stakeholder involvement in periodic review and modification of
enforcement processes
• Resources to respond to notifications of alleged violations in a timely
manner
• A method of investigating alleged violations prior to issuing a notice of
probable violation
• Impartial authority adjudicating violations
• An initial informal means of contesting a notice of violation
• A published violation review process and violation assessment
considerations
References:
• Arizona: The Pipeline Safety Division of the Arizona Corporation
Commission is funded by the Commission budget. “Any penalties
received by the state shall be deposited in the general fund.” Arizona
Code, Article 6.3, § 40-360.28
• Massachusetts: “... Any other person may report a suspected violation of
M.G.L. c. 82 s. 40 to the Department. All such reports shall be in a form
deemed appropriate and necessary by the Department.” Massachusetts
Regulation, 220 C.M.R. §99.01(1)
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CGA Best Practices 12.0

• Massachusetts: The Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications
and Energy investigates all complaints received from excavators and
facility owners/operators and conducts random field investigations. The
Department then issues a Notice of Probable Violation if, based on the
investigation, it has reason to believe that a violation has occurred or is
occurring. “The Department may begin a proceeding by issuing a notice
of probable violation (“NOPV”) if the Department has reason to believe
that a violation of the M.G.L. c. 82, § 40, has occurred or is occurring...The
NOPV shall state the factual basis for the allegation of a violation...”
Massachusetts Regulation, 220 C.M.R. § 99.07(1)
• Minnesota: “The office shall issue a notice of probable violation when the
office has good cause to believe a violation of Minnesota Statutes,
sections 216D.01 to 216.D.09 of this chapter has occurred...A notice of
violation must include: A. a statement of the statute or rule allegedly
violated by the person and a description of the evidence on which the
allegation is based.” Minnesota Rules, 7560.04000, Subp.1 - Subp. 2(A)
• Minnesota: See also Minnesota Rules, 7560.0400, Subp. 1, Notice of
Violation; 7560.0500 Response Options; 7560.0600, Director
Review; 7560.0800 Civil Penalties; Subp. 3, Assessment considerations
• New Hampshire: “Upon receipt of the NOPV [Notice of Probable Violation]
the respondent shall either: (1) Submit in writing, within 30 days, evidence
refuting the probable violation referenced in the NOPV; or (2) Request in
writing within 30 days, an informal conference with commission staff to
examine the basis of the violation, at which time the respondent may be
represented by an attorney or other person; or (3) Waive procedural
schedule by signing a consent agreement.” New Hampshire Regulation,
Chapter Puc 800, § Puc 805.02
• New Hampshire: See also New Hampshire regulations, Chapter Puc 800,
sections Puc 805.01, “Notice of Probable Violation”; Puc 805.02,
Alternative Responses to Notice of Probable Violation; Puc 805.03,
Notice of Violation; Puc 805.04, Response to Notice of Violation; Puc
805.05 Commission Action; Puc 805.06, Civil Penalties.
• Virginia: The Advisory Committee, which is established by statute to
include “representatives of the following entities: Commission staff, utility
operator, notification center, excavator, municipality, Virginia Department
of Transportation, Board of Contractors, and underground line locator,”
meets one day annually (in addition the monthly hearings) for “issue day,”
a day to discuss issues and make recommendations to the State
Corporation Commission (SCC) administrative three-judge panel on
issues related to damage prevention. Subteams of the Advisory
Committee are also formed to develop recommendations. “The purpose
of the Committee is to…make recommendations with regard to Public
Education and Awareness Programs that further public safety by the
reduction of damage to the underground utility facilities in the
Commonwealth and to monitor, analyze, influence, propose, support, or
oppose programs or regulations that directly affect damage to
underground facilities serving the citizens of the Commonwealth.” Bylaws
of the Advisory Committee, Article II
• Virginia: “Upon receipt of a report of a probable violation, the Commission
staff (“Staff”) shall conduct an investigation to examine all the relevant
facts regarding the reported probable violation. The investigation may
include, among other things, records verification, informal meetings,
teleconferences, and photo-documentation. Upon completion of the
investigation, the Staff shall review its findings and recommendations with
the Advisory Committee established in accordance with 56-265.31 of the
Act.” Virginia “Rules for Enforcement of the Underground Damage
Prevention Act,” § 3

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Compliance

B: Structured Review Process
Practices Statement: A structured review process is used to impartially
adjudicate alleged violations.
Practice Description: Two types of review processes currently used are
outlined below. These type of processes differ in terms of 1) who receives
reports of alleged violations, 2) who investigates the reports, 3) possible
outcomes of the investigation, 4) who conducts first tier (informal) hearings,
5) possible outcomes of first tier hearings, and 6) appeal rights following a
second tier (formal) hearing. It is important that review processes are
constructed to avoid abuses of authority and prevent any individual, industry,
stakeholder, or agency from exercising undue power or influence over the
process.
Type 1: Traditional Enforcement Authority—This system is currently used in
Arizona, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Reports of alleged violations are sent
to the State Agency. A state investigator investigates the reports. If the
investigator decides not to issue a NOPV (Notice of Probable Violation), the
matter is concluded. If not, the NOPV is issued, and the investigator
conducts an informal hearing or review. If the investigator determines that no
violation was committed, the matter is concluded. If the investigator
determines that a violation was committed, the NOV (Notice of Violation) is
issued. If the alleged violator does not contest the NOV, the alleged violation
is bound by the facts, findings, orders, and penalties set forth in the NOV. If
the alleged violator so requests, the State Agency conducts a formal
hearing. The alleged violator may appeal the decision reached in the formal
hearing to the state court system.
Type 2: Advisory Committee (made up of stakeholders) partnered with
State Agency—This system is currently used in Virginia. Reports of alleged
violations are sent to the State Enforcement Agency. The State Agency
investigates the alleged violations and reports to an advisory committee. The
Committee is made up of stakeholders representing the following statutorily
mandated fields: excavators, facility owners/operators, notification centers,
contract locators, local governments, State Department of Transportation,
the Board of Contractors, and the State Enforcement Agency. If the advisory
committee decides not to issue a NOPV (Notice of Probable Violation), the
matter is concluded, possibly with a “letter of concern” containing one call
information. If the advisory committee decides to issue an NOPV, it is issued
by the State Agency. If the alleged violator does not request a hearing, the
alleged violator is bound by the enforcement action set forth in the NOPV. If
the alleged violator so requests, an informal hearing is held by the advisory
committee. If the advisory committee decides that no violation was
committed, the matter is concluded, subject to the right of the State Agency
to contest that decision in an administrative proceeding conducted by the
agency. If not, the NOV is issued. If the alleged violator then settles the
matter with the advisory committee, the settlement is subject to approval by
the State Agency in an administrative proceeding. If there is no settlement,
the State Agency conducts a formal administrative hearing. The alleged
violator may appeal the decision reached in the formal hearing to the state
court system.

–69–

–70– .0 .CGA Best Practices 12.

NC.A National One Call Number40/ Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes promoting the National One Call Number (811) and awareness campaign by communicating the number and “call before you dig” process to excavators and the general public. and WI 8–2: Marketing 811 -. 1997 • Underground Protection Center (UPC) of Georgia • Various one call centers including: AL. and continuity of advertising/public relations programs and ensures the most effective and efficient use of limited resources. WV. KY. control. strategic marketing/advertising plan. GA. prepared for the Damage Prevention Quality Action Team by The Daily Planit. CT. NY (City). AZ. These plans focus on setting realistic goals and allocating sufficient resources required to achieve those goals within a specified time frame. Practice Description: A comprehensive.CHAPTER 8 Public Education and Awareness 8–1: Marketing Plan Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes a comprehensive. IA. OH. OR. strategic marketing/advertising plan enables better implementation. IL. people. MO. Practice Description: Practice Statement 8–1 identifies the need for a marketing plan and specifies that the plan include the promotion of the 811 number. The marketing plan is a set of action steps based on a comprehensive situation analysis that clearly states the following: • What is to be achieved • How it will be achieved • When it will be achieved • Who is responsible for achieving each goal • What amount of resources (time. 1998 Marketing Plan • Public Awareness Marketing Plan for Underground Utility Damage Prevention. OK. and money) will be allocated to achieving each goal References: • Louisiana One Call Systems. 2009 –71– . Stakeholder and marketing groups include the following: • One call notification centers • Owners and operators of underground facilities • Construction industry • Regulatory agencies Product and services representatives from the one call industry actions that lead to a successful incorporation of 811 into your marketing plan include the following: • Inclusion of the 811 logo on Web sites and newsletters • Placing the 811 logo on owner/operator vehicles and equipment • TV and radio promotions and public service announcements • Billboard advertising 40/ TR-2009-17: Addition approved by the CGA Board on December 4. NM. November 20. Project 2000. Inc.

not one call members) • Agricultural industry members • Public officials • Planning. 2009 –72– . MS. Coordination with other strategic partners can assist in reaching the greatest number of people. handouts. KY. INGAA. and WI • NUCA and various NUCA state chapters • API. This helps identify which media (e.g. IL. OH. their specific needs can be more readily addressed. FL. MO. CT.e. free advertising.. NM. yard cards. and AGA member companies • Associated General Contractors (AGC) chapters • Door hangers from TCS Communications. This also facilitates customization of the message itself. ID. zoning. LLC. AZ. NY (City). WV. permitting. door hangers. OR. TX.0 • Inclusion of the 811 logo on products and in service promotions References: • State one call centers • Krylon Industries • Colonial Pipeline 8–3: Target Audiences and Needs41/ Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes identification of target audiences and their individual needs. meal meetings. OK. GA. and code enforcement officials • Public utility board members • Homeowners and associations • Schools • Landscape companies • Geotechnical and environments soil testing laboratories • Insurance industry members • Marine operators • Children • Property owners/tenants • Emergency responders/local emergency planning committee members • News media When target audiences are identified. IA.) can most effectively be used to deliver the message. of Florida • Yard cards from Ohio Utilities Protection Service 41/ TR-2009-17: Addition approved by the CGA Board on December 4. advertising. licensing. Practice Description: Identification of target audiences ensures maximum impact for the Dig Safely message. CO.CGA Best Practices 12. The following target audiences are identified as examples: • Professional designers • Surveyors • Construction management officials • Excavation equipment operators • Excavation equipment rental stores • Excavators • Public works excavators • Locators • Railroads • Participating facility owners/operators • Non-participating facility owners/operators (i.. brochures. NC. etc. References: • Various one call centers including AL.

Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA). Practice Description: Damage prevention education programs that are structured to accommodate the needs of individual audiences are essential to effectively communicate the message of damage prevention for underground facilities. MO. WV. NC. OH. OK. NM. TX. 2009 –73– . AZ. • Awareness videos are effective education tools for children’s groups such as scout troops and schools. IA. CT. excavators. news media. Consider the following examples: • Structured education presentations in association with meal functions are an effective method to communicate with organized groups such as emergency responders and equipment operators. civic clubs. MS. • Contractor and construction trade shows are unique opportunities to deliver the damage prevention public education message. and operators about the overall one call system and damage prevention process. NUCA. • One call center tours are effective for educating the public. and American Gas Association (AGA) member companies • Industry associations including AGC chapters.Public Education and Awareness 8–4: Structured Education Programs42/ Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program is structured to accommodate the needs of individual audiences. NY (City). References: • Various one call centers including AL. and WI • Current industry materials. programs. and practices • National Land Improvement Contractors Association • American Petroleum Institute (API). customer service personnel. IL. • Guest speaker appearances are effective with property owners groups. OR. ID. • Agricultural industry forums and events provide a good opportunity to educate farmers and equipment suppliers on the damage prevention message. • Training videos and multimedia presentations are effective to reach facility owner/operator locating staffs. CO. and National Telecommunications Damage Prevention Council (NTDPC) • Various contract locating firms 42/ TR-2009-19: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 4. facility locators. GA. • Involvement of all stakeholder groups in local and regional partner or utility coordinating meetings improves networking opportunities and damage prevention awareness. KY. and one call center liaisons. etc.

guidance to homeowners to understand the damage prevention process. NC. originated and mailed directly by the one call center to all identifiable excavators in the call center’s jurisdiction. Direct mailings containing local information can be mailed to residents and businesses that lie within a specified area. and emergency response information to target audiences through periodic mailings. ID. OH. IL. posters for retail aisles where digging equipment is found. These mailings can offer support materials such as point of-purchase brochure displays for sales counters. and rental equipment stores. hardware stores. • Target mailing lists are developed using a combination of facility owners/operators’ and one call center internal sources. and emergency response information. and 195 –74– . • Additionally. • Specialized brochures or letters can be mailed directly to address such issues as failure to follow local damage prevention laws. • Direct mailings. Such mailings are especially useful for reaching those residents and businesses that are in the corridor of the underground facility or proposed excavation route. 194. • An annual excavator newsletter. KY. safety. IA. heavy equipment sellers. safety.CGA Best Practices 12. Some examples are listed below: • Direct-mailed billing statements are ideal for including inserts provided by the one call center because the connection between underground facilities and Dig Safely can be readily made by the consumers. MS. and WI • API Recommended Practice 1123 • 49 CFR Parts 192. Practice Description: Target mailings can effectively communicate essential damage prevention. and ZIP-code + 4/SIC code mailing lists. and key chains for rental equipment ignition keys. There are numerous software applications and databases available in the marketplace to support this. are effective in targeting audiences such as lumber yards and stores. space for a damage prevention message can be dedicated on the facility owners/operators’ newsletters that are often included with the billing statements. References: • Various one call centers including AL. WV. support partner mailing lists. either in the form of letters or newsletters. AZ. and special requirements when excavations occur in agricultural or rural settings. NM. NY (City). keeps the customer base involved and informed of changes to the damage prevention system. OK. MO. CT. GA. OR.0 8–5: Target Mailings Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program communicates vital damage prevention.

including various oil pipeline companies such as Marathon-Ashland Pipeline Company. and print media is an effective means for communicating one call center information and safe-digging requirements to target audiences. OH. Paid advertising is particularly effective for reaching general excavators. use of free media should be emphasized. MS. IL. Not-for-Profit Public Service Announcements (PSAs): Television and radio stations. Examples of occasions/events that are appropriate for press releases include the following: • Call center milestones (millionth call. Examples include transit system signs. Press Releases: This tool is the preferred method to communicate “newsworthy” information about your damage prevention program to newspapers. the organizations must have a safety-related message that benefits the general public. and WI • Current facility owner practices. To qualify. References: • Various one call centers including AL. NC. OR. CO. and print messages in trade publications. television. Practice Description: Paid advertising through event sponsorships. and Equilon Pipeline Company 8–7: Free Media43/ Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program utilizes all available free media. NM. and the general public. property owners and tenants. safety around the home. trade publications. Additionally. sponsorship of news and weather reports on radio and television. construction designers and managers. See Appendix C for a sample press release. and a measurement for success should be implemented early in the advertising campaign to gauge effectiveness.Public Education and Awareness 8–6: Paid Advertising Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes paid advertising to increase damage prevention awareness and practices. equipment operators. Measurements can include increased locate ticket volume or increased number of first-time callers to a one call center. and radio stations. For organizations with limited budgets. industry trade exhibits and events. and damage prevention actions related to severe weather. 2009 –75– . as well as billboard companies. 43/ TR-2009-20: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 4. Northwest Pipeline Company. However. OK. MO. NY (City). farmers. is on file for distribution to newspapers and other periodicals that often run special sections on topics such as home improvements. CT. WV. KY. record day) • Year in review (call volume statistics. the use of paid advertising can be very costly. GA. Practice Description: When identified and used correctly. often are willing to donate air time or space for public service announcements (PSAs) to not-for-profit organizations. IA. ID. free media can be highly effective to communicate the Dig Safely message at minimal cost. damage reduction/increases) • Election of new board members • Announcement of excavator safety program schedule • Announcement of a new utility member • Changes to the state/local damage prevention law • Seasonal “call before you dig” reminders A basic press release. containing the damage prevention message and fundamental program information. record month. facility owners/operators. radio. creative placement of the message can ease the expense of paid advertising and enhance its effectiveness.

KY.. and others • Proclamations from various state and local governments • Press release from Ohio Utilities Protection Service announcing Ohio’s Safe Digging Month (see Appendix C) 8–8: Giveaways Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program uses promotional giveaway items to increase damage prevention awareness. WV. WV. NM. trade shows. MS. CT. and WI • Various one call center member companies. CO. GA. another source of free media for the Dig Safely message: • Major facility owners/operators who purchase paid advertising on television. Examples include note pads. pens. MO. CO. Items used should reflect the unique needs and interests of the target audiences and the regions served. NY (City). The following are successful examples of their use: • Use of proclamations by state and local governments to support “National Safe Digging Month. OH. OK. IA. IA. AZ.0 Member Facility Owners/Operators: The member facility owners operators of the damage prevention system are. and magnets. OK.KY. AZ. In all cases. IL.” See Appendix C for a sample press release • Inclusion of safe-digging messages on state tollway/highway electronic message boards • Damage prevention messages in community newsletters of member municipal facility operators References: • Various one call centers including AL. GTE. items should be usable both for work and recreation. MO. TX. clipboards. radio. OH. Giveaways can be distributed via awareness and safety meetings. targeted mailings. ID. NY (City). NC. NM. Practice Description: Effective damage prevention education programs use giveaways to reach targeted audiences. NC. TCI Cable Co. MS. Rolodex® cards. • Cable TV members should be provided copies of any Dig Safely commercial and encouraged to run it as a PSA on their system. OR. in effect. (Many cable members have created their own messages for this purpose!) • All members facility owners/operators should be offered vehicle bumper stickers and posters to place on their locating and service vehicles promoting the “Call Before You Dig” phone numbers. State/Local Government: State and local governments can be yet another source of free media for your damage prevention education program. sports towels work in many areas and with many audiences.CGA Best Practices 12. OR. For example. sponsored events. ID. IL. Reference: • Various one call centers including AL. and billboards can require that free Dig Safely PSAs be included in any media buy they make. beach towels are probably only effective in states or areas near beaches. such as Media-One. GA. However. TX. ignition protectors. mouse pads. and WI –76– . and other methods. Ameritech. CT.

• The collection and tracking of individual or collective facility owners/operators’ damage information from year to year is another outstanding method of measuring success. KY. WV. and WI • Illinois Commerce Commission • Existing strategic relationships.” This means having working relationships in place to leverage common resources. and WI • API Data Collection Initiative • INGAA Foundation Pipeline Safety Awareness Material Focus Group Research Report • “Presentation of Findings: OPS/DAMQAT Underground Facility Damage Prevention Study” (nationwide survey) • “Presentation of Findings: DAMQAT Pilot Evaluation Study” (regional survey) • Great Lakes Common Carrier Committee Six-State Survey • Virginia State Corporation Commission survey on why damages occur • PHMSA 9 Elements (PIPES ACT) –77– . OH. and others. IL. References: • Various one call centers including AL. CT. NC. AZ. GA. these can be compared against the money and resources used in that area for further indications of program effectiveness. the Equipment Manufacturers Institute (EMI) and original equipment manufacturers to install “North American Equipment Decals” on the dashboards of new excavating equipment. Another example is the One Call Systems Study (OCSS) for which this report is written. emergency responders. grass roots organizations. NY (City). One example of such strategic relationships includes partnering with the state bureau of utilities. For a given area. OK. Consider the following examples: • Use of a direct-mail or telephone survey to effectively determine how one call center and/or member facility customers are hearing and recalling the damage prevention message. one call centers. media outlets. KY. providing that other internal factors at a given facility owner/operator remain constant. Practice Description: Damage prevention education program effectiveness can be gauged in several ways. OH. OK. TX. Practice Description: Strategic relationships can be defined as “Making Friends Before You Need Them. OR. References: • Various one call centers including CT. GA. MO. associations of all types. MO. IL. NC. Successful damage prevention education programs establish strategic relationships with governmental agencies. IA. CO. such as APWA/AGC and API/NTDPC 8–10:Measuring Public Education Success Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program includes structured annual or biennial (every two years) measurement(s) to gauge the success of the overall program. These relationships involve partnering to further damage prevention education efforts. The OCSS represents the establishment of a strategic relationship among various one call systems stakeholders to further damage prevention education and awareness. MS.Public Education and Awareness 8–9: Establishing Strategic Relationships Practice Statement: An effective damage prevention education program establishes strategic relationships. IA. ID. OCSI members. MS. • Use of Arbitron Areas of Dominant Influence (ADI) boundaries to measure increases in one call center call volume and/or member facility owners/operators’ one call messages is also an effective measurement.

CGA Best Practices 12. –78– .0 .

or stakeholders with an interest in underground damage prevention report qualified information on events45/ that could have. References: • API/Association of Oil Pipelines (AOPL) Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. near misses. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. locators. Understanding this is a partial list. 9–1: All Stakeholders Report Information Practice Statement: Facility owners/operators. 2014 TR-2010-02: Amendment approved by CGA Board on August 10. or did. and incident data. 2012 –79– . lead to a damaged underground facility. Near Miss. Under each particular best practice is a partial list of examples identified during the creation of that best practice. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 44/ 45/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. Inc. Inc. Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. and Incident Data44/ The following best practices related to reporting damage prevention data were reviewed by the CGA’s Data Reporting & Evaluation Committee (DR&EC). it should be recognized that other options may be available. • Tierdael Construction Company—General Contractors • U. Department of Transportation. From a national data perspective.S. Inc. CGA Stakeholders recognize the CGA DIRT tool as the most beneficial source currently available for nationwide data regarding damages. excavators.CHAPTER 9 Reporting and Evaluation Best Practices Associated with Reporting Damage.

near miss. (Refer to Appendix C for example form) References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–3: Identify the Noncompliant Stakeholder Practice Statement: It is important to identify the noncompliant stakeholder (facility owner/operator. and near misses. 46/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. 2014 –80– . lead to a damaged facility. the person reporting the information provides the most complete information possible. Inc. Reference: • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. It may not be necessary to pinpoint the names and addresses of the offenders for the purpose of improving the damage prevention program. Inc. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau.S. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. This means that collected data includes damage information. locator. Department of Transportation. Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System.0 9–2: Standardized Information Is Reported by All Stakeholders46/ Practice Statement: The requested data is standardized and consists of essential information that can be analyzed to determine what events could.CGA Best Practices 12. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. Inc. Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–4: Person Reporting Provides Detailed Information Practice Statement: If all of the requested data is not available. downtime. All stakeholders submit the same damage. and downtime data via simple answers and check boxes. Inc. Inc. • Tierdael Construction Company—General Contractors • U. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. excavator. or did. Inc. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. or one call notification center) so that this group can be targeted with education and training.

Inc. Check-boxes or other simple answering techniques help the person reporting the information and make the evaluation process easier. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–6: A Standardized Form Is Adopted Practice Statement: A standardized form that includes the mandatory DIRT fields is adopted and distributed to all facility owners/operators. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • NC811 DIRT Lite Form • PA PDD (PA Damage Database) • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Inc. locators. and other appropriate stakeholders. the information is easy to complete. Inc. 2014 –81– . as needed.S. Department of Transportation. 2014 TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. and the awareness of root causes. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc. By limiting the number of hand-written responses. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–7: The Form Is Simple Practice Statement: Data is reported using a simple. excavators. Inc. • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • Tennessee One Call System. (Refer to Appendix C for a example form)48/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc. standardized form. • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • NC811 DIRT Lite Form • PA PDD (PA Damage Database) • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 47/ 48/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. • U. to adapt to the changes in the state’s statutes. the evolution of industry technology. The report is revised. • United States Department of Transportation.Reporting and Evaluation 9–5: Requested Information May Change Practice Statement: Requested information changes as additional or different data is deemed necessary for the evaluation process. (Refer to Appendix C for example form)47/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig.

References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Florida Sunshine State One Call • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. and downtime data via simple answers and check boxes. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Pennsafe Bureau. Inc. facility owners/operators. and anyone else involved in the damage prevention process complete the same form. • U. near miss. Inc. 9–9: Flexibility on Completing and Returning Form Is Provided Practice Statement: Flexible options are provided for both completing and returning the form. Office of Pipeline Safety • Virginia State Corporation Commission 49/ 50/ TR-2010-02: Practice removal approved by the CGA Board on June 19. Inc. Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. excavators. locators. Department of Transportation. Department of Labor and Industry • Tennessee One Call System. This may include providing self-addressed and Web page forms and enabling completed forms to be faxed or reported by telephone.CGA Best Practices 12. 2014 TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. (Refer to Appendix C for example Form)50/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. 2014 –82– .S. DIRT is currently recognized as the national repository for housing damage data. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Reference: • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–12:An Organization Is Identified to Receive the Information Practice Statement: A centralized and independent organization is identified to receive and process completed forms. Inc. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–10:Vacant49/ 9–11:Stakeholders Complete the Same Form Practice Statement: If possible. All stakeholders submit damage. Inc.0 9–8: Training Is Provided Practice Statement: Training and education on how and when to complete the form are made available.

–83– . Inc. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc.Reporting and Evaluation 9–13:The Organization Is Able to Interface with All Stakeholders Practice Statement: The organization collecting the information is able to interface with all groups to promote completion and return of completed forms. • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Inc. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York.

Inc. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. 2014 TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19.52/ References: • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–16:Data Is Used to Improve Damage Prevention Efforts Practice Statement: The reported data is used to assess and improve underground damage prevention efforts. it is used to promote underground damage awareness through recommended training and education. Inc. 51/ 52/ 53/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. is identified to evaluate the completed forms and publish the data. Inc. • Tennessee One Call System. • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Inc. Inc. assists in the evaluation process. Inc. 2014 TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. rather. 2014 –84– . 9–14:An Organization Evaluates the Data Practice Statement: A centralized and independent organization. with representation from all interested stakeholders. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–17:Data Is Used to Promote Underground Damage Awareness53/ Practice Statement: The reported data is not used to penalize or punish. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. 9–15:The Organization Has Representation from All Stakeholders Practice Statement: An organization such as the Data Reporting and Evaluation Committee. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System.0 Best Practices Associated with Evaluating Damage Prevention Data The following best practices are related to evaluating damage prevention data and are developed by the Reporting and Evaluation Task Team. such as the Data Reporting and Evaluation Committee.51/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig.CGA Best Practices 12. Inc. Inc. Under each best practice is a list of resources that were used as examples during the Task Team’s discussions and may not be inclusive of all stakeholders that utilize the best practice.

Inc. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc. This risk factor may be based on factors such as the number of miles of line installed or the number of one call center notification tickets. a risk factor may compare how many underground damages occurred in a certain time period versus the total number of notification tickets issued. References: • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. Inc. • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–19:Root Causes Are Identified Practice Statement: Root causes of events are identified. Inc. 2014 –85– . For example. Inc. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York.54/ References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. Inc. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • Virginia State Corporation Commission 9–20:Results Are Quantified Against a Standardized Risk Factor Practice Statement: Results are quantified against a standardized risk factor. Inc. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. • National Transportation Safety Board Safety Study: Protecting Public Safety through Excavation Damage Prevention (NTSB/SS-97-01) 9–21:Performance Levels and Trends Are Assessed Practice Statement: Performance levels and trends are assessed against those of other organizations. References: • API/AOPL Voluntary Accident Tracking Initiative • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. 54/ TR-2010-02: Wording approved by CGA Board on June 19. The risk factor considers a stakeholder’s exposure to potential damage. Inc. Inc.Reporting and Evaluation 9–18:Data Is Summarized by Key Components Practice Statement: The reported data is summarized by key components. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. Inc.

CGA Best Practices 12.0
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CHAPTER 10

Miscellaneous
10–1:Homeland Security
Practice Description: Many of the recommended practices contained
within the CGA’s Best Practices Manual require the sharing of critical
infrastructure information. This sharing is an important aspect of ensuring
that parties involved with the identification of, the excavation around, and the
general protection of underground facilities have adequate information to
protect underground infrastructures. However, in the interest of Homeland
Security, all parties must ensure that such information is shared only with
individuals who truly require this critical information.
To this end, parties who employ or contract with individuals who may have
access to such information should ensure that those individuals or
contractors have the appropriate credentials to prevent the information from
being accessed by individuals or groups that may intend to damage, alter, or
destroy the infrastructure in question.55/
References:
• Existing state laws including South Carolina and North Carolina

55/

Addition approved by the Best Practices Committee on April 8, 2003

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CGA Best Practices 12.0
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Demolition Work: The partial or complete destruction by any means of a structure served by. aerial photographs. advisory boards. for example. a common set of definitions are used. and standing neutrals. mini-trials. This includes. wiring is also installed to test stations that are used to measure the effectiveness of the cathodic protection system. to an underground line or facility. the protective coating. if necessary. road/street networks. but not limited to. Damage Reporting: The immediate reporting to a one call center and the facility owner/operator of any damage caused or discovered in the course of excavation or demolition work.56/ Downtime: Lost time reported by a stakeholder on the Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) field form for an excavation project due to failure of one or more stakeholders to comply with applicable damage prevention regulations. as quickly as practical. As-built Drawing: A detailed depiction of facilities as installed in the field. Backfill: To fill the void created by excavating. ADR includes. 2009 TR-2011-03: Addition approved by the CGA Board on December 13. road maps. survey plans. topography. Damage: Any impact or exposure that results in the need to repair an underground facility due to a weakening or the partial or complete destruction of the facility. but is not limited to. or any combination of these or other similar systems. Compliance: Adherence to the statute and its regulations. to immediately alert the occupants of premises as to any emergency that such person may create or discover at or near such premises. Wiring is installed between the buried or submerged structure and all anodes and rectifiers. including. engineer. installation of a sacrificial anode bed. Cathodic Protection: The process of arresting corrosion on a buried or submerged structure by electrically reversing the natural chemical reaction. and is binding or non-binding pursuant to the agreement by the disputing parties. use of a rectifier based system. partnering. and buried facility networks obtained from a variety of sources including. or housing for the line. or other person who prepares or issues a drawing or blueprint for a construction or other project that requires excavation or demolition work.57/ 56/ 57/ TR-2009-08: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on October 16. for example. cathodic protection. satellite photographs. lateral support. Attribute: Characteristic that helps describe the data. These definitions were arrived at through a consensus process similar to the methodology used to identify the best practices. to contact emergency responders. Abandoned Line or Facility: Any underground or submerged line or facility no longer in use. Designer: Any architect. mediation. but is not limited to. or facility.APPENDIX A Glossary of Terms and Definitions For the purpose of the Common Ground Study. arbitration. Digital Imagery: A computer-compatible version of land-related information including. physical features. device. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Any process or procedure other than litigation that is agreed to by the disputing parties as the means for resolving a dispute. Business Day (or Working Day): Any day of the week except Saturday and Sunday and state/provincial and federal legal holidays. and buried facility records. or adjacent. 2012 –89– .

Location information can be received using a GPS receiver. or property. More sophisticated receivers that use additional technologies or that post-process the original GPS data can provide sub-meter accuracy.. health. Geospatial Data: Data that identifies the geographic location and characteristics of natural or constructed features and boundaries on the earth. Emergency Notice: A communication to the one call center to alert the involved underground facility owners/operators of the need to excavate as a result of a sudden or unforeseen occurrence or national emergency involving a clear and imminent danger to life. or downtime. sewage. operates. e-mail or Internet from a facility owner/operator to an excavator providing the status of an owner/operator's statutorily required response to a notice of intent to excavate. utility. maintain. Emergency Response: A facility owner/operator’s response to an emergency notice. Joint Trench: A trench containing two or more facilities that are buried together by design or agreement. environment.e. providing. the interruption of essential utility services. velocity. 2012 TR-2013-02: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 5. traffic control loops and similar underground or submerged devices). Event: The occurrence of facility damage. Simple and inexpensive hand-held receivers provide an accuracy of ±100 meters of a true position. but not limited to. political subdivision. 2012 –90– . irrigation systems) and appurtenances thereto. health. water. or an underground or submerged pipe used in carrying. software. Global Positioning System (GPS): A system consisting of 25 satellites used to provide precise position. Geographic Information System (GIS): An organized collection of computer hardware. or other liquid service (including. oil or oil product. ground level) upon which a structure is built or prepared. or controls the operation of an underground line/facility. or other material below existing grade. conductors. or other person or entity who owns. Grade: The surface of the earth (i. and geographic data used to capture. 2013 TR-2011-05: Addition approved by the CGA Board on December 13.60/ Facility Owner/Operator: Any person. or property (including the interruption of essential utility services or the blockage of transportation facilities) that requires immediate excavation.61/ 58/ 59/ 60/ 61/ TR-2009-12: Addition approved by the CGA Board on June 17. or the blockage of transportation facilities that requires immediate action.58/ Emergency: A sudden or unforeseen occurrence involving a clear and imminent danger to life. and equipment. storm drainage. Facility: An underground or submerged conductor.59/ Excavator: Any person proposing to or engaging in excavation or demolition work for himself or for another person. but not limited to. update.CGA Best Practices 12. demolition. Grounding Systems: A system of one or more ground conductors or ground rods providing a low-resistance path-to-earth ground potential through a mechanical connection to structures. or gathering (typically between the wellhead and transmission line) gas. and display all forms of geographically referenced information. or explosives in the movement of earth. store. fax. near miss. rock. authority.0 Electronic Positive Response: Communication by telephone. municipality. Excavate or Excavation: Any operation using non-mechanized or mechanized equipment. pipe. and time information to users anywhere on earth. 2011 TR-2011-09: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on August 10. analyze. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the earth’s surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. or structure used to provide electric or communications service (including.

flagging. or a series of repetitive. or program. paint. that impact facilities over a long period of time or a large area. including the locations of existing facilities. (See Appendix B.Glossary of Terms and Definitions Land Base: Mapped data that depicts features of the surface of the earth and is tied to real-world geographic coordinates. road shoulders. Locator: A person whose job is to locate lines or facilities. hierarchical.63/ Locate Request: A communication between an excavator and one call center personnel in which a request for locating underground facilities is processed. airport. 2011 TR-2011-06: Addition approved by the CGA Board on August 10. runways. One Call Center: An entity that administers a system through which a person can notify owners/operators of lines or facilities of proposed excavations. Planning: An activity at the beginning of a project where information is gathered and decisions are made regarding the route or location of a proposed excavation based on constraints. system. 2012 TR-2010-05: Addition approved by the CGA Board on August 26. it may be sequential. relational. 2011 –91– . adjusting ballast on top of railroad roadbed. network. Membership: Persons who participate voluntarily in a one call center because they have an interest in the protection of lines or facilities or because they have a statutory responsibility to protect lines or facilities. Person: Any individual or legal entity. tilt. replacing railroad ties and related appliances excluding road crossings. Minor or Routine Maintenance of Transportation Facilities: The adding of granular material to unpaved roads. Large/Complex Project: A single project. Notification Period: The time beginning when notice is given and ending when the work may begin. photographic image. Orthophoto: An aerial photograph of a site that has been differentially rectified to correct the distortion caused by the terrain and attitude (tip. A multicolored. “Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines. airport taxiways. small. user. 2009 TR-2010-04: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on December 1. anticipated conflicts and the relative costs of relocating existing facilities. public or private. such as latitude and longitude. or some other customary manner that approximately determines the location of that line or facility. and yaw) of the camera. or more expensive construction for the proposed facility. but a clear potential for damage was identified. airport runways. cleaning of paved drainage inlets and paved ditches or pipes. distortion-free. 62/ 63/ 64/ 65/ TR-2009-07: Addition approved by the CGA Board on October 16. or semantic.64/ Longitude (Long): Distance measured east or west from a reference meridian (Greenwich).62/ Latitude (Lat): Distance measured north or south of the equator. and taxiways. and canal lock facility cracks or joints. whiskers. cleaning and sealing road. Line: See “Geographic Information System (GIS)” Locate: To indicate the existence of a line or facility by establishing a mark through the use of stakes. short-term projects that are related in scope.65/ Notice: The timely communication by the excavatorhttps://www.scribd.com/designer to the one call center that alerts the involved underground facility owners/operators of the intent to excavate. removal and application of patches to the surface of paved roads. Near Miss: An event where damage (as defined on page 89) did not occur. Marking Standards: The methods by which a facility owner/operator indicates its line or facility in accordance with the APWA guidelines. and railroad roadbeds.”) Member Database: Structured collection of data defined for a particular use.

71/ 66/ 67/ 68/ 69/ 70/ 71/ TR-2009-01: Addition approved by the CGA Board on October 16. 2009 TR-2009-04: Addition approved by the CGA Board on October 16. Ticket Number: A unique identification number assigned by the one call center to each locate request. tracks.68/ Root Cause: The primary reason an event occurred.70/ Tolerance Zone: The space in which a line or facility is located and in which special care is to be taken. usually drawn to a scale. Vacuum Excavation: A means of soil extraction through vacuum. 2009 TR-2009-05: Addition approved by the CGA Board on October 16.0 Plat: A map or representation on paper of a piece of land subdivided into lots. 2012 TR-2009-09: Addition approved by the CGA Board on September 10. alleys. stations.66/ Public: The general population or community at large. with streets.69/ Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE): An engineering process for accurately identifying the quality of underground utility information needed for excavation plans and for acquiring and managing that level of information during the development of a project. and such like property. bridges. 2009 TR-2011-07: Addition approved by the CGA Board on August 10. right of way. etc. water or air jet devices are commonly used for breaking the ground.. Test Hole: Exposure of a facility by safe excavation practices used to ascertain the precise horizontal and vertical position of underground lines or facilities.67/ Railroad Operating Corridor: The property that is essential to a railroad company to enable it to discharge its function and duties as a common carrier by rail. Project Owner: The person financially responsible for the undertaking of a project that involves excavation or demolition. 2010 –92– .CGA Best Practices 12. Pre-marking or Positive Site Identification: The marking of the proposed excavation site/work area consistent with APWA guidelines. It includes the road bed. Positive Response: Communication with the excavator prior to excavation to ensure that all contacted (typically via the one call centers) owner/operators have located their underground facilities and have appropriately marked any potential conflicts with the areas of planned excavation. 2012 TR-2011-08: Addition approved by the CGA Board on August 10.

1 Safety Color Code . Uniform Color Code73/ The following APWA uniform color code (ANSI Z535. 2004 –93– .72/ BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 4—LOCATING AND MARKING Practice Statement 4–3: Color Code: A uniform color code and set of marking symbols is adopted nationwide. 72/ 73/ Information contained in this appendix approved by the CGA Board on September 24.APPENDIX B Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines The information contained in this appendix is intended to supplement information for existing practices found within CGA Best Practices. This recommendation is not intended to preempt any existing state requirement that specifies other colors. 2004 TR-2001-05: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 24.1) shall be adopted as the uniform color code for marking excavation sites and underground facilities in conflict with an excavation. References: • APWA Uniform Color Code • Existing operating practices from various states’ one call centers • Existing one call laws from various states • ANSI Standard Z535.

CGA Best Practices 12. Tolerance Zone74/ The following examples are of tolerance zones for a 1 in. 2010 –94– . and 12 in.0 BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 5—EXCAVATION Practice Statement 5–19: Excavation Tolerance Zone: The excavator observes a tolerance zone that is comprised of the width of the facility plus 18 in. on either side of the outside edge of the underground facility on a horizontal plane. line: 74/ TR-2010-01A: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 10. This practice is not intended to preempt any existing state/provincial requirements that currently specify a tolerance zone of more than 18 in.

dashes marking the four corners of the project. paint. This single stake is white in color and displays the excavator’s company identifier (name.. diameter typically are used to define arcs or radii and may be placed at closer intervals in lieu of dashes. or dashes outlining the excavation project. to 12 in. Single Point Excavations Markings Delineate in white paint the proposed area of excavation using a continuous line. Dots of approximately 1 in. Guidelines for Excavation Delineation75/ The following marking illustrations are examples of how excavators may choose to mark their area of proposed excavation. wide with interval spacing approximately 4 ft to 50 ft apart.g. If the excavator chooses this type of delineation. flags. they must convey that they have delineated the excavation site with a single stake at the center of the excavation and include the radius of the site in the notification to the one call center. it can be delineated with a single stake that is positioned at the proposed center of the excavation. dots marking the radius or arcs. abbreviations. 2004 –95– . long and 1 in. or initials) and the radius of the excavation site in black letters on the stake or with a notice attached to the stake. whiskers. Single Stake Marking Center Point of Excavation Site When an excavation site is contained within a 50 ft maximum radius or less. the excavator designates the route and/or area to be excavated using white premarking prior to the arrival of the locator. The use of white marking products (e.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 5—EXCAVATION Practice Statement 5–2: White Lining: When the excavation site cannot be clearly and adequately identified on the locate ticket. stakes. 75/ TR-2001-05: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 24. or a combination of these) may be used to identify the excavation site. Limit the size of each dash to approximately 6 in. Reduce the separation of excavation marks to a length that can reasonably be seen by the operator’s locators when the terrain at an excavation site warrants.

flags. –96– .0 Trenching. to 12 in. abbreviations. or Other Continuous-Type Excavations Continuous Excavation Marking Mark in white paint the proposed centerline of planned excavation using 6 in. Stakes. Stakes. Dots may be used for curves and closer interval marking. Mark lateral excavations with occasional arrows showing excavation direction from centerline with marks at curb or property line if crossed. × 1 in. arrows approximately 4 ft to 50 ft apart to show direction of excavation.CGA Best Practices 12. Reduce the separation of excavation marks to a length that can reasonably be seen by the operator’s locators when the terrain at an excavation site warrants. Reduce the separation of excavation marks to a length that can reasonably be seen by the operator’s locators when the terrain at an excavation site warrants. Flag. flags. or when outlining the excavation project. or Whisker Excavation Markers Delineate the proposed area of excavation using stakes. flags. or initials). the four corners of the project. Stake. or whiskers are white in color and display the excavator’s company identifier (name. or whiskers instead of spray paint to mark radius or arcs. Limit the interval spacing to approximately 4 ft to 50 ft. Boring. or whiskers provided to illustrate arcs or radii may be placed at closer intervals to define the arc or radius.

facility. The following marking examples illustrate how an operator may choose to mark their subsurface installations: a. 2010 –97– . When a facility can be located or toned separately from other facilities of the same type. to 18 in. whiskers. 2004 TR-2010-01B: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 10. it is marked as a single facility. flags. Single Facility Marking: Used to mark a single facility. spaced approximately 4 ft to 50 ft apart. or a combination to identify the operator’s facility(s) at or near an excavation site. wide. Guidelines for Operator Facility Field Delineation76/ Operator markings of facilities include the following: • The appropriate color for their facility type • Their company identifier (name. 1. initials.long and 1 in. or abbreviation) when other companies are using the same color • The total number of facilities and the width of each facility • A description of the facility (HP. the type of excavation being done. the terrain of the land.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 4—LOCATING AND MARKING Practice Statement 4–3: Color Code: A uniform color code and set of marking symbols is adopted nationwide. Use paint. and the method required to adequately mark the facilities for the excavator. etc). This can be done in one of two ways—1) placing the marks over the approximate center of the facility: or 2) placing the marks over the approximate outside edges of the facility with a line connecting the two horizontal lines (in the form of an H) to indicate there is only one facility: These examples indicate an operator’s 12 in. FO. 2. When marking facilities. the operator considers the type of facility being located. stakes. Marks in the appropriate color are approximately 12 in.77/ 76/ 77/ TR-2001-05: Amendment approved by the CGA Board on September 24. STL.

Example: a 12 in. corridor (12" CDR) –98– .g. Marks are placed over the approximate center of the facilities and indicate the width of the corridor. indicating the actual left and right edges of the facilities d. apart. electric).0 b. where the separation does not allow for a separate tone for each facility.g. Multiple Facility Marking: Used to mark multiple facilities of the same type (e. Marks are placed over the approximate center of the facilities and indicate the number and width of the facilities. Example: four plastic conduits that are 4 in.. The marks indicating the outer extremities denote the actual located edges of the facilities being represented. bundled or intertwined in the same trench. The width of the corridor is the distance between the actual located outside edges of the combined facilities. in diameter (4/4" PLA).. where the total number of facilities is not readily known (operator has no record on file for the number of facilities). and the marks are 16 in.CGA Best Practices 12. Corridor Marking: Used to mark multiple facilities of the same type (e. but the number and width of the facilities is known. Example: four plastic facilities that are 4 in. electric). Conduit Marking: Used for any locatable facility being carried inside conduits or ducts. in diameter (4/4" PLA) c.

Changes in direction and lateral connections are clearly indicated at the point where the change in direction or connection occurs. A radius is indicated with marks describing the arc. When providing offset markings (paint or stakes). Example: radius Example: lateral connection Example: painted offset (off) –99– . show the direction of the facility and distance to the facility from the markings. with an arrow indicating the path of the facility.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines 3.

TELCO 9/4" CAB 6. Examples: the number of ducts in a multi-duct structure.0 Example: staked offset (off) 4. plastic. Reduce the separation of excavation marks to a length that can reasonably be seen by the operator’s locators when the terrain at an excavation site warrants. cable. Examples: 6 in. and lift stations that are physically larger than obvious surface indications are marked so as to define the parameters of the structure. Termination points or dead ends are indicated as such. width of a pipeline. steel GASCO 6" PLA/12" STL 7. and whether it is steel. Example: 8. inlets. An operator’s identifier (name.CGA Best Practices 12. abbreviation. plastic in 12 in. GASCO 4" PLA WATERCO 12" STL Facilities installed in a casing are identified as such. In addition. ELECO TELCO Information regarding the size and composition of the facility is marked at an appropriate frequency. or initials) is placed at the beginning and at the end of the proposed work. Example: –100– . TELCO FO (4" STL) Structures such as vaults. steel and fiber optic in 4 in. Examples: CITYCO 5. subsequent operators using the same color mark their company identifier at all points where their facility crosses another operator’s facility using the same color. etc.

fax. Operators of multiple facilities indicate a “No Conflict” for each facility (see the previous examples). a place to write the locate ticket number. Include on the flag the operator’s identifier. TELCO) mark the area “NO” followed by the appropriate company identifier in the matching APWA color code for that facility. Example: NO TELCO • Operators of multiple facilities mark the area “NO” followed by the appropriate company identifier in the matching APWA color code for that facility with a slash and the abbreviation for the type of facility for which there is “No Conflict. the locator or operator of the facility may notify the excavator of “No Conflict” by phone. there are no facilities within the work area as described on the locate ticket. complete one or more of the following: • Operators of a single type of facility (e.” Example: NO GASCO/G/D illustrates that GASCO has no gas distribution facilities at this excavation site. or e-mail. /E/D (electric distribution). Example: –101– . and date. phone number. • If it can be determined through maps or records that the proposed excavation is obviously not in conflict with their facility.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines 9. When the excavation is delineated by the use of white markings. The following abbreviations are used when appropriate: /G/D (gas distribution). where electronic positive response is used. When there is “No Conflict” with the excavation. fax. • Place “No Conflict” markings or flags in a location that can be observed by the excavator and/or notify the excavator by phone. /G/T (gas transmission). Operators of multiple facilities indicate on the flag which facilities are in “No Conflict” with the excavation (see the previous example). • Place a clear plastic (translucent) flag that states “No Conflict” in lettering matching the APWA color code of the facility that is not in conflict. Caution: Allow adequate space for all facility mark-outs. or through the one call center. or when there is no delineation. place “No Conflict” markings or flags in or as near as practicable to the delineated area. or e-mail that there is “No Conflict” with your facilities. “No Conflict” indicates that the operator verifying the “No Conflict” has no facilities within the scope of the delineation. /E/T (electric transmission)..g.

0 Color Code Identifiers Common Abbreviations Facility Identifier CH E FO G LPG PP RR S SD SS SL STM SP TEL TS TV W W Chemical Electric Fiber Optic Gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas Petroleum Products Railroad Signal Sewer Storm Drain Storm Sewer Street Lighting Steam Slurry System Telephone Traffic Signal Television Water Reclaimed Water “Purple” –102– .CGA Best Practices 12.

the result would be TELCO/FO/PLA.Styrene Asbestos Cement Pipe Cast Iron Cement Mortar Coated Cement Mortar Lined Corrugated Plastic Pipe Corrugated Metal Pipe Copper Creosote Wood Duct High Density Polyethylene Multiple Tile Duct Plastic (conduit or pipe) Reinforced Concrete Box Reinforced Concrete Pipe Reinforced Fiberglass Steel Cylinder Concrete Pipe Steel Vertrified Clay Pipe Guide for Abbreviation Use Follow these guidelines when placing abbreviations in the field: • Place the Company Identifier at the top or at the left of the abbreviations. • Place the abbreviations in the following order: Company Identifier / Facility Identifier / Underground Construction Descriptions / Infrastructure Material Example: TELCO/TEL/FO/PLA indicates that TELCO has a telecommunication fiber optic line in a single plastic conduit.Butadiene . junction boxes.Uniform Color Code and Marking Guidelines Underground Construction Descriptions C CDR D DB DE JT HP HH MH PB R STR T Conduit Corridor Distribution Facility Direct Buried Dead End Joint Trench High Pressure Hand Hole Manhole Pull Box Radius Structure (vaults. lift stations) Transmission Facility Infrastructure Material ABS ACP CI CMC CML CPP CMP CU CWD HDPE MTD PLA RCB RCP RF SCCP STL VCP Acrylonitrile . use the order described above but omit the slash and abbreviation that does not apply. • To omit one or more of the abbreviation types. because the orange marking would indicate that the facility was a communication line. The use of the abbreviation /TEL is not necessary. –103– . inlets. Example: to omit /TEL). but its use is optional.

CGA Best Practices 12.0 . –104– .

The approved DIRT form has been included in Appendix C. The team created this sample form (illustrated on the following page) using the best practices from one call center. regulatory agency. Inc. To review the electronic version and tool. • Tierdael Construction Company—General Contractors • Virginia State Corporation Commission –105– . Inc. References: The following references were used as examples during the Task Team’s discussions and the development of the composite 9-1 reporting form. These modifications were later approved by the CGA Best Practices Committee. These sources do not include all stakeholders that may report any of the same information shown on the sample form. Reports. • Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control/Call Before You Dig. locator. including facility owners/operators. The Data Reporting & Evaluation Committee approved minor modifications to the original 9-1 form when creating DIRT. Inc. and locators. the Reporting and Evaluation Task Team drafted a sample report form (originally referred to as figure 9-1) to demonstrate what may be reported when collecting damage prevention information. • Florida Sunshine State One Call • Massachusetts Department of Telecommunications and Energy • National Transportation Safety Board Safety Study: Protecting Public Safety Through Excavation Damage Prevention (NTSB/SS-97-01) • New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission • Tennessee One Call System. Appendix C Sample Form The 9-1 form was the basis for the development of the CGA’s Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT) launched in December 2003. facility.APPENDIX C Sample Forms. and industry group report forms.com. • Consolidated Edison Company of New York. excavators. The form was created to enable data collection from all stakeholders involved in the damage prevention process. visit http://www. excavator. and Releases During the Common Ground Study.cga-dirt.

and other appropriate stakeholders. excavators.CGA Best Practices 12. locators. (Refer to Appendix C for example form) Sample Form: Damage Information Reporting Tool (DIRT)—Field Form –106– .0 BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 9—REPORTING AND EVALUATION Practice Statement 9–6: A Standardized Form Is Adopted: A standardized form that includes the mandatory DIRT fields is adopted and distributed to all facility owners/operators.

and Releases Sample Form for Reporting Data –107– . Reports.Sample Forms.

Sample Press Release –108– .CGA Best Practices 12.0 BEST PRACTICES CHAPTER 8—PUBLIC EDUCATION AND AWARENESS Practice Statement 8–7: Free Media: An effective damage prevention education program utilizes all available free media.

” Washington. 89. California Department of Transportation. “Horizontal Drilling Safe Operations Guidelines.” Spooner. 2003.” Technical Note.. Directional Crossing Contractors Association (DCCA). 1999. Gas Research Institute. CALTRANS. 2004. “Directional Drilling Damage Prevention Guidelines for the Natural Gas Industry.D. Bennett.APPENDIX D Additional References The references contained in Appendix D are intended to be supplemental references for existing and/or new practices found within the CGA Best Practices. 1995. DC.” 3rd Edition. Directional Crossing Contractors Association (DCCA). WI. “Excavation Practices & Procedures for Damage Prevention. –109– .” GRI-96-0368.” July 14. Como. TX. “Trenchless Construction Methods and Soil Compatibility Manual. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. “Final Report—Guideline for the Application of Guided Horizontal Drilling to Install Gas Distribution Piping. “CALTRANS Encroachment Permits—Guidelines and Specifications for HDD Installations. “Horizontal Directional Drilling Good Practices Guidelines. Ariaratnam. American Society of Civil Engineers. 1996.” HDD Consortium. December 30. Washington. DC. “Safety Study: Protecting Public Safety Through Excavation Damage Prevention. S. September 1996. DC. “Guidelines for Successful Directional Crossing Survey Standards. “Pipeline Crossings. Trenchless Excavation Chapter 2: Practice Statement 2–13 Chapter 4: Practice Statement 4–19 Chapter 5: Practice Statement 5–29 References American Gas Association (AGA). R. National Transportation Safety Board. National Utility Contractors Association (NUCA).” 1996. Washington. and C. 2001. December 1999.” Dallas.” Dallas. National Utility Locating Contractors Association (NULCA). ISBN 1-928984-13-4. TX.T.

–110– .CGA Best Practices 12.0 .

the Best Practices document continues to be regarded and utilized as the preeminent and trusted resource for damage prevention. Because of this commitment and dedication. but we do have a long way to go to reach our ultimate objective of zero incidents.MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION CGA Stakeholders: As I look back on CGA’s accomplishments. The Best Practices represent the culmination of CGA’s focus on shared responsibility. The tremendous accomplishments of the CGA are made possible through the financial contributions of our sponsors and the participation of our members. Best regards. Bob Kipp CGA President –111– . I know that we have made great progress in advancing our core programs. I would like to personally thank our current members for their consistent leadership and commitment to the Common Ground Alliance and to damage prevention. Every practice in this document is agreed to by all 16 stakeholder groups who participate in the CGA. Identifying and gaining consensus approval for all new practices takes great commitment from our committee members and their respective stakeholder groups. Central to our focus is the continued identification of best practices as well as the maintenance and publication of the Best Practices document. Thank you to all.

Inc. Citizens Gas & Coke Utility City of Mesa City Utilities of Springfield.CGA Best Practices 12. Inc Associated General Contractors of America Association of American Railroads Association of Equipment Manufacturers Association of Oil Pipe Lines AT&T Atmos Energy Corporation Aux Sable Liquid Products Avista Corporation Badger Daylighting Corporation Baltimore Gas and Electric Company Blue Stakes of Utah Blueknight Energy Partners BP America Buckeye Partners. (ACMP) Accu-Bore Directional Drilling AEGIS Insurance Services AGL Resources Air Products and Chemicals. Alabama 1 Call Alberta One Call Corporation Alliance Pipeline Alliant Energy Ameren Illinios American Gas Association American Petroleum Institute American Public Gas Association American Public Works Association Arizona 811 Arkansas Oklahoma Gas Corporation Arkansas One Call Systems.P. Cimarex Energy Co. Inc. LP Canadian Gas Association CenterPoint Energy Centurion Pipeline Safety Advisor CertusView Technologies Chaparral Energy Cheniere Pipeline Chesapeake Energy Corporation Chevron Pipe Line Company CHS. L.0 CGA Member Organizations 3M Access Midstream Partners. Missouri CobbFendley Colonial Pipeline Colorado 811 Consumers Energy Corinth Gas & Water –112– .

Inc. Dig Safely New York Inc. Deere & Company Dial Before You Dig Australia Dig Safe System. Inc. LP Enbridge Energy Company. Inc. Inc. Explorer Pipeline Company Exxon Mobil Pipeline Company G2 partners. Inc. Diggers Hotline. LLC Genesis Energy Georgia 811 Gopher State Once Call Center Grady Crawford Construction Greenville Utilities Commission Greer CPW Holly Energy Partner Indiana 811 InfoExcavation Infrastructure Resources Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Intermountain Gas Company (MDU Resources) INTREN. Ltd.CoServ Gas. Iowa One Call IPS Engineering/EPC irth Solutions JULIE. CPN Pipeline Crosstex Energy Dakota Gasification Company Danatec Inc. Inc. Distribution Construction Distribution Contractors Association Ditch Witch (Charles Machines) Dominion East Ohio Dow Pipeline DTE Energy ELM Locating & Utility Services Enable Midstream Partners. CountryMark Cox Utility Services. Energy Transfer Enterprise Products Operating EOG Resources Inc Ericsson. Inc. (Illinois One-Call System) Kansas One Call Kentucky 811 Kern River Gas Transmission Kinder Morgan Knoxville Utilities Board Koch Pipeline Company LP Korterra –113– .

Inc. Inc. Inc. Osinergmin Pacific Gas and Electric Company Paradigm –114– . Inc. Inc.CGA Best Practices 12. LLC LOOP. Marathon Pipe Line.0 Krylon Products Group Lake Apopka Natural Gas District Level 3 Communications LG&E Energy Liberty Utilities Lockton Companies. Middle Tennessee Natural Gas District Miller Pipeline MISS DIG System. (Call Okie) Olameter DPG One Call Concepts One Call Locators Canada One Call Wyoming One Calls of America ONEOK ONEOK Partners Opvantek. New Jersey Natural Gas New Mexico Gas Company New York 811 Nicor Gas NiSource North Carolina 811 North Shore Gas Company Northern Natural Gas Northwest Communications Cooperative NuStar Energy LP NW Natural Ohio Utilities Protection Service Okaloosa Gas District Oklahoma One Call System. L. LLC Louisiana One Call Magellan Midstream Partners. McLaughlin Group. Inc Miss Utility of Delmarva Mississippi 811. LLC Master Locators.P. Missouri One Call Mobile Gas Service Corp. Inc. National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives National Fuel Gas National Grid National Telecommunications Damage Prevention Council NUCA National Utility Locating Contractors Association NCRA/Jayhawk Pipeline LLC Network Infrastructure.

LLC Texas811 TransCanada TransMontaigne Operating Company L. Sunshine 811 Tallgrass Energy Targa Resources. Portland General Electric PPL Interstate Energy Company Premier Utility Services Protek Locating.Pennsylvania 811 Peoples Gas Peoples Natural Gas Company.P. Spectra Energy Suncor Energy Sunoco Pipeline. Travelers UGI Utilities. Inc Southwest Gas Corporation SPEC Services. Public Service Electric & Gas Company Puget Sound Energy Questar Gas Company Radiodetection Rhino Marking & Protection Systems Rust-Oleum Salt River Project SAMCO San Diego Gas & Electric Scana Corporation SeeScan Sefnco Communications Sensus Shell Pipeline Company LP Sierra Pacific Power Company South Jersey Gas Company Southern California Gas Company Southern Light Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline. L. Inc. Inc.P. L. Inc. LLC Philadelphia Gas Works Phillips 66 Pipeline LLC Piedmont Natural Gas Pinnacle West Capital Corp/APS Pipeline & Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Plains All American Pipeline.P. Underground Safety Alliance (USA) Underground Service Alert . Team Fishel TECO-Peoples Gas Tennessee 811 Tesoro Logistics GP.Southern California United States Infrastructure Corporation –115– . Inc.

0 USA North Utiliquest Vac-Con. Inc. Vivax-Metrotech Corporation Washington 811 Washington Gas WE Energies Westfield Gas & Electric Whiting Oil & Gas Corporation Williams Wisconsin Public Service Corporation Wolverine Pipe Line Company XCEL Energy Services XTO Energy –116– . Vectren Verizon Virginia Utility Protection Service.CGA Best Practices 12. Inc. Vac-Tron Equipment LLC Valero Energy Corp.

Membership Form Complete and submit both sides of the membership form to become a member today! CUT HERE 1.000..000) ($25. Check the type of CGA membership you wish to register (annual fees are noted). 4 individual members)  Individual ($100)  Sponsorship  Bronze  Silver  Gold  Platinum Minimum: ($10. Check the stakeholder category/industry that you represent (choose only one).000) 2.000. NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION UNDER §501(C)(3) OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE. 8 individual members)  Association ($3.000) ($100. D.000.C.000) ($50.  Corporate/Company ($2.  Electric  Emergency Services  Engineering/Design  Equipment Manufacturing & Suppliers  Excavator  Gas Distribution  Gas Transmission  Insurance  Locator  Oil  One Call  Public Works  Railroad  Road Builders  State Regulator  Telecommunications THE CGA IS A WASHINGTON. . 12 individual members)  Government/Municipality ($1.

Send this form along with your check to Common Ground Alliance 2300 Wilson Blvd.. D. Provide the following information: Membership Contact LAST NAME FIRST NAME CUT HERE POSITION/JOB TITLE Company/Employer Information COMPANY/EMPLOYER NAME MAILING/STREET ADDRESS CITY STATE PHONE FAX ZIP E-MAIL 4.C.Membership Form Complete and submit both sides of the membership form to become a member today! 3. Suite 310 Arlington.. . NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION UNDER §501(C)(3) OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE. VA 22201 (Do not send cash or money orders) THE CGA IS A WASHINGTON.

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