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Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553

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Contents
Contents ....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 3
Cisco Security Management Tools ........................................................................................................... 4
Control of Data ......................................................................................................................................... 4
Security Policy........................................................................................................................................... 5
Risk............................................................................................................................................................ 6
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) .................................................................................................... 6
Understanding the Risks ............................................................................................................................... 7
Layer 2 risks .............................................................................................................................................. 8
Layer 3 risks .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Upper Layer risks .................................................................................................................................... 11
Physical ................................................................................................................................................... 12
Configuring Devices .................................................................................................................................... 13
Basic device Configuration ..................................................................................................................... 13
AAA ......................................................................................................................................................... 15
User Privileges ........................................................................................................................................ 17
Logon Security ........................................................................................................................................ 18
AutoSecure and One Step Lock Down .................................................................................................... 19
Logging.................................................................................................................................................... 21
NTP ......................................................................................................................................................... 22
Layer 2 security ........................................................................................................................................... 23
Port Security ........................................................................................................................................... 23
802.1x Port Security / Network Admission Control (NAC) ..................................................................... 24
Storm Control ......................................................................................................................................... 24
Span ports (Switchport Analyser) ........................................................................................................... 25
Securing VLANs ....................................................................................................................................... 25
Securing IP at Layer 2 ............................................................................................................................. 27
Useful Commands................................................................................................................................... 28
Best Practices.......................................................................................................................................... 28
IOS Firewall ................................................................................................................................................. 29
Firewall Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 29
Static Packet Filtering ............................................................................................................................. 29

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Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)
CBAC/Classic Firewall ............................................................................................................................. 32
Zone based Firewall (ZFW) ..................................................................................................................... 32
IPS ............................................................................................................................................................... 35
IPS Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 35
Configuring IPS on a Cisco Router using SDM ........................................................................................ 37
Logging & Monitoring ............................................................................................................................. 38
Notes ...................................................................................................................................................... 40
VPN / Cryptography .................................................................................................................................... 41
Hashing & Digital signatures................................................................................................................... 41
Symmetric Encryption ............................................................................................................................ 42
Asymmetric Encryption .......................................................................................................................... 43
Choosing an encryption method ............................................................................................................ 44
Key Management ................................................................................................................................... 44
PKI ........................................................................................................................................................... 45
IPSec ....................................................................................................................................................... 46
Configuring Site to Site VPNs .................................................................................................................. 48
Endpoint Security ....................................................................................................................................... 51
Endpoint Security Introduction .............................................................................................................. 51
Cisco NAC ................................................................................................................................................ 52
Cisco Security Agent (CSA)...................................................................................................................... 53
IronPort................................................................................................................................................... 53
San and Voice Security ............................................................................................................................... 54
SAN Security ........................................................................................................................................... 54
Voice Security ......................................................................................................................................... 55
Notes .......................................................................................................................................................... 56

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Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)

Introduction
IEEE Standards

IEEE No

Use

802.1d
802.1q
802.1w
801.2x
Ethernet II (DIX v2.0)
802.3
802.3u
802.3z
802.3ab
802.5
802.11a
802.11b
802.11g
802.11i

STP
Vlan trunking
RSTP (Rapid spanning tree protocol)
Port based Network Access Control
Ethernet (with Frame type field)
Ethernet (With length field)
100 Base T
1000Base-X (Fibre)
1000Base-T (Ethernet)
Token Ring
5 GHz
2.4 GHz (1-6-11 clean channels)
2.4 GHz (1-6-11 clean channels)
WPA 2

Number Table
128
128
255

64
192
127

32
224
61

16
240
31

8
248
15

4
252
7

2
254
3

1
255
1

Well Known Ports

Protocol

Port

IP

FTP
SHH
Telnet
SMTP
Tacacs
DNS
DHCP / BOOTP
TFTP
POP3
NEWS
NTP
SNMP
Radius

20, 21
22
23
25
49
53
67
69
110
119
123
161, 162
1645 / 1812

TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP, UDP
UDP
UDP
TCP
TCP
UDP
UDP
UDP

Definitions

Term

Description

NIPS
HIPS

Network IPS
Host based IPS

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Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)
Hardening a
system
Bastion Host
Blended
Threat
Rainbow
Tables
Password
salting
IP Directed
broadcast
Anti-X

Remove known system vulnerabilities by upgrading, patching and disabling unneeded
applications and services
A host which is placed in a vulnerable position such as a PC running a firewall. It is therefore
expected to be hardened.
An attacker uses multiple means of propagation such as viruses with worm like capabilities.
A list of plain text strings and the corresponding (ND5 / SHA) hash. This allows an attacker to
quickly find plaintext which would generate the required hash even though the plaintext would
more than likely differ from the original hashed text.
One or more bits are changed in a password, the avalanche effect will result in a completely
different hash reducing the risk of cracking using rainbow tables.
An IP packet whose destination address is a valid broadcast address for some IP subnet which
originates from a node that is not itself part of that destination subnet
Anti Virus, Anti Spam etc.

Cisco Security Management Tools
Security Device Manager (SDM) – A java/web based tool to configure and manage standalone routers
Cisco Security Monitoring, Analyses and Response System (MARS) – Appliance based reporting and
logging solution to correlate network events from all devices to identify threats. It is able to notify and
reconfigure networks to reduce the impact of the threat. Risk of False positives is reduced as MARS
correlates data from multiple sources.
Cisco IDS Event Viewer (IEV) – Java based no cost solution for viewing and managing up to five IPS/IDS
sensors. IEV supports SDEE communication with the sensor. IEV is currently being replaced with the
Cisco IPS Express Manager (IME).
Cisco Security Manager – A powerful GUI management platform to manage a Cisco based network
containing up to thousands of devices. CSM is capable of managing many Cisco devices (ASA, HIPS, VPN
etc).

Control of Data
Typical data classifications include military – Unclassified, Sensitive But Unclassified (SBU),
Confidential, Secret & Top Secret.
US Government data classification levels – Confidential, Secret & Top Secret.
Roles in data storage / use –
 Owner – Ultimately responsible for the data, select custodians, decides the classification and
reviews the data.
 Custodian – Day to day responsibility for the data such as backups, reviews of security settings
etc.
 User – No responsibility classification of the data but is responsible for the correct use o the
data according to operational procedures.
Security Controls –
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Administrative – Controls policies and procedures including security awareness training, security
policies and standards, change controls, audits etc.
Technical – Controls the electronics, hardware, software etc. Includes IPS, VPN, Firewalls, OTP
systems, authentication servers etc.
Physical – Intruder detection, security guards, locks, UPS, Fire control systems etc.

Each control can be broken down into three sections, Preventative, Deterrent and Detective.
Response to Security Breaches
To prosecute an attacker the following things must be established Motive – Compile a list of individuals with motive to perform the attack.
 Opportunity – Did the individuals have the opportunity to perform the attack.
 Means – Did the suspected attackers have the technical knowhow and tools to perform the
attack.
Goals for security –
 Confidentiality – Ensure the data is confidential, example is a reconnaissance attack, the
attacker wants to gather confidential information without being noticed such as data, access
passwords. Encryption is a useful method to ensure confidentiality.
 Availability – Example attack is a DoS attack.
 Data integrity – Ensure the data is not changed during a transfer & the data origin is authentic
(e.g. man in the middle attack)
Aims – Creation of a dynamic (monitor, revise & adapt to latest risks) security policy
Cisco’s Deference in Depth – Implement multi layer network defences ASA/Firewalls, NIPS, HIPS (Cisco
Security Agent), Out of Band management.
Cisco Self-Defending Network – A suite of security solutions to identify threats, prevent threats and
adapt to emerging threats. It consists of two key components, Cisco Security Manager and Mars
(Monitoring, Analysis and Response System) to monitor and control network security devices and tools
such as IOS & ASA firewalls, IPS sensors, NAC & Cisco Security Agent.
Disaster Recovery –
 Hot Site – A complete redundant site with comparable hardware and a very recent copy of the
data. To swap over only the latest data changes need to be applied. This allows recovery in
seconds or minutes.
 Warm Site – A redundant site but the hardware is configured and does not contain the data.
This requires physical access to the site to configure the systems and as a result can take days to
bring on line.
 Cold Site – A site with core facilities (power, WAN links, racks etc) but no computing equipment.
To bring online routers, switched, servers etc need to be acquired before setting up. Can take
weeks to bring online.

Security Policy
A defined policy for informing users (Acceptable Use Policy), specify mechanisms for security and to
provide a security baseline.
A policy can contain –
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Guidelines – A list of suggestions and best practices. System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Phases     Initiation – Insists of definition of the potential impact should a breach of security occur and an initial risk assessment. system integration. development costs etc.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)   Standards – Define the standards used by the organisation at a high level.  Asset Value (AV) – Value of the asset including purchase price.     Qualitative – A scenario based model used for large risk assessments where calculating the quantitative risk is impractical due to the quantity of assets. Procedures – In depth procedures with step by step instructions on how to perform day to actions. This could by around 50% for example as provided the software and data is backed up offsite the loss would only be hardware. Exposure Factor (EF) – An estimated percentage of loss/destruction that would occur in an event. ALE = AV * EF * ARO.  Risk Risk Analysis methodsQuantitative – Uses a mathematical model to derive a monetary cost of losses per annum which can then be used to justify countermeasures. security functional & assurance analysis. acceptance. Essential to ensure consistency. Operations and Maintenance – Configuration management & control and continuous monitoring. cost considerations Implementation – Inspections. maintenance costs. Disposition – Information preservation (keep the data stored on the system). media sanitisation and disposal. Annualised Rate of Occurrence (ARO) – The expected annual frequency of the event. Acquisition and Development – Consists of a more in depth risk assessment. security certification. Annualised Loss Expectancy (ALE) – Total expected loss per annum. SLE = AV * EF. implementation costs. typically defined by national security agencies & institutes. M Morgan ©2010 Page 6 of 56 . Single Loss Expectancy (SLE) – This is the expected monetary loss for a single occurrence of a threat.

Anti-Spam etc Sits outside of the ‘forwarding oath’ looking for and reporting problems Sits inside of the ‘forwarding oath’ looking for. horizontal where an attacker tries to access information for other users on the same level or vertical where the attacker tries to gain higher (administrative) privileges. launch unauthorised VPN tunnel) Exploit a software vulnerability (such as buffer overflow) to gain higher authorisation. usually their own – ethical Combination of the above two Hack to make cheap / free phone calls Further their cause/ beliefs Not true hackers but download tools from the internet to perform hacks Attempt to hack to further their education (steal other peoples assignments or amend grades) Purely hobby. 5. Anti-Virus. Attack Category Description Passive Active Gather information / reconnaissance. not intending to cause any harm. The attack will either crash the system or make it unresponsive to legitimate use.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Understanding the Risks Hacker Purpose Black Hat White Hat Grey Hat Phreakers Hacktivist Script Kiddy Academic Hacker Hobby Hacker Profit financially from hacking others To test network security. crashers. Befriend an internal employee to exploit their position (give out network details. 4. Use this information to find vulnerabilities. This is easier to detect as the attacker must be actively sending traffic Typically external person manages to physically connect to the inside of the network to perform an attack People who are employed by a company trying to hack the internal systems/data Software/hardware developers deliberately leave “backdoors” in their systems to allow future access Close-in Insider Distribution Attack Type Description Reconnaissance Access Attacks Denial of Service Gathering information for a future access / DoS attack Attempt to steal information Attempt to break things (destroyers. passwords. reporting and filtering problems Hacking Approach 1. Very difficult to detect Actively trying to break into a system or leaving malicious payloads. Login with user credentials then escalate privileges. Two forms. 3. social engineering is the most common method by persuading somebody to give out their login details. M Morgan ©2010 Page 7 of 56 . flooders). Gather / create additional usernames and passwords in case the original username is removed. Gain Access. Reconnaissance – Learn about the system by performing port scans etc (also known as ‘footprinting’) 2. Social Engineering Privilege escalation Security method Description Firewalls / ASA Anti – X IDS IPS Anti-Spyware. Indentify applications and operating systems.

This tag will be the destination VLAN of the VLAN hopping attack. Once the CAM is full the switch enters a failover mode where the switch treats all frames as a broadcast. Layer 2 risks Reconnaissance (Packet Capture) – Use of tools such as Wireshark to pull data off the wire. when received by a second switch this packet will be forwarded out the destination VLAN. Additionally it is possible to get a host to send DTP packets in order to create a trunk with a switch. Use the system – Steal data. 7.Enable port security . in effect acting like a hub. VLAN Hopping Attack (Double Tagging) – A frame can be double tagged with two separate VLAN ID’s.Enable sticky learning NOTE – Above example syntax is in italic and description in normal font. VLAN Hopping Attack (Rogue Switch) – Some Cisco switches are set to trunk mode ‘dynamic desirable’ on all switch ports. Setting the native VLAN of trunks to a VLAN not used this can remove this risk. setting mode to auto is not sufficient. cause denial of service etc.5678. Packet sniffers could now sniff confidential data as data packets are now sent out of all ports. Create a Backdoor to allow future access. Conditions for a successful attack  The attacker must be connected to an access port The VLAN configured on that access port must be the native dot1q vlan.abcd (config-if) # switchport port security mac-address sticky . Additionally trunking ports should be placed into unconditional trunking mode and DTP disabled(config-if) # Switchport mode trunk (config-if) # Switchport nonegotiate M Morgan ©2010 Page 8 of 56 . if a rogue switch is connected to a port a trunk will dynamically be created (using DTP) giving access to all VLANs. Additionally this can cause the switch and network bandwidth to become saturated. To stop the risk all non trunking ports should be set to an access port.Set maximum MAC address . If the first tag is the same VLAN as the Native VLAN / access port VALN the first tag will be stripped off leaving the second tag. Denial of Service (CAM Overflow Attack .Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) 6. in case main point of attack entry is shutdown.Define a static MAC address .MAC Flooding Attack) – An attacker floods the switch with frames containing different source MAC addresses. The risk can be reduced using dot1x and some/all of the commands(config-if) # switchport port security (config-if) # switchport port security maximum 2 (config-if) # switchport port security mac-address 1234.

This forces all connected devices to update their tables to reflect the changes. DHCP Snooping will remove the risk of unauthorised DHCP servers. Layer 3 risks Man in the Middle Attack (Gratuitous ARP) – A gratuitous ARP message is typically sent out when an IP Address or MAC address changes. (config-if) # spanning-tree bpduguard enable Alternatively bpduguard can be automatically enabled on all portfast ports using(config) # spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default MAC Address Spoofing – A rouge host could transmit a packer with a source MAC Address of another host. Man in the Middle Attack (rogue DHCP server) – A rogue DHCP server is introduced into the network which could give out incorrect DNS and default router IP addresses. The CAM table will be updated to send traffic destined to the original host to the rogue host. Typically used a fail over situations such as server clustering. The incorrect address could result in network traffic passing through the attacking host in an attempt to gain confidential data / password etc. Forwarding).Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) STP Root Bridge Attacks – A rogue switch configured with a lower BID can become the root bridge on the network. Once the superior BPDU stop the port will transition through the STP state (Listening. This can be mitigated using dynamic ARP inspection. This could cause inefficient traffic flow or in a worst cases if this switch is connected to two different points in the network some or all of the LAN traffic will go through the rogue switch. If Rootguard is configured on a switch port and a superior BPDU is received on that port the port will go into ‘root-inconstant’ state and not transmit traffic. Learning. Two methods exist to reduce the risk. Denial of Service Attack (DHCP Pool Exhaustion) – A rogue host could make multiple DHCP requests (each with a different MAC address) which will use up the allocated DHCP pool. This can be avoided using port security. (config-if) # spanning-tree guard root If BPDUGuard is configured on a port and any BPDU is received the port will be placed into ‘err-disable’ state. This can be exploited for example if a rogue hosts sent a gratuitous ARP packet out replacing the MAC address of the default gateways IP address. all traffic destined for a gateway could be sent to the host instead. if the active server / LAN card fails a gratuitous ARP message is sent out to inform all clients of the new MAC address of the new active server / LAN card. This is typically enabled on all ports on the chosen root switch. This can be stopped by enabling port security with a maximum number of MAC address and using the commandM Morgan ©2010 Page 9 of 56 .

if the connection initiates successfully then the router will open a TCP connection to the server and merge the two connections. Reconnaissance (Port Sweep) – Scans multiple hosts for a single open port (eg 80). if this rises over a high watermark the router will enter aggressive mode and start to close half open connections as new connections attempts occur and the timeout for closing connections will be reduced.x IOS) should be configured. As many hosts will receive this echo request they will all reply to the victim server causing a potential DoS.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) (config-if) # ip dhcp snooping limit rate x Denial of service (TCP SYN flood) – The attacker send many packets to the victim with the SYN flag set. Watch mode only watches connection requests and close incomplete requests after a certain time. a server could crash or suffer corruption. parameters are italicised. Reconnaissance (Port Scan) – Scans all ports to find open ports on a single host. This exhausts the server resources (too many half open connections) eventually leading to a denial of service. IP Spoofing – A host impersonates a valid network device Ip address to- M Morgan ©2010 Page 10 of 56 . Although this will be fragmented as it crosses through the internet. TCP intercept also monitors the total number of half open connections. Denial of service (Smurf Attacks) – An attacker broadcasts an echo request packet using the IP address of the victim host. when reassembled. This continues until a low watermark is reached. Additionally ‘no ip directed-broadcast’ (default on 12. in an attempt to reduce the number of half open connections further. If a host if found an attacker can launch a port scan. processor resources to process then addition outbound bandwidth replying to the pings. Reconnaissance (Ping/ICMP Sweep) – Used to find live IP addresses. TCP Intercept in intercept mode will complete the TCP connection (send an ACK and SYN back to the originating host). Denial of service (Ping Flood) – A number of pings hit an attacked target. Mode Description Command Syntax (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) Set the mode to ‘watch’ Set timeout before resetting the connection attempt Set the mode to ‘intercept’ mode Define ACL for traffic to monitor/protect Set the drop mode when aggressive mode Set high incomplete TCP connections for aggressive mode (1100 default) Set low incomplete TCP connections for aggressive mode (1100 default) Ip tcp intercept mode watch Ip tcp watch-timeout seconds Ip tcp intercept mode intercept Ip tcp intercept list aclno Ip tcp intercept drop-mode {oldest | random} Ip tcp intercept max-incomplete high number (config) Ip tcp intercept max-incomplete low number NOTE – For the command syntax. This can be avoided if the devices are configured not to replay to pings sent to a broadcast address. these take up inbound bandwidth. Denial of service (Ping of Death) – A containing a large amount of data (some even larger than the limit of an IP packet 65535) is sent to a host. sometimes using spoofed source IP addresses.

This can then be used as a stepping stone to the target. Packets with a source addresses defined in RFC3704 (RFC2827) should be filtered        0. Data diddling – Changing data before or during input or storage.0. Trojan Horses & Key loggers – Malicious code on a device to capture passwords and other data. Trick other hosts to send confidential data to the rogue host.0 10.0.0/8 224.0.0. Blind (Not same subnet / separated by routers). ideally not at the end or the start of the password. attack an easier host which has a trust relationship with the target.0. to turn off use the command ‘no ip source-route’. Dictionary – A dictionary of common words is used. To reduce the risks inbound packets must be filtered (ingress filter).0. A password policy to include numbers and symbols in passwords is advised. Part of a reconnaissance attack. Salami Attack – A number of small actions that do not in themselves cause damage but combined have a greater effect.0. Two MethodsNon Blind (Same subnet). Virus – Cannot spread by itself.0.0.16.0.0. Upper Layer risks Password Attacks – Find password using   Brute Force – Every password combination is attempted to gain access.0/12 (RFC1918) 192.0/8 (RFC1918) 172.168. M Morgan ©2010 Page 11 of 56 .Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)    Send malicious code into the network. The sniffs the network for and attempts to find the TCP sequence number of a TCP session.0. This is enabled by default. rather than directly attack the target. Trust Exploitation – Indirect attack. The hacker can then ACK the connection and spoof the IP connection. This can take a long time and can be mitigated by setting the maximum failed login attempts and login blocking delays on the router.0/4 240. Worm – Spreads automatically throughout the network by looking for vulnerabilities in systems.0/4 (RFC1918) IP Source routing – This allows a sender to define the route used by the packet on outbound and inbound traffic.0/16 (RFC1918) 127. it requires help from a user to propagate such as forwarding an infected file etc.

Social Engineering. Typically buffer overflow attacks are used to gain escalated privileges through root escalation / rooting the system. Usually with voice traffic. Wireless Sniffing. Many contain a backdoor allowing remote access to an infected system. Physical        Lock Doors (Card reader. M Morgan ©2010 Page 12 of 56 . This can overwrite an applications data and cause a crash or overwrite the return address in the stack allowing malicious code to be run.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Trojan Horse – This appears to be a regular program but contains a malicious payload. pin entry system) Tested UPS devices on network devices Temperature monitoring Proper disposal of equipment and documentation to avoid ‘dumpster diving’ where a hacker could acquire systems. physical access to cables allowing electronically retrieving data passed over them. Buffer Overflow – A buffer overflow occurs when something inject/sends more data to a device that is larger than the buffers size. IT documentation etc) Wiretapping.

This has a button ‘Generate RSA Key’. The Exec banner appears after logging in. It is possible to use tokens in the banner text which will be replaced with the actual value.SSH requires either a local user database or AAA configured as SSH does not support passwords directly created on the VTY lines.  Recommended minimum key length is 1024 bits M Morgan ©2010 Page 13 of 56 .  SSH2 is more secure but not as widely supported as SSH1.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Configuring Devices Basic device Configuration Creating a Banner (config) # Banner motd $ This is Router 1$ (config) # Banner login $ Please leave now if you are unauthorised$ . Once logged in ‘exec-timeout’ takes effect.set SSH version 2 Number of login retries Set timeout of a SSH connection Enter VTY config mode Set valid VTY protocols Set VTY to use local database If using AAA use this Show ip ssh Show users username admin password <password> username admin secret <password> ip domain-name <domain name> crypto key generate rsa crypto key generate rsa general-keys modulus bits ip ssh version 2 ip ssh authentication-retries x ip ssh time-out seconds line vty 0 4 transport input ssh login local login aaa NOTES SSH settings in SDM can be found in the ‘Additional Tasks’ section under ‘Router Access. Banner message Tokens    $(hostname) $(domain) $(line) $(line-desc) Configure SSH access Telnet is unencrypted so using SSH is advised. Mode Description Command Syntax # # (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) (config-line) (config-line) (config-line) Show SSH config Show logged in users Create a user with level 7 pwd Create a user with a secret pwd Required to generate certificate Generate the encryption keys Generate the encryption keys Optional .$ is the delimiter The login banner appears after the motd banner but before the login prompt.  ‘Ip ssh time-out seconds’ command only refers to the length of time taken to perform the login procedure.$ is the delimiter .

Must be connected to the console Password Recovery To stop access to rom monitor mode use the command(config) # no service password-recovery It is no longer possible to use the rom monitor functions to change the config register or xmodem an IOS into flash. This config will perform the initial setup of the router and enable SDM access.Make a resilient copy of the current config .tar files containing the Java code will be copied to the routers flash.Restore the config to a file on flash. Rqd for RSA * Generate the encryption certificate * Enable the http secure server * Configure the vty lines. PC or both. Required to install SDM Set VTY to use the local user db.Make a resilient copy of the IOS image . not both.Verify the bootset (config) # secure boot-config restore flash:/test (config) # no secure boot-config . The SDM installer also has a set of base configuration files that will be copied to the routers flash for use in the event of the user using SDM to revert the router back to factory settings. If installed on a router some .Disable boot config. The PC Version gives a richer UI with more power.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Enable SDM Requires Java SDM can either be installed to a router. Line VTY command are not required for SDM use but are required for SDM installation. IOS Resilient Configuration These commands copy the IOS image and config to a hidden area in flash (requires a large CF card for the IOS image). Mode Description Command Syntax (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) (config) (config-line) (config-line) (config-line) Create a user in the local username database Enable http server * Set http to use the local username database Set the domain name of the router. . (config) # secure boot-image (config) # secure boot-config # show secure bootset . M Morgan ©2010 Page 14 of 56 . I is still possible to use ‘break’ at bootup and after confirming the prompts the startup config will be erased entirely. Rqd to install) VTY login will be set to level 15 (NOT REQUIRED) username admin privilege 15 secret password ip http server ip http authentication local Ip domain-name domainname Crypto key generate rsa general-keys Ip http secure-server Line vty 0 4 Login local Privilege level 15   Typically either HTTP of HTTPS will be configured. This is called a bootset.

resource restrictions. Error – An error has occurred in the authorisation process. Passwords are sent encrypted but all other communication is clear. command limits) and Accounting (CSV or ODBC).. Configuring Mode Description M Morgan ©2010 Command Syntax Page 15 of 56 . Aux and Console. Accounting . The authentication process is completely controlled by the ACS Server. AAA can be configured for login. All communication is encrypted. RADIUS Industry standard solution (IEFT) allowing basic.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) AAA What Is AAA    Authentication . exec and enable. it then prompts the user with this prompt. TCP based. Authorisation . Packet – Used for Remote network access on async. combined user authentication and authorisation (different privileges not supported). AAA can be used for PPP. The ACS server will send one of the following responses    Accept Reject Continue – The ACS server needs more information to authenticate the user. Authorisation levels (time of day. again this is prompt is sent to the user.TTY.Authenticates the user.logs actions performed by the user. Console. AUX VPN. AAA Sources    Local Database (Self Contained AAA) – Local ‘username xxx password xxx’ database. One the user has entered the password this is sent to the ACS server for authorisation.. Cisco proprietary solution allowing complete Authentication (using internal or other databases such as Novell or Active Directory). BRI ec.defines what the user can do. connection limits. Once entered the router will forward the username to the ASC Server and ask ACS for the password prompt. VTY. TACACS Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS) for Windows or ACS Appliance. RADIUS TACACS+ Access Modes   Character – Used for remote administrative access to VTY. UDP based. Radius cannot control the user level privilege. AAA will be configured ppp for network... The router will ask the ACS server for the username prompt.

At a minimum a local username must be created to avoid locking yourself out of the device. M Morgan ©2010 Page 16 of 56 .Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) # # # # # # # (config) Display current privilege level of user Show AAA authentication statistics Show tacacs server config Show radius config Debug AAA authentication events Debug tacacs events Debug radius events Turn on AAA globally Show privilege Show aaa sessions Show tacacs Show radius {local-server | server group |stat | table} Debug aaa authentication Debug tacacs [events] Debug radius Aaa new-model Setup Local (config) (config) # Create a local username database entry Set maximum failed attempt before locking out user Clear a locked out user (config) (config) (config) (config) Set the source IP for packets Set a server ip address Set server with a specific key Set a key for all radius servers Username name secret pwd Aaa local authentication attempts max-fail count Clear aaa local user lockout username Setup Radius Client Ip radius source-interface interface radius-server host ipaddr radius-server host ipaddr key key radius-server key key Setup Tacacs Client (config) (config) (config) (config) Set the source IP for packets Set a server ip address Set server with a specific key Set a key for all tacacs servers Ip tacacs source-interface interface Tacacs-server host ipaddr single-connection Tacacs-server host ipaddr single-connection key key Tacacs-server key key (config) (config) Create a login default authentication list Create a login named authentication list Aaa authentication login default <method list> Aaa authentication login name <method list> (config) Create an enable auth list (default only) Aaa authentication enable default <method list> (config) (config) Create a PPP default authentication list Create a PPP named authentication list Aaa authentication ppp default <method list> Aaa authentication ppp name <method list> (config) (config) Create a default authorisation list Create a named authorisation list Setup Authentication Method Lists Authorization Aaa authorization exec default <method list> Aaa authorization exec name <method list> Aaa accounting (config) (config) Create an default accounting list for level 15 commands Create a default accounting list for exec sessions Aaa accounting commands 15 default start-stop <method list> Aaa accounting exec default start-stop <method list> Apply a method list to VTY lines (config-line) (config-line) Apply a default authentication list to a line Apply a named list to a line Apply a method list to a PPP connection (config-if) Set CHAP authentication using the default PPP method list Login authentication default Login authentication name Ppp authentication chap default Aaa new-model disables all traditional authentication methods (password and login command under vty lines etc).

Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Authentication Methods (method list) Up to five methods can be specified in the method list (4 for SDM). The default method list is used for all lines etc unless another method list is specified.g. Dialup Modems.Only allow level 5 and above access to ping commands Page 17 of 56 . Make sure a local database user has been created to remove risk of being locked out of a device. Console & Aux access etc. (config) # privilege exec level 5 show (config) # privilege exec level 5 ping (config) # privilege interface level 5 ip address (config) # privilege interface level 5 ip (config) # privilege configure level 5 interface (config) # privilege exec level 5 configure M Morgan ©2010 . If an authentication process succeeds but the user is denied on other methods are checked. Example (config) # Aaa new-model .Changes to new aaa method (config) # Tacacs-server host 10.Turn off password on console NOTES AAA can secure anything requiring a username/password such as PPP Lines.0.  As soon as the ‘aaa new-model’ command is entered. interface etc. exec. VTY lines. as the username is not requested devices use a username of ‘$enab15$’ which must be configured on the AAA/Radius server. Local –Use local username authentication.Only allow level 5 and above access to show commands .log Level 15 commands (config) # line vty 0 4 (config-line) # login authentication default (config) # Aaa authentication login NOLOGIN none . When used the list is checked from the first entry to the last entry but only if previous method fails (timeouts or fails).2 single-connection . There will be no login prompt. all lines will be automatically configured to use the local database.Set no login (config) # line con 0 (config-line) # login authentication NOLOGIN .  By default the ‘default’ AAA method list is set to use the local database. E. None – No authentication.  AAA can be configures in SDM using the ‘AAA’ settings under the ‘Additional Tasks’ functions. configure.Set tacacs with a fall back of local (config) # Aaa accounting commands 15 default start-stop group tacacs . Group – Use specified server-group (radius / tacacs+) Line – Use line password for authentication. Possible methods     Enable – Use enable password for authentication. VPN.20.Configure a TACACS server (config) # Aaa authentication login default group tacacs+ local . User Privileges Privilege Level Access Commands can be made unavailable/available to lower privilege users using the ‘privilege’ command(config) # Privilege mode [all] {level level command | reset command} Where mode is the configuration mode.  When using AAA for the enable password.

Role Based Access on the other hand does not have this restriction and allows creation of restricted administrative accounts (subadministrator) with specifically defined privileges (CLI Views).Create a user to use this view Notes‘Commands exec include all’ enables wildcard for the following command Logon Security Block logins for 15 seconds after 3 failed logons.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) #enable secret level 5 TEST #enable 5 Role Based Access Assigning IOS commands to Privilege levels can be used to give different users different access but as a command can only be assigned to one level it is complicated to configure.Only applies to newly entered passwords.Set the authorisation to local (required) . To create a view the ‘root view’ must be enabled.Manual / Testing or (config) # Username LIMITEDUSER view LIMITEDMODE secret test . (config) # security passwords min-length 6 NOTE .Allow the ping command .Create the view .Allow show commands with wildcard Superviews # enable view (config) # parser view SPV superview (config-view) # secret test (config-view) # view LIMITEDMODE (config-view) # view LIMITEDVIEW Using the views # enable view LIMITEDMODE .Enable the root view . Commands mode {include | include-exclusive | exclude} [all] command Configuring (config) # aaa new-model (config) # aaa authorization exec default local # enable view (config) # parser view LIMITEDMODE (config-view) # secret test (config-view) # commands exec include ping (config-view) # commands exec include all show #show parser view all . not existing passwords Encrypt all clear text passwords in the config M Morgan ©2010 Page 18 of 56 .Enable AAA (required) .Set a password for the view . The ‘log’ will enable logging to a Syslog server (config) # security authentication failure rate 3 log Set the minimum password length.

Using ‘enable secret’ is recommended for enable password as it uses a stronger MD5 hash. Changes            Finger disabled PAD disabled UDP & TCP Small Servers disabled BootP disabled HTTP Services disabled CDP disabled NTP disabled Source Routing disabled Proxy ARP disabled on interfaces IP Directed broadcasts disabled on interfaces MPO (Maintenance Operations Protocol) disabled on interfaces ICMP Redirects disabled on interfaces M Morgan ©2010 Page 19 of 56 . (config) # login delay 10 Generate a Syslog message after 3 failed attempts or every successful logon attempt. Non-Interactive – Automatically lock down router to Cisco recommendations.This could be used for a denial of service attack – stopping all access to the router by permanently blocking it out.is a level 7 encryption which is easily cracked (Vigenere encryption). Allows access from the IP address specified in the ACL even if the login is blocked out (config) # login quiet-mode access-class 10 Delay between successive failed login attempts.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) (config) # service password-encryption NOTE .Every x is optional . To configure use ‘auto secure no-interact’.Every x is optional AutoSecure and One Step Lock Down AutoSecure Interactive – Similar to setup mode ‘auto secure full’. (config)#login on-failure log every 3 (config)#login on-success log every 1 . Potentially could be too secure . Automatically logout a session after 1 minute 30 seconds (config-line) # exec-timeout 1 30 Securing VTY Lines # Show login Block logins for 120 seconds after 3 failed logins in 60 seconds (config) # login block-for 120 attempts 3 within 60 NOTE .

accessed under ‘Configure’ / ‘Security Audit’ Security Audit – SDM will audit the security of the router and give list of vulnerabilities.3 SDM One-Step Lockdown & Security Audit This performs similar actions to the Auto-secure IOS command.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)                 Unreachables disabled on interfaces Mask Reply messages disabled on interfaces Password encryption enabled TCP Keepalives enabled Logging buffer size is set Sequence numbers and timestamps enabled CEF enabled Reserved IP address ranges are blocked as source addresses on outside interfaces Default route to null0 is configured is no default route is already present TCP Intercept is enabled AAA Enabled Set minimum password length and failure rate Console log Login and password applied to VTY. NOTESSDM differs from Auto Secure by the following     Does not disable NTP Does not enable TCP Intercept Does not configure AAA Does not configure three separate ACL to block commonly spoofed source addresses SDM will disable SNMP but not provide options for S NMPv3 M Morgan ©2010 Page 20 of 56 . Additionally a drop down is provided to ‘Undo Security configurations’ on individual security lockdowns. AUX and CON lines Banner is created SNMP is disabled depending on prompt or settings – gives opportunity to configure SNMPv3 NOTES Introduced with IOS 12. The user is prompted to secure individual vulnerabilities with descriptions/help. One Step Lockdown – SDM will perform secure all security vulnerabilities automatically.

Each OID is a variable/counter that can be read or set. analyses and presents the data on devices. SNMP Messages Get – Read only access is sufficient. ‘login buffered 4096’ for example will set aside 4096 bytes to store a log history.Set Syslog server location (alternative) Logging Levels Message will be logged for the level selected and all lower levels. This is very dangerous facility. Similar to SMNPv1 but counters are capable of much larger values. authNoPriv & aithPriv) using MD5/SHA to provide authentication and DES. it could allow an attacker to gain access to a device if not locked down. SNMP Agent – The monitored device itself.  Trap – The device will send a trap message to the manager component to alert particular issues SNMP Versions   SNMPv1 – Simple to configure. This is complicated to setup particularly as SDM cannot be used to configure SNMPv3. Counters are limited in value so high bandwidth interfaces could over range counters.Configure SNMP community with read only access . All SNMP traffic is sent in clear text.  Set – Read/Write access is essential. VTY Lines – Logging to a telnet session can be enabled using the command ‘terminal monitor’. SMNPv3 – Addresses weaknesses of the earlier versions by including authentication. 3DES or AES to provide the privacy.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Logging Console – By default all logging is displayed on console sessions.Configure SMNP community with RW & ACL Logging Buffer – All login messages can be saved to memory for later review. Emergencies Alert Critical Errors System is unusable Immediate action needed Critical conditions Error conditions M Morgan ©2010 (severity=0) (severity=1) (severity=2) (severity=3) Page 21 of 56 . Management Information Base (MIB) – The dictionary of object identifiers (OID) available on the device. Three core components   SMNP Manager – The tool which queries. (config) # snmp-server community public ro (config) # snmp-server community CCSTRING rw 50 . privacy and access control. SMNPv3 operated in one of three modes (noAuthNoPriv. ‘show log’ will display the login entries. SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol. All SMNP traffic is sent in clear text. SNMPv2c – Simple to configure. SysLog (config) # logging hostname <ipaddress / hostname> (config) # logging <ipaddress / hostname> (config) # logging trap <level> .Set Syslog server location .

NTP settings in SDM can be found in the ‘Additional Tasks’ section under ‘Router Properties’. Stratum 1 – Time server directly connected to an atomic clock.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Warnings Notifications Informational Debugging Warning conditions Normal but significant conditions Informational messages Debugging messages (severity=4) (severity=5) (severity=6) (severity=7) NOTES   ‘login synchronous’ Logging can be found in ‘Additional Tasks’ then ‘Router Properties’ in SDM. server or peer (bidirectional time transfer).Optional.Enable NTP Master . M Morgan ©2010 Page 22 of 56 . The client authenticates the server rather than the server authenticating the client. (routers do not relay these packets). NTP For accurate logging (syslog etc). This prevents the NTP master being spoofed and supplying incorrect time.Optional. An attacker could attempt to change the time in a router which will render digital certificates invalid. The recommended approach is to use a public NTP server as the master source. NTP can provide this. A router can act as a NTP client. digital certificates and AAA accounting an accurate time source must be set. A Server can also Broadcast / Multicast time updates.x.Set the time source with optional prefer statement NTP master (config) # ntp master (config) # ntp authenticate (config) # ntp authentication-key 1 md5 NTP . enable NTP authentication . NTP Client (config) # ntp server x.x.x prefer . set key number 1 to NTP NTP Peer This must be defined both sides to define the peer relationship (config) # ntp peer x.x NOTES       NTP Authentication works differently to the norm. Using NTP Version 3 or higher for additional security features (encryption etc). it an NTP server is run internally it is advisable to create an ACL to stop external devices accessing the NTP server.x.x. Ensure the NTP port (UDP 123) is open (ACL) Stratum 0 – Atomic clock.

Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Layer 2 security Port Security Mode Description Command Syntax # # # (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) Show port security summary Show security for an interface Display the MAC address table Set access port (stops dynamic trunking) Enable port security on port Set violation action (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) Set the maximum mac addresses on port Set static MAC address security Port will learn the address & add to config Aging time for dynamic learned mac addrs Set aging time basis Show port-security Show port-security interface interface Show mac address-table Switchport mode access Switchport port-security Switchport port-security violation <protect/restrict/shutdown> Switchport port-security maximum number Switchport port-security mac-address xxxx. Must set to 2 for daisy chained IP Phone & PC.enables feature . Configure SNMP Traps for MAC Table Event Notification (config) # mac address-table Notification (config) # snmp-server enable traps Mac-notification (config-if) # snmp trap Mac-notification <added / removed> M Morgan ©2010 .xxxx. Default violation mode – shutdown (err-disabled).1X ports. To clear err-disabled issue a ‘shutdown’ & ‘no shutdown’ commands to the interface. Destination Span ports and 802.xxxx Switchport port-security mac-address sticky Switchport port-security aging time minutes Switchport port-security aging <absolute / inactivity> Violation modes    Protect – Allow authorised hosts through but disallow unauthorised hosts Restrict – As above but log (SNMP & Log) unauthorised hosts Shutdown – Shutdown the port (err-disabled) NOTES    Default maximum MAC addresses is 1.Set interface Page 23 of 56 . Etherchannel ports. Cannot use port security on trunk ports (must explicitly set to an access port).

Required .1x Port Security / Network Admission Control (NAC) Securing a port using 802. Auto – This enables dot1x on the port. Mode Description Command Syntax (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) (config-if) Set the action is a storm control tolerance is exceeded Set the tolerance for broadcast traffic (% of bandwidth) Set the tolerance for multicast traffic (% of bandwidth) Set the tolerance for unicast traffic (% of bandwidth) Storm-control action <shutdown / trap> Storm-control broadcast level level Storm-control multicast level level Storm-control unicast level level M Morgan ©2010 Page 24 of 56 . In effect no authentication. The port will be unauthorised until the EAPOL packets are exchange then the port will enter an authorised state. Once authentication is successful the controlled port can pass all data. Dot1x port control modesForce-authorised (default) – Any host connected to this port will be considered authorised. The physical port on s supplicant is broken down into two logical ports (controlled and uncontrolled) by 802. storm control can shutdown a port if it receives excessive broadcasts. As an example.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) 802. Force-unauthorised – Connected hosts will be considered unauthorised.1x. The uncontrolled port can only pass EAPOL.Enable dt1x globally Storm Control This feature can raise a trap or shutdown an interface is a certain percentage of a ports’ traffic is a particular type.1x EAPOL (Extensible Authentication over LANs).1x requires a Radius server (authentication server).1x requires both host (supplicant) and switch ports (authenticator) to be configured with 802. 802. STP & CDP protocols. EAP EAP-MD5 EAP-TLS PEAP (MS-CHAPv2) EAP-FAST Example (config) # aaa new-model (config) # aaa authentication dot1x default group radius local (config) # dot1x system-auth-control (config) # interface fastethernet 0/4 (config-if) # dot1x port-control auto .

A source port can be a part of an etherchannel. Remote SPAN (RSPAN) – A dedicated vlan will be created to trunk mirrored packets across a trunk link between two switches. Trunk ports can be source and destination ports.10. CDP.10. All intermediate switches between the units having the source and destination ports must be RSPAN capable devices. A port can be a destination for only one SPAN session. PaGP.10. Source config(config) # vlan 100 (config-vlan) # remote-span (config-vlan) # exit (config) # monitor session 1 source interface fastethernet 0/1 (config) # monitor session 1 destination remote vlan 100 reflector-port fastethernet 0/10 Destination config(config) # monitor session 1 source remote vlan 30 (config) # monitor session 1 destination interface fastethernet 0/10 Notes       A source port can be monitored on multiple simultaneous SPAN sessions. To filter traffic between two hosts on the same vlan a VLAN Access List (VACL) is used. A port cannot be both a source and destination of a monitor session.10. Local SPAN – Destination and source ports are on the same switch.Display configure monitor sessions Vlan SPAN (VSPAN) – The source is a Vlan.0 network- M Morgan ©2010 Page 25 of 56 . Only one VACL can be applied to a vlan To restrict 172.1 – 3 from accessing any hosts on the 72. A Destination port cannot be part of an etherchannel A Destination port does not run STP. LACP or DTP. Securing VLANs Filtering Intra-VLAN Traffic An ACL on a multilayer switch can be used to filter inter vlan traffic but not intra-vlan traffic.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Span ports (Switchport Analyser) Span will mirror all traffic from a source port or ports to a destination port (sometimes called the monitor port) on either the same switch or across a trunk to a different switch. VTP. (config) # monitor session 1 source interface fastethernet 0/1 (config) # monitor session 1 destination interface fastethernet 0/2 # show monitor .

These interfaces are separated at Layer 2 from all other interfaces in other communities or isolated ports within their PVLAN. VTP must be in transparent mode to create private vlans. Traffic from isolated port is forwarded only to promiscuous ports.0.0. without all traffic would be dropped (similar to the implicit deny all on ACLs).10. Community — Community ports communicate among themselves and with their promiscuous ports. There are three types of PVLAN ports   Promiscuous — A promiscuous port can communicate with all interfaces.3 172. including the isolated and community ports within a PVLAN.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) (config) # ip access-list extended NOACCESSACL (config-ext-nacl) # permit ip 172. but not from the promiscuous ports.0 0.Consider a match any (config) # vlan NOACCESSVACL vlan-list 1 . Community PVLAN – Hosts can communicate with other hosts in a secondary vlan and with the primary vlan but not with hosts in other secondary VLANs.0 0.0. Isolated — An isolated port has complete Layer 2 separation from the other ports within the same PVLAN. Private VLANs PVLANs provide layer 2 isolation between ports within the same broadcast domain.Apply it to a VLAN Note rule 20. this allows un-matched traffic to be forwarded.255 . (config) # vlan 200 (config-vlan) # private-vlan <isolated / community> M Morgan ©2010 Page 26 of 56 .10. PVLANs block all traffic to isolated ports except traffic from promiscuous ports.Used to specify the addresses to match (config) # vlan access-map NOACCESSVACL 10 (config-access-map) # match ip address NOACCESSACL (config-access-map) # action drop (config-access-map) # exit (config) # vlan access-map NOACCESSVACL 20 (config-access-map) # action forward (config-access-map) # exit . Isolated PVLAN – Hosts can communicate with the primary vlan but no other host in the and secondary vlan.10.10.0.

Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Securing IP at Layer 2 DHCP Snooping This is a method for protecting against unauthorised or rogue DHCP Servers.Set interface as trusted (config-if) # ip dhcp snooping rate 10 .Set a maximum rate for DHCP requests to 10 per second NOTES  This can be difficult to configure in a multi-switch environment as all inter switch link interfaces (trunks) must be set as trusted. These can be used to give out an incorrect gateway address. Additionally DHCP Snooping can be used to rate limit the number of DHCP requests (config) # ip dhcp snooping . If a switch receives an ARP request on an untrusted port and the MAC-IP mapping is in the trusted mapping database then that ARP request is forwarded. which could cause a host to send all network traffic through an unauthorised router enabling traffic sniffing etc. This uses the database created by the DHCP Snooping feature and this forms trusted mapping database. It is therefore important to manually enable trusted ports as required for the DHCP infrastructure. DHCP Snooping allows all switch ports to be placed in to a trusted or untrusted mode. A rogue host could respond to the request before the legitimate host which would result in an incorrect mac address in the first host.Enable (config) # ip dhcp snooping vlan 10 . If the MAC-IP mapping is not in the trusted database the ARP request is dropped.Set as a trusted port Page 27 of 56 . Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI) ARP Cache Poisoning / ARP Spoofing ARP Spoofing occurs when a host send an ARP request out onto the network requesting the mac address for a particular ip address. (configure) # ip arp inspection vlan 10 (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1 (config-if) # ip arp inspect trust # show ip arp inspection M Morgan ©2010 . Once globally enabled on a switch all ports are set to untrusted. If a port is configure as a Dynamic ARP trusted port the ARP request is forwarded regardless.Enable on additional vlans. Vlan 1 enabled by default (config) # interface fastethernet 0/3 (config-if) # ip dhcp snooping trust . if a DHCP offer is received on an untrusted port the port will be errdisabled. All traffic now sent between the two hosts will now be sent to the rogue host which in turn forwards to the legitimate host forming a man in the middle attack.Enable on vlan 10 .

Useful Commands Mode Description Command Syntax # # # Show all mac addresses Show only dynamic learnt address Show address for a particular vlan Select a range of interface Show mac address-table Show mac address-table dynamic Show mac address-table dynamic vlan vlanid interface range f0/6 . bpduguard etc). Try to reduce the use of VLAN 1 and don’t use it as the native VLAN. avoid RW access). Access-class on VTY lines). Lock down SNMP (Set ACLs. IP Source Guard This prevent a host using another hosts Ip address and like Dynamic ARP Inspection requires DHCP Snooping to be enabled. Unused port recommendation Disable the port (shutdown)  Set the port to an assess port (switchport mode access)  Assign the port to another Vlan (switchport access vlan 99) M Morgan ©2010 Page 28 of 56 . OOB. An untrusted port will only accept DHCP packets until it receives an IP address. This address is recorded and will only accept traffic from that IP address. As ARP packets are inspected on ingress each arp packet will only be inspected once. Disable dynamic trunking (set all non trunking ports as access ports).10 (config) Best Practices       Use secure management (SSH.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) The recommendation is to sett all ports connected to hosts as untrusted and all ports connected to other switches as trusted. This reduces the risk of IP Spoofing. Make an audit sheet (portfast. keep community strings secret.

Core network Security 4. Stateful – Monitors the state of connections storing them in a session/state table. Layered Defence Strategy 1. A Stateful firewall will not allow a TCP packet with the SYN bit set and only allows packets with the ACK bit set if there is an entry in the session table indicating an inside user initiated the connection. Storing open connections allows the firewall to detect attacks by examining the sequence numbers (TCP Only) and allows return traffic for outbound connections.2699 700-799 Access-list number <permit/deny/remark> source <log> M Morgan ©2010 Access-list number <permit/deny/remark> <protocol> <source> <dest> <comparison> <port> <log> Page 29 of 56 . Transparent Firewalls do not pass traffic with an EtherType greater than or equal to 0x600 (CDP. in bound HTTP traffic etc). Uses Radius or Tacacs servers to store the profiles. Application Layer Gateway – Acts as proxy. Extended ACLs can be created for IP traffic and EtherType ACLs for non IP traffic. OSPF etc are supported. this method is not optimum. An ALG can enforce user authentication rather than devices Transparent Firewalls – Transparent firewalls are layer 2 devices which act like a network bridge. As much network traffic uses random port numbers (FTP.). Static Packet Filtering Description Identifier Typical syntax IP Standard Standard expanded range IP Extended Extended expanded range MAC Address list 1-99 1300-1999 100-199 2000. 4. Communications Security 3. Operates at OSI layers 3.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) IOS Firewall Firewall Introduction Firewall Types Stateless – Use of static packet filters (ACLs) to control what traffic can enter a network. IS-IS etc. 5 & 7. By default only ARP traffic can pass. Spanning Tree BPDUs.  IPS  Authentication Gateway – Allows creation of security profiles on a per user basis. Perimeter 2. Operates at OSI layers 3. They are easily introduced as IP addressing of the existing networks do not need to be changed. Endpoint Security Cisco IOS Firewall feature set  IOS Firewall – CBAC & Zone Based firewall. EIGRP. 4 & 5.

0. Dynamic ACL – Lock and Key.0.10.0.255.255. Extended – Filter on protocol.0 192.0.255 any !--.0.2.255 100 permit ip any any !--.0.0 31.50 192.168. !--.0.255 any Named access lists Mode Description Command Syntax (config) (config-std-nacl) (config) (config-ext-nacl) (config-ext-nacl) Create / edit a standard ACL Create an entry Create / edit an extended ACL Create an entry Create an entry with a line no Ip access-list standard <no / name> Permit sourceaddr Ip access-list extended DENY_HOSTA Permit tcp host sourceadr host sourceaddr 15 permit tcp host 192.50 0.0.50 0.255 150 deny ip 192. Reflexive / Established – Opens an inbound traffic rule based on an outbound TCP connections.3.3.168.255.15.0 any eq 80 100 deny ip host 192.0 1 deny any 1 permit host 192.10.0 0.0.Refer to RFC 3330 for additional special use addresses.4 M Morgan ©2010 Page 30 of 56 .Deny special-use address sources.168. Similar to the established rule.0.0.168.0 255.255 any 224.0 0.0. Named – Alternative way of creating and managing all access lists.168.0 150 deny tcp 192.4 log 1 deny 192.3.0.2. An access list is modified to allow traffic if a user telnets in to the router. Typically used for controlling access to VTY lines.168.0.0.0. access-list 110 deny ip 10.2.0 0. access-list access-list access-list access-list 110 110 110 110 deny deny deny deny ip ip ip ip host 0.0.50 host 4.100 0.5.168.255.0.0 0.168.0.255.255 any 192.0.0.255. Examples  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list  Access-list              1 deny 192.0 any 127.0 0.5.0 0.0.0.10.168.0.168.0 0. Lists can be named rather than just numbers and it is possible to edit ACLs as each line of the ACL is assigned a number.255.255 any access-list 110 deny ip 192. both source and destination IP addresses and source and destination ports.255.255 any access-list 110 deny ip 172.4 1 permit host 192.255.0.0. NAT etc rather than filtering.10.50 0. Time-based – Access list enabled/disabled at a particular time.168. Typically used for filtering.Filter RFC 1918 space.2.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) ACL Types       Standard – Filter only on the source IP address.255.0.16.255 1 permit any 2 permit 0.0.

If the Turbo ACL feature is enabled. ACLs with about four or more lines will see a speed improvement / reduction in CPU load.  A packet filter typically only filters the first fragment of a fragmented packet as the later fragments will not contain a TCP header. (config) # access-list compiled # show access-lists compiled . 7500 routers and 12000 Gigabit Switch routers) have the ability process ACL quicker.Enable Turbo ACLs . the line must be removed using the ‘no x’ command then readded. ACLs are compiled into a lookup table which allows for much faster processing. M Morgan ©2010 Page 31 of 56 .Displays the Turbo ACL state for all ACLs ACL States  Operational  Unsuitable – ACL Cannot be compiled. This avoids unintentionally locking yourself out of the device.  Packets generated by a router are not subject to ACL filters.  To change a line in a named ACL. The router will reload itself in the specified number of minutes unless the command ‘reload cancel’ is issued.  Make sure console messages are visible (‘terminal monitor’ if using VTY lines) while implementing/changing ACL just in case an ACL takes some routers functionality out.  Deleted – There are no ACLs in this entry  Out Of Memory NOTES  A packet filtering firewall operates at layers 3 & 4.  Use Notepad to write ACLs then copy and paste into the router.  Building – Currently building.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) (config-ext-nacl) (config-ext-nacl) (config) Create a reflexive entry Delete an existing access list line Re-sequence an ACL Permit tcp any any established No 15 ip access-list resequence aclno/name startno interval Apply a list to an interface / line Mode Description Command Syntax (config-if) (config-line) Apply access list to an interface Apply access list to a VTY line Ip access-group number <in / out> Access-class number <in / out> Show commands Mode Description Command Syntax # # # Show interface info (inc ACL) Show all access lists Show a specific access list Show ip interfaces Show {ip} access-lists Show {ip} access-lists number Turbo ACLs High end routers (7200.  Use the ‘reload in 3‘ command before applying an ACL to an interface. Turbo ACL cannot be used for dynamic ACLs and time based ACLs.

FTP etc). This allows Dynamic ACL entries to be added to allow returned traffic back in.255. The dynamic ACL entries are removed when the TCP session is closed or after a timeout. Zone based Firewall (ZFW)        Released with IOS 12. Has the ability to monitor control channels of protocols such as FTP/SIP to allow opening of correct dynamic UDP/TCP ports. Generic inspection does not support protocol specific features such as random ports (SIP. Outbound traffic is inspected up to the application layer in order to check validity and to open corresponding holes in the inbound filter for the return traffic.0 and 255.4(6)T Policies are applied between zones (Zone pair) All traffic between zones is denied by default unlike access lists which allow all until configured. 0.255 to prevent broadcast attacks. Inbuilt defence against TCP SYN and IP Spoofing attacks.Set UDP timeout value.255. In addition to per application filtering. It is advised to allow the following IMCP traffic back in to the router from the interneto Echo-reply o Time-exceeded o Packet-too-big o Traceroute o Unreachable CBAC/Classic Firewall       Provides Stateful packet inspection.Enable TCP generic inspection . IP Inspection does not apply for traffic generated by the router unless ‘router-traffic’ is used as an option on the ‘ip inspect’ commands.Create an inspection rule names FW for http traffic . both generic TCP & UDP traffic can be inspected to allow returned packets. Example(config) # ip inspect name FW http (config) # ip inspect name FW tcp (config) # ip inspect name FW udp (config) # ip inspect name FW timeout 60 (config) # interface fastethernet 0/1 (config-if) # ip inspect FW out . alerts and logging.0.0. Additionally it is recommended to black traffic from RFC1918 addresses.Enable UDP generic inspection . For the inspection process to work there must be an Extended ACL applied to the inbound direction while outbound traffic can be either standard or extended. An exception is the ‘self’ zone where traffic is allowed to pass by default unless explicitly denied An interface can only belong to one Zone Traffic can flow between interfaces in the same zone Traffic cannot flow between a zone and a non zone interface Cannot combine zone based and legacy firewall inspection M Morgan ©2010 Page 32 of 56 .Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)   Have an inbound ACL denying with a same source address range as the internal IP addresses to protect against IP Spoofing.

C3PL/MQC (Modular QoS CLI) – Parameter maps Used to create additional parameters to match on. ‘Class Map’ followed by ‘Inspection’. Hosts connected to an interface will be a part of the zone assigned to that interface.aol. ‘Additional Tasks’ followed by ‘Zones’. ‘C3PL’. select ‘Configure’.oscar. Creation of a ZFW using Cisco Common Classification Policy (C3PL) Create Zones – Create zones using the command ‘zone security name’ command. creation & assigning a policy. ‘Additional Tasks’ followed by ‘Zone Pairs’ allows editing. It is analogous to an ACL deny statement.com . A DPI map must be nested with in layer 4 class map. ZFW Actions  Inspect – Allows the traffic through but inspect the packet to ensure the data is not malicious  Drop (deny) – Does not allows the packet to pass.  Pass (permit) – Does not inspect. Additionally SDM will allow assigning the zone to an interface at the same time.blue. Using SDM. ‘Policy Map’ followed by ‘Protocol Inspection’. A ‘self’ zone is created by default and refers to the router itself. ‘Additional Tasks’. The IP Address of the interface itself is assigned to the ‘self’ zone. A sub command is available to put a description against the zonepair and assign a policy ‘service-policy type inspect policyname’. a layer 4 map which can match traffic and protocols at layer 4 and Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) class maps which inspect up to layer 7. SDM will prompt for a DNS config if not already configured as the rules it creates include domain names such as yahoo instant messaging servers. HTTP on a non standard port. SDM ‘Configure’. A Class map can match on among others ACLs  Protocol / NBAR (Network based application recognition).aol. A sub command is available to put a description against the zone. ‘C3PL’. M Morgan ©2010 Page 33 of 56 .oscar.g.com (config-profile) # server name toc.aol. Example(config) # parameter-map type protocol-info aol-servers (config-profile) # server name login.Create a parameter map for AOL servers C3PL/MQC (Modular QoS CLI) – Class maps Class maps are used to identify and classify traffic.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)    Uses a Deep Packet Inspection to catch dynamic port number protocols such as BitTorrent & IM applications. SDM ‘Configure’. Create Policy Maps – A policy map defines what action to perform on traffic. This looks at the packet data to attempt to identify the protocol used e.  Another subordinate class map Two types of inspection class map can be created. Create Class Maps – Used to identify traffic. SDM ‘Configure’. ‘Additional Tasks’.com (config-profile) # server name oam-d09a. Create Zone Pairs – Use the command ‘zone-pair security pairname source sourcezonename destination destinationzonename’. Assign interfaces to Zones – Use the ‘zone-member security name’ command under an interface. Each policy map has one or more class maps assigned together with an action for that traffic.

Create map to identify IM using NBAR (config) # class-map type inspect http match-any sdm-http-blockparam .Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Mode Description Command Syntax (config) (config) (config) (config-cmap) (config-cmap) (config-cmap) (config-cmap) Create a match any class map Create a match all class map Create a DPI class map Set match criteria on an ACL Set match criteria on input interface Match based on NBAR Match on NBAR with parameter map Class-map type inspect match-any name Class-map type inspect match-all name Class-map type inspect protocol match-any name Match access-group aclno Match input-interface Match protocol protocol Match protocol protocol parametermap NOTE Match-any signifies an or condition between statements  Match-all signified an AND condition between statements Examples(config) # class-map type inspect match-all HTTPFOMACL (config-cmap) # match protocol http (config-cmap) # match access-group 100 .Create map to DPI HTTP (config-cmap) # match request port-misuse im (config-cmap) # match request port-misuse p2p (config-cmap) # match req-resp protocol-violation C3PL/MQC (Modular QoS CLI) – Policy-map A Policy map controls what to do with traffic identified by a class map.Create map to identify HTTP and ACL 100 (config) # class-map type inspect match-any sdm-cls-protocol-im (config-cmap) # match protocol ymsgr yahoo-servers (config-cmap) # match protocol msnmsgr msn-servers (config-cmap) # match protocol aol aol-servers . Mode Description Command Syntax (config) (config-pmap) (config-pmap-c) Create an inpsect policy map Add a class map to the policy Set action for traffic class Policy map type inspect policyname Class type inspect classname Inspect / pass / drop (config) # policy-map type inspect sdm-permit-icmpreply (config-pmap) # class type inspect sdm-icmp-access (config-pmap-c) # inspect (config-pmap-c) # exit (config-pmap) # class type inspect SDM-Voice (config-pmap-c) # inspect (config-pmap-c) # exit (config-pmap) # class class-default (config-pmap-c) # pass (config-pmap-c) # exit M Morgan ©2010 Page 34 of 56 .

Four types of signatures can be used. particular IP addresses etc. as they are not inline traffic flow will not be slowed but malicious traffic could potentially not be checked. This requires extensive tuning to avoid false positives. DoS attack signatures. This can signal to another router to block traffic but this traffic would have already entered the network. Exploit signatures to spot byte and traffic patterns of attacks.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) IPS IPS Introduction Types of IPS/IDS solutions IDS (Intrusion Detection System) – Sits outside the routing path (Promiscuous mode connected to a SPAN port) and raises alerts in the event of suspicious traffic. Using HIPS on clients would reduce this risk. In addition to the functionality provided by IDS solutions. IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) – Sits inside the routing path (Inline mode). an IPS is able to take actions on suspicious traffic Logs (Syslog or SDEE)  Drops  Resets the TCP Connection (TCP Reset)  Blocks the attackers IP address for ‘x’ minutes. Initially signature based analysis can create lots of false positives which signature tuning will reduce/stop. IPS will then watch this server to enable better tuning of the IPS system. the IPS can slow the flow of traffic. Zero day attacks will not be detected. Honey Pot Detection – An isolated server is placed at risk / not protected in an attempt to draw attacks. Low processing requirement but can become out of date if not frequently updated. Policy – Violation of a network policy such as maximum new connections per second (SYN attacks DoS attacks etc).  Blocks the traffic causing the alarm HIPS (Host IPS) – A software based IPS on installed on a host. M Morgan ©2010 Page 35 of 56 . As an IPS sits in-line with the traffic flow. Intrusion Detection Methods Signature – Uses known attacks strings. Attackers are now trying to use HTTPS/VPN technologies to bypass detection of a Network based IPS system. Connection signatures to identify malicious traffic in an established connection and String signatures which are Regex patterns. IDS can get overrun with traffic. Policy based methods are able to identify some zero day attacks. Event action ‘Deny Attacker Inline’ creates a dynamic access-list to block the IP address. This is sometimes referred to as network behaviour or heuristic analysis.. Anomaly – Traffic considered not ‘normal’. because of this IDSs are vulnerable to “Atomic pattern” attacks where the attack payload is contained in one packet. IDSs are more effective on “Composite pattern” attacks were the attack takes place over multiple packets/hosts. NIPS (Network IPS) – A router / appliance based IPS.

The sensors contain at least two interfaces. Deny Connection Inline – Stops the offending packets but not other traffic from the source. Able to monitor inter VLAN traffic etc. This can capture encrypted attacks which network based solutions cannot detect. Good – True Positive & True Negative Signatures Signature severity levels    Informational Low Medium High Event Actions     Deny Attacker Inline – Denies the source IP address of the offending packets (Creates dynamic ACL) for a defined period of time. Catalyst 6500 IDSM-2 – Fits inside a Cisco 6500 series switches. HIPS (Cisco CSA) – Client software that sits on the end client to identify suspicious traffic on the client.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Alerts Bad – False Positive & False Negative. the command and control interface and the monitoring interface. Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance Advanced Inspection and Prevention Security Service Module (ASA AIP SSM) – Provides high performance anti-x services. Deny Packet Inline – Drop this packet only. To avoid false positives some signatures may require ‘Signature Tuning’ or removing a particular signature. Produce Alert – Generate an alarm/alert message Reset TCP Connection – Send a TCP reset to terminate the traffic flow Cisco IDS / IPS Range IOS – Some Cisco IOS images implement technology from other IPS/IDS systems to create an IOS IPS. Can be run in the routing path or on a SPAN port. 4200 Series Appliances – Dedicated appliance for IPS. M Morgan ©2010 Page 36 of 56 . IDS Network / AIM Modules (AIM-IPS) – Fit inside a router to perform the IDS function taking the load off the routers processor.

Clicking ‘Launch IPS Rule Wizard’ SDM will enable SSDE on the router and open a subscription with the router so SDM can receive events. Choose Category – Basic or Advanced (128MB of router memory required). 4.Enable SDEE notifications . 2. Choose Config Location. Typically flash:/ or flash:/ips/ on systems which support directories 6.PKG files on the PC.Enter the IPS Signature category configuration . public key name and key (SDM will not accept IOS-Sxxx-CLI. 5. copy it to flash or tftp/ftp/http and select from there).Set the location of the IPS configuration files . Configuration generated by SDM(config) # ip ips notify SDEE (config) # ip ips name sdm_ips_rule (config) # interface FastEthernet0/0 (config-if) # ip ips sdm_ips_rule in (config-if) # ip ips sdm_ips_rule out (config-if) # exit (config) # ip ips config location flash:/ips/ (config) # ip ips signature-category (config-ips-category) # category all (config-ips-category-action) # retired true (config-ips-category-action) # exit (config-ips-category) # category ios_ips advanced M Morgan ©2010 .Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Configuring IPS on a Cisco Router using SDM 1. Interface selection.Set which interfaces to enable IPS .Select the advanced set of rules Page 37 of 56 .Define n IPS rule name of sdm_ips_rule . 3. set Inbound / Outbound on specific interfaces. Specify the signature file.Retire all rules .Select all categories . The IPS Policy Wizard will now start. not be on the internet facing connection as this will generate many hundreds of alarms/alerts. Typically IPS will be enabled on the inbound and outbound directions on the internal interfaces.

event action etc. Category selection (basic or advanced) and the public key.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) (config-ips-category-action) # retired false . enabled/disabled or edited. The signatures will now be compiled Edit IPS Tab IPS Policies – Allows enabling / disabling IPS on individual interfaces and apply an optional ACL to control what traffic is scanned. number of SDDE messages to store and the number of SDEE subscriptions.Un-retire. Security Device Event Exchange (SDEE) – Advanced logging method designed specifically for alerting on security devices. alarm interval. Location of the IPS configuration files within the router. The router can store up to 1000 (200 by default) events for later retrieval. Security Dashboard Tab The Dashboard allows a user to update the list of top threats from the Cisco IPS Alert Center then deploy the signatures for those threats. Once a change is made the modified signature is highlighted in SDM but not directly applied to the router. Signatures – This displays a category tree of all signatures installed. Syslog – Basic reporting method logged to a Syslog server. Global Settings – Allows setting up the basic IPS properties. ‘Engine Fail Closed’ stops passing packets when the IOS is coming the signatures (disabled by default) ‘ip ips failed closed’. Logging & Monitoring Reporting / Logging The outputs of an IDP/IPS system are used to achieve two things. HTTP/HTTPS must also be enabled to use SDEE. reporting where analysis is performed on historic data and event monitoring to identify when an attack is taking place. number of SDEE alerts to store. Logging. M Morgan ©2010 Page 38 of 56 . SDEE & Syslog. CLI Monitoring # show ip ips configurations # show ip ips interfaces # show ip ips all Monitoring using SDM ‘IPS Status’ (shows loaded signatures and hit and drop counts) & ‘Logging’ followed by ‘SDEE Message Log’ under the ‘Monitoring’ section. Each signature can be deleted. Typical editable options include severity. SDM can pull these events or the router can be configured to export them to an external server. Click the ‘Apply Changes’ button to commit the change to the router.

Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) M Morgan ©2010 Page 39 of 56 .

Version 5 files are in the format of ‘IOS-S360-CLI-pkg’ and are singed with a Cisco private key.sdf’. Helps to protect against Tiny. Version 4 IPS definition files consist of Signature Definition Files (SDF) such as ‘128MB. Public Key Name : realm-cisco. Overlapping and Buffer Overflow fragment attacks. Command is ‘ip virtual-assembly’ under an interface.pub Public Key : 30820122 00C19E93 17E630D5 B199ABCB 5B2146A9 FE3F0C87 50437722 006CF498 2F56D826 F3020301 300D0609 A8AF124A C02AC252 D34ED0F9 D7A5EDE3 89BCB7BB FFBE85B9 079F88F8 8918EF3C 0001 M Morgan ©2010 2A864886 D6CC7A24 912BE27F 085FADC1 0298AF03 994AE74C 5E4189FF A3B3FB1F 80CA4F4D F70D0101 5097A975 37FDD9C8 359C189E DED7A5B8 FA9E481D CC189CB9 9FB7B3CB 87BFCA3B 01050003 206BE3A2 11FC7AF7 F30AF10A 9479039D F65875D6 69C46F9C 5539E1D1 BFF668E9 82010F00 06FBA13F DCDD81D9 C0EFB624 20F30663 85EAF974 A84DFBA5 9693CCBB 689782A5 3082010A 6F12CB5B 43CDABC3 7E0764BF 9AC64B93 6D9CC8E3 7A0AF99E 551F78D2 CF31CB6E 02820101 4E441F16 6007D128 3E53053E C0112A35 F0B08B85 AD768C36 892356AE B4B094D3 Page 40 of 56 .Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Notes      VFR (Virtual Fragmentation Reassembly) – Allows the IOS firewall to create dynamic access lists to protect against fragmentation attacks.

509 Diffie Hellman Attack Methods Brute force Cipher text only Known plain text Chosen plain text Chosen cipher text Birthday Meet in the middle Every possibly key is tried The attacker has a number of encrypted message to decrypt The attacker has both the cipher text and some knowledge of the corresponding plaintext. HMAC – Hashed Message Authentication Codes Hashing functions by themselves cannot guarantee the authenticity of the message as anyone can generate a message and calculate a hash. Encryption at the transport layer – Layer 4 Encryption at the network layer – Layer 3 Voice and Video enabled VPN Dynamic Multipoint VPN. Improves the chances of deriving the key Similar to chosen plain text attack Statistically the probability that two people share the same birthday in a group of 23 people is greater than 50%. Encryption Technologies PKCS # 1 PKCS # 3 PKCS # 5 PKCs # 7 PKCS # 10 RSA SSL / TLS IPSec V3PN DMVPN X. Allows router to negotiate a point to point VPN with any other router on a hub and spoke VPN topology A standard which defines the format for digital certificate transmission and certificate revocation lists (CRL) Protocol using public / private keys to exchange a shared secret. The same principle can be used when attempting to break a hash function using brute force techniques to improve the chances of breaking the hash The attacker is able to both decrypt cipher text and encrypt plain text in an attempt to find a matching key Hashing & Digital signatures Hashing algorithms  MD5 – 128bit  SHA-1 – 168bit A hash function simply calculates a signature/fingerprint/CRC of the message.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) VPN / Cryptography Term Definition Cryptology Cryptography Cryptoanalysis Steganography Science of making and breaking secret codes Developing and using codes / encryption techniques Breaking encryption technologies and codes Technique to hide messages in some other message rather than encrypting the message PKCS Public Key Cryptography Standards – define a set of standards / low level formats for the secure exchange of data RSA Cryptography standard DH Key agreement standard Password based cryptography standard Cryptography message syntax Used for sending certificate requests using SCEP Rivest-Shamir-Adelman – SSL. This can be used in an attempt to derive the key The attacker is able to encrypt some chosen plaintext and vire the cipher text. HMAC adds a secret key to the message before applying the M Morgan ©2010 Page 41 of 56 .

The digest of the message is generated and then encrypted using the private key. The resulting digital signature is attached to the message. e. Transposition Cipher The characters are simply rearranged in the message using a secret sequence. An example is the rail fence cipher M Morgan ©2010 Page 42 of 56 .Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) hashing routine resulting in a hash that depends on both the message and the key. Suppose the phrase ‘ATTACK AT DAWN’ is coded using the key ‘SECRETKEY’. the resulting message will be ‘SXVRGDKXBSAP’. This results in an almost unbreakable code but with limitations. ‘a’ becomes ‘m’. Typically referred to as a shared secret. Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is the current standard for digital signatures. Provided the receiving party knows the number of spaces substituted (the key) then encryption is possible.g. Small section below- A B C A A B C B B C D C C D E One Time Pad / Vernam Cipher Uses the principle of a Vigenere cipher but the key is a stream of random characters equal to the length of the message. if the hash matches then the message is authentic. if the decrypted digest matches the calculated digest of the message the message is authentic and the sender is verified. Creation of a truly random key is almost impossible and it is very difficult to distribute the key. ‘b’ becomes ‘n’ etc. making it invulnerable to a frequency analysis attack. The receiver of the message can then generate the hash of the plaintext message using the same secret key. The Vernam Cipher instead XORs the each character of the message with the corresponding key character. The receiver decrypts the digital signature with public key. This is very weak as simple character frequency analysis will allow the code to be broken. Symmetric Encryption The same key is used to encrypt and decrypt. Digital Signatures Digital signatures are similar to the HMAC principle above but use an asymmetric private public key pair. This uses a table to perform the cipher where the key is on one axis and the message on another to by coded is on the other. Caesar / Substitution Cipher Characters of a message are substituted with another character from ‘n’ spaces in the alphabet. Vigenere Cipher A substitution cipher where the number of characters / spaces moved for each character depends on a corresponding character in a key word.

RC6 (126. 3DES Uses three 56bit keys. RC RC2 (40 & 56bit) – Stream Cipher RC4 (1 to 256bit) – A encryption method based on the Vernam cipher. decrypted with the second key then finally encrypted with the third key to derive the cipher text. 192 & 256bit) Blowfish (32 to 448bit) Block Cipher Asymmetric Encryption A key pair is required. used in SSL & WEP. 12 semi weak keys DES offers two types of ciphers  Block Cipher – Electronic Code Book (ECB) and Cipher Block Chaining (CBC). Adi Shamir & Leonard Adleman) is a public key infrastructure (KPI) system capable of both encryption and signed requirements. Stream Cipher – Output Feedback (OFB) and Cipher Feedback (CFB) modes. AES (128. The bit lengths are not directly comparable to symmetric bit lengths. This avoids the scenario where two identical plaintext packets result in the same cipher text. Each 64bit block is encrypted using the 56 bit key.. RSA RSA named after the inventors (Ron Rivest. CBC is used by. RC5 (0 to 2040bit) – A fast block based cipher. Up 100 times slower than symmetric encryption in software and up to 1000 times in hardware. The message if encrypted wit h the first key.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) DES (56bit) & 3DES – EDE (112 & 156bit) 4 weak keys. IDEA (128bit) International Data Encryption Algorithm Block Cipher SEAL – Software Encryption Algorithm A software based stream cipher designed to have a low impact on CPU resources. 2048 to a 112 bit symmetric key and 3072 to a 128 bit symmetric key. If the first and third keys are then same then the effective key length is reduced to 112 bits. one to encrypt and another to decrypt. All but EBC use XOR operations on the previous cipher text block to generate the next cipher block. A 1024 bit RSA key is considered equal to an 80 bit symmetric key. 192 & 256bit) Rijndael cipher is an iterated Block Cipher where multiple operations are performed on each block to derive the cipher text. Bock Cipher. RSA Vulnerabilities M Morgan ©2010 Page 43 of 56 .

p=23 and base g=5. RC4. 4. 1. Branch Prediction Analysis attack – Used in modern processors that use branch prediction and Simultaneous multithreading (SMT). Diffie Hellman Key exchange The DH process works by both parties agreeing on two non secret numbers and each party generating a secret number. 2. then sends Party 2 A = ga mod p 6 o A = 5 mod 23 = 8. 3DES. Key verification – make sure the chosen key is no ‘weak’. Key Storage – Storage of the keys in a manner which is considered secure. Party 1 computes s = B a mod p 6 o 19 mod 23 = 2. Party 2 chooses a secret integer b=15. An attack uses a spy process to statistically discover the private key when being processed using these processors. M Morgan ©2010 Page 44 of 56 . Resistance level to brute force attacks DES. An updated version of PKCS #1 has been released which is not vulnerable to this attack. The two parties agree on two non secret numbers (generator and base). RSA and DH are considered trust worthy. Key Management      Key Generation – Typically generated using a random number generator. Adaptive chosen cipher text attack – Uses weaknesses in RSA / PKCS #1 when used in SSL protocols and is used to recovery session keys. Each party then generates a public number from its secret and the two non secret numbers and this is passed to the other party. then sends Party 1 B = gb mod p 15 o B = 5 mod 23 = 19. Party 1 chooses a secret integer a=6. AES. IDEA. Does the cryptographic community trust the algorithm 2. Key Exchange – Ensure any keys exchanges are performed securely. 3. Choosing an encryption method Two main criteria1. 5.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)    Timing attack – An attacker could measure the decryption times for a number of cipher texts and if the hardware is known the decryption key could be deduced quickly. Most RSA implementations use a scheme known as blinding to stop the decryption time being correlated to the cipher text. Key Revocation and Destruction – A method to notify all interested parties that a key has been compromised ad should not be user. Each party then generates a shared secret by from its own secret and the public number generated on the other party. Party 2 computes s = A b mod p 15 o 8 mod 23 = 2.

The message can only be decrypted with the senders public key proving the message is authentic. Only the receiving party can decrypt the message with their private key. Message Confidentiality – the Message is encrypted with the receiving party’s public key. people. There are multiple topologies for a PKI system- M Morgan ©2010 Page 45 of 56 . Public key of the router. 2. This can only be decrypted using the public key. SCEP (Simple Certificate Enrolment Protocol) – Automated method to send certificates to hosts/routers. 3. Typically a number. A certificate can have a certificate class to indicate the trustworthiness of the certificate. A public key infrastructure contains the following parts     Certificate Authorities Users. Only the CA public key can decrypt the signature proving the certificate was signed by the certification authority. Operates in two modesManual – Administrator approves the request Pre-shared key – Devices will pass a key to the CA to allow the CA to automatically generate the certificate.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) PKI PKI uses asymmetric encryption. class 1 may require an email from the domain to prove identity. devices etc Storage and Protocols Supporting organisational framework Supporting legal framework Certificates A Certificate contains1. This is the name of the CA encrypted with the CA private key. proves the router is who he says he is. Device signature (name) encrypted with the private key. Certificate Authority A trusted third party which sings the public keys. A host will request a certificate from the CA. the higher the number the more trustworthy the certificate. Class 0 may require no checks. Message authenticity – The message is encrypted using the senders private key. CA Signature. The higher the class the more must be done to prove the authenticity of the requester.

Authentication.256 128 160 768 1024 1536 360 to 2048 Provides Authentication. SSH. Stops man in the middle devices replaying packets in an attempt to cause system issues. used to create a shared secret key without actually passing the key between two parties. Key 1 encrypt. in effect creating a trust relationship.192.  Data Integrity – Hashing (HMAC-MD5. These tasks can be offloaded to a Registration Authority (RA) enabling the CA to concentrate on signing. Data Integrity and Anti replay. key generation and distribution of certificates. 2 decrypt 3 encrypt VPN Phase 1 initiation. Data Integrity and Anti replay using HMAC codes. HMAC-SHA-1)  Confidentiality – Data is encrypted as it flows through the VPN  Anti-Relay – Ensures each packet is unique. Hierarchical – A root CA in turn issues certificates to subordinate CA’s.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553)    Single root – Difficult to scale and vulnerable in that if the root key is compromised all certificates generated are invalid. IPSec Benefits  Authentication – Ensures the connection is made with the corre3ct remote endpoint. A CA perform many tasks in addition to signing user certificates such as authenticating users when they enrol with the PKI. This improves scalability and reduces the impact if a key is compromised. Cisco routers support the following appliances / servers Entrust Baltimore Verisign Windows 2000 IPSec Components Name Use AH Bits - Protocol ESP DES (S) 3DES (S) AES (S) MD5 SHA-1 DH1 (A) DH2 (A) DH5 (A) DH7 (A) RSA (A) Encryption Hash / Auth Protection Encryption 56 168 128. The entire IP Packet is hashed so will not work through NAT Provides Encryption. The subordinate CA’s then issue certificates to end users. Cross-certifying – A CA will cross certify with another CA on different PKI installation. Operation methods Transport Mode M Morgan ©2010 Page 46 of 56 . 64 bit keys 8 bits are parity Three 56 bits keys are used.

Phase two This uses a mode called ‘Quick Mode’ to negotiate IPSec parameters/transform sets. key. Phase one Main Mode – Three exchanges1. IPSec Authentication Username / Password – Used for user access VPNs One time password – Used for user access VPNs Pre shared key – Typically used for site to site VPNs. establish the IPSec SAs. Aggressive Mode – A total of three packets are sent1. The result of these transfers is a bi-directional tunnel ready for phase two negotiation. The responder replies with the proposal. 3. 3. Exchange and negotiate policy and algorithms. Data is transferred 5. Uses an ACL to match interesting traffic. This data is sent unencrypted 2. IPSec Tunnel 4. both ends have the same pre shared key. VPN is torn down. There are two directional IPSec SA’s generated during phase 2. IKE Phase 1. ID and authenticates the session. Interesting traffic initiates the raising the VPN. The initiator replies by authenticating the session. IKE Phase 2. IKEMPE Tunnel. 3. 2.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Data ESP IP MAC Typically used internally (LAN/WAN) to secure inter host communication. Exchange DH keys. Tunnel Mode Data IP ESP IP MAC Typically used to secure and tunnel data over the internet. 2. Identity verification / authenticates an Internet Security Association and Kay Management Protocol (ISAKMP) session using PSK or certificates. periodically renegotiation the SAs to improve security.. The initiator sends all data required to initiate an SA. Works well for small networks but can become unmanageable for large networks (10 to 15 sites) as ideally the pre shared key should be changed frequently. NOTE – Italics indicate encrypted data Negotiation 1. M Morgan ©2010 Page 47 of 56 .

The router will receive the CAs public key and certificate to verify the CA.Phase 1 : 3DES.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Certificates – Each end point receives a certificate from a trusted certificate authority. ESP_SHA_HMAC.2. Typical generated config(config) # access-list 100 remark SDM_ACL Category=4 (config) # access-list 100 remark IPSec Rule (config) # access-list 100 permit ip 10. A router can authenticate another router by passing its certificate and public key.0.2 M Morgan ©2010 Page 48 of 56 .0.2.0.20.2 (config-crypto-map) # match address 100 (config-crypto-map) # exit (config) # interface Vlan1 (config-if) # crypto map SDM_CMAP_1 (config-if) # exit (config) # crypto isakmp policy 1 (config-isakmp) # authentication pre-share (config-isakmp) # encr 3des (config-isakmp) # hash sha (config-isakmp) # group 2 (config-isakmp) # lifetime 86400 (config-isakmp) # exit (config) # crypto isakmp key ***** address 4.255 192. DH2.2. The following defaults are used . Configuring Site to Site VPNs Configuring Site to Site VPNs using SDM SDM Site-to-Site VPN offers two creation modesQuick Setup – This uses a number of defaults options.2. DES etc).255 (config) # crypto ipsec transform-set VSPTSET esp-sha-hmac esp-3des (cfg-crypto-trans) # mode tunnel (cfg-crypto-trans) # exit (config) # crypto map SDM_CMAP_1 1 ipsec-isakmp (config-crypto-map) # description Tunnel to4. remote destination IP address range and authentication (PSK or certificates). Step by Step wizard – Allows defining all parameters. 3. This allows the router to trust the CA. other endpoints can then verify the endpoint by examining the certificate 1. The routers will then generate a session key (AES. 4.0 0.0. SHA_1. 2. All routers will enrol with a CA (OOB).2 (config-crypto-map) # set transform-set VSPTSET (config-crypto-map) # set peer 4. Phase 2 : ESP_3DES. remote peer IP address.168. Prompts for the ext interface.0. The CA will issue each router with its own certificate.2.2.1. The router will decrypt the certificate using the routers public key and verify the CA signature using the CA public key. interface where the encrypted traffic originates.0 0.

70.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Configuring Site to Site VPNs using CLI Allow IPSec traffic through the external interface ACLs    ISAKMP – UDP 500 ESP – IP Protocol 50 AH – IP Protocol 51 access-list 101 permit udp host 82.70.70.0.0.213 host 82.70.213 host 82.213 host 82.20.0.209 access-list 101 permit ahp host 82.0.209 eq non500-isakmp access-list 101 permit udp host 82.0.2 IPSec Phase 2 Mode Description Command Syntax # # Debug the IPSec processes Show all defines transform sets Debug crypto ipsec show crypto ipsec transform-set M Morgan ©2010 Page 49 of 56 .213 host 82.70.209 ISAKPM Phase 1 Mode Description Command Syntax # # # (config) (config) (config-isakmp) (config-isakmp) (config-isakmp) (config-isakmp) (config-isakmp) (config-isakmp) Enable ISAKMP debuging Show defines ISAKMP Policies Show active ISAKMO Security Associations Enable ISAKMP globally Define a isakmp policy Set authentication method Set DES / 3DES encryption Set AES encryption and key length Set hashing Set DH group Set the lifetime Debug crypto isakmp show crypto isakmp policy show crypto isakmp sa Crypto isakmp enable Crypto isakmp policy no Authentication <pre-share / rsa-encr / rsa-sig> Encryption <des / 3des> Encryption aes <128 / 192 / 256> Hash <md5 / sha> Group <1 / 2 / 5 / 14 / 15 / 16> Lifetime seconds Set the identity of this router (config) Set method of identifying phase 1 tunnel crypto identity <address / dn / hostname> Set the Phase 1 Key for a peer (config) (config) Configure the key for the remote ipaddress Configure the key for the remote hostname Crypto isakmp key key address ipaddress Crypto isakmp key key address hostname Example(config) # crypto isakmp enable (config-isakmp) # crypto isakmp policy 20 (config-isakmp) # authentication pre-share (config-isakmp) # encryption aes 128 (config-isakmp) # group 2 (config-isakmp) # hash sha (config-isakmp) # lifetime 28800 (config-isakmp) # exit (config) # crypto isakmp identity address (config) # crypto isakmp key VPN address 10.0.209 eq isakmp access-list 101 permit esp host 82.70.0.0.70.0.70.

255.2 Clear a Tunnel # clear crypto isakmp # clear crypto sa M Morgan ©2010 Page 50 of 56 .0. (config) # crypto ipsec transform-set VPNTRANSFORM esp-aes 128 esp-sha-hmac (cfg-crypto-trans) # exit (config) # crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds 3660 (config) # access-list 150 permit ip 172.31.0 0.y.y Crypto map tag sequence ipsec-isakmp Match address aclno Set peer remoteipaddress Set transform-set tranformsettag Apply the Crypto map to an interface (config-if) Crypto map maptag NOTE – only one crypto map tag can be assigned to an interface but multiple crypto maps can be configured against the tag be using different sequence numbers.x.0.0 0.y.0.0.y.x y.0.0 255.2 (config-crypto-map) # set transform-set VPNTRANSFORM (config-crypto-map) # exit (config) # interface fastethernet 0/0 (config-if) # crypto map VPN (config-if) # exit (config) # ip route 172.31.x y.1.x.20.255.0.0.x.y.255 172.x.31.20.0.y x.0 10.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) # # # # Show all crypto maps Show active IPSes SAs show crypto map show crypto ipsec sa show crypto engine connections active show crypto session (config) (cfg-crypto-trans) Create a transform set Set Tunnelling mode (config) (config) Set IPSec tunnel timeout Set IPSec lifetime (config) (config) (config-crypto-map) (config-crypto-map) (config-crypto-map) Create access list to match traffic Create the map Set the IP addresses to encrypt Set remote IP address Set the IPSec transform set Create a Transform Set Crypto ipsec transform-set tag <encrypt> <hash> Mode <tunnel / transport> Set lifetimes Crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds sec Crypto ipsec security-association lifetime kilobytes kb Define Crypto map and match ACL Access-list no permit ip x.255 (config) # crypto map VPN 1 ipsec-isakmp (config-crypto-map) # match address 150 (config-crypto-map) # set peer 10.

These can be monitored by the reference monitor Applications Application attacks are one of two types  Direct – An attacker get the application to perform a task. find a way of ensuring the code runs at all times even after a reboot. take advantage of the vulnerability to gain access to the system. M Morgan ©2010 Page 51 of 56 . Trusted Path – A facility to ensure that a user is performing a genuine operation rather than a Trojan horse. Indirect – An attacker compromises a different system and then launches an attack to the target through the compromised system (privilege escalation) Phases of an attack  Probe – Find vulnerable targets using ping sweeps.  Isolation between processes – An OS should isolate a process from mall other processes.  Penetrate – Once a vulnerable system is found. Additionally other techniques can help protect endpoints Least privilege – A process/user should never be given higher privileges than required.  Paralyse – Carry out the malicious action (erase data. open ports scans etc. Ctrl-Alt-Delete to login to a Windows OS. steal data.g. bug free and secure manner.A control concept that provides a mechanism then mediates all access to objects  Small verifiable pieces of code – Small code blocks that do a small amount of work in a controlled.  Persist – Once the vulnerable code is on the target and running.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Endpoint Security Endpoint Security Introduction Operating Systems Operating systems provide some basic security services to applications     Trusted Code – Ensures code / OS system is not compromised using a HMAC (Hash Message Authentication Code) or digital signatures.  Propagate – Find other vulnerable systems in order to spread the attack to other systems. E. Access control – Restrict access to files from unauthorised users.. cause DoS. Memory isolation – Protects the memory space of one application from others.  Reference Monitor . launch a distributes DoS attack etc). Privileged context of execution – Provides some identity authentication and privileges based on the identity of the user.

Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Example of some previous attacks and their phases Phase Morris (198) Log Bug Code Red (2000) (2001) Scan for Scan for IIS Probe Slammer (2003) MyDoom (2004) Zolob (2005) - - Scan for MS Directory Services Buffer overflow in UPnP fingerd Penetrate Buffer overflow in fingerd Email attachment Buffer overflow in IIS Persist Execute script to download code Create executable and edit registry Execute script to download code Open address book and email copies Pick new address and spread to new victims Run many process to slow the system Propagate Look for email address to spread Paralyse Run many process to slow the system Worm spreads Buffer overflow in MSDE and MSSQL - Email attachment Pick new address and spread to new victim Generate lots of network packets to slow network Open address book and email copies Worm spreads Create executable and edit registry Create executable. M Morgan ©2010 Page 52 of 56 . Does not require Cisco infrastructure. Cisco NAC Appliance Manager (NAM) – A centralised web based administrative tool for managing users and security policies. Cisco NAC Appliance Server (NAS) – A device that perms network access control and device compliance checks as users access the network. Cisco NAC Appliance Agent – Software that runs on the client / endpoint computer that is used to audit the endpoint to compliance and launch updates. Cisco NAC Appliance – A self contained appliance that performs all the NAC functions. files and terminate processes Cisco NAC NAC is designed to only allow authorised and compliant systems access to the network by providing four main features    Authentication and authorisation Posture assessment – Evaluates the security of the device against defines policies Quarantining of noncompliant systems Remediation of noncompliant systems NAC Components NAC Framework – A framework using the Cisco network infrastructure and third-party systems using software modules embedded within NAC enabled devices. edit the registry and download code Start FTP and FTFTP services Delete registry keys.

a. Configuration Interceptor – Read and write attempts to the registry in Windows and rc files in Unix systems checked for compliance. 3. distributed firewall. CSA is not a conventional signature based virus/spyware scanner but functions as a host based IPS (HIPS) to detect anomalies or signs of undesirable behaviour such as Windows registry changing. IronPort Cisco IronPort security appliances protect networks from internet based threats. If complaints the host is granted access to the network. It not compliant the host if quarantined to a separate VLAN which only allows the host to be patched / remediated b. The range consists of three products   IronPort C-Series – Email security. Cisco Security Agent (CSA) A hot based security solution designed to prevent s host being compromised by DoS. The basis of the email security appliance is SenderBase (http://www. This appliance implements a full mail transfer agent and can provide anti-x capabilities. Viruses etc.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) The NAC Process 1. Interceptors    File system Interceptor – Scans all file read and writes. network worm prevention and file integrity monitoring. CSA operates by intercepting operating system and application calls using four interceptors which examining the calls against security policies. IronPort S-Series – Web security using Web Reputation data (trustworthiness) and a Dynamic Vectoring and Streaming (DVS) engine to provide signature based spyware filtering IronPort M-Series – Management. If a policy of violated an error message is passed back to the calling application and an alert is generated to be sent to the Management Centre for CSA.000 ISP and other organisations on various email parameters derive trends and virus/spyware propagation data. The user attempt to access a network resource 2. Worms. This also can limit the number of network connections allowed within a specific time to prevent DoS attacks. launching port scans etc.senderbase. Application sandbox. Network Interceptor – All network access is scanned. policy enforcement and mail routing. HIPS. reporting and spam quarantine management M Morgan ©2010 Page 53 of 56 .  Managed – The agent is managed by and reports to Cisco CSA Management Centre and/or MARS. Spyware. Execution Space Interceptor – Detects and blocks attempts to access memory not owned by the calling application The agent runs in two modes. User is redirected to a login page.org) which collects date from more than 100. The interceptors combines give the following functionality. particularly email and web security. The host is scanned for posture compliance.  Headless – The agent is installed in a standalone configuration.

The only significant disadvantage is the requirement of a PKI. This is written like 54:25:B5:3E:76:FE:43:FF.  Virtual SAN (VSAN) – Similar to network VLANs.  Soft zoning – This partitions the SAN into smaller subsets by restricting the name services in the fibre channel fabric/switches from advertising the devices a host is not allowed to communicate with. Host Bus Adaptor (HBA) – the interface card that is installed in a server to communicate with the fibre channel infrastructure Securing SANs  LUN Masking – An authorisation process than allows access to a LUN at the host bus adaptor level. increase storage versatility to respond to changing business priorities & requirements and improve backup. FCIP – Used to connect SAN to SANs over an IP network (WAM or MAN) Logical Unit Number (LUN) – An address for an individual disk/volume on SCSI bus / HBA. This has many of the benefits of FCAP without requiring a PKI.  Hard zoning – This restricts access using ACLs applied to the fibre channel switch port ASICs. This is cheaper to implement as the existing network infrastructure can be used. iSCSI – This uses an IP network to transport the SCSI communications between a host and a storage system. This on not considered secure as the HBA could become compromised or the source address could be forged. Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) – The mandatory protocol using shared secrets for iSCSI authentication. Port Authentication Diffie-Hellman Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (DHCHAP) – Password based key exchange protocol supporting switch to switch and host to switch authentication. M Morgan ©2010 Page 54 of 56 . Communication types   Fibre Channel – The primary SAN transport for host to SAN communications. This is typically used as a means to stop misbehaving servers from corrupting disks not belonging to themselves. Fibre Channel Authentication Protocol (FCAP) – This uses certificates (or keys) to authenticate hosts. replication & recovery. Fibre Channel Password Authentication Protocol (FCPAP) – Optional password based authentication key exchange protocol offering mutual authentication between fibre channel ports.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) San and Voice Security SAN Security SANs help reduce capital and operating expenses. World Wide Name – A 64bit address used by Fibre Channel networks to identify each element. It requires a PKI and has such has strong security capabilities. Is the host already knows the volume address it can still gain access.

flexibility. Eavesdropping – Listening on conversations. Voice AttacksSPIT – Span over IP telephony. QoS etc. The PC will not be able to access the phones RTP stream Encapsulation/VPN – The SCCP (Skinny) communications between a phone and CUCM can be encapsulated into TLS/SSL. signalling. Additionally the RTP stream between phones can be secured using TLS/SSL (SRTP). Gatekeeper – AKA Cisco Multimedia Conference Manager (MCM) provides bandwidth management. gatekeepers.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Data Confidentiality Two protocols are available to ensure data confidentiality when in transit  ESP Fibre Channel Security Protocol (FC-SP) Voice Security Definitions      VoIP – Transmission of voice data over an IP network. Vishing – An attacker attempts to gain confidential information over a telephone. In effect the phone will only accept config files from the specified TFTP server. long distance toll bypass. Fax machines. Phone loads/Images – Loads can be signed using a Cisco private key to ensure only Cisco phone images are loaded on to a phone. M Morgan ©2010 Page 55 of 56 . CUCME & CUCM function as call agents. Phone configuration files – Can be signed with a private key of the TFTP server to ensure the config files are genuine. unified messaging. Approaches to secure VoIP Auxiliary / Voice VLANs – Use auxiliary VLANs when daisy chaining PCs to the Phones switch ports. Gateway – Translation between IP and traditional telephony (PSTN. IP Telephony – Is the superset of VoIP including all telephony aspects such as dialling. Toll Fraud – Inappropriate use of a telephony system to make long distance / international calls. call admission control. gateways. advanced features (advanced call routing. Web access and other vulnerabilities such as Gratuitous ARP can be disabled on the CUCM ephone configuration screens. encryption). address translation. Some benefits of VoIP – Cost savings. IP Phone vulnerabilities Cisco IP phones by default have a unsecured web interface accessible using HTTP. SIP Attacks – Use the open SIP standard to intercept or manipulate SIP messages or launch a DoS attack. PBXs) Call Agent – Provides call control.

2.Kiwi Syslog Server http://www.http://www.nessus.2.org/nessus/ M Morgan ©2010 Page 56 of 56 .com/product Vulnerability Scanner .2 Syslog Server .kiwisyslog.Cisco CCNA Security Notes (640-553) Notes Open DNS server 4.splunk.http://www.com/ SNMP Logging Toot .