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Basic Metallurgy

for Welding AND
Fabricating
Professionals
1

Course Objectives:
• To understand metals and their properties
• To understand effects of various alloying elements
on properties and Iron Carbide diagram
• To understand various Carbon Steels & their Heat
Treatment process
• To understand different types of low alloy steels
and their Heat Treatment Process
• to understand Stainless Steel, types of Stainless
Steel
2

Course Objectives:
• To understand various types of Heat Treatment
Process such as Normalising, Annealing,
Quenching, Tempering, Surface Hardening &
Stress Relieving
• to understand Cracking in Steels
• To understand Destructive Testing specially
(Tensile, Impact & Bend Test)
• To understand Forging, Casting, Rolling & welding
Process
3

Course Objectives:



Weldability of steels
Fundamental of High Alloy Steel
Solidification of Metals & Alloys
To understand how to check test certificate

4

Module – 1: Introduction to
Metals, types and their
Properties

5

Module: 1-1

Metal
• Metal is a chemical element that is a good
conductor of both electricity and heat and forms
cations and ionic bonds with non-metals. In a
chemistry, a metal (Ancient Greek metallon) is an
element, compound, or alloy characterized by high
electrical conductivity.

6

Module: 1-2

Metal
• In a metal, atoms readily lose electrons to form
positive ions (cations). Those ions are surrounded
by delocalized electrons, which are responsible for
the conductivity. The solid thus produced is held
by electrostatic interactions between the ions and
the electron cloud, which are called metallic
bonds

7

Module: 1-3

Metal and Non-Metal
Metals

Non-Metals

 Strong
 Malleable and Ductile
 React with oxygen to form basic
oxides
 Sonorous
 High melting and Boiling points
 Good Conductor of electricity
 Good conductor of Heat
 Mainly solid at room temp. except
Mercury-liquid at room temp.
 Shiny when polished
 When they Ions, the Ions are positive
 High density

 Brittle
 Brittle
 React with Oxygen to form acidic
oxides
 Dull sound when hit with Hammer
 Low melting and Boiling points
 Poor conductors of electricity
 Poor conductor of Heat
 Solids, Liquids and Gases at room
temp.
 Dull looking
 When they form Ions, the Ions are
negative, except Hydrogen (Positive)
 Low density
8

Module: 1-4

Metal and Non-Metal
Metals

Non-Metals













Calcium
Potassium
Lead
Copper
Aluminium
Zinc
Lithium

Sulphur
Oxygen
Chlorine
Hydrogen
Bromine
Nitrogen
Helium

9

Module: 1-5

Uses of Metals
• They are made into jewellery due to their hard and
shiny appearance
• They are used to make pans, since they are good
conductors of heat
• They are used in electric cables, because they are
malleable, ductile and good conductors of
electricity

10

Module: 1-6

Uses of Metals
• They are so strong to build bridges and
scaffolding
• They make a ringing sound, sonorous,
hence they are used in bell making.

11

Module: 1-7

Uses of Non- Metals
• Oxygen- used for Respiration, for burning rocket
fuels.
• Nitrogen-used for manufacturing ammonia and
urea
• Diamond- used as a gem
• Silicon- used for manufacturing of glass
• Chlorine-used for Disinfecting water

12

Module: 1-8

Uses of Non- Metals
• Graphite- used as an electrodes
• Iodine- used as an antiseptic
• Hydrogen- used in oxy Hydrogen torch, For
hydrogenation of vegetable oils
• Helium-used for filling balloons
• Neon-used for illuminating advertisement signs

13

Module: 1-9

Ferrous and Non-ferrous metal
• Ferrous Metal:
All metals that contain any amount of iron in
its basic form is considered a ferrous metal.
Because of this, the only ferrous metallic
element in the periodic table is iron. Many
metals, such as steel, have a percentage or iron,
which means they are a ferrous metal. A few
examples of ferrous metals are stainless steel,
carbon steel and wrought iron.
14

Module: 1-10

Ferrous and Non-ferrous metal
• Non-ferrous metal:
Nonferrous metals are the opposite of ferrous
and do not contain any iron. Alloy metals that
are free of iron are also considered nonferrous. All the metals in the periodic table,
with the exception of iron, are non-ferrous. A
few examples of non-ferrous metals are
aluminum, brass, copper and tungsten steel.
15

Module: 1-11

Chemical properties of Metal
decides-mechanical properties






Strength
Ductility
Hardness
Toughness
Fatigue Resistance
Corrosion Resistance
Life of Equipment
16

M1: Act. 1

Which material has the best
corrosion properties and why?

17

Module – 2 : Effects of
various alloying elements
and Iron Carbide diagram

18

Module: 2-1

Steel
• Steel is an alloy mainly containing Iron(Fe),
but also contain small amount of Carbon,
Sulphur, Manganese, phosphorous and
Silicon

19

Module: 2-2

Carbon and Alloy Steels
All these steels are alloys of Iron (Fe) and Carbon(c)
 Plain carbon steels (less than 2% carbon and
negligible amounts of other residual elements)
• Low Carbon( Less than 0.3% carbon)
• Med. Carbon (0.3% to 0.6%)
• High Carbon( 0.6% to 0.95%)
 Low Alloy Steel
 High Alloy Steel
 Stainless Steels (Corrosion- resistant Steels)contain atleast 10.5% Chromium
20

Module: 2-3

Steel Making Process
• Primary Steelmaking:
Basic oxygen steelmaking which has liquid pig-iron from
the blast furnace and scrap steel as the main feed material
Electric arc Furnace (EAF)steelmaking which uses scrap
steel or direct reduced iron (DRI)as the main feed material
• Secondary Steelmaking
Electro slag remelting (ESR) also known as electroflux
remelting is a process of remelting and refining steel and
other alloys formission critical application
21

Module: 2-4

Steel making Process

22

Module: 2-5

Iron Carbide Diagram

23

Module: 2-6

Phases in Iron-Carbide Diagram
 a-ferrite - solid solution of C in BCC Fe
• Stable form of iron at room temperature.
• The maximum solubility of C is 0.022 wt%
• Transforms to FCC g-austenite at 912 C
 g-austenite - solid solution of C in FCC Fe
• The maximum solubility of C is 2.14 wt %.
• Transforms to BCC d-ferrite at 1395 C
• Is
not
stable
below
the
eutectic
(727  C) unless cooled rapidly

temperature

24

Module: 2-7

Phases in Iron-Carbide Diagram
 d-ferrite solid solution of C in BCC Fe

The same structure as a-ferrite

Stable only at high T, above 1394 C

Melts at 1538 C
 Fe3C (iron carbide or Cementite)
• This intermetallic compound is metastable, it remains as a
compound indefinitely at room T, but decomposes (very
slowly, within several years) into a-Fe and C (graphite) at 650
- 700 C

 Fe-C liquid solution

25

Module: 2-8

Effect of Carbon in the Properties of Iron
• Increasing the carbon content will increase the strength,
but will also increase greatly the risk of formation of
Martensite

0.83 % Carbon (Eutectoid)*

Tensile Strength

Hardness

Ductility
26

M2: Act. 2

Which Structure forms when steel is
cooled rapidly from Austenite Stage,
leaving insufficient time for carbon
to form Pearlite and why?

27

Module – 3 : different
types of Carbon Steels
and their Heat Treatment

28

Module: 3-1

Steel





Steel is most widely used in Industries. Steel is an
alloy containing mainly Iron(Fe), but also contain
small amount of:
Carbon
Manganese
Phosphorous
Sulphur
Silicon
29

Module: 3-2

Carbon and alloy Steels
All of these steels are alloys of Fe and C
Plain carbon steels (less than 2% carbon and
negligible amounts of other residual elements)
• Low carbon (less than 0.3% carbon
• Med carbon (0.3% to 0.6%)
• High carbon (0.6% to 0.95%)
Low alloy steel
High Alloy Steel
Stainless steels (corrosion resistant steels)
 Contain at least 12% Chromium
30

Module: 3-3

Types of Steel

• Steel is an alloy containing mainly Iron (Fe), but also contain small
amount of carbon, Manganese, Phosphorous, Sulphur and Silicon.
Common name

Carbon Content

Typical Use

Weldability

Low carbon steel

0.15 % max

Welding electrodes,
Special plate, sheet &
Strip

Excellent

Mild Steel

0.15% - 0.30%

Structural Material,
Plate & Bar

Good

Medium Carbon Steel

0.30% - 0.50%

Machinery Parts

Fair (Preheat
and Frequent
post heat is
required)

High Carbon Steel

0.50% - 1.00%

Springs, Dyes and
Rails

poor
31

Module: 3-4

Classification of Steel based on
Degrees of De-Oxidation
Fully Killed Steel
• Fully killed steel is steel that has had all of its
oxygen content removed and is typically combined
with an agent before use in applications, such as
casting.
• Ferrosilicon alloy added to metal that combines
with oxygen & form a slag leaving a dense and
homogenous metal.
32

Module: 3-5

Fully Killed Steel

33

Module: 3-6

Vacuum Deoxidized Steel
• Vacuum deoxidation is a method which involves
using a vacuum to remove impurities.
• Oxygen removed from the molten steel without
adding an element.
• A portion of the carbon and oxygen in steel will
react, forming carbon monoxide.
• Result, the carbon and oxygen levels fall within
specified limits
34

Module: 3-7

Vacuum Deoxidized Steel

35

Module: 3-8

Rimmed Steel
• Rimmed steel is a type of low-carbon steel that
has a clean surface and is easily bendable.
• Rimmed steel involves the least deoxidation.
• Composition : 0.09% C, 0.9% Mg + Residual
• Weld Ability: Weld pool required to have added
deoxidant via filler metal.

36

Module: 3-8

Semi Killed Steel
• Semi-killed steel is mostly deoxidized steel, but
the carbon monoxide leaves blowhole type
porosity distributed throughout the ingot.
• Semi-killed steel is commonly used for structural
steel
• Carbon content ranges between 0.15 to 0.25%
carbon, because it is rolled, which closes the
porosity.
• In semi-killed steel, the aim is to produce metal
free from surface blowhole and pipe.
37

Module: 3-9

Semi Killed Steel

38

Module: 3-10

AISI- SAE Classification System
AISI XXXX
American Iron and Steel Institute(AISI)
Classifies alloys by Chemistry
4 digit number
 1st number is the major alloying element
 2nd number designates the subgroup
alloying element OR the relative percent of
primary alloying element.
 Last two numbers approximate amount of
carbon (expresses in 0.01%)

39

Module: 3-11

AISI-SAE Classification System
• Letter prefix to designate the process used to produce the
steel
 E= electric furnace
 X=indicates permissible variations
• If a letter is inserted between the 2nd and 3rd number
 B= Boron has been added
 L=lead has been added
• Letter suffix
 H= when hardenability is a major requirement
• Other designation organisations
 ASTM and MIL
40

Module: 3-12

Major Classification of Steel








SAE
1xxx
2xxx
3xxx
4xxx
5xxx
6xxx
7xxx
8xxx
9xxx

Type
Examples
Carbon steels
2350
Nickel steels
2550
Nickel-Chromium steels
4140
Molybdenum steels
1060
Chromium steels
Chromium- Vanadium steels
Tungsten steels
Nickel Chromium Molybdenum steels
Silicon Manganese steels
41

Module: 3-13

Heat Treatment of Steel
Austenite

Slow
cooling

Pearlite(α+Fe3c)+a
proeutectoid phase

Moderate
cooling

Bainite
(α+Fe3c)

Rapid
Quench

Martensite
(BCT Phase)
Reheat

(550˚C - 600˚C heating,
it increases bearing
capacity of Iron)

Tempered Martensite
(BCT Phase)
42

M3: Act. 3

What is the purpose of Silicon in
Steel?

43

Module – 4: Low Alloy
Steels and their Heat
treatment

44

Module: 4-1

Low Alloy Steel
• Low alloy steel contain minor additions of
other elements such as Nickel, Chromium,
Vanadium, Columbium, Aluminium,
Molybdenum and Boron.
• These elements changes the mechanical
properties to a great extent.

45

Module: 4-2

Classification of Low Alloy Steel



High strength Low Alloy, Structural Steel
Automotive and Machinery steels
Steel for Low Temperature service
Steels for elevated Temperature Service

46

Module: 4-3

Steel for Low Temperature Service
• Steel used for low temperature service, below 0˚C
also known as cryogenic service.
• It result into brittle of metal.
• yield and tensile strengths of metals that
crystallize in the body-centered cubic from iron,
molybdenum, vanadium and chromium depend
greatly on temperature.
• These metals display a loss of ductility in a narrow
temperature region below room temperature.
47

Module: 4-4

Steels for elevated Temperature Service
• Stainless steels have good strength and good
resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated
temperatures.
• Stainless steels are used at temperatures up to
1700° F for 304 and 316 and up to 2000 F for the
high temperature stainless grade 309(S) and up to
2100° F for 310(S).
• Stainless steel is used extensively in heat
exchangers, super-heaters, boilers, feed water
heaters, valves and main steam lines as well as
aircraft and aerospace applications.
48

Module: 4-5

Alloy Steel
• Again, elements added to steel can dissolve in
iron (solid solution strengthening)
• Increase strength, hardenability, toughness,
creep, high temp. resistance
• Alloy steel grouped into low, med and high
alloy steels
• High alloy steels would be the stainless steel
groups
• Most alloy steels you’ll use under the category
of low alloy
49

Module: 4-6

Alloy Steel
• > 1.65%Mn, >0.60%Si, or >0.60%Cu
• Most common alloy elements:
 Chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium,
tungsten, cobalt boron and copper
• Low alloy: added in small percents (<5%)
 Increase strength and hardenability
• High alloy: Added in large percents(>20%)
 i.e.>10.5% Cr=stainless steel where cr improves
corrosion resistance and stability at high or low
temp.
50

Module: 4-7

Tool steel
• Refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that
are particularly well suited to be made into tools.
• Characteristics include high hardness resistance
to abrasion( excellent wear), an ability to hold a
cutting edge, resistance to deformation at elevated
temp. (red hardness)
• Tool steel are generally used in a heat treated
state.
• High carbon content-very brittle
51

Module: 4-8

Alloy used in steel for Heat
Treatment



Manganese (Mn)
Combines with sulphur to prevent brittleness
>1% increases hardenability
11% to 14%
• Increase hardness
• Good ductility
• High strain hardening capacity
• Excellent wear resistance
Ideal for impact resisting tools
52

Module: 4-9

Alloying elements used in steel
Sulphur (S)
 Imparts brittleness
 Improves machineability
 Okay, if combined with Mn.
 Some free-machining steels contain 0.08% to
0.15% S
 Examples of S alloys:
-11xx-sulphurized (free-cutting)
53

Module: 4-10

Alloying elements used in steel
Nickel (Ni)
• Provides strength, stability and toughness
Examples of Ni alloys:
- 30xx-Nickel (0.70%), Chromium (0.70%)
- 31xx-Nickel (1.25%), Chromium (0.60%)
- 32xx nickel (1.75%), chromium (1.00%)
- 33xx-Nickel (3.50%), Chromium (1.50%)
54

Module: 4-11

Alloying elements used in steel
Chromium (Cr)



Usually <2%
Increase hardenability and strength
Offers corrosion resistance by forming stable oxide surface
Typically used in combination with Ni and Mo
- 30xx-Nickel (0.70%), Chromium (0.70%)
- 5xxx-chromium alloys
- 6xxx-chromium-vanadium alloys
- 41xx-chromium-molybdenum alloys
55

Module: 4-12

Alloying elements used in steel
Molybdenum (Mo)

• Usually <0.3%
• Increase hardenability and strength
• Mo-carbides help increase creep resistance at
elevated temp.
- Typical application is hot working tools.

56

Module: 4-13

Alloying elements used in steel




Vanadium
Usually 0.03% to 0.25%
Increase strength
Without loss of ductility
Tungsten (W)
Helps to form stable carbides
Increase hot hardness
- Used in tool steels
57

Module: 4-14

Alloying elements used in steel
Copper (Cu)



0.10% to 0.50%
Increase corrosion resistance
Reduced surface quality and hot working ability
Used in low carbon sheet steel and structural steels
Silicon (Si)
• About 2%
• Increase strength without loss of ductility
• Enhance magnetic properties
58

Module: 4-15

Alloying elements used in steel



Boron (B)
For low carbon steels, can drastically increase
hardenability
Improves machineability and cold forming
capacity
Aluminium (Al)
Deoxidizer
0.95% to 1.30%
Produce Al-nitrides during nitriding
59

M4 : Act.4

Which alloy is/are used in Steel for
High Temp. and why?
and
Which is the purest form of carbon?

60

Module – 5 : Stainless Steel
and types of Stainless Steels

61

Module: 5-1

Key points:-A
• Corrosion resistance is imparted by the formation of a
passivation layer characterized by :
- Insoluble chromium oxide film on the surface of
the metal-(Cr2O3)
- Develops when exposed to oxygen and impervious
to water and air.
- Layer is too thin to be visible
- Quickly reforms when damaged
- Susceptible to sensitization, pitting, crevice
corrosion and acidic environments
- Passivation can be improved by adding nickel,
molybdenum and vanadium.
62

Module: 5-2

Key Points: B
• Over 150 grades of SS available, usually categorized
into 5 series containing alloys similar properties.
• AISI classes for SS:
- 200 series= chromium, nickel,
manganese(austenitic)
- 300 series=chromium, nickel (austenitic)
- 400 series=chromium only (ferritic/Martensitic)
- 500 series=low chromium <12%(martensitic)
- 600 series=precipitation hardened series (17-7PH, 177PH,15-5PH)
63

Module: 5-3

Key points C
• SS can be classified by crystal structure
(austenitic, ferritic, martensitic)
• Best Corrosion resistance(CR):Austenitic (25% Cr)
• Middle CR: ferritic (15% Cr)
• Least CR: Martensitic (12% Cr), but strongest

64

Module: 5-4

Types of Corrosion in Stainless steel
Type of corrosion

Intergranular

Pitting

Stress Corrosion
Cracking

Description

To avoid

This type of corrosion results from the %C less than approx. 0.02
precipitation of the Cr carbide, usually because it can’t combine
on grain boundaries of either ferrite or with Chromium
austenite
Small pits develop holes in the
passivating film, which set up what is
called a galvanic cell, producing
corrosion

% Cr greater than 23-24
% Mo greater than 2

Localized points of corrosion allow
stresses initially unable to crack the
steel to concentrate sufficiently to now
do so. Details of the mechanism are
% Cr greater than 20
complex and not well understood. The % Mo greater than 1
presence of the chlorine ion makes
this type of corrosion a problem in salt
waters

65

Module: 5-5

Composition of Martensitic and Ferritic Stainless
Steel
AISI type Carbon
%

Mn
(Max.)

Silicon
(Max.)

Chromiu
m

Nickel

Other

Martensitic 0.15
403

1.00

0.50

11.50-13.00

-

-

Martensitic 0.15
410

1.00

1.00

11.50-13.00

-

-

Martensitic 0.15
420

1.00

1.00

12.00-14.00

-

-

Ferrite
430

0.12

1.00

1.00

14.00-18.00

-

-

Ferrite
446

0.20

1.50

1.00

23.00-27.00 -

* Note: sulfur is 0.030 Max.

0.25%
Max N
66

M5 : Act. 5

Which method can reduce
sensitization or Carbide
precipitation of Austenitic Stainless
Steel?

67

Module – 6 : Heat Treatment &

Types of Heat Treatment
process

68

Module: 6-1

Heat Treatment of Steels






Heat treatment are carried out to change or control the
final properties of materials, welded joints and
fabrications.
All heat treatment are cycles of 3 elements : heating,
holding & cooling.
Type of Heat treatment given to material are:
Stress relieving
Normalizing
Annealing
Solution annealing
Quenching and tempering
Case hardening
69

Module: 6-2

Heat Treatment Cycle
Variables for heat treatment process must be carefully
controlled
Heating
rate

Cooling Rate

Heating rate will
be slow,
otherwise it
results in cracking

70

Module: 6-3

Heat Treatment of Steels
Type of Heat
Treatment

Soaking
Temp.

Soaking
Time

Cooling rate

Purpose/Application

Stress
relieving

580-700˚ C

1 Hour per
inch of
thickness

Furnace cooling
up to 300˚ C

Relieve residual
stress/reduce hydrogen
levels, improves stability

900-920˚ C

1.2 minutes
per mm

Air Cool

Relieve internal stresses
/improve mechanical
properties, increase
toughness

900-920˚ C

1.2 minutes
per mm

Furnace cool

Improve ductility, lower
yield stress/ makes
bending easier

1020-1060˚ C

1.2 minutes
per mm

Quench cooling

Prevents carbide
precipitation in
austenitic steels and
avoid the Intergranular
corrosion cracking

Normalizing

Annealing
Solution
Annealing
only
Austenitic SS

71

Module: 6-4

Hardening
• Heating the steel to a set temp. and then cooling
(quenching) it rapidly by plunging it into oil,
water or brine.
• Hardening increase the hardness and strength of
the steel but makes it less ductile.
• Low carbon steels do not require because no
harmful effects result (no transformation for
martensitic structure)
72

Module: 6-5

Tempering
• To relieve the internal stresses and reduce the
brittleness, you should temper the steel after it is
hardened.
• Temperature (below its hardening temp.), holding
length of time and cooling (in still air)
• Below the low critical point
• Strength hardness and ductility depend on the
temp.(during the temp. process).
73

Module: 6-6

Case Hardening
• Case hardening or surface hardening is the
process of hardening the surface of a metal object
while allowing the metal deeper underneath to
remain soft, thus forming a thin layer
of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface

74

Module: 6-7

Case Hardening
Types of case hardening:
• Carburizing
• Cyaniding
• Flame hardening

75

Module: 6-8

Post weld Heat treatment Methods






Furnace
Local heat treatment using electric heat blankets
Muffle furnace
Circular furnace
Gas furnace heat treatment
Induction heating
Full Annealing
76

Module: 6-9

Post weld Heat treatment Methods

Furnace

Muffle furnace

Electric heat blanket

77

Module: 6-10

Post weld Heat treatment Methods

Circular Furnace

Induction heating

Gas Furnace heat
furnace

Full Annealing

78

M6 : Act. 6

In Heat Treatment Process which
parameters are controlled?

79

Module – 7 : Various Cracking
In Weld

80

Module: 7-1

Cracking
When considering any type of cracking mechanism, three elements
must always be present:
• Stress
Residual stress is always present in a weldment, through
unbalanced local expansion and contraction

Restraint
Restraint may be a local restriction, or through plates being
welded to each other

Susceptible microstructure
The microstructure may be made susceptible to cracking by
the process of welding
81

Module: 7-2

Process Cracks
• Hydrogen Induced HAZ Cracking (C/Mn steels)
• Hydrogen Induced Weld Metal Cracking (HSLA
steels).
• Solidification or Hot Cracking (All steels)
• Lamellar Tearing (All steels)
• Re-heat Cracking (All steels, very susceptible
Cr/Mo/V steels)

• Inter-Crystalline Corrosion or Weld Decay
(stainless steels)

82

Module: 7-3

Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking
Also known as HCC, Hydrogen, Toe, Under bead, Delayed, Chevron
Cracking.
Occurs in:
• Carbon Steels
• Carbon-Manganese
• Low, Medium and High Alloy Steels:
• Mainly in Ferritic or Martensitic steels.
• Very rarely in Duplex stainless steels,
• Never in Nickel or Copper alloys.
83

Module: 7-4

Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking
Atomic
Hydrogen
(H)

Steel in expanded condition
Above 300oC

Hydrogen
diffusion

Molecular
Hydrogen
(H2)
Steel under contraction
Below 300oC
84

Module: 7-5

Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking

Typical locations for Cold Cracking
85

Module: 7-6

Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking
Micro Alloyed Steel

Hydrogen induced weld metal
cracking

Carbon Manganese Steel

Hydrogen induced HAZ cracking
86

Module: 7-7

Hydrogen Induced Cold Cracking
Under bead cracking

Toe cracking

87

Module: 7-8

Hydrogen Cold Cracking Avoidance
To eliminate the risk of hydrogen cracking how do you remove the
following:
• Hydrogen

• MMA (basic electrodes). MAG
Cleaning weld prep etc.

• Stress

• Design, Balanced welding.

• Temperature

• Heat to 300oC (wrap & cool slowly)

• Hardness

• Preheat-reduces cooling rate which
reduces the risk of Susceptible
Microstructure
88

Module: 7-9

Solidification Cracking

Usually Occurs in Weld Centerline

89

Module: 7-10

Solidification Cracking
Also referred as Hot Cracking
Crack type:

Solidification cracking

Location:

Weld centreline (longitudinal)

Steel types:

High sulphur & phosphor
concentration in steels.

Susceptible Microstructure: Columnar grains In direction of
solidification

90

Module: 7-11

Liquid Iron Sulphide films

Solidification crack
*

91

Module: 7-12

Solidification Cracking
Intergranular liquid film

Columnar
grains

HAZ

Shallow, wider weld bead
On solidification the bonding
between the grains may be
adequate to maintain
cohesion and a crack is
unlikely to occur

Columnar
grains

HAZ

Deep, narrower weld bead
On solidification the bonding
between the grains may now
be very poor to maintain
cohesion and a crack may
result
92

Module: 7-13

Solidification Cracking
Depth to Width Ratios
5mm

15mm

20mm

Width = < 0.7
Depth

5 = 0.25
20

Cracking likely

Higher dilution levels
faster cooling

20mm

Width = > 0.7
Depth

15 = 0.75
20

Cracking unlikely

Lower dilution levels
slower cooling
93

Module: 7-14

Solidification Cracking
Precautions for controlling solidification cracking
•The first steps in eliminating this problem would be to choose a low dilution
process, and change the joint design

Grind and seal in any lamination and avoid further dilution
Add Manganese to the electrode to form spherical Mn/S which form
between the grain and maintain grain cohesion
As carbon increases the Mn/S ratio required increases exponentially and is
a major factor. Carbon content % should be a minimised by careful control
in electrode and dilution
Limit the heat input, hence low contraction, & minimise restraint

94

Module: 7-15

Lamellar Tearing
Crack type:

Lamellar
tearing

Location:

Below weld
HAZ

Steel types:

High sulphur
&
phosphorous
steels

Microstructure:

Lamination &
Segregation

Step like appearance

Cross section

95

Module: 7-16

Lamellar Tearing
Critical area

Critical area

Critical
area

96

Module: 7-17

Lamellar Tearing

Tee fillet weld

Tee butt weld
(double-bevel)

Corner butt weld
(single-bevel)

97

Module: 7-18

Lamellar Tearing
Methods of avoiding Lamellar Tearing:*
1)

Avoid restraint*

2)

Use controlled low sulfur plate *

3)

Grind out surface and butter *

4)

Change joint design *

5)

Use a forged T piece (Critical Applications)*

98

Module: 7-19

Crack type: Inter-granular corrosion

Location: Weld HAZ. (longitudinal)

Steel types: Stainless steels

Microstructure: Sensitised grain boundaries

Occurs when:
An area in the HAZ has been sensitised by the formation of chromium
carbides. This area is in the form of a line running parallel to and on both
sides of the weld.
This depletion of chromium will leave the effected
grains low in chromium oxide which is what produces the corrosion
resisting effect of stainless steels. If left untreated corrosion and failure will
be rapid*

99

Module: 7-20

Inter-Granular Corrosion
When heated in the range
6000C to 8500C Chromium
Carbides form at the grain
boundaries
Chromium migrates to site of
growing carbide

100

Module – 8 : Destructive
Testing and types of
Destructive Testing

101

Module: 8-1

Destructive Testing
• In D.T, tests are carried out to the specimen's failure, in
order to understand a specimen's structural performance
or material behavior under different loads.
• These tests are generally much easier to carry out, yield
more information, and are easier to interpret than NDT.
• Most suitable, and economic, for objects which will be
mass-produced, as the cost of destroying a small number
of specimens is negligible.
• It is usually not economical to do destructive testing where
only one or very few items are to be produced (for example,
in the case of a building)
• In DT, the failure can be accomplished using a sound
detector or stress gauge.
102

Module: 8-2

Non-Destructive Testing
• NDT is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and
industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or
system without causing damage.
• It is a highly valuable technique that can save both money and
time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research.
• Common NDT methods include ultrasonic, magneticparticle, liquid penetrant, radiographic, remote visual
inspection (RVI), eddy-current testing, and low coherence
interferometry.
• NDT is commonly used in forensic engineering, mechanical
engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, system
engineering, aeronautical engineering and art.

103

Destructive testing

Module: 8-3

• Definition:
Mechanical properties of metals are related to the
amount of deformation which metals can
withstand under different circumstances of force
application.
Ability of a material
Malleability
undergo plastic
deformation under static
Ductility
tensile loading without
Toughness
rupture. Measurable
elongation and
Hardness
reduction in cross
section area.
Tensile strength
104

Module: 8-4

Definition





Mechanical properties of metals are related to the
amount of deformation which metals can
withstand under different circumstances of force
application.
Malleability
Ductility
Ability of a material to
withstand bending or
Toughness
the application of shear
stresses by impact
Hardness
loading without fracture.
Tensile strength
105

Definition





Module: 8-5

Mechanical properties of metals are related to
the amount of deformation which metals can
withstand under different circumstances of
force application.
Malleability
Ductility
Measurement of a
Toughness
material surface
resistance to indentation
Hardness
from another material by
static load.
Tensile strength
106

Definition





Module: 8-6

Mechanical properties of metals are related to
the amount of deformation which metals can
withstand under different circumstances of
force application.
Malleability
Ductility
Measurement of the
Toughness
maximum force required
to fracture a materials
Hardness
bar of unit cross
sectional area in tension
Tensile strength
107

Module: 8-7

Types of Destructive testing
• Tensile test
• Bend test
• Impact Test

108

Module: 8-8

Tensile Testing
Properties determined by carrying out tensile test:
• Ultimate tensile strength (UTS)
• Yield strength (YS)/0.2% proof stress
• Percentage elongation (ductility)-E%
• Percentage reduction in area (RA)
Type of tensile test
• Reduce section transverse tensile (Flat/Round)
• All weld tensile test
109

Module: 8-9

Tensile Testing

110

Module: 8-10

Tensile Testing
• Formula:
UTS = Load / Area; Area = Width * Thickness
Example:
width=28 mm; Thickness = 10.0 mm
Area = 280 mm2 ; Load = 165,000 N (Newtons)
UTS = 165,000/280 = 589 N/mm2
111

Module: 8-11

Transverse Tensile Test

Weld on Plate

Multiple cross joint
specimen

Weld on Pipe

112

Module: 8-12

Typical stress strain curve
Ultimate Tensile Strength

113

Module: 8-13

Broken Sample of Transverse Tensile Test

114

Module: 8-14

Bend Test
This Test is designed to determine the metal soundness or its
freedom from imperfections. Bend test are normally performed
using some kind of bend jig. Most qualification test for mild
steel require that specimen be bent around a mandrel having a
diameter four times the thickness of specimen. This results in
about 20% elongation on outer surface.
Type of bend test:
• Transverse bend Test (Root, face, Side)
• Longitudinal Bend Test (Root & Face)
The acceptability of bend test is normally judged based on size
and/ or no. of defects which appear on the tension surface 115

Module: 8-15

Bend Test




Objective of Test:
To determine the soundness of the weld zone. Bend
testing can also be used to give an assessment of weld zone
ductility.
There are three ways to perform a bend test:
Root Bend
Face Bend
Side Bend

116

Bend Test

Module: 8-16

Side Bend

Face Bend

Root Bend

117

Module: 8-17

Charpy V-Notch Impact test
Specimen

118

Module: 8-18

Charpy Impact Test
• The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch
test, is a standardized high strain-rate test which
determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material
during fracture.
• This absorbed energy is a measure of a given material‘s
toughness and acts as a tool to study temperaturedependent ductile-brittle transition.
• It is widely applied in industry, since it is easy to prepare and
conduct and results can be obtained quickly and cheaply.
• Impact Testing is done in low temp. or at room temp. to
know the impact.
 Standard size of metal for test specimen is 10mm.
119

Module: 8-19

Charpy Impact Test

120

Module: 8-20

Comparison Charpy Impact Test
Room Temp.
• 197 Joules
• 191 Joules
• 186 Joules
Avg. = 191 Joules

-20˚C Temp.
• 49 Joules
• 53 Joules
• 51 Joules
Avg. = 51 Joules

The Test result shows that the specimen carried out at room Temp. absorb more
energy than the specimen carried out at -20˚C .

121

Module: 8-21

Hardness Testing
Definition:
• Measurement of resistance of a material against
penetration of an indenter under a constant load.
• There is a direct correlation between UTS and
hardness.
Hardness Test:
• Brinell
• Vickers
• Rockwell
122

Module: 8-22

Hardness Testing
Objectives:
• Measuring hardness in different areas of a welded joint
• Assessing resistance toward brittle fracture, cold
cracking and corrosion sensitivity within a H₂S
(Hydrogen Sulphide)
Information to be supplied on the test report:
• Material type
• Location of indentation
• Type of hardness test and load applied on the indenter
• Hardness value

123

Module: 8-23

Vickers Hardness Test
Vickers Hardness tests:
• Indentation body is a square based diamond pyramid (136˚included angle)
• The average diagonal (d) of the impression is converted to a hardness number
from a table
• It is measured in HV5, HV10 or HV025
Indentation

Adjustable Shutters

Diamond Indentor

124

Module: 8-24

Vickers Hardness Test Machine

Impression

125

Module: 8-25

Brinell Hardness Test
• Hardened steel ball of given diameter is subjected for a given
time to a given load.
• Load divided by area of indentation gives Brinell hardness in
kg/mm²
• More suitable for on site hardness testing
30 KN

Ø=10mm
Steel ball
126

Module: 8-26

Rockwell Hardness Test
Rockwell B
1 KN

Rockwell C
1.5 KN

Ø = 1.6mm
steel ball

120˚ Diamond
cone

127

M8 : Act. 8

Which test is done to avoid brittleness
of metal and at what temp. it is done?

128

Module – 9 : Forging, Casting,
Rolling

129

Product Technology

Module: 9-1

Steel Product

Casting

Wrought Production

Welding

Extrusion
Forging
Rolling

Inherent
Defects

Processing
Service

Heat Treatment

130

Module: 9-2

Casting
• Casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold,
which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape
and then allowing it to cool and solidify.
• Solidified part is known as a casting, which is
ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the
process.
• Casting process have been known for thousands of
years and widely used for sculpture, especially in
bronze, jewellery in precious metals, weapons and
tools
• Traditional techniques include lost-wax casting,
plaster mold casting and sand casting.
131

Casting
Expendable Casting
• Sand casting
• Plaster Mold Casting
• Shell Molding
• Investment Casting
• Waste Molding of plaster
• Evaporative pattern
Casting





Module: 9-3

Non-Expendable casting
Permanent Mold Casting
Die Casting
Semi solid metal casting
Centrifugal Casting
Continous Casting

132

Module: 9-4

Expendable Mold Casting


Sand Casting:
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is
a metal casting process characterized by using sand as
the mold material.
Sand casting is relatively cheap and sufficiently refractory
even for steel foundry use.
In addition to the sand, a suitable bonding agent (usually
clay) is mixed or occurs with the sand. The mixture is
moistened, typically with water, but sometimes with other
substances, to develop strength and plasticity of the clay
and to make the aggregate suitable for molding.
The sand is typically contained in a system of frames
133
or mold boxes known as a flask.

Module: 9-5

Plaster mold casting
• Plaster casting is similar to sand casting except
that Plaster of Paris is substituted for sand as a mold
material.
• Generally, the form takes less than a week to
prepare, after which a production rate of 1–
10 units/hr mold is achieved, with items as massive
as 45 kg (99 lb) and as small as 30 g (1 oz) with very
good surface finish and close tolerances.
• Plaster casting is an inexpensive alternative to other
molding processes for complex parts due to the low
cost of the plaster and its ability to produce near net
shape castings.
134

Module: 9-6

Shell Molding
• Shell molding is similar to sand casting, but the molding
cavity is formed by a hardened "shell" of sand instead of
a flask filled with sand.
• The sand used is finer than sand casting sand and is
mixed with a resin so that it can be heated by the
pattern and hardened into a shell around the pattern.
• Because of the resin and finer sand, it gives a much finer
surface finish.
• Common metals that are cast include cast iron,
aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys.
• This process is ideal for complex items that are small to
medium sized.
135

Module: 9-7

Investment Casting
• Investment casting (known as lost- wax casting in art) is a process
that has been practiced for thousands of years, with the lost-wax
process being one of the oldest known metal forming techniques.
• Investment casting derives its name from the fact that the pattern
is invested, or surrounded, with a refractory material.
• The wax patterns require extreme care for they are not strong
enough to withstand forces encountered during the mold making.
• One advantage of investment casting is that the wax can be reused.
• generally used for small castings, this process has been used to
produce complete aircraft door frames, with steel castings of up to
300 kg and aluminum castings of up to 30 kg.
136

Module: 9-8

Waste molding of plaster
• In waste molding a simple and thin plaster mold,
reinforced by sisal or burlap, is cast over the original clay
mixture.
• When cured, it is then removed from the damp clay,
incidentally destroying the fine details in undercuts
present in the clay, but which are now captured in the
mold.
• The mold may then at any later time (but only once) be
used to cast a plaster positive image, identical to the
original clay.
• The surface of this plaster may be further refined and
may be painted and waxed to resemble a finished bronze
casting.
137

Module: 9-9

Evaporative-pattern casting
• This is a class of casting processes that use pattern materials that
evaporate during the pour, which means there is no need to
remove the pattern material from the mold before casting.

• The two main processes are lost-foam casting and full-mold
casting.
• Lost-foam casting: Lost-foam casting is a type of evaporativepattern casting process that is similar to investment casting
except foam is used for the pattern instead of wax.
• Full-mold casting: Full-mold casting is an evaporative-pattern
casting process which is a combination of sand casting and lostfoam casting. It uses an expanded polystyrene foam pattern
which is then surrounded by sand, much like sand casting. The
metal is then poured directly into the mold, which vaporizes the
foam upon contact.
138

Module: 9-10

Non-Expendable Mold Casting
Permanent mold casting:
• Permanent mold casting is a metal casting process that employs
reusable molds ("permanent molds"), usually made from
metal.
• The most common process uses gravity to fill the mold, however
gas pressure or a vacuum are also used.
• A variation on the typical gravity casting process, called slush
casting, produces hollow castings.
• Common casting metals are aluminum, magnesium,
and copper alloys. Other materials include tin, zinc,
and lead alloys and iron and steel are also cast
in graphite molds.
• Permanent molds, while lasting more than one casting still have
a limited life before wearing out.
139

Module: 9-11

Die casting
• The die casting process forces molten metal under
high pressure into mold cavities (which are machined
into dies).
• Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals,
specifically zinc, copper, and aluminum based alloys,
but ferrous metal die castings are possible.
• The die casting method is especially suited for
applications where many small to medium sized parts
are needed with good detail, a fine surface quality and
dimensional consistency.
140

Module: 9-12

Semi-solid metal casting
• Semi-solid metal (SSM) casting is a modified die casting
process that reduces or eliminates the residual porosity
present in most die castings
• Rather than using liquid metal as the feed material, SSM
casting uses a higher viscosity feed material that is
partially solid and partially liquid.
• A modified die casting machine is used to inject the
semi-solid slurry into re-usable hardened steel dies
• The high viscosity of the semi-solid metal, along with
the use of controlled die filling conditions, ensures that
the semi-solid metal fills the die in a non-turbulent
manner so that harmful porosity can be essentially
eliminated.
141

Module: 9-13

Centrifugal casting
• In this process molten metal is poured in the mold
and allowed to solidify while the mold is rotating
• Metal is poured into the center of the mold at its
axis of rotation. Due to centrifugal force the liquid
metal is thrown out towards the periphery.
• Centrifugal casting is both gravity- and pressureindependent since it creates its own force feed
using a temporary sand mold held in a spinning
chamber at up to 900 N.
142

Module: 9-14

Continuous casting
• Continuous casting is a refinement of the casting
process for the continuous, high-volume production
of metal sections with a constant cross-section.
• Molten metal is poured into an open-ended, watercooled mold, which allows a 'skin' of solid metal to
form over the still-liquid centre, gradually
solidifying the metal from the outside in.
• After solidification, the strand, as it is sometimes
called, is continuously withdrawn from the mold.
• Metals such as steel, copper, aluminum and lead are
continuously cast, with steel being the metal with
the greatest tonnages cast using this method.
143

M9 : Act. 9

At which temp. forging is performed?

144

Module – 10:
Weldability of Steels

145

Module: 10-1

Weldability of Steels
Meaning:
It relates to the ability of the metal (or alloy) to be welded with
mechanical soundness by most of the common welding processes,
and the resulting welded joint retain the properties for which it has
been designed.
It is a function of many inter-related factors but these may be
summarised as:
• Composition of parent material
• Joint design and size
• Process and technique
• Access
146

Module: 10-2

Weldability of Steels
The weldability of steel is mainly dependant on carbon & other alloying
elements content.
If a material has limited weldability, we need to take special measures to
ensure the maintenance of the properties required
Poor weldability normally results in the occurrence of cracking
A steel is considered to have poor weldability when:

an acceptable joint can only be made by using very narrow range of
welding conditions

great precautions to avoid cracking are essential (e.g., high pre-heat
etc)
147

Module: 10-3

The Effect of Alloying on Steels
Elements may be added to steels to produce the properties required to
make it useful for an application.
Most elements can have many effects on the properties of steels.

Other factors which affect material properties are:
• The temperature reached before and during welding
• Heat input

• The cooling rate after welding and or PWHT.

148

Module: 10-4

Classification of Steels
Types of Weldable:
C, C-Mn & Low Alloy Steels
Carbon Steels
• Carbon contents up to about ~ 0.25%
• Manganese up to ~ 0.8%
• Low strength and moderate toughness
Carbon-Manganese Steels
• Manganese up to ~ 1.6%
• Carbon steels with improved toughness due to additions of
Manganese
149

Module: 10-5

Classification of Steels
Mild steel (CE < 0.4)
• Readily weldable, preheat generally not required if low hydrogen
processes or electrodes are used
• Preheat may be required when welding thick section material, high
restraint and with higher levels of hydrogen being generated
C-Mn, medium carbon, low alloy steels (CE 0.4 to 0.5)
• Thin sections can be welded without preheat but thicker sections will
require low preheat levels and low hydrogen processes or electrodes
should be used
Higher carbon and alloyed steels (CE > 0.5)
• Preheat, low hydrogen processes or electrodes, post weld heating and
slow cooling may be required
150

Module: 10-6

Carbon equivalent Formula
The weldability of the material will also be affected by the amount of alloying elements
present.
The Carbon Equivalent of a given material also depends on its alloying elements

The higher the CE, higher the susceptibility to brittleness, and lower the
weldability

The CE or CEV is calculated using the following formula:

The weldability of the material will also be affected by the amount of alloying elements
present.
The Carbon Equivalent of a given material also depends on its alloying elements

The higher the CE, higher the susceptibility to brittleness, and lower the
weldability

The CE or CEV is calculated using the following formula:

CEV = %C + Mn% + Cr% + Mo% + V% + Cu% + Ni%
6
5
15
151

Module: 10-7

Low-Alloy Chromium Steels
• Steel included in this group are the AISI type 5015 to
5160 and the electric furnace steels 50100, 51100, and
52100.
• In these steels carbon ranges from 0.12-1.10%,
manganese from 0.30-1.00%, chromium from 0.201.60%, and silicon from 0.20-0.30%.
• When carbon is at low end of the range, these steels
can be welded without special precautions.
• As the carbon increases and as the chromium
increases, high hardenability results and a preheat
of as high 400oC will be required, particularly for
heavy sections.
152

Module: 10-8

Low-Alloy Chromium Steels
• When using the submerged arc welding process, it is
also necessary to match the composition of the
electrode with the composition of the base metal.
• A flux that neither detracts nor adds elements to the
weld metal should be used.
• In general, preheat can be reduced for submerged
arc welding because of the higher heat input and
slower cooling rates involved.
• To make sure that the submerged arc deposit is low
hydrogen, the flux must be dry and the electrode
and base metal must be clean.
153

Module: 10-9

Low-Alloy Chromium Steels
• When using the gas metal arc welding process, the
electrode should be selected to match the base
metal and the shielding gas should be selected to
avoid excessive oxidation of the weld metal.
• Preheating with the gas metal arc welding
(GMAW) process should be in the same order as
with shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) since
the heat input is similar.
154

Module – 11 : Fundamentals of
High Alloy Steel

155

Module: 11-1

Alloy Steels
• Alloy steel is any type of steel to which one or
more elements besides carbon have been
intentionally added, to produce a desired physical
property or characteristic.
• Common elements that are added to make alloy
steel are molybdenum, manganese, nickel, silicon,
boron, chromium, and vanadium.
• Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety
of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and
50% by weight to improve its mechanical
properties.
156

Low Alloy Steel

Module: 11-2

• Low alloy steels, typically plain carbon steels that
have only two-alloys elements but can be as high as
five-alloying elements.
• The majority of the alloying is less tan 2% and in
most cases under 1%.
• Nickel (Ni) can be as high as 5%, but this is an
exception and may be found in transmission
gearing.
• In the chemical analysis you will find many more
elements but these are incidental to the making of
the steel as opposed to alloying to for specific
property in the steel of normally less than 2%.
157

Module: 11-3

High Alloy Steel
• High Alloy Steel is a type of alloy steel that
provides better mechanical properties or greater
resistance to corrosion than carbon steel.
• High Alloy steels vary from other steels in that
they are not made to meet a specific chemical
composition but rather to specific mechanical
properties.
• They have a carbon content between 0.05–0.25%
to retain formability and weldability.
158

Module: 11-4

Advantages of High Alloy Steel
• They are used in cars, trucks, cranes, bridges, roller
coasters and other structures that are designed to
handle large amounts of stress or need a good strengthto-weight ratio.
• High Alloy steel cross-sections and structures are
usually 20 to 30% lighter than a carbon steel with the
same strength.
• High Alloy Steels are also more resistant to rust than
most carbon steels because of their lack of Pearlite – the
fine layers of ferrite (almost pure iron) and Cementite in
Pearlite.
• High Alloy Steels usually have densities of around
7800 kg/m³.
159

Module: 11-5

High Alloy Steel Classes
• Stainless Steels (Corrosion Resistance) for stress corrosion
cracking (SCC).
High Temperature Steels (+)1000F: These are steels that
must have good resistance to high-temperature creep and
ruptures. Also important to be resistive to oxidation and
corrosion. Stainless steels also fit this class except ferritic.
Low Temperature Steels (-)300F: This class of application
is suited best for stainless steels of the austenitic type.
Low carbon high alloy steel do not perform well at -40F
unless steps are taken to alter the steel characteristics,
and regardless of purity and chemical character (-) 300F
is where performance is unacceptable. Austenitic type is
very suited for this -300F temperature with alloying.
160

Module: 11-6

High Alloy Steel Classes
• Wear Resistance Steels - These are done by
diffusing gases like carburizing, sulfiding,
siliconizing, nitriding, and boriding to
mention a most methods. Other methods are
through alloying and coating the high alloy
steels.
• Electro-magnetic Steels - These are
transformer and generator plain carbon steels
including iron cores. Permanent magnetic also
fit this class. Silicon (Si) is an important alloy.
161

Module: 11-7

High Alloy Steel Classes
• Tooling Steel - These are cutting tools, forming
dies, and shearing tools; they can be hardened
and will have a high carbon content.
• Tools like chisels can have carbon (C) content up
to 1.10% and razor blades has high as 1.40% C.
• Tools will have different chemical composition for
low speed tooling (including pneumatic powered)
and high speed tools where abrasion is important.
162

Module: 11-8

Classification of High Alloy Steel
• Weathering Steels: steels which have better
corrosion resistance. A common example is
COR-TEN.
• Control-rolled steels: hot rolled steels which
have a highly deformed austenite structure
that will transform to a very fine equiaxed
ferrite structure upon cooling.
• Pearlite-reduced steels: low carbon content
steels which lead to little or no pearlite, but
rather a very fine grain ferrite matrix. It is
strengthened by precipitation hardening.
163

Module: 11-9

Classification of High Alloy Steel
• Acicular Ferrite Steel: These steels are characterized by a
very fine high strength acicular ferrite structure, a very low
carbon content, and good hardenability.
• Dual Phase Steel: These steels have a ferrite microstruture that contain small, uniformly distributed sections
of Martensite. This microstructure gives the steels a low
yield strength, high rate of work hardening, and good
formability.
• Micro-alloyed Steel: steels which contain very small
additions of niobium, vanadium, and/or titanium to
obtain a refined grain size and/or precipitation hardening.
164

Module: 11-10

SAE High Alloy steel grade compositions

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) maintains standards for High Alloy steel grades because
they are often used in automotive applications.

Grade

%
Carbon
(max)

%
%
Manganese Phosphorus
(max)
(max)

%
Sulfur
(max)

%
Silicon
(max)

942X

0.21

1.35

0.04

0.05

0.90

945A

0.15

1.00

0.04

0.05

0.90

945C

0.23

1.40

0.04

0.05

0.90

945X

0.22

1.35

0.04

0.05

0.90

950A

0.15

1.30

0.04

0.05

0.90

950B

0.22

1.30

0.04

0.05

0.90

950C

0.25

1.60

0.04

0.05

0.90

950D

0.15

1.00

0.15

0.05

0.90

950X

0.23

1.35

0.04

0.05

0.90

Notes

Niobium or
vanadium treated

Niobium or
vanadium treated

Niobium or
vanadium treated165

Module: 11-11

SAE High Alloy steel grade compositions
%
%
%
Grade Carbon Manganese Phosphorus
(max)
(max)
(max)

%
Sulfur
(max)

%
Silicon
(max)

Notes

955X

0.25

1.35

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium, vanadium,
or nitrogen treated

960X

0.26

1.45

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium, vanadium,
or nitrogen treated

965X

0.26

1.45

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium, vanadium,
or nitrogen treated

970X

0.26

1.65

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium, vanadium,
or nitrogen treated

980X

0.26

1.65

0.04

0.05

0.90

Niobium, vanadium,
or nitrogen treated
166

Module: 11-12

Ranking of various properties for SAE High
Alloy steel grades
Rank
Worst

Best

Weldability

Formability

Toughness

980X

980X

980X

970X

970X

970X

965X

965X

965X

960X

960X

960X

955X, 950C,
942X

955X

955X

945C

950C

945C, 950C,
942X

950B, 950X

950D

945X, 950X

945X

950B, 950X,
942X

950D

950D

945C, 945X

950B

950A

950A

950A

945A

945A

945A

167

M11 : Act. 11

What is the percentage of carbon
content in High alloy steels and why
it is used?

168

Module – 12 : Solidification of
Metals and Alloys

169

Module: 12-1

Solidification of Metal
• Solidification is the process of transformation
form a liquid phase to a solid phase.
• It requires heat removal from the system.
metals have a melting point (well defined
temperature) above which liquid is stable and
below that solid is stable.
• Solidification is a very important process as it
is most widely used for shaping of materials to
desired product.
170

Module: 12-2

Solidification of Metal & Alloys
• Solidification of a metal can be divided into
the following steps:
• Formation of a stable nucleus
• Growth of a stable nucleus
• Growth of Crystals

171

Module: 12-3

Cooling Curves
• Undercooling ‐ The temperature to which the liquid metal
must cool below the equilibrium freezing temperature before
nucleation occurs.
• †
Recalescence ‐ The increase in temperature of an under cooled
liquid metal as a result of the liberation of heat during
nucleation.
• †
Thermal arrest ‐ A plateau on the cooling curve during the
solidification of a material caused by the evolution of the latent
heat of fusion during solidification.
• †
Total solidification time ‐ The time required for the casting to
solidify completely after the casting has been poured.
• †
Local solidification time ‐ The time required for a particular
location in a casting to solidify once nucleation has begun. 172

Module: 12-4

Solidification of pure metals:
• Temperature remains constant while grains grow.
• Some metals undergo allotropic transformation in
solid state. For example on cooling bcc δ‐iron
changes to fcc γ‐iron at 1400 C, which again to bcc α‐
iron at 906 C.
• Pure metals generally possess:
– Excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. Ex: Al,
Cu, etc.
– Higher ductility, higher melting point, lower yield point
and tensile strength.
– Better corrosion resistance as compared to alloys.
173

Module: 12-5

Solidification of pure metals:
• Because of high melting points, pure metals
exhibit, certain difficulties in casting:
– Difficulty in pouring.
– Occurrence of severe metal mould reaction.
– Greater tendency towards cracking.
– Produce defective castings.

174

Module: 12-6

Solidification of pure metals:

Pure metals melt and solidify at the single temp which may be termed as the
freezing point or solidification point, as in he fig the area above the freezing
point he metal is liquid and below the freezing point(F.P) the metal is in the
solid state.

175

Module: 12-7

Nucleation and Grain growth:
Nucleation
• It is the beginning of phase transformation nucleation may involve:
a) Assembly of proper kinds of atoms by diffusion.
b) Structural change into one or more unstable intermediate
structures.
c) Formation of critical size particle (nuclei) of the new phase
(solid phase).
• Nucleation of super cooled grains is governed by two factors:
i.
Free energy available from solidification process. This
depends on the volume of the article formed.
ii.
Energy required to form a liquid to solid inter phase. This
depends on the surface area of particle.
The above explanation represents Homogenous or self nucleation
[occurs in perfect homogenous material (pure metals)]
176

Nucleation

Module: 12-8

From the fig:
i ) as the temp drops nucleation rate increases.
ii) Nucleation rate is max at a point considerable below the melting point.
Heterogeneous nucleation occurs when foreign particles are present
in the casting which alters the liquid to solid inter phase energy, thus lowering
the free energy. This affects the rate of nucleation
177

Module: 12-9

Grain/crystal growth:
• Grain growth may be defined as the increase of
nucleases in size.
• Grain growth follows nucleation during this
phase he nuclei grow by addition of atoms.
• The nuclei reduce there total free energy by
continuous growth.
• From the fig, it is seems that the grain growth
starts from the mould wall more over since
there is a temp gradient growth occurs in a
direction opposite to the heat flow. That is
towards the center of the melt.

178

Module: 12-10

Grain/crystal growth:

179

Module: 12-11

Continuous Casting and Ingot Casting
• Ingot casting ‐ The process of casting
ingots. This is different from the continuous
casting route.
• †
Continuous casting ‐ A process to convert
molten metal or an alloy into a
semi‐finished product such as a slab.
180

Module: 12-12

Steel making Process

Fig: Summary of steps in the extraction of steels using iron ores, coke and
limestone. (Source: www.steel.org. )

181

Module: 12-13

Rapid Solidification
• Rapid Solidification or Melt spinning is a
technique used for rapid cooling of liquids.
• A wheel is cooled internally, usually by water or
liquids nitrogen, and rotated.
• A thin stream of liquid is then dripped onto the
wheel and cooled, causing rapid solidification.
• This technique is used to develop materials that
require extremely high cooling rates in order to
form, such as metallic glasses.
• The cooling rates achievable by melt-spinning are
on the order of 104–107 kelvind per second (K/s). 182

Module: 12-14

Zone refining
• Zone melting (or zone refining or floating
zone process) is a group of similar methods of
purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of
a crystal is molten, and this molten zone is
moved along the crystal.
• The molten region melts impure solid at its
forward edge and leaves a wake of purer
material solidified behind it as it moves
through the ingot.
• The impurities concentrate in the melt, and
are moved to one end of the ingot.
183

M12 : Act. 12

Can casting of pure metals is done at
high melting points and why?

184

Module – 13 : Preparation and
Review of Material Test
Certificate

185

186

187

188

M13 : Act. 13

What Heat number of Plates shows?

189

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190