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Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol, or EIGRP, is a Cisco proprietary, advanced

distance vector dynamic routing protocol.

EIGRP Characteristics
Fast Convergence

EIGRP uses the DUAL algorithm to converge very quickly. It does this by knowing neighbor
router’s routing tables and predefining primary and secondary routes to every destination
Triggered Updates

EIGRP uses partial triggered updates to its directly connected neighbors rather than periodically
sharing its entire routing table. This saves link bandwidth because updates are only sent if a
change is incurred, only the changes are sent in the update, and lastly – the updates are only sent
to a routers’s affected neighbors. Very efficient!
Protocol Independent

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol supports more than just IPv4. It supports IPv4,
IPv6, IPX, and AppleTalk.

EIGRP sends route updates, hellos, and queries to its neighbors using the multicast address so end hosts are not affected. Hellos are sent out every 5 seconds by default to learn
about new neighbors and make sure existing neighbors are still available.

Variable length subnet masking is supported by EIGRP because it is a classless routing protocol.
That means subnet masks are included in route updates.

Feasible and Advertised Distance

EIGRP’s DUAL algorithm determines the best route to a particular network by using distance
information, known as cost or metric. DUAL determines the lowest cost path by adding up the
cost to the destination network. Neighbors exchange the cost to every route they know of when a
neighbor adjacency is formed. A router then uses that information to calculate their own cost to
the same network by adding the cost between themselves and their neighbor, then adding that to
the neighbor’s advertised cost.

So, (the cost between neighbors) + (the neighbor’s cost to the destination network) = the total
cost to the remote network, or the feasible distance. The cost the neighbor advertised to the
remote network is known as the advertised distance.
See the diagram below.


Think of the successor as the active, or primary, route to a destination for EIGRP. The successor
is actually the neighbor router that has the least-cost path to a destination network (a.k.a. has the
lowest feasible distance). Successor routes are added directly to the routing table. You should
also know that multiple successors can exists if they have identical feasible distance values.
Feasible Successor

This is more like the backup route EIGRP chooses to a destination network. The feasible
successor feature is what makes EIGRP convergence so unique and so fast. It always tries to find
a backup route. In the event that the successor fails, it can immediately switch over to the
feasible successor (backup) route with very little delay. To qualify as a feasible successor, the AD
must be less than the successor’s FD. This helps ensure a loop-free layer 3 path.

Neighbor Table

EIGRP discovers neighbors by sending out hellos every 5 seconds. When a routers receives a
hello with the same AS number defined, it forms an adjacency and adds the local interface it used
to reach it as well as the neighbor’s IP address to the EIGRP neighbor table.
Topology Table

When routers form an adjacency, they exchange route information. That information is
transferred to the EIGRP topology table, which contains all the destinations advertised by a
router’s neighbors.
There are two different types of entries in the topology table, active and passive. Now you may
think that the active entry is the preferred or “actively-in-use” route, but surprisingly, the
opposite is true. The route in the topology table that is in the active state signifies that it is
“actively” looking for an alternative path to a destination because the successor has failed and no
FS exists. Obviously this is not an ideal scenario.
If a router’s successor route becomes unavailable, but has a feasible successor – the FS will
immediately become the successor and there is almost no delay incurred. This is the primary
reason EIGRP convergence times tend to be some of the fastest of all the dynamic routing
If, however, a router’s successor becomes unavailable and does not have a FS to the destination,
it will send query messages to all of its neighbors asking if they know of a path to the
destination. The neighbors will either respond with a path or forward the query to all of their
neighbor routers until a path is identified and relayed back to the original requester or no more
neighbor routers exist. During the time the router is waiting back for a response, it is unable to
forward traffic to the destination network, which can hurt EIGRP’s convergence time.
Passive entries represent routes that have at least a single successor and perhaps a feasible
successor. They are what you should see in a normal, stable topology. Notice the “P’s” in the
output from the show eigrp topology command below. They indicate that the entries in the
EIGRP topology table are in the passive (read: normal) state.
R1#sh ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID( Codes:
P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply, r - reply Status, s
- sia Status P, 1 successors, FD is 156160 via
(156160/128256), FastEthernet0/0 P, 1 successors, FD is 156160 via (156160/128256), FastEthernet0/0 via (2297856/128256),
Serial1/0 P, 1 successors, FD is 128256 via Connected, Loopback1 P, 1 successors, FD is 156160 via (156160/128256),
FastEthernet0/0 P, 1 successors, FD is 28160 via Connected,
FastEthernet0/0 P, 1 successors, FD is 2169856 via Connected,

EIGRP Messages

EIGRP hello packets are sent out every 5 seconds by default using multicast address
to maintain and discover neighbor relationships. On slower (T1 and below) and NBMA links,
hellos are sent every 60 seconds to conserve bandwidth.
EIGRP hello packets also contain a hold timer which lets the router know if a neighbor is down.
The hold timer is set to 15 seconds normally (~3 unresponsive hellos), and 180 seconds for
slower WAN links. When a router receives a hello packet from another router with the same AS
(Autonomous System) number, it automatically forms a neighbor relationship (also known as an

During the EIGRP start-up process on a router, an update message is sent out to its neighbors
containing the contents of the router’s routing table. The only other time an update packet is sent
is when network changes occur on a router and it then sends out an update message to its
neighbors who the route change would affect.

When EIGRP looses its successor route and does not have a FS, it sends out a query message to
all of its neighbors asking if they know a path. (See topology section above)

Acknowledgement packets are sent in response to update, query, or reply packets.

When a router responds to a neighbor router looking for a route (query), it sends it in the form of
a reply.

Graceful Shutdown
When an EIGRP process is shut down, the router sends out “goodbye” messages to its neighbors
(ironically in the form of hello packets). The neighbors can then immediately begin recalculating
paths to destinations that went through the shutdown router without having to wait for the hold
timer to expire.

EIGRP Metrics
There are 5 descriptives EIGRP uses to calculate its metric, although Cisco generally does not
recommend tuning these metrics unless you have a very specific purpose. You should be aware
that only the bandwidth and delay numbers factor into the default formula.

Bandwidth – the lowest bandwidth value between the source and destination

Delay – the cumulative delay along a series of links




EIGRP Configuration
Step 1. Define EIGRP as the routing protocol with a predefined Autonomous System ID. Routers
will not form a neighbor relationship if their AS numbers do not match.
R3(config)# router eigrp 1

Step 2. Define the attached networks you want to participate in EIGRP
Add each network to the EIGRP process with the network prefix mask command for each
network. The mask is an inverted mask, like ACLs use. Example, a /24 mask would be
The network prefix mask command tells the router which local interfaces will then participate in
EIGRP. This can be very useful if you do not want specific interfaces to participate in EIGRP.
Using the mask statement will define how you want the routes summarized if you turn off auto
summarization. If you choose not to use the mask, EIGRP will assume the networks are part of
the major networks (class A,B,C boundaries) and could cause potential problems.

router eigrp 1 network 10. 1 successors.0.100. s .Active.1.2.4 0.0/24.1.3 no auto-summary EIGRP Verification show ip eigrp neighbors – displays EIGRP neighbors a router has discovered.1.0.0/ Fa0/0 13 00:12:23 737 4422 0 21 0 10.3 R3(config-router)# no auto-summary The output of R3′s running configuration can be seen below. R3#sh run | begin router eigrp 1 .1.0.Example Configuration R3(config-router)#router eigrp 1 R3(config-router)# network R3#sh ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 1 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq (sec) (ms) Cnt Num 1 10.0.3. Q .5) Codes: P .168.Passive.sia Status P 192. Loopback3 P Fa0/0 14 00:12:29 535 3210 0 22 show ip eigrp topology – displays the output of the EIGRP topology tables including successor and feasible successor routes.4 0. 1 successors.3 network 192.0 0.168. FD is 128256 via Connected.Reply.Update.100.100. FD is 128256 via Connected. Loopback15 P 0.0 0.100.3 R3(config-router)# network 192. FD is 156160 via 10. R .225 R3(config-router)# network 192..0. A .0 network . U . r . 1 successors.reply Status.100. R3#sh ip eigrp topology IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(1)/ID(192..1.

IS-IS. 2 successors.0/24 is subnetted.0 is directly connected.100. * . FastEthernet0/0 P 10. FastEthernet0/0 192.1.1. R3#sh ip route eigrp 10. One option is to use a static default route with the ip route 0.1.0 5 subnets D 10. U . FastEthernet0/0 P 10.ODR.0/24. Loopback11 P 10. EIGRP will advertise the route to its EIGRP neighbors as a default route.0/24 is subnetted.168.0 is directly connected. FD is 128256 via Connected. in conjunction with a static route – you will have to first redistribute the static route into EIGRP.168.2. O .per-user static route o .BGP D .100. su .OSPF external type 2 i .200.100.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .1.1.0/24.1.2 (2172416/2169856).OSPF external type interface/address statement as discussed in the Routing Fundamentals page.IS-IS level-1.0. 00:14:46.OSPF NSSA external type 1.0.2. Loopback15 C 192.1. 00:16:57. FastEthernet0/0 D 10.100.1. FastEthernet0/0 [90/2172416] via 10.1. FastEthernet0/0 [90/2172416] via 10.1.1 (156160/128256).0 [90/156160] via 10.0 [90/156160] via 10.100. 5 subnets C 10.1. B . This must be configured on every router that will use that default route.200. All internal EIGRP routes will be marked with a D (as in DUAL) at the beginning. Any network that is reachable within the local router’s routing table is eligible to be used by EIGRP as a default route.1. 00:16:49.100.0 is directly connected.1 (2172416/2169856). FastEthernet0/0 D 1 successors.1.1. EX . 00:14:55. 1 successors.100. 00:14:46.0/24. 2 subnets C 192. Loopback11 show ip route eigrp – displays the EIGRP routes that the routing table is using.1.1.1. S .100. FastEthernet0/0 C 10.3.2. R3#sh ip route Codes: C .4 is directly connected. 00:14:46. They can decrease the size (and complexity) of the routing table by providing a path to all unspecified destinations.100. FD is 156160 via 10. IA .OSPF. FastEthernet0/0 D 10.0 [90/156160] via 10. P .0 [90/156160] via 10.200.static.1. .connected.2.100. ** If you want to use this method.168.100. E2 .0 [90/2172416] via 10.100.100.EIGRP external.100.1. N2 . L1 .0/30.0 [90/2172416] via 10. Once configured. FastEthernet0/0 D 10. 00:16:49.0.0.RIP.168. FastEthernet0/0 EIGRP Default Routes Defaults routes make life easier in many situations.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 10. FD is 2172416 via inter area.IS-IS summary. 1 successors.100.EIGRP. FastEthernet0/0 via 10. R .1.0.1. L2 IS-IS level-2 ia .1.2.1. Another option if you are running EIGRP is to use the ip default-network network-number command in global configuration mode. FD is 28160 via Connected. FastEthernet0/0 show ip route – shows the ip routing table entries for all routing protocols.0.(156160/128256).0/30 is subnetted.1. M . 00:16:49.OSPF inter area N1 .0. Loopback3 D 10.candidate default. FastEthernet0/0 P 192.

or customer edge routers and the carrier’s border routers as PE.255. re-encapsulates it into an Ethernet frame and forwards it on to CE East. The CE routers appear to each other as directly connected peers.0 255. Under the interface configuration mode. To disable automatic summarization: R1(config)# router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)# no auto-summary It is also possible to manually summarize routes with EIGRP out specific interfaces. use the ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system command. you must use the no ip route command instead of no ip default-network. encapsulates it into a MPLS packet. or provider’s edge routers. which can be problematic and cause specific subnets to not be advertised correctly. That means in order to remove the default route. strips the Ethernet frame.0 EIGRP over WAN Networks EIGRP + MPLS MPLS defines the customer’s WAN routers as CE.** Once you use the ip default-network command to define a default route for EIGRP.255. PE East strips off the MPLS information.2. the router creates a static route in the configuration without notifying you. Summarization EIGRP summarizes routes by their major classful boundaries. . and forwards it over the service provider’s network to PE East.1. When CE West sends information to CE East. This transparent transport allows an EIGRP neighbor relationship to form between the two customer routers. R1(config)# intferface s0/0/0 R1(config-if)# ip summary-address eigrp 1 10. PE West intercepts the data.

R1(config-if)# frame-relay map ip remote-ip-address loacl-dlci broadcast . 15 second dead timer). configurations must be done on the interface level. more current WAN options like MPLS and metro Ethernet have taken over. frame relay is a dying WAN technology. The default timers are shorter (5 sec hold timer.EIGRP + Frame Relay Let’s face it. but Cisco thinks it’s important for us to understand the underlying framework of how frame relay works. static mappings can be applied to both multipoint interfaces as well as subinterfaces on a single physical port. The subinterface is marked down whenever its local DLCI goes down. Each VC is identified with a locally-significant DLCI. Other. Frame relay works using switched. virtual circuits through the service provider network. Static To configure frame relay statically. 2. or Data-Link Connection Identifier. Frame relay is able to emulate point-to-point links by using multiple subinterface on a single physical interface (often used on hub-and-spoke topologies). One of the advantages of Frame Relay is that it allows multiple logical circuits to be configured on a single physical interface. Also. which can be either dynamic or static. The broadcast descriptive is required at the end of the statement because frame relay defaults to a non-broadcast medium. This allows neighbor’s to be identified as down much more quickly for two reasons: 1. The layer 2 virtual circuit must then be mapped to a layer three neighbor.

EIGRP messages could choke out data traffic quickly. In that situation. Split-horizon is a method of preventing routing loops in distance-vector routing protocols by prohibiting a router from advertising a route back onto the interface from which it was learned. the bandwidth command should be used in WAN links to tell EIGRP what the actual link bandwidth is. No IP split horizon When running EIGRP on frame relay multipoint subinterfaces. a major communication problem can occur. This results in R2 being able to communicate with the spoke router’s networks. The second is that EIGRP will allocate up to 50% of a link’s bandwidth for EIGRP control traffic. To remedy the situation. but R3 and R1 are unable to communicate with each other. To control that. These two combined can be problematic on links that are slower than a T1 (like a 64k fractional T1 for example). When a hub and spoke frame relay topology exists. multipoint subinterfaces are configured on the hub router. In this case. it cannot then pass those on to R3 because split horizon would prevent the advertisement from going out the same physical interface. routers only form EIGRP neighbor relationships with other routers they connect to using a frame relay virtual circuit. so in the example below. The issue is that split horizon is enabled by default. if R2 learns routes from R1.Dynamic Dynamic mappings use inverse ARP. . R2(config-if)# no ip split-horizon EIGRP as-number Managing EIGRP Bandwidth There are two important points to remember when running EIGRP over WAN links. The first is that EIGRP assumes that WAN interfaces run at T1 speed (1544 kbs). split horizon must be disabled on the R2 EIGRP process.

. The variance command allows unequal-cost load balancing over up to 6 different paths. Other EIGRP Options Passive Interfaces Not to be confused with the passive (healthy) topology table entries. R1(config)# router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)# passive-interface gig 3/1 Unicast Neighbors EIGRP uses multicast address 224. EIGRP load balancing Out of the box. however.0. EIGRP is unique.10 when sending messages to its neighbors. in its ability to load balance across unequal-cost paths with a single command. The ability to control the routing protocol’s usable bandwidth so simply makes it a popular choice. it only works when the cost of the path is lower than the variance number multiplied by the best metric.0. this means that the router will not form adjacencies with connected routers on that particular port. But here’s the key. To configure it: R1(config)#router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)# neighbor ip-address The IP address used must be in one of the same subnet ranges as one of the router’s interfaces. For EIGRP. EIGRP will automatically load balance across equal-cost paths with no special configuration. You should be aware that EIGRP can also use a unicast address when communicating with a specific neighbor. interfaces with the passiveinterface command applied do not allow any routing updates or hellos out the interface.R1(config)# int serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)# bandwidth 64 EIGRP is often used on frame relay for this reason alone. Here is an example scenario.

R1 will by default use the path through R3 because it has the lowest metric. Setting it to 1 disables the load balancing. R1(config)#router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)# maximum-paths number-of-paths EIGRP Authentication EIGRP supports authentication of its messages using an MD5 hash. This will load balance the traffic in proportion to each path’s metric. To enable unequalcost load balancing. Maximum-paths By default. Configure a key chain to group the keys (read: passwords). we can use the following command: R1(config)#router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)# variance 2 The variance command multiplies the best cost (10. Authentication configuration steps: 1.000) and will begin load balancing across all paths with a FD less than that – which includes the path through R2(15. if an incoming EIGRP packet’s hash does not match the local hash. Cisco IOS will load balance across 4 equal-cost paths only. you can configure the router to load balance over up to 16 paths. .000) by 2 (20. the packet is silently dropped.000). Using the maximumpaths command. When configured.

Indicate MD5 as the authentication type. The router will look inside the keychain and compare the keys against incoming packets. The EIGRP stub router still receives all route updates from its neighbor(s) by default. 3. 4. It is not a transit router and usually has only a single neighbor router. Example R1(config)# key chain TEST R1(config-keychain)# key 1 R1(config-keychain-key)# key-string samplepassword R1(config-keychain-key)# exit R1(config)# interface gig 1/12 R1(config-if)# ip authentication mode eigrp 10 md5 R1(config-if)# ip authentication key-chain eigrp 10 TEST EIGRP Stub Routing If a router is a spoke in a hub-and-spoke router topology. Enable authentication and assign a key to an interface. this can dramatically improve EIGRP reconvergence time.2. Within EIGRP you can define a router as a stub router to limit the EIGRP queries. If you have many spoke routers. Create a key(s) inside the keychain. This saves bandwidth and prevents neighbor routers from requesting alternate routes when a path fails. R1(config)#router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)# eigrp stub [receive-only | connected | static | summary | redistributed] Options Receive-only Connected Static Summary Result Router will not advertise any networks (including its own) Router will advertise connected routes (enabled by default) Router will advertise static routes Router will advertise summary routes (enabled by default) Router will advertise routes that have been redistributed into EIGRP from another Redistributed routing protocol or AS EIGRP Best Practices  Summarize routes when possible  Limit the network depth to 7 hops  Limit the scope of EIGRP queries . sometimes two. it is considered a stub router.

Every router is responsible for computing its own best paths to all destinations within an OSPF domain. is a link-state. using cost as it’s metric. OSPF. to compute internally the best path to any given route. A router stores all of its LSA information (including info it receives from incoming LSAs) in the Link State Database (LSDB). dynamic routing protocol. sometimes referred to as the backbone area and every additional area must be physically connected to area 0. From there. . It all starts with area 0. They exchange hellos with neighboring routers and in the process learn their neighbor’s Router ID (RID) and cost. it begins sending LSAs. This allows the router to make intelligent choices about path selection on its own instead of relying exclusively on neighbor information. LSAs are shared with every other router in the OSPF domain. This helps partition routers into manageable groups if the layer 3 network begins to get large. they are then eligible to be added to the routing table. or Open Shortest Path First. A router running OSPF creates its own database which contains information on the entire OSPF network. OSPF uses an algorithm known as SPF. or Dijkstra’s Shortest Path First. Once the SPF algorithm selects the best paths. Inter-area routes are passed using border routers. Those values are then sent to the adjacency table. not simply neighbor’s routes like EIGRP. LSAs contain the RID and costs to the router’s neighbors. Every OSPF network must contain an area 0. OSPF routers do form neighbor relationships though. so routers only compute paths within their own area. or Link State Advertisements. open-standard. OSPF is classless and converges fairly quickly. Areas OSPF is different from EIGRP in that it uses areas to segment routing domains.OSPF. other areas are optional. Note that the SPF algorithm only runs within a single area. Link State Database Once a router has exchanged hellos with its neighbors and captured Router IDs and cost information. architecturally speaking. I apologize if the acronyms are starting to pile up. is more complicated than its counterpart EIGRP – and the long list of acronyms and definitions is part of that.

That is why Cisco recommends limiting an OSPF area to no more than 50-100 routers. the more LSA advertisements that must be sent out. Area Types Backbone area Another name for area 0 . This means that the more OSPFenabled routers are configured for the same area.All link state databases must match within an OSPF area. The following three factors determine the maximum number of routers:  How easily the area’s subnets can be summarized  The type of areas being used  The number of external LSAs being injected An added bonus of partitioning out your OSPF network into areas is that it is a natural fit for a hierarchical IP scheme. the high levels of LSA traffic and numerous routing table entries can become a problem. After you reach about 50 routers.

optionally summarizing routes. with both internal and external routes Stub area Contains only internal routes and a default route Totally Stubby Area Cisco proprietary option for a stub area Not-So-Stubby area (NSSA) Contains internal routes. 5 in diagram above) Backbone: At least one interface assigned to area 0 (routers 1.000 = 10 100 Mbps | 100.000 / 1. redistributed routes.000 = .3 in diagram above) Area Border Router (ABR): Have interfaces in two or more areas (routers 2 and 3 in diagram above) ABRs contain a separate Link State Database. separating LSA flooding between areas. Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR): Has at least one interface in an OSPF area and at least one interface outside of an OSPF area.000 / 100. 2 .000 = 1 1000 Mbps | 100.1 1 (OSPF still uses 1 for this.000 / 1544 = 64 10 Mbps | 100. Let’s run through some common examples quickly: T1 line | 100. OSPF Metric Each interface is assigned a cost value based purely on bandwidth.Regular area Non-backbone area. see explanation below) .000. and optionally sourcing default routes. 4.000 / 10. and optionally a default route Totally Stubby NSSA Cisco proprietary option for NSSA Router Roles Internal: All interfaces in a single area (routers 1. The formula is: Cost = (100Mbs/bandwidth) Higher bandwidth means a lower cost.

 If it contains a Router ID (RID) that is already in the database. entries with an older sequence number are discarded. LSDB Overload In large OSPF networks. it is added to the LSDB and the SPF algorithm is re-run. Sequence numbers are 32 bits. a Fast Ethernet interface is weighted the same as a Gigabit Ethernet interface. R1(config-if)# ip ospf cost 35 Link State Advertisements LSAs contain a sequence number and a Router ID. When an LSA enters a router. Once enabled. it assigns the same cost to any interface with speeds higher than 100Mbs. .  If it is new. To fix that problem. if the defined threshold is exceeded over one-minute time period. the router will enter the ignore state – dropping all adjacencies and clearing the OSPF database.  If it receives an older version (according to its sequence number). To mitigate that scenario. a flood of LSAs will immediately hit the entire network. it checks it against its internal Link State Database (LSDB).The cost is then accrued at each hop along the path based on the link’s bandwidth. Unfortunately. if major network changes occur.535). The number of incoming LSAs to each router could be substantial and bring the CPU and memory to its knees. both a cost of 1. it discards the LSA and sends back the newer version to the original sender. To OSPF. you can use the auto-cost command under the OSPF process. OSFP was written when 100Mbs was considered fast. The sequence number increases if:  a route is added or deleted  a LSA ages out The largest sequence number is always the most current. The command show ip ospf database will display the sequence numbers and age (in seconds) for each entry. R1(config-router)# auto-cost reference-bandwidth 1000 Another option is to simply change the cost on a per-interface basis with the ip ospf cost command (using any number between 1-65. Because of that. starting with 0×80000001. The default time that LSAs are aged out is 30 minutes. Cisco offers what it refers to as Link Sate Database Overload Protection.

R1(config-router)# max-lsa number LSA Definitions LSA Type Name 1 Router LSA 2 Network LSA 3 Summary LSA 4 Summary LSA 5 External LSA 6 Multicast LSA 7 NSSA LSA 8 9-11 External Attributes LSA Opaque LSAs Description • Inter-area route advertisements • Produced by each OSPF router • Flooded within an area • Produced by routers on a multi-access link • Produced by DRs • Flooded within an area • Advertises inter-area routes • Produced by an ABR • Flooded to adjacent areas • Advertises routes to an ASBR • Produced by an ABR • Flooded to adjacent areas • Advertises routes in another routing domain • Produced by an ASBR router • Flooded to adjacent areas • Used in multicast OSPF environments • Advertises routes in another routing domain • Produced by an ASBR within a NSSA • Used in OSPF/BGP convergence • Used only for specific applications .Know that this is a drastic response because routing will be disrupted during that period.

. using IP port 89 with an OSPF packet header.0. Link State Request (LSR) Requests a Link State Update (LSU). OSPF sends the five packet types listed above over IP directly.0.OSPF Packet Types Hello Discovers neighbors and works as a keepalive.0. address 224. see below. Link State Update (LSU) Contains one or more complete LSAs.0. Multicast address 224. Link State Acknowledgement (LSAck) Acknowledges all other OSPF packets (except hellos).5 is used if sending to all routers. including RIDs and sequence numbers.6 is used for sending to all OSPF DRs. Database Description (DBD) Contains a summary of the LSDB.

adjacencies are only formed between the router and the DR and BDR. the router is considered down. With OSPF. if four consecutive hellos are not received (the dead time). Note: On multi-access links. . Down State OSPF has not started and no hellos have been sent. Pointpoint interfaces: hellos every 10 seconds. The router forms an adjacency with a peer router when it sees its own Router ID in the neighbor field of another router’s hello message. hellos act as a form of keepalive or heartbeat. That indicates there is direct. All other required elements match and the routers become neighbors. Two-way State A hello is received from another router with its own RID in the neighbor field. 1. Take the time to learn the states and their corresponding functions. 3. 120 second dead timer OSPF States There are 7 different OSPF states when forming neighbor relationships. 40 second dead timer Nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) interfaces: hellos every 30 seconds. 2. Init State Hellos are sent out all OSPF-participating interfaces. bi-directional communication on the same subnet.OSPF Neighbors Hellos are sent out periodically using multicast on OSPF enabled routers. All of the following fields in an OSPF hello message must match for an adjacency to form:  hello timer  dead timer  area ID  authentication type  password  stub area flag As with many network protocols.

7. Interfaces in the 10.100. all within area 0: GigabitEthernet 0/0: 192. but has some important syntax distinctions from EIGRP.0 0.1/24 GigabitEthernet 0/3: 192.1/24 GigabitEthernet 0/1: 192.1.0 R1 has six interfaces. The process ID is only locally significant.255 area 1 In the example above. LSRs are sent out for missing or outdated LSAs.0.168. the LSUs are acknowledged. First.1/30 Serial 1/1: 10. Unlike EIGRP.100.102. 5.0 subnet will participate in OSPF area 1. Each router then responds to the LSRs with a Link State Update. Exstart State Routers determine which one will begin the route exchange process with the other. networks into different statements: .100.0/24 subnet will participate in OSPF area 0. and 192.168. the network statements define which local router interfaces will participate.1/24 GigabitEthernet 0/2: 192.9.0. interfaces in the 10.9. Let’s do another example. Just like EIGRP. the subnet wildcard mask in the network statement is not optional because OSPF is classless by default.1/24 Serial 1/0: 10. Exchange State Routers exchange DBDs.255 area 0 A second option is to break up the 10. it is configured from router configuration mode and requires a process ID appended to the router ospf command. R1(config)# router ospf 10 R1(config-router)# network 10. 6.9. Loading State Routers compare the DBD to their LS database.9. R1(config)# router ospf process-id The next step is to determine which router interfaces you want participating in OSPF.1. Finally. Full State The LSDB is completely synchronized with the OSPF neighbor.0.0.5/30 The simplest way to configure OSPF an all interfaces into area 0 would be to use this command: R1(config-router)# network 0.255. so don’t worry if it doesn’t match on other OSPF routers. OSPF Configuration OSPF configuration is not too complicated.255.255 area 0 R1(config-router)# network 10.

168.100.100. .1 0. is that routers don’t have a generic “router ID” built in.255 area 0 R1(config-router)# network 192.0 area 0 R1(config-router)# network 10. The configuration you choose is up to you.0 0.255. R1(config)# int gig 0/1 R1(config-if)# ip ospf 10 area 0 Router ID The SPF algorithm uses a Router ID to identify hops along a path.102. first create it and assign it an IP address.1 area 0 R1(config-router)# network 192.168.100. To configure a loopback interface.0.168.0 0.100. Note: The clear ip ospf process command will also force the OSPF process to restart. This helps keep the network stable and happy.0.0.1 0. Interface Configuration An alternative configuration option is to configure an interface to participate in OSPF directly.0.0 area 0 R1(config-router)# network 192.255 area 0 The third way to configure the interfaces to participate in OSPF: R1(config-router)# network 10. The designers of OSPF decided to use the highest IP address assigned to a loopback interface as the Router ID (RID) by default.100. but will cause an outage – so use it with caution.0. OSPF will not change the RID.0.101. of course.168.1 0.0.5 0.0.R1(config-router)# network 10. The problem. even if another interface with a higher IP address comes online unless the OSPF process is restarted.103. If no loopback is configured.0 area 0 R1(config-router)# network area 0 R1(config-router)# network 192.1 255.0.168. Loopbacks are preferred for use as a router ID because they are virtual interfaces and are not affected by links going up and down. Static RIDs It is also possible to manually define a static Router ID within OSPF with the router-id command.0.0.1 0.0 area 0 All three approaches achieve the exact same result. The ip ospf process-id area area-id command takes precedence over the more common network commands. it will use the highest IP address assigned to an active interface when the OSPF process begins.0.255. R1(config)# int loopback 0 R1(config-if)# ip address 10.

. it will not participate in the elections. If it does not receive any within its dead time. the BDR automatically is assigned the DR role and a new BDR election occurs. however. Multiaccess OSPF links require a Designated Router (DR) be elected to represent the entire segment. It doesn’t work well. Be aware that a router with a non-zero priority that happens to boots first can become the DR just because it did not receive any hellos when the OSPF process was started – even though it may have a low OSPF priority. it elects itself the DR.5. The Non-Designated routers then use IP address 224. The default OSPF priority is 1 and Cisco recommends manually changing that on routers you want to become the DR and BDR. Values can be between 0-255.6 to communicate directly with the DR.0. use the ip ospf priority command on the interface connected to the multiaccess segment.100. If two routers happen to have the same OSPF priority. 3. OSPF Election Process 1. When the OSPF process on a router starts up. so they are only significant on an interface level. On that specific multiaccess segment. it listens for hellos. This essentially means that there is no OSPF DR preemption if another router comes online with a higher OSPF priority. or BDR. Note: If a router’s OSPF priority is set to 0. It uses the RID to identify hops along each path and uses bandwidth as a metric between those hops. the router with the highest Router ID will become DR. routers only form adjacencies with the DR and BDR.5. Another router is then elected as the Backup Designated Router. when a router is connecting to multiaccess networks like an Ethernet VLAN.0.1 DRs & BDRs SPF works by mapping all paths to every destination on each router. In the case that the DR goes down. The same is true for BDR. The DR uses type 2. This whole system works really well when routers are connected with point-to-point links and OSPF traffic is simply sent using multicast address 224.0. If hellos are received before the dead time expires. Next. the router with the highest OSPF priority is elected as the DR. Remember that DRs are only used on multiaccess links. elections cannot take place again until either the DR or BDR go down.0. Once a DR is elected.R1(config)# router ospf 10 R1(config-router)# router-id 10. To set the OPSF priority.0. network LSAs to advertise the segment over multicast address 224.0. A router with two different interfaces connected to two different multiaccess links will have separate DR elections for each segment. 2.100. the same process happens to elect the BDR.

the router will automatically create a static route pointing to Null0. There are two types of route summarization. For OSPF. the DR and BDR should have full virtual circuit connectivity to all other routers Summarization First.0. inter-area and external. Inter-area Summarization (LSA Type 3) This occurs on ABRs to summarize routes between areas. The new summary route’s cost will be equal to the lowest cost route within the summary range.0.0 255. Inter-area Summarization Example: ABR-R1(config)# router ospf 10 ABR-R1(config-router)# area 2 range 10.100. It also consolidates many routes in to a single statement.0. there are a few points to consider:  Full mesh environments can use physical interfaces. the summary network 10. This really only works well if the networks contained within an area are subnetted contiguously so that they can be easily summarized into a single statement.100. Summarization has two important benefits for OSPF.255. After the command is entered. The reason is because OSPF has to compute the best path to every destination within its area. . but often times subinterfaces are used  Partial mesh environments should be configured using point-to-point subinterfaces  Hub-and-spoke environments should elect the hub as the DR or use point-to-point subinterfaces – which don’t require a DR  Frame Relay and ATM maps should include the broadcast attribute  In multiaccess environments. Avoiding running the algorithm whenever it isn’t required is a big win.0/16 is summarized from area 2. reducing the memory load and database size on OSPF-enabled routers.0 In this example. it’s important to note that running the SPF algorithm on a router is extremely taxing on CPU resources and can easily consume them all. It prevents topology changes from being passed outside an area – thus reducing the number of routers re-running the SPF algorithm.R1(config)# int gig 0/1 R1(config-if)# ip ospf priority 255 OSPF over the WAN Routing protocols assume both broadcast capabilities and full mesh connectivity on multiaccess networks.

OSPF Passive Interfaces Like EIGRP. Another option is to use the area range and summary-address commands discussed in the summarization section above.0.0/16 and is injected into OSPF via a single type 5 LSA. After the command is entered. OSPF supports the use of passive interfaces.168. an external network has been summarized into 192. There are multiple ways to inject default routes into OSPF. R1(config)# router ospf 10 R1(config-router)# default-information originate [always] [metric metric] If the always keyword is not used. OSPF Default Routes Default routes are injected into OSPF via type 5 LSAs. External Summarization Example: ASBR-R1(config)# router ospf 10 ASBR-R1(config-router)# summary-address 192.0 In this example. OSPF will advertise a default route learned from another source. but Cisco recommends using the default-information originate command under the OSPF routing process. a default route will be advertised regardless if the route exists in the routing table. thus disabling the interface from forming adjacencies out that interface. like a static route. If the always keyword is present.0.255. the router will automatically create a static route pointing to Null0.0 255. The passive-interface interface command disables OSPF hellos from being sent out. Stub and Not-So-Stubby Areas .External Summarization (LSA Type 5) This occurs on ASBRs for routes that are injected into OSPF via route redistribution.0. Using these will result in the router advertising a default route pointing to itself.168.

TSAs do not accept any external routes from non-OSPF sources AND they do not accept routes from other areas within their OSPF autonomous system. they do not know about any non-OSPF route information outside their own area. Configuration Example: R3(config)# router ospf 10 R3(config-router)# area 2 stub no-summary R3(config-router)# area 2 stub default-cost 8 .0. ABRs use default routes in Stub and Totally Stubby areas.0 (R3 in this example). The ABR in a stub area drops all external routes and instead uses a default route of 0.Stub areas are another way to simplify route information that gets advertised. If a router needs to send traffic to a route outside of its own area.0. That is. Area 2 in the diagram above shows an example. Stubby areas are made into Totally Stubby Areas by appending the no-summary keyword to the ABR. it sends the traffic using a default route. or TSA. A Cisco proprietary version of a stub area is a Totally Stubby Area.

or NSSAs were an addendum to the original OSPF RFC and defined a new special LSA. every area must be physically connected to area 0 and area zero must be ‘contiguous’ – meaning it cannot broken into multiple. OSPF Stub Limitations  Virtual links cannot be included  Cannot include an ASBR  The stub configuration must be applied to every router within the stubby area  Area 0 cannot be a stub Bullet point 3 is extremely important. External routes are advertised by the ASBR as type 7 LSAs and the ABR then converts them into type 5 external LSAs when it advertises them to adjacent areas. Virtual links connect areas that do not connect directly to area 0. the NSSA ABR does not by default advertise a default route back into the area. The default-information-originate option does just that. Lastly. type 7. but one does not have the stub statement configured. . NSSAs are very similar to stubby areas. If two routers are connected. Not-So-Stubby Areas.The example above sets area 2 as a totally stubby area. connected area 0s. A Totally Stubby NSSA does not accept external or summary routes from other areas. the hello packets will be dropped and they will not form a neighbor adjacency. but they allow the use of ASBRs in the area – something stub areas prohibit. R4(config)# router ospf 10 R4(config-router)#area 1 nssa [no-summary] [default-information-originate] OSPF Virtual Links OSPF has strict rules around how areas connect and where they can be located. It can also connect two area 0s together! Keep in mind that Cisco recommends virtual links be a temporary workaround to a short-term problem. NSSA is configured using the area area-number nssa command as can been seen in the example below. Virtual links were developed as a band-aid to situations that temporarily must violate those requirements. More specifically. Using the no-summary keyword turns the area into a Totally Stubby NSSA. not a permanent design. The default-cost command is optional and in this case changed the default route cost from 1 to 8.

30. OSPF does.30. Note that the area used in the command is the transit area that the virtual link resides in. the RID identifies the RID of the OTHER router at the end of the link! R1(config)# router ospf 20 R1(config-router)# area 1 virtual-link 10. both routers R1 and R2 have now become ABRs and the virtual link configuration will be applied to them. Let’s pretend Company ABC and Company XYZ just announced a merger and now their corporate networks must do the same.50. different passwords could be applied to different router interfaces – the routers on the other ends of those links would just be required to have matching information. Simple Authentication Example R1(config)# int fa0/1 R1(config-if)# ip ospf authentication-key KEY123 R1(config-if)# ip ospf authentication R1(config-if)# exit R1(config)# router ospf 10 R1(config-router)# area 0 authentication MD5 Authentication Example R1(config)# int fa0/1 R1(config-if)# ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 KEY123 R1(config-if)# ip ospf authentication message-digest R1(config-if)# exit R1(config)# router ospf 10 R1(config-router)# area 0 authentication messagedigest . support two message authentication options:  Simple Authentication (using plaintext keys)  MD5 Authentication Matching authentication methods and keys must configured on each interface on a segment. OSPF does not authenticate its protocol’s messages or route updates.50. however. The command area area-number virtual-link routerid is applied to each ABR. Also. In this case. Theoretically.30 R1(config-router)# exit R2(config)# router ospf 20 R2(config-router)# area 1 virtual-link 10.50 OSPF Authentication Out of the box.The diagram below illustrates an example when a virtual link could be used.

 To show which OSPF routers are being used by the routing table. issue the show ip route ospf command  The show ip ospf command displays the RID. counters.NOTE: The 1 in the ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 KEY123 statement above is a key number. as well as DR and BDR assignments. It shows the status of the OSPF database loading process. OSPF Verification The OSPF neighbor table can be viewed using the show ip ospf neighbor command. and timers  To see which router interfaces are participating in OSPF (and their area assignments). status of neighbor adjacencies. use the show ip ospf interface command .

EIGRP Redistribution Example R1(config)# router eigrp 10 R1(config-router)# redistribute ospf 20 metric 1000 100 255 1 1500 The example above shows OSPF being redistruted into EIGRP with a metric of 1000 100 255 1 1500. Furthermore. a new seed metric is used as a staring point when redistribution is configured. but some examples include:  Organizations transitioning routing protocols  Businesses merge. and so must their networks  OSPF or EIGRP is used at the access and distribution layer of an enterprise and BGP is used in the core The challenge to redistributing routing protocols is that each routing protocol uses it own metric and they are not compatible with each other. the redistribute protocol command is used under the routing protocol that recieves the routes.Redistribution is necessary when routing protocols connect and must pass routes between the two. That is a lot of different numbers for an EIGRP cost! That’s because EIGRP redistribution metric requires you to input all of the metric calculation manually:  bandwidth  delay . Configuring Redistribution To configure redistribution between routing protocols. there is no magic algorithm than can automatically translate metrics between. say RP and BGP. This can happen in a number of situations. R1(config-router)# redistribute protocol [AS/process-ID] [metric metricvlaue] Both RIP and EIGRP require the use the metric keyword. To deal with this dilemma.

They essentially act as a filter. Identify the network addresses to be filtered and create an ACL – permitting the networks you want to be advertised. If you don’t use it the IOS will even give you a warning. OSPF will redistribute networks at their classful boundaries – not something most administrators want. An access list applied to routing = distribute lists When creating a distribute list. The subnets keyword at the end of the redistribute command is extremely important! Without this keyword. Assign the ACL using the distribute-list command. determining which networks are allowed into the routing table or included in updates. reliability  loading  mtu You can perform a show interface on the outgoing router interface prior to implementing the redistribution to see what values the router is currently using. Step 2. Incoming Distribute Lists: R1(config-router)# distribute-list {acl-number | name} in [interface-type number] Outgoing Distribute Lists: R1(config-router)# distribute-list {acl-number | name} out [interface-name | routing-process | AS-number] Route Maps . OSPF Redistribution Example: R1(config)# router ospf 100 R1(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 10 subnets The example above redistributes EIGRP routes into OSPF. Determine if you want to filter updates coming into the router or leaving the router. Make sure to include it. Distribute Lists Distribute lists are access lists applied to the routing process. use the following steps: Step 1. Step 3.

a series of steps occur to process it correctly. Route maps are extremely flexible and are used in a number routing scenarios including:  Controlling redistribution based on permit/deny statements  Defining policies in policy-based routing (PBR)  Add more mature decision making to NAT decisions than simply using static translations  When implementing BGP PBR .When a routing update arrives at an interface. The diagram below outlines those steps and serves as a foundation for the rest of this route redistribution and filtering section.

In other words. Match & Set Conditions If no match condition exists. which is read from lowest to highest. If no set condition exists. the router would interpret ‘match a b c’ as ‘a or b or c’. Each statement in a route map has a sequence number. Know the difference. If multiple match conditions are used on consecutive lines. The router stops reading statements when it reaches its first matching statement. Deny means that any traffic matching the match statement that follows is NOT processed by the route map. the statement is simply permitted or denied with no additional changes made. Understand that there is an implicit deny included in all route maps. In other words. If multiple match conditions are used on the same line. In route map terms. For example. it is denied. a match is made. all conditions must be true before a match is made. it is interpreted as a logical OR. if one condition is true. it is interpreted as a logical AND. If traffic does not match any statement. the statement matches anything (similar to a ‘permit any’). Basic Route Map Configuration R1(config)# route-map {tag} permit | deny [sequence_number] That is how all route maps begin. Route maps uses logic similar to if/then statements in simple scripting. the router would interpret the following commands as match a and b and c: route-map EXAMPLE permit 5 match a match b match c Important route redistribution match conditions ip address Refers to an access list that permits or denies networks ip address prefix-list Refers to a prefix list that permits or denies prefixes ip next-hop Refers to an access list that permits or denies ip next hops IP addresses . Permit means that any traffic matching the match statement that follows is processed by the route map. For example. it matches traffic against conditions and sets options for that traffic.Route maps allow an administrator to define specific traffic and then take automated actions against it to control how routing information is processed and forwarded.

.ip route-source Refers to an access list that permits or denies advertising router IP addresses length Permits or denies packets based on length (in bytes) metric Permits or denies routes with specific metrics from being redistributed route-type Permits or denies redistribution based on the route type listed tag Routes can be labeled with a number that identifies it Important Route Redistribution Set Conditions metric Sets the metric for redistributed routes tag Tags a route with a numbered identifier Route Map Verification Use the show route-map command to verify route maps and PBR entries are filtering as expected.

or Border Gateway Protocol is an external. the AS number is prepended to the update along with all the other AS numbers that have spread the update. iBGP is 200. Routing between Autonomous Systems is referred to as interdomain routing. BGP is recommended whenever multihoming is a requirement (dual ISP connections to different carriers). triggered updates as well as keepalives using TCP port 179. not speed – as a result it behaves very differently than most other routing protocols. A Quick Overview  Routers running BGP are called BGP speakers. BGP Databases Like most modern routing protocols.  BGP uses it’s path-vector attributes to help in loop prevention. If it sees it own AS number. enabling end-to-end transport. it first scans through the list of AS numbers.  BGP is used to connect IGPs. interior gateway protocols like OSPF and EIGRP. dynamic routing protocol.BGP.  Peers receive incremental. Scalability and stability are BGP’s focus.  BGP neighbors are called “peers” and must be statically assigned.  BGP uses autonomous system numbers to keep track of different administrative domains. 64512-65535 are private. BGP has two separate databases – a neighbor database and a BGP-specific database. It is most often used between ISPs and between enterprises and their service providers. BGP is literally the routing protocol of the Internet because it connects independent networks together.  When a BGP router receives an update. .  BGP is sometimes referred to as a “path-vector” protocol because its route to a network uses AS numbers on the path to the destination. and in transit Autonomous Systems.  The administrative distance for eBGP routes is 20. the update is discarded. When an update leaves an AS. 1-64511 are public. when route path manipulation is needed.

R1 and R2 are eBGP peers. R2 and R3 and iBGP peers. Keepalive BGP peers send keepalive messages every 60 seconds by default to maintain active neighbor status. a notification message is sent and the session is closed. Update The type of message used to transfer routing information between peers. Notification If a problem occurs and a BGP peer connection must be dropped. the router sends an open message to establish peering with the neighbor. Router# show ip bgp BGP Message Types There are four different BGP message types. eBGP. In the diagram below.Neighbor Database Lists all of the configured BGP neighbors Router# show ip bgp summary BGP Database Lists all networks known by BGP along with their attributes. Internal vs. or external BGP describes a peering relationship between BGP routers in different autonomous systems. Open After a BGP neighbor is configured. or internal BGP is a peering relationship between BGP routers within the same autonomous system. External iBGP. It is an important distinction to make. .

1. it must pass the update to its iBGP neighbors with-out modifying the next hop attribute.1.1. R2 must keep the next-hop IP set as 10. . its iBGP peer.BGP Next-Hop Self When you have BGP neighbors peering between autonomous systems like R1 and R2 above. R2(config)# router bgp 65300 R2(config-router)# neighbor 10. like an IGP or static route. The problem is that R3 does not know about 10. let’s say R1 sends an update to R2 from its 10.1.1 serial interface.2 next-hopself R2(config)# exit BGPs Synchronization Rule The BGP synchronization rule states that a BGP router cannot use or forward new route updates it learns from iBGP peers unless it knows about the network from another source.1 when it passes the update along to R3. When a router receives an update from an eBGP neighbor. it would be applied to R2 so any updates passed along to R3 would use an R2 address as the next-hop. For example.1 and so it cannot use it as its next hop address. The neighbor [IP address] next-hop-self command solves the problem by advertising itself as the next-hop address.1.2. The next-hop IP address is the IP address of the edge router belonging to the next-hop autonomous system.1. BGP uses the the IP address of the router the update was received from as its “next hop”.2. In this example.

. those changes could then cause another reconvergence – and on and on. You should know though. BGP must be enabled with the router command. but it is important topic to understand. If the network administrator decides that the filter needs to be applied to all routes. fastest route. while still forcing a reset. Those changes could affect many of the routes already in the routing table from BGP.The idea is to prevent using or forwarding on information that is unreliable and cannot be verified. like a route map. applying a route map or prefix list after BGP has converged can be disastrous. that both options are extremely memory-taxing on the router as all the routes must be recomputed. When a filter is applied. if it were to apply the filters and pull routes back from neighbors. Make sure to include the AS number. then the BGP instance must be reset – forcing the entire BGP table to pass through the filter. BGP prefers reliability and stability over using the newest. Remember. The router would have to check the filter against every possible route and attribute combination. To make matters worse. Route refresh was developed to solve the high memory problems. Because BGP’s network list is usually very long. use the no synchronization command under BGP configuration mode. Resetting BGP Sessions Internet routers running BGP have enormous routing tables. The following command performs the BGP route refresh: Router# clear ip bgp [ * | neighbor-address] BGP Configuration Enabling BGP Like other routing protocols. To remove the limitation. This means that iBGP peers will not update each other unless an IGP is running under the hood. There are three ways to do this:  Hard reset  Soft reset  Route refresh The hard and soft reset options aren’t discussed here because they are not directly relevant to the exam. changes to BGP attributes occur. BGP will only apply attribute and network changes to routes AFTER the filter has been applied. In an effort to avoid that scenario (BGP loves stability). All existing routes stay unchanged. recent versions of IOS have it disabled by default.

Peer groups not only reduce the number of lines of configuration.1. or it can peer to R2′s loopback interface.1 remote-as 65300 R1(config-router)# neighbor 10. If the AS number matches the local router’s. a single update process runs for all routers in the group. R1(config-router)# neighbor ip-address remote-as autonomous-system-number If a router has a long list of directly connected neighbors.1.3. If a peer group is configured. Much easier for large BGP networks. . the BGP configuration can start to get long and difficult to follow – especially as neighbor policies are applied.1.168. Notice that this means that all of the router inside a peer group must be either all iBGP or eBGP neighbors. If the AS number is different. Peer groups solve that.1. Basic neighbor configuration example: R1(config)# router bgp 65300 R1(config-router)# neighbor 10. it is an iBGP connection. A BGP update process normally runs for each neighbor. but they reduce the ease the overhead of the router.1.1 remote-as 65300 R1(config-router)# neighbor 10. Updating an entire group of neighbor statements can then be done with one command. 192.1.2. Like OUs in Active Directory.R1(config)# router bgp autonomous-system-number BGP Peering Each neighbor must be statically assigned using the neighbor command.1 remote-as 65300 Peer group configuration example: R1(config)# router bgp 65300 R1(config-router)# neighbor MINE peer-group R1(config-router)# neighbor MINE remote-as 65300 R1(config-router)# neighbor 10. Think of a peer group as a logical grouping of routers that are grouped under a single name to make changes faster and configurations shorter.2.1 peer-group MINE R1(config-router)# neighbor peer-group MINE R1(config-router)# neighbor 10. It can peer to the physical interface IP address. it is an eBGP connection.1.1 peer-group MINE BGP Source Address R1 in the diagram below has two different options when it comes to peering to R2. Peer groups BGP Peer groups are groups of peer neighbors that share a common update policy.

168.2. Remember that the loopback address must be added to the IGP running for this to work.2.2 interface fails. problems can occur if the interface goes down. remote-as 65400 R2(config-router)# neighbor 192. In this scenario. The update-source command accomplishes this. if R2′s 10.2 remote-as 65400 R1(config-router)# neighbor 192. This way. it still has connectivity to R2′s networks via R3 and R2′s other physical interface.1. Most implementations recommend using a loopback address as the BGP source address for this reason.168.1. R2 will still be reachable.1. Here’s an example: R1(config)# router bgp 65400 R1(config-router)# neighbor 192.1.2 interface drops. the BGP peer relationship would drop because R1 cannot reach its peering address with R2.If a peer relationship is made using the physical interface as the source address. even if R2′s 10.1 update-source loopback0 Defining Networks .2 update-source loopback0 R2(config)# router bgp 65400 R2(config-router)# neighbor 192.1. Even though an IGP would still show R2′s network as accessible.

2. EIGRP and OSPF use the network statements to define which interfaces you want to participate in the routing protocol process. Lowest origin code ( i < e < ? ) 6.0 255.1.1 remote-as 65300 R1(config-router)# network 10. Highest weight 2. BGP also does not load balance across links by default.1 remote-as 65300 R1(config-router)# network 10. Route with nearest IGP neighbor (lowest IGP metric) 9. Neighbor with the lowest router ID . Path with the shortest AS path 5. Instead. BGP Path Selection Unlike most other routing protocols.255.0 255.255. The optional mask keyword is often recommended as BGP supports subnetting and supernetting. eBGP route over iBGP route R1(config-router)# neighbor 10. This is why iBGP is not a good replacement for an IGP like EIGRP and OSPF. BGP uses the criteria in the following order: 1. BGP assigns a long list of attributes to each path.1. but the network must exist in the routing table. Example: R1(config)# router bgp 65300 R1(config-router)# neighbor 10.255. To select the best route.1.Network statements in BGP are used differently than in other routing protocols like EIGRP or OSPF. Each network doesn’t have to be originating from the local router.255. Each of these attributes can be administratively tuned for extremely granular control of route selections.1.0 Understand that by default a BGP router will not advertise a network learned from one iBGP peer to another. BGP is not concerned with using the fastest path to a given destination. BGP uses network statements to define which networks the local router should advertise. Lowest MED 7. Oldest route 10. Choose routes originated locally 4. Highest local preference 3.1.

Neighbor with the lowest IP address Controlling Path Selection The most common method of controlling the attributes listed above is to use route maps. This allows specific attributes to be changed on specific routes.1 weight 100 Local Preference Local preference is not proprietary to Cisco and can be used in a similar fashion to weight.294. and MED.20. Local preferences can range from 04. with 100 being the default value. It can be a value between 0-65. . In the example below.1 remote-as 65100 R2(config-router)# neighbor 10. Weight is local and is not sent to other routers. local preference is propagated to iBGP neighbors.1.967. weight is the most influential BGP attribute.11.1. 0 is the default. let’s first discuss the three prominent attributes: weight.168.0 then the weight attribute could raised on R2 for R1.1.295. R2(config)# router bgp 65100 R2(config-router)# neighbor 10. Weight On Cisco routers. Before we get into route maps. The weight attribute is proprietary to Cisco and is normally used to select an exit interface when multiple paths lead to the same destination.2. local preference.2.535. if you want R2 to prefer to use R1 when sending traffic to 192.1. Unlike weight. It can be set for the entire router or for a specific prefix.1 remote-as 65100 R2(config-router)# neighbor 10.

or multi-exit discriminator is used to influence which path external neighbors use to enter an AS. If you want to set the local preference on specific prefixes. To set the MED on all routes: R1(config-router)# default-metric value Here’s an example using a route map to influence incoming paths to 0.255 R7(config)# route-map med_example permit 10 R7(config-rmap)# match ip address 7 R7(config-rmap)# set metric 50 R7(config-rmap)# exit R7(config)# route-map med_example permit 20 R7(config-rmap)# set metric 150 BGP Verification It’s important that you understand and are able to interpret to results of the show ip bgp command output. Weight or local preference could be used to send outgoing traffic on the higher bandwidth link.0 0. route maps are usually the best option. it will be shared with R2 and R2 will begin using it as its best path to the distant network (assuming the weight is the same of course).0. but local preference is not shared with routers outside an AS.30. local preference.10. so attributes like weight. and origin are used first.0. The default MED value is 0 and a lower value is preferred.1 route-map med_example out R2(config-router)# exit R7(config)# access-list 7 permit 10.1 remote-as 100 R7(config-router)# neighbor AS path length.1 remote-as 200 R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.255 R7(config)# route-map lp_example permit 10 R7(config-rmap)# match ip address 7 R7(config-rmap)# set local-preference 300 R7(config-rmap)# exit R7(config)# route-map lp_example permit 20 R7(config-rmap)# set local-preference 100 MED The MED attribute. Below is an example of the local preference being set using a route map: R7(config)# router bgp 200 R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.30. if an administrator wanted R2 to use R1 when sending traffic to 192. the configuration would look something like this: R1(config)# router bgp 65100 R1(config-router)# bgp default local-preference 500 After the local preference is raised on R1.including the attributes assigned to each network. route-map lp_example in R2(configrouter)# exit R7(config)# access-list 7 permit 10. It is perhaps the most important BGP verification and troubleshooting tool! . A common scenario for MED is when a company has two connections to the same ISP for internet.0/24 using MED: R7(config)# router bgp 200 R7(config-router)# neighbor 10. It displays the contents of the local BGP topology database. MED could be set on one router so ISP routers prefer that path in.0.10.Using the diagram above. MED is also much farther down on the attribute list.

Recall that 0 is the default and if another value exists. h history. s (suppressed) – BGP is not advertising the network.0.25 10 0 25 ? *> 0. d damped. VPN tunnels and IPSec are two topics covered on the exam. In the example above. If it is blank. IPSec Basics IPSec allows the establishment of a secure connection between two hosts.0 – The fifth column shows the next hop address for each route. You’ll need to know enough to verify a sample configuration and answer straightforward questions on both technologies.incomplete Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path *> 10.0. These will end up in the routing table.0.25 10 0 25 ? *> 0. i . i/?.0 indicates the local router originated the route (examples include a network command entered locally or a network an IGP redistributed into BGP on the router) Metric (MED value) – The column titled Metric represents the configured MED values.0. it means the network was learned from an iBGP neighbor. > best.0 0.0.internal Origin codes: i .1.0 10.0 0 32768 ? *> 192.IGP. Because the . The other option is a question mark.0. e . Let’s start with IPSec. but not in great detail.0. it means the network was learned from an external source.0. ? . A 0. The IPSec protocol sets up a unidirectional SA (security association between the two endpoints).0/16 10.25 10 0 25 ? Attributes Here’s a breakdown of some important fields you should consider remembering: * – An asterisk in the first column means that the route has a valid next hop. local router ID is 10.0.0 0 32768 ? * 10.22.22. * valid. R1# show ip bgp BGP table version is 21.0. 0.0.0 10.0. usually because it is part of a summarized route.0.24 Status codes: s suppressed.168.0. i (internal) – If the third column has an i in it.0. which indicates that network commands were used to configure the route.22.22.0. > – Indicates the best route for a particular destination.0. ? is used for each route meaning they were all redistributed routes into BGP from an IGP.0. lower is preferred.0 0 32768 ? * 10.0.2. the output of the show ip bgp command can be a bit overwhelming if you don’t know what you are looking for.EGP.Because BGP uses many attributes and sources routes in a number of ways.The last column displays information on how BGP originally learned the route.

This allows routing protocols to operate within it. If a point-to-point WAN circuit drops. but with an administrative distance higher than that of the WAN routing protocol’s. make sure you define a higher administrative distance value at the end of the statement: R1(conf)# ip route prefix mask address|interface distance_value VPN Tunnels One major problem with standard IPSec sessions is that they do not support broadcast or multicast traffic. When the primary WAN circuit comes back up. GRE tunnels support many layer 3 protocols but perhaps most importantly allow . then the tunnel needs to allow routing information to pass through. resulting in two SAs per IPSec tunnel. “on-demand”. an IPSec tunnel can be configured to automatically be established over the internet to the remote site. which creates a problem. the IPSec tunnel is disconnected. Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) GRE tunnels may be the most common of the bunch – they are also the default tunnel mode on Cisco routers. The idea is to configure the IPSec VPN as a static route. the backup link is not placed into the routing table because it has a higher administrative distance. the static route becomes active. Floating Static Routes Configuring an IPSec tunnel to activate when a primary link drops is commonly implemented as a floating static route. Of course dynamic routing protocols use broadcast or multicast to send hellos and updates. “always-on” tunnel that supports multicast traffic. A generic tunnel can be configured within the IPSec tunnel to allow routing protocol information (along with all the other traffic).association is unidirectional. There are generally four ways to do this paired with IPSec: DMVPN and GET VPN Both allow the creation of secure. To configure a floating static route. multipoint tunnels. an SA is created on both ends. IPSec tunnels are often used as a backup to a WAN link failure. To get around this issue. a “tunnel within a tunnel” approach can be used. If the primary route is active. If the primary route goes down. Virtual Tunnel Interface (VTI) A secure. If you want to use an IPSec VPN in an “always on” fashion.

DSL uses frequencies not used by TDM phone systems on a phone line – allowing the extra bandwidth to be used for data connectivity. PPPoE is especially helpful because it frees the local office’s computers from running PPPoE Cable Broadband cable providers also provide internet connectivity which can be used for WAN backup or provide internet connectivity for telecommuters. Be aware that GRE tunnels add an additional 20 byte IP header as well as a 4 byte GRE tunnel header. a cable modem demodulates the incoming signal and converts the traffic to Ethernet frames. know that an Ethernet Switch Module would be required for the ISR router. Many different versions of the standard are used throughout the world. Instead. In that case. Cable system connections are typically not terminated directly into a Cisco router. Cisco ISR routers are often a good choice for branch sites as they support a wide variety of incoming services. . Both options can be configured on a Cisco router to terminate the DSL connectivity. but a cable modem allows the data traffic to be separated. can be used as a backup WAN connection to a branch office. The internet signal is carried on the same line that the television is carried. You need to be familiar with some of the underlying technologies used. DSL DSL. Branch Office Connectivity The CCNP ROUTE exam covers several unusual topics related to managing and configuring the connectivity between an HQ site and a branch office. while with symmetric DSL they are both the same rate. a single ISR may be used for a both remote connectivity and inter-VLAN routing.multicast traffic accross the tunnel – permitting dynamic routing protocol traffic. The international standard for sending data over a cable system is Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (or DOCSIS). PPoA Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM is less common and routes PPP traffic over an ATM network between the customer and the DSL service provider. In smaller offices. which a router can process. Asymmetrical DSL has higher downstream bandwidth than upstream. There are two primary methods for pushing L2 data across a DSL line: PPPoE Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet is the most common method and encapsulates PPP traffic into Ethernet frames. or Digital Subscriber Line.

IPv6 Basics IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long and are represented in dotted-decimal format. There are two ways to condense an IPv6 address: 1. IPv6 addresses are 128 bits and are in hexadecimal format. 0021:0001:0000:030A:0000:0000:0000:0987E can be abbreviated as: 21:1:0:30A:0:0:0:987E . especially on web-facing networks. The growth of web-based services and diminishing IPv4 addressing will continue to push organizations towards IPv6. IPv6 Shorthand The ability to shorten IPv6 addresses is very important to understand because it makes reading and writing them much easier. For example. Leading zeros can be removed in any section. The first 64 bits of an IPv6 address are reserved for the network portion and the last 64 bits are used for the host portion.IPv6 is an important topic – and not just for the exam.

Sequential sections of all zeros can be shortened to a single double colon. it can be further shortened to: 21:1:0:30A::987E Unicast. only one will be used per packet sent. Instead. global unicast and link-local unicast. Multicast Unlike IPv4. Multicast. Technically. Manual Address Configuration . Here is the list:  Unicast address  Link-local address  loopback (::1/128)  All nodes multicast (FF00::1)  Site-local multicast (FF02::2)  Solicited-nodes multicast  Default Route (::/0) IPv6 Address Assignment There are three different ways devices are assigned an IPv6 address: manual configuration. IPv6 addressing does not support broadcasts. Be aware that with IPv6. Anycast allows the same address to be used on multiple devices for load balancing and redundancy. it is used for sending traffic to the nearest interface in a group.2. & Anycast Unicast Unicast is for sending traffic to a single interface. This can only be used once per address. Using the same example address above. Anycast IPv6 supports another new packet type – anycast. This is used for sending traffic to a group of devices. or DHCPv6. stateless autoconfiguration. it has replaced it with multicast (which is a more efficient variation). While multiple devices may be running the same anycast address. In IPv6 there are actually two different unicast types. an interface can be assigned multiple addresses.

To configure stateless autoconfiguration.The first thing to know about manual IPv6 address configuration is that addresses assigned to a router interface use the address/prefix-length notation instead of the address mask notation. use the ipv6 address autoconfig command.255… after every IP address! Also. NDP stands for Neighbor Discovery Protocol and uses ICMP packets as part of the neighbor discovery process. make sure you first enable IPv6 routing with the ipv6 unicast-routing global configuration command. This is so much easier than typing 255. Stateless Autoconfiguration Stateless autoconfiguration allows a device to self-assign an IP address for use locally without any outside information. it uses NDP to make sure it is actually unique within the local network. Use the ipv6 address ipv6-address/prefix-length command to assign an address. An example of an interface configured with an IPv6 address: R1# conf t R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing R1(config)# int gig 1/1 R1(configif)# ipv6 address 21:1:0:30A::987E/64 Manual Network Assignment Another way to manually configure an IPv6 address is to configure the network and allow the host portion to be auto-populated based on the device’s MAC address. Since every MAC address should be unique. it flips the 7th bit and inserts 0xFFFE into the middle of the MAC address. it works well for auto-generated local IP addresses. Link-local addresses are not routable within packets and are used for administrative purposes within the local segment. Link-local addresses are created using the prefix FE80:: and appending the device’s MAC address. Remember that interfaces using IPv6 will often have more than one IPv6 address assigned. This can work well because MAC addresses are 64 bits long – the exact same length as the host portion of an IPv6 address! An example configuration with the network portion defined: R1(config)# int gig 1/1 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 21:1:0:30A::/64 Note: Some systems have a 48 bit MAC address. To do this. and in this case stateless autoconfiguraiton will generate a link-local address in addition to any other manually assigned addresses. In this case. add the keyword eui-64 to the end of the ipv6 address statement. Once a router has created an IPv6 link-local address using stateless autoconfiguration. R1(config)# int gig 1/1 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address autoconfig . most IGPs use link-local addresses for neighbor relationships and the link-local address is listed as the next-hop address in the routing table. For example. This modified version is called an EUI-64 address.

Perhaps the biggest difference is that there is no network command.  EIGRP messages are exchanged using the link-local address as the source address. Other than that. but when running EIGRP with IPv6 addresses it uses the multicast address FF02::A. but a few changes were made starting with messaging. IPv6 EIGRP There are many differences in the way EIGRP is configured for IPv6. except for the ipv6 route keywords instead of ip route. To configure IPv6 EIGRP: R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing ! R1(config)# ipv6 router eigrp AS R1(configrtr)# router-id ipv4-address R1(config-rtr)# no shut R1(config-rtr)# exit ! R1(config)# interface type number R1(config-if)# ipv6 eigrp AS OSPFv3 OSPFv3 is an updated version of OSPF designed to accommodate IPv6 natively. Instead. . EIGRP routing is enabled on each participating interface.  Also.  The last major change is that the EIGRP process starts in the shutdown state. it is exactly the same. The format is that of an IPv4 address – 32 digits and it can be a private address (non-routable) with no issues. Most of the configuration and function is identical to its predecessor.  It still sends hellos out every 5 seconds to its neighbors. An example of a static IPv6 default route: R1(config)# ipv6 route ::/0 serial1/1 An example of an IPv6 static route with a next-hop address: R1(config)# ipv6 route 2003:2:1:A::/64 2003:2:1:F::1 To view the IPv6 routes in the routing table.IPv6 Routing Static Routes The configuration for IPv6 static routes is identical to IPv4. EIGRP running IPv6 requires a router ID be configured. use the command show ipv6 route. You have to issue a no shut to bring it up on the router.

 OSPFv3 uses the multicast address FF02::5 and FF02::6. Like EIGRP and OSPFv3.  Like the IPv6 implementation of EIGRP. The RID that is assigned will then be used to determine the DR and BDR on a segment (highest wins). Instead.1 R2(config-rtr)# area 1 stub no-summary R2(configrtr)# exit ! R2(config)# interface gig1/1 R2(config-if)# ipv6 address 2003:2:1:2::1/64 R2(config-if)# ipv6 ospf 100 area 0 ! R2(config)# interface gig1/2 R2(config-if)# ipv6 address 2003:2:1:A::1/64 R2(config-if)# ipv6 ospf 100 area 1 R2(config-if)# ipv6 ospf priority 30 MP-BGP MP-BGP. it still is done in router configuration mode. The configuration is now done on each individual interface.10. or multiple protocol BGP. . or NAT. The following is an example configuration: R2(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing ! R2(config)# ipv6 router ospf 100 R2(configrtr)# router-id 10. Dual Stack This involves running IPv4 alongside IPv6 on the same system. tunneling. was outlined in RFC 2858 and includes extensions to the original BGP standard that allows support for other protocols – one of which is IPv6! The command address-family was added to specify which new protocol functionality is being configured and is used when applying IPv6 addressing. Networks and other parameters are also configured under IPv6 address-family mode submode. it relies on the underlying authentications built into IPv6. R3(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing ! R3(config)# router bgp 600 R3(config-rtr)# router-id 10. an IPv4 address must be configured as a router ID. The BGP configuration is not done at the interface level. The major difference is that neighbors must be first defined under router BGP configuration mode and then “activated” under IPv6 address-family mode submode.  It is possible to run multiple instances of OSPFv3 on each link. It will not automatically create one based on highest loopback or interface address.10.10. like IPSec. a 32 bit router ID must be manually created.10.10 R3(config-rtr)# neighbor 2003:76:1:1::10 remote-as 700 R3(config-rtr)# address-family ipv6 unicast R3(config-rtr-af)# neighbor 2003:76:1:1::10 activate R3(config-rtr-af)# network 2003:2:2::/48 R3(configrtr-af)# exit R3(config-rtr)# exit Migrating to IPv6 Three options exist for transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6: dual stack. but like EIGRP it now uses its link-local address as the source address in advertisements.  OSPFv3 has dropped it’s native authentication options.

1 RouterA(config-if)# tunnel destination 10. Manual IPv6 tunnels are easy to configure using the tunnel mode ipv6ip command. The source router (RouterA) encapsulates the IPv6 traffic in IPv4 headers. the network core does not support IPv6 or it has not been implemented. The only requirement is that there is end-to-end IPv4 connectivity between both ends. Because IPv6 tunnels provide virtual IPv6 connectivity through an IPv4 transport. and applications to be slowly moved to IPv6. GRE tunnels are very flexible and work over most protocols.Tunneling This option allows you to encapsulate IPv6 traffic within an IPv4 header. Dual Stack configuration example: R1# config t R1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing R1(config)# ipv6 cef ! R1(config)# interface serial1/0/1 R1(config-if)# ip address 192. IPv6 tunnels solve this problem by allowing IPv6 islands to exist and bridges them over IPv4 systems. .1 RouterA(config-if)# tunnel mode ipv6ip RouterA(config-if)# exit GRE Tunnels First. NAT A new network translation extension. but it requires most of your infrastructure to support IPv6.1. Both protocols can run concurrently and neither communicating with the other. IPv6 will be used. Dual Stack Using a dual-stack transition allows servers. Using the Router A/B example above.3.1 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:1:3:1::1/64 IPv6 Tunneling Dual-stacking IPv4 alongside IPv6 on systems works well. NAT-PT allows IPv6-to4 translation. then forwards it to the other end of the tunnel (Router B). it does not matter what specific IPv4 transport is used. the configuration on Router A would look something like this: RouterA(config)# interface tunnel0 RouterA(config-if)# ipv6 address 2001:2:0:7::/64 RouterA(config-if)# tunnel source Router B then decapsulates the packets and forwards them on to their destination using native IPv6. Manual Tunnels The tunnels discussed here are from one router to another. In many cases. clients. GRE tunnels are the default tunnel method on Cisco routers.3. If both IPv4 and IPv6 are running on a server for example.

Define the address mappings (either static or dynamic) using the options discussed below. To apply it to traffic on a specific interface.The tunnel requires an IPv6 address using the method just described. NAT-PT allows bidirectional translation services. but set up the tunnel dynamically. They only support static and BGP routes. Each router on both sides of the tunnel needs a route to its peer. To enable NAT-PT IPv4 to IPv6 translation on a router. use the command tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4. but at its most basic level a pool of addresses is created and the router temporarily assigns them to hosts as they need them. NAT Translation is a unique solution because it allows IPv4 devices to communicate with IPv6 devices without the dual stack requirement. enter ipv6 nat prefix/prefix_length in interface configuration submode. but don’t enter a destination. To apply it globally on the router. For an IPv4 to IPv6 static mapping: . 6to4 tunnels use 2002::/16 IPv6 addresses in front of the 32 bit IPv4 address of the edge router – creating a 48 bit prefix. The second step is to define at least one NAT-PT prefix. but you do not have to specify the tunnel mode. Configure the tunnel as if it was a manual tunnel. Static NAT-PT For an IPv6 to IPv4 static mapping: R1(config)# ipv6 nat v6v4 source ipv6_address ipv4_address For an IPv4 to IPv6 static mapping: R1(config)# ipv6 nat v4v6 source ipv4_address ipv6_address Dynamic NAT-PT There are many ways to implement dynamic NAT using IPv6.The configuration is exactly the same as the manual configuration example above. Only traffic matching the prefix will be translated. enter ipv6 nat prefix/prefix_length in global configuration mode. 2. Finally. so be careful. using the IPv4 address as the source. 3. the first step is to use the ipv6 nat command on each interface participating in the translation. routing protocols can be enabled on GRE tunnel interfaces just as if they were physical interfaces. Also. 1. 6to4 Tunnels 6to4 tunnels are similar to the manual tunnel.

R1(config)# ipv6 nat v4v6 pool name beginning_ipv6 ending_ipv6 prefix-length prefix-length R1(config)# ipv6 nat v4v6 source list (access-list_number | name) pool name For an IPv6 to IPv4 static mapping: R1(config)# ipv6 nat v6v4 pool name beginning_ipv4 ending_ipv4 prefix-length prefix-length R1(config)# ipv6 nat v6v4 source list (access-list_number | name) pool name .