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577 QUIZ


What are the weldment requirements prior to welding?
Review the WPS(s) and welder performance qualification record(s) (WPQ) to assure they are acceptable
for the work.
Confirm the NDE examiner(s), NDE procedure(s) and NDE equipment of the inspection organization are
acceptable for the work.
Confirm welding equipment and instruments are calibrated and operate.
Confirm heat treatment and pressure testing procedures and associated equipment are acceptable
Ensure all filler metals, base materials, and backing ring materials are properly marked and identified and
if required, perform PMI to verify the material composition.
Confirm weld preparation, joint fit-up, and dimensions are acceptable and correct.
Confirm the preheat equipment and temperature.
Confirm electrode, filler wire, fluxes, and inert gases are as specified and acceptable.


What are the materials requirements prior to welding?

a. Material test certifications are available and items properly marked (including back-up ring if used
b. Electrode marking, bare wire flag tags, identification on spools of wire, etc. as-specified (see 9.2).
c. Filler material markings are traceable to a filler material certification.
d. Base metal markings are traceable to a material certification.
e. Recording of filler and base metal traceability information is performed.
f. Base metal stampings are low stress and not detrimental to the component.
g. Paint striping color code is correct for the material of construction.
h. PMI records supplement the material traceability and confirm the material of construction


What are the quality assurance tasks during welding?
Establish a quality assurance and quality control umbrella with the welding organization.
Confirm welding parameters and techniques are supported by the WPS and WPQ.
Complete physical checks, visual examination, and in-process NDE


What are the appearance and finish tasks upon completion of welding?

a. Size, length and location of all welds conform to the drawings/specifications/Code.
b. No welds added without approval.
c. Dimensional and visual checks of the weld don’t identify welding discontinuities, excessive distortion and
poor workmanship.
d. Temporary attachments and attachment welds removed and blended with base metal.
e. Discontinuities reviewed against acceptance criteria for defect classification.
f. PMI of the weld, if required, and examiner’s findings indicate they comply with the specification.
g. Welder stamping/marking of welds confirmed.
h. Perform field hardness check


Name 2 NDE personnel qualifications specified in ASME SEC V art 1.



What are 6 referenced welding processes?
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
gas tungsten
arc welding (GTAW)
gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

Base metal. Shielding gas. and before depositing a weld bead adjacent to or onto a previously deposited weld bead. Preparation of base metal. What are the 4 tests that can be found on the PQR? they will include tension test to determine the ultimate strength of a groove weld. d.    What are the 3 filler metal transfer modes in the GMAW welding process? Short Circuiting Transfer (GMAW-S) The globular transfer mode The spray transfer mode 9. if used. What are at least six types of essential variables that must be shown on the WPS? a. Welding position. Equipment is relatively simple. b. Filler metal (and/or flux). Backside of joint. inexpensive. Process is less sensitive to wind and draft than other welding processes. h. Deposition rates are lower than for other processes such as GMAW. i. b. The second step is to verify the PQR has been properly completed and addresses all the requirements of Section IX and the construction and repair code. . j.        . c. 8. Process can be used in areas of limited access. g. Process. guided bend tests to determine the degree of soundness and ductility of a groove weld notch toughness testing when toughness requirements are imposed. f. flux cored arc welding (FCAW) submerged arc welding (SAW) stud arc welding (SW) What are the advantages and limitations of the SMAW welding process? Some commonly accepted advantages of the SMAW process include: a. The third step is to confirm the PQR essential variable values properly support the range specified in the WPS. 11. Welding current. b. hardness measurements when hardness restrictions are defined What are the 3 steps used in reviewing a WPS/PQR? The initial step is to verify the WPS has been properly completed and addresses the requirements of Section IX and the construction/repair code. e. Process is suitable for most of the commonly used metals and alloys. Limitations associated with SMAW are: a. d. Peening. c. Slag usually must be removed at stops and starts. and portable. 10. Fitting and alignment.   7.

Inspection is to be performed in accordance with a procedure as specified by the referencing code section). a filtered blacklight is used to observe the particles. Minimum required surface illumination (visible or blacklight) of the part under examination 19. applying the developer. Center and Protractor. This table illustrates the specified thickness and number of ASTM E 142 IQI’s (penetrameters) for all thickness ranges. such as the caliper. Details for removing excess penetrant. a No. d. g. For added sensitivity using MT which technique is recommended? For added sensitivity. IX 15. 13. would be used. Where can ASME guidelines be found for storage and handling of filler metals? Welding consumable storage and handled guidelines should be in accordance with the consumable manufacturer’s instructions and guidelines and as given in the AWS A5. Details for pre-examination cleaning including minimum drying time. c. e.312 in. For pipe wall or weld thickness of 0. Evaluation of indications in terms of the acceptance standards of the referencing code. 2T & 4T . Steel ruler—available in a wide selection of sizes and graduations to suit the needs of the inspector (considered a non-precision measuring instrument). capable of measuring in decimal units to a precision factor of 0. Type of penetrant materials to be used. h. What are the 4 requirements that apply to PT? a. micrometer. which requires the area of testing be darkened 18. The Vernier system is used on various precision measuring instruments. Levels—tools designed to prove if a plane or surface is truly horizontal or vertical 17. b. c. The AWS classification numbers are specified in ASME Section IIC under their appropriate SFA specification number. d. height and depth gages.12. Thickness gauge—commonly called a “Feeler” gauge is used to measure the clearance between objects. Vernier scale—a precision instrument.0001 in.015 in. (7. 1T. ASME Section IX Table QW-432 lists the AWS classification numbers and SFA specification numbers included under each of the Fnumbers. (150 mm – 600 mm) of the surface to be examined and at an angle not less than 30 degrees to the surface 16. The A-number applies to which type of vessel? steel and steel alloy 14. b.XX series of filler metal specifications . e. See Table 7 for IQI (penetrameter) numbers for other thicknesses.9 mm). wet fluorescent magnetic particle (WFMT) techniques may be used. and time before interpretation. Used universally in mechanical work for assembly and layout examination. gear tooth and protractors. Dwell time for the penetrant. Sec. Name the 5 mechanical aids to VT. a. f. What are the common hole diameters of hole type IQI’s related to? Hole-type IQI’s (penetrameters) are placed next to the weld either on the parent material or on a shim having a thickness equivalent to the weld build-up. Combination square set—consisting of a blade and a set of three heads: Square. With this technique. – 24 in. Post examination cleaning requirements. 15 ASTM IQI (penetrameter) with a thickness of 0. Direct VT is conducted when access is sufficient to place the eye within? Direct visual examination is conducted when access is sufficient to place the eye within 6 in. Where are the AWS classifications found in Sec IX? An AWS classification number identifies electrodes and welding rods.

and other factors. The possible variations of the discontinuities’ images as a function of radiographic geometry. The characteristics of the radiation source and energy level(s) with respect to the material being examined. 21. What is the purpose of DAC? The distance amplitude correction (DAC) curve allows a simple echo evaluation of unknown reflectors by comparison of the echo height with respect to the DAC (%DAC). 25. visual aids and the hold time at a specific pressure prior to application of the bubble solution. the echo amplitude from a given size reflector decreases as the distance from the probe increases. For ID connected flaws.0 in. – 3. c. and Cobalt (CO60) is used for steel thickness of 1. What are the 3 types of Automated UT? Pulse Echo Raster Scanning. To set up DAC. Because of attenuation and beam divergence in all materials. For OD connected flaws. which is applied to the areas of a closed system under pressure. – 7. The possible and most probable types of discontinuities that may occur in the test object.25 in. When performing the bubble test. When using the double wall technique for RT how many exposures are required when both walls are superimposed? Alternatively. What is a common leak testing method that is used in hydrotesting? One of the most common methods used during hydrostatic testing is the direct pressure bubble test. The tip diffraction method is effective for sizing what type flaws? Tip diffraction methods are very effective for sizing flaws which are open to the inside or outside diameter surface and are shallow to mid-wall.. the maximum response from a specified reference reflector (e. The characteristics of the recording media in response to the selected radiation source and the energy level(s).5 in. The product form (object) being radiographed.g. and f. pre-test and post-test cleaning of the part to be inspected. some items of concern include the temperature of surface to be inspected. two techniques are available. a minimum of three exposures taken at either 60° or 120° to each other should be made for each weld joint. lighting. d. What are 3 types of displays used with UT? The A-scan. the time-offlight tip diffraction technique and the time measurement technique of the tip diffracted signal and the base signal. e. Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) 26. 23. . b. What are the 2 most common radioactive sources used for RT? Gamma Ray (IR192) is normally used for performing radiography on steel with a thickness range of 0. When complete coverage is required. the half “V” path or one and one half “V” path technique is used. the weld may be radiographed with the radiation beam positioned such that both walls are superimposed. flat bottom or side drilled hole) is recorded at different depths over the required test range. B-scan and C-scan 24. What are 4 items that a film interpreter must possess? The interpreter should know: a. This method employs a liquid bubble solution.0 in. 22. Pulse Echo Zoned Inspection.20. The processing of the recording media with respect to the image quality. A visual test is then performed to note any bubbles that are formed as the leakage gas passes through it. 27.

metals with high electrical conductivity also have high thermal conductivity.12. and phosphorous. b. What are other terms for rapid heating and cooling of a wrought material within certain temp ranges? The formation of structures such as bainite and martensite may also be the result of rapid or controlled cooling and reheating within certain temperature ranges often termed “quenching” and “tempering. e.12. Inspection method. c. Inspection sheet number. these elements can cause variations in the solidification temperature of different microstructural phases within the melt. 32. High-alloy materials welded with gas-shielded processes usually employ inert shielding gases or mixtures with only slight additions of reactive gases to promote arc stability. This is not a problem on carbon and low-alloy steels. Procedure number. Materials with high thermal conductivity require higher or lower heat inputs to weld? In general. Inspection results. c. b. Visual aids and other equipment used g. Date of inspection. Weld type/material/thickness g. e. Inspection limitations. a. sulfur. c. Materials with high thermal conductivity require higher heat inputs to weld than those with lower thermal conductivity and may require a pre-heat.3 Inspection Results a. Examiner certification information. d. this can cause an increase in carbon content and the formation of oxides that can lower the corrosion resistant properties of the weld.1 General Information 9. on highalloy and reactive metals. Examiner.12. Component/system d. such elements as carbon. Weld identification f. can vary in a pure metal. A description of all recordable and reportable indications e. For each indication: f. Because of the solubility of trace and alloying elements.1.2 Inspection Information 9. . As the melt cools.1.1. 30. Weld reference datum point. Customer or project a. these elements are eventually contained in the micro structural phases that solidify last in spaces between the grains. 29. Subassembly/description. What items of inspection results are to be reported in an inspection report? 9. A reactive gas such as carbon dioxide can break down at arc temperatures into carbon and oxygen. However. Date of inspection. What is an important factor in the selection of shielding gases? An important factor in selecting shielding gases is the type or mixture. Contract number or site b. d. What effects does trace elements of carbon. sulfur and phosphorous have in a cast structure? The properties of the cast structure can also be impaired by compositional variations in the microstructure called segregation.28. 31.

and the elongation begins to concentrate in one localized region within the gage length. susceptibility to wet H2S cracking in carbon steel is reduced if hardness levels are maintained below HRC 22. 38. which are hardness related.33. Ductility is usually expressed as percentage of the elongation within a __________gage length? Uniform elongation will continue. For instance. Brinnell.” The necking-down continues until the specimen can no longer resist the stress and the specimen separates or fractures. What is the meaning of 55 HRC? A letter has been assigned to each combination of load and indenter. a value of 55 on the C scale is expressed as 55 HRC. Vickers. The nominal stress of a metal is equal to the tensile strength. Eliminate moisture from the weld area. as does the reduction in the diameter of the specimen. What is the name applied to a notched bar impact test? One of the most common is a notched bar impact test called the Charpy impact test. For example. This ability of aluminum to transfer heat so efficiently also makes it more difficult to weld with low temperature heat sources. d. What is an example of an in-service degradation that is hardness related? There are often in-service degradation requirements. 40. R for Rockwell and then a letter indicating scale employed. Bring temperature up to preheat or interpass temperatures required by the WPS. The ultimate tensile strength of a metal is determined by dividing the external load applied by the cross sectional area of the tensile specimen 35. b. c. What are 6 reasons for performing pre heating? a. depending on the chemistry and thickness of the alloy to be welded. Aluminum is a good conductor of heat and has the ability to transfer heat very efficiently. Many codes and standards require impact testing at minimum design metal temperatures based on service or location temperatures to assure that the material has sufficient toughness to resist brittle fracture. 39. 34. which is especially important in weld joints with high restraint. such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. What are metals with high coefficient of thermal expansion susceptible to? Steel is a poor conductor of heat as compared with aluminum or copper. Stress in relation to a tensile test is defined as? Stress is defined as the force acting in a given region of the metal when an external load is applied. Rockwell 37. 36. 41. Meet the requirements of the applicable fabrication code. . The stress at which this occurs is called the ultimate tensile strength. Reduce shrinkage stresses in the weld and base metal. Maintain weld interpass temperatures. Name 3 hardness testing methods. As a result it takes less heat to melt steel. e. f. Reduce the cooling rate to prevent hardening and a reduction in ductility of the weld and base metal HAZ. The test specimen is said to begin to “neck down. Materials are often impact tested at various to determine what? Materials are often tested at various temperatures to determine the ductile to brittle transition temperature. Scale is indicated by a suffix combination of H for Hardness.

What are the factors related to weldability? a. Steels with a CE of 0.55 usually require preheating. The specific welding processes being used to join the metal. an alternate welding procedure qualified with PWHT is necessary . Ductility and fracture toughness tests include bend tests and impact tests 50. and the weld filler metal used. The simplest weldability tests are those that evaluate what? The simplest weldability tests are those that evaluate the strength and ductility of the weld. This type of cracking occurs when the rigidity of the joint is so severe that the base metal or weld metal strength cannot resist the strains and stresses applied by expansion and contraction of the weld joint. In those instances where PWHT is needed. 48. Weld joint design. 43. 44. What is the primary factor affecting weldability of metals and alloys? A primary factor affecting weldability of metals and alloys is their chemical composition. What do steels having a CE between 0. d. and hardness. ductility and toughness. 46. How is hardenability determined? The simplest means to determine hardenability is to measure the depth to which a piece of steel hardens during quenching from an elevated temperature. .55 require? Typically. which is related to the chemical composition and microstructure of the metal or alloy. Tests that evaluate strength include weld tension tests. shear strength. is a statement of the chemical analysis and weight percent of the chemical elements present in an ingot or a billet. or mill certificate. As the hardness of the base metal HAZ increases so does the susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking. The metallurgical compatibility of the metal or alloy being welded.35 require no preheat. The Lehigh Test evaluates what types of cracks? Weld restraint induces stresses that can contribute to cracking of both the weld and base metal in fabrication welds. c. A heat analysis. The ability of the metal to be welded such that the completed weld has sound mechanical properties. What is the primary reason for PWHT? The primary reason for post-weld heat treatment is to relieve the residual stresses in a welded fabrication . Why is hardening of the weld and base metal HAZ are important in carbon and low alloy steels? Hardening of the weld and base metal HAZ are important because of hydrogen assisted cracking that occurs in carbon and low-alloy steels.35 – 0. What are 2 types of MTR’s? There are typically two types of test reports. and steels with a CE greater than 0. b.42. a heat analysis and a product analysis. A product analysis is a statement of the chemical analysis of the end product and is supplied by the manufacturer of the material. steels with a CE less than 0. The hardness limits currently recommended for steels in refinery process service are listed in Table 11. 45. 47.55 require both preheating and a PWHT 49. regardless of whether specified on the welding procedure specification.35 – 0. The mechanical properties of the metal. e. Hardness values obtained in excess of these usually indicate that post-weld heat treatment is necessary. such as strength.

More frequent tack welds may be necessary for stainless steels to limit shrinkage. plants have welding procedures qualified specifically for hot taps and in-service welding. and 4. Austenitic welds require a minimum amount of delta ferrite to resist cracking. 52. Specifying the sequence of welding full encirclement sleeves and fittings (circumferential and longitudinal welds). Is distortion greater or less for austenitic stainless steel than carbon steel? Distortion is more often a problem with welding of austenitic stainless steels than carbon or low-alloy steels. The amount of ferrite in the weld metal is primarily a function of both base metal and weld metal chemistry. Hot tap and in-service welding operations should be carried out with what type of electrodes? Hot tap and in-service welding operations should be carried out only with low-hydrogen consumables and electrodes (e. E7018 and E7048). it is desirable to maintain some product flow inside of any material being welded. 57. Extra-low-hydrogen consumables such as Exxxx-H4 should be used for welding carbon steels with CE greater than 0. 55. (6. 54. and highly constrained areas.51. high strength. Verifying the welding procedure. For this reason pre-heating. b. (4.. Is it an advantage or disadvantage to apply preheating to nickel alloys when welding? The faster a nickel alloy weld solidifies (freezes). Faster liquid flow rates may cool the weld area too quickly and thereby cause hard zones that are susceptible to weld cracking or low toughness properties in the weldment. is actually harmful.0 ft/sec. 53. E7016.3 ft/sec. Liquid flow rates in piping shall be between 1. Verifying flow conditions. For equipment and piping wall thicknesses where burn through is not a primary concern. The thermal conductivity of austenitic stainless steels is about one third that of carbon steel and the coefficient of thermal expansion is about 30% greater. What is the required liquid flow rates in piping when in-service welding is performed? Under most conditions. Verifying adequate wall thickness along the lengths of the proposed welds typically using UT or RT. the base metal chemistry should be appropriate to produce the small amounts of ferrite that is needed to prevent cracking. Weaving the bead should also be avoided as this increases the heat input. For welds made without filler metal. which slows down the cooling rate of the weld. c. This helps to dissipate the heat and to limit the metal temperature during the welding operation. 56. the first weld pass to equipment or piping less than 1/4 in. e. d. What is the most common measure of weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel than for carbon steel? The most common measure of weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking is the ferrite number of the weld metal.76 mm) or smaller diameter welding electrode to limit heat input. Verifying fit-up of the hot tap fitting. .35 mm) thick should be made with 3/32 in. To minimize burnthrough the first weld pass should be made with what diameter electrode? To minimize burn through. a larger diameter electrode can be used. Often. the less time it spends in the temperature range where it can tear. as it permits more opportunity for hot tearing to occur. This means that distortion is greater for austenitic stainless steels than for carbon steels.43% or where there is potential for hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC) such as cold worked pieces.g. What are the inspection tasks typically associated with hot tapping or welding on in-service equipment? a. thereby reducing the risk of burnthrough.

Auditing welding to assure the welding procedure is being followed. to weld thin base metals. h.7 mm) per variable QW-404-32. short circuiting mode (designated by the -S extension).2 an essential variable when qualifying a welder for the GMAW-S process. This allows the unique ability to weld out of position.1 times the deposited thickness for coupons less than 1/2 in. When using the low voltage. b. MT or PT as applicable for material and temperature. Requiring welders qualify with mechanical testing rather than by radiographic examination. the molten weld puddle is able to freeze more quickly. thick (12.f. What do the 1st 2 XX’s stand for on the SMAW electrode identification system? 1st & 2nd X’s is for Strength. It refers to a flux that will produce weld metal which. Due to this inherent nature of the welding process the BPV Code Section IX. in the aswelded condition. Witness leak testing of fitting. Limiting the deposited weld metal thickness qualified by the procedure to 1. if specified. Typically this includes VT. restricts this process by: a.000 psi and Charpy V-notch impact strength of at least 20 ft-lb at –60°F when deposited with an EM12K electrode under the conditions called for in this specification. will have a tensile strength no lower than 70. What is the identification of the flux? F7A6-EM12K is a complete designation. Perform NDE of completed welds. 3rd X is for position. Limiting the base metal thickness qualified by the procedure to 1. 58. c. . 59. thick (12.7 mm) per variable QW-403. codes and standards impose limitations or special conditions on its use. UT shear wave using special procedures for the joint configuration. Making variable QW-409.      What are 5 types of weld joints? Butt Joint Corner Joint T-Joint Lap Joint Edge Joint 61. g. An electrode/flux identification is F7A6-EM12K.1 times the test coupon thickness for coupons less than 1/2 in. What is the transfer mode for GMAW-S? GMAW in the short-circuiting transfer mode is of particular significance to inspectors in that many specifications. d. The technique can suffer from incomplete fusion particularly in the sidewall of steep or narrow weld preparations. and to weld open butt root passes. 60.10. 4th X is for coating characteristics EXXXX 62. What is the limiting factor for base metal thickness when welding with the GMAW-S process? The gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process can utilize various metal transfer modes.