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577 QUIZ


What are the weldment requirements prior to welding?
Review the WPS(s) and welder performance qualification record(s) (WPQ) to assure they are acceptable
for the work.
Confirm the NDE examiner(s), NDE procedure(s) and NDE equipment of the inspection organization are
acceptable for the work.
Confirm welding equipment and instruments are calibrated and operate.
Confirm heat treatment and pressure testing procedures and associated equipment are acceptable
Ensure all filler metals, base materials, and backing ring materials are properly marked and identified and
if required, perform PMI to verify the material composition.
Confirm weld preparation, joint fit-up, and dimensions are acceptable and correct.
Confirm the preheat equipment and temperature.
Confirm electrode, filler wire, fluxes, and inert gases are as specified and acceptable.


What are the materials requirements prior to welding?

a. Material test certifications are available and items properly marked (including back-up ring if used
b. Electrode marking, bare wire flag tags, identification on spools of wire, etc. as-specified (see 9.2).
c. Filler material markings are traceable to a filler material certification.
d. Base metal markings are traceable to a material certification.
e. Recording of filler and base metal traceability information is performed.
f. Base metal stampings are low stress and not detrimental to the component.
g. Paint striping color code is correct for the material of construction.
h. PMI records supplement the material traceability and confirm the material of construction


What are the quality assurance tasks during welding?
Establish a quality assurance and quality control umbrella with the welding organization.
Confirm welding parameters and techniques are supported by the WPS and WPQ.
Complete physical checks, visual examination, and in-process NDE


What are the appearance and finish tasks upon completion of welding?

a. Size, length and location of all welds conform to the drawings/specifications/Code.
b. No welds added without approval.
c. Dimensional and visual checks of the weld don’t identify welding discontinuities, excessive distortion and
poor workmanship.
d. Temporary attachments and attachment welds removed and blended with base metal.
e. Discontinuities reviewed against acceptance criteria for defect classification.
f. PMI of the weld, if required, and examiner’s findings indicate they comply with the specification.
g. Welder stamping/marking of welds confirmed.
h. Perform field hardness check


Name 2 NDE personnel qualifications specified in ASME SEC V art 1.



What are 6 referenced welding processes?
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
gas tungsten
arc welding (GTAW)
gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

Peening. Equipment is relatively simple. Preparation of base metal. if used. d. Process. guided bend tests to determine the degree of soundness and ductility of a groove weld notch toughness testing when toughness requirements are imposed. Process is suitable for most of the commonly used metals and alloys. Backside of joint. 10. and portable. 8. Welding current. b. and before depositing a weld bead adjacent to or onto a previously deposited weld bead. j. hardness measurements when hardness restrictions are defined What are the 3 steps used in reviewing a WPS/PQR? The initial step is to verify the WPS has been properly completed and addresses the requirements of Section IX and the construction/repair code. Shielding gas. d. f. Limitations associated with SMAW are: a. h. Welding position. Slag usually must be removed at stops and starts. c. e. b. Filler metal (and/or flux). The third step is to confirm the PQR essential variable values properly support the range specified in the WPS. 11.    What are the 3 filler metal transfer modes in the GMAW welding process? Short Circuiting Transfer (GMAW-S) The globular transfer mode The spray transfer mode 9. The second step is to verify the PQR has been properly completed and addresses all the requirements of Section IX and the construction and repair code. Fitting and alignment. Process is less sensitive to wind and draft than other welding processes.   7. i. Deposition rates are lower than for other processes such as GMAW. inexpensive. Base metal. What are the 4 tests that can be found on the PQR? they will include tension test to determine the ultimate strength of a groove weld. Process can be used in areas of limited access. flux cored arc welding (FCAW) submerged arc welding (SAW) stud arc welding (SW) What are the advantages and limitations of the SMAW welding process? Some commonly accepted advantages of the SMAW process include: a. .        . What are at least six types of essential variables that must be shown on the WPS? a. b. c. g.

12. ASME Section IX Table QW-432 lists the AWS classification numbers and SFA specification numbers included under each of the Fnumbers. 15 ASTM IQI (penetrameter) with a thickness of 0. Minimum required surface illumination (visible or blacklight) of the part under examination 19. height and depth gages. 2T & 4T . Post examination cleaning requirements. Where can ASME guidelines be found for storage and handling of filler metals? Welding consumable storage and handled guidelines should be in accordance with the consumable manufacturer’s instructions and guidelines and as given in the AWS A5. gear tooth and protractors. Name the 5 mechanical aids to VT. applying the developer. What are the 4 requirements that apply to PT? a. 13. See Table 7 for IQI (penetrameter) numbers for other thicknesses. This table illustrates the specified thickness and number of ASTM E 142 IQI’s (penetrameters) for all thickness ranges. e. which requires the area of testing be darkened 18. such as the caliper. Center and Protractor. Levels—tools designed to prove if a plane or surface is truly horizontal or vertical 17. a No. b. With this technique. What are the common hole diameters of hole type IQI’s related to? Hole-type IQI’s (penetrameters) are placed next to the weld either on the parent material or on a shim having a thickness equivalent to the weld build-up. Thickness gauge—commonly called a “Feeler” gauge is used to measure the clearance between objects. IX 15. – 24 in. h. Details for removing excess penetrant. would be used. and time before interpretation. Steel ruler—available in a wide selection of sizes and graduations to suit the needs of the inspector (considered a non-precision measuring instrument). Inspection is to be performed in accordance with a procedure as specified by the referencing code section). c. g. Sec.9 mm). Vernier scale—a precision instrument. Type of penetrant materials to be used. c. e. d. Combination square set—consisting of a blade and a set of three heads: Square. wet fluorescent magnetic particle (WFMT) techniques may be used. Dwell time for the penetrant. a filtered blacklight is used to observe the particles. a. The A-number applies to which type of vessel? steel and steel alloy 14. Details for pre-examination cleaning including minimum drying time. For added sensitivity using MT which technique is recommended? For added sensitivity. capable of measuring in decimal units to a precision factor of 0. f.015 in. micrometer. The AWS classification numbers are specified in ASME Section IIC under their appropriate SFA specification number. (150 mm – 600 mm) of the surface to be examined and at an angle not less than 30 degrees to the surface 16. For pipe wall or weld thickness of 0.0001 in. Direct VT is conducted when access is sufficient to place the eye within? Direct visual examination is conducted when access is sufficient to place the eye within 6 in. 1T. The Vernier system is used on various precision measuring instruments. d. Evaluation of indications in terms of the acceptance standards of the referencing code. b.312 in.XX series of filler metal specifications . (7. Used universally in mechanical work for assembly and layout examination. Where are the AWS classifications found in Sec IX? An AWS classification number identifies electrodes and welding rods.

What are 4 items that a film interpreter must possess? The interpreter should know: a. visual aids and the hold time at a specific pressure prior to application of the bubble solution. 21. c. The characteristics of the recording media in response to the selected radiation source and the energy level(s).. When complete coverage is required. This method employs a liquid bubble solution.0 in. The possible variations of the discontinuities’ images as a function of radiographic geometry. 22. and other factors. b.20. What is the purpose of DAC? The distance amplitude correction (DAC) curve allows a simple echo evaluation of unknown reflectors by comparison of the echo height with respect to the DAC (%DAC). Because of attenuation and beam divergence in all materials. The product form (object) being radiographed. flat bottom or side drilled hole) is recorded at different depths over the required test range. What are 3 types of displays used with UT? The A-scan. The tip diffraction method is effective for sizing what type flaws? Tip diffraction methods are very effective for sizing flaws which are open to the inside or outside diameter surface and are shallow to mid-wall. the time-offlight tip diffraction technique and the time measurement technique of the tip diffracted signal and the base signal. the weld may be radiographed with the radiation beam positioned such that both walls are superimposed. – 7. a minimum of three exposures taken at either 60° or 120° to each other should be made for each weld joint. lighting. What are the 3 types of Automated UT? Pulse Echo Raster Scanning. For ID connected flaws. 23. the maximum response from a specified reference reflector (e. 27. and Cobalt (CO60) is used for steel thickness of 1. – 3. some items of concern include the temperature of surface to be inspected.0 in. the half “V” path or one and one half “V” path technique is used.25 in. The processing of the recording media with respect to the image quality. . the echo amplitude from a given size reflector decreases as the distance from the probe increases. When performing the bubble test. pre-test and post-test cleaning of the part to be inspected. What are the 2 most common radioactive sources used for RT? Gamma Ray (IR192) is normally used for performing radiography on steel with a thickness range of 0. two techniques are available. d. which is applied to the areas of a closed system under pressure. The possible and most probable types of discontinuities that may occur in the test object. The characteristics of the radiation source and energy level(s) with respect to the material being examined.g. e. For OD connected flaws. To set up DAC. B-scan and C-scan 24. When using the double wall technique for RT how many exposures are required when both walls are superimposed? Alternatively. and f. A visual test is then performed to note any bubbles that are formed as the leakage gas passes through it. What is a common leak testing method that is used in hydrotesting? One of the most common methods used during hydrostatic testing is the direct pressure bubble test.5 in. Pulse Echo Zoned Inspection. Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) 26. 25.

For each indication: f. However. Materials with high thermal conductivity require higher heat inputs to weld than those with lower thermal conductivity and may require a pre-heat. As the melt cools. Weld type/material/thickness g.1. High-alloy materials welded with gas-shielded processes usually employ inert shielding gases or mixtures with only slight additions of reactive gases to promote arc stability. A reactive gas such as carbon dioxide can break down at arc temperatures into carbon and oxygen. e. these elements can cause variations in the solidification temperature of different microstructural phases within the melt. a. c. Subassembly/description. Date of inspection. sulfur and phosphorous have in a cast structure? The properties of the cast structure can also be impaired by compositional variations in the microstructure called segregation. Visual aids and other equipment used g. these elements are eventually contained in the micro structural phases that solidify last in spaces between the grains. c. and phosphorous. 32. A description of all recordable and reportable indications e. c. sulfur. e. Examiner certification information. Inspection method. What are other terms for rapid heating and cooling of a wrought material within certain temp ranges? The formation of structures such as bainite and martensite may also be the result of rapid or controlled cooling and reheating within certain temperature ranges often termed “quenching” and “tempering. b. Because of the solubility of trace and alloying elements. What is an important factor in the selection of shielding gases? An important factor in selecting shielding gases is the type or mixture. Inspection results. 30. Examiner.3 Inspection Results a. such elements as carbon.2 Inspection Information 9.1. 31.1 General Information 9. 29. Component/system d. Contract number or site b. Procedure number. Date of inspection. Inspection sheet number. Materials with high thermal conductivity require higher or lower heat inputs to weld? In general. d. Weld identification f. can vary in a pure metal. Weld reference datum point. Inspection limitations.12. .12. What items of inspection results are to be reported in an inspection report? 9. metals with high electrical conductivity also have high thermal conductivity. this can cause an increase in carbon content and the formation of oxides that can lower the corrosion resistant properties of the weld. d. b.28. on highalloy and reactive metals.12. Customer or project a.1. This is not a problem on carbon and low-alloy steels. What effects does trace elements of carbon.

Ductility is usually expressed as percentage of the elongation within a __________gage length? Uniform elongation will continue. a value of 55 on the C scale is expressed as 55 HRC. which is especially important in weld joints with high restraint. d. 39. Eliminate moisture from the weld area. Brinnell. Rockwell 37. For instance. Vickers. Aluminum is a good conductor of heat and has the ability to transfer heat very efficiently. f. The nominal stress of a metal is equal to the tensile strength. 38. R for Rockwell and then a letter indicating scale employed. 41. which are hardness related. Reduce the cooling rate to prevent hardening and a reduction in ductility of the weld and base metal HAZ. Many codes and standards require impact testing at minimum design metal temperatures based on service or location temperatures to assure that the material has sufficient toughness to resist brittle fracture. As a result it takes less heat to melt steel. 36. . 40. Meet the requirements of the applicable fabrication code. as does the reduction in the diameter of the specimen. What is the meaning of 55 HRC? A letter has been assigned to each combination of load and indenter. Name 3 hardness testing methods. Materials are often impact tested at various to determine what? Materials are often tested at various temperatures to determine the ductile to brittle transition temperature. What are metals with high coefficient of thermal expansion susceptible to? Steel is a poor conductor of heat as compared with aluminum or copper.” The necking-down continues until the specimen can no longer resist the stress and the specimen separates or fractures. What is the name applied to a notched bar impact test? One of the most common is a notched bar impact test called the Charpy impact test. e. and the elongation begins to concentrate in one localized region within the gage length. This ability of aluminum to transfer heat so efficiently also makes it more difficult to weld with low temperature heat sources. such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.33. Maintain weld interpass temperatures. c. Bring temperature up to preheat or interpass temperatures required by the WPS. susceptibility to wet H2S cracking in carbon steel is reduced if hardness levels are maintained below HRC 22. depending on the chemistry and thickness of the alloy to be welded. What are 6 reasons for performing pre heating? a. 34. b. The ultimate tensile strength of a metal is determined by dividing the external load applied by the cross sectional area of the tensile specimen 35. The test specimen is said to begin to “neck down. Reduce shrinkage stresses in the weld and base metal. What is an example of an in-service degradation that is hardness related? There are often in-service degradation requirements. For example. Scale is indicated by a suffix combination of H for Hardness. Stress in relation to a tensile test is defined as? Stress is defined as the force acting in a given region of the metal when an external load is applied. The stress at which this occurs is called the ultimate tensile strength.

a heat analysis and a product analysis.55 require both preheating and a PWHT 49. Steels with a CE of 0. Why is hardening of the weld and base metal HAZ are important in carbon and low alloy steels? Hardening of the weld and base metal HAZ are important because of hydrogen assisted cracking that occurs in carbon and low-alloy steels. A product analysis is a statement of the chemical analysis of the end product and is supplied by the manufacturer of the material. The Lehigh Test evaluates what types of cracks? Weld restraint induces stresses that can contribute to cracking of both the weld and base metal in fabrication welds. 44. The ability of the metal to be welded such that the completed weld has sound mechanical properties. which is related to the chemical composition and microstructure of the metal or alloy. What do steels having a CE between 0. What are the factors related to weldability? a. b.42.55 require? Typically. c. 43. regardless of whether specified on the welding procedure specification. is a statement of the chemical analysis and weight percent of the chemical elements present in an ingot or a billet.55 usually require preheating. As the hardness of the base metal HAZ increases so does the susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking. Hardness values obtained in excess of these usually indicate that post-weld heat treatment is necessary. an alternate welding procedure qualified with PWHT is necessary . and steels with a CE greater than 0. 47. . such as strength. 48. or mill certificate. d. The simplest weldability tests are those that evaluate what? The simplest weldability tests are those that evaluate the strength and ductility of the weld. How is hardenability determined? The simplest means to determine hardenability is to measure the depth to which a piece of steel hardens during quenching from an elevated temperature.35 – 0.35 require no preheat. What is the primary reason for PWHT? The primary reason for post-weld heat treatment is to relieve the residual stresses in a welded fabrication . 46. What is the primary factor affecting weldability of metals and alloys? A primary factor affecting weldability of metals and alloys is their chemical composition. ductility and toughness. 45. shear strength. Tests that evaluate strength include weld tension tests. The specific welding processes being used to join the metal. steels with a CE less than 0. e. Weld joint design. and the weld filler metal used.35 – 0. The hardness limits currently recommended for steels in refinery process service are listed in Table 11. Ductility and fracture toughness tests include bend tests and impact tests 50. A heat analysis. What are 2 types of MTR’s? There are typically two types of test reports. This type of cracking occurs when the rigidity of the joint is so severe that the base metal or weld metal strength cannot resist the strains and stresses applied by expansion and contraction of the weld joint. In those instances where PWHT is needed. The mechanical properties of the metal. The metallurgical compatibility of the metal or alloy being welded. and hardness.

Is distortion greater or less for austenitic stainless steel than carbon steel? Distortion is more often a problem with welding of austenitic stainless steels than carbon or low-alloy steels. is actually harmful. For equipment and piping wall thicknesses where burn through is not a primary concern.. What is the most common measure of weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel than for carbon steel? The most common measure of weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking is the ferrite number of the weld metal. To minimize burnthrough the first weld pass should be made with what diameter electrode? To minimize burn through. and 4. E7018 and E7048). thereby reducing the risk of burnthrough. Austenitic welds require a minimum amount of delta ferrite to resist cracking. d. This means that distortion is greater for austenitic stainless steels than for carbon steels. which slows down the cooling rate of the weld. Specifying the sequence of welding full encirclement sleeves and fittings (circumferential and longitudinal welds). The amount of ferrite in the weld metal is primarily a function of both base metal and weld metal chemistry. Liquid flow rates in piping shall be between 1. E7016. Verifying adequate wall thickness along the lengths of the proposed welds typically using UT or RT. For welds made without filler metal. This helps to dissipate the heat and to limit the metal temperature during the welding operation. 57. as it permits more opportunity for hot tearing to occur. Extra-low-hydrogen consumables such as Exxxx-H4 should be used for welding carbon steels with CE greater than 0. 55. high strength. (6. c. Verifying flow conditions. the first weld pass to equipment or piping less than 1/4 in.0 ft/sec. 56. What is the required liquid flow rates in piping when in-service welding is performed? Under most conditions. Weaving the bead should also be avoided as this increases the heat input.76 mm) or smaller diameter welding electrode to limit heat input. Hot tap and in-service welding operations should be carried out with what type of electrodes? Hot tap and in-service welding operations should be carried out only with low-hydrogen consumables and electrodes (e. e. For this reason pre-heating. 53. (4. Faster liquid flow rates may cool the weld area too quickly and thereby cause hard zones that are susceptible to weld cracking or low toughness properties in the weldment.3 ft/sec. More frequent tack welds may be necessary for stainless steels to limit shrinkage. a larger diameter electrode can be used.35 mm) thick should be made with 3/32 in.51. Verifying the welding procedure.43% or where there is potential for hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC) such as cold worked pieces. The thermal conductivity of austenitic stainless steels is about one third that of carbon steel and the coefficient of thermal expansion is about 30% greater. . What are the inspection tasks typically associated with hot tapping or welding on in-service equipment? a. the base metal chemistry should be appropriate to produce the small amounts of ferrite that is needed to prevent cracking. it is desirable to maintain some product flow inside of any material being welded. Verifying fit-up of the hot tap fitting. Often. b. the less time it spends in the temperature range where it can tear.g. and highly constrained areas. 54. 52. Is it an advantage or disadvantage to apply preheating to nickel alloys when welding? The faster a nickel alloy weld solidifies (freezes). plants have welding procedures qualified specifically for hot taps and in-service welding.

The technique can suffer from incomplete fusion particularly in the sidewall of steep or narrow weld preparations.7 mm) per variable QW-404-32.2 an essential variable when qualifying a welder for the GMAW-S process. Auditing welding to assure the welding procedure is being followed. What is the transfer mode for GMAW-S? GMAW in the short-circuiting transfer mode is of particular significance to inspectors in that many specifications. b. short circuiting mode (designated by the -S extension). Making variable QW-409.f. UT shear wave using special procedures for the joint configuration. and to weld open butt root passes. h. 60. 4th X is for coating characteristics EXXXX 62. Limiting the deposited weld metal thickness qualified by the procedure to 1. d. g. . to weld thin base metals.1 times the deposited thickness for coupons less than 1/2 in. 59. What do the 1st 2 XX’s stand for on the SMAW electrode identification system? 1st & 2nd X’s is for Strength. Due to this inherent nature of the welding process the BPV Code Section IX. thick (12. When using the low voltage. Requiring welders qualify with mechanical testing rather than by radiographic examination. c. This allows the unique ability to weld out of position. An electrode/flux identification is F7A6-EM12K. in the aswelded condition. Perform NDE of completed welds. Typically this includes VT.10. What is the identification of the flux? F7A6-EM12K is a complete designation. will have a tensile strength no lower than 70. It refers to a flux that will produce weld metal which. MT or PT as applicable for material and temperature.000 psi and Charpy V-notch impact strength of at least 20 ft-lb at –60°F when deposited with an EM12K electrode under the conditions called for in this specification. Witness leak testing of fitting. What is the limiting factor for base metal thickness when welding with the GMAW-S process? The gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process can utilize various metal transfer modes. the molten weld puddle is able to freeze more quickly. if specified. 3rd X is for position. codes and standards impose limitations or special conditions on its use.7 mm) per variable QW-403.      What are 5 types of weld joints? Butt Joint Corner Joint T-Joint Lap Joint Edge Joint 61. restricts this process by: a. Limiting the base metal thickness qualified by the procedure to 1. thick (12.1 times the test coupon thickness for coupons less than 1/2 in. 58.