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577 QUIZ


What are the weldment requirements prior to welding?
Review the WPS(s) and welder performance qualification record(s) (WPQ) to assure they are acceptable
for the work.
Confirm the NDE examiner(s), NDE procedure(s) and NDE equipment of the inspection organization are
acceptable for the work.
Confirm welding equipment and instruments are calibrated and operate.
Confirm heat treatment and pressure testing procedures and associated equipment are acceptable
Ensure all filler metals, base materials, and backing ring materials are properly marked and identified and
if required, perform PMI to verify the material composition.
Confirm weld preparation, joint fit-up, and dimensions are acceptable and correct.
Confirm the preheat equipment and temperature.
Confirm electrode, filler wire, fluxes, and inert gases are as specified and acceptable.


What are the materials requirements prior to welding?

a. Material test certifications are available and items properly marked (including back-up ring if used
b. Electrode marking, bare wire flag tags, identification on spools of wire, etc. as-specified (see 9.2).
c. Filler material markings are traceable to a filler material certification.
d. Base metal markings are traceable to a material certification.
e. Recording of filler and base metal traceability information is performed.
f. Base metal stampings are low stress and not detrimental to the component.
g. Paint striping color code is correct for the material of construction.
h. PMI records supplement the material traceability and confirm the material of construction


What are the quality assurance tasks during welding?
Establish a quality assurance and quality control umbrella with the welding organization.
Confirm welding parameters and techniques are supported by the WPS and WPQ.
Complete physical checks, visual examination, and in-process NDE


What are the appearance and finish tasks upon completion of welding?

a. Size, length and location of all welds conform to the drawings/specifications/Code.
b. No welds added without approval.
c. Dimensional and visual checks of the weld don’t identify welding discontinuities, excessive distortion and
poor workmanship.
d. Temporary attachments and attachment welds removed and blended with base metal.
e. Discontinuities reviewed against acceptance criteria for defect classification.
f. PMI of the weld, if required, and examiner’s findings indicate they comply with the specification.
g. Welder stamping/marking of welds confirmed.
h. Perform field hardness check


Name 2 NDE personnel qualifications specified in ASME SEC V art 1.



What are 6 referenced welding processes?
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
gas tungsten
arc welding (GTAW)
gas metal arc welding (GMAW)

b. Process can be used in areas of limited access. What are at least six types of essential variables that must be shown on the WPS? a. h. Process is less sensitive to wind and draft than other welding processes. b. and before depositing a weld bead adjacent to or onto a previously deposited weld bead. Backside of joint. Slag usually must be removed at stops and starts. and portable. inexpensive. 10. What are the 4 tests that can be found on the PQR? they will include tension test to determine the ultimate strength of a groove weld. The third step is to confirm the PQR essential variable values properly support the range specified in the WPS. i. Limitations associated with SMAW are: a. d. 11. e. Preparation of base metal. Deposition rates are lower than for other processes such as GMAW.    What are the 3 filler metal transfer modes in the GMAW welding process? Short Circuiting Transfer (GMAW-S) The globular transfer mode The spray transfer mode 9. Equipment is relatively simple. Shielding gas. Process. Fitting and alignment. Filler metal (and/or flux). b. hardness measurements when hardness restrictions are defined What are the 3 steps used in reviewing a WPS/PQR? The initial step is to verify the WPS has been properly completed and addresses the requirements of Section IX and the construction/repair code. Peening. The second step is to verify the PQR has been properly completed and addresses all the requirements of Section IX and the construction and repair code. Welding current. Process is suitable for most of the commonly used metals and alloys. if used. flux cored arc welding (FCAW) submerged arc welding (SAW) stud arc welding (SW) What are the advantages and limitations of the SMAW welding process? Some commonly accepted advantages of the SMAW process include: a. d. . j. 8.   7. c. Base metal.        . Welding position. f. g. guided bend tests to determine the degree of soundness and ductility of a groove weld notch toughness testing when toughness requirements are imposed. c.

12. (7. Combination square set—consisting of a blade and a set of three heads: Square. e. would be used. Where are the AWS classifications found in Sec IX? An AWS classification number identifies electrodes and welding rods. capable of measuring in decimal units to a precision factor of 0. applying the developer. Vernier scale—a precision instrument. a No. wet fluorescent magnetic particle (WFMT) techniques may be used. a filtered blacklight is used to observe the particles. Details for pre-examination cleaning including minimum drying time. ASME Section IX Table QW-432 lists the AWS classification numbers and SFA specification numbers included under each of the Fnumbers. gear tooth and protractors. Used universally in mechanical work for assembly and layout examination. Levels—tools designed to prove if a plane or surface is truly horizontal or vertical 17. which requires the area of testing be darkened 18. b. such as the caliper. Thickness gauge—commonly called a “Feeler” gauge is used to measure the clearance between objects. h. Center and Protractor. Type of penetrant materials to be used. Post examination cleaning requirements. Evaluation of indications in terms of the acceptance standards of the referencing code. 15 ASTM IQI (penetrameter) with a thickness of 0. For added sensitivity using MT which technique is recommended? For added sensitivity.312 in. What are the common hole diameters of hole type IQI’s related to? Hole-type IQI’s (penetrameters) are placed next to the weld either on the parent material or on a shim having a thickness equivalent to the weld build-up. b. f. What are the 4 requirements that apply to PT? a. Name the 5 mechanical aids to VT. c.XX series of filler metal specifications . e. This table illustrates the specified thickness and number of ASTM E 142 IQI’s (penetrameters) for all thickness ranges. The AWS classification numbers are specified in ASME Section IIC under their appropriate SFA specification number. Dwell time for the penetrant. – 24 in. d. Inspection is to be performed in accordance with a procedure as specified by the referencing code section). With this technique. height and depth gages. For pipe wall or weld thickness of 0. Where can ASME guidelines be found for storage and handling of filler metals? Welding consumable storage and handled guidelines should be in accordance with the consumable manufacturer’s instructions and guidelines and as given in the AWS A5. c. d. and time before interpretation. a. IX 15. The Vernier system is used on various precision measuring instruments. Steel ruler—available in a wide selection of sizes and graduations to suit the needs of the inspector (considered a non-precision measuring instrument). 2T & 4T . Sec.9 mm). (150 mm – 600 mm) of the surface to be examined and at an angle not less than 30 degrees to the surface 16. Direct VT is conducted when access is sufficient to place the eye within? Direct visual examination is conducted when access is sufficient to place the eye within 6 in. 13. The A-number applies to which type of vessel? steel and steel alloy 14.0001 in. g. Minimum required surface illumination (visible or blacklight) of the part under examination 19. 1T. See Table 7 for IQI (penetrameter) numbers for other thicknesses. micrometer. Details for removing excess penetrant.015 in.

What is a common leak testing method that is used in hydrotesting? One of the most common methods used during hydrostatic testing is the direct pressure bubble test. What are 4 items that a film interpreter must possess? The interpreter should know: a. 27. flat bottom or side drilled hole) is recorded at different depths over the required test range.0 in. What are the 3 types of Automated UT? Pulse Echo Raster Scanning. – 7. The processing of the recording media with respect to the image quality. . For OD connected flaws. the echo amplitude from a given size reflector decreases as the distance from the probe increases. The possible variations of the discontinuities’ images as a function of radiographic geometry. pre-test and post-test cleaning of the part to be inspected. d. a minimum of three exposures taken at either 60° or 120° to each other should be made for each weld joint. What are 3 types of displays used with UT? The A-scan. When using the double wall technique for RT how many exposures are required when both walls are superimposed? Alternatively. some items of concern include the temperature of surface to be inspected. 23. B-scan and C-scan 24. Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) 26. and f. The possible and most probable types of discontinuities that may occur in the test object. – 3.g. 21. What are the 2 most common radioactive sources used for RT? Gamma Ray (IR192) is normally used for performing radiography on steel with a thickness range of 0. and Cobalt (CO60) is used for steel thickness of 1. visual aids and the hold time at a specific pressure prior to application of the bubble solution. For ID connected flaws. When complete coverage is required. e. To set up DAC. lighting. c.5 in. The characteristics of the radiation source and energy level(s) with respect to the material being examined. What is the purpose of DAC? The distance amplitude correction (DAC) curve allows a simple echo evaluation of unknown reflectors by comparison of the echo height with respect to the DAC (%DAC). This method employs a liquid bubble solution. A visual test is then performed to note any bubbles that are formed as the leakage gas passes through it.20. The tip diffraction method is effective for sizing what type flaws? Tip diffraction methods are very effective for sizing flaws which are open to the inside or outside diameter surface and are shallow to mid-wall. 25. 22.25 in. b.0 in. the half “V” path or one and one half “V” path technique is used. the weld may be radiographed with the radiation beam positioned such that both walls are superimposed. the time-offlight tip diffraction technique and the time measurement technique of the tip diffracted signal and the base signal.. When performing the bubble test. Because of attenuation and beam divergence in all materials. which is applied to the areas of a closed system under pressure. two techniques are available. the maximum response from a specified reference reflector (e. and other factors. The characteristics of the recording media in response to the selected radiation source and the energy level(s). Pulse Echo Zoned Inspection. The product form (object) being radiographed.

metals with high electrical conductivity also have high thermal conductivity. Inspection method. Contract number or site b.3 Inspection Results a.2 Inspection Information 9. sulfur and phosphorous have in a cast structure? The properties of the cast structure can also be impaired by compositional variations in the microstructure called segregation. 30. such elements as carbon. Inspection results. Customer or project a. Date of inspection. this can cause an increase in carbon content and the formation of oxides that can lower the corrosion resistant properties of the weld.1 General Information 9. a. c. and phosphorous. Weld type/material/thickness g. Weld identification f. What effects does trace elements of carbon. Inspection sheet number. This is not a problem on carbon and low-alloy steels. e.1. b. . e. sulfur. What is an important factor in the selection of shielding gases? An important factor in selecting shielding gases is the type or mixture. Materials with high thermal conductivity require higher heat inputs to weld than those with lower thermal conductivity and may require a pre-heat. A reactive gas such as carbon dioxide can break down at arc temperatures into carbon and oxygen. Subassembly/description. Inspection limitations. As the melt cools. Materials with high thermal conductivity require higher or lower heat inputs to weld? In general. Procedure number. on highalloy and reactive metals. However.28. Because of the solubility of trace and alloying elements. d. 32. d. c. c.1. Examiner. these elements are eventually contained in the micro structural phases that solidify last in spaces between the grains. b. Date of inspection. Examiner certification information.12. Component/system d. What items of inspection results are to be reported in an inspection report? 9. A description of all recordable and reportable indications e. Weld reference datum point. these elements can cause variations in the solidification temperature of different microstructural phases within the melt. can vary in a pure metal. 31. What are other terms for rapid heating and cooling of a wrought material within certain temp ranges? The formation of structures such as bainite and martensite may also be the result of rapid or controlled cooling and reheating within certain temperature ranges often termed “quenching” and “tempering. For each indication: f. 29. High-alloy materials welded with gas-shielded processes usually employ inert shielding gases or mixtures with only slight additions of reactive gases to promote arc stability.12. Visual aids and other equipment used g.12.1.

38.33. Ductility is usually expressed as percentage of the elongation within a __________gage length? Uniform elongation will continue. Reduce shrinkage stresses in the weld and base metal. as does the reduction in the diameter of the specimen. What is the meaning of 55 HRC? A letter has been assigned to each combination of load and indenter. The stress at which this occurs is called the ultimate tensile strength. . a value of 55 on the C scale is expressed as 55 HRC. Stress in relation to a tensile test is defined as? Stress is defined as the force acting in a given region of the metal when an external load is applied. e. This ability of aluminum to transfer heat so efficiently also makes it more difficult to weld with low temperature heat sources. The nominal stress of a metal is equal to the tensile strength. and the elongation begins to concentrate in one localized region within the gage length. What are 6 reasons for performing pre heating? a. Many codes and standards require impact testing at minimum design metal temperatures based on service or location temperatures to assure that the material has sufficient toughness to resist brittle fracture. R for Rockwell and then a letter indicating scale employed. d. which are hardness related. depending on the chemistry and thickness of the alloy to be welded. Aluminum is a good conductor of heat and has the ability to transfer heat very efficiently. b. For example. Rockwell 37. 40. 36. Vickers. 41. What are metals with high coefficient of thermal expansion susceptible to? Steel is a poor conductor of heat as compared with aluminum or copper. What is an example of an in-service degradation that is hardness related? There are often in-service degradation requirements. As a result it takes less heat to melt steel. such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Brinnell. Bring temperature up to preheat or interpass temperatures required by the WPS. susceptibility to wet H2S cracking in carbon steel is reduced if hardness levels are maintained below HRC 22. 39. which is especially important in weld joints with high restraint. The ultimate tensile strength of a metal is determined by dividing the external load applied by the cross sectional area of the tensile specimen 35. c. Reduce the cooling rate to prevent hardening and a reduction in ductility of the weld and base metal HAZ. Materials are often impact tested at various to determine what? Materials are often tested at various temperatures to determine the ductile to brittle transition temperature. f. What is the name applied to a notched bar impact test? One of the most common is a notched bar impact test called the Charpy impact test. Name 3 hardness testing methods. For instance.” The necking-down continues until the specimen can no longer resist the stress and the specimen separates or fractures. Scale is indicated by a suffix combination of H for Hardness. Maintain weld interpass temperatures. The test specimen is said to begin to “neck down. 34. Meet the requirements of the applicable fabrication code. Eliminate moisture from the weld area.

47. which is related to the chemical composition and microstructure of the metal or alloy. Hardness values obtained in excess of these usually indicate that post-weld heat treatment is necessary. Tests that evaluate strength include weld tension tests. What are the factors related to weldability? a. What is the primary factor affecting weldability of metals and alloys? A primary factor affecting weldability of metals and alloys is their chemical composition. d. such as strength. How is hardenability determined? The simplest means to determine hardenability is to measure the depth to which a piece of steel hardens during quenching from an elevated temperature. or mill certificate. is a statement of the chemical analysis and weight percent of the chemical elements present in an ingot or a billet. and hardness. c. 43.55 require both preheating and a PWHT 49. A heat analysis. . 44. and steels with a CE greater than 0. The specific welding processes being used to join the metal. 46. Ductility and fracture toughness tests include bend tests and impact tests 50. and the weld filler metal used. 48. The hardness limits currently recommended for steels in refinery process service are listed in Table 11. 45.42. A product analysis is a statement of the chemical analysis of the end product and is supplied by the manufacturer of the material.55 usually require preheating. Steels with a CE of 0. This type of cracking occurs when the rigidity of the joint is so severe that the base metal or weld metal strength cannot resist the strains and stresses applied by expansion and contraction of the weld joint. e. What do steels having a CE between 0. Why is hardening of the weld and base metal HAZ are important in carbon and low alloy steels? Hardening of the weld and base metal HAZ are important because of hydrogen assisted cracking that occurs in carbon and low-alloy steels.55 require? Typically. Weld joint design. b. ductility and toughness. steels with a CE less than 0. The mechanical properties of the metal. The metallurgical compatibility of the metal or alloy being welded. a heat analysis and a product analysis. The ability of the metal to be welded such that the completed weld has sound mechanical properties. shear strength. What is the primary reason for PWHT? The primary reason for post-weld heat treatment is to relieve the residual stresses in a welded fabrication . The simplest weldability tests are those that evaluate what? The simplest weldability tests are those that evaluate the strength and ductility of the weld.35 – 0. As the hardness of the base metal HAZ increases so does the susceptibility to hydrogen assisted cracking.35 – 0. What are 2 types of MTR’s? There are typically two types of test reports. regardless of whether specified on the welding procedure specification. The Lehigh Test evaluates what types of cracks? Weld restraint induces stresses that can contribute to cracking of both the weld and base metal in fabrication welds.35 require no preheat. In those instances where PWHT is needed. an alternate welding procedure qualified with PWHT is necessary .

Is it an advantage or disadvantage to apply preheating to nickel alloys when welding? The faster a nickel alloy weld solidifies (freezes). plants have welding procedures qualified specifically for hot taps and in-service welding. Verifying flow conditions.35 mm) thick should be made with 3/32 in. What is the required liquid flow rates in piping when in-service welding is performed? Under most conditions. What are the inspection tasks typically associated with hot tapping or welding on in-service equipment? a. as it permits more opportunity for hot tearing to occur. which slows down the cooling rate of the weld.0 ft/sec. This means that distortion is greater for austenitic stainless steels than for carbon steels. For this reason pre-heating. Weaving the bead should also be avoided as this increases the heat input. the less time it spends in the temperature range where it can tear. Verifying fit-up of the hot tap fitting. (4. a larger diameter electrode can be used. . E7016.. 54. For equipment and piping wall thicknesses where burn through is not a primary concern. The thermal conductivity of austenitic stainless steels is about one third that of carbon steel and the coefficient of thermal expansion is about 30% greater.76 mm) or smaller diameter welding electrode to limit heat input. Is distortion greater or less for austenitic stainless steel than carbon steel? Distortion is more often a problem with welding of austenitic stainless steels than carbon or low-alloy steels. Hot tap and in-service welding operations should be carried out with what type of electrodes? Hot tap and in-service welding operations should be carried out only with low-hydrogen consumables and electrodes (e. 52. More frequent tack welds may be necessary for stainless steels to limit shrinkage. b. thereby reducing the risk of burnthrough. Verifying adequate wall thickness along the lengths of the proposed welds typically using UT or RT. the first weld pass to equipment or piping less than 1/4 in.51. high strength. d. For welds made without filler metal.g. is actually harmful. (6.3 ft/sec. To minimize burnthrough the first weld pass should be made with what diameter electrode? To minimize burn through. 53. 57. The amount of ferrite in the weld metal is primarily a function of both base metal and weld metal chemistry. Austenitic welds require a minimum amount of delta ferrite to resist cracking. it is desirable to maintain some product flow inside of any material being welded. Specifying the sequence of welding full encirclement sleeves and fittings (circumferential and longitudinal welds).43% or where there is potential for hydrogen assisted cracking (HAC) such as cold worked pieces. Faster liquid flow rates may cool the weld area too quickly and thereby cause hard zones that are susceptible to weld cracking or low toughness properties in the weldment. Liquid flow rates in piping shall be between 1. 55. the base metal chemistry should be appropriate to produce the small amounts of ferrite that is needed to prevent cracking. e. and 4. Extra-low-hydrogen consumables such as Exxxx-H4 should be used for welding carbon steels with CE greater than 0. Verifying the welding procedure. What is the most common measure of weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel than for carbon steel? The most common measure of weldability and susceptibility to hot cracking is the ferrite number of the weld metal. This helps to dissipate the heat and to limit the metal temperature during the welding operation. and highly constrained areas. 56. c. Often. E7018 and E7048).

Typically this includes VT. Limiting the deposited weld metal thickness qualified by the procedure to 1.f. An electrode/flux identification is F7A6-EM12K. h.1 times the test coupon thickness for coupons less than 1/2 in. thick (12. c. Witness leak testing of fitting. 4th X is for coating characteristics EXXXX 62.1 times the deposited thickness for coupons less than 1/2 in. This allows the unique ability to weld out of position. What do the 1st 2 XX’s stand for on the SMAW electrode identification system? 1st & 2nd X’s is for Strength. the molten weld puddle is able to freeze more quickly. if specified. g. 60. Requiring welders qualify with mechanical testing rather than by radiographic examination. thick (12.      What are 5 types of weld joints? Butt Joint Corner Joint T-Joint Lap Joint Edge Joint 61. What is the identification of the flux? F7A6-EM12K is a complete designation. 59. Due to this inherent nature of the welding process the BPV Code Section IX. in the aswelded condition. What is the transfer mode for GMAW-S? GMAW in the short-circuiting transfer mode is of particular significance to inspectors in that many specifications.000 psi and Charpy V-notch impact strength of at least 20 ft-lb at –60°F when deposited with an EM12K electrode under the conditions called for in this specification. will have a tensile strength no lower than 70. 3rd X is for position. d. codes and standards impose limitations or special conditions on its use.7 mm) per variable QW-403. Making variable QW-409. to weld thin base metals. Limiting the base metal thickness qualified by the procedure to 1. When using the low voltage. It refers to a flux that will produce weld metal which. Perform NDE of completed welds. and to weld open butt root passes. restricts this process by: a.7 mm) per variable QW-404-32. short circuiting mode (designated by the -S extension). MT or PT as applicable for material and temperature. The technique can suffer from incomplete fusion particularly in the sidewall of steep or narrow weld preparations. b. UT shear wave using special procedures for the joint configuration. . What is the limiting factor for base metal thickness when welding with the GMAW-S process? The gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process can utilize various metal transfer modes. Auditing welding to assure the welding procedure is being followed.2 an essential variable when qualifying a welder for the GMAW-S process. 58.10.