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Latest Development in

Networks and
Communications
Written Assignment
NAME: NOOR AZEELAH BTE SAHLAN
I/C: 950101-01-6984
FROM: 4 CEMERLANG

GROUP MEMBERS:
NOOR AZEELAH BINTI SAHLAN
NOR HIKMAH BINTI SULIAMAN

1.0 INTRODUCTION

is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communications channels that allow sharing of resources and information. computer science.e. for data communication between multiple networks. The rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network are defined by communications protocols. and the Internet Protocol Suite. Well-known communications protocols are Ethernet. often simply referred to as a network. telecommunications. and organizational scope. which defines a set of protocols for internetworking. i.0 MOBILE COMPUTING . since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines 2. communications protocol used. a hardware and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks. as well as host-to-host data transfer. and application-specific data transmission formats. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering.(Computer Network and Communications) A computer network.[1] Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as the medium used to transport the data. information technology or computer engineering. scale. topology.

Mobile computing has three aspects: mobile communication. e. protocols.org .."[1] "Mobile computing: being able to use a computing device even when being mobile and therefore changing location.1 Definitions Mobile computing is "taking a computer and all necessary files and software out into the field. and mobile software.Mobile computing is a form of human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. 2. mobile hardware. mobile devices or device components. The third aspect deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications. data formats and concrete technologies. Portability is one aspect of mobile computing."[2] "Mobile computing is the ability to use computing capability without a pre-defined location and/or connection to a network to publish and/or subscribe to information ." Uwe Vieille. The second aspect is on the hardware. The first aspect addresses communication issues in ad-hoc and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties. AAMC.g.

5-inch TFT • 16 Million Colors • mHD 16:9 Widescreen •640×360 pixels Battery .[1] Should a material.g PDA. It can be published by a manufacturer to help people choose products or to help use the products. or service. it may be referred to as being out of specification. product. cite) the standards of another. Specification User Interface • S60 5th Edition Display • 3. A data sheet is usually used for technical communication to describe technical characteristics of an item or product.2 Specification. product or service fail to meet one or more of the applicable specifications. Sometimes the term specification is used in connection with a data sheet (or spec sheet). call out. A technical specification may be developed by any of various kinds of organizations. It is common for one organization to refer to (reference. or a purpose-made standards organization such as ISO.[3] Specs are a type of technical standard. a national government (including its military. a consortium (a small group of corporations). services. both public and private.[2] the abbreviation OOS may also be used. Example organization types include a corporation. a trade association (an industry-wide group of corporations). regulatory agencies. and national laboratories and institutes). A data sheet is not a technical specification as described in this article.2. Voluntary standards may become mandatory if adopted by a government or business contract. and frequencies of Mobile Computing (based on one product e. a professional association (society).3G mobile phone) A specification (often abbreviated spec) is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material.

11 b/g with UPnP support • Micro USB Connector • 3.5 mm stereo headphone plug • TV-Out Support • Data transfer via Bluetooth 2.0 • A-GPS • Internet surfing FREQUENCIES • 2G Network GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 • 3G Network HSDPA 900 / 1900 / 2100 Technology and Services .8 • Focal Length: 5. 640×480 at 30fps • Aperture: F2.7 Million / 24-bit color) • Video Capture MPEG-4 VGA.• Nokia Batter BP-4L • 1500 mAh Memory • Up to 48GB • 32GB Internal Memory • 16GB Micro SD Expansion Slot Main Camera • Carl Zeiss Tessar Lens • 5MP (2584 x 1938) • JPEG/EXIF (16.4mm Flash: Dual LED Camera SERVICES • WLAN IEEE 802.

and broadband phone. is a gateway to more specialized studies but can also be applied to immediate workforce demands. voice over broadband (VoBB). VoIP) is a family of technologies. SMS. On the receiving side. C++.3. often awarded at community colleges. This program of study also encompasses business courses with an emphasis on ecommerce and macroeconomics. The steps involved in originating a VoIP telephone call are signaling and media channel setup. communication protocols. fax. and/or voice-messaging applications—that are transported via the Internet. and JavaScript. Internet telephony refers to communications services—Voice. and transmission techniques for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. such as the Internet. broadband telephony. VoIP is a technology used by IP telephony as a means of transporting phone calls.[2] . Other terms frequently encountered and often used synonymously with VoIP are IP telephony. methodologies. [1] Even though IP Telephony and VoIP are terms that are used interchangeably. similar steps (usually in the reverse order) such as reception of the IP packets. encoding. This 2-year degree. decoding of the packets and digital-to-analog conversion reproduce the original voice stream. ActionScript.1 VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP. 3. they are actually different. Students learn languages such as HTML. rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Internet telephony. IP telephony has to do with digital telephony systems that use IP protocols for voice communication while VoIP is actually a subset of IP Telephony.0 Interne Internet Services Technology is broad field of study usually resulting in receiving an Associate of Applied Science Degree. digitization of the analog voice signal. packetization. and transmission as Internet Protocol (IP) packets over a packet-switched network.

descriptions of events. Most blogs are primarily textual. music (MP3 blog). others function as more personal online diaries.2 Blog A blog (a blend of the term web log)[1] is a type of website or part of a website. videos (video blogging or vlogging). Web pages. allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. . Blog can also be used as a verb. [2] Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject. images. featuring very short posts. and audio (podcasting).3. and other media related to its topic. Most blogs are interactive. or other material such as graphics or video. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary. although some focus on art (art blog). meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. Microblogging is another type of blogging. and links to other blogs. photographs (photoblog). The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. A typical blog combines text.

Wireless USB. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with wireless network technologies such as IrDA. in proximity to an individual's body. Bluetooth. or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).4. 4. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication). Z-Wave and ZigBee. Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire.1 PAN A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices. including telephones and personal digital assistants.2 VPN .0 Types of network 4.

A virtual private network (VPN) is a network that uses primarily public telecommunication infrastructure. etc. VPN technology via the public Internet has replaced the need to requisition and maintain expensive dedicated leased-line telecommunication circuits once typical in wide-area network installations. often for free. 4. and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. such as the Internet. and often secure data with encryption technologies to prevent disclosure of private information to unauthorized parties. 4. has begun a pilot program to provide city workers in all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access. A VPN user typically experiences the central network in a manner that is identical to being connected directly to the central network. such as sharing of data and access to network resources.3 WLAN A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio). databases. VPNs may serve any network functionality that is found on any network.4 WIMAX WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a trademark for a family of telecommunications protocols that provide fixed and mobile Internet access. The 2005 WiMAX . Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802. to provide remote offices or traveling users access to a central organizational network. printers. websites.11 standards. VPNs typically require remote users of the network to be authenticated. for instance. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. and the increasing to offer wireless access to their customers. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities: New York City. Wireless LANs have become popular in the home due to ease of installation. marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name.

especially one that links people across several traditional fields. it is very difficult to maintain interpersonal interactions. will become a much more useful networking tool when large numbers of people with similar interests acquire . It succeeded as an exploration of the potentials of online interactions. A great deal of organizing must be done by those most involved in establishing a new network. It again showed how difficult it is to create an online network without sufficient numbers of people to maintain enough interaction. Habnet was a project that tried to overcome the limitations of these initiatives. If the people were not communicating with each other before. and thereby enough interest. Computer communication. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum. to make it worthwhile to use. it seems. which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL". The Native Computer Communications Network Project was a good example of how a focus on creating a network of computers does not necessarily ensure the interpersonal networking of the potential users of that technology.[3] 5.revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s[1][2] with the 2011 update up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations.0 CONCLUSION (Computer Networks and Communications) The York/Habitat Networking Initiative showed that in the absence of resources allocated to promote collaborative activities among people busy with their own current endeavours. developing another method of communication doesn't mean they'll start. but failed to thrive when it ceased to grow.

REFERENCE 1. This problem should become increasingly minimized over the coming years as the technological innovations become more diffused throughout society. it still requires a great deal of concentrated effort and resources to get the people to use it.com/content/k352871185136267/fulltext.springerlink.com/nokia_n97-2615.gsmarena.org/wiki/Voice_over_Internet_Protocol . Internet http://www.pdf?page=1 http://www.php http://en.wikipedia. Though it can expedite the formation of new interpersonal networks by overcoming the space and time barriers faced by traditional networking techniques.access to the technology.org/wiki/Personal_area_network http://en.wikipedia.