Latest Development in

Networks and
Communications
Written Assignment
NAME: NOOR AZEELAH BTE SAHLAN
I/C: 950101-01-6984
FROM: 4 CEMERLANG

GROUP MEMBERS:
NOOR AZEELAH BINTI SAHLAN
NOR HIKMAH BINTI SULIAMAN

1.0 INTRODUCTION

[1] Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as the medium used to transport the data.0 MOBILE COMPUTING . communications protocol used. scale. telecommunications. as well as host-to-host data transfer. and the Internet Protocol Suite. since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines 2. a hardware and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks. Well-known communications protocols are Ethernet. The rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network are defined by communications protocols. is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communications channels that allow sharing of resources and information. often simply referred to as a network. for data communication between multiple networks. i. topology. and organizational scope. which defines a set of protocols for internetworking. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering. and application-specific data transmission formats.e. computer science. information technology or computer engineering.(Computer Network and Communications) A computer network.

The first aspect addresses communication issues in ad-hoc and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties. mobile devices or device components.1 Definitions Mobile computing is "taking a computer and all necessary files and software out into the field.g." Uwe Vieille. mobile hardware. protocols."[1] "Mobile computing: being able to use a computing device even when being mobile and therefore changing location. The third aspect deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications. 2. data formats and concrete technologies.Mobile computing is a form of human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. Portability is one aspect of mobile computing.org . Mobile computing has three aspects: mobile communication.. e. AAMC. The second aspect is on the hardware."[2] "Mobile computing is the ability to use computing capability without a pre-defined location and/or connection to a network to publish and/or subscribe to information . and mobile software.

product or service fail to meet one or more of the applicable specifications. regulatory agencies. and national laboratories and institutes). both public and private. Example organization types include a corporation.3G mobile phone) A specification (often abbreviated spec) is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material. or a purpose-made standards organization such as ISO.5-inch TFT • 16 Million Colors • mHD 16:9 Widescreen •640×360 pixels Battery . call out. services.g PDA. a trade association (an industry-wide group of corporations).[1] Should a material. it may be referred to as being out of specification. or service. A data sheet is not a technical specification as described in this article. cite) the standards of another. Specification User Interface • S60 5th Edition Display • 3. a national government (including its military. A data sheet is usually used for technical communication to describe technical characteristics of an item or product.2 Specification. product. Sometimes the term specification is used in connection with a data sheet (or spec sheet). a professional association (society). Voluntary standards may become mandatory if adopted by a government or business contract. and frequencies of Mobile Computing (based on one product e. A technical specification may be developed by any of various kinds of organizations. It can be published by a manufacturer to help people choose products or to help use the products. a consortium (a small group of corporations).[3] Specs are a type of technical standard. It is common for one organization to refer to (reference.2.[2] the abbreviation OOS may also be used.

0 • A-GPS • Internet surfing FREQUENCIES • 2G Network GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 • 3G Network HSDPA 900 / 1900 / 2100 Technology and Services .8 • Focal Length: 5.5 mm stereo headphone plug • TV-Out Support • Data transfer via Bluetooth 2.11 b/g with UPnP support • Micro USB Connector • 3.4mm Flash: Dual LED Camera SERVICES • WLAN IEEE 802. 640×480 at 30fps • Aperture: F2.• Nokia Batter BP-4L • 1500 mAh Memory • Up to 48GB • 32GB Internal Memory • 16GB Micro SD Expansion Slot Main Camera • Carl Zeiss Tessar Lens • 5MP (2584 x 1938) • JPEG/EXIF (16.7 Million / 24-bit color) • Video Capture MPEG-4 VGA.

packetization. is a gateway to more specialized studies but can also be applied to immediate workforce demands. IP telephony has to do with digital telephony systems that use IP protocols for voice communication while VoIP is actually a subset of IP Telephony. similar steps (usually in the reverse order) such as reception of the IP packets. and transmission as Internet Protocol (IP) packets over a packet-switched network. C++. methodologies. Internet telephony. ActionScript. broadband telephony. 3. such as the Internet. fax. and transmission techniques for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.1 VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP. often awarded at community colleges. [1] Even though IP Telephony and VoIP are terms that are used interchangeably. they are actually different. decoding of the packets and digital-to-analog conversion reproduce the original voice stream. encoding. voice over broadband (VoBB). rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN).3. On the receiving side. and/or voice-messaging applications—that are transported via the Internet. and broadband phone.[2] . This 2-year degree. Students learn languages such as HTML. This program of study also encompasses business courses with an emphasis on ecommerce and macroeconomics.0 Interne Internet Services Technology is broad field of study usually resulting in receiving an Associate of Applied Science Degree. SMS. VoIP is a technology used by IP telephony as a means of transporting phone calls. VoIP) is a family of technologies. communication protocols. Internet telephony refers to communications services—Voice. digitization of the analog voice signal. and JavaScript. Other terms frequently encountered and often used synonymously with VoIP are IP telephony. The steps involved in originating a VoIP telephone call are signaling and media channel setup.

although some focus on art (art blog). [2] Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject. A typical blog combines text. images. allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites.2 Blog A blog (a blend of the term web log)[1] is a type of website or part of a website. others function as more personal online diaries. .3. music (MP3 blog). meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. videos (video blogging or vlogging). and other media related to its topic. and audio (podcasting). Web pages. photographs (photoblog). descriptions of events. or other material such as graphics or video. Microblogging is another type of blogging. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. featuring very short posts. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary. Most blogs are interactive. Blog can also be used as a verb. Most blogs are primarily textual. and links to other blogs. The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs.

Bluetooth. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. in proximity to an individual's body.0 Types of network 4. 4. or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). Z-Wave and ZigBee. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with wireless network technologies such as IrDA.1 PAN A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices. including telephones and personal digital assistants.2 VPN .4. Wireless USB. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication). Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire.

Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802. and often secure data with encryption technologies to prevent disclosure of private information to unauthorized parties. has begun a pilot program to provide city workers in all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access. for instance. to provide remote offices or traveling users access to a central organizational network. VPNs typically require remote users of the network to be authenticated. marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name. Wireless LANs have become popular in the home due to ease of installation. VPN technology via the public Internet has replaced the need to requisition and maintain expensive dedicated leased-line telecommunication circuits once typical in wide-area network installations. such as the Internet.3 WLAN A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio). and the increasing to offer wireless access to their customers. databases. 4. etc. websites. A VPN user typically experiences the central network in a manner that is identical to being connected directly to the central network.4 WIMAX WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a trademark for a family of telecommunications protocols that provide fixed and mobile Internet access. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities: New York City. and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. The 2005 WiMAX .11 standards. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. such as sharing of data and access to network resources. 4.A virtual private network (VPN) is a network that uses primarily public telecommunication infrastructure. printers. often for free. VPNs may serve any network functionality that is found on any network.

especially one that links people across several traditional fields. If the people were not communicating with each other before. but failed to thrive when it ceased to grow. Computer communication. and thereby enough interest. The Native Computer Communications Network Project was a good example of how a focus on creating a network of computers does not necessarily ensure the interpersonal networking of the potential users of that technology.0 CONCLUSION (Computer Networks and Communications) The York/Habitat Networking Initiative showed that in the absence of resources allocated to promote collaborative activities among people busy with their own current endeavours. Habnet was a project that tried to overcome the limitations of these initiatives. developing another method of communication doesn't mean they'll start.[3] 5. to make it worthwhile to use. A great deal of organizing must be done by those most involved in establishing a new network. which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. It again showed how difficult it is to create an online network without sufficient numbers of people to maintain enough interaction. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum. It succeeded as an exploration of the potentials of online interactions. it is very difficult to maintain interpersonal interactions. will become a much more useful networking tool when large numbers of people with similar interests acquire . it seems. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s[1][2] with the 2011 update up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations.

REFERENCE 1. it still requires a great deal of concentrated effort and resources to get the people to use it. Internet http://www.wikipedia.php http://en.springerlink. This problem should become increasingly minimized over the coming years as the technological innovations become more diffused throughout society.com/nokia_n97-2615.pdf?page=1 http://www.gsmarena.org/wiki/Personal_area_network http://en.org/wiki/Voice_over_Internet_Protocol .wikipedia.com/content/k352871185136267/fulltext. Though it can expedite the formation of new interpersonal networks by overcoming the space and time barriers faced by traditional networking techniques.access to the technology.