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and organizational scope. for data communication between multiple networks. a hardware and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks. and the Internet Protocol Suite. computer science. i.e. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering. scale.(Computer Network and Communications) A computer network.[1] Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as the medium used to transport the data. telecommunications. often simply referred to as a network. since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines 2. Well-known communications protocols are Ethernet. which defines a set of protocols for internetworking. information technology or computer engineering. is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communications channels that allow sharing of resources and information. as well as host-to-host data transfer. topology.0 MOBILE COMPUTING . communications protocol used. and application-specific data transmission formats. The rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network are defined by communications protocols.

2. The third aspect deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications. .g. protocols. The second aspect is on the hardware. e.Mobile computing is a form of human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. mobile hardware.. mobile devices or device components. and mobile software. Mobile computing has three aspects: mobile communication. The first aspect addresses communication issues in ad-hoc and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties." Uwe Vieille. data formats and concrete technologies."[1] "Mobile computing: being able to use a computing device even when being mobile and therefore changing location.1 Definitions Mobile computing is "taking a computer and all necessary files and software out into the field."[2] "Mobile computing is the ability to use computing capability without a pre-defined location and/or connection to a network to publish and/or subscribe to information . Portability is one aspect of mobile computing.

or a purpose-made standards organization such as ISO. a consortium (a small group of corporations).g PDA. both public and private. a trade association (an industry-wide group of corporations).[2] the abbreviation OOS may also be used. A technical specification may be developed by any of various kinds of organizations. or service. cite) the standards of another.2. services. It is common for one organization to refer to (reference. regulatory agencies.2 Specification. call out. Voluntary standards may become mandatory if adopted by a government or business contract. Sometimes the term specification is used in connection with a data sheet (or spec sheet). and frequencies of Mobile Computing (based on one product e. product or service fail to meet one or more of the applicable specifications.[1] Should a material.3G mobile phone) A specification (often abbreviated spec) is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material. it may be referred to as being out of specification. A data sheet is not a technical specification as described in this article. Example organization types include a corporation. and national laboratories and institutes).5-inch TFT • 16 Million Colors • mHD 16:9 Widescreen •640×360 pixels Battery . product. a professional association (society). A data sheet is usually used for technical communication to describe technical characteristics of an item or product.[3] Specs are a type of technical standard. a national government (including its military. Specification User Interface • S60 5th Edition Display • 3. It can be published by a manufacturer to help people choose products or to help use the products.

640×480 at 30fps • Aperture: F2.4mm Flash: Dual LED Camera SERVICES • WLAN IEEE 802.7 Million / 24-bit color) • Video Capture MPEG-4 VGA.11 b/g with UPnP support • Micro USB Connector • 3.0 • A-GPS • Internet surfing FREQUENCIES • 2G Network GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 • 3G Network HSDPA 900 / 1900 / 2100 Technology and Services .• Nokia Batter BP-4L • 1500 mAh Memory • Up to 48GB • 32GB Internal Memory • 16GB Micro SD Expansion Slot Main Camera • Carl Zeiss Tessar Lens • 5MP (2584 x 1938) • JPEG/EXIF (16.5 mm stereo headphone plug • TV-Out Support • Data transfer via Bluetooth 2.8 • Focal Length: 5.

communication protocols. often awarded at community colleges. and transmission as Internet Protocol (IP) packets over a packet-switched network. fax. IP telephony has to do with digital telephony systems that use IP protocols for voice communication while VoIP is actually a subset of IP Telephony. Internet telephony refers to communications services—Voice. such as the Internet. digitization of the analog voice signal. On the receiving side. This program of study also encompasses business courses with an emphasis on ecommerce and macroeconomics. rather than the public switched telephone network (PSTN). VoIP is a technology used by IP telephony as a means of transporting phone calls. Internet telephony.[2] . they are actually different. is a gateway to more specialized studies but can also be applied to immediate workforce demands.3. The steps involved in originating a VoIP telephone call are signaling and media channel setup. Students learn languages such as HTML. voice over broadband (VoBB). broadband telephony. This 2-year degree. [1] Even though IP Telephony and VoIP are terms that are used interchangeably. similar steps (usually in the reverse order) such as reception of the IP packets. encoding. SMS. packetization. ActionScript. VoIP) is a family of technologies. C++.0 Interne Internet Services Technology is broad field of study usually resulting in receiving an Associate of Applied Science Degree. methodologies. 3. and broadband phone. decoding of the packets and digital-to-analog conversion reproduce the original voice stream.1 VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP. and transmission techniques for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. Other terms frequently encountered and often used synonymously with VoIP are IP telephony. and/or voice-messaging applications—that are transported via the Internet. and JavaScript.

Most blogs are primarily textual. Blog can also be used as a verb. and links to other blogs. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. photographs (photoblog).2 Blog A blog (a blend of the term web log)[1] is a type of website or part of a website. or other material such as graphics or video. descriptions of events. music (MP3 blog). [2] Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject. meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. and audio (podcasting). featuring very short posts. and other media related to its topic. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary. images. Microblogging is another type of blogging. although some focus on art (art blog). . A typical blog combines text. allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. Web pages.3. The ability of readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs. others function as more personal online diaries. Most blogs are interactive. videos (video blogging or vlogging).

Bluetooth. including telephones and personal digital assistants. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with wireless network technologies such as IrDA. Wireless USB.0 Types of network 4. 4. Z-Wave and ZigBee. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. in proximity to an individual's body. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication). or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).4.2 VPN . Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire.1 PAN A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question.

and the increasing to offer wireless access to their customers. 4. 4.3 WLAN A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio). and often secure data with encryption technologies to prevent disclosure of private information to unauthorized parties.11 standards. websites. VPNs typically require remote users of the network to be authenticated. often for free. to provide remote offices or traveling users access to a central organizational network. A VPN user typically experiences the central network in a manner that is identical to being connected directly to the central network. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities: New York City. for instance. Wireless LANs have become popular in the home due to ease of installation. Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802.4 WIMAX WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a trademark for a family of telecommunications protocols that provide fixed and mobile Internet access. printers. The 2005 WiMAX . such as the Internet. has begun a pilot program to provide city workers in all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access. etc. databases. such as sharing of data and access to network resources. and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet.A virtual private network (VPN) is a network that uses primarily public telecommunication infrastructure. VPN technology via the public Internet has replaced the need to requisition and maintain expensive dedicated leased-line telecommunication circuits once typical in wide-area network installations. VPNs may serve any network functionality that is found on any network. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. marketed under the Wi-Fi brand name.

and thereby enough interest. If the people were not communicating with each other before. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL". which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. especially one that links people across several traditional fields. Habnet was a project that tried to overcome the limitations of these initiatives. It again showed how difficult it is to create an online network without sufficient numbers of people to maintain enough interaction. It succeeded as an exploration of the potentials of online interactions. to make it worthwhile to use.[3] 5. it seems. it is very difficult to maintain interpersonal interactions. will become a much more useful networking tool when large numbers of people with similar interests acquire . but failed to thrive when it ceased to grow. A great deal of organizing must be done by those most involved in establishing a new network. developing another method of communication doesn't mean they'll start. The Native Computer Communications Network Project was a good example of how a focus on creating a network of computers does not necessarily ensure the interpersonal networking of the potential users of that technology. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum.revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s[1][2] with the 2011 update up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations.0 CONCLUSION (Computer Networks and Communications) The York/Habitat Networking Initiative showed that in the absence of resources allocated to promote collaborative activities among people busy with their own current endeavours. Computer communication.

it still requires a great deal of concentrated effort and resources to get the people to use http://en.springerlink.wikipedia. Though it can expedite the formation of new interpersonal networks by overcoming the space and time barriers faced by traditional networking REFERENCE 1.pdf?page=1 http://www.php .wikipedia. This problem should become increasingly minimized over the coming years as the technological innovations become more diffused throughout society.access to the Internet http://www.