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Recommended practice for basic inspection requirements

- new pipeline construction
29 CFR-1910 The Code of Federal Regulations
OSHA Subpart H & I
2014-September
My Self Study Exam Preparatory Notes
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29
At works
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THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS ONLY THE SECTIONS
NEEDED FOR THE API 1169 ICP EXAMS
It is for my personal study notes
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Pipeline Metering Station
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Fion Zhang
2014/September
http://meilishouxihu.blog.163.com/
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THE REFERENCES BELOW WILL BE AVAILABLE TO APPLICANTS ON
THE COMPUTER SCREEN DURING THE EXAM:
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
• 29 CFR 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards,
Subparts H Article 119,
Subpart I (Excluding Subpart I Appendices) and
Subpart J Articles 145-147 (Excluding Appendices)
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• 29 CFR 1926, Safety and Health Regulations for Construction:
Subpart C Articles 20-29 and 32-35,
Subpart D Article 62 (Excluding Appendices),
Subpart F Article 152,
Subpart H Articles 250-251,
Subpart J Article 351-354, Subpart L Article 451,
Subpart M Article 500-501,
Subpart O 600, Subpart P,
Subpart U Article 900-902 and 914 and
Subpart CC Article 1417.
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• 40 CFR 112, Oil Pollution Prevention, Subpart A
• 40 CFR 122, EPA Administered Permit Programs: The National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System: Subpart A
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• 49 CFR 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline:
Minimum Federal Safety Standards: Subparts G, J & N
• 49 CFR 195, Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline: Subpart D
and Subpart E
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29 CFR
http://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/29
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Priority in the text
(a), (b).....
(1), (2)…..
(i), (ii)…..
(A), (B)…..
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29 CFR 1910
Occupational Safety and Health Standards
THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS ONLY THE SECTIONS
NEEDED FOR THE API 1169 ICP EXAMS
Formatted for My Self Study Exam Preparatory Notes
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Pipeline Metering Station
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Subpart H—Hazardous Materials
AUTHORITY: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act
of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36
FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96
(62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR
55355) or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.
Sections 1910.103, 1910.106 through 1910.111, and 1910.119, 1910.120,
and 1910.122 through 1910.126 also issued under 29 CFR part 1911.
Section 1910.119 also issued under Section 304, Clean Air Act Amendments
of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-549), reprinted at 29 U.S.C.A. 655 Note.
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§1910.119
Process safety
management of
highly hazardous
chemicals.
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§1910.119
Process safety management of highly hazardous
chemicals.
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§1910.119 Contents: PSM
a) Application
b) Definitions
c) Employee Participation
d) Process Safety Information
e) Process Hazard Analysis
f) Operating Procedures
g) Training
h) Contractors
i) Ore-Startup Safety Review
j) Mechanical Integrity
k) Hot Work Permit
l) Management of Change
m) Incident Investigation
n) Investigation Planning & Response
o) Compliance Audits
p) Trade Secrets
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§1910.119 Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.
Purpose. This section contains requirements for preventing or minimizing the
consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or
explosive chemicals. These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion
hazards.
(a) Application.
(1) This section applies to the following:
(i) A process which involves a chemical at or above the specified threshold
quantities listed in appendix A to this section;
(ii) A process which involves a Category 1 flammable gas (as defined in
1910.1200(c)) or a flammable liquid with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8
°C) on site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000 pounds (4535.9 kg) or
more except for:
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(A) Hydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a fuel (e.g.,
propane used for comfort heating, gasoline for vehicle refueling), if such
fuels are not a part of a process containing another highly hazardous
chemical covered by this standard;
(B) Flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C) stored in
atmospheric tanks or transferred which are kept below their normal
boiling point without benefit of chilling or refrigeration.
(2) This section does not apply to:
(i) Retail facilities;
(ii) Oil or gas well drilling or servicing operations; or,
(iii) Normally unoccupied remote facilities.
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Keywords:
Specified threshold quantities listed in appendix A to this section;
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(b) Definitions.
Atmospheric tank- means a storage tank which has been designed to
operate at pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g. (pounds per
square inch gauge, 3.45 Kpa).
Boiling point- means the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds
per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.). For the purposes of this
section, where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in
question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, the 10
percent point of a distillation performed in accordance with the Standard
Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, which
is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, may be used as the
boiling point of the liquid.
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Catastrophic release- means a major uncontrolled emission, fire, or explosion,
involving one or more highly hazardous chemicals, that presents serious
danger to employees in the workplace.
Facility- means the buildings, containers or equipment which contain a
process.
Highly hazardous chemical- means a substance possessing toxic, reactive,
flammable, or explosive properties and specified by paragraph (a)(1) of this
section.
Hot work- means work involving electric or gas welding, cutting, brazing, or
similar flame or spark producing operations.
Normally unoccupied remote facility- means a facility which is operated,
maintained or serviced by employees who visit the facility only periodically to
check its operation and to perform necessary operating or maintenance tasks.
No employees are permanently stationed at the facility. Facilities meeting this
definition are not contiguous with, and must be geographically remote from
all other buildings, processes or persons.
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Process- means any activity involving a highly hazardous chemical including
any use, storage, manufacturing, handling, or the on-site movement of such
chemicals, or combination of these activities. For purposes of this definition,
any group of vessels which are interconnected and separate vessels which
are located such that a highly hazardous chemical could be involved in a
potential release shall be considered a single process.
Replacement in kind- means a replacement which satisfies the design
specification.
Trade secret- means any confidential formula, pattern, process, device,
information or compilation of information that is used in an employer's
business, and that gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantage
over competitors who do not know or use it. See Appendix E to
§1910.1200 —Definition of a Trade Secret (which sets out the criteria to be
used in evaluating trade secrets).
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(c) Employee participation.
(1)Employers shall develop a written plan of action regarding the
implementation of the employee participation required by this paragraph.
(2) Employers shall consult with employees and their representatives on the
conduct and development of process hazards analyses and on the
development of the other elements of process safety management in this
standard.
(3) Employers shall provide to employees and their representatives access to
process hazard analyses and to all other information required to be
developed under this standard.
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(d) Process safety information.
In accordance with the schedule set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section,
the employer shall complete a compilation of written process safety
information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by the
standard. The compilation of written process safety information is to
enable the employer and the employees involved in operating the process
to identify and understand the hazards posed by those processes involving
highly hazardous chemicals. This process safety information shall include
information pertaining to the hazards of the highly hazardous chemicals
used or produced by the process, information pertaining to the technology
of the process, and information pertaining to the equipment in the process.
Keywords:
1. process hazard analysis
2. Process Safety Information
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(1) Information pertaining to the hazards of the highly hazardous chemicals
in the process. This information shall consist of at least the following:
(i) Toxicity information;
(ii) Permissible exposure limits;
(iii) Physical data;
(iv) Reactivity data:
(v) Corrosivity data;
(vi) Thermal and chemical stability data; and
(vii) Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materials that could
foreseeably occur.
NOTE: Safety data sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1200(g)
may be used to comply with this requirement to the extent they contain the
information required by this subparagraph.
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(2) Information pertaining to the technology of the process.
(i) Information concerning the technology of the process shall include at least
the following:
A. A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram (see appendix B
to this section);
B. Process chemistry;
C. Maximum intended inventory;
D. Safe upper and lower limits for such items as temperatures, pressures,
flows or compositions; and,
E. An evaluation of the consequences of deviations, including those affecting
the safety and health of employees.
(ii) Where the original technical information no longer exists, such information
may be developed in conjunction with the process hazard analysis in
sufficient detail to support the analysis.
Keywords:
Process Safety Information: Technology
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(3) Information pertaining to the equipment in the process.
I. Information pertaining to the equipment in the process shall include:
(A) Materials of construction;
(B) Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID's);
(C) Electrical classification;
(D) Relief system design and design basis;
(E) Ventilation system design;
(F) Design codes and standards employed;
(G) Material and energy balances for processes built after May 26, 1992; and,
(H) Safety systems (e.g. interlocks, detection or suppression systems).
II. The employer shall document that equipment complies with recognized
and generally accepted good engineering practices.
III. For existing equipment designed and constructed in accordance with
codes, standards, or practices that are no longer in general use, the
employer shall determine and document that the equipment is designed,
maintained, inspected, tested, and operating in a safe manner.
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Keywords:
Process hazard analysis
• Process Safety Information:
- Hazardous Materials
- Technology
- Equipment in the process
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(e) Process hazard analysis.
(1) The employer shall perform an initial process hazard analysis (hazard
evaluation) on processes covered by this standard. The process hazard
analysis shall be appropriate to the complexity of the process and shall
identify, evaluate, and control the hazards involved in the process.
Employers shall determine and document the priority order for conducting
process hazard analyses based on a rationale which includes such
considerations as extent of the process hazards, number of potentially
affected employees, age of the process, and operating history of the
process. The process hazard analysis shall be conducted as soon as
possible, but not later than the following schedule:
(i) No less than 25 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shall be
completed by May 26, 1994;
(ii) No less than 50 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shall be
completed by May 26, 1995;
(iii) No less than 75 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shall be
completed by May 26, 1996;
(iv) All initial process hazards analyses shall be completed by May 26, 1997.
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(v) Process hazards analyses completed after May 26, 1987 which meet the
requirements of this paragraph are acceptable as initial process hazards
analyses. These process hazard analyses shall be updated and
revalidated, based on their completion date, in accordance with
paragraph (e)(6) of this section.
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Keywords:
 The employer shall perform an initial process hazard analysis
 Employers shall determine and document the priority order for conducting
process hazard analyses based on a rationale which includes such
considerations as:
1. extent of the process hazards,
2. number of potentially affected employees,
3. age of the process, and
4. operating history of the process.
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(2) The employer shall use one or more of the following methodologies that
are appropriate to determine and evaluate the hazards of the process
being analyzed.
(i) What-If;
(ii) Checklist;
(iii) What-If/Checklist;
(iv) Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP):
(v) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA);
(vi) Fault Tree Analysis; or
(vii) An appropriate equivalent methodology.
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(3) The process hazard analysis shall address:
(i) The hazards of the process;
(ii) The identification of any previous incident which had a likely potential for
catastrophic consequences in the workplace;
(iii) Engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards and
their interrelationships such as appropriate application of detection
methodologies to provide early warning of releases. (Acceptable
detection methods might include process monitoring and control
instrumentation with alarms, and detection hardware such as
hydrocarbon sensors.);
(iv) Consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls;
(v) Facility sitting;
(vi) Human factors; and
(vii) A qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health
effects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace.
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(4) The process hazard analysis shall be performed by a team with expertise
in engineering and process operations, and the team shall include at least
one employee who has experience and knowledge specific to the process
being evaluated. Also, one member of the team must be knowledgeable in
the specific process hazard analysis methodology being used.
Keywords: ( PSA Team- 2 key persons)
1. Team shall include at least one employee who has
 experience and knowledge specific to the process being evaluated.
Also,
2. One member of the team must be
 knowledgeable in the specific process hazard analysis methodology
being used.
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Smart Crucial Persons at Works for PHA
One for process knowledge / One for PSA methodologies
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(5) The employer shall establish a system to promptly address the team's
findings and recommendations; assure that the recommendations are
resolved in a timely manner and that the resolution is documented;
document what actions are to be taken; complete actions as soon as
possible; develop a written schedule of when these actions are to be
completed; communicate the actions to operating, maintenance and other
employees whose work assignments are in the process and who may be
affected by the recommendations or actions.
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Keywords: (Actions on findings)
1. develop a written schedule,
2. communicate the actions to operating,
3. maintenance and other employees whose work assignments are in the
process and
4. who may be affected by the recommendations or actions.
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(6)At least every five (5) years after the completion of the initial process
hazard analysis, the process hazard analysis shall be updated and
revalidated by a team meeting the requirements in paragraph (e)(4) of this
section, to assure that the process hazard analysis is consistent with the
current process.
(7)Employers shall retain process hazards analyses and updates or
revalidations for each process covered by this section, as well as the
documented resolution of recommendations described in paragraph (e)(5)
of this section for the life of the process.
Keywords:
PSA shall be update every 5 years.
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PHA Update- At least every five (5) years after the completion of the initial
process hazard analysis
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(f) Operating procedures
(1) The employer shall develop and implement written operating
procedures that provide clear instructions for safely conducting activities
involved in each covered process consistent with the process safety
information and shall address at least the following elements.
(i) Steps for each operating phase:
(A)Initial startup;
(B)Normal operations;
(C)Temporary operations;
(D)Emergency shutdown including the conditions under which emergency
shutdown is required, and the assignment of shutdown responsibility to
qualified operators to ensure that emergency shutdown is executed in a
safe and timely manner.
(E)Emergency Operations;
(F) Normal shutdown; and,
(G)Startup following a turnaround, or after an emergency shutdown.
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(ii) Operating limits:
(A) Consequences of deviation; and
(B) Steps required to correct or avoid deviation.
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(iii) Safety and health considerations:
(A)Properties of, and hazards presented by, the chemicals used in the
process;
(B)Precautions necessary to prevent exposure, including engineering controls,
administrative controls, and personal protective equipment;
(C)Control measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne exposure
occurs;
(D)Quality control for raw materials and control of hazardous chemical
inventory levels; and,
(E)Any special or unique hazards.
(iv) Safety systems and their functions.
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(2) Operating procedures shall be readily accessible to employees who work
in or maintain a process.
(3) The operating procedures shall be reviewed as often as necessary to
assure that they reflect current operating practice, including changes that
result from changes in process chemicals, technology, and equipment, and
changes to facilities. The employer shall certify annually that these
operating procedures are current and accurate.
(4) The employer shall develop and implement safe work practices to provide
for the control of hazards during operations such as lockout/tagout; confined
space entry; opening process equipment or piping; and control over entrance
into a facility by maintenance, contractor, laboratory, or other support
personnel. These safe work practices shall apply to employees and
contractor employees.
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Operating Manual to be certified annually
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Safe work practices: Control over entrance into a facility by maintenance,
contractor, laboratory, or other support personnel.
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Safe work practices: Control over entrance into a facility by maintenance,
contractor, laboratory, or other support personnel.
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Safe work practices: Lockout/Tagout
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Safe work practices: Lockout/Tagout
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Safe work practices: Confined Space Entry
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(g) Training
(1) Initial training.
(i) Each employee presently involved in operating a process, and each
employee before being involved in operating a newly assigned process,
shall be trained in an overview of the process and in the operating
procedures as specified in paragraph (f) of this section. The training shall
include emphasis on the specific safety and health hazards, emergency
operations including shutdown, and safe work practices applicable to the
employee's job tasks.
(ii) In lieu of initial training for those employees already involved in operating a
process on May 26, 1992, an employer may certify in writing that the
employee has the required knowledge, skills, and abilities to safely carry
out the duties and responsibilities as specified in the operating procedures.
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(2) Refresher training.
Refresher training shall be provided at least every three years, and more
often if necessary, to each employee involved in operating a process to
assure that the employee understands and adheres to the current operating
procedures of the process. The employer, in consultation with the employees
involved in operating the process, shall determine the appropriate frequency
of refresher training.
(3) Training documentation.
The employer shall ascertain that each employee involved in operating a
process has received and understood the training required by this paragraph.
The employer shall prepare a record which contains the identity of the
employee, the date of training, and the means used to verify that the
employee understood the training.
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Keywords:
Refresher training shall be provided at least every three years, and more
often if necessary
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Initial Training- Operating Newly Assigned Process
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Refresher Training – Every Three Years
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(h) Contractors
(1) Application.
This paragraph applies to contractors performing maintenance or repair,
turnaround, major renovation, or specialty work on or adjacent to a covered
process. It does not apply to contractors providing incidental services
which do not influence process safety, such as janitorial work, food and drink
services, laundry, delivery or other supply services.
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(2) Employer responsibilities.
(i) The employer, when selecting a contractor, shall obtain and evaluate
information regarding the contract employer's safety performance and
programs.
(ii) The employer shall inform contract employers of the known potential fire,
explosion, or toxic release hazards related to the contractor's work and
the process.
(iii) The employer shall explain to contract employers the applicable
provisions of the emergency action plan required by paragraph (n) of this
section.
(iv) The employer shall develop and implement safe work practices consistent
with paragraph (f)(4) of this section, to control the entrance, presence and
exit of contract employers and contract employees in covered process
areas.
(v) The employer shall periodically evaluate the performance of contract
employers in fulfilling their obligations as specified in paragraph (h)(3) of
this section.
(vi) The employer shall maintain a contract employee injury and illness log
related to the contractor's work in process areas.
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Keywords:
1. Employer
2. Contract Employer
3. Contract Employee
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(3) Contract employer responsibilities.
(i) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee is
trained in the work practices necessary to safely perform his/her job.
(ii) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee is
instructed in the known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards
related to his/her job and the process, and the applicable provisions of
the emergency action plan.
(iii) The contract employer shall document that each contract employee has
received and understood the training required by this paragraph. The
contract employer shall prepare a record which contains the identity of
the contract employee, the date of training, and the means used to verify
that the employee understood the training.
(iv) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee follows
the safety rules of the facility including the safe work practices required by
paragraph (f)(4) of this section.
(v) The contract employer shall advise the employer of any unique hazards
presented by the contract employer's work, or of any hazards found by
the contract employer's work.
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(i) Pre-startup safety review.
(1) The employer shall perform a pre-startup safety review for new facilities
and for modified facilities when the modification is significant enough to
require a change in the process safety information.
(2) The pre-startup safety review shall confirm that prior to the introduction of
highly hazardous chemicals to a process:
(i) Construction and equipment is in accordance with design specifications;
(ii) Safety, operating, maintenance, and emergency procedures are in place
and are adequate;
(iii) For new facilities, a process hazard analysis has been performed and
recommendations have been resolved or implemented before startup;
and modified facilities meet the requirements contained in management
of change, paragraph (l).
(iv) Training of each employee involved in operating a process has been
completed.
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(j) Mechanical integrity
(1) Application.
Paragraphs (j)(2) through (j)(6) of this section apply to the following process
equipment:
(i) Pressure vessels and storage tanks;
(ii) Piping systems (including piping components such as valves);
(iii) Relief and vent systems and devices;
(iv) Emergency shutdown systems;
(v) Controls (including monitoring devices and sensors, alarms, and
interlocks) and,
(vi) Pumps.
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(2) Written procedures. The employer shall establish and implement written
procedures to maintain the on-going integrity of process equipment.
(3) Training for process maintenance activities. The employer shall train each
employee involved in maintaining the on-going integrity of process equipment
in an overview of that process and its hazards and in the procedures
applicable to the employee's job tasks to assure that the employee can
perform the job tasks in a safe manner.
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(4) Inspection and testing.
(i) Inspections and tests shall be performed on process equipment.
(ii) Inspection and testing procedures shall follow recognized and generally
accepted good engineering practices.
(iii) The frequency of inspections and tests of process equipment shall be
consistent with applicable manufacturers' recommendations and good
engineering practices, and more frequently if determined to be
necessary by prior operating experience.
(iv) The employer shall document each inspection and test that has been
performed on process equipment. The documentation shall identify the
date of the inspection or test, the name of the person who performed the
inspection or test, the serial number or other identifier of the equipment
on which the inspection or test was performed, a description of the
inspection or test performed, and the results of the inspection or test.
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Keywords:
The frequency of inspections shall be consistent with:
 Applicable manufacturers' recommendations
 Good engineering practices,
 More frequently if determined to be necessary by prior operating
experience.
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(5) Equipment deficiencies.
The employer shall correct deficiencies in equipment that are outside
acceptable limits (defined by the process safety information in paragraph (d)
of this section) before further use or in a safe and timely manner when
necessary means are taken to assure safe operation.
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(6) Quality assurance.
(i) In the construction of new plants and equipment, the employer shall
assure that equipment as it is fabricated is suitable for the process
application for which they will be used.
(ii) Appropriate checks and inspections shall be performed to assure that
equipment is installed properly and consistent with design specifications
and the manufacturer's instructions.
(iii)The employer shall assure that maintenance materials, spare parts and
equipment are suitable for the process application for which they will be
used.
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(k) Hot work permit.
(1)The employer shall issue a hot work permit for hot work operations
conducted on or near a covered process.
(2)The permit shall document that the fire prevention and protection
requirements in 29 CFR 1910.252(a) have been implemented prior to
beginning the hot work operations; it shall indicate the date(s) authorized
for hot work; and identify the object on which hot work is to be performed.
The permit shall be kept on file until completion of the hot work operations.
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Permit Issuance Training
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(l) Management of change.
(1) The employer shall establish and implement written procedures to
manage changes (except for “replacements in kind”) to process chemicals,
technology, equipment, and procedures; and, changes to facilities that affect
a covered process.
(2) The procedures shall assure that the following considerations are
addressed prior to any change:
(i) The technical basis for the proposed change;
(ii) Impact of change on safety and health;
(iii) Modifications to operating procedures;
(iv) Necessary time period for the change; and,
(v) Authorization requirements for the proposed change.
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(3) Employees involved in operating a process and maintenance and
contract employees whose job tasks will be affected by a change in the
process shall be informed of, and trained in, the change prior to start-up
of the process or affected part of the process.
(4) If a change covered by this paragraph results in a change in the process
safety information required by paragraph (d) of this section, such
information shall be updated accordingly.
(5) If a change covered by this paragraph results in a change in the operating
procedures or practices required by paragraph (f) of this section, such
procedures or practices shall be updated accordingly.
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(m) Incident investigation.
(1) The employer shall investigate each incident which resulted in, or could
reasonably have resulted in a catastrophic release of highly hazardous
chemical in the workplace.
(2) An incident investigation shall be initiated as promptly as possible, but
not later than 48 hours following the incident.
(3) An incident investigation team shall be established and consist of at least
one person knowledgeable in the process involved, including a contract
employee if the incident involved work of the contractor, and other
persons with appropriate knowledge and experience to thoroughly
investigate and analyze the incident.
Keywords:
• At least one person knowledgeable in the process involved
• Including a contract employee if the incident involved work of the
contractor
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(4) A report shall be prepared at the conclusion of the investigation which
includes at a minimum:
(i) Date of incident;
(ii) Date investigation began;
(iii) A description of the incident;
(iv) The factors that contributed to the incident; and,
(v) Any recommendations resulting from the investigation.
(5)The employer shall establish a system to promptly address and resolve
the incident report findings and recommendations. Resolutions and
corrective actions shall be documented.
(6)The report shall be reviewed with all affected personnel whose job tasks
are relevant to the incident findings including contract employees where
applicable.
(7)Incident investigation reports shall be retained for five years.
Keywords:
Retention of incident report is 5 years
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(n) Emergency planning and response.
The employer shall establish and implement an emergency action plan for the
entire plant in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.38. In addition,
the emergency action plan shall include procedures for handling small
releases. Employers covered under this standard may also be subject to the
hazardous waste and emergency response provisions contained in 29 CFR
1910.120 (a), (p) and (q).
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Emergency planning and response- Entire Plant 29 CFR 1910.38
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Emergency planning and response- Entire Plant 29 CFR 1910.38
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Emergency planning and response- Emergency Communication
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Emergency planning and response- Small Release & Hazardous Waste 29
CFR 1910.120 (a), (p) and (q).
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(o) Compliance Audits.
(1) Employers shall certify that they have evaluated compliance with the
provisions of this section at least every three years to verify that the
procedures and practices developed under the standard are adequate
and are being followed.
(2) The compliance audit shall be conducted by at least one person
knowledgeable in the process.
(3) A report of the findings of the audit shall be developed.
(4) The employer shall promptly determine and document an appropriate
response to each of the findings of the compliance audit, and document
that deficiencies have been corrected.
(5) Employers shall retain the two (2) most recent compliance audit reports.
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Keywords:
• Compliance Audit every 3 years
• Retained most recent 2 reports
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(p) Trade secrets.
(1) Employers shall make all information necessary to comply with the
section available to those persons responsible for compiling the process
safety information (required by paragraph (d) of this section), those
assisting in the development of the process hazard analysis (required by
paragraph (e) of this section), those responsible for developing the
operating procedures (required by paragraph (f) of this section), and
those involved in incident investigations (required by paragraph (m) of
this section), emergency planning and response (paragraph (n) of this
section) and compliance audits (paragraph (o) of this section) without
regard to possible trade secret status of such information.
(2) Nothing in this paragraph shall preclude the employer from requiring the
persons to whom the information is made available under paragraph
(p)(1) of this section to enter into confidentiality agreements not to
disclose the information as set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1200.
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(3) Subject to the rules and procedures set forth in 29 CFR 1910.1200(i)(1)
through 1910.1200(i)(12), employees and their designated
representatives shall have access to trade secret information contained
within the process hazard analysis and other documents required to be
developed by this standard.
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Trade Secret
Trade Secret can not be an excuse
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Keywords:
1. Employers shall make all information necessary to comply with the
section available to those persons responsible for compiling the process
safety information (PSI)
2. Persons to whom the information is made available to enter into
confidentiality agreements not to disclose the information as set forth in 29
CFR 1910.1200
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APPENDIX A TO §1910.119—LIST OF HIGHLY HAZARDOUS
CHEMICALS, TOXICS AND REACTIVES (MANDATORY)
This appendix contains a (long) listing of toxic and reactive highly hazardous
chemicals which present a potential for a catastrophic event at or above the
threshold quantity.
*Chemical Abstract Service Number.
**Threshold Quantity in Pounds (Amount necessary to be covered by this standard).
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APPENDIX C TO §1910.119—COMPLIANCE GUIDELINES AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT
(NONMANDATORY)
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APPENDIX D TO §1910.119—SOURCES OF FURTHER INFORMATION
(NONMANDATORY)
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Employer’s
Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals
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Summary Q&A: 29 CFR 1910 Subpart H
• What are covered by this CFR?
• What are not covered by this CFR?
• Who overall responsibility for process
safety management?
• Describe employee participation.
• What are the Process safety
information required before
performing PHA?
• What are the methodologies used for
PHA?
• How often the PHA shall be updated?
• Who are the critical team members in
the PHA team?
• How long the PHA shall be retained?
• What are the elements of the operating
procedures?
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Summary Q&A: 29 CFR 1910 Subpart H
• How the employee training shall be
conducted and how often refresher
training to be carried out?
• Describe the contractor and employer
responsibility?
• What are the elements of pre-start-up
reviews?
• What are the elements of mechanical
integrity?
• Describe the requirements of Hot Work
Permit.?
• For the MOC, prior to any changes
what are the considerations?
• What is the latest time incident
investigation shall be initiated?
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Summary Q&A: 29 CFR 1910 Subpart H
• Describe the emergency respond plan
requirements?
• How often the compliance audit to be
performed?
• Could the employer refuse to provide
information to person responsible for
collecting process safety information
for this CFR on the basis of trade secret?
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Pipeline Lowering-in
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Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment
AUTHORITY: 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71
(36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033),
6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72
FR 31160), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable;
and 29 CFR 1911. Sections 1910.132, 1910.134, and 1910.138 of 29 CFR
also issued under 29 CFR 1911. Sections 1910.133, 1910.135, and 1910.136
of 29 CFR also issued under 29 CFR 1911 and 5 U.S.C. 553.
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Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment
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§1910.132
General
requirements.
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Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment
§1910.132 General requirements.
(a) Application.
Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face,
head, and extremities, protective clothing, respiratory devices, and protective
shields and barriers, shall be provided, used, and maintained in a sanitary
and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of
processes or environment, chemical hazards, radiological hazards, or
mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capable of causing injury or
impairment in the function of any part of
the body through absorption, inhalation or physical contact.
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(b)Employee-owned equipment.
Where employees provide their own protective equipment, the employer
shall be responsible to assure its adequacy, including proper maintenance,
and sanitation of such equipment.
(c) Design.
All personal protective equipment shall be of safe design and construction
for the work to be performed.
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(d) Hazard assessment and equipment selection.
(1) The employer shall assess the workplace to determine if hazards are
present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of personal
protective equipment (PPE). If such hazards are present, or likely to be
present, the employer shall:
(i) Select, and have each affected employee use, the types of PPE that will
protect the affected employee from the hazards identified in the hazard
assessment;
(ii) Communicate selection decisions to each affected employee; and,
(iii) Select PPE that properly fits each affected employee.
NOTE: Non-mandatory appendix B contains an example of procedures that
would comply with the requirement for a hazard assessment.
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(2) The employer shall verify that the required workplace hazard
assessment has been performed through a written certification that identifies
the workplace evaluated; the person certifying that the evaluation has been
performed; the date(s) of the hazard assessment; and, which identifies the
document as a certification of hazard assessment.
(e) Defective and damaged equipment.
Defective or damaged personal protective equipment shall not be used.
Keywords:
Hazard Assessment to be performed.
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PPE Hazard Assessment Form
http://www.ncsu.edu/ehs/safetyplan/forms/HAZARDAS.pdf
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http://www.safety.duke.edu/ohs/Documents/PPE%20Hazard%20Assessment%20Form.pdf
PPE Hazard Assessment Form
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(f) Training.
(1) The employer shall provide training to each employee who is required by
this section to use PPE. Each such employee shall be trained to know at least
the following:
(i) When PPE is necessary;
(ii) What PPE is necessary;
(iii) How to properly don, doff, adjust, and wear PPE;
(iv) The limitations of the PPE; and,
(v) The proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE.
(2) Each affected employee shall demonstrate an understanding of the
training specified in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, and the ability to use PPE
properly, before being allowed to perform work requiring the use of PPE.
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(3) When the employer has reason to believe that any affected employee who
has already been trained does not have the understanding and skill
required by paragraph (f)(2) of this section, the employer shall retrain each
such employee. Circumstances where retraining is required include, but
are not limited to, situations where:
(i) Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete; or
(ii) Changes in the types of PPE to be used render previous training obsolete;
or
(iii) Inadequacies in an affected employee's knowledge or use of assigned
PPE indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite
understanding or skill.
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Safety Training
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Safety Training
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(g) Paragraphs (d) and (f) of this section apply only to §§1910.133,
1910.135, 1919.136, and 1910.138. Paragraphs (d) and (f) of this section
do not apply to §§1910.134 and 1910.137.
(h) Payment for protective equipment.
(1)Except as provided by paragraphs (h)(2) through (h)(6) of this section, the
protective equipment, including personal protective equipment (PPE),
used to comply with this part, shall be provided by the employer at no cost
to employees.
(2)The employer is not required to pay for non-specialty safety-toe protective
footwear (including steel-toe shoes or steel-toe boots) and non-specialty
prescription safety eye wear, provided that the employer permits such
items to be worn off the job-site.
(3)When the employer provides metatarsal guards and allows the employee,
at his or her request, to use shoes or boots with built-in metatarsal
protection, the employer is not required to reimburse the employee for the
shoes or boots.
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(4) The employer is not required to pay for:
(i) The logging boots required by 29 CFR 1910.266(d)(1)(v);
(ii) Everyday clothing, such as long-sleeve shirts, long pants, street shoes,
and normal work boots; or
(iii)Ordinary clothing, skin creams, or other items, used solely for protection
from weather, such as winter coats, jackets, gloves, parkas, rubber boots,
hats, raincoats, ordinary sunglasses, and sunscreen.
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(5) The employer must pay for replacement PPE, except when the employee
has lost or intentionally damaged the PPE.
(6) Where an employee provides adequate protective equipment he or she
owns pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the employer may allow the
employee to use it and is not required to reimburse the employee for that
equipment. The employer shall not require an employee to provide or pay for
his or her own PPE, unless the PPE is excepted by paragraphs (h)(2) through
(h)(5) of this section.
(7) This paragraph (h) shall become effective on February 13, 2008.
Employers must implement the PPE payment requirements no later than May
15, 2008.
NOTE TO §1910.132(h): When the provisions of another OSHA standard
specify whether or not the employer must pay for specific equipment, the
payment provisions of that standard shall prevail. [39 FR 23502, J une 27,
1974, as amended at 59 FR 16334, Apr. 6, 1994; 59 FR 33910, J uly 1, 1994;
72 FR 64428, Nov. 15, 2007; 76 FR 33606, J une 8, 2011]
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The employer is not required to pay for: Logging boots
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The employer is not required to pay for: Logging boots
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The employer is not required to pay for: Logging boots
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The employer is not required to pay for:
Non-specialty safety-toe protective footwear
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Summary Q&A: 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I
§1910.132 General requirements.
• What are covered by this CFR?
• How to decide what type of PPE is
requires.
• Training on the use of PPE shall cover
which topic?
• How retraining on employee use of
PPE be decided?
• Who shall pay for the PPE?
• What type of PPE, the employer need
not pay?
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§1910.133
Eye and face
protection.
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Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment
§1910.133 Eye and face protection.
(a) General requirements.
(1)The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate
eye or face protection when exposed to eye or face hazards from flying
particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acids or caustic liquids, chemical
gases or vapors, or potentially injurious light radiation.
(2) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses eye
protection that provides side protection when there is a hazard from flying
objects. Detachable side protectors (e.g. clip-on or slide-on side shields)
meeting the pertinent requirements of this section are acceptable.
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(3) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee who wears
prescription lenses while engaged in operations that involve eye hazards
wears eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its design, or
wears eye protection that can be worn over the prescription lenses
without disturbing the proper position of the prescription lenses or the
protective lenses.
(4) Eye and face PPE shall be distinctly marked to facilitate identification of
the manufacturer.
(5) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses equipment
with filter lenses that have a shade number appropriate for the work being
performed for protection from injurious light radiation. The following is a listing
of appropriate shade numbers for various operations.
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* As a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to
a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without going below the
minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light,
it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light
of the (spectrum) operation.
** These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. Experience has shown that
lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workpiece.
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Welding Shades
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(b) Criteria for protective eye and face protection.
(1) Protective eye and face protection devices must comply with any of the
following consensus standards:
(i) ANSI Z87.1-2003, “American National Standard Practice for Occupational
and Educational Eye and Face Protection,”which is incorporated by
reference in §1910.6;
(ii) ANSI Z87.1-1989 (R-1998), “American National Standard Practice for
Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection,”which is
incorporated by reference in §1910.6; or
(iii)ANSI Z87.1-1989, “American National Standard Practice for Occupational
and Educational Eye and Face Protection,”which is incorporated by
reference in §1910.6.
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(2) Protective eye and face protection devices that the employer
demonstrates are at least as effective as protective eye and face
protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the
above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the
requirements of this section. [59 FR 16360, Apr. 6, 1994; 59 FR 33911,
J uly 1, 1994, as amended at 61 FR 9238, Mar. 7, 1996; 61 FR 19548, May
2, 1996; 74 FR 46356, Sept. 9, 2009]
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Signage
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Summary Q&A:
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§1910.134
Respiratory
protection.
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§1910.134 Respiratory protection.
This section applies to General Industry (part 1910), Shipyards (part 1915),
Marine Terminals (part 1917), Longshoring (part 1918), and Construction
(part 1926).
(a) Permissible practice.
(1)In the control of those occupational diseases caused by breathing air
contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes,
sprays, or vapors, the primary objective shall be to prevent atmospheric
contamination. This shall be accomplished as far as feasible by accepted
engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of
the operation, general and local ventilation, and substitution of less toxic
materials). When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while
they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be used pursuant to
this section.
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Keywords:
Longshoring:
The act or occupation of working as a longshoreman
longshoreman: a person whose job is to load and unload ships at a port.
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/longshoring
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Longshoring- Phase Out Port
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(2) A respirator shall be provided to each employee when such equipment is
necessary to protect the health of such employee. The employer shall provide
the respirators which are applicable and suitable for the purpose intended.
The employer shall be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of
a respiratory protection program, which shall include the requirements
outlined in paragraph (c) of this section. The program shall cover each
employee required by this section to use a respirator.
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(b) Definitions.
The following definitions are important terms used in the respiratory protection
standard in this section.
Air-purifying respirator means a respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge,
or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air
through the air-purifying element.
Assigned protection factor (APF) means the workplace level of respiratory
protection that a respirator or class of respirators is expected to provide to
employees when the employer implements a continuing, effective respiratory
protection program as specified by this section.
Atmosphere-supplying respirator means a respirator that supplies the
respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient
atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained
breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.
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Canister or cartridge means a container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or
combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air
passed through the container.
Demand respirator means an atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits
breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside
the face piece by inhalation.
Emergency situation means any occurrence such as, but not limited to,
equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that
may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of an airborne
contaminant.
Employee exposure means exposure to a concentration of an airborne
contaminant that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory
protection.
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End-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) means a system that warns the respirator
user of the approach of the end of adequate respiratory protection, for
example, that the sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective.
Escape-only respirator means a respirator intended to be used only for
emergency exit.
Filter or air purifying element means a component used in respirators to
remove solid or liquid aerosols from the inspired air.
Filtering facepiece (dust mask) means a negative pressure particulate
respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire
facepiece composed of the filtering medium.
Fit factor means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a
specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a
substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.
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Fit test means the use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate
the fit of a respirator n an individual. (See also Qualitative fit test QLFT and
Quantitative fit test QNFT.)
Helmet means a rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head
protection against impact and penetration.
High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter that is at least
99.97% efficient in removing mono disperse particles of 0.3 micrometers in
diameter. The equivalent NIOSH 42 CFR 84 particulate filters are the N100,
R100, and P100 filters.
Hood means a respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and
neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.
Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) means an atmosphere that
poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health
effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous
atmosphere.
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Interior structural firefighting means the physical activity of fire suppression,
rescue or both, inside of buildings or enclosed structures which are involved
in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage. (See 29 CFR 1910.155)
Loose-fitting face piece means a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to
form a partial seal with the face.
Maximum use concentration (MUC) means the maximum atmospheric
concentration of a hazardous substance from which an employee can be
expected to be protected when wearing a respirator, and is determined by the
assigned protection factor of the respirator or class of respirators and the
exposure limit of the hazardous substance. The MUC can be determined
mathematically by multiplying the assigned protection factor specified for a
respirator by the required OSHA permissible exposure limit, short-term
exposure limit, or ceiling limit. When no OSHA exposure limit is available for a
hazardous substance, an employer must determine an MUC on the basis of
relevant available information and informed professional judgment.
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Negative pressure respirator (tight fitting) means a respirator in which the air
pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the
ambient air pressure outside the respirator.
Oxygen deficient atmosphere means an atmosphere with an oxygen content
below 19.5% by volume.
Physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) means an
individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration,
or certification) allows him or her to independently provide, or be delegated
the responsibility to provide, some or all of the health care services required
by paragraph (e) of this section.
Positive pressure respirator means a respirator in which the pressure inside
the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the
respirator.
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Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) means an air-purifying respirator that
uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the
inlet covering.
Pressure demand respirator means a positive pressure atmosphere-
supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the
positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.
Qualitative fit test (QLFT) means a pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of
respirator fit that relies on the individual's response to the test agent.
Quantitative fit test (QNFT) means an assessment of the adequacy of
respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the
respirator.
Respiratory inlet covering means that portion of a respirator that forms the
protective barrier between the user's respiratory tract and an air-purifying
device or breathing air source, or both. It may be a facepiece, helmet, hood,
suit, or a mouthpiece respirator with nose clamp.
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Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) means an atmosphere-supplying
respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the
user.
Service life means the period of time that a respirator, filter or sorbent, or
other respiratory equipment provides adequate protection to the wearer.
Supplied-air respirator (SAR) or airline respirator means an atmosphere-
supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be
carried by the user.
This section means this respiratory protection standard.
Tight-fitting facepiece means a respiratory inlet covering that forms a
complete seal with the face.
User seal check means an action conducted by the respirator user to
determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face.
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Respirators
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Respirators
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Respirators
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Respirators
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Respirators
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Respirators
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(c) Respiratory protection program.
This paragraph requires the employer to develop and implement a written
respiratory protection program with required worksite-specific procedures and
elements for required respirator use. The program must be administered by a
suitably trained program administrator. In addition, certain program elements
may be required for voluntary use to prevent potential hazards associated
with the use of the respirator. The Small Entity Compliance Guide contains
criteria for the selection of a program administrator and a sample program
that meets the requirements of this paragraph. Copies of the Small Entity
Compliance Guide will be available on or about April 8, 1998 from the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Office of Publications, Room
N 3101, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 20210 (202-219-
4667).
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(1) In any workplace where respirators are necessary to protect the health
of the employee or whenever respirators are required by the employer,
the employer shall establish and implement a written respiratory
protection program with worksite-specific procedures. The program shall
be updated as necessary to reflect those changes in workplace
conditions that affect respirator use. The employer shall include in the
program the following provisions of this section, as applicable:
(i) Procedures for selecting respirators for use in the workplace;
(ii) Medical evaluations of employees required to use respirators;
(iii) Fit testing procedures for tight-fitting respirators;
(iv) Procedures for proper use of respirators in routine and reasonably
foreseeable emergency situations;
(v) Procedures and schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, inspecting,
repairing, discarding, and otherwise maintaining respirators;
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(vi) Procedures to ensure adequate air quality, quantity, and flow of
breathing air for atmosphere supplying respirators;
(vii) Training of employees in the respiratory hazards to which they are
potentially exposed during routine and emergency situations;
(viii) Training of employees in the proper use of respirators, including putting
on and removing them, any limitations on their use, and their
maintenance; and
(ix) Procedures for regularly evaluating the effectiveness of the program.
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(2) Where respirator use is not required:
(i) An employer may provide respirators at the request of employees or
permit employees to use their own respirators, if the employer determines
that such respirator use will not in itself create a hazard. If the employer
determines that any voluntary respirator use is permissible, the employer
shall provide the respirator users with the information contained in
appendix D to this section (“Information for Employees Using Respirators
When Not Required Under the Standard”); and
(ii) In addition, the employer must establish and implement those elements of
a written respiratory protection program necessary to ensure that any
employee using a respirator voluntarily is medically able to use that
respirator, and that the respirator is cleaned, stored, and maintained so
that its use does not present a health hazard to the user. Exception:
Employers are not required to include in a written respiratory protection
program those employees whose only use of respirators involves the
voluntary use of filtering face pieces (dust masks).
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Exception: Employers are not required to include in a written respiratory
protection program those employees whose only use of respirators involves
the voluntary use of filtering face pieces (dust masks).
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(3)The employer shall designate a program administrator who is qualified by
appropriate training or experience that is commensurate with the
complexity of the program to administer or oversee the respiratory
protection program and conduct the required evaluations of program
effectiveness.
(4)The employer shall provide respirators, training, and medical evaluations
at no cost to the employee.
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(d) Selection of respirators.
This paragraph requires the employer to evaluate respiratory hazard(s) in
the workplace, identify relevant workplace and user factors, and base
respirator selection on these factors. The paragraph also specifies
appropriately protective respirators for use in IDLH atmospheres, and
limits the selection and use of air-purifying respirators.
(1) General requirements.
(i) The employer shall select and provide an appropriate respirator based on
the respiratory hazard(s) to which the worker is exposed and workplace
and user factors that affect respirator performance and reliability.
(ii) The employer shall select a NIOSH-certified respirator. The respirator
shall be used in compliance with the conditions of its certification.
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(iii) The employer shall identify and evaluate the respiratory hazard(s) in the
workplace; this evaluation shall include a reasonable estimate of
employee exposures to respiratory hazard(s) and an identification of the
contaminant's chemical state and physical form. Where the employer
cannot identify or reasonably estimate the employee exposure, the
employer shall consider the atmosphere to be IDLH.
(iv) The employer shall select respirators from a sufficient number of
respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and
correctly fits, the user.
Keywords:
Sufficient number of respirator models and sizes: to fits the user.
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Keywords:
Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH)
means an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause
irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to
escape from a dangerous atmosphere.
NIOSH
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
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(2) Respirators for IDLH atmospheres.
(i) The employer shall provide the following respirators for employee use in
IDLH atmospheres:
(A) A full face piece pressure demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a
minimum service life of (30) thirty minutes, or
(B) A combination full face piece pressure demand supplied-air respirator
(SAR) with auxiliary self contained air supply.
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(ii) Respirators provided only for escape from IDLH atmospheres shall be
NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be
used.
(iii) All oxygen-deficient atmospheres shall be considered IDLH. Exception: If
the employer demonstrates that, under all foreseeable conditions, the
oxygen concentration can be maintained within the ranges specified in
Table II of this section (i.e., for the altitudes set out in the table), then any
atmosphere-supplying respirator may be used.
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Table II- If the employer demonstrates that, under all foreseeable conditions,
the oxygen concentration can be maintained within the ranges specified in
Table II of this section (i.e., for the altitudes set out in the table), then any
atmosphere-supplying respirator may be used.
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Keywords:
 Atmosphere-supplying respirator
means a respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from
a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes (1)
supplied-air respirators (SARs) and (2) self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA) units.
 Supplied Air Respirator
 Self- Contained Breathing Apparatus
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(3) Respirators for atmospheres that are not IDLH.
(i) The employer shall provide a respirator that is adequate to protect the
health of the employee and ensure compliance with all other OSHA
statutory and regulatory requirements, under routine and reasonably
foreseeable emergency situations.
(A) Assigned Protection Factors (APFs). Employers must use the assigned
protection factors listed in Table 1 to select a respirator that meets or
exceeds the required level of employee protection. When using a
combination respirator (e.g., airline respirators with an air-purifying filter),
employers must ensure that the assigned protection factor is appropriate
to the mode of operation in which the respirator is being used.
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TABLE 1- ASSIGNED PROTECTION FACTORS
5
1
Above 8,000 feet the exception does not apply. Oxygen-enriched breathing air must be
supplied above 14,000 feet.
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Notes:
1. Employers may select respirators assigned for use in higher workplace concentrations of a
hazardous substance for use at lower concentrations of that substance, or when required
respirator use is independent of concentration.
2. The assigned protection factors in Table 1 are only effective when the employer implements
a continuing, effective respirator program as required by this section (29 CFR 1910.134),
including training, fit testing, maintenance, and use requirements.
3. This APF category includes filtering facepieces, and half masks with elastomeric facepieces.
4. The employer must have evidence provided by the respirator manufacturer that testing of
these respirators demonstrates performance at a level of protection of 1,000 or greater to
receive an APF of 1,000. This level of performance can best be demonstrated by performing
a WPF or SWPF study or equivalent testing. Absent such testing, all other PAPRs and SARs
with helmets/hoods are to be treated as loose-fitting facepiece respirators, and receive an
APF of 25.
5. These APFs do not apply to respirators used solely for escape. For escape respirators used
in association with specific substances covered by 29 CFR 1910 subpart Z, employers must
refer to the appropriate substance-specific standards in that subpart. Escape respirators for
other IDLH atmospheres are specified by 29 CFR 1910.134 (d)(2)(ii).
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(B) Maximum Use Concentration (MUC).
(1)The employer must select a respirator for employee use that maintains the
employee's exposure to the hazardous substance, when measured
outside the respirator, at or below the MUC.
(2)Employers must not apply MUCs to conditions that are immediately
dangerous to life or health (IDLH); instead, they must use respirators listed
for IDLH conditions in paragraph (d)(2) of this standard.
(3)When the calculated MUC exceeds the IDLH level for a hazardous
substance, or the performance limits of the cartridge or canister, then
employers must set the maximum MUC at that lower limit.
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(ii) The respirator selected shall be appropriate for the chemical state and
physical form of the contaminant.
(iii) For protection against gases and vapors, the employer shall provide:
(A) An atmosphere-supplying respirator, or
(B) An air-purifying respirator, provided that:
(1) The respirator is equipped with an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI)
certified by NIOSH for the contaminant; or
(2) If there is no ESLI appropriate for conditions in the employer's workplace,
the employer implements a change schedule for canisters and cartridges
that is based on objective information or data that will ensure that
canisters and cartridges are changed before the end of their service life.
The employer shall describe in the respirator program the information
and data relied upon and the basis for the canister and cartridge change
schedule and the basis for reliance on the data.
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(iv) For protection against particulates, the employer shall provide:
(A) An atmosphere-supplying respirator; or
(B) An air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified by NIOSH under
30 CFR part 11 as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, or an air-
purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified for particulates by
NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84; or
(C) For contaminants consisting primarily of particles with mass median
aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of at least 2 micrometers, an air-
purifying respirator equipped with any filter certified for particulates by
NIOSH.
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(e) Medical evaluation.
Using a respirator may place a physiological burden on employees that
varies with the type of respirator worn, the job and workplace conditions in
which the respirator is used, and the medical status of the employee.
Accordingly, this paragraph specifies the minimum requirements for medical
evaluation that employers must implement to determine the employee's
ability to use a respirator.
(1) General. The employer shall provide a medical evaluation to determine
the employee's ability to use a respirator, before the employee is fit tested or
required to use the respirator in the workplace. The employer may
discontinue an employee's medical evaluations when the employee is no
longer required to use a respirator.
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(e) Medical evaluation.
Using a respirator may place a physiological burden on employees that
varies with the type of respirator worn, the job and workplace conditions in
which the respirator is used, and the medical status of the employee.
Accordingly, this paragraph specifies the minimum requirements for medical
evaluation that employers must implement to determine the employee's
ability to use a respirator.
(1) General. The employer shall provide a medical evaluation to determine
the employee's ability to use a respirator, before the employee is fit tested or
required to use the respirator in the workplace. The employer may
discontinue an employee's medical evaluations when the employee is no
longer required to use a respirator.
(2) Medical evaluation procedures. (i) The employer shall identify a physician
or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) to perform medical
evaluations using a medical questionnaire or an initial medical examination
that obtains the same information as the medical questionnaire.
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(2) Medical evaluation procedures.
(i) The employer shall identify a physician or other licensed health care
professional (PLHCP) to perform medical evaluations using a medical
questionnaire or an initial medical examination that obtains the same
information as the medical questionnaire.
(ii) The medical evaluation shall obtain the information requested by the
questionnaire in Sections 1 and 2, part A of appendix C of this section.
(3) Follow-up medical examination.
(i) The employer shall ensure that a follow-up medical examination is
provided for an employee who gives a positive response to any question
among questions 1 through 8 in Section 2, part A of appendix C or whose
initial medical examination demonstrates the need for a follow-up medical
examination.
(ii) The follow-up medical examination shall include any medical tests,
consultations, or diagnostic procedures that the PLHCP deems necessary
to make a final determination.
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(4) Administration of the medical questionnaire and examinations.
(i) The medical questionnaire and examinations shall be administered
confidentially during the employee's normal working hours or at a time and
place convenient to the employee. The medical questionnaire shall be
administered in a manner that ensures that the employee understands its
content.
(ii) The employer shall provide the employee with an opportunity to discuss
the questionnaire and examination results with the PLHCP.
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(5) Supplemental information for the PLHCP.
(i) The following information must be provided to the PLHCP before the
PLHCP makes a recommendation concerning an employee's ability to
use a respirator:
(A) The type and weight of the respirator to be used by the employee;
(B) The duration and frequency of respirator use (including use for rescue
and escape);
(C) The expected physical work effort;
(D) Additional protective clothing and equipment to be worn; and
(E) Temperature and humidity extremes that may be encountered.
(ii) Any supplemental information provided previously to the PLHCP
regarding an employee need not be provided for a subsequent medical
evaluation if the information and the PLHCP remain the same.
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(iii)The employer shall provide the PLHCP with a copy of the written
respiratory protection program and a copy of this section.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (e)(5)(iii): When the employer replaces a PLHCP,
the employer must ensure that the new PLHCP obtains this information,
either by providing the documents directly to the PLHCP or having the
documents transferred from the former PLHCP to the new PLHCP. However,
OSHA does not expect employers to have employees medically reevaluated
solely because a new PLHCP has been selected.
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(6) Medical determination. In determining the employee's ability to use a
respirator, the employer shall:
(i) Obtain a written recommendation regarding the employee's ability to use
the respirator from the PLHCP. The recommendation shall provide only
the following information:
(A) Any limitations on respirator use related to the medical condition of the
employee, or relating to the workplace conditions in which the respirator
will be used, including whether or not the employee is medically able to
use the respirator;
(B) The need, if any, for follow-up medical evaluations; and
(C) A statement that the PLHCP has provided the employee with a copy of
the PLHCP's written recommendation.
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(ii) If the respirator is a negative pressure respirator and the PLHCP finds a
medical condition that may place the employee's health at increased risk if
the respirator is used, the employer shall provide a PAPR if the PLHCP's
medical evaluation finds that the employee can use such a respirator; if a
subsequent medical evaluation finds that the employee is medically able
to use a negative pressure respirator, then the employer is no longer
required to provide a PAPR.
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Ability to use the respirator Mask
The employer shall provide a medical evaluation to determine the
employee's ability to use a respirator
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Ability to use the respirator Mask
The employer shall provide a medical evaluation to determine the
employee's ability to use a respirator
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(7) Additional medical evaluations. At a minimum, the employer shall provide
additional medical evaluations that comply with the requirements of this
section if:
(i) An employee reports medical signs or symptoms that are related to ability
to use a respirator;
(ii) A PLHCP, supervisor, or the respirator program administrator informs the
employer that an employee needs to be reevaluated;
(iii) Information from the respiratory protection program, including
observations made during fit testing and program evaluation, indicates a
need for employee reevaluation; or
(iv) A change occurs in workplace conditions (e.g., physical work effort,
protective clothing, temperature) that may result in a substantial increase
in the physiological burden placed on an employee.
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(f) Fit testing.
This paragraph requires that, before an employee may be required to use any
respirator with a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the
employee must be fit tested with the same make, model, style, and size of
respirator that will be used. This paragraph specifies the kinds of fit tests
allowed, the procedures for conducting them, and how the results of the fit
tests must be used.
(1) The employer shall ensure that employees using a tight-fitting facepiece
respirator pass an appropriate qualitative fit test (QLFT) or quantitative fit
test (QNFT) as stated in this paragraph.
(2) The employer shall ensure that an employee using a tight-fitting facepiece
respirator is fit tested prior to initial use of the respirator, whenever a
different respirator facepiece (size, style, model or make) is used, and at
least annually thereafter.
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(3) The employer shall conduct an additional fit test whenever the employee
reports, or the employer, PLHCP, supervisor, or program administrator
makes visual observations of, changes in the employee's physical
condition that could affect respirator fit. Such conditions include, but are
not limited to, facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an
obvious change in body weight.
(4) If after passing a QLFT or QNFT, the employee subsequently notifies the
employer, program administrator, supervisor, or PLHCP that the fit of the
respirator is unacceptable, the employee shall be given a reasonable
opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and to be retested.
(5) The fit test shall be administered using an OSHA-accepted QLFT or
QNFT protocol. The OSHA accepted QLFT and QNFT protocols and
procedures are contained in appendix A of this section.
(6) QLFT may only be used to fit test negative pressure air-purifying
respirators that must achieve a fit factor of 100 or less.
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(7)If the fit factor, as determined through an OSHA-accepted QNFT protocol,
is equal to or greater than 100 for tight-fitting half facepieces, or equal to or
greater than 500 for tight-fitting full facepieces, the QNFT has been
passed with that respirator.
(8)Fit testing of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and tight-fitting
powered airpurifying respirators shall be accomplished by performing
quantitative or qualitative fit testing in the negative pressure mode,
regardless of the mode of operation (negative or positive pressure) that is
used for respiratory protection.
(i) Qualitative fit testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by
temporarily converting the respirator user's actual facepiece into a
negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters, or by using an
identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same
sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the atmosphere-supplying or powered
air-purifying respirator facepiece.
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(ii) Quantitative fit testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by
modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece in the
breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This
requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling
probe onto a surrogate facepiece, or by using a sampling adapter
designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the
facepiece.
(iii) Any modifications to the respirator facepiece for fit testing shall be
completely removed, andthe facepiece restored to NIOSH-approved
configuration, before that facepiece can be used in the workplace.
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Fit testing of SCBA
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Fit testing of SCBA
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A negative-pressure respirator:
A negative-pressure respirator is defined by the Occupational Safety & Health
Administration (OSHA) as a respirator whose air pressure inside the
facepiece is lower than the air pressure outside the respirator. Different types
of respirators are used to protect workers, and the negative-pressure
respirator, like all respirators, has its advantages and disadvantages.
Read more : http://www.ehow.com/list_7195997_disadvantages-negative_pressure-respirators.html
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A negative-pressure respirator: Advantages and disadvantages.
Leak
According to Chemicals in the Workplace, the main disadvantage of a negative-pressure
respirator is the possibility of a leak. When working around chemicals that give off toxic fumes, it
is vitally important that the respirator prevent all outside air from reaching the worker wearing the
respirator. If the hose has a crack, or the mask or facepiece does not fit exactly right, the user
can inhale contaminated air.
Size
Large respirators are difficult to move.
In addition to use for workers in hazardous conditions, negative-pressure respirators are used as
a noninvasive means of breathing for patients who suffer neuromuscular or chest wall disease.
These machines are known as iron lungs or tanks. One disadvantage of this type of negative-
pressure respirator is that the patient is not able to move around; he must remain within the
machine. An article by Dr. Nicholas Hill and Dr. Naomi Kramer, refers to the size disadvantage as
a lack of portability.
Pain/Sleep Apnea
Large negative-pressure respirators can cause pain to the individual because she is restricted to
lying down. The tank or iron lung limits motion, thus causing pain from the continued, restrictive
environment. In addition, this environment can cause or aggravate sleep apnea, a breathing
disorder that causes a person to stop breathing while asleep, as documented by Drs. Hill and
Kramer.
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QLFT may only be used to fit test negative pressure air-purifying respirators
that must achieve a fit factor of 100 or less.
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A negative-pressure respirator: Full Mask / Half Mask
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Negative-pressure respirator
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(g) Use of respirators.
This paragraph requires employers to establish and implement procedures
for the proper use of respirators. These requirements include prohibiting
conditions that may result in facepiece seal leakage, preventing employees
from removing respirators in hazardous environments, taking actions to
ensure continued effective respirator operation throughout the work shift, and
establishing procedures for the use of respirators in IDLH atmospheres or in
interior structural firefighting situations.
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(1) Facepiece seal protection.
(i) The employer shall not permit respirators with tight-fitting facepieces to be
worn by employees who have:
(A)Facial hair that comes between the sealing surface of the facepiece and
the face or that interferes with valve function; or
(B)Any condition that interferes with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve
function.
(ii) If an employee wears corrective glasses or goggles or other personal
protective equipment, the employer shall ensure that such equipment is
worn in a manner that does not interfere with the seal of the facepiece to
the face of the user.
(iii) For all tight-fitting respirators, the employer shall ensure that employees
perform a user seal check each time they put on the respirator using the
procedures in appendix B-1 or procedures recommended by the respirator
manufacturer that the employer demonstrates are as effective as those in
appendix B-1 of this section.
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(2) Continuing respirator effectiveness.
(i) Appropriate surveillance shall be maintained of work area conditions and
degree of employee exposure or stress. When there is a change in work
area conditions or degree of employee exposure or stress that may
affect respirator effectiveness, the employer shall reevaluate the
continued effectiveness of the respirator.
(ii) The employer shall ensure that employees leave the respirator use area:
(A) To wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary to prevent
eye or skin irritation associated with respirator use; or
(B) If they detect vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing
resistance, or leakage of the facepiece; or
(C) To replace the respirator or the filter, cartridge, or canister elements.
(iii) If the employee detects vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing
resistance, or leakage of the facepiece, the employer must replace or
repair the respirator before allowing the employee to return to the work
area.
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(3) Procedures for IDLH atmospheres. For all IDLH atmospheres, the
employer shall ensure that:
(i) One employee or, when needed, more than one employee is located
outside the IDLH atmosphere;
(ii) Visual, voice, or signal line communication is maintained between the
employee(s) in the IDLH atmosphere and the employee(s) located
outside the IDLH atmosphere;
(iii) The employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere are trained and
equipped to provide effective emergency rescue;
(iv) The employer or designee is notified before the employee(s) located
outside the IDLH atmosphere enter the IDLH atmosphere to provide
emergency rescue;
(v) The employer or designee authorized to do so by the employer, once
notified, provides necessary assistance appropriate to the situation;
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Procedures for IDLH atmospheres
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Procedures for IDLH atmospheres
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Procedures for IDLH atmospheres
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Procedures for IDLH atmospheres
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Procedures for IDLH atmospheres
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Procedures for IDLH atmospheres
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Procedures for IDLH atmospheres
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(vi) Employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmospheres are equipped with:
(A) Pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBAs, or a pressure
demand or other positive pressure supplied-air respirator with auxiliary
SCBA; and either
(B) Appropriate retrieval equipment for removing the employee(s) who
enter(s) these hazardous atmospheres where retrieval equipment would
contribute to the rescue of the employee(s) and would not increase the
overall risk resulting from entry; or
(C) Equivalent means for rescue where retrieval equipment is not required
under paragraph (g)(3)(vi)(B).
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(4) Procedures for interior structural firefighting. In addition to the
requirements set forth under paragraph (g)(3), in interior structural fires,
the employer shall ensure that:
(i) At least two employees enter the IDLH atmosphere and remain in visual
or voice contact with one another at all times;
(ii) At least two employees are located outside the IDLH atmosphere; and
(iii) All employees engaged in interior structural firefighting use SCBAs.
NOTE 1 TO PARAGRAPH (g): One of the two individuals located outside the
IDLH atmosphere may be assigned to an additional role, such as incident
commander in charge of the emergency or safety officer, so long as this
individual is able to perform assistance or rescue activities without
jeopardizing the safety or health of any firefighter working at the incident.
NOTE 2 TO PARAGRAPH (g): Nothing in this section is meant to preclude
firefighters from performing emergency rescue activities before an entire team
has assembled.
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Fire Fighting 2 x 2
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Fire Fighting 2 x 2
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Fire Fighting 2 x 2
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(h) Maintenance and care of respirators.
This paragraph requires the employer to provide for the cleaning and
disinfecting, storage, inspection, and repair of respirators used by employees.
(1) Cleaning and disinfecting.
The employer shall provide each respirator user with a respirator that is
clean, sanitary, and in good working order. The employer shall ensure that
respirators are cleaned and disinfected using the procedures in appendix
B-2 of this section, or procedures recommended by the respirator
manufacturer, provided that such procedures are of equivalent
effectiveness. The respirators shall be cleaned and disinfected at the
following intervals:
(i) Respirators issued for the exclusive use of an employee shall be cleaned
and disinfected as often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary
condition;
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(ii) Respirators issued to more than one employee shall be cleaned and
disinfected before being worn by different individuals;
(iii) Respirators maintained for emergency use shall be cleaned and
disinfected after each use; and
(iv) Respirators used in fit testing and training shall be cleaned and
disinfected after each use.
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(2) Storage.
The employer shall ensure that respirators are stored as follows:
(i) All respirators shall be stored to protect them from damage,
contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture,
and damaging chemicals, and they shall be packed or stored to prevent
deformation of the facepiece and exhalation valve.
(ii) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section,
emergency respirators shall be:
(A) Kept accessible to the work area;
(B) Stored in compartments or in covers that are clearly marked as
containing emergency respirators; and
(C) Stored in accordance with any applicable manufacturer instructions.
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(3) Inspection.
(i) The employer shall ensure that respirators are inspected as follows:
(A) All respirators used in routine situations shall be inspected before each
use and during cleaning;
(B) All respirators maintained for use in emergency situations shall be
inspected at least monthly and in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations, and shall be checked for proper function before and
after each use; and
(C) Emergency escape-only respirators shall be inspected before being
carried into the workplace for use.
(ii) The employer shall ensure that respirator inspections include the following:
(A) A check of respirator function, tightness of connections, and the
condition of the various parts including, but not limited to, the facepiece,
head straps, valves, connecting tube, and cartridges, canisters or filters;
and
(B) A check of elastomeric parts for pliability and signs of deterioration.
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(iii) In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (h)(3)(i) and (ii) of this
section, self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly.
Air and oxygen cylinders shall be maintained in a fully charged state and
shall be recharged when the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's
recommended pressure level. The employer shall determine that the
regulator and warning devices function properly.
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(iv) For respirators maintained for emergency use, the employer shall:
(A) Certify the respirator by documenting the date the inspection was
performed, the name (or signature) of the person who made the
inspection, the findings, required remedial action, and a serial number or
other means of identifying the inspected respirator; and
(B) Provide this information on a tag or label that is attached to the storage
compartment for the respirator, is kept with the respirator, or is included
in inspection reports stored as paper or electronic files. This information
shall be maintained until replaced following a subsequent certification.
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Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected
monthly. Air and oxygen cylinders shall be maintained
in a fully charged state and shall be recharged when
the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's
recommended pressure level.
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Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly.
Air and oxygen cylinders shall be maintained in a fully charged
state and shall be recharged when the pressure falls to 90% of the
manufacturer's recommended pressure level.
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Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly. Air and
oxygen cylinders shall be maintained in a fully charged state and shall be
recharged when the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's
recommended pressure level.
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Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly. Air and
oxygen cylinders shall be maintained in a fully charged state and shall be
recharged when the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's
recommended pressure level.
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self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly. Air and
oxygen cylinders shall be maintained in a fully charged state and shall be
recharged when the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's
recommended pressure level.
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(4) Repairs. The employer shall ensure that respirators that fail an
inspection or are otherwise found to be defective are removed from
service, and are discarded or repaired or adjusted in accordance with the
following procedures:
(i) Repairs or adjustments to respirators are to be made only by persons
appropriately trained to perform such operations and shall use only the
respirator manufacturer's NIOSH-approved parts designed for the
respirator;
(ii) Repairs shall be made according to the manufacturer's
recommendations and specifications for the type and extent of repairs to
be performed; and
(iii) Reducing and admission valves, regulators, and alarms shall be
adjusted or repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician trained by
the manufacturer.
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(4) Repairs. The employer shall ensure that respirators that fail an
inspection or are otherwise found to be defective are removed from
service, and are discarded or repaired or adjusted in accordance with the
following procedures:
(i) Repairs or adjustments to respirators are to be made only by persons
appropriately trained to perform such operations and shall use only the
respirator manufacturer's NIOSH-approved parts designed for the
respirator;
(ii) Repairs shall be made according to the manufacturer's
recommendations and specifications for the type and extent of repairs to
be performed; and
(iii) Reducing and admission valves, regulators, and alarms shall be
adjusted or repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician trained by
the manufacturer.
Questions: Repairs or adjustments to respirators are to be made only by
persons appropriately trained to perform such operations
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Questions: The Only?
1. Repairs or adjustments to respirators are to be made only by persons
appropriately trained to perform such operations
2. Reducing and admission valves, regulators, and alarms shall be
adjusted or repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician trained by
the manufacturer.
Hints: Item 1, all respirator excluding SCBA, Item 2 concerned SCBA?
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Repair of Respirators
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(i) Breathing air quality and use.
This paragraph requires the employer to provide employees using
atmosphere-supplying respirators (supplied-air and SCBA) with breathing
gases of high purity.
(1) The employer shall ensure that compressed air, compressed oxygen,
liquid air, and liquid oxygen used for respiration accords with the following
specifications:
(i) Compressed and liquid oxygen shall meet the United States
Pharmacopoeia requirements for medical or breathing oxygen; and
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(ii) Compressed breathing air shall meet at least the requirements for Grade
D breathing air described in ANSI/Compressed Gas Association
Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1-1989, to include:
(A) Oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5-23.5%;
(B) Hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 milligrams per cubic meter of air
or less;
(C) Carbon monoxide (CO) content of 10 ppm or less;
(D) Carbon dioxide content of 1,000 ppm or less; and
(E) Lack of noticeable odor.
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Grade D breathing air
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Grade D breathing air
http://www.amazonsupply.com/air-systems-bb100-co8-breathing-filtration/dp/B003XPI3OO
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Grade D breathing air
Worker Air Pump Model BAC-10
http://www.gsafire.com/air_compressors.html
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(2) The employer shall ensure that compressed oxygen is not used in
atmosphere-supplying respirators that have previously used compressed
air. (?)
(3) The employer shall ensure that oxygen concentrations greater than
23.5% are used only in equipment designed for oxygen service or
distribution.
(4) The employer shall ensure that cylinders used to supply breathing air to
respirators meet the following requirements:
(i) Cylinders are tested and maintained as prescribed in the Shipping
Container Specification Regulations of the Department of Transportation
(49 CFR part 180);
(ii) Cylinders of purchased breathing air have a certificate of analysis from
the supplier that the breathing air meets the requirements for Grade D
breathing air; and
(iii) The moisture content in the cylinder does not exceed a dew point of −50
°F (−45.6 °C) at 1 atmosphere pressure.
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(5) The employer shall ensure that compressors used to supply breathing air
to respirators are constructed and situated so as to:
(i) Prevent entry of contaminated air into the air-supply system;
(ii) Minimize moisture content so that the dew point at 1 atmosphere
pressure is 10 degrees F (5.56 °C) below the ambient temperature;
(iii) Have suitable in-line air-purifying sorbent beds and filters to further
ensure breathing air quality. Sorbent beds and filters shall be maintained
and replaced or refurbished periodically following the manufacturer's
instructions.
(iv) Have a tag containing the most recent change date and the signature of
the person authorized by the employer to perform the change. The tag
shall be maintained at the compressor.
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(6) For compressors that are not oil-lubricated, the employer shall ensure
that carbon monoxide levels in the breathing air do not exceed 10 ppm.
(7) For oil-lubricated compressors, the employer shall use a high-
temperature or carbon monoxide alarm, or both, to monitor carbon
monoxide levels. If only high-temperature alarms are used, the air supply
shall be monitored at intervals sufficient to prevent carbon monoxide in
the breathing air from exceeding 10 ppm.
(8) The employer shall ensure that breathing air couplings are incompatible
with outlets for non respirable worksite air or other gas systems. No
asphyxiating substance shall be introduced into breathing air lines.
(9) The employer shall use only the respirator manufacturer's NIOSH-
approved breathing-gas containers, marked and maintained in
accordance with the Quality Assurance provisions of the NIOSH
approval for the SCBA as issued in accordance with the NIOSH
respirator-certification standard at 42 CFR part 84.
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Atmosphere-supplying respirator
Powered air purifying respirators
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Atmosphere-supplying respirator / Powered air purifying respirators
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(j) Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters.
The employer shall ensure that all filters, cartridges and canisters used in the
workplace are labeled and color coded with the NIOSH approval label and
that the label is not removed and remains legible.
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Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters.
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Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters.
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Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters.
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Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters.
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(k) Training and information.
This paragraph requires the employer to provide effective training to
employees who are required to use respirators. The training must be
comprehensive, understandable, and recur annually, and more often if
necessary. This paragraph also requires the employer to provide the basic
information on respirators in appendix D of this section to employees who
wear respirators when not required by this section or by the employer to do so.
(1) The employer shall ensure that each employee can demonstrate
knowledge of at least the following:
(i) Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, usage, or
maintenance can compromise the protective effect of the respirator;
(ii) What the limitations and capabilities of the respirator are;
(iii) How to use the respirator effectively in emergency situations, including
situations in which the respirator malfunctions;
(iv) How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check the seals of the
respirator;
(v) What the procedures are for maintenance and storage of the respirator;
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(vi) How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent
the effective use of respirators; and
(vii) The general requirements of this section.
(2) The training shall be conducted in a manner that is understandable to
the employee.
(3) The employer shall provide the training prior to requiring the employee to
use a respirator in the workplace.
(4) An employer who is able to demonstrate that a new employee has
received training within the last 12 months that addresses the elements
specified in paragraph (k)(1)(i) through (vii) is not required to repeat such
training provided that, as required by paragraph (k)(1), the employee can
demonstrate knowledge of those element(s). Previous training not
repeated initially by the employer must be provided no later than 12
months from the date of the previous training.
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(5) Retraining shall be administered annually, and when the following
situations occur:
(i) Changes in the workplace or the type of respirator render previous
training obsolete;
(ii) Inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of the respirator
indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding
or skill; or
(iii) Any other situation arises in which retraining appears necessary to
ensure safe respirator use.
(6) The basic advisory information on respirators, as presented in appendix
D of this section, shall be provided by the employer in any written or oral
format, to employees who wear respirators when such use is not
required by this section or by the employer.
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(6) The basic advisory information on respirators, as presented in appendix
D of this section, shall be provided by the employer in any written or oral
format, to employees who wear respirators when such use is not
required by this section or by the employer.
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Training on Uses of Respirator
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Training on Uses of Respirator
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(l) Program evaluation.
This section requires the employer to conduct evaluations of the workplace to
ensure that the written respiratory protection program is being properly
implemented, and to consult employees to ensure that they are using the
respirators properly.
(1) The employer shall conduct evaluations of the workplace as necessary
to ensure that the provisions of the current written program are being
effectively implemented and that it continues to be effective.
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(2) The employer shall regularly consult employees required to use
respirators to assess the employees' views on program effectiveness
and to identify any problems. Any problems that are identified during this
assessment shall be corrected. Factors to be assessed include, but are
not limited to:
(i) Respirator fit (including the ability to use the respirator without interfering
with effective workplace performance);
(ii) Appropriate respirator selection for the hazards to which the employee is
exposed;
(iii) Proper respirator use under the workplace conditions the employee
encounters; and
(iv) Proper respirator maintenance.
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Program evaluation
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(m) Recordkeeping.
This section requires the employer to establish and retain written information
regarding medical evaluations, fit testing, and the respirator program. This
information will facilitate employee involvement in the respirator program,
assist the employer in auditing the adequacy of the program, and provide a
record for compliance determinations by OSHA.
(1) Medical evaluation. Records of medical evaluations required by this
section must be retained and made available in accordance with 29 CFR
1910.1020.
(2) Fit testing.
(i) The employer shall establish a record of the qualitative and quantitative
fit tests administered to an employee including:
(A) The name or identification of the employee tested;
(B) Type of fit test performed;
(C) Specific make, model, style, and size of respirator tested;
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(D) Date of test; and
(E) The pass/fail results for QLFTs or the fit factor and strip chart recording
or other recording of the test results for QNFTs.
(ii) Fit test records shall be retained for respirator users until the next fit test
is administered.
(3) A written copy of the current respirator program shall be retained by the
employer.
(4) Written materials required to be retained under this paragraph shall be
made available upon request to affected employees and to the Assistant
Secretary or designee for examination and copying.
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(n) Effective date.
Paragraphs (d)(3)(i)(A) and (d)(3)(i)(B) of this section become effective
November 22, 2006.
(o) Appendices.
Compliance with appendix A, appendix B-1, appendix B-2, appendix C, and
appendix D to this section are mandatory.
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APPENDIX A TO §1910.134—FIT TESTING PROCEDURES
(MANDATORY)
APPENDIX B-1 TO §1910.134: USER SEAL CHECK PROCEDURES
(MANDATORY)
APPENDIX B-2 TO §1910.134: RESPIRATOR CLEANING PROCEDURES
(MANDATORY)
APPENDIX C TO §1910.134: OSHA RESPIRATOR MEDICAL
EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE (MANDATORY)
APPENDIX D TO §1910.134 (MANDATORY) INFORMATION FOR
EMPLOYEES USING RESPIRATORS WHEN NOT REQUIRED UNDER
THE STANDARD
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Summary: §1910.134 Respiratory protection.
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§1910.135
Head
protection.
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§1910.135 Head protection.
(a) General requirements.
(1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a
protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for
injury to the head from falling objects.
(2) The employer shall ensure that a protective helmet designed to reduce
electrical shock hazard is worn by each such affected employee when
near exposed electrical conductors which could contact the head.
(b) Criteria for head protection.
(1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus
standards:
(i) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2009, “American
National Standard for Industrial Head Protection,”incorporated by
reference in §1910.6;
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(ii) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2003, “American
National Standard for Industrial Head Protection,”incorporated by
reference in §1910.6; or
(iii) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-1997, “American
National Standard for Personnel Protection—Protective Headwear for
Industrial Workers—Requirements,”incorporated by reference in
§1910.6.
(2) Head protection devices that the employer demonstrates are at least as
effective as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance
with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in
compliance with the requirements of this section. [59 FR 16362, Apr. 6,
1994, as amended at 61 FR 9238, Mar. 7, 1996; 61 FR 19548, May 2,
1996; 74 FR 46356, Sept. 9, 2009; 77 FR 37598, J une 22, 2012]
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Summary: §1910.135 Head protection.
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§1910.136
Foot
protection.
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§1910.136 Foot protection.
(a) General requirements.
The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses protective
footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries
due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing the sole, or when the
use of protective footwear will protect the affected employee from an
electrical hazard, such as a static-discharge or electric-shock hazard,
that remains after the employer takes other necessary protective
measures.
(b) Criteria for protective footwear.
(1) Protective footwear must comply with any of the following consensus
standards:
(i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection,”and
ASTM F-2413-2005, “Standard Specification for Performance
Requirements for Protective Footwear,”which are incorporated by
reference in §1910.6;
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(ii) ANSI Z41-1999, “American National Standard for Personal Protection -
Protective Footwear,”which is incorporated by reference in §1910.6; or
(iii) ANSI Z41-1991, “American National Standard for Personal Protection—
Protective Footwear,”which is incorporated by reference in §1910.6.
(2) Protective footwear that the employer demonstrates is at least as
effective as protective footwear that is constructed in accordance with
one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in
compliance with the requirements of this section. [59 FR 16362, Apr. 6,
1994; 59 FR 33911, J uly 1, 1994, as amended at 61 FR 9238, Mar. 7,
1996; 61 FR 19548, May 2, 1996; 61 FR 21228, May 9, 1996; 74 FR
46356, Sept. 9, 2009; 79 FR 20629, Apr. 11, 2014]
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Summary: §1910.136 Foot protection.
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§1910.137
Electrical
protective
equipment.
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§1910.137 Electrical protective equipment.
(a) Design requirements for specific types of electrical protective
equipment.
Rubber insulating blankets, rubber insulating matting, rubber insulating
covers, rubber insulating line hose, rubber insulating gloves, and rubber
insulating sleeves shall meet the following requirements:
(1) Manufacture and marking of rubber insulating equipment.
(i) Blankets, gloves, and sleeves shall be produced by a seamless process.
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(ii) Each item shall be clearly marked as follows:
(A) Class 00 equipment shall be marked Class 00.
(B) Class 0 equipment shall be marked Class 0.
(C) Class 1 equipment shall be marked Class 1.
(D) Class 2 equipment shall be marked Class 2.
(E) Class 3 equipment shall be marked Class 3.
(F) Class 4 equipment shall be marked Class 4.
(G) Non-ozone-resistant equipment shall be marked Type I.
(H) Ozone-resistant equipment shall be marked Type II.
(I) Other relevant markings, such as the manufacturer's identification and
the size of the equipment, may also be provided.
(iii) Markings shall be non-conducting and shall be applied in such a manner
as not to impair the insulating qualities of the equipment.
(iv) Markings on gloves shall be confined to the cuff portion of the glove.
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Class 2 equipment shall be marked Class 2
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Electrical Insulating Glove
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Electrical Insulating
Glove
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(2) Electrical requirements.
(i) Equipment shall be capable of withstanding the ac proof-test voltage
specified in Table I-1 or the dc proof-test voltage specified in Table I-2.
(A) The proof test shall reliably indicate that the equipment can withstand the
voltage involved.
(B) The test voltage shall be applied continuously for 3 minutes for
equipment other than matting and shall be applied continuously for 1
minute for matting.
(C) Gloves shall also be capable of separately withstanding the ac proof-test
voltage specified in Table I-1 after a 16-hour water soak. (See the note
following paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(B) of this section.)
(ii) When the ac proof test is used on gloves, the 60-hertz proof-test current
may not exceed the values specified in Table I-1 at any time during the
test period.
(A) If the ac proof test is made at a frequency other than 60 hertz, the
permissible proof-test current shall be computed from the direct ratio of
the frequencies.
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(B) For the test, gloves (right side out) shall be filled with tap water and
immersed in water to a depth that is in accordance with Table I-3. Water
shall be added to or removed from the glove, as necessary, so that the
water level is the same inside and outside the glove.
(C) After the 16-hour water soak specified in paragraph (a)(2)(i)(C) of this
section, the 60-hertz proof-test current may not exceed the values given
in Table I-1 by more than 2 miliamperes.
(iii) Equipment that has been subjected to a minimum breakdown voltage
test may not be used for electrical protection. (See the note following
paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(B) of this section.)
(iv) Material used for Type II insulating equipment shall be capable of
withstanding an ozone test, with no visible effects. The ozone test shall
reliably indicate that the material will resist ozone exposure in actual use.
Any visible signs of ozone deterioration of the material, such as checking,
cracking, breaks, or pitting, is evidence of failure to meet the
requirements for ozone-resistant material. (See the note following
paragraph (a)(3)(ii)(B) of this section.)
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(3) Workmanship and finish.
(i) Equipment shall be free of physical irregularities that can adversely
affect the insulating properties of the equipment and that can be
detected by the tests or inspections required under this section.
(ii) Surface irregularities that may be present on all rubber goods (because
of imperfections on forms or molds or because of inherent difficulties in
the manufacturing process) and that may appear as indentations,
protuberances, or imbedded foreign material are acceptable under the
following conditions:
(A) The indentation or protuberance blends into a smooth slope when the
material is stretched.
(B) Foreign material remains in place when the insulating material is folded
and stretches with the insulating material surrounding it.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (a): Rubber insulating equipment meeting the
following national consensus standards is deemed to be in compliance with
the performance requirements of paragraph (a) of this section:
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American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D120-09, Standard
Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves.
1. ASTM D178-01 (2010), Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating
Matting.
2. ASTM D1048-12, Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Blankets.
3. ASTM D1049-98 (2010), Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating
Covers.
4. ASTM D1050-05 (2011), Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Line
Hose.
5. ASTM D1051-08, Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Sleeves.
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The preceding standards also contain specifications for conducting the
various tests required in paragraph (a) of this section. For example, the ac
and dc proof tests, the breakdown test, the water-soak procedure, and the
ozone test mentioned in this paragraph are described in detail in these ASTM
standards.
ASTM F1236-96 (2012), Standard Guide for Visual Inspection of Electrical
Protective Rubber Products, presents methods and techniques for the visual
inspection of electrical protective equipment made of rubber. This guide also
contains descriptions and photographs of irregularities that can be
found in this equipment.
ASTM F819-10, Standard Terminology Relating to Electrical Protective
Equipment for Workers, includes definitions of terms relating to the electrical
protective equipment covered under this section.
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(b) Design requirements for other types of electrical protective
equipment.
The following requirements apply to the design and manufacture of electrical
protective equipment that is not covered by paragraph (a) of this section:
(1)Voltage withstand. Insulating equipment used for the protection of
employees shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, the voltages that
may be imposed upon it. NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (b)(1): These voltages
include transient overvoltages, such as switching surges, as well as nominal
line voltage. See appendix B to §1910.269 for a discussion of transient
overvoltages on electric power transmission and distribution systems. See
IEEE Std 516-2009, IEEE Guide for Maintenance Methods on Energized
Power Lines, for methods of determining the magnitude of transient
overvoltages on an electrical system and for a discussion comparing the
ability of insulation equipment to withstand a transient overvoltage based on
its ability to withstand ac voltage testing.
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(2) Equipment current.
(i) Protective equipment used for the primary insulation of employees from
energized circuit parts shall be capable of passing a current test when
subjected to the highest nominal voltage on which the equipment is to be
used.
(ii) When insulating equipment is tested in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)
of this section, the equipment current may not exceed 1 microampere per
kilovolt of phase-to-phase applied voltage.
NOTE 1 TO PARAGRAPH (b)(2): This paragraph applies to equipment that
provides primary insulation of employees from energized parts. It does not
apply to equipment used for secondary insulation or equipment used for
brush contact only.
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NOTE 2 TO PARAGRAPH (b)(2): For ac excitation, this current consists of
three components: Capacitive current because of the dielectric properties of
the insulating material itself; conduction current through the volume of the
insulating equipment; and leakage current along the surface of the tool or
equipment. The conduction current is normally negligible. For clean, dry
insulating equipment, the leakage current is small, and the capacitive current
predominates.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (b): Plastic guard equipment is deemed to conform
to the performance requirements of paragraph (b) of this section if it meets,
and is used in accordance with, ASTM F712-06 (2011), Standard Test
Methods and Specifications for Electrically Insulating Plastic Guard
Equipment for Protection of Workers.
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(c) In-service care and use of electrical protective equipment
(1) General. Electrical protective equipment shall be maintained in a safe,
reliable condition.
(2) Specific requirements. The following specific requirements apply to rubber
insulating blankets, rubber insulating covers, rubber insulating line hose,
rubber insulating gloves, and rubber insulating sleeves:
(i) Maximum use voltages shall conform to those listed in Table I-4.
(ii) Insulating equipment shall be inspected for damage before each day's
use and immediately following any incident that can reasonably be
suspected of causing damage. Insulating gloves shall be given an air
test, along with the inspection.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (c)(2)(II): ASTM F1236-96 (2012), Standard Guide
for Visual Inspection of Electrical Protective Rubber Products, presents
methods and techniques for the visual inspection of electrical protective
equipment made of rubber. This guide also contains descriptions and
photographs of irregularities that can be found in this equipment.
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(iii) Insulating equipment with any of the following defects may not be used:
(A) A hole, tear, puncture, or cut;
(B) Ozone cutting or ozone checking (that is, a series of interlacing cracks
produced by ozone on rubber under mechanical stress);
(C) An embedded foreign object;
(D) Any of the following texture changes: swelling, softening, hardening, or
becoming sticky or inelastic.
(E) Any other defect that damages the insulating properties.
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(iv) Insulating equipment found to have other defects that might affect its
insulating properties shall be removed from service and returned for
testing under paragraphs (c)(2)(viii) and (c)(2)(ix) of this section.
(v) Insulating equipment shall be cleaned as needed to remove foreign
substances.
(vi) Insulating equipment shall be stored in such a location and in such a
manner as to protect it from light, temperature extremes, excessive
humidity, ozone, and other damaging substances and conditions.
(vii) Protector gloves shall be worn over insulating gloves, except as follows:
(A) Protector gloves need not be used with Class 0 gloves, under limited-use
conditions, when small equipment and parts manipulation necessitate
unusually high finger dexterity.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (c)(2)(vii)(A): Persons inspecting rubber insulating
gloves used under these conditions need to take extra care in visually
examining them. Employees using rubber insulating gloves under these
conditions need to take extra care to avoid handling sharp objects.
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(B) If the voltage does not exceed 250 volts, ac, or 375 volts, dc, protector
gloves need not be used with Class 00 gloves, under limited-use
conditions, when small equipment and parts manipulation necessitate
unusually high finger dexterity.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (c)(2)(vii)(B): Persons inspecting rubber insulating
gloves used under these conditions need to take extra care in visually
examining them. Employees using rubber insulating gloves under these
conditions need to take extra care to avoid handling sharp objects.
(C) Any other class of glove may be used without protector gloves, under
limited-use conditions, when small equipment and parts manipulation
necessitate unusually high finger dexterity but only if the employer can
demonstrate that the possibility of physical damage to the gloves is small
and if the class of glove is one class higher than that required for the
voltage involved.
(D) Insulating gloves that have been used without protector gloves may not
be reused until they have been tested under the provisions of
paragraphs (c)(2)(viii) and (c)(2)(ix) of this section.
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(viii) Electrical protective equipment shall be subjected to periodic electrical
tests. Test voltages and the maximum intervals between tests shall be in
accordance with Table I-4 and Table I-5.
(ix) The test method used under paragraphs (c)(2)(viii) and (c)(2)(xi) of this
section shall reliably indicate whether the insulating equipment can
withstand the voltages involved.
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NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (c)(2)(ix): Standard electrical test methods
considered as meeting this paragraph are given in the following national
consensus standards:
• ASTM D120-09, Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves.
• ASTM D178-01 (2010), Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating
Matting.
• ASTM D1048-12, Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Blankets.
• ASTM D1049-98 (2010), Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating
Covers.
• ASTM D1050-05 (2011), Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Line
Hose.
• ASTM D1051-08, Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Sleeves.
• ASTM F478-09, Standard Specification for In-Service Care of Insulating
Line Hose and Covers.
• ASTM F479-06 (2011), Standard Specification for In-Service Care of
Insulating Blankets.
• ASTM F496-08, Standard Specification for In-Service Care of Insulating
Gloves and Sleeves.
Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
(x) Insulating equipment failing to pass inspections or electrical tests may
not be used by employees, except as follows:
(A) Rubber insulating line hose may be used in shorter lengths with the
defective portion cut off.
(B) Rubber insulating blankets may be salvaged by severing the defective
area from the undamaged portion of the blanket. The resulting
undamaged area may not be smaller than 560 millimeters by 560
millimeters (22 inches by 22 inches) for Class 1, 2, 3, and 4 blankets.
(C) Rubber insulating blankets may be repaired using a compatible patch
that results in physical and electrical properties equal to those of the
blanket.
(D) Rubber insulating gloves and sleeves with minor physical defects, such
as small cuts, tears, or punctures, may be repaired by the application of
a compatible patch. Also, rubber insulating gloves and sleeves with
minor surface blemishes may be repaired with a compatible liquid
compound. The repaired area shall have electrical and physical
properties equal to those of the surrounding material. Repairs to gloves
are permitted only in the area between the wrist and the reinforced edge
of the opening.
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xi) Repaired insulating equipment shall be retested before it may be used
by employees.
xii) The employer shall certify that equipment has been tested in accordance
with the requirements of paragraphs (c)(2)(iv), (c)(2)(vii)(D), (c)(2)(viii),
(c)(2)(ix), and (c)(2)(xi) of this section. The certification shall identify the
equipment that passed the test and the date it was tested and shall be
made available upon request to the Assistant Secretary for Occupational
Safety and Health and to employees or their authorized representatives.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (c)(2)(xii): Marking equipment with, and entering
onto logs, the results of the tests and the dates of testing are two acceptable
means of meeting the certification requirement.
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TABLE I-1—AC PROOF-TEST REQUIREMENTS
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TABLE I-2—DC PROOF-TEST REQUIREMENTS
Note: The dc voltages listed in this table are not appropriate for proof testing
rubber insulating line hose or covers. For this equipment, dc proof tests shall
use a voltage high enough to indicate that the equipment can be safely used
at the voltages listed in Table I-4. See ASTM D1050-05 (2011) and ASTM
D1049-98 (2010) for further information on proof tests for rubber insulating
line hose and covers, respectively.
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TABLE I-3—GLOVE TESTS—WATER LEVEL
12
1
The water level is given as the clearance from the reinforced edge of the
glove to the water line, with a tolerance of ±13 mm. (±0.5 in.).
2
If atmospheric conditions make the specified clearances impractical, the
clearances may be increased by a maximum of 25 mm. (1 in.).
Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
TABLE I-4—RUBBER INSULATING EQUIPMENT, VOLTAGE REQ.
1
The maximum use voltage is the ac voltage (rms) classification of the protective equipment that
designates the maximum nominal design voltage of the energized system that may be safely worked.
The nominal design voltage is equal to the phase-to-phase voltage on multiphase circuits. However,
the phase-to-ground potential is considered to be the nominal design voltage if:
(1) There is no multiphase exposure in a system area and the voltage exposure is limited to the
phase-to-ground potential, or
(2) The electric equipment and devices are insulated or isolated or both so that the multiphase
exposure on a grounded wye circuit is removed.
2
The proof-test voltage shall be applied continuously for at least 1 minute, but no more than 3
minutes.
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TABLE I-5—RUBBER INSULATING EQUIPMENT, TEST INTERVALS
1
If the insulating equipment has been electrically tested but not issued for
service, the insulating equipment may not be placed into service unless it has
been electrically tested within the previous 12 months.
[79 FR 20629, Apr. 11, 2014]
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Summary: §1910.137 Electrical protective
equipment.
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§1910.138
Hand
protection.
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§1910.138 Hand protection.
(a) General requirements.
Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand
protection when employees' hands are exposed to hazards such as those
from skin absorption of harmful substances; severe cuts or lacerations;
severe abrasions; punctures; chemical burns; thermal burns; and harmful
temperature extremes.
(b) Selection.
Employers shall base the selection of the appropriate hand protection on an
evaluation of the performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to
the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration of use, and the
hazards and potential hazards identified.
[59 FR 16362, Apr. 6, 1994; 59 FR 33911, J uly 1, 1994]
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Summary: §1910.138 Hand protection.
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ALL The Best!