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Date of Issue: December 2006

Affected Publication: API Recommended Practice 1166, Excavation
Monitoring and Observation, First Edition, November 2005




ERRATA

Page 4, Figure 1

Task F should read:

Excavation
observation
not required
Task F


(replacement figure attached)
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Excavation Monitoring and
Observation
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1166
FIRST EDITION, NOVEMBER 2005
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Excavation Monitoring and
Observation
Pipeline Segment
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1166
FIRST EDITION, NOVEMBER 2005
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SPECIAL NOTES
API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular
circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed.
Neither API nor any of API's employees, subcontractors, consultants, committees, or other
assignees make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the
accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained herein, or assume any
liability or responsibility for any use, or the results of such use, of any information or process
disclosed in this publication. Neither API nor any of API's employees, subcontractors, con-
sultants, or other assignees represent that use of this publication would not infringe upon pri-
vately owned rights.
API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by
the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the
Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication
and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from its use or for the violation of any authorities having jurisdiction with which this publi-
cation may conflict.
API publications are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven, sound engineer-
ing and operating practices. These publications are not intended to obviate the need for
applying sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these publications should
be utilized. The formulation and publication of API publications is not intended in any way
to inhibit anyone from using any other practices.
Any manufacturer marking equipment or materials in conformance with the marking
requirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable
requirements of that standard. API does not represent, warrant, or guarantee that such prod-
ucts do in fact conform to the applicable API standard.
API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers to warn
and properly train and equip their employees, and others exposed, concerning health and
safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations to comply with authorities
having jurisdiction.
Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to partic-
ular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer, the manufacturer or
supplier of that material, or the material safety data sheet.
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact the Publisher, API Publishing
Services, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
Copyright © 2005 American Petroleum Institute
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FOREWORD
Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by impli-
cation or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or product
covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be construed
as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.
This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appropriate
notification and participation in the developmental process and is designated as an API stan-
dard. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this publication or comments
and questions concerning the procedures under which this publication was developed should
be directed in writing to the Director of Standards, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L
Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate all
or any part of the material published herein should also be addressed to the director.
Generally, API standards are reviewed and revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn at least every
five years. A one-time extension of up to two years may be added to this review cycle. Status
of the publication can be ascertained from the API Standards Department, telephone (202)
682-8000. A catalog of API publications and materials is published annually and updated
quarterly by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the Standards and Publications
Department, API, 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005, standards@api.org.
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CONTENTS
Page
1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
2 DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
3 DECISION NODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
8 TASKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Figure
1 Flowchart—Excavation Monitoring and Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
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1
Excavation Monitoring and Observation
1 Purpose and Scope
To protect the public, excavation employees, and the environment by preventing damage to pipeline assets from excavation activ-
ities.
To provide a consistently applied decision making process for monitoring and observing of excavation and other activities on or
near pipeline Rights-of -Way for “hazardous liquid” and “natural and other gas” transmission pipelines.
Note: One call provisions and laws vary by state and it is the operator’s responsibility to be familiar with and comply with all applicable one-call
laws
2 Definitions
2.1 originator: An individual or company who has identified and made notification of an excavation activity and / or initiated
a one-call ticket
2.2 one-call center: An entity that administers a system through which a person can notify owners / operators of lines or
facilities of proposed excavations
2.3 ticket: Documentation of the one-call request or the identified excavation activity - includes assigned number identifica-
tion for tracking the ticket and all associated documentation
2.4 activity/request: Identified excavation activity or one-call ticket request. Examples include an activity notification from
an aerial overflight, a one-call ticket issued from a one-call center, an internal notification made from pipeline maintenance
employees during Right-of-Way patrol, or a notice from the general public
2.5 locate: To indicate the existence of a line or facility by establishing a mark through the use of stakes, paint or some other
customary manner, that approximately determines the location of the line or facility.
2.6 excavation monitoring: Defined in Task Description Outline—Task E
2.7 excavation observation: Defined in Task Description Outline—Task G
3 Decision Node 1
Contact with Originator is not required if the exact work location is known and without question work or activity falls outside des-
ignated company determined buffer zones. If any question exists, designated field personnel must contact the originator and doc-
ument the results of the conversation before closing the ticket.
Contact Originator for more information when the above is not met.
Examples of situations requiring Originator contact include, but are not limited to:
• Work location falls inside company defined buffer zone
• Ticket is classified as an emergency
• Address cannot be located on map or appears to be incorrect (e.g. street number and name don’t correspond)
• Ticket indicates location map or additional information is available upon request
• Ticket contains conflicting or unclear information on work location or work scope
• Positive response required by regulations
Examples of specific verifiable work locations include, but are not limited to:
• SW corner of intersection of Main and Beacon Streets
• Front Property Line of 704 Byrne, going East for 500 feet
• Global Positioning coordinates information provided
Examples of general work locations requiring Originator contact:
(includes but is not limited to:)
• Approximately five miles east of city on Highway 77, then 1 mile south on lease road
• 704 Byrne (rural location and property size unknown)
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2 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1166
4 Decision Node 2
Site visit is not required if contact with Originator has determined that, without question, work or activity falls outside company
designated buffer zones. If any question exists, designated field personnel must conduct a site visit.
5 Decision Node 3
Locate is not required if site visit has determined that, without question, work or activity falls outside company designated buffer
zones. If any question exists, designated field personnel must perform the locate.
6 Decision Nodes 4 & 5
Consideration should be given to the following when evaluating the proximity of work (or work impact) to pipeline, consider-
ations include, but are not limited to:
• Does the excavator have a proven record of following pipeline company procedures and requirements.
• Has the excavation area been marked (well defined excavation area)
• Has the pipeline operator or appointed representative confirmed the type of mechanized equipment to be used:
- weight limit issues (See API RP 1102, Steel Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways)
- reach/ extension capabilities
• Are there equipment components (excavator treads or tracks) that may be within 5 or 25 feet (minimums), even though the
excavation is not
• Are effective isolation measures in place to protect pipeline from mechanized equipment (example would be a residential
security fence)
• Have pipeline bends been accounted for in marking the area
Does the work plan indicate need for special considerations such as:
(includes but is not limited to:)
• Blasting*
• Seismic testing*
• Mining*
• Quarry Operations*
• Dredging*
• Heavy Surface loading*
• Multiple pipeline corridors*
• Abandoned pipe segments*
• Boring/directional drilling*
• Pile drilling*
* Note: the above may require special individual operator designated procedures
7 Decision Node 6
Pipeline representative should only close ticket when a review has been completed with excavator and confirmed all work activi-
ties in the area of excavation have been completed.
8 Task A
Close Ticket
Render ticket completed using company protocols.
9 Task B
Secure additional information by contacting originator, one call center or by visiting site to validate the scope of work.
10 Task C
Conduct site visit
Visit site and evaluate need to perform locate per company requirements and protocols to validate the scope of work.
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EXCAVATION MONITORING AND OBSERVATION 3
11 Task D
Perform Locate
Conduct locate per company requirements and obtain appropriate safety and security documentation.
12 Task E
Excavation Monitoring
(includes but is not limited to:)
• Meet with contractor to define scope of work
• Determine if or when observation by Pipeline Operator’s designated representative is required
• Determine frequency of pipeline operator monitoring based on:
- Scope of work
- Duration of expected excavator work
- Type of equipment
- Potential impact on pipeline
- Complexity of work
- Multiple contractors / excavators
• Conduct site visits on pre-determined frequency w/ documentation of contact. Documentation may include:
- Name of contact person
- Status of work
- Scope changes
- Confirm one-call ticket is current
• Exercise authorities as defined in Task G
• Obtain safety and security documentation
13 Task F
Excavation Observation not required
Self-explanatory (continue monitoring)
14 Task G
Excavation Observation
(includes but is not limited to:)
• Obtain safety and security documentation
• Continuously present at all time excavation and backfilling is underway
• Affirmative communication with on-site excavation lead at site daily (at least)
• Conduct site visits on pre-determined frequency w/ documentation of contact. Documentation may include:
- Name of contact person
- Status of work
- Scope changes
- Confirm one-call ticket is current
• Observe compliance with agreed upon design / specification / scope of work
- Digging criteria are being met (hand excavation etc.- pipeline company prescribed criteria; undermining support)
- Hazards of this pipeline are recognized at excavation site, known hazards are communicated
• Maintain hand excavation zone agreed to by pipeline company and the excavator
• Confirm size, type, weight and reach of excavation or other equipment previously agreed to:
- Teeth / no teeth
- Accurate bucket control
- Work equipment
• Exercise pipeline company authority to stop work, as necessary
• Exercise pipeline company authority to call appropriate agencies or responsible parties, as necessary:
- Law enforcement
- 911 Emergency
- Excavation company
- Pipeline company
• Document ticket closing
- Records and as built updates as required
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4 API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 1166
Figure 1—Flowchart—Excavation Monitoring and Observation
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Additional copies are available through Global Engineering
Documents at (800) 854-7179 or (303) 397-7956
Information about API Publications, Programs and Services is
available on the World Wide Web at: http://www.api.org
Product No. D116601
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