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Configuring Basic EIGRP Lab ............................................................................................................ 3
Configuring Default-network for EIGRP Lab .................................................................................... 6
Manually Summarizing EIGRP Routes Lab ..................................................................................... 11
Configuring EIGRP Unequal Cost Paths Lab ................................................................................... 15
Configuring EIGRP Authentication Lab .......................................................................................... 18
Understand EIGRP Query Lab ........................................................................................................ 20
Configuring Basic Multi Area OSPF and Area Summary Lab ......................................................... 28
Configuring OSPF in NBMA Lab ..................................................................................................... 32
Configuring OSPF Authentication Lab ........................................................................................... 37
Configuring OSPF External Summary Lab ...................................................................................... 43
Configuring OSPF Default Route With Metric Lab ......................................................................... 46
Configuring OSPF Stub Area Lab .................................................................................................... 49
Configuring OSPF Totally Stub Area Lab ........................................................................................ 53
Configuring OSPF NSSA Area and NSSA Totally Stub Lab .............................................................. 56
Configuring OSPF Virtual-Link between normal area and backbone area Lab ............................. 62
Configuring OSPF Virtual-Link between 2 backbone areas Lab .................................................... 65
Understand OSPF Routing Between Inter Area Lab ...................................................................... 68
Configuring Basic IS-IS Lab ............................................................................................................. 70
Configuring IS-IS Multi Area and Summary Route Lab .................................................................. 74
Migrate IS-IS Area Lab ................................................................................................................... 78
Redistributing into RIP and OSPF Lab ............................................................................................ 81
Redistributing Between EIGRP and IS-IS Lab ................................................................................. 83
Redistribution Using Administrative Distance Lab ........................................................................ 87
Filtering Routing Updates with a Distribute List Lab ..................................................................... 89
Filtering Routing Updates with a Route Map Lab ......................................................................... 91
Using Route Tag Filtering Routing Updates Lab ............................................................................ 93
Policy-based route Lab .................................................................................................................. 96
Configuring Basic BGP Lab ............................................................................................................. 99
Configuring BGP Using Loopback Addresses Lab ........................................................................ 101
Understand BGP Auto-Summary Lab .......................................................................................... 103
Configuring BGP Summarization Lab ........................................................................................... 106
Understand BGP Split Horizon Rule Lab ...................................................................................... 108
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Understand BGP Synchronization Rule Lab ................................................................................. 111
BGP Neighbor Authentication Lab ............................................................................................... 114
Configuring BGP Local Preference Lab ........................................................................................ 117
Using Route Maps to Configuring BGP Local Preference Lab ..................................................... 121
Configuring BGP Multi-Exit Discriminator Lab ............................................................................. 124
Configuring BGP Weight Lab ....................................................................................................... 128
Affects the BGP Routing By Path Prepend Lab ............................................................................ 131
Configuring BGP Routes Reflector Lab ........................................................................................ 134
Configuring BGP Confederation Lab ............................................................................................ 135
Using Route Tag to Store BGP AS-Path Lab ................................................................................. 139
Using Distribute-list to Filtering BGP Routing Lab ....................................................................... 143
Using Route-Map to Filtering BGP Routing Lab .......................................................................... 145
Using Prefix-List to Filtering BGP Routing Lab ............................................................................. 146
Configuring 802.1x Port-Based Authentication Lab .................................................................... 150
Routing Between VLANs and VTP Protocol Lab .......................................................................... 154
Configuring L2 & L3 EtherChannel with PAGP Lab ...................................................................... 163
Configuring L2 & L3 EtherChannel with LACP Lab ....................................................................... 169
Configuring Layer 3 Redundancy with HSRP Lab ......................................................................... 172
Configuring Layer 3 Redundancy with VRRP Lab......................................................................... 179







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Configuring Basic EIGRP Lab

Topology




Lab Purpose:
1、Master EIGRP basic configuration.
2、Master EIGRP wild card bits configuration.
3、Master EIGRP auto summary feature, and learn how to disable auto summary.
4、Master EIGRP manually summary.

Lab Steps:
1、Config IP address for each router.
2、EIGRP AS number should be 50.
3、Enable EIGRP for the 3 routers.
R1#configure terminal
R1(config-if)#router eigrp 50
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.1.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.2.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.3.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.4.0

R2#configure terminal
R2(config-if)#router eigrp 50
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R2(config-router)#network 131.131.0.0

R3#configure terminal
R3(config-if)#router eigrp 50
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
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R3(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.3.0

4、Check the EIGRP neighbour relationship on R2.
R2#show ip eigrp 50 neighbors
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 50
H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq
(sec) (ms) Cnt Num
1 172.16.1.6 Se1/1 13 00:00:37 436 2616 0 2
0 172.16.1.1 Se1/0 13 00:02:34 736 4416 0 4
TIPS: H stands for neighbor sequence number, address is the neighbor address, Interface is the local
interface which connect with neighbor.

5、Check the routing table on R2.
R2#show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.4/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:06:33, Null0
C 172.16.1.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
D 192.168.4.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:04:39, Serial1/1
D 10.0.0.0/8 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:06:34, Serial1/0
C 131.131.0.0/16 is directly connected, Loopback0
D 192.168.0.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:04:39, Serial1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:04:39, Serial1/1
D 192.168.2.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:04:39, Serial1/1
D 192.168.3.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:04:39, Serial1/1

6、 Check EIGRP routing table on R2.
R2#show ip route eigrp
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:10:09, Null0
D 192.168.4.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:08:14, Serial1/1
D 10.0.0.0/8 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:10:10, Serial1/0
D 192.168.0.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:08:14, Serial1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:08:14, Serial1/1
D 192.168.2.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:08:14, Serial1/1
D 192.168.3.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:08:14, Serial1/1

7、There is a summary route 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.1 on R2 by auto summary feature,
we could use "no auto-summary" command to disable it.
R1(config)
R1(config)#router eigrp 50
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#exit
Then check the eigrp route on R2 again.
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R2#show ip route eigrp
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:07:26, Null0
D 192.168.4.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:05:09, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 4 subnets
D 10.1.3.0 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:31, Serial1/0
D 10.1.2.0 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:31, Serial1/0
D 10.1.1.0 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:31, Serial1/0
D 10.1.4.0 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:31, Serial1/0
D 192.168.0.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:05:09, Serial1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:05:09, Serial1/1
D 192.168.2.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:05:09, Serial1/1
D 192.168.3.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:05:09, Serial1/1

8、Manually summarize network 192.168.0.0/24 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24
192.168.3.0/24 to 1 item on R3.
R3(config)#interface serail 1/0
R3(config-if)#ip summary eigrp 50 192.168.0.0 255.255.252.0
R3(config-if)#exit

9、Check routing table on R2 again.
R2#show ip route eigrp
………
D 10.1.1.0 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:31, Serial1/0
D 10.1.4.0 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:02:31, Serial1/0
D 192.168.0.0/22 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.6, 00:05:09, Serial1/1
………
10、Use wild card bits on R2's EIGRP configuration.
R2(config)#no router eigrp 50
R2(config)#router eigrp 50
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.3
R2(config-router)#network 131.131.0.0
R2(config-router)#exit

11、This time there is only R1 in R2's neighbor table.
R2#show ip eigrp neighbors
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 50
H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq
(sec) (ms) Cnt Num
0 172.16.1.1 Se1/0 12 00:04:57 1510 5000 0 5
12、Check EIGRP routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route eigrp
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:02:55, Null0
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10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
D 10.0.0.0/8 is a summary, 00:02:55, Null0
D 131.131.0.0/16 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.2, 00:00:06, Serial1/1

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Configuring Default-network for EIGRP Lab
Topology




Lab Purpose:
1、Learn to use "ip default-network" command instead of " ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 " in
EIGRP network.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish the basic ip address configuration on all the routers.

2、Let's suppose R3 is the external router, so there is no EIGRP relationship between R2
and R3. What we need is a default route to the internal network on R3.
R3(config)#
R3(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.10.1
R3(config)#

3、Enable EIGRP 50 on the internal routers.
R1(config)#router eigrp 50
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R1(config-router)#exit

R5(config)#router eigrp 50
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R5(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R5(config-router)#exit

R2(config)#router eigrp 50
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R2(config-router)#exit

4、Check EIGRP neighbor relationship on R2.
R2#show ip eigrp neighbors
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 50
H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq Type
(sec) (ms) Cnt Num
1 172.16.1.6 Et1/2 11 00:00:54 1 3000 0 2
0 172.16.1.1 Et1/0 12 00:00:54 1 3000 0 2

5、Add a default route on R2 to reach the external network.
R2(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.10.2
R2(config)#
R2#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.!!!!
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/43/92 ms
R2#

6、R1 and R5 do not have route to external network, so they can not access external
network.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D 172.16.1.4 [90/284160] via 172.16.1.2, 00:06:40, FastEthernet0/1
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1
R1#
R1#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
R1#

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R5#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.4 is directly connected, Ethernet1/1
D 172.16.1.0 [90/307200] via 172.16.1.5, 00:12:15, Ethernet1/1
R5#
R5#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
R5#

7、One solution is to add a default route with the next hop R2 on both R1 and R5 .
R1(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.1.2
R1(config)#exit
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.1.2 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D 172.16.1.4 [90/284160] via 172.16.1.2, 00:09:19, FastEthernet0/1
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1
S* 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 172.16.1.2
R1#
R1#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 48/71/92 ms
R1#

R5(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.1.5
R5(config)#exit
R5#
R5#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.1.5 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.4 is directly connected, Ethernet1/1
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D 172.16.1.0 [90/307200] via 172.16.1.5, 00:13:57, Ethernet1/1
S* 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 172.16.1.5
R5#
R5#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 32/53/64 ms
R5#

8、Another solution is to let R2 announce the external route to R1 and R5, this solution
is better for large internal network, as it gets less configuration work.

9、So let's delete the default route on R1 and R5 first.
R1(config)#no ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.1.2
R1(config)#exit
R1#
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D 172.16.1.4 [90/284160] via 172.16.1.2, 00:19:02, FastEthernet0/1
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1
R1#
R1#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
R1#

R5(config)#no ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.1.5
R5(config)#exit
R5#
R5#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.4 is directly connected, Ethernet1/1
D 172.16.1.0 [90/307200] via 172.16.1.5, 00:19:42, Ethernet1/1
R5#
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R5#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
R5#

10、Then let's R2 announce the external network 192.168.10.0 to R1 and R5.
R2(config)#router eigrp 50
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.10.0
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#ip default-network 192.168.10.0
R2(config)#exit
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 192.168.10.2 to network 0.0.0.0

* 192.168.10.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
D* 192.168.10.0/24 is a summary, 00:00:53, Null0
C 192.168.10.0/30 is directly connected, Ethernet1/1
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.4/30 is directly connected, Ethernet1/2
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:22:22, Null0
C 172.16.1.0/30 is directly connected, Ethernet1/0
S* 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 192.168.10.2
R2#

11、Check the routing table of R1 and R5 again, to make sure they have the external
route.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.1.2 to network 192.168.10.0

D* 192.168.10.0/24 [90/284160] via 172.16.1.2, 00:02:03, FastEthernet0/1
172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D 172.16.1.4 [90/284160] via 172.16.1.2, 00:02:04, FastEthernet0/1
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1
R1#
R1#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 48/105/188 ms
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R1#

R5#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.1.5 to network 192.168.10.0

D* 192.168.10.0/24 [90/307200] via 172.16.1.5, 00:04:15, Ethernet1/1
172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.4 is directly connected, Ethernet1/1
D 172.16.1.0 [90/307200] via 172.16.1.5, 00:04:19, Ethernet1/1
R5#
R5#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 76/87/96 ms

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Manually Summarizing EIGRP Routes Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Understand the weakness of EIGRP auto summarization.
2、Master EIGRP manually summary configuration.

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Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic ip configuration.
2、Enable EIGRP on all the routers, do not disable auto summary.
3、Ping on R2 to R1's 10.1.X.0/24 network and R4's 10.1.X.0/24 network, you will find
to R1 is good, but to R4 fails.
R2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/46/92 ms

R2#ping 10.1.16.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.16.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
U.U.U
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
R2#
R2#ping 10.1.17.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.17.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
U.U.U
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

4、Check the routing table of R2.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
D 172.16.1.8 [90/307200] via 172.16.1.6, 00:06:25, Ethernet1/1
C 172.16.1.4 is directly connected, Ethernet1/1
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Ethernet1/0
D 10.0.0.0/8 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.1, 00:06:09, Ethernet1/0
D 192.168.0.0/24 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:06:25, Ethernet1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:06:25, Ethernet1/1
D 192.168.2.0/24 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:06:25, Ethernet1/1
D 192.168.3.0/24 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:06:25, Ethernet1/1

5、Check the EIGRP topology database of R2.
R2#show ip eigrp topology all-links
IP-EIGRP Topology Table for AS(50)/ID(172.16.1.5)

Codes: P - Passive, A - Active, U - Update, Q - Query, R - Reply,
r - Reply status

P 10.0.0.0/8, 1 successors, FD is 409600, serno 3
via 172.16.1.1 (409600/128256), Ethernet1/0
via 172.16.1.6 (435200/409600), Ethernet1/1
P 192.168.0.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 409600, serno 4
via 172.16.1.6 (409600/128256), Ethernet1/1
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P 192.168.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 409600, serno 5
via 172.16.1.6 (409600/128256), Ethernet1/1
P 192.168.2.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 409600, serno 6
via 172.16.1.6 (409600/128256), Ethernet1/1
P 192.168.3.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 409600, serno 7
via 172.16.1.6 (409600/128256), Ethernet1/1
P 172.16.1.8/30, 1 successors, FD is 307200, serno 8
via 172.16.1.6 (307200/281600), Ethernet1/1
P 172.16.1.4/30, 1 successors, FD is 281600, serno 2
via Connected, Ethernet1/1
P 172.16.1.0/30, 1 successors, FD is 281600, serno 1
via Connected, Ethernet1/0

6、The specific 10.1.X.0/24 networks on both R1 and R4 were automatically summarize
to 10.0.0.0/8 before R2 receives. So R2 has two next hop to network 10.0.0.0/8,
according to the topology database R1's (172.16.1.1) FD 409600 is better than R3's
(172.16.1.6) FD 435200, then R2 will choose R1 172.16.1.1 as the next hop in the routing
table, so ping traffic to the networks behind R4 will not going to R4.

7、To solve this issue, we need to use manual summary instead of auto summary.
R1(config)#router eigrp 50
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/1
R1(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 50 10.1.0.0 255.255.252.0
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#exit

R4(config)#router eigrp 50
R4(config-router)#no auto-summary
R4(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#
R4(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R4(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 50 10.1.16.0 255.255.252.0
R4(config-if)#exit
R4(config)#exit

8、Check the routing table of R2.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
D 172.16.1.8 [90/307200] via 172.16.1.6, 00:21:08, Ethernet1/1
C 172.16.1.4 is directly connected, Ethernet1/1
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Ethernet1/0
10.0.0.0/22 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D 10.1.0.0 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.1, 00:03:13, Ethernet1/0
D 10.1.16.0 [90/435200] via 172.16.1.6, 00:01:02, Ethernet1/1
D 192.168.0.0/24 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:21:08, Ethernet1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:21:08, Ethernet1/1
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D 192.168.2.0/24 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:21:08, Ethernet1/1
D 192.168.3.0/24 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:21:08, Ethernet1/1

9、Ping the networks behind R1 and R4 again.
R2#ping 10.1.0.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.0.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 16/69/145 ms
R2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 16/44/64 ms
R2#ping 10.1.16.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.16.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 60/97/140 ms
R2#ping 10.1.17.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.17.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 48/93/149 ms


10、To decrease the size of routing table, we could manually summarize the networks
from 192.168.0.0/24 to 192.168.3.0/24 behind R3.
R3(config)#router eigrp 50
R3(config-router)#no auto-summary
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
R3(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 50 192.168.0.0 255.255.252.0
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#inter ethernet 1/0
R3(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 50 192.168.0.0 255.255.252.0
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#

11、Check the routing table of R2 and R4.
R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 172.16.1.8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
D 172.16.1.4 [90/284160] via 172.16.1.9, 00:02:41, FastEthernet0/0
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D 172.16.1.0 [90/309760] via 172.16.1.9, 00:02:23, FastEthernet0/0
10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 2 masks
D 10.1.0.0/22 [90/437760] via 172.16.1.9, 00:02:23, FastEthernet0/0
C 10.1.19.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 10.1.18.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 10.1.17.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
D 10.1.16.0/22 is a summary, 00:03:33, Null0
C 10.1.16.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
D 192.168.0.0/22 [90/156160] via 172.16.1.9, 00:02:41, FastEthernet0/0

R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
D 172.16.1.8 [90/307200] via 172.16.1.6, 00:02:54, Ethernet1/1
C 172.16.1.4 is directly connected, Ethernet1/1
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Ethernet1/0
10.0.0.0/22 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D 10.1.0.0 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.1, 00:16:13, Ethernet1/0
D 10.1.16.0 [90/435200] via 172.16.1.6, 00:02:54, Ethernet1/1
D 192.168.0.0/22 [90/409600] via 172.16.1.6, 00:02:54, Ethernet1/1

12、Ping the networks behind R3 from R2 and R4.
R2#ping 192.168.0.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.0.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/28/60 ms

R4#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 24/37/48 ms

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Configuring EIGRP Unequal Cost Paths Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Master EIGRP unequal cost load balance.
2、Master EIGRP metric modifying.
3、Master EIGRP AD、FD、FC、Successor、FS principal.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic ip configuration.
2、Enable EIGRP 50 on the 3 routers.
3、Check the routing table of R1.
R1#show ip route

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 172.16.1.8 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
D 172.16.1.4 [90/2172416] via 172.16.1.10, 00:00:11, FastEthernet0/0
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/156160] via 172.16.1.10, 00:00:11, FastEthernet0/0

4、We can see there is only one way to network 192.168.1.0/24, to increase the
capability of transmission, we need to use all the usable links.

5、If we want to use 172.16.1.2 as a unequal cost path, then we should make sure it is
the FS of network 192.168.1.0/24.

6、Check the EIGRP 50 topology database we found that 172.16.1.2 is not in the
192.168.1.0/24 list, not a FS.
R1#show ip eigrp 50 topology
………
P 192.168.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 156160
via 172.16.1.10 (156160/128256), FastEthernet0/0
P 172.16.1.8/30, 1 successors, FD is 28160
via Connected, FastEthernet0/0
………
7、Check the full EIGRP topology table we found that 172.16.1.2 could be the next hop
of network 192.168.1.0/24, just not in use by the restriction of algorithm.
R1#show ip eigrp 50 topology all-links
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………
P 192.168.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 156160, serno 6
via 172.16.1.10 (156160/128256), FastEthernet0/0
via 172.16.1.2 (2809856/2297856), Serial1/1
………
8、According to the FS formula.
AD of secondary-best route < FD of best route(Successor) = Feasible Successor
We could do the math.
Distance from R2 to network 192.168.1.0/24 should less than 156160, then 172.16.1.2
would be the FS.
9、Let's change the EIGRP metrics of R2 to make it work as a FS of R1.
R2#configure terminal
R2(config)#interface serial 1/1
R2(config-if)#bandwidth 10000000
R2(config-if)#delay 10
R2(config)#exit
10、Check the topology table of R1, we see 130816 is less than 15160.
R1#show ip eigrp topology all-links
………
P 192.168.1.0/24, 1 successors, FD is 156160, serno 6
via 172.16.1.10 (156160/128256), FastEthernet0/0
via 172.16.1.2 (2300416/130816), Serial1/1
………
11、This time we could enable unequal cost load balance, and give the right variance
value.
According to the variance formula.
FD of FS route < FD of best route(Successor) * Varince
So the math is
2300416 < 156160 * x
x≈14.73
12、Let test 14 as the variance number.
R1(config)#router eigrp 50
R1(config-router)#variance 14
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit
R1#clear ip router *
R1#show ip route
………
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/156160] via 172.16.1.10, 00:00:00, FastEthernet0/0
………
Seems 14 is not enough.
13、Let's change it to 15.
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R1(config)#router eigrp 50
R1(config-router)#variance 15
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit
R1#clear ip router *
R1#show ip route
………
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/156160] via 172.16.1.10, 00:00:01, FastEthernet0/0
[90/2300416] via 172.16.1.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/1
This time both 172.16.1.10 and 172.16.1.2 are the next hop for network 192.168.1.0/24.

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Configuring EIGRP Authentication Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master EIGRP authentication principal.
2、Master EIGRP authentication configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic ip configuration.
2、Enable EIGRP 50 on the 2 routers.
3、Check the routing tables of R1 and R2.
R1#show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:00:37, Null0
10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 10.1.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
D 10.0.0.0/8 is a summary, 00:00:37, Null0
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.10, 00:00:09, Serial1/1
R1#
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R2#show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:00:53, Null0
D 10.0.0.0/8 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.9, 00:00:51, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
R2#
4、Config EIGRP authentication on R1.
R1#configure terminal
R1(config)#key chain edurainbow
R1(config-keychain)#key 1
R1(config-keychain-key)#key-string cisco
R1(config-keychain-key)#exit
R1(config-keychain)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
R1(config-if)#ip authentication key-chain eigrp 50 edurainbow
R1(config-if)#ip authentication mode eigrp 50 md5
R1(config-if)#end
R1(config)#

5、"Use clear ip route *" command to speed up converge.
6、Then check the routing table of R1 and R2 again.
R1#show ip route
C 172.16.1.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:00:16, Null0
10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 10.1.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
D 10.0.0.0/8 is a summary, 00:00:16, Null0
R1#

R2#show ip route
………
C 172.16.1.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:02:53, Null0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
R2#
This time the neighbor is down and EIGRP routes are missing.
*Mar 14 15:35:27.343: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP(0) 50: Neighbor 172.16.1.9 (Serial1/0) is up:
new adjacency
*Mar 14 15:35:29.767: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP(0) 50: Neighbor 172.16.1.9 (Serial1/0) is down:
Auth failure

7 Check the neighbor table of R2 we found no item there.
R2#show ip eigrp 50 neighbors
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 50


8、Config EIGRP authentication on R2.
R2#
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R2#configure terminal
R2(config)#key chain edurainbow
R2(config-keychain)#key 1
R2(config-keychain-key)#key-string cisco
R2(config-keychain-key)#exit
R2(config-keychain)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#interface serial 1/0
R2(config-if)#ip authentication key-chain eigrp 50 edurainbow
R2(config-if)#ip authentication mode eigrp 50 md5
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#exit
R2(config)#
9、Then we found neighbor is up again.
*Mar 14 15:46:04.071: %DUAL-5-NBRCHANGE: IP-EIGRP(0) 50: Neighbor 172.16.1.9 (Serial1/0) is up:
new adjacency
R2#show ip eigrp 50 neighbors
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 50
H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq
(sec) (ms) Cnt Num
0 172.16.1.9 Se1/0 11 00:01:17 28 200 0 8

10、Check the routing table of R1 and R2 we found the RIGRP routes are back.
R1#show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:08:41, Null0
10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 10.1.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
D 10.0.0.0/8 is a summary, 00:08:42, Null0
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.10, 00:02:54, Serial1/1
R1#

R2#show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.1.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:08:28, Null0
D 10.0.0.0/8 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.9, 00:03:44, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

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Understand EIGRP Query Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Understand EIGRP route update mechanism.
2、Master EIGRP debug command.
3、Master stub configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic ip configuration.
2、Enable EIGRP 50 on the 3 routers.
3、Check EIGRP routing table of R1 R2 R3.
R1#show ip route eigrp
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
D 172.16.1.4/30 [90/2681856] via 172.16.1.2, 00:01:20, Serial1/1
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:01:00, Null0
10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
D 10.0.0.0/8 is a summary, 00:00:59, Null0
R1#

R2#show ip route eigrp
D 10.0.0.0/8 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:01:16, Serial1/0
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2172416] via 172.16.1.1, 00:01:21, Serial1/0
[90/2172416] via 172.16.1.6, 00:01:21, Serial1/1
R2#

R3#sh ip route eigrp
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:01:30, Null0
D 172.16.1.0/30 [90/2681856] via 172.16.1.5, 00:01:36, Serial1/0
D 10.0.0.0/8 [90/156160] via 192.168.1.1, 00:01:30, FastEthernet0/0
R3#
4、Debug EIGRP on R2 to track update.
R2#debug eigrp fsm
EIGRP FSM Events/Actions debugging is on
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R2#debug eigrp packets query
EIGRP Packets debugging is on
(QUERY)
5、Shutdown loopback0 on R1 to simulate a network issue.
R1(config)#interface loopback 0
R1(config-if)#shutdown
6、Check debug information on R2.
*Mar 15 22:03:26.087: EIGRP: Received QUERY on Serial1/0 nbr 172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:03:26.091: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 127/192 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0
*Mar 15 22:03:26.095: DUAL: rcvquery: 10.1.1.0/24 via 172.16.1.1 metric
4294967295/4294967295, RD is 2297856
*Mar 15 22:03:26.095: DUAL: Find FS for dest 10.1.1.0/24. FD is 2297856,
RD is 2297856
*Mar 15 22:03:26.099: DUAL: 172.16.1.1 metric 4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:03:26.099: DUAL: 172.16.1.6 metric 2300416/156160 found
Dmin is 2300416
*Mar 15 22:03:26.099: DUAL: send REPLY(R1/n1) about 10.1.1.0/24 to
172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:03:26.099: DUAL: RT installed 10.1.1.0/24 via 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:03:26.099: DUAL: Send update about 10.1.1.0/24. Reason:
metric chg
*Mar 15 22:03:26.099: DUAL: Send update about 10.1.1.0/24. Reason: new
if
*Mar 15 22:03:26.147: EIGRP: Received QUERY on Serial1/1 nbr 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:03:26.151: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 144/194 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0
*Mar 15 22:03:26.155: DUAL: rcvquery: 10.1.1.0/24 via 172.16.1.6 metric
4294967295/4294967295, RD is 2300416
*Mar 15 22:03:26.155: DUAL: Find FS for dest 10.1.1.0/24. FD is 2297856,
RD is 2300416
*Mar 15 22:03:26.159: DUAL: 172.16.1.6 metric 4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:03:26.159: DUAL: 172.16.1.1 metric 4294967295/4294967295
not found Dmin is 4294967295
*Mar 15 22:03:26.159: DUAL: Peer total/stub 2/0 template/full-stub 2/0
*Mar 15 22:03:26.159: DUAL: Dest 10.1.1.0/24 entering active state.
*Mar 15 22:03:26.159: DUAL: Set reply-status table. Count is 2.
*Mar 15 22:03:26.159: DUAL: Not doing split horizon
*Mar 15 22:03:26.159: DUAL: Going from state 1 to state 3
*Mar 15 22:03:26.171: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/1 iidbQ un/rely
0/1 serno 148-148
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*Mar 15 22:03:26.175: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/1 nbr
172.16.1.6 iidbQ un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0 serno 148-148
*Mar 15 22:03:26.179: EIGRP: Sending QUERY on Serial1/1 nbr 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:03:26.179: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 195/144 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/1 serno 148-148
*Mar 15 22:03:26.199: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/0 iidbQ un/rely
0/1 serno 148-148
*Mar 15 22:03:26.203: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/0 nbr
172.16.1.1 iidbQ un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0 serno 148-148
*Mar 15 22:03:26.207: EIGRP: Sending QUERY on Serial1/0 nbr 172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:03:26.207: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 196/127 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/1 serno 148-148
*Mar 15 22:03:26.215: DUAL: rcvreply: 10.1.1.0/24 via 172.16.1.6 metric
4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:03:26.219: DUAL: reply count is 2
*Mar 15 22:03:26.219: DUAL: Clearing handle 1, count now 1
*Mar 15 22:03:26.267: DUAL: rcvreply: 10.1.1.0/24 via 172.16.1.1 metric
4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:03:26.267: DUAL: reply count is 1
*Mar 15 22:03:26.267: DUAL: Clearing handle 0, count now 0
*Mar 15 22:03:26.271: DUAL: Freeing reply status table
*Mar 15 22:03:26.271: DUAL: Find FS for dest 10.1.1.0/24. FD is
4294967295, RD is 4294967295 found
………
According to the debug output there are 4 query packets and 4 respond packets, thing if
there are hundreds of routers the query will be huge. We could use manually summarize
and stub feature to restrict the query scope.

7、Manually summary on R1 and R3.
R1(config)#interface loopback 0
R1(config-if)#no shutdown
R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
R1(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 50 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0

R3(config)#interface serial 1/0
R3(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp 50 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0

8、Check routing table of R2 and R3 again to make sure they have learned the summary
route.
R2#show ip route eigrp
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
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D 172.16.0.0/16 [90/2684416] via 172.16.1.1, 00:15:27, Serial1/0
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
D 10.1.1.0 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:27, Serial1/0
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2172416] via 172.16.1.1, 00:15:09, Serial1/0
[90/2172416] via 172.16.1.6, 00:15:09, Serial1/1
R2#ping 10.1.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 48/78/104 ms
R2#

R3>show ip route eigrp

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
D 172.16.0.0/16 is a summary, 00:15:43, Null0
D 172.16.1.0/30 [90/2172416] via 192.168.1.1, 00:15:43,
FastEthernet0/0
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
D 10.1.1.0 [90/156160] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:57, FastEthernet0/0
R3>
R3>ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 24/62/96 ms
R3>

9、Shutdown loopback0 on R1 again to check the debug message on R2.
*Mar 15 22:11:17.867: EIGRP: Received QUERY on Serial1/0 nbr 172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:11:17.871: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 135/207 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0
*Mar 15 22:11:17.875: DUAL: dest(10.1.1.0/24) not active
*Mar 15 22:11:17.875: DUAL: rcvquery: 10.1.1.0/24 via 172.16.1.1 metric
4294967295/4294967295, RD is 4294967295
*Mar 15 22:11:17.879: DUAL: send REPLY(R1/n1) about 10.1.1.0/24 to
172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:11:17.879: DUAL: rcvquery: 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.1 metric
4294967295/4294967295, RD is 2297856
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*Mar 15 22:11:17.883: DUAL: Find FS for dest 10.0.0.0/8. FD is 2297856,
RD is 2297856
*Mar 15 22:11:17.883: DUAL: 172.16.1.1 metric 4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:11:17.887: DUAL: 172.16.1.6 metric 2300416/156160 found
Dmin is 2300416
*Mar 15 22:11:17.887: DUAL: send REPLY(R1/n1) about 10.0.0.0/8 to
172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:11:17.891: DUAL: RT installed 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:11:17.895: DUAL: Send update about 10.0.0.0/8. Reason:
metric chg
*Mar 15 22:11:17.895: DUAL: Send update about 10.0.0.0/8. Reason: new
if
*Mar 15 22:11:17.899: EIGRP: Received QUERY on Serial1/1 nbr 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:11:17.903: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 154/208 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0
*Mar 15 22:11:17.907: DUAL: dest(10.1.1.0/24) not active
*Mar 15 22:11:17.907: DUAL: rcvquery: 10.1.1.0/24 via 172.16.1.6 metric
4294967295/4294967295, RD is 4294967295
*Mar 15 22:11:17.911: DUAL: send REPLY(R1/n1) about 10.1.1.0/24 to
172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:11:17.951: DUAL: Removing dest 10.1.1.0/24, nexthop
172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:11:17.955: DUAL: Removing dest 10.0.0.0/8, nexthop 172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:11:18.015: DUAL: Removing dest 10.1.1.0/24, nexthop
172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:11:18.015: DUAL: No routes. Flushing dest 10.1.1.0/24
*Mar 15 22:11:18.019: EIGRP: Received QUERY on Serial1/1 nbr 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:11:18.023: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 157/212 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0
*Mar 15 22:11:18.027: DUAL: rcvquery: 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.6 metric
4294967295/4294967295, RD is 2300416
*Mar 15 22:11:18.027: DUAL: Find FS for dest 10.0.0.0/8. FD is 2297856,
RD is 2300416
*Mar 15 22:11:18.031: DUAL: 172.16.1.6 metric 4294967295/4294967295
not found Dmin is 4294967295
*Mar 15 22:11:18.031: DUAL: Peer total/stub 2/0 template/full-stub 2/0
*Mar 15 22:11:18.035: DUAL: Dest 10.0.0.0/8 entering active state.
*Mar 15 22:11:18.035: DUAL: Set reply-status table. Count is 1.
*Mar 15 22:11:18.039: DUAL: Doing split horizon on Serial1/1
*Mar 15 22:11:18.039: DUAL: Going from state 1 to state 3
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*Mar 15 22:11:18.047: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/1 iidbQ un/rely
0/1 serno 161-161
*Mar 15 22:11:18.051: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/0 iidbQ un/rely
0/1 serno 161-161
*Mar 15 22:11:18.051: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/1 nbr
172.16.1.6 iidbQ un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0 serno 161-161
*Mar 15 22:11:18.055: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/0 nbr
172.16.1.1 iidbQ un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0 serno 161-161
*Mar 15 22:11:18.063: EIGRP: Sending QUERY on Serial1/0 nbr 172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:11:18.063: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 214/135 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/1 serno 161-161
*Mar 15 22:11:18.119: DUAL: dest(10.0.0.0/8) active
*Mar 15 22:11:18.119: DUAL: rcvreply: 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.1 metric
4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:11:18.123: DUAL: reply count is 1
*Mar 15 22:11:18.123: DUAL: Clearing handle 0, count now 0
*Mar 15 22:11:18.123: DUAL: Freeing reply status table
*Mar 15 22:11:18.123: DUAL: Find FS for dest 10.0.0.0/8. FD is
4294967295, RD is 4294967295 found
*Mar 15 22:11:18.127: DUAL: send REPLY(R1/n1) about 10.0.0.0/8 to
172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:11:18.131: DUAL: Removing dest 10.0.0.0/8, nexthop 172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:11:18.131: DUAL: Going from state 3 to state 1
*Mar 15 22:11:18.171: DUAL: Removing dest 10.0.0.0/8, nexthop 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:11:18.171: DUAL: No routes. Flushing dest 10.0.0.0/8

Obviously query packets for network 10.1.1.0/24 decrease to 2 this time.

10、To deeply solve the issue, we enable EIGRP stub feature on R2 to stop query
packets for network 10.1.1.0/24.
R2(config)#router eigrp 50
R2(config-router)#eigrp stub

11、Check the neighbor table on R1 to see the stub feature.
R1#show ip eigrp neighbors detail
IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 50
H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q
Seq
(sec) (ms) Cnt
Num
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0 172.16.1.2 Se1/1 12 00:01:01 216 1296 0
220
Version 12.3/1.2, Retrans: 0, Retries: 0
Stub Peer Advertising ( CONNECTED SUMMARY ) Routes
Suppressing queries
1 192.168.1.2 Fa0/0 14 01:09:11 75 450 0
159
Version 12.3/1.2, Retrans: 1, Retries: 0

12、Shutdown loopback0 of R1 again to see the debug output of R2.
*Mar 15 22:22:31.371: DUAL: rcvupdate: 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.1 metric
4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:22:31.371: DUAL: Find FS for dest 10.0.0.0/8. FD is 2297856,
RD is 2297856
*Mar 15 22:22:31.375: DUAL: 172.16.1.1 metric 4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:22:31.375: DUAL: 172.16.1.6 metric 2300416/156160 found
Dmin is 2300416
*Mar 15 22:22:31.379: DUAL: Removing dest 10.0.0.0/8, nexthop 172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:22:31.383: DUAL: RT installed 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:22:31.383: DUAL: Send update about 10.0.0.0/8. Reason:
metric chg
*Mar 15 22:22:31.387: DUAL: Send update about 10.0.0.0/8. Reason: new
if
*Mar 15 22:22:31.587: DUAL: rcvupdate: 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.6 metric
4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:22:31.587: DUAL: Find FS for dest 10.0.0.0/8. FD is 2297856,
RD is 2300416
*Mar 15 22:22:31.591: DUAL: 172.16.1.6 metric 4294967295/4294967295
not found Dmin is 4294967295
*Mar 15 22:22:31.591: DUAL: Peer total/stub 2/0 template/full-stub 2/0
*Mar 15 22:22:31.595: DUAL: Dest 10.0.0.0/8 entering active state.
*Mar 15 22:22:31.595: DUAL: Set reply-status table. Count is 2.
*Mar 15 22:22:31.595: DUAL: Not doing split horizon
*Mar 15 22:22:31.607: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/1 iidbQ un/rely
0/1 serno 169-169
*Mar 15 22:22:31.607: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/0 iidbQ un/rely
0/1 serno 169-169
*Mar 15 22:22:31.611: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/1 nbr
172.16.1.6 iidbQ un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0 serno 169-169
*Mar 15 22:22:31.615: EIGRP: Enqueueing QUERY on Serial1/0 nbr
172.16.1.1 iidbQ un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/0 serno 169-169
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*Mar 15 22:22:31.619: EIGRP: Sending QUERY on Serial1/1 nbr 172.16.1.6
*Mar 15 22:22:31.623: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 226/169 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/1 serno 169-169
*Mar 15 22:22:31.627: EIGRP: Sending QUERY on Serial1/0 nbr 172.16.1.1
*Mar 15 22:22:31.627: AS 50, Flags 0x0, Seq 227/148 idbQ 0/0 iidbQ
un/rely 0/0 peerQ un/rely 0/1 serno 169-169
*Mar 15 22:22:31.711: DUAL: dest(10.0.0.0/8) active
*Mar 15 22:22:31.715: DUAL: rcvreply: 10.0.0.0/8 via 172.16.1.1 metric
4294967295/4294967295
*Mar 15 22:22:31.715: DUAL: reply count is 2
…………
This time R2 will not receive any query packet for network 10.1.1.0/24
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Configuring Basic Multi Area OSPF and Area Summary Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF multi area configuration.
2、Distinguish routes from different areas.
3、Master OSPF route summary configuration.
4、Master OSPF basic configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic ip configuration.
2、Enable OSPF 1 on R1, assign interfaces to the relevant area according to the
topology.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.3 area 1
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R1(config-router)#exit
3、Enable OSPF 1 on R2, assign interfaces to relevant area according to the topology.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.3 area 1
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.4 0.0.0.3 area 0
R2(config)#exit
4、Refer to R1 and R2, finish the OSPF configuration on R3 and R4.

5、Check OSPF neighbor relationship on R2.
R2#show ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
192.168.1.9 1 FULL/ - 00:00:39 192.168.1.6 Serial1/1
10.1.2.1 1 FULL/ - 00:00:37 192.168.1.1 Serial1/0

6、Check the routing table of R1 to see OSPF route from different areas.
R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP

…………
Gateway of last resort is not set
172.16.0.0/32 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA 172.16.1.1 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:02:23, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.2.1 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:02:23, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O IA 192.168.1.8 [110/192] via 192.168.1.2, 00:02:58, Serial1/1
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:05:06, Serial1/1

7、Check OSPF link state database of R1.
R1#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (10.1.2.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
10.1.2.1 10.1.2.1 492 0x80000004 0x00C83F 4
192.168.1.5 192.168.1.5 486 0x80000003 0x002BB5 2

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Summary Net Link States (Area 1)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
172.16.1.1 192.168.1.5 315 0x80000001 0x00CCC0
172.16.2.1 192.168.1.5 315 0x80000001 0x00C1CA
192.168.1.4 192.168.1.5 479 0x80000001 0x00E33E
192.168.1.8 192.168.1.5 350 0x80000001 0x003E9F

8、Use ping to test the connectivity on R1.
R1#ping 172.16.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 216/240/288
ms
R1#
9、Check the routing table and OSPF link state database on R4.
R4#show ip route
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA 10.1.2.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.9, 00:15:14, Serial1/0
O IA 10.1.1.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.9, 00:15:14, Serial1/0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 192.168.1.8 is directly connected, Serial1/0
O IA 192.168.1.0 [110/192] via 192.168.1.9, 00:15:14, Serial1/0
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.9, 00:15:14, Serial1/0
R4#
R4#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (172.16.2.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 2)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.2.1 172.16.2.1 1223 0x80000004 0x00B871 4
192.168.1.9 192.168.1.9 1224 0x80000002 0x00EA2E 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 2)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
10.1.1.0 192.168.1.9 2 0x80000001 0x00B586
10.1.2.0 192.168.1.9 2 0x80000001 0x00AA90
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.9 1265 0x80000001 0x00766B
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192.168.1.4 192.168.1.9 1265 0x80000001 0x00CB52

As you see all the area 1 specific routes are in the routing table of R4, we could do
something to make it smaller.

10、Config OSPF area summary on R2.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#area 1 range 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit
11、Check the routing table and OSPF database on R4 again.
R4#show ip route
172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
10.0.0.0/16 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O IA 10.1.0.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.9, 00:00:32, Serial1/0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 192.168.1.8 is directly connected, Serial1/0
O IA 192.168.1.0 [110/192] via 192.168.1.9, 00:18:36, Serial1/0
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.9, 00:18:36, Serial1/0
R4#
R4#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (172.16.2.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 2)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.2.1 172.16.2.1 6 0x80000005 0x00B672 4
192.168.1.9 192.168.1.9 13 0x80000004 0x00E630 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 2)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
10.1.0.0 192.168.1.9 29 0x80000001 0x00C07C
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.9 1325 0x80000001 0x00766B
192.168.1.4 192.168.1.9 1325 0x80000001 0x00CB52

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Configuring OSPF in NBMA Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF in NBMA network configuration.
2、Master OSPF interface network type configuration.
3、Master OSPF interface priority configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic ip configuration.
2、Enable OSPF on all routers and use default network type.
R1(config)#interface loopback 0
R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#ip ospf network point-to-point
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface serial 1/2
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R1(config-if)#no frame-relay inverse-arp
R1(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.2 102 broadcast
R1(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.3 103 broadcast
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#interface loopback 0
R2(config-if)#ip address 172.16.3.1 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#ip ospf network point-to-point
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
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R2(config)#interface serial 1/2
R2(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#no frame-relay inverse-arp
R2(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.1 201 broadcast
R2(config-if)#no shutdown
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#

R3(config)#interface loopback 0
R3(config-if)#ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#ip ospf network point-to-point
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#interface serial 1/2
R3(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R3(config-if)#no frame-relay inverse-arp
R3(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.1 301 broadcast
R3(config-if)#no shutdown
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.4.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#

3、Check the OSPF neighbor table on R1 we can see no neighbor is up.
R1#show ip ospf neighbor

4、Check Serial 1/2 OSPF information on R1.
R1#show ip ospf interface serial 1/2
Serial1/2 is up, line protocol is up
Internet Address 192.168.1.1/24, Area 0
Process ID 1, Router ID 172.16.1.1, Network Type NON_BROADCAST, Cost: 64
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1
Designated Router (ID) 172.16.1.1, Interface address 192.168.1.1
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No backup designated router on this network
Timer intervals configured, Hello 30, Dead 120, Wait 120, Retransmit 5
oob-resync timeout 120
Hello due in 00:00:15
Index 1/1, flood queue length 0
Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last flood scan length is 0, maximum is 0
Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Neighbor Count is 0, Adjacent neighbor count is 0
Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)

5、According to the above information we could see the default OSPF network type for
NBMA is NON_BROADCAST, So OSPF will not send out its hello packet which based on
multi-cast.

6、One solution is to manually assign OSPF neighbor.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.2
R1(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.3

R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.1

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.1

7、Then we can see the neighbors are up.
*Jun 18 15:36:16.743: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 172.16.4.1 on Serial1/2 from
LOADING to FULL, Loading Done
*Jun 18 15:36:16.747: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 172.16.3.1 on Serial1/2 from
LOADING to FULL, Loading Don

8、Check the OSPF neighbor table on R1.
R1#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.3.1 1 FULL/DROTHER 00:01:31 192.168.1.2 Serial1/2
172.16.4.1 1 FULL/DR 00:01:57 192.168.1.3 Serial1/2

9、Beside manually allocate, we could also change the OSPF network type to build the
neighbor relationship. Let's first remove the manually allocate configuration, then
change the OSPF network type to broadcast.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
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R1(config-router)#no neighbor 192.168.1.2
R1(config-router)#no neighbor 192.168.1.3

R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#no neighbor 192.168.1.1

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#no neighbor 192.168.1.1

R1(config)#interface serial 1/2
R1(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast
R1(config-if)#exit

R2(config)#interface serial 1/2
R2(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast
R2(config-if)#exit

R3(config)#interface serial 1/2
R3(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast
R3(config-if)#exit

10、Check serial 1/2 OSPF information on R1.
R1#show ip ospf interface serial 1/2
Serial1/2 is up, line protocol is up
Internet Address 192.168.1.1/24, Area 0
Process ID 1, Router ID 172.16.1.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 64
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1
…………
Network type is BROADCAST now.

11、Check OSPF neighbor table on R1 R2 R3.
R1#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.3.1 1 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:32 192.168.1.2 Serial1/2
172.16.4.1 1 FULL/DR 00:00:33 192.168.1.3 Serial1/2
R1#

R2#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.1.1 1 FULL/BDR 00:00:30 192.168.1.1 Serial1/2
R2#
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R3#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.1.1 1 FULL/BDR 00:00:39 192.168.1.1 Serial1/2
R3#

12、Look at the above OSPF neighbor table we can see:
R1 considers 172.16.4.1(R3) as DR, 172.16.3.1(R2) as DROTHER, itself as BDR.
R2 considers 172.16.1.1(R1) as BDR, itself as DR.
R3 considers 172.16.1.1(R1) as BDR, itself as DR.

As the frame-relay network is not full mesh, it has only two PVC one is between R1 and
R2, the other is between R1 and R3, to make sure everyone will receive LSU (LAS
update), R1 should be the DR.

13、Change interface OSPF priority to 0 on R2 and R3, so neither R2 nor R3 will
participate in DR/BDR selection.
R2(config)#interface serial 1/2
R2(config-if)#ip ospf priority 0
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#

R3(config)#interface serial 1/2
R3(config-if)#ip ospf priority 0
R3(config-if)#exit

14、Check OSPF neighbor table on R1 R2 R3, we can see R1 is always the DR.
R1#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.3.1 0 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:38 192.168.1.2 Serial1/2
172.16.4.1 0 FULL/DROTHER 00:00:39 192.168.1.3 Serial1/2
R1#

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R2#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.1.1 1 FULL/DR 00:00:31 192.168.1.1 Serial1/2
R2#

R3#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.1.1 1 FULL/DR 00:00:38 192.168.1.1 Serial1/2

15、We could also change the OSPF network type to P2P, then there will be no DR/BDR
selection.

OSPF network type diagram.

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Configuring OSPF Authentication Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF interface and area authentication configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Master OSPF in NBMA network configuration.
2、Finish OSPF basic configuration.
3、 Check the routing table of R1 and R2
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA 172.16.1.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:02, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.2.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:02, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O IA 192.168.1.8 [110/192] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:12, Serial1/1
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:05:47, Serial1/1
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA 172.16.1.0 [110/129] via 192.168.1.6, 00:09:16, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.2.0 [110/129] via 192.168.1.6, 00:09:16, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O 10.1.2.0 [110/65] via 192.168.1.1, 00:14:00, Serial1/0
O 10.1.1.0 [110/65] via 192.168.1.1, 00:14:00, Serial1/0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O IA 192.168.1.8 [110/128] via 192.168.1.6, 00:09:26, Serial1/1
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
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C 192.168.1.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1

4、Enable OSPF interface simple password authentication on R1.
R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
R1(config-if)#ip ospf authentication
R1(config-if)#ip ospf authentication-key www.ccieuniversity.com
R1(config-if)#exit

5、Enable OSPF debug on R1.
R1#Debug ip ospf adj
00:30:33: OSPF: 192.168.1.5 address 192.168.1.2 on Serial1/1 is dead
00:30:33: OSPF: 192.168.1.5 address 192.168.1.2 on Serial1/1 is dead, state DOWN
00:30:33: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 from FULL to
DOWN, Neighbor Down: Dead timer expired
00:30:35: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 192.168.1.2, Serial1/1 : Mismatch Authentication type.
Input packet specified type 0, we use type 1
00:54:45: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 192.168.1.2, Serial1/1 : Mismatch Authentication Key -
Clear Text

6、Enable OSPF interface simple password authentication on R2.
R2(config)#interface s1/1
R2(config-if)#ip ospf authentication
R2(config-if)#ip ospf authentication-key www.ccieuniversity.com
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#exit

7、Check the debug output again on R1.
00:54:55: OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1, state 2WAY
00:54:55: OSPF: Send DBD to 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 seq 0x2154 opt 0x42 flag 0x7 len
32
00:54:55: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 seq 0x182 opt 0x42 flag 0x7 len
32 mtu 1500 state EXSTART
00:54:55: OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the SLAVE
00:54:55: OSPF: Send DBD to 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 seq 0x182 opt 0x42 flag 0x2 len
152
00:54:55: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 seq 0x183 opt 0x42 flag 0x3 len
152 mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
00:54:55: OSPF: Send DBD to 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 seq 0x183 opt 0x42 flag 0x0 len
32
00:54:55: OSPF: Database request to 192.168.1.5
00:54:55: OSPF: sent LS REQ packet to 192.168.1.2, length 60
00:54:55: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 seq 0x184 opt 0x42 flag 0x1 len
32 mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
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00:54:55: OSPF: Exchange Done with 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1
00:54:55: OSPF: Send DBD to 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 seq 0x184 opt 0x42 flag
R1#0x0 len 32
00:54:55: OSPF: Synchronized with 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1, state FULL
00:54:55: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.168.1.5 on Serial1/1 from LOADING to
FULL, Loading Done
00:54:56: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 1, router ID 10.1.2.1, seq 0x8000000C
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA 172.16.1.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:53, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.2.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:53, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O IA 192.168.1.8 [110/192] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:53, Serial1/1
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:53, Serial1/1

8、Remove OSPF interface simple password authentication and enable interface MD5
authentication on R1 and R2.
R1(config)#interface s1/1
R1(config-if)#no ip ospf authentication
R1(config-if)#no ip ospf authentication-key www.ccieuniversity.com
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#exit

R2(config)#interface s1/1
R2(config-if)#no ip ospf authentication
R2(config-if)#no ip ospf authentication-key www.ccieuniversity.com
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
R1(config-if)#ip ospf authentication message-digest
R1(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 www.ccieuniversity.com
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#interface serial 1/0
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R2(config-if)#ip ospf authentication message-digest
R2(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 www.ccieuniversity.com
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#

9、Check the routing table of R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA 172.16.1.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:00:05, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.2.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:00:05, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O IA 192.168.1.8 [110/192] via 192.168.1.2, 00:00:05, Serial1/1
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:00:05, Serial1/1

10、Remove OSPF interface MD5 authentication and enable OSPF area simple
password authentication on R1 and R2.
R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
R1(config-if)#no ip ospf authentication message-digest
R1(config-if)#no ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 www.ccieuniversity.com
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#interface serial 1/0
R2(config-if)#no ip ospf authentication message-digest
R2(config-if)#no ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 www.ccieuniversity.com
R2(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#area 1 authentication
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
R1(config-if)#ip ospf authentication-key www.ccieuniversity.com
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#exit

R2(config)#router ospf 1
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R2(config-router)#area 1 authentication
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#interface serial 1/0
R2(config-if)#ip ospf authentication-key www.ccieuniversity.com
R2(config-if)#exit

11、Check the routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA 172.16.1.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:19, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.2.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:19, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O IA 192.168.1.8 [110/192] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:19, Serial1/1
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:19, Serial1/1

12、Remove OSPF area simple password authentication and enable OSPF area MD5
authentication on R1 and R2.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#no area 1 authentication
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
R1(config-if)#no ip ospf authentication-key www.ccieuniversity.com
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#exit

R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#no area 1 authentication
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#interface serial 1/0
R2(config-if)#no ip ospf authentication-key www.ccieuniversity.com
R2(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#area 1 authentication message-digest
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
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R1(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 www.ccieuniversity.com
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#area 1 authentication message-digest
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#interface serial 1/0
R2(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 www.ccieuniversity.com
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#

13、Check the routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O IA 172.16.1.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:19, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.2.0 [110/193] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:19, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O IA 192.168.1.8 [110/192] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:19, Serial1/1
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:19, Serial1/1

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Configuring OSPF External Summary Lab
Topology

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Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF external route summary configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration, and routing configuration.
2、Make R3 as the ASBR.
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.1.4 0.0.0.3 area 0
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R3(config-router)#exit

3、check the routing table on R1 and R2.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:03:50, Serial1/1

4、Enable redistribution on R3.
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#redistribute rip metric 200 subnets
R3(config-router)#exit
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R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#

5、Check the routing table on R1 again.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O E1 172.16.1.0 [110/328] via 192.168.1.2, 00:04:22, Serial1/1
O E1 172.16.2.0 [110/328] via 192.168.1.2, 00:04:22, Serial1/1
O E1 172.16.3.0 [110/328] via 192.168.1.2, 00:04:22, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 1929999.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:16:54, Serial1/1

6、Check OSPF link state database on R1.
R1#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (10.1.2.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
10.1.2.1 10.1.2.1 1413 0x80000009 0x0003FD 4
192.168.1.5 192.168.1.5 1413 0x80000006 0x0025B8 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
192.168.1.4 192.168.1.5 1437 0x80000001 0x00E33E

Summary ASB Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
192.168.1.6 192.168.1.5 1061 0x80000001 0x00D348

Type-5 AS External Link States
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Tag
172.16.1.0 192.168.1.6 3603 0x80000003 0x00CF35 0
172.16.2.0 192.168.1.6 3603 0x80000003 0x00C43F 0
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172.16.3.0 192.168.1.6 3603 0x80000003 0x00B949 0

7、In order to decrease the routing table on R1, we could enable OSPF external
summary on R3.
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#summary-address 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

8、Check the routing table on R1 again.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

O E1 172.16.0.0/16 [110/328] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:29, Serial1/1
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 10.1.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 192.168.1.4 [110/128] via 192.168.1.2, 00:24:56, Serial1/1

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Configuring OSPF Default Route With Metric Lab
Topology

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Lab Purpose:
1、Learn how to use metrics to control OSPF default route selection.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration, and routing configuration.
2、Finish frame-relay configuration on R1 and R4.
R1(config)#interface serial 1/2
R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R1(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast
R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.252
R1(config)#exit

R4(config)#interface serial 1/2
R4(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R4(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast
R4(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.252
R4(config)#exit

3、Check routing table on R2, and try to ping the below RIP network.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1
R2#
R2#ping 10.1.1.1
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Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

4、To make sure the whole network is reachable, enable redistribution on R1 and R3.
R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)# default-information originate always
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit

R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)# default-information originate always
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

5、Check the routing table on R2 again and try to ping the below RIP network.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

O E2 10.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 192.168.1.1, 00:01:19, Serial1/0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O*E2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 192.168.1.6, 00:01:19, Serial1/1
[110/1] via 192.168.1.1, 00:01:19, Serial1/0
R2#
R2#ping 172.16.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/82/120 ms
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6、If we would like to make R3 as the major next-hop, R1 as the backup next-hop, then
we could change the OSPF default route metric.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#default-information originate always metric 100
R1(config-router)#exit

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#default-information originate always metric 50
R3(config-router)#exit

7、Check the routing table of R2, we can see R3 is the next-hop now.
R2#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is 192.168.1.6 to network 0.0.0.0

O E2 10.0.0.0/8 [110/20] via 192.168.1.1, 00:08:05, Serial1/0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 192.168.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O*E2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/50] via 192.168.1.6, 00:00:32, Serial1/1

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Configuring OSPF Stub Area Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF stub area configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Finish basic OSPF and RIP configuration.
3、Enable redistribution between OSPF and RIP on R3.
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets metric 200
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

4、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.4/30 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:07:32, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.8/30 [110/192] via 172.16.255.2, 00:06:57, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
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O IA 172.16.2.0/24 [110/193] via 172.16.255.2, 00:06:05, Serial1/1
O E2 10.0.0.0/8 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:02:01, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:02:01, Serial1/1
R1#
R1#ping 10.1.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 672/788/984 ms
R1#

5、Check OSPF link state database on R1.
R1#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (172.16.1.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.1.1 172.16.1.1 682 0x80000003 0x003BE1 3
172.16.255.5 172.16.255.5 677 0x80000003 0x0035B1 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
172.16.2.0 172.16.255.5 581 0x80000001 0x004CEE
172.16.255.4 172.16.255.5 668 0x80000001 0x009BE1
172.16.255.8 172.16.255.5 633 0x80000001 0x00F543

Summary ASB Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
192.168.1.1 172.16.255.5 342 0x80000001 0x008648

Type-5 AS External Link States
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Tag
10.0.0.0 192.168.1.1 348 0x80000001 0x005B1B 0
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 348 0x80000001 0x0021F4 0

6、According to the above output we can see external routes are in the routing table of
R1, if we would like to use a default route instead of the specific external routes, we
could set stub area.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#area 1 stub
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit
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R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#area 1 stub
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#

7、Check OSPF link state database again.
R1#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (172.16.1.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.1.1 172.16.1.1 155 0x80000005 0x0055C7 3
172.16.255.5 172.16.255.5 155 0x80000005 0x004F97 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
0.0.0.0 172.16.255.5 168 0x80000001 0x00017B
172.16.2.0 172.16.255.5 168 0x80000002 0x0068D3
172.16.255.4 172.16.255.5 168 0x80000002 0x00B7C6
172.16.255.8 172.16.255.5 168 0x80000002 0x001228

Type 4 and type 5 LSA is not in the database of R1.

8、Check the routing table of R1 we can see there is a default route instead the
previous external routes.
R1#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.2 to network 0.0.0.0
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.4/30 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:19, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.8/30 [110/192] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:19, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
O IA 172.16.2.0/24 [110/193] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:19, Serial1/1
O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/65] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:19, Serial1/1

9、Ping to test the connectivity.
R1#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
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!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 240/393/684 ms

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Configuring OSPF Totally Stub Area Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF totally stub area configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Finish basic OSPF and RIP configuration.
3、Enable redistribution between OSPF and RIP on R3.
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets metric 200
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit
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4、First Set area 1 as ospf stub area.
5、Check OSPF routing table and OSPF links state database.
R1#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (172.16.1.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.1.1 172.16.1.1 155 0x80000005 0x0055C7 3
172.16.255.5 172.16.255.5 155 0x80000005 0x004F97 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
0.0.0.0 172.16.255.5 168 0x80000001 0x00017B
172.16.2.0 172.16.255.5 168 0x80000002 0x0068D3
172.16.255.4 172.16.255.5 168 0x80000002 0x00B7C6
172.16.255.8 172.16.255.5 168 0x80000002 0x001228
Type 4 and 5 LSA have gone.

R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.2 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.4/30 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:19, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.8/30 [110/192] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:19, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
O IA 172.16.2.0/24 [110/193] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:19, Serial1/1
O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/65] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:19, Serial1/1

6、We can see there is a default route instead of external routes, we can still decrease
the size of routing table.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#area 1 stub no-summary
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#area 1 stub
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit
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7、Check the routing table of R1.
R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.2 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/65] via 172.16.255.2, 00:34:32, Serial1/1
We can see the default route instead of all the external and inter-area routes.

8、Check the OSPF link state database of R1, we can see there are only type 1 LSA and
type 3 for default route link LSA.
R1#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (172.16.1.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.1.1 172.16.1.1 387 0x80000006 0x0053C8 3
172.16.255.5 172.16.255.5 412 0x80000006 0x004D98 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
0.0.0.0 172.16.255.5 295 0x80000003 0x00FC7D

9、Ping to test.
R1#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.!!!!
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 216/570/1488 ms

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Configuring OSPF NSSA Area and NSSA Totally Stub Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master NSSA area and NSSA totally stub area configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Finish basic OSPF and RIP configuration.
3、Enable redistribution on R2 and R5.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#redistribute rip metric 200 subnets
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R5(config)#router ospf 1
R5(config-router)#redistribute rip metric 200 subnets
R5(config-router)#exit
R5(config)#
R5(config)#router rip
R5(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R5(config-router)#exit
R5(config)#exit

4、Check OSPF routing table and link state database on R3.
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R3#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (172.16.255.5) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.255.1 172.16.255.1 534 0x80000005 0x008564 2
172.16.255.5 172.16.255.5 679 0x80000004 0x007390 4
172.16.255.9 172.16.255.9 672 0x80000003 0x00A42F 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
172.16.255.8 172.16.255.9 662 0x80000001 0x005B1A

Summary ASB Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
192.168.1.1 172.16.255.9 98 0x80000001 0x006E5C

Type-5 AS External Link States
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Tag
131.131.1.0 172.16.255.1 513 0x80000001 0x007BAA 0
131.131.2.0 172.16.255.1 513 0x80000001 0x0070B4 0
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 94 0x80000002 0x001FF5 0
192.168.2.0 192.168.1.1 94 0x80000002 0x0014FF 0
R3#

R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.8 [110/128] via 172.16.255.6, 00:07:46, Serial1/1
131.131.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O E2 131.131.1.0 [110/200] via 172.16.255.1, 00:00:30, Serial1/0
O E2 131.131.2.0 [110/200] via 172.16.255.1, 00:00:30, Serial1/0
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.6, 00:00:30, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.2.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.6, 00:00:30, Serial1/1

4、As area1 connects to an external network, so we could not set area1 to a pure stub
area.

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5、Set area1 to NSSA stub area on R4.
R4(config)#router ospf 1
R4(config-router)#area 1 nssa default-information-originate
R4(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#

6、Set area1 to NSSA stub area on R3.
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#area 1 nssa
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

7、Set area1 to NSSA stub area on R2.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#area 1 nssa
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

8、Check OSPF routing table and link state database on R3 again.
R3#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.6 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.8 [110/128] via 172.16.255.6, 00:01:10, Serial1/1
131.131.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O N2 131.131.1.0 [110/200] via 172.16.255.1, 00:01:10, Serial1/0
O N2 131.131.2.0 [110/200] via 172.16.255.1, 00:01:10, Serial1/0

O*N2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.255.6, 00:01:10, Serial1/1

R3#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (172.16.255.5) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.255.1 172.16.255.1 314 0x80000007 0x0027BA 2
172.16.255.5 172.16.255.5 314 0x80000008 0x0011E8 4
172.16.255.9 172.16.255.9 450 0x80000005 0x004C7D 2

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Summary Net Link States (Area 1)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
172.16.255.8 172.16.255.9 850 0x80000002 0x00FE6F

Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 1)

Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Tag
0.0.0.0 172.16.255.9 850 0x80000001 0x00C464 0
131.131.1.0 172.16.255.1 318 0x80000001 0x00213D 0
131.131.2.0 172.16.255.1 318 0x80000001 0x001647 0

9、Check routing table on R1 and R2.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.2 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O 172.16.255.4 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:07:26, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.8 [110/192] via 172.16.255.2, 00:07:26, Serial1/1
131.131.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R 131.131.1.0 [120/1] via 131.131.2.2, 00:00:06, Serial1/0
C 131.131.2.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
O*N2 0.0.0.0/0 [110/1] via 172.16.255.2, 00:07:26, Serial1/1

R1#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is 131.131.2.1 to network 0.0.0.0
R 172.16.0.0/16 [120/10] via 131.131.2.1, 00:00:28, Serial1/1
131.131.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 131.131.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 131.131.2.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
R* 0.0.0.0/0 [120/10] via 131.131.2.1, 00:00:28, Serial1/1

10、Ping test on R1.
R1#ping 192.168.2.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 288/384/432 ms

11、To deeply decrease the routing table in area1, we need to set area1 to Totally NSSA
area.
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12、Only one command need to add on ABR router (R4) to change NSSA to totally NSSA.
R4(config)#router ospf 1
R4(config-router)#area 1 nssa no-summary
R4(config-router)#exit

13、Check OSPF routing table and link state database on R3 again.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.6 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1
131.131.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
O N2 131.131.1.0 [110/200] via 172.16.255.1, 00:20:24, Serial1/0
O N2 131.131.2.0 [110/200] via 172.16.255.1, 00:20:24, Serial1/0
O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/65] via 172.16.255.6, 00:02:10, Serial1/1

R3#show ip ospf database
OSPF Router with ID (172.16.255.5) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.255.1 172.16.255.1 1504 0x80000007 0x0027BA 2
172.16.255.5 172.16.255.5 1504 0x80000008 0x0011E8 4
172.16.255.9 172.16.255.9 1640 0x80000005 0x004C7D 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
0.0.0.0 172.16.255.9 396 0x80000001 0x0070FF

Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 1)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Tag
0.0.0.0 172.16.255.9 66 0x80000002 0x00C265 0
131.131.1.0 172.16.255.1 1508 0x80000001 0x00213D 0
131.131.2.0 172.16.255.1 1508 0x80000001 0x001647 0

14、Check routing table on R1 and R2 and do the ping test.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.2 to network 0.0.0.0

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172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O 172.16.255.4 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:23:09, Serial1/1
131.131.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R 131.131.1.0 [120/1] via 131.131.2.2, 00:00:17, Serial1/0
C 131.131.2.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
O*IA 0.0.0.0/0 [110/129] via 172.16.255.2, 00:04:46, Serial1/1
R2#

R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 131.131.2.1 to network 0.0.0.0

R 172.16.0.0/16 [120/10] via 131.131.2.1, 00:00:13, Serial1/1
131.131.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
C 131.131.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 131.131.2.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
R* 0.0.0.0/0 [120/10] via 131.131.2.1, 00:00:13, Serial1/1

R1#ping 192.168.2.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 336/454/528 ms

15、Finally we can see the type 7 LSA has been changed to type 5 LAS.
R5#show ip ospf database

OSPF Router with ID (192.168.1.1) (Process ID 1)

Router Link States (Area 0)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count
172.16.255.9 172.16.255.9 338 0x80000004 0x005DC2 2
192.168.1.1 192.168.1.1 767 0x80000004 0x002753 2

Summary Net Link States (Area 0)
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum
172.16.255.0 172.16.255.9 81 0x80000002 0x002C10
172.16.255.4 172.16.255.9 1337 0x80000002 0x0081F6

Type-5 AS External Link States
Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Tag
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131.131.1.0 172.16.255.9 1761 0x80000001 0x0085DA 0
131.131.2.0 172.16.255.9 1761 0x80000001 0x007AE4 0
192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 767 0x80000003 0x001DF6 0
192.168.2.0 192.168.1.1 767 0x80000003 0x001201 0
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Configuring OSPF Virtual-Link between normal area and backbone
area Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF Virtual-Link between normal area and backbone area configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Finish basic OSPF configuration on R1 R2 R3 R4.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.255.0 0.0.0.3 area 3
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 3
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit

R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.255.4 0.0.0.3 area 2
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.255.0 0.0.0.3 area 3
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R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.255.4 0.0.0.3 area 2
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.255.8 0.0.0.3 area 0
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

R4(config)#router ospf 1
R4(config-router)#network 172.16.255.8 0.0.0.3 area 0
R4(config-router)#network 172.16.16.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
R4(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#exit

3、Check the neighbor table on R1 and R2.
R1#show ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.255.5 1 FULL/ - 00:00:38 172.16.255.2 Serial1/1

R2#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.255.9 1 FULL/ - 00:00:37 172.16.255.6 Serial1/1
172.16.1.1 1 FULL/ - 00:00:30 172.16.255.1 Serial1/0

4、Check the routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

Above information tells us R1 could not learn route from area 0, area1, area2, as area3
is not directly connected with area0.

5、To solve this issue, we could establish a virtual-link between R2 and R3.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#area 2 virtual-link 172.16.255.9 (RID of R3)
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit
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R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#area 2 virtual-link 172.16.255.5 (RID of R2)
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

8、Check OSPF neighbor table on R2.
R2#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
172.16.255.9 0 FULL/ - - 172.16.255.6 OSPF_VL0
172.16.255.9 1 FULL/ - 00:00:30 172.16.255.6 Serial1/1
172.16.1.1 1 FULL/ - 00:00:33 172.16.255.1 Serial1/0

9、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 3 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.4/30 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:08:40, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.8/30 [110/192] via 172.16.255.2, 00:06:20, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.16.1/32 [110/193] via 172.16.255.2, 00:06:20, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

10、Ping test on R1.
R1#ping 172.16.16.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.16.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 152/251/312 ms

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Configuring OSPF Virtual-Link between 2 backbone areas Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF Virtual-Link between 2 backbone areas configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Finish basic OSPF configuration on R1 R2 R3 R4.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.255.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit

R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.255.4 0.0.0.3 area 2
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.255.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.255.4 0.0.0.3 area 2
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.255.8 0.0.0.3 area 0
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

R4(config)#router ospf 1
R4(config-router)#network 172.16.255.8 0.0.0.3 area 0
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R4(config-router)#network 172.16.16.0 0.0.0.255 area 1
R4(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#exit

3、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.4/30 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:02:11, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

4、Check routing table on R2.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.4/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O 172.16.1.1/32 [110/65] via 172.16.255.1, 00:05:10, Serial1/0

5、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.4/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.16.1/32 [110/65] via 172.16.255.10, 00:05:16, Serial1/1

6、Check routing table on R4.
R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
O IA 172.16.255.4/30 [110/128] via 172.16.255.9, 00:19:32, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 172.16.16.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
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7、From the above output we can see none of the 4 routers can learn routes from area
0 of the other side, as area 0 is split by area 2.

8、We can set a virtual-link between R2 and R3 to combine two area 0 together.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#area 2 virtual-link 172.16.255.9
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit
R2#

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#area 2 virtual-link 172.16.255.5
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit
R3#

9、Check routing table on R1 we can see the whole network routes are in the routing
table.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 3 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.255.4/30 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:01:08, Serial1/1
O 172.16.255.8/30 [110/192] via 172.16.255.2, 00:01:08, Serial1/1
O IA 172.16.16.1/32 [110/193] via 172.16.255.2, 00:01:08, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

10、Ping test on R1.
R1#ping 172.16.16.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.16.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 188/239/288 ms
R1#
R1#
R1#ping 172.16.255.9

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.255.9, timeout is 2 seconds:
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!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 144/168/192 ms
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Understand OSPF Routing Between Inter Area Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master OSPF inter-area path selection.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration and OSPF configuration.
2、Make sure R1 and R4 could establish OSPF relationship through Frame-relay
network.
R1(config)#interface serial 1/2
R1(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast

R4(config)#interface serial 1/2
R4(config-if)#ip ospf network broadcast

3、Set OSPF link cost according to the topology.
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R3(config)#interface serial 1/0
R3(config-if)#ip ospf cost 2
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#interface serial 1/1
R3(config-if)#ip ospf cost 5
R3(config-if)#exit

4、From R3 to 192.168.1.0/24 there are 4 path.
No. Path COST
1# R3 ------> R2 ------> R1 ------> Destination 13
2# R3 ------> R2 ------> R4 ------> R1 ------> Destination 7
3# R3 ------> R4 ------> R1 ------> Destination 8
4# R3 ------> R4 ------> R2 ------> R1 ------> Destination 18
The lowest cost is 7 of path 2# R3 ------> R2 ------> R4 ------> R1 ------> Destination

R3#traceroute 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 192.168.1.1

1 172.16.255.5 52 msec 96 msec 96 msec
2 172.16.255.1 144 msec * 168 msec

5、From the above information we can see packet from R3 to network 192.168.1.0/24
chooses the path R3 ------> R2 ------> R1 ------> Destination with the cost of 13, which is
not the lowest cost path. Why ?

R3 will choose R2 as the next hop because link cost between R2 and R3 is lower, when
R2 is going to choose its next hop, R2 find out the packet is from a normal area 1 to
another normal area 2 it must across backbone area 0 first, So R2 will prefer a directly
connected backbone area router R1 to a same area router R4 as its next hop.

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Configuring Basic IS-IS Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master basic IS-IS configuration.
2、Understanding L1 type route.
3、Master how to change the router type.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable IS-IS on R1 R2 R3.
R1(config)#router isis cisco
R1(config-router)#net 49.0001.ca00.0bbc.0000.00
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface loopback 0
R1(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#interface serial 1/1
R1(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#router isis cisco
R2(config-router)#net 49.0001.ca01.0bbc.0000.00
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#interface serial 1/0
R2(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#interface serial 1/1
R2(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
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R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R3(config)#router isis cisco
R3(config-router)#net 49.0001.ca02.0bbc.0000.00
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#interface serial 1/0
R3(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#interface loopback 0
R3(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#exit

3、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
i L1 172.16.255.4/30 [115/20] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
i L1 172.16.16.0/24 [115/30] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
R1#

4、Ping test on R1.
R1#ping 172.16.16.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.16.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 116/152/192 ms

5、Check IS-IS neighbor table on R2.
R2#show isis neighbors
System Id Type Interface IP Address State Holdtime Circuit Id
R3 L1L2 Se1/1 172.16.255.6 UP 27 00
R1 L1L2 Se1/0 172.16.255.1 UP 28 00
R2#
R2#show clns neighbors
System Id Interface SNPA State Holdtime Type Protocol
R3 Se1/1 *HDLC* Up 25 L1L2 IS-IS
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R1 Se1/0 *HDLC* Up 29 L1L2 IS-IS
R2#
6、Check host name and system ID on R1.
R1#show isis hostname
Level System ID Dynamic Hostname (cisco)
1 CA01.0BBC.0000 R2
* CA00.0BBC.0000 R1
1 CA02.0BBC.0000 R3
R1#
7、Check IS-IS link state database.
R1#show isis database

IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
01CA.000B.BC00.00-00 0x00000001 0x6107 0 (1083) 0/0/0
R1.00-00 * 0x00000005 0xDC1C 897 0/0/0
R2.00-00 0x00000005 0x21A8 787 0/0/0
R3.00-00 0x00000004 0xE2F0 717 0/0/0
IS-IS Level-2 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
01CA.000B.BC00.00-00 0x00000001 0x6107 0 (1083) 0/0/0
R1.00-00 * 0x00000007 0xD846 947 0/0/0
R2.00-00 0x00000007 0xF207 802 0/0/0
R3.00-00 0x00000005 0x7796 756 0/0/0
R1#

8、Check IS-IS link state database detail.
R1#show isis database detail

IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
R1.00-00 * 0x00000008 0xD61F 924 0/0/0
Area Address: 49.0001
NLPID: 0xCC
Hostname: R1
IP Address: 172.16.1.1
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.255.0 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0
Metric: 10 IS R2.00
R2.00-00 0x00000008 0x1BAB 897 0/0/0
Area Address: 49.0001
NLPID: 0xCC
Hostname: R2
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IP Address: 172.16.255.5
………………
R3.00-00 0x00000008 0x7199 754 0/0/0
Area Address: 49.0001
NLPID: 0xCC
Hostname: R3
IP Address: 172.16.16.1
Metric: 10 IS R2.00
Metric: 20 IP 172.16.255.0 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.255.4 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.16.0 255.255.255.0
Metric: 30 IP 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0

9、Change the routers to IS-IS L1 type.
R1(config)#router isis cisco
R1(config-router)#is-type level-1
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit

R2(config)#router isis cisco
R2(config-router)#is-type level-1
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R3(config)#router isis cisco
R3(config-router)#is-type level-1
R3(config-router)#exit

10、Change IS-IS link state database to see the change.
R1#show isis database
IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
R1.00-00 * 0x0000000A 0xD025 829 0/0/0
R2.00-00 0x0000000B 0x13B2 835 0/0/0
R3.00-00 0x00000009 0xD6F9 834 0/0/0

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Configuring IS-IS Multi Area and Summary Route Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master basic IS-IS configuration.
2、Understanding L1/L2 type route.
3、Master IS-IS area summary configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable IS-IS on all routers.
R1(config)#interface Loopback0
R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R1(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-1
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface Loopback1
R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R1(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-1
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface Serial1/1
R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.255.1 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R1(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-2-only
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#router isis cisco
R1(config-if)#net 49.0001.ca00.0bbc.0000.00
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#

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R2(config)#interface Serial1/0
R2(config-if)#ip address 172.16.255.2 255.255.255.252
R2(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R2(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-2-only
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#interface Serial1/1
R2(config-if)#ip address 172.16.255.5 255.255.255.252
R2(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router isis cisco
R2(config-if)#net 49.0002.ca01.0bbc.0000.00
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#

R3(config)#interface Serial1/0
R3(config-if)#ip address 172.16.255.6 255.255.255.252
R3(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config-if)#interface Serial1/1
R3(config-if)#ip address 172.16.255.9 255.255.255.252
R3(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R3(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-2-only
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config-if)#router isis cisco
R3(config-if)#net 49.0002.ca02.0bbc.0000.00
R3(config-if)#exit
R3(config)#

R4(config)#interface Serial1/0
R4(config-if)#ip address 172.16.255.10 255.255.255.252
R4(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R4(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-2-only
R4(config-if)#exit
R4(config)#
R4(config-if)#interface Serial1/1
R4(config-if)#ip address 172.16.255.13 255.255.255.252
R4(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R4(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-1
R4(config-if)#exit
R4(config)#
R4(config-if)#router isis cisco
R4(config-if)#net 49.0003.ca03.0bbc.0000.00
R4(config)#exit
R4(config)#

R5(config)#interface Loopback0
R5(config-if)#ip address 172.16.128.1 255.255.255.0
R5(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R5(config-if)#isis circuit-type level-1
R5(config-if)#exit
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R5(config)#
R5(config-if)#interface Loopback1
R5(config-if)#ip address 172.16.129.1 255.255.255.0
R5(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R5(config-if)#exit
R5(config)#
R5(config-if)#interface Serial1/0
R5(config-if)#ip address 172.16.255.14 255.255.255.252
R5(config-if)#ip router isis cisco
R5(config-if)#exit
R5(config)#
R5(config-if)#router isis cisco
R5(config-if)#net 49.0003.ca04.0bbc.0000.00
R5(config-if)#is-type level-1
R5(config-if)#exit
R5(config)#

4、Check IS-IS neighbor table on R2 R3 R4.
R2#show isis neighbors
System Id Type Interface IP Address State Holdtime Circuit Id
R3 L1L2 Se1/1 172.16.255.6 UP 29 01
R1 L2 Se1/0 172.16.255.1 UP 23 00
R2#

R3#show isis neighbors
System Id Type Interface IP Address State Holdtime Circuit Id
R2 L1L2 Se1/0 172.16.255.5 UP 25 01
R4 L2 Se1/1 172.16.255.10 UP 27 00
R3#

R4#show isis neighbors
System Id Type Interface IP Address State Holdtime Circuit Id
R3 L2 Se1/0 172.16.255.9 UP 23 00
R5 L1 Se1/1 172.16.255.14 UP 22 00
R4#

5、Check routing table and IS-IS link state database on R1 and R5.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks
i L2 172.16.128.0/24 [115/50] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
i L2 172.16.129.0/24 [115/50] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
i L2 172.16.255.4/30 [115/20] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
i L2 172.16.255.8/30 [115/30] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
i L2 172.16.255.12/30 [115/40] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1


R1#show isis database
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IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
R1.00-00 * 0x0000000B 0xD33B 679 1/0/0
IS-IS Level-2 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
R1.00-00 * 0x0000000E 0xCC4D 736 0/0/0
R2.00-00 0x00000013 0xA297 427 0/0/0
R3.00-00 0x0000000F 0x65C8 1097 0/0/0
R4.00-00 0x00000011 0x4B41 818 0/0/0
R1#

R5#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.13 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.128.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.129.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
C 172.16.255.12/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
i*L1 0.0.0.0/0 [115/10] via 172.16.255.13, Serial1/0
R5#show isis database

IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
R4.00-00 0x0000000C 0x7BA1 770 1/0/0
R5.00-00 * 0x0000000D 0xF411 649 0/0/0
R5#

6、Ping test on R1.
R1#ping 172.16.129.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.129.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 220/240/264 ms

7、Check routing table on R4.
R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 8 subnets, 2 masks
i L1 172.16.128.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.14, Serial1/1
i L1 172.16.129.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.14, Serial1/1
i L2 172.16.255.0/30 [115/30] via 172.16.255.9, Serial1/0
i L2 172.16.255.4/30 [115/20] via 172.16.255.9, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.12/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
i L2 172.16.1.0/24 [115/40] via 172.16.255.9, Serial1/0
i L2 172.16.2.0/24 [115/40] via 172.16.255.9, Serial1/0

8、Config IS-IS summary on R1.
R1(config)#router isis cisco
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R1(config-router)#summary-address 172.16.0.0 255.255.128.0
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit

9、Check routing table on R4 again.
R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 7 subnets, 3 masks
i L1 172.16.128.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.14, Serial1/1
i L1 172.16.129.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.14, Serial1/1
i L2 172.16.255.0/30 [115/30] via 172.16.255.9, Serial1/0
i L2 172.16.255.4/30 [115/20] via 172.16.255.9, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.8/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.12/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
i L2 172.16.0.0/17 [115/40] via 172.16.255.9, Serial1/0

10、Check the summary route through ping test.
R4#ping 172.16.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 192/225/240 ms

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Migrate IS-IS Area Lab
Topology

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Lab Purpose:
1、Understanding IS-IS area migrate principal.
2、Master IS-IS area migrate configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable IS-IS on all routers.
3、Check the routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.255.2 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
i L1 172.16.255.4/30 [115/20] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
[115/20] via 172.16.255.9, FastEthernet0/0
C 172.16.255.8/30 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
i L1 172.16.1.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
i L1 172.16.2.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1

4、Check link state database on R1.
R1#show isis database detail

IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
R1.00-00 * 0x00000008 0x8D3B 1116 0/0/0
Area Address: 49.0001
NLPID: 0xCC
Hostname: R1
IP Address: 172.16.255.1
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.255.8 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.255.0 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IS R3.01
Metric: 10 IS R2.00
…………

5、Migrate IS-IS area to 10.abc7
R1(config)#router isis cisco
R1(config-router)#net 10.abc7.ca00.0bbc.0000.00
R1(config)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#router isis cisco
R2(config-router)#net 10.abc7.ca01.0bbc.0000.00
R2(config)#exit
R2(config)#

R3(config)#router isis cisco
R3(config-router)#net 10.abc7.ca02.0bbc.0000.00
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R3(config)#exit
R3(config)#

6、Check link state database on R1 again.
R1#show isis database detail

IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
R1.00-00 * 0x00000009 0xAF8D 991 0/0/0
Area Address: 49.0001
Area Address: 10.abc7
NLPID: 0xCC
Hostname: R1
IP Address: 172.16.255.1
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.255.8 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.255.0 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IS R3.01
Metric: 10 IS R2.00
…………

7、Check CLNS neighbor table on R1.
R1#show clns is-neighbors detail

System Id Interface State Type Priority Circuit Id Format
R3 Fa0/0 Up L1 64 R3.01 Phase V
Area Address(es): 49.0001 10.abc7
IP Address(es): 172.16.255.9*
Uptime: 00:08:06
NSF capable
R2 Se1/1 Up L1 0 01 Phase V
Area Address(es): 49.0001 10.abc7
IP Address(es): 172.16.255.2*
Uptime: 00:08:18
NSF capable

8、Delete the old area network.
R1(config)#router isis cisco
R1(config-router)#no net 49.0001.ca00.0bbc.0000.00
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#router isis cisco
R2(config-router)#no net 49.0001.ca01.0bbc.0000.00
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#

R3(config)#router isis cisco
R3(config-router)#no net 49.0001.ca02.0bbc.0000.00
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#

9、Check routing table on R1.
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R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
i L1 172.16.255.4/30 [115/20] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
[115/20] via 172.16.255.9, FastEthernet0/0
C 172.16.255.8/30 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
i L1 172.16.1.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
i L1 172.16.2.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
………

10、Check link state database on R1.
R1#show isis database detail

IS-IS Level-1 Link State Database:
LSPID LSP Seq Num LSP Checksum LSP Holdtime ATT/P/OL
R1.00-00 * 0x0000000F 0xEC9B 1065 0/0/0
Area Address: 10.abc7
NLPID: 0xCC
Hostname: R1
IP Address: 172.16.255.1
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.255.8 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IP 172.16.255.0 255.255.255.252
Metric: 10 IS R2.00
Metric: 10 IS R3.01
………………
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Redistributing into RIP and OSPF Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master RIP and OSPF redistribute configuration.
2、Understanding OSPF type E1 E2 routes
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Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable OSPF and RIP on the according routers.
3、Check routing tables on R1 R2 R3.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1

R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
O 172.16.1.0/24 [110/65] via 172.16.255.1, 00:02:47, Serial1/0
O 172.16.2.0/24 [110/65] via 172.16.255.1, 00:02:47, Serial1/0
192.168.255.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 192.168.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.255.1, 00:00:10, Serial1/1
R 192.168.2.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.255.1, 00:00:10, Serial1/1

R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1

4、According to the above output only R2 has learned the whole network routes.

5、Make sure R1 and R3 can also learn the whole network routes, we need to
redistribute on R2.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#redistribute rip metric 200 subnets
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R2(config-router)#exit

6、Check routing table on R1 and R3.
R1#show ip route
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
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C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
192.168.255.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O E2 192.168.255.0 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:02:47, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:02:53, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.2.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:02:53, Serial1/1

R3#show ip route
R 172.16.0.0/16 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:24, Serial1/0
C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1

7、Ping test on R1 and R3.
R1#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 112/137/144 ms

R3#ping 172.16.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 120/148/192 ms
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Redistributing Between EIGRP and IS-IS Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master EIGRP and IS-IS redistribute configuration.
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Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable IS-IS and EIGRP on the relevant routers.
3、Check routing table on R1 R2 R3.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
R1#

R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/0
i L1 172.16.1.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.1, Serial1/0
i L1 172.16.2.0/24 [115/20] via 172.16.255.1, Serial1/0
192.168.255.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 192.168.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
D 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2297856] via 192.168.255.1, 00:00:04, Serial1/1
D 192.168.2.0/24 [90/2297856] via 192.168.255.1, 00:00:04, Serial1/1
R2#

R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
R3#
*Mar 29 10:39:29.171: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console

4、According to the above output only R2 has learned the whole network routes.

5、Make sure R1 and R3 can also learn the whole network routes, we need to
redistribute on R2.
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R2(config)#router isis cisco
R2(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 100 metric 20 level-2
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router eigrp 100
R2(config)#redistribute isis cisco level-1-2 metric 100000 10 255 1 1500
R2(config)#

6、Check routing table on R1 R2 R3.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1
192.168.255.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
i L2 192.168.255.0 [115/30] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
i L2 192.168.1.0/24 [115/30] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1
i L2 192.168.2.0/24 [115/30] via 172.16.255.2, Serial1/1

R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D EX 172.16.1.0 [170/2172416] via 192.168.255.2, 00:08:48, Serial1/0
D EX 172.16.2.0 [170/2172416] via 192.168.255.2, 00:08:48, Serial1/0
C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1

7、Ping test on R1 and R3.
R3#ping 172.16.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 88/94/96 ms

R1#ping 192.168.1.1

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Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

8、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
D EX 172.16.1.0 [170/2172416] via 192.168.255.2, 00:23:06, Serial1/0
D EX 172.16.2.0 [170/2172416] via 192.168.255.2, 00:23:06, Serial1/0
C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopbac

172.16.255.0/30 is missing in the routing table, as IS-IS would not announce directly
connected network when doing redistribution.

9、Redistribute connected in EIGRP on R2.
R2(config)#router eigrp 100
R2(config-router)#redistribute connected metric 100000 10 255 1 1500
R2(config-router)#exit

10、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
D EX 172.16.255.0/30 [170/2172416] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:06, Serial1/0
D EX 172.16.1.0/24 [170/2172416] via 192.168.255.2, 00:26:56, Serial1/0
D EX 172.16.2.0/24 [170/2172416] via 192.168.255.2, 00:26:56, Serial1/0
C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback1

11、Ping test on R1.
R1#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
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!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 120/148/168 ms
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Redistribution Using Administrative Distance Lab
Topology



Lab Purpose:
1、Modify Administrative Distance to solve suboptimal routing during multi-point
redistribution.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable RIP and OSPF on the relevant routers.
3、Check routing table on R2 and R5.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
O 172.16.255.4 [110/128] via 172.16.255.2, 00:01:44, Serial1/1
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O 172.16.255.8 [110/192] via 172.16.255.2, 00:01:44, Serial1/1
R 10.0.0.0/8 [120/1] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:21, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
O E2 192.168.2.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:01:44, Serial1/1

R5#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O 172.16.255.0 [110/192] via 172.16.255.9, 00:02:08, Serial1/0
O 172.16.255.4 [110/128] via 172.16.255.9, 00:02:08, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.8 is directly connected, Serial1/0
O E2 10.0.0.0/8 [110/200] via 172.16.255.9, 00:02:08, Serial1/0
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.9, 00:02:08, Serial1/0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

4、Based on the above information we can see traffic from R5 to network 10.0.0.0/8 is
following the path R4-->R3-->R2-->R1-->10.0.0.0/8. It's not the best path, because R5
things OSPF have a better Administrative Distance 110 than RIP network which is 120.

5、To solve this issue we need to change RIP Administrative Distance for the specific
network 10.0.0.0/8 on R5.
R5(config)#access-list 1 permit 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255
R5(config)#router rip
R5(config-router)#distance 80 192.168.2.1 0.0.0.0 1
R5(config-router)#exit
R5(config)#exit

6、Check routing table on R5 again we can see the route is optimal now.
R5#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
O 172.16.255.0 [110/192] via 172.16.255.9, 00:00:02, Serial1/0
O 172.16.255.4 [110/128] via 172.16.255.9, 00:00:02, Serial1/0
C 172.16.255.8 is directly connected, Serial1/0
R 10.0.0.0/8 [80/1] via 192.168.2.1, 00:00:02, FastEthernet0/0
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.9, 00:00:02, Serial1/0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet
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Filtering Routing Updates with a Distribute List Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master route distribute-list filtering configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable OSPF and RIPV2 on relevant routers, and disable RIPV2 auto summary.
3、Redistribute between RIP and OSPF on R2.
4、Check routing table on R1 and R3.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 5 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
O E2 192.168.255.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.0.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.2.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.3.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1

R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 5 subnets
R 172.16.255.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
R 172.16.0.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
R 172.16.1.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
R 172.16.2.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
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R 172.16.3.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

5、According to the topology config OSPF route filtering configuration on R2.
R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit any
R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#distribute-list 1 out ospf 1
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#

6、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

R 172.16.255.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:02, Serial1/0
R 172.16.2.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:02, Serial1/0
R 172.16.3.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:02, Serial1/0
C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

7、According to the topology config RIP route filtering configuration on R2.
R2(config)#access-list 2 deny 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 2 deny 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 2 permit any
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#distribute-list 2 out rip
R2(config-router)#exit

8、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is not set
172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 5 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
O E2 192.168.255.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:19:20, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.0.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:19:20, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:19:20, Serial1/1
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Filtering Routing Updates with a Route Map Lab
Topology



Lab Purpose:
1、Master basic Route-map filtering configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable OSPF and RIPV2 on relevant routers, and disable RIPV2 auto summary.
3、Redistribute between RIP and OSPF on R2.
4、Check routing table on R1 and R3.
R1#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is not set
172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 5 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
O E2 192.168.255.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.0.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.2.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.3.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:00:15, Serial1/1

R3#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is not set
172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 5 subnets
R 172.16.255.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
R 172.16.0.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
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R 172.16.1.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
R 172.16.2.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
R 172.16.3.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/0
C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
5、According to the topology config route-map based OSPF route filtering configuration
on R2.
R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit any
R2(config)#
R2(config)#route-map ospf_to_rip permit 10
R2(config-route-map)#match ip address 1
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10 route-map ospf_to_rip
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

6、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
R 172.16.255.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:05, Serial1/0
R 172.16.2.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:05, Serial1/0
R 172.16.3.0 [120/10] via 192.168.255.2, 00:00:05, Serial1/0
C 192.168.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

7、According to the topology config route-map based RIP route filtering configuration
on R2.
R2(config)#access-list 2 permit 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 2 permit 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#
R2(config)#route-map rip_to_ospf deny 10
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R2(config-route-map)#match ip address 2
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#route-map rip_to_ospf permit 20
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#redistribute rip metric 200 subnets route-map rip_to_ospf
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

8、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is not set
172.16.0.0/30 is subnetted, 5 subnets
C 172.16.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 172.16.0.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
O E2 192.168.255.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:19:20, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.0.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:19:20, Serial1/1
O E2 192.168.1.0/24 [110/200] via 172.16.255.2, 00:19:20, Serial1/1
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Using Route Tag Filtering Routing Updates Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Master route tag filtering configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Config redistribution on R2 and R3.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 10 subnets
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router eigrp 10
R2(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 100000 100 255 1 1500
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#

3、Check routing table on R4.
R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
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R 10.1.1.0 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
R 10.1.1.4 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
R 192.168.0.0/24 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
R 192.168.2.0/24 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
R 192.168.3.0/24 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0

4、According to the topology, network 192.168.0.0/24 and 192.168.2.0/24 are not allowed to be
learn by R4, we could use route tag plus route-map to filter the routes.

5、Config route tag on R2.
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.0.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#
R2(config)#route-map set_tag permit 10
R2(config-route-map)#match ip address 1
R2(config-route-map)#set tag 1
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#route-map set_tag permit 20
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#redistribute eigrp 10 subnets route-map set_tag
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

6、Config route-map on R3 to filter the routes.
R3(config)#route-map match_tag deny 10
R3(config-route-map)#match tag 1
R3(config-route-map)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#route-map match_tag permit 20
R3(config-route-map)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#router rip
R3(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 metric 10 route-map match_tag
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

7、Check the routing table on R4.
R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R 10.1.1.0 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
R 10.1.1.4 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
R 192.168.1.0/24 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
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R 192.168.3.0/24 [120/10] via 172.16.1.1, 00:00:00, Serial1/0
We can see 192.168.0.0/24 and 192.168.2.0/24 have gone.
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Policy-based route Lab
Topology



Lab Purpose:
1、Master policy-based route configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Config R1 and R2 to work as PC.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.10 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.1

R2(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.20 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.1
3、Frame-relay configuration.
R3(config)#interface serial 1/2
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R3(config-if)#ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R3(config-if)#exit

R4(config)#interface s1/2
R4(config-if)#ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
R4(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R4(config-if)#exit

R6(config)#interface s1/2
R6(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R6(config-if)#ip address 10.1.1.3 255.255.255.0

4、Enable RIPV2 on R3 R4 R5 R6 and disable auto summary.
5、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R 172.16.1.0 [120/1] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/2
R 172.16.2.0 [120/1] via 10.1.1.3, 00:00:14, Serial1/2
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/2
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
R 130.130.1.0 [120/2] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:01, Serial1/2
[120/2] via 10.1.1.3, 00:00:14, Serial1/2
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

6、Disable CEF on R3.
R3(config)#no ip cef

7、Track network 130.130.1.0/24 on R1.
R1#traceroute 130.130.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 130.130.1.1

1 192.168.1.1 52 msec 96 msec 48 msec
2 10.1.1.2 216 msec
10.1.1.3 240 msec
10.1.1.2 120 msec
3 172.16.2.1 264 msec
172.16.1.2 216 msec *

8、Track network 130.130.1.0/24 on R2.
R2#traceroute 130.130.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 130.130.1.1

1 *
192.168.1.1 96 msec 72 msec
2 10.1.1.2 192 msec
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10.1.1.3 120 msec
10.1.1.2 144 msec
3 172.16.2.1 264 msec
172.16.1.2 216 msec *

9、According to the topology config policy-based route on R3.
R3(config)#access-list 10 permit host 192.168.1.10
R3(config)#access-list 20 permit host 192.168.1.20
R3(config)#
R3(config)#route-map pbd permit 10
R3(config-route-map)#
R3(config-route-map)#match ip address 10
R3(config-route-map)#set ip next-hop 10.1.1.2
R3(config-route-map)#
R3(config-route-map)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#route-map pbd permit 20
R3(config-route-map)#
R3(config-route-map)#match ip address 20
R3(config-route-map)#set ip next-hop 10.1.1.3
R3(config-route-map)#
R3(config-route-map)#exit
R3(config)#route-map pbd permit 30
R3(config-route-map)#exit
R3(config)#

10、Assign policy to interface.
R3(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R3(config-if)#ip policy route-map pbd
R3(config-if)#

11、Track network 130.130.1.0/24 on R1 and R2 again.
R1#traceroute 130.130.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 130.130.1.1
1 192.168.1.1 132 msec 72 msec 72 msec
2 10.1.1.2 168 msec 144 msec 144 msec
3 172.16.1.2 168 msec * 312 msec

R2#traceroute 130.130.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 130.130.1.1
1 192.168.1.1 48 msec 68 msec 72 msec
2 10.1.1.3 144 msec 192 msec 144 msec
3 172.16.2.1 216 msec * 216 msec
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Configuring Basic BGP Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master BGP basic configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on R1 R2 R3.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.255.2 remote-as 64512
R1(config-router)#
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.3.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.255.1 remote-as 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 remote-as 64513
R2(config-router)#
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252
R2(config-router)#network 10.1.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R3(config)#router bgp 64513
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.1 remote-as 64512
R3(config-router)#
R3(config-router)#network 10.1.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
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R3(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.3.0
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#

3、Check BGP neighbor relationship on R1.
R1#show ip bgp neighbors
BGP neighbor is 172.16.255.2, remote AS 64512, internal link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 172.16.255.2
BGP state = Established, up for 00:29:25
Last read 00:00:24, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
Neighbor capabilities:
Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new)
Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received
Message statistics:
InQ depth is 0
OutQ depth is 0
Sent Rcvd
Opens: 1 1
Notifications: 0 0
Updates: 1 4
Keepalives: 32 32
Route Refresh: 0 0
Total: 34 37
Default minimum time between advertisement runs is 5 seconds
…………
4、Check BGP summary information on R2.
R2#show ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier 172.16.255.2, local AS number 64512
BGP table version is 19, main routing table version 19
10 network entries using 1010 bytes of memory
11 path entries using 528 bytes of memory
3 BGP path attribute entries using 180 bytes of memory
1 BGP AS-PATH entries using 24 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 1742 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 14/4 prefixes, 16/5 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
10.1.255.2 4 64513 47 49 19 0 0 00:10:15 5
172.16.255.1 4 64512 42 45 19 0 0 00:37:53 4

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5、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 172.16.0.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.2.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 172.16.3.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 10.1.255.0 [200/0] via 172.16.255.2, 00:48:22
B 192.168.0.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:22:27
B 192.168.1.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:22:27
B 192.168.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:22:27
B 192.168.3.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:22:27

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Configuring BGP Using Loopback Addresses Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master loopback based BGP neighbor configuration.
2、Understanding why use loopback to establish BGP neighbor.
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Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable RIPV2 in AS 64512
R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R1(config-router)#version 2
R1(config-router)#no auto-summary
R1(config-router)#exit

R2(config)#router rip
R2(config-router)#no auto-summary
R2(config-router)#version 2
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R2(config-router)#exit

3、Build iBGP neighbor between R1 and R2.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.16.1 remote-as 64512
R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.16.1 update-source loopback 0
R1(config-router)#exit

R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252
R2(config-router)#network 10.1.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252
R2(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.0.1 remote-as 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.0.1 update-source loopback 0
R2(config-router)#exit

4、Check BGP summary information on R1.
R1#sh ip bgp summary
Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
172.16.16.1 4 64512 5 5 6 0 0 00:00:20 2

5、Build EBGP neighbor between R2 and R3.
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.0.1 remote-as 64513
R2(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.0.1 update-source loopback 0
R2(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.0.1 ebgp-multihop 2
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#ip route 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.255.2

R3(config)#router bgp 64513
R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.16.1 remote-as 64512
R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.16.1 update-source loopback 0
R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.16.1 ebgp-multihop 2
R3(config-router)#
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.0.0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
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R3(config-router)#network 10.1.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#ip route 172.16.16.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.255.1

6、Check BGP summary information on R2.
R2#show ip bgp summary
Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
172.16.0.1 4 64512 19 20 9 0 0 00:14:11 2
192.168.0.1 4 64513 5 6 9 0 0 00:00:10 3

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Understand BGP Auto-Summary Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Understanding BGP auto summary feature.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Build BGP neighbor according to the topology.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.255.2 remote-as 64512
R1(config-router)#exit

R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 172.16.255.1 remote-as 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 remote-as 64513
R2(config-router)#exit

R3(config)#router bgp 64513
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.1 remote-as 64512
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R3(config-router)#exit

3、Check BGP neighbor state on R2.
R2#sh ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier 172.16.16.1, local AS number 64512
BGP table version is 1, main routing table version 1

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
10.1.255.2 4 64513 5 5 1 0 0 00:01:01 0
172.16.255.1 4 64512 5 5 1 0 0 00:01:46 0

4、Check BGP protocol feature on R1.
R1#show ip protocols
Routing Protocol is "bgp 64512"
Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set
Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set
IGP synchronization is disabled
Automatic route summarization is disabled
Neighbor(s):
Address FiltIn FiltOut DistIn DistOut Weight RouteMap
172.16.255.2
Maximum path: 1
Routing Information Sources:
Gateway Distance Last Update
Distance: external 20 internal 200 local 200

R1#
5、Announce network 172.16.0.0 on R1.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0
R1(config-router)#exit

6、Check routing table on R2 we can see 172.16.0.0 /16 is not in the routing table.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 172.16.16.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1

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7、Make sure network 172.16.0.0/16 is in R1's routing table before announced by BGP.

8、Let's enable BGP auto summary to see what happens.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#auto-summary
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit

9、Check routing table on R2 again, we can see 172.16.0.0/16 is here now.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 3 masks
C 172.16.255.0/30 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 172.16.16.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
B 172.16.0.0/16 [200/0] via 172.16.255.1, 00:01:23
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
R2#
R2#show ip bgp summary

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
10.1.255.2 4 64513 19 20 2 0 0 00:15:27 0
172.16.255.1 4 64512 21 20 2 0 0 00:16:11 1

10、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

B 172.16.0.0/16 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:02:26
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

Tips: BGP auto summary feature will summarize the sub-networks and announce the
summary route to their neighbors, regardless whether it's the main class network
border or not.

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Configuring BGP Summarization Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master Null0 interface static route summary configuration.
2、Master aggregate summary configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP according to the topology.
3、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:03:15
B 172.16.0.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:02:45
B 172.16.1.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:02:45
B 172.16.2.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:02:45
B 172.16.3.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:02:45
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0

4、Announce summary route based on a null 0 static route.
R1(config)#ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.252.0 null 0
R1(config)#
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#network 172.16.0.0 mask 255.255.252.0
R1(config-router)#exit

Tips:172.16.0.0/22 must in ip routing table before BGP announcement.

5、Check routing table on R3 again.
R3#show ip route
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Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:07:18
B 172.16.0.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:48
B 172.16.0.0/22 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:01
B 172.16.1.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:48
B 172.16.2.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:48
B 172.16.3.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:48
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0

6、The specific 172.16.0.0-172.16.3.0/24 routes are still in the routing table, we could
remove them from BGP announcement.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#no network 172.16.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#no network 172.16.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#no network 172.16.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#no network 172.16.3.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#

7、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is not set
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:23:36
B 172.16.0.0/22 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:16:20
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
This time only 172.16.0.0/22 left.

8、Ping test the summary route.
R3#ping 172.16.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 144/184/216 ms

9、The above null0 summary method is simple to implement, but other BGP peer
would never know who is the summary source, so we could use BGP aggregate feature
to solve this issue.
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10、Restore the summary configuration on R1.

11、Implement aggregation on R1.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#aggregate-address 172.16.0.0 255.255.252.0 summary-only
R1(config-router)#

12、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is not set
172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:18:08
B 172.16.0.0/22 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:02:00
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0

13、Check the summary route 1
R3#show ip bgp 172.16.0.0
BGP routing table entry for 172.16.0.0/22, version 32
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
Not advertised to any peer
64512, (aggregated by 64512 172.16.0.1)
10.1.255.1 from 10.1.255.1 (172.16.255.1)
Origin IGP, localpref 100, valid, external, atomic-aggregate, best

14、Ping test the summary route.
R3#ping 172.16.0.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.0.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 68/128/168 ms
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Understand BGP Split Horizon Rule Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Understanding BGP split horizon principal

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers, do not establish IBGP relationship between R2 and R4 first.

R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 remote-as 64513
R1(config-router)#network 130.130.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252

R2(config)#router bgp 64513
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.1 remote-as 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.6 remote-as 64513
R2(config-router)#network 10.1.255.4 mask 255.255.255.252

R3(config)#router bgp 64513
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.5 remote-as 64513
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.10 remote-as 64513

R4(config)#router bgp 64513
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.14 remote-as 64514
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.9 remote-as 64513
R4(config-router)#network 10.1.255.8 mask 255.255.255.252

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R5(config)#router bgp 64514
R5(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.13 remote-as 64513
R5(config-router)#network 150.150.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R5(config-router)#network 10.1.255.12 mask 255.255.255.252

3、Check routing tables on R2 and R4.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
C 10.1.255.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 10.1.255.8 [200/0] via 10.1.255.6, 00:06:24
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:07:20

R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 3 subnets
B 10.1.255.4 [200/0] via 10.1.255.9, 00:06:20
C 10.1.255.12 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 10.1.255.8 is directly connected, Serial1/0
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.14, 00:06:20

4、According to the BGP split horizon feature: routes learn from an IBGP Peer would
never announce to another IBGP peer, So R2 can not learn routes from R3 which
announced by R4, R2 can not learn routes from R3 which announced by R2 either.

5、To solve the above issue, we need to build IBGP relationship between R2 and R4.
R2(config)#router bgp 64513
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.10 remote-as 64513
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R4(config)#router bgp 64513
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.5 remote-as 64513
R4(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#exit

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6、Check routing table on R2 and R4 again, we can see all we need are there.
R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 4 subnets
C 10.1.255.4 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 10.1.255.12 [200/0] via 10.1.255.10, 00:05:51
B 10.1.255.8 [200/0] via 10.1.255.6, 00:06:03
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:03
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [200/0] via 10.1.255.14, 00:05:39
R2#

R4#show ip route

10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 4 subnets
B 10.1.255.4 [200/0] via 10.1.255.5, 00:00:06
B 10.1.255.0 [200/0] via 10.1.255.5, 00:00:06
C 10.1.255.12 is directly connected, Serial1/1
C 10.1.255.8 is directly connected, Serial1/0
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:05:03
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.14, 00:16:40
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Understand BGP Synchronization Rule Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Understanding BGP synchronization principal

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Config full mesh BGP on all routers, enable BGP synchronization.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512 synchronization
R1(config-router)#synchronization
R1(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 remote-as 64513
R1(config-router)#network 130.130.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#network 10.1.255.0 mask 255.255.255.252

R2(config)#router bgp 64513
R2(config-router)#synchronization
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.1 remote-as 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.6 remote-as 64513
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.10 remote-as 64513
R2(config-router)#network 10.1.255.4 mask 255.255.255.252

R3(config)#router bgp 64513
R3(config-router)#synchronization
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.5 remote-as 64513
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.10 remote-as 64513

R4(config)#router bgp 64513
R4(config-router)#synchronization
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R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.14 remote-as 64514
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.9 remote-as 64513
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.5 remote-as 64513
R4(config-router)#network 10.1.255.8 mask 255.255.255.252

R5(config)#router bgp 64514
R5(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.13 remote-as 64513
R5(config-router)#network 150.150.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R5(config-router)#network 10.1.255.12 mask 255.255.255.252

3、Check routing table on R1 and R5.
R1#show ip route

10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 4 subnets
B 10.1.255.4 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:21:11
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 10.1.255.12 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:03:37
B 10.1.255.8 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:12:37
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 130.130.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0

R5#show ip route

10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 4 subnets
B 10.1.255.4 [20/0] via 10.1.255.13, 00:21:11
C 10.1.255.12 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 10.1.255.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.13, 00:03:37
B 10.1.255.8 [20/0] via 10.1.255.13, 00:12:37
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 150.150.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
We can see network 150.150.0.0/24 is not in R1's routing table, network 130.130.0.0/24
is not in R5's routing table, this is the feature of BGP synchronization.

4、To solve the above issue, we need to redistribute the two networks 130.130.0.0/24
and 150.150.0.0/24 in to IGP on AS edge routers, so they could be announced to EBGP
peers.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#redistribute bgp 64513 metric 200 subnets
R2(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#router ospf 1
R4(config-router)#redistribute bgp 64513 metric 200 subnets
R4(config-router)#exit

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5、Check routing table on R1 again.
R1#show ip route
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 4 subnets
B 10.1.255.4 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:25:11
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 10.1.255.12 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:07:37
B 10.1.255.8 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:16:37
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 130.130.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:01:36

This time 150.150.0.0/24 is in the table, same as on R4.
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BGP Neighbor Authentication Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master MD5 based BGP peer authentication.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on R1 and R2.
3、Check routing table on R1 and R2.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 192.168.1.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:32:23

R2#show ip route

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Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:33:19
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0

4、Enable BGP authentication on R1.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 password cisco123

5、We'll get the below output soon.
*Jun 9 15:48:03.323: %TCP-6-BADAUTH: No MD5 digest from 10.1.255.2(44020) to 10.1.255.1(179)
*Jun 9 15:48:05.143: %TCP-6-BADAUTH: No MD5 digest from 10.1.255.2(44020) to 10.1.255.1(179)
*Jun 9 15:48:13.263: %TCP-6-BADAUTH: No MD5 digest from 10.1.255.2(44020) to 10.1.255.1(179)
*Jun 9 15:48:15.343: %TCP-6-BADAUTH: No MD5 digest from 10.1.255.2(44020) to 10.1.255.1(179)

6、Check routing table and BGP routing table on R1 and R2, we can see all the route
from BGP peer has gone.

R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
R1#
R1#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 4, local router ID is 172.16.1.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 172.16.1.0/24 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

R2#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
R2#
R2#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 4, local router ID is 192.168.1.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
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Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

7、Check BGP summary information on R2, we can see neighbor state changed to active.
R2#show ip bgp summary
……
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 209 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 2/1 prefixes, 2/1 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
10.1.255.1 4 64512 43 42 0 0 0 00:04:00 Active

8、Enable BGP authentication on R2.
R2(config)#router bgp 64513
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.1 password cisco123
R2(config-router)#exit

9、BGP neighbor up again on both side.
*Jun 9 15:54:47.559: %TCP-6-BADAUTH: No MD5 digest from 10.1.255.2(16055) to 10.1.255.1(179)
*Jun 9 15:56:51.859: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 10.1.255.2 Up

10、Check BGP summary information on R1, we can see there is already 1 prefix
received.
R1#show ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier 172.16.1.1, local AS number 64512
BGP table version is 5, main routing table version 5
2 network entries using 202 bytes of memory
2 path entries using 96 bytes of memory
2 BGP path attribute entries using 120 bytes of memory
1 BGP AS-PATH entries using 24 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 442 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 3/1 prefixes, 3/1 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
10.1.255.2 4 64513 45 49 5 0 0 00:01:33 1

11、Check routing table on R1 and R2, we can see the BGP route is back.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 172.16.1.0 is directly connected, Loopback0
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 192.168.1.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.2, 00:03:28

R2#show ip route
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Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:04:26
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
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Configuring BGP Local Preference Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master BGP local preference basic configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers.
3、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:01:06
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10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:01:06
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 192.168.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:00:11

4、Check routing table on R4.
R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.2.2, 00:02:18
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.2.2, 00:02:18
B 192.168.1.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.1.1, 00:02:18
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

5、According to the above information R3 choose the low speed link R2 as the next hop
to network 130.130.1.0/24, in order to choose the high speed link as next hop, we can
use local preference feature.

6、Check BGP routing table on R3.
R3#show ip bgp

BGP table version is 7, local router ID is 192.168.1.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
* i10.1.1.0/24 10.1.1.2 0 100 0 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* i130.130.1.0/24 192.168.2.2 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.1.1 0 64512 i
* i172.16.1.0/24 192.168.2.2 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
*>i192.168.2.0 10.1.1.2 0 100 0 i
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* 192.168.1.1 0 64512 i

7、Check BGP routing table on R4.
R4#show ip bgp

BGP table version is 9, local router ID is 192.168.2.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
* i10.1.1.0/24 10.1.1.1 0 100 0 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* i130.130.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.2.2 0 0 64512 i
* i172.16.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.2.2 0 0 64512 i
*>i192.168.1.0 10.1.1.1 0 100 0 i
* 192.168.2.2 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* 192.168.2.2 0 0 64512 i

8、If BGP routes from R4 have a higher local preference than R2, then R3 will prefer R4
as next hop.

9、Change default local preference to 200 on R4.
R4(config)#router bgp 64513
R4(config-router)#bgp default local-preference 200
R4(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#

10、Check BGP routing table on R3.
R3#show ip bgp

BGP table version is 10, local router ID is 192.168.1.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
* i10.1.1.0/24 10.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*>i130.130.1.0/24 192.168.2.2 0 200 0 64512 i
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* 192.168.1.1 0 64512 i
*>i172.16.1.0/24 192.168.2.2 0 200 0 64512 i
* 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
* i192.168.1.0 192.168.2.2 0 200 0 64512 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
*>i192.168.2.0 10.1.1.2 0 200 0 i
* 192.168.1.1 0 64512 i

11、Check routing table on R3 again, we can see this time R1 is the next hop for
network 130.130.1.0/24.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [200/0] via 192.168.2.2, 00:06:41
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [200/0] via 192.168.2.2, 00:06:41
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 192.168.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:26:51

12、Next hop attribute will not change between IBGP peers, unless we force them to
change.
R4(config)#router bgp 64513
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.1 next-hop-self

13、Check routing table on R3, we can see R4 is the next hop for network
130.130.1.0/24 now.
R3#show ip route

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:01:32
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:01:32
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 192.168.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:32:58

14、Track network 130.130.1.0/24 on R3.
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R3#traceroute 130.130.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 130.130.1.1

1 10.1.1.2 92 msec 72 msec 72 msec
2 192.168.2.2 212 msec * 120 msec

15、Ping test on R3.
R3#ping 130.130.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 130.130.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 96/130/168 ms
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Using Route Maps to Configuring BGP Local Preference Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master route-map basic configuration.
2、Use route-map to set local preference, to make R3 choose R4 as the next hop of
network 130.130.1.0/24, and R2 as the next hop of network 150.150.1.0/24.
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Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers.
3、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:04:30
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:04:30
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 192.168.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:06:07
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:04:30
We can see the default next hop for both network 130.130.1.0/24 and 150.150.1.0/24 is
R2 192.168.1.1

4、To match the requirement we only need to change the next hop for network
130.130.1.0/24 to R4 10.1.1.2. This time we can not just change default local preference,
it must match the specific prefix 130.130.1.0/24.
R4(config)#access-list 1 permit 130.130.1.0 0.0.0.255
R4(config)#
R4(config)#route-map set_lp permit 10
R4(config-route-map)#match ip address 1
R4(config-route-map)#set local-preference 200
R4(config-route-map)#exit
R4(config)#
R4(config)#route-map set_lp permit 20
R4(config-route-map)#exit
R4(config)#
R4(config)#router bgp 64513
R4(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.2.2 route-map set_lp in
R4(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#exit
R4#clear ip bgp * soft in

5、Check BGP routing table on R3, we can see the next hop for network 130.130.1.0/24
is R1 192.168.2.2, very close now, just need to make R4 10.1.1.2 as the direct next hop.
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R3#show ip bgp

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
…………
* 130.130.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 64512 i
*>i 192.168.2.2 0 200 0 64512 i
* i150.150.1.0/24 192.168.2.2 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
…………

6、Modify BGP next hop attribute on R4.
R4(config)#router bgp 64513
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.1 next-hop-self
R4(config-router)#exit

7、Check BGP routing table on R3 again, this time R4 10.1.1.2 is the next hop for
network 130.130.1.0/24.
R3#show ip bgp

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
…………
* 130.130.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 64512 i
*>i 10.1.1.2 0 200 0 64512 i
* i150.150.1.0/24 10.1.1.2 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
…………

8、Check the routing table on R3 we can see the same thing.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:54:00
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:02:46
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 192.168.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:55:37
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:54:00

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9、Track network 130.130.1.0/24 and 150.150.1.0/24 on R3.
R3#traceroute 130.130.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 130.130.1.1

1 10.1.1.2 16 msec 48 msec 80 msec
2 192.168.2.2 96 msec * 80 msec

R3#
R3#traceroute 150.150.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 150.150.1.1

1 192.168.1.1 40 msec * 24 msec
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Configuring BGP Multi-Exit Discriminator Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
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1、Understanding BGP MED attribute principal, and how does it affects AS inbound
traffic.
2、Use route-map to set MED, to make R3 choose R4 as the next hop of network
130.130.1.0/24, and R2 as the next hop of network 150.150.1.0/24.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers.
3、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:08:58
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:08:58
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 192.168.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:08:58
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:08:58
We can see the default next hop for both network 130.130.1.0/24 and 150.150.1.0/24 is
R2 192.168.1.1

4、To match the requirement we only need to change the next hop for network
130.130.1.0/24 to R4 10.1.1.2.

5、Check BGP routing table to see the default MED on R3 and R4.
R3#show ip bgp

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
………
*> 130.130.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 64512 i
* i 192.168.2.2 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 150.150.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
* i 192.168.2.2 0 100 0 64512 i
………

R4#show ip bgp

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
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………
* i130.130.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.2.2 0 0 64512 i
* i150.150.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 192.168.2.2 0 64512 i
………
6、For MED the lower the better, so we could set MED for network 130.130.1.0/24
higher than default value on R2.
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit 130.130.1.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#
R2(config)#route-map set_med permit 10
R2(config-route-map)#match ip address 1
R2(config-route-map)#set metric 100
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#route-map set_med permit 20
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.2 route-map set_med out
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#
R2#clear ip bgp * soft out

7、Check BGP routing table to see the default MED on R3, we can see the next hop for
network 130.130.1.0/24 is R1 192.168.2.2, very close now, just need to make R4
10.1.1.2 as the direct next hop.
R3#show ip bgp

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
………
* 130.130.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 100 0 64512 i
*>i 192.168.2.2 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 150.150.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
* i 192.168.2.2 0 100 0 64512 i
………
R3#

8、Modify BGP next hop attribute on R4.
R4(config)#router bgp 64513
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.1 next-hop-self
R4(config-router)#exit
R4(config)#exit
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9、Check routing table and BGP routing table on R3, we can see they are match the
requirement now.
R3#show ip bgp

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
………
* 130.130.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 100 0 64512 i
*>i 10.1.1.2 0 100 0 64512 i
*> 150.150.1.0/24 192.168.1.1 0 0 64512 i
* i 10.1.1.2 0 100 0 64512 i
………
R3#

R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:48:49
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1/1
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:03:50
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0
B 192.168.2.0/24 [200/0] via 10.1.1.2, 00:48:49
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:48:49

10、Track network 130.130.1.0/24 on R3.
R3#traceroute 130.130.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 130.130.1.1

1 10.1.1.2 32 msec 64 msec 80 msec
2 192.168.2.2 128 msec * 84 msec
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Configuring BGP Weight Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose:
1、Master the basic configuration of BGP WIGHT attribute.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers and use BGP WIGHT attribute to make sure R1 will choose
AS 64515 R4 192.168.4.1 as next hop for network 150.150.1.0/24
3、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 192.168.2.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.1.2, 00:16:39
B 192.168.3.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 00:16:25
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.2, 00:16:39

4、Check BGP routing table on R1.
R1#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 7, local router ID is 192.168.4.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
* 150.150.1.0/24 192.168.4.1 0 64515 64514 i
*> 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.2 0 0 64513 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* 192.168.2.0 192.168.4.1 0 64515 64514 i
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*> 192.168.1.2 0 0 64513 i
*> 192.168.3.0 192.168.4.1 0 0 64515 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.4.0 192.168.4.1 0 0 64515 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

5、Check BGP neighbor table on R1.
R1#show ip bgp neighbors
BGP neighbor is 192.168.1.2, remote AS 64513, external link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 192.168.2.1
BGP state = Established, up for 02:10:56

…………

BGP neighbor is 192.168.4.1, remote AS 64515, external link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 192.168.4.1
BGP state = Established, up for 02:09:04

6、according to the above output information we can see the next hop for network
150.150.1.0/24 is AS 64513 R2 192.168.1.2 right now.

7、Use BGP WIGHT attribute to switch it to AS 64515 R4 192.168.4.1 on R1.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.4.1 weight 100
R1(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.2 weight 50
R1(config-router)#exit
R1#clear ip bgp * soft

8、Check BGP routing table and routing table on R1.
R1#show ip bgp

BGP table version is 13, local router ID is 192.168.4.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 150.150.1.0/24 192.168.4.1 100 64515 64514 i
* 192.168.1.2 50 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.2 0 50 64513 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 192.168.2.0 192.168.4.1 100 64515 64514 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 50 64513 i
*> 192.168.3.0 192.168.4.1 0 100 64515 i
* 192.168.1.2 50 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.4.0 192.168.4.1 0 100 64515 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
R1#

R1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
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N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 192.168.2.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 00:01:01
B 192.168.3.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 03:12:01
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 00:01:01

9、According to the above output information, R1 is now using R4 192.168.4.1 as the
next hop for all the networks, what we want is just for network 150.150.1.0/24.

10、remove the default weight configuration, and use route-map to match the specific
network 150.150.1.0/24.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#no neighbor 192.168.1.2 weight 50
R1(config-router)#no neighbor 192.168.4.1 weight 100
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#access-list 1 permit 150.150.1.0 0.0.0.255
R1(config)#
R1(config)#route-map set_weight permit 10
R1(config-route-map)#match ip address 1
R1(config-route-map)#set weight 100
R1(config-route-map)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#
R1(config)#route-map set_weight permit 20
R1(config-route-map)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.4.1 route-map set_weight in
R1(config-router)#exit
R1(config)#exit
R1#clear ip bgp * soft

11、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 192.168.2.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.1.2, 00:03:45
B 192.168.3.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 00:03:45
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 00:00:00
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12、Check BGP routing table on R1.
R1#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 21, local router ID is 192.168.4.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 150.150.1.0/24 192.168.4.1 100 64515 64514 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.2 0 0 64513 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* 192.168.2.0 192.168.4.1 0 64515 64514 i
*> 192.168.1.2 0 0 64513 i
*> 192.168.3.0 192.168.4.1 0 0 64515 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.4.0 192.168.4.1 0 0 64515 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

13、Ping test and trace test on R1.
R1#ping 150.150.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 150.150.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 68/126/216 ms
R1#
R1#traceroute 150.150.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 150.150.1.1

1 192.168.4.1 16 msec 60 msec 64 msec
2 192.168.3.1 [AS 64515] 144 msec * 32 msec
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Affects the BGP Routing By Path Prepend Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Master BGP AS Path prepend configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers and use BGP AS Path prepend attribute to make sure R1
will choose R4 192.168.4.1 as next hop for network 150.150.1.0/24
3、Check BGP routing table on R1.
R1#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 6, local router ID is 192.168.4.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? – incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
* 150.150.1.0/24 192.168.4.1 0 64515 64514 i
*> 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.1.0 192.168.4.1 0 64515 64514 64513 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 0 64513 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* 192.168.2.0 192.168.4.1 0 64515 64514 i
*> 192.168.1.2 0 0 64513 i
*> 192.168.3.0 192.168.4.1 0 0 64515 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.4.0 192.168.4.1 0 0 64515 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 64515 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

4、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
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C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 192.168.2.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:20
B 192.168.3.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 00:01:20
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.2, 00:01:20

5、The default next hop for network 150.150.1.0/24 on R1 is 192.168.1.2, use AS
prepend to switch it to 192.168.4.1

6、Set AS prepend on R3 for network 150.150.1.0/24, to make the AS path which going
trough R2 longer than before.
R3(config)#access-list 1 permit 150.150.1.0 0.0.0.255
R3(config)#
R3(config)#route-map set_prepend permit 10
R3(config-route-map)#match ip address 1
R3(config-route-map)#set as-path prepend 64514 64514
R3(config-route-map)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#route-map set_prepend permit 20
R3(config-route-map)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#router bgp 64514
R3(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.2.1 route-map set_prepend out
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit
R3#clear ip bgp * soft out

7、Check BGP routing table on R1.
R1#show ip bgp

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 150.150.1.0/24 192.168.4.1 0 64515 64514 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 64514 64514 i
* 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.2 0 0 64513 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
* 192.168.2.0 192.168.4.1 0 64515 64514 i
*> 192.168.1.2 0 0 64513 i
*> 192.168.3.0 192.168.4.1 0 0 64515 i
* 192.168.1.2 0 64513 64514 i
* 192.168.4.0 192.168.4.1 0 0 64515 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

8、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

C 192.168.4.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0
C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/1
B 192.168.2.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.1.2, 00:12:54
B 192.168.3.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 00:12:54
150.150.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 150.150.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.4.1, 00:09:42
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Configuring BGP Routes Reflector Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose: Master BGP route reflector configuration.
Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers.
R3(config)#router bgp 100
R3(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.5 remote-as 100
R3(config-router)#neighbor 172.24.1.18 remote-as 100
R3(config-router)#network 200.100.50.0 mask 255.255.255.0

R1(config)#router bgp 100
R1(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.6 remote-as 100

R2(config)#router bgp 100
R2(config-router)#neighbor 172.24.1.17 remote-as 100
R2(config-router)#network 199.9.9.0 mask 255.255.255.0
3、Check BGP routing table on R1 R2 R3.
R2#show ip bgp
Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 199.9.9.0 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
r>i200.100.50.0 172.24.1.17 0 100 0 i

R3#show ip bgp
Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
r>i199.9.9.0 172.24.1.18 0 100 0 i

R1#show ip bgp
Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
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r>i200.100.50.0 192.168.1.6 0 100 0 i

R1#show ip route
R 200.100.50.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168.1.6, 00:00:11, Serial0/0
R 172.24.0.0/16 [120/1] via 192.168.1.6, 00:00:11, Serial0/0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 192.168.1.4 is directly connected, Serial0/0

As it's not a full mesh, so R1 can not learn BGP route from R2 because of the BGP
split horizon attribute.
4、Enable route reflector on R3 to solve this issue.
R3(config)#router bgp 100
R3(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.5 route-reflector-client
R3(config-router)#neighbir 172.24.1.18 route-reflector-client

R1#show ip bgp
Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*>i199.9.9.0 172.24.1.18 0 100 0 i
*>i200.100.50.0 192.168.1.6 0 100 0 i

R1#show ip route
B 199.9.9.0/24 [200/0] via 172.24.1.18, 00:00:52
B 200.100.50.0/24 [200/0] via 192.168.1.6, 00:01:48
R 172.24.0.0/16 [120/1] via 192.168.1.6, 00:00:14, Serial0/0
192.168.1.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 192.168.1.4 is directly connected, Serial0/0
Now R1 could learn BGP route from R2.、
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Configuring BGP Confederation Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose: Master BGP route reflector configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers, set BGP confederation AS according to the topology.
R3(config)#router bgp 65501
R3(config-router)#bgp confederation identifier 3000
R3(config-router)#bgp confederation peers 65502
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.1 remote-as 1000
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.5 remote-as 65502
R3(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.5 next-hop-self
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R3(config-router)#network 10.1.1.0 mask 255.255.255.252
R3(config-router)#network 10.1.1.4 mask 255.255.255.252

R4(config)#router bgp 65502
R4(config-router)#bgp confederation identifier 3000
R4(config-router)#bgp confederation peers 65501 65504
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.6 remote-as 65501
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.6 next-hop-self
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.10 remote-as 65502
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.10 next-hop-self
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.22 remote-as 65504
R4(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.22 next-hop-self
R4(config-router)#network 10.1.1.4 mask 255.255.255.252
R4(config-router)#network 10.1.1.8 mask 255.255.255.252
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R4(config-router)#network 10.1.1.20 mask 255.255.255.252
R4(config-router)#no synchronization

R5(config)#router bgp 65502
R5(config-router)#bgp confederation identifier 3000
R5(config-router)#bgp confederation peers 65503 65504
R5(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.9 remote-as 65502
R5(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.9 next-hop-self
R5(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.13 remote-as 65503
R5(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.13 next-hop-self
R5(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.26 remote-as 65504
R5(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.26 next-hop-self
R5(config-router)#network 10.1.1.8 mask 255.255.255.252
R5(config-router)#network 10.1.1.12 mask 255.255.255.252
R5(config-router)#network 10.1.1.24 mask 255.255.255.252
R5(config-router)#no synchronization

R6(config)#router bgp 65503
R6(config-router)#bgp confederation identifier 3000
R6(config-router)#bgp confederation peers 65502
R6(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.18 remote-as 2000
R6(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.14 remote-as 65502
R6(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.14 next-hop-self
R6(config-router)#network 172.16.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R6(config-router)#network 10.1.1.12 mask 255.255.255.252
R6(config-router)#network 10.1.1.16 mask 255.255.255.252

R7(config)#router bgp 65504
R7(config-router)#bgp confederation identifier 3000
R7(config-router)#bgp confederation peers 65502
R7(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.21 remote-as 65502
R7(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.21 next-hop-self
R7(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.30 remote-as 65504
R7(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.30 next-hop-self
R7(config-router)#network 10.1.1.20 mask 255.255.255.252
R7(config-router)#network 10.1.1.28 mask 255.255.255.252
R7(config-router)#no synchronization

R8(config)#router bgp 65504
R8(config-router)#bgp confederation identifier 3000
R8(config-router)#bgp confederation peers 65502
R8(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.25 remote-as 65502
R8(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.25 next-hop-self
R8(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.29 remote-as 65504
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R8(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.1.29 next-hop-self
R8(config-router)#network 10.1.1.24 mask 255.255.255.252
R8(config-router)#network 10.1.1.28 mask 255.255.255.252
R8(config-router)#no synchronization

3、Check BGP routing table on R1 and R2 we can see the confederation AS have been
hidden from outside AS.
R1#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 13, local router ID is 192.168.1.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
* 10.1.1.0/30 10.1.1.2 0 0 3000 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 10.1.1.4/30 10.1.1.2 0 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.8/30 10.1.1.2 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.12/30 10.1.1.2 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.16/30 10.1.1.2 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.20/30 10.1.1.2 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.24/30 10.1.1.2 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.28/30 10.1.1.2 0 3000 i
*> 172.16.1.0/24 10.1.1.2 0 0 3000 i
*> 172.16.2.0/24 10.1.1.2 0 3000 i
*> 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 192.168.2.0 10.1.1.2 0 3000 2000 i

R2#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 14, local router ID is 192.168.2.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 10.1.1.0/30 10.1.1.17 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.4/30 10.1.1.17 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.8/30 10.1.1.17 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.12/30 10.1.1.17 0 0 3000 i
* 10.1.1.16/30 10.1.1.17 0 0 3000 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
*> 10.1.1.20/30 10.1.1.17 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.24/30 10.1.1.17 0 3000 i
*> 10.1.1.28/30 10.1.1.17 0 3000 i
*> 172.16.1.0/24 10.1.1.17 0 3000 i
*> 172.16.2.0/24 10.1.1.17 0 0 3000 i
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*> 192.168.1.0 10.1.1.17 0 3000 1000 i
*> 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

4、Check BGP routing table on R3 for the specific prefix 10.1.1.4/30
R3#show ip bgp 10.1.1.4/30
BGP table version is 14, local router ID is 172.16.1.6
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 10.1.1.4/30 172.16.1.5 0 (65502 65503)i
We can see the confederation AS are in curves.
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Using Route Tag to Store BGP AS-Path Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Solve AS-PATH attribute missing issue during BGP and IGP redistribution.
2、Master route tag store and restore BGP AS-PATH attribute configuration.


Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
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2、Config OSPF between R2 and R3.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

3、Check OSPF neighbor relationship between R2 and R3.
R2#show ip ospf neighbor

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface
192.168.2.1 1 FULL/BDR 00:00:32 172.16.1.2 FastEthernet0/0
R2#
4、Establish BGP relationship between R1 R2, R3 R4. No BGP relationship between R2
R3.
R1(config)#router bgp 64512
R1(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 64513
R1(config-router)#network 130.130.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R1(config-router)#exit

R2(config)#router bgp 64513
R2(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.1 remote-as 64512
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit

R3(config)#router bgp 64513
R3(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.2.2 remote-as 64514
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

R4(config)#router bgp 64514
R4(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.2.1 remote-as 64513

5、Confirm BGP relationship on R2 and R3.
R2#show ip bgp summary
Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
192.168.1.1 4 64512 8 8 3 0 0 00:03:37 2
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R3#show ip bgp summary

Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd
192.168.2.2 4 64514 6 6 2 0 0 00:01:46 1

6、Check routing table on R4, we can see no routes have been learn.
R4#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0

7、Config redistribution between BGP and OSPF on R2 R3.
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#redistribute bgp 64513 subnets
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64513
R2(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 match external internal
R2(config-router)#

R3(config)#router bgp 64513
R3(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 match internal external
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#
R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#redistribute bgp 64513 subnets
R3(config-router)#exit
R3(config)#exit

8、Check routing table again on R4, we can see routes are there.
R4#show ip route

…………

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 172.16.1.0 [20/0] via 192.168.2.1, 00:03:18
130.130.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
B 130.130.1.0 [20/1] via 192.168.2.1, 00:03:18
B 192.168.1.0/24 [20/1] via 192.168.2.1, 00:03:18
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C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0

9、Check BGP routing table on R4, we can see routes are there but some BGP attributes
are missing. Such as item 130.130.1.0/24 from AS 64512, the AS-PATH of this item
should be 64521 65513, but in the BGP table it only appears AS 64513, the BGP origin
attribute is also incomplete.
R4#show ip bgp
BGP table version is 5, local router ID is 192.168.2.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 130.130.1.0/24 192.168.2.1 1 0 64513 ?
*> 172.16.1.0/24 192.168.2.1 0 0 64513 ?
*> 192.168.1.0 192.168.2.1 1 0 64513 ?
* 192.168.2.0 192.168.2.1 0 0 64513 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i

10、As OSPF can not recognize BGP AS-PATH attribute from redistribution, so there is
BGP AS-PATH attribute missing issue. To solve this problem, route tag should be
introduced. We use route tag to store BGP attribute before redistribution from BGP to
OSPF on R2, and restore it by redistribution from OSPF to BGP on R3.

11、Store AS-PATH attribute in route tag on R2.
R2(config)#route-map SET_TAG permit 10
R2(config-route-map)#set automatic-tag
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64513
R2(config-router)#table-map SET_TAG
R2(config-router)#exit

12、Restore AS-PATH attribute from route tag on R3.
R3(config)#route-map GET_TAG permit 10
R3(config-route-map)#set as-path tag
R3(config-route-map)#set origin igp
R3(config)#router bgp 64513
R3(config-router)#redistribute ospf 1 match external internal route-map GET_TAG
R3(config-router)#exit

13、Check BGP routing table on R4, we can see the AS-PATH for item 130.130.1.0/24 is
complete now, and originate from IGP.
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R4#show ip bgp

BGP table version is 15, local router ID is 192.168.2.2
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 130.130.1.0/24 192.168.2.1 1 0 64513 64512 i
*> 172.16.1.0/24 192.168.2.1 0 0 64513 i
*> 192.168.1.0 192.168.2.1 1 0 64513 i
* 192.168.2.0 192.168.2.1 0 0 64513 i
*> 0.0.0.0 0 32768 i
R4#
14、Ping test on R4.
R4#ping 130.130.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 130.130.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 88/138/220 ms
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Using Distribute-list to Filtering BGP Routing Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master BGP route filtering by distribute-list configuration.
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Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers.
3、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:43
B 172.16.0.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:43
B 172.16.1.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:43
B 172.16.2.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:43
B 172.16.3.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:43
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0

4、Config BGP route filtering on R2.
R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 distribute-list 1 out
R2(config-router)#end
R2#clear ip bgp * soft out

5、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:14
B 172.16.2.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:14
B 172.16.3.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:14
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
We can see network 172.16.0.0 and 172.16.1.0 have gone.
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Using Route-Map to Filtering BGP Routing Lab
Topology



Lab Purpose:
1、Master route-map based BGP route filtering configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers.
3、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:12:39
B 172.16.0.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:01
B 172.16.1.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:01
B 172.16.2.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:12:39
B 172.16.3.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:12:39
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0

4、Config route-map based BGP route filtering.
R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.0.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 deny 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255
R2(config)#access-list 1 permit any
R2(config)#
R2(config)#route-map bgpfilter permit 10
R2(config-route-map)#match ip address 1
R2(config-route-map)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 route-map bgpfilter out
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit
R2#
R2#clear ip bgp * soft out
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5、Check routing table on R3 again, we can see network 172.16.0.0/24 and
172.16.1.0/24 have been filtered.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:19:57
B 172.16.2.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:19:57
B 172.16.3.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:19:57
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
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Using Prefix-List to Filtering BGP Routing Lab
Topology


Lab Purpose:
1、Master Prefix-List based BGP route filtering.
2、Use Prefix-List to filter BGP route based on mask length.

Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
2、Enable BGP on all routers.
3、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 6 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:02:56
B 172.16.4.0/28 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:04
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B 172.16.0.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:21
B 172.16.1.0/25 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:04
B 172.16.2.0/26 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:04
B 172.16.3.0/27 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:04
10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
B 10.1.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:02:56
C 10.1.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0

4、Scenario 1: R2 should not announce BGP routes 172.16.0.0/24 and 172.16.1.0/25 to
R3.

5、Config prefix-list based BGP route filtering on R2.
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 5 deny 172.16.0.0/24
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 10 deny 172.16.1.0/25
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 15 permit 0.0.0.0/0 le 32
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 prefix-list bgpfilter out
R2(config-router)#exit

6、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 4 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:16
B 172.16.4.0/28 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:16
B 172.16.2.0/26 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:16
B 172.16.3.0/27 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:00:16
10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C 10.1.255.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0

7、Scenario 2: R2 should only announce BGP routes 172.16.3.0/27 and 172.16.255.0/30
to R3.

8、Config prefix-list based BGP route filtering on R2.
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 5 permit 172.16.3.0/27
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 10 permit 172.16.255.0/30
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 prefix-list bgpfilter out
R2(config-router)#exit
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R2(config)#
R2#clear ip bgp * soft out

9、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:15
B 172.16.3.0/27 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:06:15
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
R3#

10、Scenario 3: R2 should only announce network 172.16.0.0/22 which mask ≧ 26 bit,
and network 172.16.255.0/30 by BGP.

11、Config prefix-list based BGP route filtering on R2.
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 5 permit 172.16.0.0/22 ge 26
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 5 permit 172.16.255.0/30
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 prefix-list bgpfilter out
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#
R2#clear ip bgp * soft out

12、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 3 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:11:25
B 172.16.2.0/26 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:16
B 172.16.3.0/27 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:11:25
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0

13、Scenario 4: R2 should only announce network 172.16.0.0/22 which mask ≦25 bit,
and network 172.16.255.0/30 by BGP.
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 5 permit 172.16.0.0/22 le 25
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R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter seq 10 permit 172.16.255.0/30
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 prefix-list bgpfilter out
R2(config-router)#exit
R2(config)#exit
R2(config)#
R2#clear ip bgp * soft out

14、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 3 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:15:00
B 172.16.0.0/24 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:10
B 172.16.1.0/25 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:10
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0

15、Scenario 5: R2 should only announce network 172.16.0.0/22 which 25 bit ≦ mask
≦26 bit, and network 172.16.255.0/30 by BGP.
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter permit 172.16.0.0/22 ge 25 le 26
R2(config)#ip prefix-list bgpfilter permit 172.16.255.0/30
R2(config)#
R2(config)#router bgp 64512
R2(config-router)#neighbor 10.1.255.2 prefix-list bgpfilter out
R2(config-router)#end
R2#clear ip bgp * soft out

16、Check routing table on R3.
R3#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 3 masks
B 172.16.255.0/30 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:19:42
B 172.16.1.0/25 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:05:53
B 172.16.2.0/26 [20/0] via 10.1.255.1, 00:01:21
10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 10.1.255.0 is directly connected, Serial1/0
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Configuring 802.1x Port-Based Authentication Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose:
1、Master interface based 802.1x authentication configuration.
2、Master Cisco Radius server configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Add AAA client by click "Network Configuration" on ACS server, key:
cisco authentication protocol: Radius(IETF)

4、Setup IETF attribute by clicking "Interface Configuration", choose
"RADIUS (IETF)", choose the following 3 attribute then submit.
[064] Tunnel-Type
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[065] Tunnel-Medium-Type
[081] Tunnel-Private-Group-ID

5、Create a user for 802.1x authentication. Click <User Configuration>,
enter username: CCIE University1, click Add/Edit, enter password:
www.ccieuniversity.com assign this user to Group 1 then click Submit.


6、Setup Group attribute by clicking "Group Configuration", choose
"Group 1", click“Edit Settings”. Set the following 3 attribute as
below.
[064]Tunnel-Type, Tag 1 Value VLAN,
[065]Tunnel-Medium-Type, Tag1 Value 802,
[081]Tunnel-Private-Group-ID Tag 1 Value 10。
Click Submit + Restart

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7、Create another username: CCIE University2 assign it to Group 2.
Meanwhile set Group 2 attribute as below.
[064]Tunnel-Type, Tag 1 Value VLAN
[065]Tunnel-Medium-Type, Tag1 Value 802
[081]Tunnel-Private-Group-ID Tag 1 Value 20

8、Config ACS server, click "System Configurateion", click "Global
Authentication Setup", remove LEAP "Allow LEAP (For Aironet only)"
option, then click Submit + Restart.

9、Setup vlan interface 1 on switch to communicate with ACS server.
Switch(config)#
Switch(config)#interface vlan 1
Switch(config-if)#ip address 202.195.30.158 255.255.255.0
Switch(config-if)#no shutdown
Switch(config-if)#exit
Switch(config)#
10、Create vlans on switch.
Switch(config)#vlan 10
Switch(config-vlan)#exit
Switch(config)#vlan 20
Switch(config-vlan)#exit

11、Config AAA on switch, and enable 802.1x.
Switch(config)#aaa new-model

Switch(config)#radius-server host 202.195.30.159 key cisco

Switch(config)#radius-server vsa send

Switch(config)#aaa authentication login default none

Switch(config)#aaa authentication dot1x default group radius

Switch(config)#aaa authorization network default group radius

Switch(config)#dot1x system-auth-control

12、Interface configuration for 802.1x.
Switch(config)#interface range fastEthernet 0/1 - 20
Switch(config-if-range)#switchport mode access
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Switch(config-if-range)#spanning-tree portfast
Switch(config-if-range)#dot1x port-control auto
Switch(config-if-range)#exit

13、Check vlan table on switch.
Switch#show vlan
VLAN Name Status Ports
---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------
-------
1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3,
Fa0/4
Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7,
Fa0/8
Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11,
Fa0/12
Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15,
Fa0/16
Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19,
Fa0/20
Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23,
Fa0/24
Gi0/1, Gi0/2
10 VLAN0010 active
20 VLAN0010 active

14、Enable IEEE 802.1x authentication on PC network adapter, and set EAP type to
MD5 query.

15、Connect PC1 and PC2 to switch, then there will be a popup 802.1x authentication
table, enter the username and password we have.

16、When the authentication succeed, check vlan table again, we can see Fa0/1 and
Fa0/2 have been assigned to VLAN 10 and VLAN20 automatically.
Switch#show vlan

VLAN Name Status Ports
---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------
-------
1 default active Fa0/3, Fa0/4, Fa0/5,
Fa0/6,
Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9,
Fa0/10,
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Fa0/11, Fa0/12, Fa0/13,
Fa0/14,
Fa0/15, Fa0/16, Fa0/17,
Fa0/18,
Fa0/19, Fa0/20, Fa0/21,
Fa0/22,
Fa0/23, Fa0/24, Gi0/1,
Gi0/2

10 VLAN0010 active Fa0/1
20 VLAN0020 active Fa0/2
1002 fddi-default act/unsup
1003 token-ring-default act/unsup
1004 fddinet-default act/unsup
1005 trnet-default act/unsup
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Routing Between VLANs and VTP Protocol Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose:
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1、Master VTP configuration.
2、Master routing between vlans and sub-interface configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、PCS configuration as follows.
PC1(config)#no ip routing
PC1(config)#
PC1(config)#ip default-network 192.168.1.1
PC1(config)#
PC1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
PC1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.10 255.255.255.0
PC1(config-if)#no shutdown
PC1(config-if)#exit
PC1(config)#

PC2(config)#no ip routing
PC2(config)#
PC2(config)#ip default-network 192.168.2.1
PC2(config)#
PC2(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
PC2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.10 255.255.255.0
PC2(config-if)#no shutdown
PC2(config-if)#exit
PC2(config)#

PC3(config)#no ip routing
PC3(config)#
PC3(config)#ip default-network 192.168.2.1
PC3(config)#
PC3(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
PC3(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.20 255.255.255.0
PC3(config-if)#no shutdown
PC3(config-if)#exit
PC3(config-if)#

2、Trunk configuration on SW1 and SW2.
SW1(config)#interface fastEthernet 1/1
SW1(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
SW1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
SW1(config-if)#exit

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SW2(config)#interface fastEthernet 1/2
SW2(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
SW2(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
SW2(config-if)#exit

3、Check trunk interface on SW2.
SW2#show interfaces trunk

Port Mode Encapsulation Status Native vlan
Fa1/2 on 802.1q trunking 1

Port Vlans allowed on trunk
Fa1/2 1-1005

Port Vlans allowed and active in management domain
Fa1/2 1

Port Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned
Fa1/2 1

4、Check VTP state before doing VTP configuration.
SW2#show vtp status
VTP Version : 2
Configuration Revision : 0
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 256
Number of existing VLANs : 5
VTP Operating Mode : Server
VTP Domain Name :
VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest : 0xBF 0x86 0x94 0x45 0xFC 0xDF 0xB5
0x70
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 0-0-00 00:00:00
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)

5、Enable VTP on SW1 and SW2.
SW1(config)#vtp password www.ccieuniversity.com
Setting device VLAN database password to www.ccieuniversity.com
SW1(config)#vtp domain www.ccieuniversity.com
Changing VTP domain name from cisco to www.ccieuniversity.com
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SW1(config)#vtp pruning
Pruning switched on
SW1(config)#vtp mode SERVER
Setting device to VTP server mode.

SW2(config)#vtp password www.ccieuniversity.com
Setting device VLAN database password to www.ccieuniversity.com
SW2(config)#vtp domain www.ccieuniversity.com
Changing VTP domain name from cisco to www.ccieuniversity.com
SW2(config)#vtp pruning
Pruning switched on
SW2(config)#vtp mode client
Setting device to VTP client mode.


6、Check VTP state on SW2.
SW2#show vtp status
VTP Version : 2
Configuration Revision : 1
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 1005
Number of existing VLANs : 10
VTP Operating Mode : Client
VTP Domain Name : www.ccieuniversity.com
VTP Pruning Mode : Enabled
VTP V2 Mode : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest : 0x71 0x62 0x0B 0xD1 0xED 0xFD 0x7D
0xAC
Configuration last modified by 199.1.1.3 at 3-2-93 02:11:08

7、Create vlans on SW1.
SW1(config)#
SW1(config)#vlan 10
SW1(config-vlan)#name ccieuniversity10
SW1(config-vlan)#exit
SW1(config)#
SW1(config)#vlan 20
SW1(config-vlan)#name ccieuniversity20
SW1(config-vlan)#exit

8、Check vlan table on SW1.
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SW1#show vlan

VLAN Name Status Ports
---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------
-------
1 default active Fa1/0, Fa1/2, Fa1/3,
Fa1/4
Fa1/5, Fa1/6, Fa1/7,
Fa1/8
Fa1/9, Fa1/10, Fa1/11,
Fa1/12
Fa1/13, Fa1/14, Fa1/15
10 ccieuniversity10 active
20 ccieuniversity20 active
1002 fddi-default active
1003 token-ring-default active
1004 fddinet-default active
1005 trnet-default active

VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1
Trans2
---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------
------
1 enet 100001 1500 - - - - - 1002
1003
10 enet 100010 1500 - - - - - 0
0
20 enet 100020 1500 - - - - - 0
0
1002 fddi 101002 1500 - - - - - 1
1003
1003 tr 101003 1500 1005 0 - - srb 1
1002
1004 fdnet 101004 1500 - - 1 ibm - 0
0
1005 trnet 101005 1500 - - 1 ibm - 0
0

9、查看VTP 的状态信息:
SW1#show vtp status
VTP Version : 2
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Configuration Revision : 2
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 256
Number of existing VLANs : 7
VTP Operating Mode : Server
VTP Domain Name : www.ccieuniversity.com
VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest : 0xF3 0x1C 0x33 0x46 0xEA 0x14 0xBB
0x9F
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 3-1-02 00:52:53
Local updater ID is 0.0.0.0 (no valid interface found)

10、Check VTP state on SW2.
SW2#show vtp status
VTP Version : 2
Configuration Revision : 2
Maximum VLANs supported locally : 256
Number of existing VLANs : 7
VTP Operating Mode : Client
VTP Domain Name : www.ccieuniversity.com
VTP Pruning Mode : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation : Disabled
MD5 digest : 0xF3 0x1C 0x33 0x46 0xEA 0x14 0xBB
0x9F
Configuration last modified by 0.0.0.0 at 3-1-02 00:52:53

11、Check vlan table on SW2.
SW1#show vlan

VLAN Name Status Ports
---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------
-------
1 default active Fa0/3, Fa0/4, Fa0/5,
Fa0/6
Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9,
Fa0/10
Fa0/11, Fa0/12, Fa0/13,
Fa0/14
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Fa0/15, Fa0/16, Fa0/17,
Fa0/18
Fa0/19, Fa0/20, Fa0/21,
Fa0/22
Fa0/23, Fa0/24, Gi0/1,
Gi0/2
10 ccieuniversity10 active
20 ccieuniversity20 active
1002 fddi-default act/unsup
1003 token-ring-default act/unsup
1004 fddinet-default act/unsup
1005 trnet-default act/unsup
…………
12、Assign interfaces to relevant vlan on SW1 and SW2.
SW1(config)#interface fastEthernet 1/11
SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 10
SW1(config-if)#exit
SW1(config)#
SW1(config)#interface fastEthernet 1/12
SW1(config-if)#switchport access vlan 20
SW1(config-if)#exit

SW2(config)#interface fastEthernet 1/11
SW2(config-if)#switchport access vlan 20
SW2(config-if)#exit

13、Ping test on PC1 PC2 and PC3.
PC1#ping 192.168.1.20

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.20, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
PC1#

PC2#ping 192.168.2.20

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.20, timeout is 2 seconds:
.!!!!
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 24/24/24 ms
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PC2#
PC2#ping 192.168.1.10

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.10, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
PC2#

PC3#ping 192.168.2.10

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.10, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/18/32 ms
PC3#
PC3#ping 192.168.1.10

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.10, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
We can see communication in the same vlan is ok, but between different vlans is not
working.

14、Enable routing between vlans.
SW1(config)#interface fastEthernet 1/5
SW1(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
SW1(config-if)#
SW1(config-if)#switchport mode trunk
SW1(config-if)#exit

R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#no ip address
R1(config-if)#no shutdown
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0.10
R1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q 10
R1(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
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R1(config-subif)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0.20
R1(config-subif)#encapsulation dot1Q 20
R1(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-subif)#exit
R1(config)#

15、Check routing table on R1.
R1#show ip route

Gateway of last resort is not set

C 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0.10
C 192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0.20

16、Ping test again on all PCS.
PC1#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 16/232/1040
ms
PC1#
PC1#ping 192.168.2.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 4/223/1012
ms
PC1#
PC1#ping 192.168.2.10

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.10, timeout is 2 seconds:
..!!!
Success rate is 60 percent (3/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 12/48/92 ms
PC1#
PC1#ping 192.168.2.20
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Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.2.20, timeout is 2 seconds:
..!!!
Success rate is 60 percent (3/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/52/96 ms
PC1#

PC2#ping 192.168.1.10

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.10, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/48/88 ms
PC2#

PC3#ping 192.168.1.10

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.10, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 12/50/88 ms
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Configuring L2 & L3 EtherChannel with PAGP Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose:
1、Master PAGP configuration.

Lab Steps:
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1、Connect two switches as the above topology.
2、Shutdown interfaces range from Fa1/0/1 – 22 on SW1 and SW2.
3、Check STP information on SW1.
SW1#show spanning-tree

VLAN0001
Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee
Root ID Priority 32769
Address 0014.a8e2.9880
Cost 19
Port 25 (FastEthernet1/0/23)
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)
Address 0014.a8f1.9880
Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec
Aging Time 300

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type
---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- --------------------------------
Fa1/0/23 Root FWD 19 128.25 P2p
Fa1/0/24 Altn BLK 19 128.26 P2p

4、To maximum the bandwidth usage rates, we'd like to combine two links together.
5、Enable Ethernet-Channel based on PAGE on SW1 and SW2.
SW1(config)#interface range fastEthernet 1/0/23 - 24
SW1(config-if-range)#switchport
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-protocol pagp
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
Creating a port-channel interface Port-channel 1

SW1(config-if-range)#exit
SW1(config)#exit

SW2(config)#interface range fastEthernet 1/0/23 - 24
SW2(config-if-range)#sw
SW2(config-if-range)#switchport
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-protocol pagp
SW2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode auto
Creating a port-channel interface Port-channel 1

SW2(config-if-range)#exit
SW2(config)#exit
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00:32:28: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet1/0/23,
changed state to down
00:32:28: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet1/0/24,
changed state to down

00:32:37: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet1/0/23,
changed state to up
00:32:38: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet1/0/24,
changed state to up

0:37:18: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Port-channel1, changed state to up
00:37:19: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Port-channel1, changed
state to up

6、TIPS: Descirable is the positive mode for PAGE, auto is the negative mode for PAGE.

7、Check interface based Ether-Channel information.
SW1#show interfaces fastEthernet 1/0/23 etherchannel
Port state = Up Mstr In-Bndl
Channel group = 1 Mode = Desirable-Sl Gcchange = 0
Port-channel = Po1 GC = 0x00010001 Pseudo port-channel = Po1
Port index = 0 Load = 0x00 Protocol = PAgP

Flags: S - Device is sending Slow hello. C - Device is in Consistent state.
A - Device is in Auto mode. P - Device learns on physical port.
d - PAgP is down.
Timers: H - Hello timer is running. Q - Quit timer is running.
S - Switching timer is running. I - Interface timer is running.

Local information:
Hello Partner PAgP Learning Group
Port Flags State Timers Interval Count Priority Method Ifindex
Fa1/0/23 SC U6/S7 H 30s 1 128 Any 5001

Partner's information:

Partner Partner Partner Partner Group
Port Name Device ID Port Age Flags Cap.
Fa1/0/23 SW2 0014.a8e2.9880 Fa1/0/23 20s SAC 10001

Age of the port in the current state: 00d:00h:06m:53s


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8、Check etherchannel port-channel information on SW1.
SW1#show etherchannel port-channel
Channel-group listing:
----------------------

Group: 1
----------
Port-channels in the group:
---------------------------

Port-channel: Po1
------------

Age of the Port-channel = 00d:00h:15m:37s
Logical slot/port = 10/1 Number of ports = 2
GC = 0x00010001 HotStandBy port = null
Port state = Port-channel Ag-Inuse
Protocol = PAgP

Ports in the Port-channel:

Index Load Port EC state No of bits
------+------+------+------------------+-----------
0 00 Fa1/0/23 Desirable-Sl 0
0 00 Fa1/0/24 Desirable-Sl 0

Time since last port bundled: 00d:00h:10m:27s Fa1/0/24

9、Check etherchannel summary information on SW1.
SW1#show etherchannel summary
Flags: D - down P - in port-channel
I - stand-alone s - suspended
H - Hot-standby (LACP only)
R - Layer3 S - Layer2
U - in use f - failed to allocate aggregator
u - unsuitable for bundling
w - waiting to be aggregated
d - default port


Number of channel-groups in use: 1
Number of aggregators: 1

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Group Port-channel Protocol Ports
------+-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------------
1 Po1(SU) PAgP Fa1/0/23(P) Fa1/0/24(P)

10、Check STP information on SW1.
SW1#show spanning-tree

………

Interface Role Sts Cost Prio.Nbr Type
---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- --------------------------------
Po1 Root FWD 12 128.616 P2p

11、Setup ip address for vlan1 on SW1 and SW2 to test Ethernet Channel connectivity.
SW1(config)#interface vlan 1
SW1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
SW1(config-if)#no shutdown
SW1(config-if)#exit

SW2(config)#interface vlan 1
SW2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
SW2(config-if)#no shutdown
SW2(config-if)#exit

12、Ping test between SW1 and SW2.
SW2#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms

13、To test the redundant feature of Ethernet Channel, we setup continues ping traffic,
meanwhile shutdown Fa0/23 on SW1 to see whether the ping traffic has been
interrupted.
SW2#ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 192.168.1.1
Repeat count [5]: 1000000
Datagram size [100]:
Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
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Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 1000000, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Seems well.

14、Remove layer 2 Ethernet Channel configuration, and enable layer 3 Ethernet
Channel.

15、Enable layer 3 Ethernet Channel on SW1 and SW2.
SW1(config)#interface port-channel 1
SW1(config-if)#no switchport
SW1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
SW1(config-if)#no shutdown
SW1(config-if)#exit
SW1(config)#
SW1(config)#
SW1(config)#interface range fastEthernet 1/0/23 - 24
SW1(config-if-range)#no switchport
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-protocol pagp
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
SW1(config-if-range)#exit
SW1(config)#exit
00:12:15: %EC-5-L3DONTBNDL1: Fa1/0/23 suspended: PAgP not enabled on the remote
port.
00:12:16: %EC-5-L3DONTBNDL1: Fa1/0/24 suspended: PAgP not enabled on the remote
port.

SW2(config)#interface port-channel 1
SW2(config-if)#no switchport
SW2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
SW2(config-if)#no shutdown
SW2(config-if)#exit
SW2(config)#
SW2(config)#interface range fastEthernet 1/0/23 - 24
SW2(config-if-range)#no switchport
SW2(config-if-range)#channel-protocol pagp
SW2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
SW2(config)#exit
00:20:02: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet1/0/23,
changed state to up
00:20:02: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet1/0/24,
changed state to up
00:20:03: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Port-channel1, changed state to up
00:20:04: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Port-channel1, changed
state to up
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16、Check Ethernet Channel summary information on SW2.
SW2#show etherchannel summary
Flags: D - down P - in port-channel
I - stand-alone s - suspended
H - Hot-standby (LACP only)
R - Layer3 S - Layer2
U - in use f - failed to allocate aggregator
u - unsuitable for bundling
w - waiting to be aggregated
d - default port


Number of channel-groups in use: 1
Number of aggregators: 1

Group Port-channel Protocol Ports
------+-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------------
1 Po1(RU) PAgP Fa1/0/23(P) Fa1/0/24(P)

17、Ping test on SW2.
SW2#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.!!!!
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms
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Configuring L2 & L3 EtherChannel with LACP Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Master LACP configuration.

Lab Steps:
1、Connect two switches as the above topology.
2、Shutdown interfaces range from Fa1/0/1 – 22 on SW1 and SW2.
3、Enable LACP on SW1 and SW2.
SW1(config)#interface range fastEthernet 1/0/23 - 24
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-protocol lacp
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode active
Creating a port-channel interface Port-channel 1
SW1(config-if-range)#exit

SW2(config)#interface range fastEthernet 1/0/23 - 24
SW2(config-if-range)#channel-protocol lacp
SW2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode passive
SW2(config-if-range)#exit

4、Check etherchannel summary information on SW1.
SW1#show etherchannel summary
Flags: D - down P - in port-channel
I - stand-alone s - suspended
H - Hot-standby (LACP only)
R - Layer3 S - Layer2
U - in use f - failed to allocate aggregator
u - unsuitable for bundling
w - waiting to be aggregated
d - default port

Number of channel-groups in use: 1
Number of aggregators: 1

Group Port-channel Protocol Ports
------+-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------------
1 Po1(SU) LACP Fa1/0/23(P) Fa1/0/24(P)

5、Setup ip address for vlan1 on SW1 and SW2 to test Ethernet Channel connectivity.
SW1(config)#interface vlan 1
SW1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
SW1(config-if)#no shutdown
SW1(config-if)#exit
SW1(config)#
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SW2(config)#interface vlan 1
SW2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
SW2(config-if)#no shutdown
SW2(config-if)#exit
Ping test between SW1 and SW2.
SW1#ping 192.168.1.2

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
.!!!!
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms

6、Remove Layer2 LACP configuration.
7、Enable layer3 LACP on SW1 and SW2.
SW1(config)#interface port-channel 1
SW1(config-if)#no switchport
SW1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
SW1(config-if)#no shutdown
SW1(config-if)#exit
SW1(config)#
SW1(config)#interface range fastEthernet 1/0/23 - 24
SW1(config-if-range)#no switchport
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-protocol lacp
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode active
SW1(config-if-range)#exit

SW2(config)#interface port-channel 1
SW2(config-if)#no switchport
SW2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
SW2(config-if)#no shutdown
SW2(config-if)#exit
SW2(config)#
SW2(config)#interface range fastEthernet 1/0/23 - 24
SW2(config-if-range)#no switchport
SW2(config-if-range)#channel-protocol lacp
SW2(config-if-range)#
SW2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode passive
SW2(config-if-range)#exit
SW2(config)#exit

8、Check etherchannel summary information on SW1 and SW2.
SW2#show etherchannel summary
Flags: D - down P - in port-channel
I - stand-alone s - suspended
H - Hot-standby (LACP only)
R - Layer3 S - Layer2
U - in use f - failed to allocate aggregator
u - unsuitable for bundling
w - waiting to be aggregated
d - default port

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Number of channel-groups in use: 1
Number of aggregators: 1

Group Port-channel Protocol Ports
------+-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------------
1 Po1(RU) LACP Fa1/0/23(P) Fa1/0/24(P)


SW1#show etherchannel summary
Flags: D - down P - in port-channel
I - stand-alone s - suspended
H - Hot-standby (LACP only)
R - Layer3 S - Layer2
U - in use f - failed to allocate aggregator
u - unsuitable for bundling
w - waiting to be aggregated
d - default port


Number of channel-groups in use: 1
Number of aggregators: 1

Group Port-channel Protocol Ports
------+-------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------------
1 Po1(RU) LACP Fa1/0/23(P) Fa1/0/24(P)

9、Ping test between SW1 and SW2.
SW2#ping 192.168.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.!!!!
Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms
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Configuring Layer 3 Redundancy with HSRP Lab
Topology
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Lab Purpose:
1、Master HSRP principal.
2、Master HSRP configuration.
3、Understanding HSRP preempt and track feature.


Lab Steps:
1、Finish basic IP configuration.
R1(config)#interface loopback 0
R1(config-if)#ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#no shutdown
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#interface loopback 0
R2(config-if)#ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
R2(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#no shutdown
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#
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2、PC1 basic configuration, set default gateway to the HSRP virtual ip address.
PC1(config)#no ip routing
PC1(config)#
PC1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
PC1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.10 255.255.255.0
PC1(config-if)#no shutdown
PC1(config-if)#exit
PC1(config)#
PC1(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.1
PC1(config)#exit

3、Ping test from PC1 to network 10.1.1.0/24
PC1#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
PC1#

4、Enable HSRP on R1 and R2.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#standby 1 ip 192.168.1.1

R2(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R2(config-if)#standby 1 ip 192.168.1.1

5、Below output will following the HSRP configuration.
00:13:27: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: FastEthernet0/0 Group 1 state Standby -> Active

6、Check HSRP group information on R1 and R2.
R1#show standby
FastEthernet0/0 - Group 1
Local state is Active, priority 100
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 1.348
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.1 configured
Active router is local
Standby router is 192.168.1.3, priority 100 expires in 7.812
Virtual mac address is 0000.0c07.ac01
5 state changes, last state change 00:00:10
IP redundancy name is "hsrp-Fa0/0-1" (default)
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R2#show standby
FastEthernet0/0 - Group 1
Local state is Standby, priority 100
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 2.686
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.1 configured
Active router is 192.168.1.2, priority 100 expires in 7.748
Standby router is local
8 state changes, last state change 00:03:11
IP redundancy name is "hsrp-Fa0/0-1" (default)

7、Ping and trace-route to destination 10.1.1.1 on PC1.
PC1#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 44/300/1100 ms
PC1#
PC1#traceroute 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.1.1

1 192.168.1.2 68 msec 56 msec *
PC1#

8、Check arp table on PC1, we can see the HSRP virtual MAC address is 0000.0c07.ac01
PC1#show arp
Protocol Address Age (min) Hardware Addr Type Interface
Internet 192.168.1.10 - ca02.0be4.0000 ARPA FastEthernet0/0
Internet 192.168.1.1 12 0000.0c07.ac01 ARPA FastEthernet0/0

9、Use continues ping to test redundant feature of HSRP.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#shutdown
00:39:48: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: FastEthernet0/0 Group 1 state Active -> Init
PC1#ping
Protocol [ip]:
Target IP address: 10.1.1.1
Repeat count [5]: 1000000
Datagram size [100]:
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Timeout in seconds [2]:
Extended commands [n]:
Sweep range of sizes [n]:
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 1000000, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.....!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Success rate is 99 percent (456/461), round-trip min/avg/max = 16/72/560 ms
00:39:56: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: FastEthernet0/0 Group 1 state Standby -> Active
Everything will be back in 10 seconds.

10、Ping and trace-route to destination 10.1.1.1 on PC1 again, we can see the real next
hop changed from 192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.3
PC1>ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/57/108 ms
PC1>
PC1>traceroute 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.1.1

1 192.168.1.3 32 msec 28 msec *
PC1>

11、Based on the above test, we can see HSRP can provide redundant feature.
12、No shutdown Fa0/0 on R1.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#no shutdown
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#

13、Check HSRP group information on R1, we found the active router is still R2.
R1#show standby
FastEthernet0/0 - Group 1
Local state is Standby, priority 100
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 0.450
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Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.1 configured
Active router is 192.168.1.3, priority 100 expires in 9.672
Standby router is local
7 state changes, last state change 00:00:34
IP redundancy name is "hsrp-Fa0/0-1" (default)

14、If we want R1 back to the active router when it's up again, then we need to enable
preempt feature on R1.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#standby 1 priority 200
R1(config-if)#standby 1 preempt
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#
R1#
00:55:55: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: FastEthernet0/0 Group 1 state Standby -> Active

15、Check HSRP group information on R2.
R2#show standby
FastEthernet0/0 - Group 1
Local state is Standby, priority 100
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 2.722
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.1 configured
Active router is 192.168.1.2, priority 200 expires in 7.452
Standby router is local
11 state changes, last state change 00:03:53
IP redundancy name is "hsrp-Fa0/0-1" (default)

16、HSRP can also track link state to provide high availability, enable track on R1, and
enable preempt on R2.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#standby 1 priority 200
R1(config-if)#standby 1 preempt
R1(config-if)#standby 1 track loopback 0 150
R1(config-if)#exit
R1(config)#

R2(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R2(config-if)#standby 1 preempt
R2(config-if)#

17、Enable HSRP debug and shutdown loopback 0 on R1, we can see the HSRP priority
of R1 down to 50.
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R1#debug standby events
HSRP Events debugging is on
R1#
R1#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
R1(config)#
R1(config)#interface loopback 0
R1(config-if)#shutdown
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#
01:09:58: SB: Fa0/0 Grp 1 Tracked interface Loopback0 Down
01:09:58: SB: Fa0/0 Grp 1 Priority 200/200 -> 50/200
01:09:58: SB1: Fa0/0 Active: j/Coup rcvd from higher pri router (100/192.168.1.3)
01:09:58: SB1: Fa0/0 Active router is 192.168.1.3, was local
01:09:58: SB: Fa0/0 Remove active hash 192.168.1.2 (vIP 192.168.1.1)
01:09:58: SB: Fa0/0 Remove passive hash 192.168.1.3 (frc 0)
01:09:58: SB: Fa0/0 Add active hash 192.168.1.3 (vIP 192.168.1.1)
01:09:58: SB1: Fa0/0 Standby router is unknown, was 192.168.1.3
01:09:58: SB1: Fa0/0 Active -> Speak
01:09:58: %STANDBY-6-STATECHANGE: FastEthernet0/0 Group 1 state Active -> Speak
01:09:58: SB1: Fa0/0 Redundancy "hsrp-Fa0/0-1" state Active -> Speak
01:09:58: SB: Fa0/0 Redirect adv start
01:09:58: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Loopback0, changed state to administratively
down
01:10:08: SB1: Fa0/0 Speak: d/Standby timer expired (unknown)
01:10:08: SB1: Fa0/0 Standby router is local
01:10:08: SB1: Fa0/0 Speak -> Standby
01:10:08: SB1: Fa0/0 Redundancy "hsrp-Fa0/0-1" state Speak -> Standby

18、Check HSRP group information on R1 and R2.
R1#show standby
FastEthernet0/0 - Group 1
Local state is Standby, priority 50 (confgd 200), may preempt
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 2.668
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.1 configured
Active router is 192.168.1.3, priority 100 expires in 8.252
Standby router is local
13 state changes, last state change 00:01:19
IP redundancy name is "hsrp-Fa0/0-1" (default)
Priority tracking 1 interface, 0 up:
Interface Decrement State
Loopback0 150 Down (administratively down)
R1#
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R2#show standby
FastEthernet0/0 - Group 1
Local state is Active, priority 100, may preempt
Hellotime 3 sec, holdtime 10 sec
Next hello sent in 0.808
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.1 configured
Active router is local
Standby router is 192.168.1.2, priority 50 expires in 9.128
Virtual mac address is 0000.0c07.ac01
15 state changes, last state change 00:00:57
IP redundancy name is "hsrp-Fa0/0-1" (default)
Priority tracking 1 interface, 1 up:
Interface Decrement State
Loopback0 10 Up
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Configuring Layer 3 Redundancy with VRRP Lab
Topology

Lab Purpose:
1、Master HSRP configuration.
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Lab Steps:
1、Finish PC configuration according to the topology.
PC1(config)#no ip routing
PC1(config)#
PC1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
PC1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.10 255.255.255.0
PC1(config-if)#no cdp enable
PC1(config-if)#no shutdown
PC1(config-if)#exit
PC1(config)#
PC1(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.1
PC1(config)#exit

PC2(config)#no ip routing
PC2(config)#
PC2(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
PC2(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.20 255.255.255.0
PC2(config-if)#no cdp enable
PC2(config-if)#no shutdown
PC2(config-if)#exit
PC2(config)#
PC2(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.2
PC2(config)#exit

2、Ping test and track test on PC1 and PC2.
PC1#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 48/60/72 ms
PC1#
PC1#traceroute 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.1.1

1 192.168.1.1 12 msec * 96 msec
PC1#

PC2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 72/293/1084 ms
PC2#
PC2#traceroute 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.1.1

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1 192.168.1.2 120 msec * 72 msec
PC2#

3、Shutdown Fa0/0 on R1.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#shutdown
R1(config-if)#

4、Ping test and track test on PC1 and PC2 again, we can see there is no redundant
solution although there are 2 links.
PC1#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
PC1#
PC1#traceroute 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.1.1

1 * * *
2 * * *
3 * * *
………

PC2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 72/128/160 ms
PC2#
PC2#tr
PC2#traceroute 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.1.1

1 192.168.1.2 112 msec * 96 msec
PC2#

5、Enable VRRP on R1 and R2.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#vrrp 1 ip 192.168.1.1
R1(config-if)#vrrp 1 priority 200
R1(config-if)#vrrp 1 preempt
R1(config-if)#
R1(config-if)#vrrp 2 ip 192.168.1.2
R1(config-if)#vrrp 2 priority 100
R1(config-if)#vrrp 2 preempt
R1(config-if)#exit
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R1(config)#

R2(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R2(config-if)#vrrp 1 ip 192.168.1.1
R2(config-if)#vrrp 1 priority 100
R2(config-if)#vrrp 1 preempt
R2(config-if)#
R2(config-if)#vrrp 2 ip 192.168.1.2
R2(config-if)#vrrp 2 priority 200
R2(config-if)#vrrp 2 preempt
R2(config-if)#exit
R2(config)#exit
R2#

6、Check VRRP group information on R1 and R2.
R1#show vrrp
FastEthernet0/0 - Group 1
State is Master
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.1
Virtual MAC address is 0000.5e00.0101
Advertisement interval is 1.000 sec
Preemption enabled
Priority is 255 (cfgd 200)
Master Router is 192.168.1.1 (local), priority is 255
Master Advertisement interval is 1.000 sec
Master Down interval is 3.003 sec

FastEthernet0/0 - Group 2
State is Backup
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.2
Virtual MAC address is 0000.5e00.0102
Advertisement interval is 1.000 sec
Preemption enabled
Priority is 100
Master Router is 192.168.1.2, priority is 255
Master Advertisement interval is 1.000 sec
Master Down interval is 3.609 sec (expires in 3.349 sec)

R2#show vrrp
FastEthernet0/0 - Group 1
State is Backup
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.1
Virtual MAC address is 0000.5e00.0101
Advertisement interval is 1.000 sec
Preemption enabled
Priority is 100
Master Router is 192.168.1.1, priority is 255
Master Advertisement interval is 1.000 sec
Master Down interval is 3.609 sec (expires in 2.773 sec)

FastEthernet0/0 - Group 2
State is Master
Virtual IP address is 192.168.1.2
Virtual MAC address is 0000.5e00.0102
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Advertisement interval is 1.000 sec
Preemption enabled
Priority is 255 (cfgd 200)
Master Router is 192.168.1.2 (local), priority is 255
Master Advertisement interval is 1.000 sec
Master Down interval is 3.003 sec

7、Shutdown Fa0/0 on R1 again.
R1(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
R1(config-if)#shutdown
R1(config-if)#
*Jul 8 21:49:59.131: %VRRP-6-STATECHANGE: Fa0/0 Grp 1 state Master -> Init
*Jul 8 21:49:59.135: %VRRP-6-STATECHANGE: Fa0/0 Grp 2 state Backup -> Init

R2#
*Jul 8 21:50:03.191: %VRRP-6-STATECHANGE: Fa0/0 Grp 1 state Backup -> Master
R2#

8、Ping test and track test on PC1 and PC2 again, this time we've got redundancy.
PC1#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 48/78/96 ms
PC1#
PC1#traceroute 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.1.1

1 192.168.1.2 92 msec * 120 msec
PC1#

PC2#ping 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.1.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 72/172/452 ms
PC2#
PC2#traceroute 10.1.1.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.1.1.1

1 192.168.1.2 132 msec * 168 msec
PC2#
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