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EVolViNg MoBile BacKHaul to UNleasH tHe BeNeFits oF EVolVed Radio Access aNd PacKet Core
Enabling the Next Decade of Mobile Internet Profitability
To compete effectively, mobile service providers (MSPs) need to evolve their offerings from current best-effort mobile broadband service to mobile Internet experiences that can be differentiated for application and subscriber. The key requirement is to simultaneously run real-time and non real-time, person to person, and client/server, MSP-hosted and over-the-top (OTT) applications. To fulfill this, providers are deploying the Evolved Packet System (EPS) specified by the Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as depicted in figure 1. This eliminates the centralized radio network controller to flatten the network and separates the Control plane from the User plane to allow for deployment flexibility. Consequently, Cell-sites require full-mesh connectivity with neighboring cell-sites and user and control plane nodes deployed at any location in aggregation and backbone transport network.

As mobile operators deploy 4G/ LTE radio access and packet core to support smart devices, legacy mobile backhaul has become a barrier. Clearly mobile service providers need an evolved mobile backhaul to deliver the rich broadband experiences that Internet users have come to expect.

Juniper’s evolved mobile backhaul solution creates an access network between cell sites and mobile packet core. It offers Single control, forwarding and management plane from cell-site to packet core, fieldproven high precision timing for both frequency and phase synchronization, and the industry’s first open platform.
Hosted Services Internet Off-net Services IP HLR HSS PCRF Hosted Services On-net Services







Hierarchical to Flat; Hub-Spoke to Fully Meshed; TDM to All-IP;



Control Plane

User Plane 3 GPP Evolved Packet System

• Operational intelligence and traffic steering for efficient mobile data traffic management, improving AMPU (average margin per user) and quality of experience • Designed for any generation radio access and any size cell • Open platform providing unlimited possibilities in cell site consolidation, analytics, and management bringing increased innovation and maximum capital leverage of mobile assets


Node B

Node B

Node B

Figure 1: 3GPP Architecture evolution from 3G to 4G/LTE Evolved Packet System(EPS).

The Challenge
The prevailing approach of upgrading mobile backhaul from time-division multiplexing (TDM) to Ethernet switching is preventing MSPs from unleashing the benefits of an evolved radio access and packet core. The main problem is that it is executed on top of the transport bearer consisting of several disparate control and forwarding mechanisms from cell site to the data center (e.g., IP/MPLS in the backbone, and Ethernet switching with TDM/ATM pseudowires in the access and aggregation layers). Such legacy mobile backhaul upgrades are further challenged by the emerging solutions for handling ever growing mobile signaling and data traffic, which include: • Converged fixed and mobile networks to keep the low value bits on the lower cost network • Small cells (microcell, picocell, public femtocell) piggybacked over macrocell backhaul or other available access networks


MPLS-based mobile transport provides scale to support all required connections from cell sites in a service region. Juniper Networks evolved traditional mobile backhaul across the following three dimensions: 1. 2 . -. while breaking out local IP access flows at the small cell as depicted in Figure 3. ATM. -. and unified network management. ePDG and SaMOG) as MPLS service nodes (SNs) enable optimal traffic management by routing selective IP flows at SNs located at metro-pop or peering point. aggregation.Each cell site requires a minimum of six connections with several EPS gateways. dynamic intercell interference coordination). Internetworking cell sites with packet core nodes using MPLS based common control and forwarding across the access. and backbone parts of the mobile transport as depicted in fig. but also enables efficient mobile traffic management across multiple accesses. -.MPLS-TE (traffic engineering) and hierarchical quality of service (QoS) provide for guaranteed bit rate and best-effort simultaneously. For load sharing and resiliency. 2. -.Flexible placement of EPS gateways (S-GW. -. Internet traffic from small cell or Wi-Fi access). -.Emerging ring.Supports low latency and lossless inter-cell site connectivity (X-2 interface) among tens of neighboring 4G/Long Term Evolution cell sites required for seamless mobility and LTEAdvanced features (aka coordinated multipoint. -. and point-to-multipoint (P2MP) transport links over fiber and microwave are efficiently leveraged by a Layer 3 network. providing aggregated maximum bit rate per subscribers with call-admission control. these EPS gateways are pooled. To this end. As a mobile network typically consists of several thousand cell sites in each service region. and High-Speed Data Link Control (HDLC) pseudowires over MPLS or MPLS transport profile (MPS-TP). mesh. and backbone transport. Due to Layer 3 routing selective traffic can be directly routed to bypass the MTSO (for example. National Data Center GGSN/P-GW GGSN/P-GW SGW Pool MPLS from Cell-site to Packet Core Packet Core Backbone MME Pool Regional Data Center MX Series RNC BSC S1-Control Flex MTSO S1-Control Flex Aggregation Layer Iu-B M Series X-2 Access Layer ACX Series Cell Site BTS NB eNB Figure 2: Common MPLS control and forwarding from cell site to packet core. which further increases the required connections by the pool size.Allows for smooth 2G and 3G backhaul migration to the evolved packet core as it supports TDM. The Juniper Networks Evolved Mobile Backhaul Solution Meeting these challenges without sacrificing the MSP’s profit margin requires decoupling EPS User and Control plane from the transport bearer.• Low value traffic breakout as early as possible in the backhaul network to save precious resources • Sharing the radio access network with multiple MSPs • Transporting baseband radio signals from remote radio heads to centralized baseband processing locations The overriding goal for MSPs is to design a transport network between cell site and data center that not only unleashes the EPS benefits. aggregation.Cell sites may have to support many more inter-cell sites and EPS gateway connections when small cells are piggybacked over cell site transport. each deployed at various levels in preaggregation. automated service provisioning.

UMTS LTETDD. • Juniper’s solution enables industry-leading wire-rate support for multicast VPLS and VPN. and frequency accuracy of less than 1 part per billion(ppb). Open network platforms for ecosystem integration across cell site. node. As multi-generational radio access technologies (GSM. element. phase. aggregation. unified in-service software upgrade (unified ISSU). L2/ L3 service mirroring. service mirroring. • Multilayer resiliency is enabled by offering path. • In the event that a timing source is lost. and packet core. with longer term innovations being built on this platform through open network programmability. • Juniper Networks Junos Space supports configuration and provisioning of synchronization interfaces such as IEEE15882008 (PTP) and SyncE. T1/E1. coordinated multipoint transmission and dynamic intercell interference coordination). The near term evolution of mobile backhaul emphasizes capacity enhancements and architectural optimizations as the foundation for enabling the next generation of mobility services. Juniper’s solution offers frequency holdover time of more than 24 hrs. fast Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD). including Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE). and it delivers route convergence within 24 seconds for 1 million routes. Optimal synchronization that delivers frequency. multichassis link aggregation group (LAG) and L2/L3 redundancy. IEEE 1588-2008 (PTP). 4. • It exceeds the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard G. difficult for service providers.. cost effectively. Field-proven. loop-free alternate (LFA). and BITS. access. is offered on Juniper Networks® ACX Series Universal Access Routers and MX Series 3D Universal Edge Routers. Administration. enhanced local repair capabilities for service continuity are provided with features such as MPLS fast reroute. and time of day. Dynamic customer demands coupled with rapidly evolving technology make meeting marketing needs in a timely manner.and inter-radio access handovers. • Further. as depcted in fig. L2 active/active access. Virtual Chassis technology. Juniper’s timing has the best performance in the industry with phase accuracy of sub-ms. all running a single Juniper Networks Junos® operating system. radio interference avoidance. Features and Benefits Industry’s most comprehensive and widely deployed MPLS service portfolio: • Juniper’s end-to-end MPLS solution. and it also provides performance and fault monitoring capabilities with probes to test clock accuracy.8261 requirements for stringent jitter and wanders. interoperable and already deployed in many networks. best-in-class timing for frequency and phase synchronization: • Juniper Networks mobile backhaul evolution supports comprehensive timing and synchronization options. both frequency and phase (with time of day) synchronization will be required at such cell sites to provide seamless intra.g. This application allows creation and management of timing domains that comprise Precision Time Protocol (PTP) grandmasters and clients. • It is highly scalable. 3. and protocol level reliability through nonstop active RNC/BSC AAA BRAS BNG GGSN SGSN L2/L3 Services Multi media PW P LS SGW Database Server MME L3 Any-to-Any Services PGW PW LS P PW LSP SN LSP SN SN LSP SN LSP PW EN Access and Aggregation Backbone Access and Aggregation EN Converged “Seamless” MPLS Network Figure 3: Single MPLS enables intelligent mobile traffic management across fixed and mobile networks. and improved spectral efficiency with upcoming LTE-Advanced features (e. • Operation. link. 3 . routing (NSR). and multihoming. and Maintenance (OAM) detectionbased local repair delivers the required sub-50 ms restoration. LTE-FDD) are present at the same cell sites.2.

which consists of a comprehensive set of interconnected applications for service provisioning. -. -. ACX Series Universal Edge 1588v2 Grand Master SyncEMaster 1588v2BC MX Series RNC/BSC Mobile Access (Eth/MPLS/MPLS-TP) MX80 ACX Series GGSN MX240 SGW SGSN Pre-Aggregation (Eth/MPLS/MPLS-TP) Metro Aggregation (MPLS/MPLS-TP) 1588v2 Grand Master MME PGW ACX Series MX Series MX240 BRAS BNG ACX Series MX240 AAA Converged Access (Eth/MPLS/MPLS-TP) ACX Series 1588v2 Grand Master Multi media Database Server ACX Series Small Cells Figure 4: Juniper Networks evolved mobile backhaul solution. as well as static LSPs.Configure and provision synchronization interfaces such as IEEE1588-2008(PTP) and SyncE. enabling service providers to efficiently and cost-effectively manage deployments while reducing fallouts from misconfigured services. manageability. • With support for open hardware integration. automation. • These basic administration capabilities are augmented by Network Activate. and validation of the provisioning process for L2/L3 VPNs across MPLS and carrier Ethernet networks.The Junos Space platform and applications are all accessible through a Representational State Transfer (REST)-based API from northbound systems. operators can further reduce power and space requirements by seamlessly consolidating other network elements such as microwave IDUs (InDoor Unit). provision and activate RSVP signaled label-switched paths (LSPs). 4 . -.Automate the design. and rapid innovation: • Juniper’s evolved mobile backhaul solution offers unmatched open APIs for integration of new services. enabling software applications and hardware components to be embedded in the network by running on top of Junos OS.Perform management functions such as Ethernet Connectivity Fault Management (CFM). path configuration.Create QoS profiles and associate them to specific Ethernet services. -.Design. Juniper’s partner Nokia Siemens Networks leverages the dynamic adaptability of its liquid radio technology by Junos application that collects real-time traffic information from access and aggregation nodes and based on that triggers policy enforcement from Junos Space. manageability functions. SNMP. LSPs can be configured as end-to-end. and BFD. -. service provisioning. This enables operators to build native applications on their operations/business support systems (OSS/BSS). P2P. • It incorporates Juniper Networks Junos SDK. • The Junos Space platform provides powerful device instrumentation (NETCONF/XML. enables users to: -. analytics. or P2MP LSPs. Ethernet link-level fault detection and management. As an example. activation. together with other Junos Space applications. QoS configuration. synchronization management. and tap into the rich functionality of the Junos Space platform and applications. CLI). and orchestration. applications. rapid deployment support. and complete remote management such as remote software upgrade. and OAM Network Activate.Junos OS for rapid hardware and software integration. and diagnostics tools. Junos Space Network Management Platform Junos Space network management platform with Network Activate is an integral part of Juniper’s Advanced Mobile Backhaul Solution portfolio. monitoring.

County Dublin. It enables per-flow QoS. and the Modular Port Concentrator (MPC) for high-scale session and service. the Juniper Networks logo. NetScreen. All of the features and benefits of MPLS described above are enabled by the MX Series router. Inc. ACX Series integrates timing synchronization with inputs and outputs for SyncE. It enables increased call quality. ACX Series Universal Access Routers The ACX Series is a 60 Gbps platform with 10GbE uplinks providing the highest performance of any access router in the . registered APAC Headquarters Juniper Networks (Hong Kong) 26/F. Juniper Networks. Ireland Phone: 35. It is an open access system with extensibility for services or hardware. modify. and it offers dynamic multilayered service creation with the Trio chipset for greater scale and performance. ACX Series supports Power over Ethernet (POE+) at 60 W.2000 Fax: 408.jnpr. and GPS. The MX Series also includes service cards such as the Multiservices Dense Port Concentrator (MS-DPC) for advanced inline services.4737 Fax: 35. service marks. transfer. so there is no need for additional electrical cabling for microwave or other access interfaces.JUNIPER (888. reduced dropped calls. Summary—Juniper’s Evolved Mobile Access Unleashes 4G/LTE Benefits and Profits Unlike legacy backhaul upgrades.600 EMEA Sales: 00800. Cityplaza One 1111 King’s Road Taikoo Shing. aggregation and edge enabling rich mobile Internet experiences that help drive revenue and unleash 4G/LTE benefits and profits.7803 EMEA Headquarters Juniper Networks Ireland Airside Business Park Swords. or otherwise revise this publication without notice. IEEE15882008 (PTP). highest resiliency. All rights reserved.2574. increasing the reliability of the network and offering simplicity and scale with service and scalable handling of traffic from any size any generation radio cell.745. Juniper Networks reserves the right to change. please visit http://www-int. dynamic. or registered service marks are the property of their respective owners.745. It is an environmentally hardened access router with passive cooling. intelligent IP/MPLS converged edge platform. and MX5 3D Universal Edge Routers. ACX Series Universal Access Routers and MX Series 3D Universal Edge Routers with single and open Junos OS provide industry’s highest performing IP/MPLS platforms across any access.000 hours.4586. please contact your Juniper Networks representative at 1-866-298-6428 or authorized reseller.4737) or 408.Solution Components MX Series 3D Universal Edge Routers The MX Series is an Ethernet optimized.8903. 3510437-001-EN Jan 2012 Printed on recycled paper 5 . CA 94089 USA Phone: 888. Inc.2100 www.601 To purchase Juniper Networks solutions. All other Juniper Networks delivers the software. and packet core for intelligent. it is the industry’s first open cell site platform offering an SDK for rapid integration of hardware appliances and agile operations. Hong Kong Phone: 852. Inc. Next Steps To learn more about Juniper Networks Mobile Access Solution. aggregation. 1194 North Mathilda Avenue Sunnyvale. silicon and systems that transform the experience and economics of networking. MX10. and it features a standards-based programming interface that provides integration with existing services and tools. MX80. It contains several platforms—Juniper Networks l or contact your local Juniper Networks sales representative. MX240.2332. from consumers to cloud providers. and simplified OAM. and ScreenOS are registered trademarks of Juniper Networks. Juniper’s evolved mobile access solution creates an access network between cell sites and mobile packet core. And.3636 Fax: 852. Additional information can be found at www. Corporate and Sales Headquarters Juniper Networks. in the United States and other countries. These systems will function from pre-aggregation to the edge of the network. Juniper Networks assumes no responsibility for any inaccuracies in this document. It provides single control and forwarding across cell sites. From devices to data centers. Copyright 2012 Juniper Networks. About Juniper Networks Juniper Networks is in the business of network innovation. and optimized spectrum utilization with its field-proven high precision timing for both frequency and phase synchronization.8903. Junos. MX40. and a minimum mean time between failures (MTBF) of 70. The company serves customers and partners worldwide. MX480.31.