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Ubuntu Desktop Guide

Ubuntu Documentation Project <ubuntu-doc@lists.ubuntu.com>
Ubuntu Desktop Guide
by Ubuntu Documentation Project <ubuntu-doc@lists.ubuntu.com>
Copyright © 2004, 2005, 2006 Canonical Ltd. and members of the Ubuntu Documentation Project

Abstract
Welcome to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide, a comprehensive guide to using Ubuntu in a desktop
environment.

Credits and License
The following Ubuntu Documentation Team authors maintain this document:
• Brian Burger
• Matthew East

The following people have contributed to this document:
• Naaman Campbell
• Milo Casagrande
• Robert Stoffers

The Ubuntu Desktop Guide is based on the original work of:
• Chua Wen Kiat
• Tomas Zijdemans
• Abdullah Ramazanoglu
• Christoph Haas
• Alexander Poslavsky
• Enrico Zini
• Johnathon Hornbeck
• Nick Loeve
• Kevin Muligan
• Niel Tallim
• Matt Galvin
• Sean Wheller

This document is made available under a dual license strategy that includes the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)
and the Creative Commons ShareAlike 2.0 License (CC-BY-SA).

You are free to modify, extend, and improve the Ubuntu documentation source code under the terms of these licenses. All
derivative works must be released under either or both of these licenses.

This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the
implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AS DESCRIBED IN THE
DISCLAIMER.

Copies of these licenses are available in the appendices section of this book. Online versions can be found at the following
URLs:
• GNU Free Documentation License [http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html]
• Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/]

Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information compiled in this publication is accurate and correct. However, this
does not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither Canonical Ltd., the authors, nor translators shall be held liable for possible
errors or the consequences thereof.
Some of the software and hardware descriptions cited in this publication may be registered trademarks and may thus fall
under copyright restrictions and trade protection laws. In no way do the authors make claim to any such names.

THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS
BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE
OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Table of Contents
About This Guide .............................................................................................. v
1. Introduction to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide ............................................... vi
2. Conventions ........................................................................................... vii
3. Contributing and Feedback ..................................................................... viii
1. Getting Started ............................................................................................... 9
1. About Ubuntu ........................................................................................ 10
2. Getting Ubuntu ...................................................................................... 14
3. Linux Basics .......................................................................................... 15
2. Adding, Removing and Updating Applications ................................................. 21
1. Introduction ........................................................................................... 22
2. Add/Remove Applications ...................................................................... 23
3. Synaptic Package Manager ..................................................................... 24
4. Command Line Package Management ..................................................... 25
5. Installing a Single Package File ............................................................... 26
6. Extra Repositories .................................................................................. 28
7. Updates .................................................................................................. 30
3. Common Tasks .............................................................................................. 31
1. Music .................................................................................................... 32
2. Video ..................................................................................................... 35
3. Multimedia Codecs ................................................................................. 38
4. Internet .................................................................................................. 39
5. Office .................................................................................................... 43
6. Graphics & Drawing .............................................................................. 45
7. Games ................................................................................................... 46
8. Programming ......................................................................................... 48
4. Configuring Your System ............................................................................... 50
1. Desktop Tricks ....................................................................................... 51
2. Partitions and Booting ............................................................................ 57
3. Hardware ............................................................................................... 60
4. Networking ............................................................................................ 65
5. Getting More Help ......................................................................................... 66
A. Creative Commons by Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 ........................................... 67
B. GNU Free Documentation License ................................................................. 73

iv
About This Guide

v
About This Guide

1. Introduction to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide
Welcome to the Ubuntu Desktop Guide, a comprehensive guide to using Ubuntu in a
desktop environment.

The guide is divided into the following chapters:
1. Getting Started - An introduction to the world of Ubuntu and some basic concepts
which are useful when getting started.
2. Adding, Removing and Updating Applications - How to manage your software in
Ubuntu.
3. Common Tasks - Performing common tasks on Ubuntu, including playing music and
video, using the internet, office and graphics programs and more.
4. Configuring Your System - Change the settings of your Ubuntu system according to
your needs.
5. Getting More Help - Where to find help if this guide doesn't provide the answer.

HTML and PDF versions of the manual are available online at the Ubuntu Documentation
website [http://help.ubuntu.com].

You can buy this guide in book form from our Lulu store
[http://www.lulu.com/ubuntu-doc]. You will only pay for the price of printing and postage.

vi
About This Guide

2. Conventions
The following notes will be used throughout the book:

A note presents interesting, sometimes technical, pieces of information related to
the surrounding discussion.

A tip offers advice or an easier way of doing something.

A caution alerts the reader to potential problems and helps avoid them.

A warning advises the reader of a hazard that may arise in a given scenario.

Cross-reference conventions for print will be displayed as follows:
• Links to other documents or websites will look like this [http://www.ubuntu.com].

PDF, HTML, and XHTML versions of this document will use hyperlinks to
handle cross-referencing.

Type conventions will be displayed as follows:
• File names or paths to directories will be shown in monospace.
• Commands that you type at a Terminal command prompt will be shown as:

command to type

• Options that you click, select, or choose in a user interface will be shown in monospace
type.

Menu selections, mouse actions, and keyboard short-cuts:
• A sequence of menu selections will be displayed as follows: File → Open

• Mouse actions shall assume a right-handed mouse configuration. The terms “click”
and “double-click” refer to using the left mouse button. The term “right-click” refers to
using the right mouse button. The term “middle-click” refers to using the middle mouse
button, pressing down on the scroll wheel, or pressing both the left and right buttons
simultaneously, based on the design of your mouse.
• Keyboard shortcut combinations will be displayed as follows: Ctrl-N .Where the
conventions for “Control”, “Shift,” and “Alternate” keys will be Ctrl, Shift, and Alt,
respectively, and shall mean the first key is to be held down while pressing the second
key.

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About This Guide

3. Contributing and Feedback
This book is developed by the Ubuntu Documentation Team
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/DocumentationTeam]. You can contribute to this document by
sending ideas or comments to the Ubuntu Documentation Team mailing list. Information
about the team, its mailing lists, projects, etc. can be found on the Ubuntu Documentation
Team Website [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/DocumentationTeam].

If you see a problem with this document, or would like to make a
suggestion, you can simply file a bug report at the Ubuntu Bugtracker
[https://launchpad.net/products/ubuntu-doc/+bugs]. Your help is vital to the success of our
documentation!

Many thanks,

-Your Ubuntu Documentation Team

viii
Chapter 1. Getting Started
This chapter introduces the world of Ubuntu and some basic concepts which are useful
when getting started with an Ubuntu system.

9
Getting Started

1. About Ubuntu
Thank you for your interest in Ubuntu 6.06 LTS - the Dapper Drake release.

Ubuntu is an entirely open source operating system built around the Linux kernel.
The Ubuntu community is built around the ideals enshrined in the Ubuntu Philosophy
[http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/philosophy]: that software should be available free of
charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite
any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customize and alter their
software in whatever way they see fit. For those reasons:
• Ubuntu will always be free of charge, and there is no extra fee for the "enterprise
edition," we make our very best work available to everyone on the same Free terms.
• Ubuntu includes the very best in translations and accessibility infrastructure that the free
software community has to offer, to make Ubuntu usable for as many people as possible.
• Ubuntu is released regularly and predictably; a new release is made every six months.
You can use the current stable release or the current development release. Each release is
supported for at least 18 months.
• Ubuntu is entirely committed to the principles of open source software development; we
encourage people to use open source software, improve it and pass it on.

The Ubuntu community is comprised of developers, programmers, testers, techwriters,
documentation testers, translators, and most importantly, the people who use Ubuntu every
day. We invite you to join this community and help make Ubuntu the operating system
you, your family, your friends, and your colleagues will love to use. Help us translate
Ubuntu into your language, try it on new and unusual hardware, improve the experience of
other users with hints, tips, and FAQs, or help to shape the direction Ubuntu is headed by
providing feedback about the software you love most.

Find out more at the Ubuntu website [http://www.ubuntu.com].

1.1. About the Name

Ubuntu is a South African ethical ideology focusing on people's allegiances and
relations with each other. The word comes from the Zulu and Xhosa languages. Ubuntu
(pronounced "oo-BOON-too") is seen as a traditional African concept, is regarded as one
of the founding principles of the new republic of South Africa and is connected to the idea
of an African Renaissance.

A rough translation of the principle of Ubuntu is "humanity towards others". Another
translation could be: "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity".

"A person with ubuntu is open and available to others, affirming of others,
does not feel threatened that others are able and good, for he or she has a

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Getting Started

proper self-assurance that comes from knowing that he or she belongs in a
greater whole and is diminished when others are humiliated or diminished,
when others are tortured or oppressed."
—Archbishop Desmond Tutu

As a platform based on GNU/Linux, the Ubuntu operating system brings the spirit of
ubuntu to the software world.

1.2. Free Software

The Ubuntu project is entirely committed to the principles of open source software
development; people are encouraged to use open source software, improve it, and pass it
on. This means that Ubuntu is and will always be free of charge.

However, this means more than just being available at zero cost. The philosophy of free
software is that people should be free to use software in all the ways that are "socially
useful". "Free software" doesn't just mean that you shouldn't have to pay for it, it also
means that you should be able to use the software in any way you wish: the code that
makes up free software is available for anyone to download, change, fix, and use in any
way. So apart from the fact that free software is often available without charge, this
freedom also has technical advantages: when programs are developed, the hard work of
others can be used and built upon. With non-free software, this cannot happen and when
programs are developed, they have to start from scratch. For this reason the development of
free software is fast, efficient and exciting!

You can find out more about the philosophy of free software here
[http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/].

1.3. The Difference

There are many different operating systems based on GNU/Linux: Debian, SuSE, Gentoo,
RedHat, and Mandriva are examples. Ubuntu is yet another contender in what is already a
highly competitive world. So what makes Ubuntu different?

Based on Debian, one of the most widely acclaimed, technologically advanced, and
well-supported distributions, Ubuntu aims to create a distribution that provides an
up-to-date and coherent Linux system for desktop and server computing. Ubuntu includes
a number of carefully selected packages from the Debian distribution and retains its
powerful package management system which allows easy installation and clean removal
of programs. Unlike most distributions that ship with a large amount of software that
may or may not be of use, Ubuntu's list of packages is reduced to a number of important
applications of high quality.

By focusing on quality, Ubuntu produces a robust and feature-rich computing environment
that is suitable for use in both home and commercial environments. The project takes the

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Getting Started

time required to focus on finer details and is able to release a version featuring the latest
and greatest of today's software once every 6 months. Ubuntu is available in flavours for
the i386 (386/486/Pentium(II/III/IV) and Athlon/Duron/Sempron processors), AMD64
(Athlon64, Opteron, and new 64-bit Intel processors), and PowerPC (iBook/Powerbook,
G4 and G5) architectures.

1.4. Long-Term Support

Every Ubuntu release is supported for at least 18 months with security and other updates.
Ubuntu 6.06 LTS is a special enterprise-ready release, and is supported for 3 years on the
desktop, and 5 years on the server. The development process of Ubuntu 6.06 LTS was
slightly longer than usual to concentrate on a number of areas:
• Quality Assurance
• Localisation
• Certification

As a result, it will be possible to rely on Ubuntu 6.06 LTS for a longer period than usual.
Therefore this release of Ubuntu is referred to as "LTS" or "Long-Term Support".

1.5. The Desktop

The default desktop environment for Ubuntu is GNOME [http://www.gnome.org/], a
leading UNIX and Linux desktop suite and development platform.

Another leading UNIX and Linux desktop is KDE [http://www.kde.org/]. The Kubuntu
[http://www.kubuntu.org] project offers Ubuntu users an alternative choice to the default
GNOME desktop environment. Thanks to the efforts of the Kubuntu team, Ubuntu
users are now able to install and use the KDE desktop easily on their system. To get a
working install of Kubuntu on an Ubuntu install, install the kubuntu-desktop package.
Once kubuntu-desktop is installed, one can choose to use either a Gnome or KDE desktop
environment.

1.6. Version and Release Numbers

The Ubuntu version numbering scheme is based on the date we release a version of the
distribution. The version number comes from the year and month of the release rather than
reflecting the actual version of the software. Our first release (Warty Warthog) was in
October 2004 so its version was 4.10. This version (Dapper Drake) was released in June
2006 so its version number is 6.06 LTS.

1.7. Backing and Support

Ubuntu is maintained by a quickly growing community. The project is sponsored by
Canonical Ltd. [http://www.canonical.com], a holding company founded by Mark

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Getting Started

Shuttleworth. Canonical employs the core Ubuntu developers and offers support and
consulting services for Ubuntu.

Canonical Ltd also sponsors a number of other Open Source software projects, about which
more information can be found on the Canonical website [http://www.canonical.com].

1.8. What is Linux?

The Linux kernel [http://www.kernel.org], pronounced 'lee-nucks' is the heart of the
Ubuntu operating system. A kernel is an important part of any operating system, providing
the communication bridge between hardware and software.

Linux was brought to life in 1991 by a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds. At the time,
it would run only on i386 systems, and was essentially an independently created clone of
the UNIX kernel, intended to take advantage of the then-new i386 architecture.

Nowadays, thanks to a substantial amount of development effort by people all around the
world, Linux runs on virtually every modern architecture.

The Linux kernel has gained an ideological importance as well as a technical one. There is
an entire community of people who believe in the ideals of free software and spend their
time helping to make open source technology as good as it can be.

People in this community gave rise to initiatives such as Ubuntu, standards committees
that shape the development of the Internet, organizations like the Mozilla Foundation,
responsible for creating Mozilla Firefox, and countless other software projects from which
you've certainly benefited in the past.

The spirit of open source, commonly attributed to Linux, is influencing software
developers and users everywhere to drive communities with common goals.

1.9. What is GNU?

The GNU Project, pronounced “guh-noo”, was launched in 1984 to develop a complete
UNIX style operating system which is comprised of free software: the GNU system.
Variants of the GNU operating system, which use the Linux kernel, are now widely used;
though these systems are often referred to as “Linux,” they are more accurately called
GNU/Linux systems.

The GNU project is closely linked to the philosophy of free software, which is central to
the projects that derive from it, such as Ubuntu. The concept of free software is explained
at Section 1.2, “Free Software” [p. 11] .

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Getting Started

2. Getting Ubuntu
There are a number of methods you may use to obtain a copy of Ubuntu, all of which are
described on the Ubuntu Web site download page [http://www.ubuntu.com/download].

The first method is to download an ISO image from a mirror server near you and make a
CD to install Ubuntu. Two types of CDs are available:
• Desktop CD - the desktop CD allows you to try Ubuntu without changing your computer
at all, and at your option to install it permanently later. This type of CD is what most
people will want to use.
• Text-mode install CD - the text-mode install CD allows you to perform certain
specialist installations of Ubuntu. This type of CD is intended for cases such as creating
pre-configured OEM systems or setting up automated deployments; it can also be used
as a package source for upgrading older installations.

If you don't have a CD burner or you have limited or expensive bandwidth, we can send
you pressed copies of the 'Desktop CD' free of charge. You may request CDs via Shipit
[http://shipit.ubuntu.com], the Ubuntu CD Distribution System.

Ordered CDs may take several weeks to arrive.

You can also contact an Ubuntu Local Community Team (LoCoTeam) near you.
These are self-organized groups of Ubuntu enthusiasts who want to bring the Ubuntu
community onto a local level. Most LoCoTeams have extra copies of Ubuntu and give
them out freely. A list of existing Ubuntu LoCoTeams can be found on the Ubuntu wiki
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/LoCoTeamList].

Another method of obtaining Ubuntu is to join a local Linux Users Group (LUG) and ask if
somebody can make you a copy. Normally, you will have to pay for the cost of the CD and
delivery.

If you do not know of an LUG near you, a list can be found at Linux Users Groups
WorldWide [http://lugww.counter.li.org/].

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Getting Started

3. Linux Basics
Linux is inspired by the Unix operating system which first appeared in 1969, and has been
in continous use and development ever since. Many of the design conventions behind Unix
also exist in Linux and are central to understanding the basics of the system.

Unix was primarily oriented towards the command line interface, and that legacy is carried
on in Linux. Thus, the graphical user interface with its windows, icons and menus are
built on top of a basic command line interface. Furthermore, this means that the Linux file
system is structured to be easily manageable and accessible from the command line.

3.1. Directories and File Systems

Linux and Unix file systems are organised in a hierarchical, tree-like structure. The highest
level of the file system is the / or root directory. In the Unix and Linux design philosophy,
everything is considered a file - including hard disks, partitions and removable media. This
means that all other files and directories (including other disks and partitions) exist under
the root directory.

For example, /home/jebediah/cheeses.odt shows the correct full path to the
cheeses.odt file that exists in the jebediah directory which is under the home directory,
which in turn, is under the root (/) directory.

Underneath the root (/) directory, there is a set of important system directories that are
common across most Linux distributions that are used. The following is a listing of
common directories that are directly under the root (/) directory:
• /bin - important binary applications
• /boot - boot configuration files
• /dev - the device files
• /etc - configuration files, startup scripts, etc...
• /home - local users' home directories
• /lib - system libraries
• /lost+found - provides a lost+found system for files that exist under the root (/)
directory
• /media - mounted (loaded) removable media such as CDs, digital cameras, etc...
• /mnt - mounted filesystems
• /opt - provides a location for optional applications to be installed
• /proc - special dynamic directory that maintains information about the state of the
system, including currently running processes
• /root - root user home directory, pronounced 'slash-root'

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Getting Started

• /sbin - important system binaries
• /sys - system files
• /tmp - temporary files
• /usr - applications and files that are mostly available for all users to access
• /var - variable files such as logs and databases

3.2. Permissions

All of the files on a Linux system have permissions that allow or prevent others from
viewing, modifying or executing. The super user "root" has the ability to access any file
on the system. Each file has access restrictions, user restrictions and have an owner/group
association.

Every file is secured by the following three sets of permissions, in order of importance:
• user

applies to the user who is the owner of the file
• group

applies to the group that is associated with the file
• other

applies to all other users

Inside each of the three sets of permissions are the actual permissons. The permissions,
along with the way they apply differently to files and directories, are outlined below:
• read

files can be displayed/opened

directory contents can be displayed
• write

files can be edited or deleted

directory contents can be modified
• execute

executable files can be run as a program

directories can be entered

To view and edit the permissions on files and directories, open the Places → Home Folder
and right-click on a file or directory. Then select Properties. The permissions exist under

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Getting Started

the Permissions tab and allow for the editing of all permission levels, if you are the owner
of the file.

To learn more about file permissions in Linux, read the file permissions page
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/FilePermissions] in the Ubuntu Wiki.

3.3. Root And Sudo

The root user in GNU/Linux is the user which has administrative access to your system.
Normal users do not have this access for security reasons. However, Ubuntu does not
include the root user. Instead, administrative access is given to individual users, who
may use the "sudo" application to perform administrative tasks. The first user account
you created on your system during installation will, by default, have access to sudo. You
can restrict and enable sudo access to users with the Users and Groups application (see
Section 3.6, “Users and Groups” [p. 19] for more information).

When you run an application that requires root privileges, sudo will ask you to input your
normal user password. This ensures that rogue applications cannot damage your system,
and serves as a reminder that you are about to perform administrative actions which require
you to be careful!

To use sudo when using the command line, simply type "sudo" before the command you
wish to run. Sudo will then prompt you for your password.

Sudo will remember your password for a set amount of time. This feature was designed to
allow users to perform multiple administrative tasks without being asked for a password
each time.

Be careful when doing administrative tasks, you might damage your system!

Some other tips on using sudo:
• To use a "root" terminal, type "sudo -i" at the command line.
• All of the default graphical configuration tools in Ubuntu already use sudo, so they will
prompt you for your password if needed.
• For more information on the sudo program and the absence of a root user in Ubuntu,
read the sudo page [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/RootSudo] on the Ubuntu wiki.

3.4. Terminals

Working at the command line is not as daunting a task as you would think. There is no
special knowledge needed to know how to use the command line, it is a program like
everything else. Most things in Linux can be done using the command line, although there

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Getting Started

are graphical tools for most programs, sometimes they are just not enough. This is where
the command line comes in handy.

The terminal is often called the command prompt or the shell. In days gone by, this was the
way the user interacted with the computer, however Linux users have found that the use of
the shell can be quicker than a graphical method and still holds some merit today. Here you
will learn how to use the terminal.

The original use of the terminal was a file browser and indeed it is still used as a file
browser, in the event of the graphical environment failing. You can use the terminal as a
file browser to navigate your files and undo the changes that have been made.

3.4.1. Starting the Terminal

To start Terminal choose Applications → Accessories → Terminal .

3.4.2. Common Commands
View Directories: - ls
The ls (LiSt) lists files in different colors with full formatted text
Create Directories: - mkdir (directory name)
The mkdir (MaKeDIRectory) command will create a directory.
Change Directories: - cd (/directory/location)
The cd (ChangeDirectory) command will change from your current directory to any
directory you specify.
Copy Files/Directories: - cp (file or directory name) (to directory or filename)
The cp (CoPy) command will copy any files you specify. The cp -r command will copy
any directories you specify.
Remove Files/Directories: - rm (file or directory name)
The rm (ReMove) command will delete any filename you specify. The rm -rf
command will remove any directory you specify.
Rename Files/Directories: - mv (file or directory name)
The mv (MoVe) command will rename/move any file or directory you specify.
Find Files/Directories: - locate (file or directory name)
The locate command will search your computer for any filename you specify. It uses
an index of the files on your system to work quickly: to update this index run the
command updatedb. This command is run automatically each day, if you leave your
computer on. It needs to be run with administrative privileges (see Section 3.3, “Root
And Sudo” [p. 17] ).

You can also use wildcards to match one or more files, such as "*" (for all files) or "?" (to
match one character).

For a more thorough introduction to the Linux command line, please read the command
line introduction [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/BasicCommands] on the Ubuntu wiki.

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Getting Started

3.4.3. Switch to Console mode

The usual method of command-line access in Ubuntu is to start a terminal (see
Section 3.4.1, “Starting the Terminal” [p. 18] above) , however sometimes it is useful
to switch to the real console:
1. Use the Ctrl-Alt-F1 shortcut keys to switch to the first console.
2. To switch back to Desktop mode, use the Ctrl-Alt-F7 shortcut keys.

There are six consoles available. Each one is accessible with the shortcut keys
Ctrl-Alt-F1 to Ctrl-Alt-F6.

3.4.4. Disable the beep sound in Terminal mode
1. Start a Terminal session, select: Applications → Accessories → Terminal from the
desktop menu system.
2. Edit → Current Profile... . Select the General tab. Uncheck the Terminal bell
checkbox.

3.5. Text Editing
All of the configurations and settings in Linux are saved in text files. Even though you
most often can edit configurations through the graphical interface, you may occasionally
have to edit them by hand. Gedit is the default Ubuntu text editor, which you can launch by
clicking Applications → Accessories → Text Editor on the desktop menu system.

At times in this guide, Gedit is run from the command line using gksudo, which runs Gedit
with administrative privileges, in order to modify configuration files.

If you need to use a text editor from the command line, you can use nano, which is
a simple to use text editor. When running it from the command line, always use the
following command, which ensures that the editor will not introduce line breaks:

nano -w

For more information about how to use nano, refer to the guide on the wiki
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/NanoHowto].

There are also quite a few other terminal-based editors available in Ubuntu, popular ones
include VIM and Emacs (the pros and cons of each are cause for much friendly debate
within the Linux community). These are often more complex to use than nano, but are also
more powerful.

3.6. Users and Groups
To add users or groups to your system, you can use the Users And Groups application
located in System → Administration → Users and Groups .

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Getting Started

To add a new user, click on Add user, fill-in the data fields then click OK. To edit the
properties of each user, click the Properties button located in the main Users window.

To add a new group, select the Groups tab and click Add group. Choose a name for the
new group and, if you want, change the default value for the Group ID. If you try to
allocate a Group ID that is in use, the system will warn you.

You can add users to the newly created group by selecting a user from the left menu and
clicking on the Add button. Removing a user is as simple as adding one: select a user from
the right menu then click Remove. When you are ready, click OK and the new group with
its users, if inserted, will be created.

To edit the properties of a group, from within the Groups main window, choose a group
name and click on the Properties button.

To remove a user or a group from the system, select the user or group you want to delete
and click Delete.

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Chapter 2. Adding, Removing and
Updating Applications
This chapter is a complete guide to adding, removing and updating applications on an
Ubuntu system.

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Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

1. Introduction
In order to add or remove applications in Ubuntu you need to use a package manager.
A package manager is a tool that makes installing and uninstalling applications easy
by handling the software in preconfigured packages that are optimized for Ubuntu. The
following package managers are described in this chapter:
• Add/Remove Applications - this is the simplest way to manage programs.
• Synaptic - this graphical program provides a more advanced means of managing
programs.
• APT - this is a powerful command line program to manage programs.

You may also wish to increase the number of programs available to install through your
package managers. Not all the programs that exist for Ubuntu are available by default. You
may have to add extra repositories in order to make them available: that is also described in
this chapter.

Finally, this chapter explains how to update your system.

You can only have one package management application running at a time.
For example, if you are running Add/Remove Applications and try to launch
Update Ubuntu, it will fail with an error. Close the running application before
you relaunch the new one.

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Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

2. Add/Remove Applications
Add/Remove Applications is a simple graphical way of installing and removing
applications in Ubuntu. To launch Add/Remove Applications click Applications →
Add/Remove Applications on the desktop menu system.

Running Add/Remove Applications requires administrative privileges (see
Section 3.3, “Root And Sudo” [p. 17]).

To install new applications select the category on the left, then check the box of the
application you want to install. When finished click Apply, then your chosen programs will
be downloaded and installed automatically, as well as installing any additional applications
that are required.

Alternatively, if you know the name of the program you want, use the Search tool at the
top.

If you have not activated the online package archive, you may be asked to insert
your Ubuntu CD-ROM to install some packages.

Some applications and packages are not available to install using Add/Remove
Applications. If you cannot find the package you are looking for, click Advanced which
will open the Synaptic package manager (see below).

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Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

3. Synaptic Package Manager
Synaptic is an advanced package management application that can install and remove
every package available to your system. The interface is graphical like Add/Remove
Applications but a lot more information is presented to the user, which means that Synaptic
gives you complete control over the package management of your system.

Running Synaptic requires administrative privileges (see Section 3.3, “Root And
Sudo” [p. 17]).

To launch Synaptic, choose System → Administration → Synaptic Package Manager on
the desktop menu system.

The Synaptic screen is divided up into four sections, the two most important being the
package categories on the left side, and the packages on the right.

To install packages, just choose the category, find the package name in the list, right click
on it and choose "Mark this package for installation". Once you are satisfied with your
selections click Apply on the top button bar. Synaptic will then download and install the
required packages from the online repositories and/or from your Ubuntu installation CD.

Alternatively you can click the Search tool bar button, enter the package name or a short
search term in the search text field and click the Search button.

Synaptic will now show you a much shorter list from which to select your application for
installation. This is usually much easier than having to look through the very long list of
applications on your own.

24
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

4. Command Line Package Management

4.1. APT

APT (Advanced Packaging Tool) is a powerful package management system, on which
the graphical programs described above like Add/Remove Applications and Synaptic are
based. APT automatically handles dependencies and performs other operations on system
packages to allow the installation of the desired package/s.

Running APT requires administrative privileges (see Section 3.3, “Root And
Sudo” [p. 17]).

Some common commands that can be used with APT:
• Install packages:

sudo apt-get install packagename

• Remove packages:

sudo apt-get remove packagename

• Retrieve new lists of packages:

sudo apt-get update

• Upgrade system with available updates:

sudo apt-get upgrade

• List further commands and options:

apt-get help

For further information about the use of APT, read the comprehensive Debian
APT User Manual [http://www.debian.org/doc/user-manuals#apt-howto].

25
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

5. Installing a Single Package File
The preferred method of installing programs is via the package managers described in this
chapter. However, although the Ubuntu package archives are very large, it is possible that
you may wish to install a package which is not available in the Ubuntu archives. If this
happens, you can also download and install files from websites.

It is important to ensure that any files you download come from a safe source
before installing them.

There are many different kinds of Linux package files. Most of these are associated with
the package managers of specific Linux distributions. Examples are Debian Package files
(.deb files), Redhat Package Manager files (.rpm files), and Tarballs (.tar files).

This section deals with installing these single files.

It is not guaranteed that these files will be compatible with your system and you
will not receive security updates if you install these files. For these reasons, if you
wish to install a program, always use a native Ubuntu package of the application
available through a package manager, if there is one available.

5.1. Install/uninstall .deb files

These files are Debian packages. The package files associated with Ubuntu have the .deb
suffix because of Ubuntu's close relations with the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. You
will need administrative privileges to install a .deb file (see Section 3.3, “Root And Sudo”
[p. 17]).
1. To install a .deb file, simply double click on it, and then select Install Package
2. Alternatively, you can also install a .deb file by opening a terminal and typing:

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb

3. To uninstall a .deb file, deselect it in your package manager, or type:

sudo dpkg -r package_name

5.2. Convert .rpm files to .deb files

Another type of package files is Red Hat Package Manager files which have the .rpm
suffix. It is not recommended to install these on an Ubuntu system. In almost all cases, a
native Ubuntu .deb package is available. However, if absolutely necessary, an .rpm file can
be converted to a .deb package using the program alien.
1. Install the alien program (Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications
[p. 21]).
2. Run the following command in a terminal, with administrative privileges:

26
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

sudo alien package_file.rpm

5.3. Install tarballs

Files with the .tar.gz or .tar.bz2 suffix are package files known as tarballs which are
widely used in Linux and Unix.

If there is no native Ubuntu package available in any of the Ubuntu repositories, you can
use the command line to install or uninstall the Tarball file by following the instructions
that come with the package.

Tarballs often contain the source code of the program, and need to be compiled in order
to be used. To do this, extra software will generally be needed (see Section 8.1, “Basic
Compilers” [p. 48] ).

27
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

6. Extra Repositories

6.1. What are Repositories?

There are thousands of programs available to install on Ubuntu. These programs are stored
in software archives (repositories) and are made freely available for installation over the
Internet. This makes it very easy to install new programs in Linux, and it is also very
secure, because each program you install is built specially for Ubuntu and checked before
it is installed. To organise the software, Ubuntu repositories are categorised into four
groups: Main, Restricted, Universe, and Multiverse.

The rationale used to determine which software goes into which category is based on two
factors:
• The level of support software development teams provide for a program.
• The level of compliance the program has to the Free Software Philosophy
[http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/philosophy].

You can find more information about the Repositories available on the website
[http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/components].

The standard Ubuntu Install CD contains some software from the Main and Restricted
categories. Once your system is made aware of the Internet-based locations for these
repositories, many more software programs are made available for installation. Using the
software package management tools already installed on your system, you can search for,
install and update any piece of software directly over the Internet, without the need for the
CD.

6.2. Adding Extra Repositories

To enable the extra repositories:
1. Open System → Administration → Software Properties .

2. Select Add
3. To enable the Universe repository, check the Community Maintained (Universe)
button.

Adding this repository will mean that the majority of the Free Software
universe will be available to install on your system. This software is
supported by a carefully selected group of volunteers within the Ubuntu
Community, but is not supported by the core Ubuntu development team and
may not include security updates.
4. To enable the Multiverse repository, check the Non-free (Multiverse) button.

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Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

Adding this repository will mean that software which has been classified as
non-free will be available to install on your system. This software may not
be permitted in some jurisdictions. When installing each package from this
repository, you should verify that the laws of your country permit you to use
it. Again, this software may not include security updates.
5. Click Close to save your changes and exit.
6. To apply your changes, select Reload.

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Adding, Removing and Updating Applications

7. Updates
Sometimes the Ubuntu developers release feature and security updates for applications and
packages within the Ubuntu system.

When these updates are available, Ubuntu will inform you with a pop-up and a red icon in
your notification area. To update your system, click the red button, enter your password
and click OK.

The Update Manager program will list the available updates: to download and install these
updates click Install Updates. Ubuntu will then download and install the available updates
from the Internet.

When Update Manager has finished updating your system, close the pop-up window with
the Close button, then close Update Manager to finish updating your system.

After installing some important updates, it may be necessary to restart your
computer. If so, Ubuntu will inform you with a popup and an icon in your
notification area.

30
Chapter 3. Common Tasks
This chapter contains information on common tasks.

31
Common Tasks

1. Music

1.1. Playing and Extracting Audio CDs

When you insert an audio CD, the Sound Juicer CD player and ripper opens automatically.
To play the CD, click the Play button or press Ctrl-P. To play a particular track,
double-click on the track or select the track and click Play.

To extract (rip) your audio CD, make sure the tracks that you want to rip are selected, then
click the Extract button or press Ctrl-Enter.

If you are connected to the internet, Sound Juicer will retrieve the CD
artist, title, and track data from MusicBrainz.org [http://musicbrainz.org], a
community-maintained database which contains data on over 360,000 albums.

To start Sound Juicer manually, choose Applications → Sound & Video → Sound Juicer
CD Extractor.

You can use the preferences window to control where the extracted audio files are stored
on your computer, the filename of extracted audio files, and the file format and codec used
for the files. In the main window, choose Edit → Preferences.

Sound Juicer can extract audio files to the following formats:
• Ogg Vorbis - Ogg Vorbis is a patent-free lossy audio compression format which
typically produces higher quality and greater compression than MP3. See the Vorbis
website [http://www.vorbis.com/faq/] for more information.
• FLAC - FLAC is the Free Lossless Audio Codec. It can compress audio files up to 50%
without removing any information from the audio stream. For more information on this
format, see the FLAC homepage [http://flac.sourceforge.net/] on sourceforge.net.
• WAV - Use the WAV format for voice recordings. Sound Juicer uses this format for low
quality mono audio files.

You can also extract CD audio files to the proprietary non-free MP3 format. Instructions
on how to rip to the MP3 format are in the help for Sound Juicer. Choose Help → Contents
and navigate to the Preferences section.

1.2. Burning CDs

When you put a blank CD in the drive Ubuntu will ask if you want to burn an audio or
data CD. Clicking on Burn Audio CD will launch Serpentine . To add music to your audio
CD, either drag music from your File Browser or use the Add button. You will also need
to select the size of your CD (21, 74, 80 or 90 minutes). Serpentine will warn you if you
exceed the set limit.

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Common Tasks

To make a photo or data CD, click the burn Burn Data CD. Ubuntu will open a CD/DVD
Creator window. The CD Creator is built into the File Browser, and it allows you to add
any file or folder you have permission to access. When you are ready to burn the CD, click
Write to Disc. Ubuntu will then prompt you to select the drive containing the blank CD,
and give you the opportunity to name the CD and select the write speed. Finally, click
Write to create the new photo or data CD.

1.3. Playing and Organising Music Files

To play and organize your music, Ubuntu comes with#Rhythmbox Music Player, which
looks similar to iTunes. When you first start Rhythmbox, it will scan your home directory
for any supported music files you have and add it to the database. To start Rhythmbox,
choose Applications → Sound & Video → Rhythmbox Music Player

Ubuntu does not directly support the MP3 format, because it is restricted by patents and
proprietary rights. Instead Ubuntu supports the Ogg Vorbis format out of the box, a
completely free, open and non-patented format. Ogg Vorbis files also sound better then
MP3 files of the same file size and are supported by many popular music players (a list of
players is here [http://wiki.xiph.org/index.php/PortablePlayers]).

You can still play your old MP3 files by installing MP3 support (see Section 3,
“Multimedia Codecs” [p. 38] ). Instructions for other formats, such as Windows Media
Audio (wma/wmv) and other patent encumbered formats can be found on the Ubuntu Wiki
[http://wiki.ubuntu.com/RestrictedFormats].

The Cowbell ID3 tag editor can edit the metadata on your mp3 and other music files. To
use Cowbell:

1. Install the cowbell package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]);

2. To run Cowbell, choose Applications → Sound & Video → Cowbell Music
Organizer.

1.4. Using your Ipod

You can play music directly off your IPOD with Rhythmbox Music Player. Simply plug
your IPOD into the computer, and open Rhythmbox.

To transfer music files to and from an IPOD, you can use the program gtkpod:

1. Install the gtkpod package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).

2. To run gtkpod, choose Applications → Sound & Video → gtkpod.

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Common Tasks

1.5. Editing Audio Files

Audacity is free, open source software for recording and editing sounds. To use Audacity:
1. Install the audacity package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To run Audacity, choose Applications → Sound & Video → Audacity.
3. For further help about using Audacity, consult the program's help by choosing Help
→ Contents.

34
Common Tasks

2. Video
To play video, Ubuntu comes with Totem Movie Player which looks and functions
similar to Windows Media Player. Some features of Totem include custom playlists, DVD
playback and more. You can start Totem by clicking: Applications → Sound & Video →
Movie Player from the desktop menu system.

To read video files, Totem uses the Gstreamer framework. To play some video formats,
you may need to add further codec support (see Section 3, “Multimedia Codecs” [p.
38] ).

There are also other multimedia applications available. Examples include Mplayer, Xine
and Totem-xine (which uses the Xine framework, instead of the Gstreamer framework.
Some users may benefit from trying alternative video players.

2.1. DVD Playback

The movie players provided in Ubuntu are capable of reading DVDs that are not encrypted.
However, most commercial DVDs are encrypted with CSS (the Content Scrambling
System) and currently for legal reasons it is not possible to include support for these DVDs
in Ubuntu. However it is possible to enable support as follows:

The legal status of this library is not fully clear. In some countries it is possible
that the use of this library to play or copy DVDs is not permitted by law. Verify
that you are within your rights in using it.

1. Install the libdvdread3 package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating
Applications [p. 21]).

You will need to use Synaptic Package Manager to install this package

2. To activate DVD decryption, type the following line into a terminal prompt:

sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread3/examples/install-css.sh

3. To play DVDs with Totem, you will need to install some extra codecs (see Section 3,
“Multimedia Codecs” [p. 38] ).

4. However, the Gstreamer framework (used by Totem) does not support menus or
subtitles for DVD playback. For this reason, you can install a separate DVD player,
Xine, which supports these. To install Xine, install the gxine package from the
Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p.
21]).

5. You can then open gxine from the Sound & Video menu.

35
Common Tasks

2.2. Backing Up DVDs

Backing up your DVDs to files or onto DVD+/- discs can be done with DVD::RIP. To
install DVD::RIP:

Before backing up a DVD, you must ensure that you are legally permitted to
make copies of it.

1. Install the Multimedia Codecs (see Section 3, “Multimedia Codecs” [p. 38] ).
2. Enable DVD video playback (see Section 2.1, “DVD Playback” [p. 35] ).
3. Install dvdrip and transcode from the Multiverse repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
4. You can run the program using the command dvdrip (see Section 1.2, “Start
a Program Manually” [p. 51] ). If you wish, you can add a menu entry
for the program dvdrip (see Section 1.1, “Menu Editing” [p. 51] ). We
recommend you enter it in the Sound & Video menu, and that you use the file
/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm for the icon.

5. To start dvd::rip, choose Applications → Sound & Video → dvd::rip.

2.3. RealPlayer 10
1. Install the libstdc++5 package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating
Applications [p. 21]).

You will need to use Synaptic Package Manager to install this package

2. Download the Realplayer package from here [ftp://ftp.nerim.net/debian-marillat/pool/
main/r/realplay/realplayer_10.0.6-0.0_i386.deb].
3. Install the package you have downloaded (see Section 5.1, “Install/uninstall .deb
files” [p. 26]).
4. To run Real Player 10, choose Applications → Sound & Video → RealPlayer 10.

2.4. Video Editing

Kino is an advanced video editor. It features excellent integration with IEEE-1394 for
capture, VTR control, and recording back to the camera. It captures video to disk in Raw
DV and AVI format, in both type-1 DV and type-2 DV (separate audio stream) encodings.
For more information, see the Kino website [http://www.kinodv.org/article/static/2]. To use
it:
1. Install the kino package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications
[p. 21]).
2. To run Kino, choose Applications → Sound & Video → Kino Video Editor.

36
Common Tasks

You can also try the PiTiVi video editor by installing the pitivi package from the Universe
repository (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]). PiTiVi
is a video editor for the GNOME desktop. It is still in fairly early development, but worth a
try.

37
Common Tasks

3. Multimedia Codecs
Many applications in Ubuntu use the GStreamer open source multimedia
framework. The codec plugins for GStreamer are organised in different
packages depending on the licensing that applies to the various codecs. You
can see which codecs are contained in which plugin on the GStreamer website
[http://gstreamer.freedesktop.org/documentation/plugins.html].

Other applications, such as Mplayer and Xine, do not use the Gstreamer framework.
Due to patent and copyright restrictions, codecs for these programs are not included
at all in Ubuntu. For more information on these read the Restricted Formats
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/RestrictedFormats] wiki page.

3.1. Add Codecs to Gstreamer

To install extra codecs for Gstreamer:
• Install the following packages from the Universe and Multiverse repositories (see
Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]):

gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly
gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse
gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad
gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse
gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg

You will need to use Synaptic Package Manager to install these packages

Some of these packages may not be permitted in some countries: you should
verify that you are permitted to use them before installing them.

38
Common Tasks

4. Internet
4.1. Connecting to the Internet
To connect to the internet, do the following:
1. If you have a Modem or ADSL connection, read Section 3.5, “Modems” [p. 62]
first.
2. System → Administration → Networking
3. Select the Connections tab. Select the Ethernet connection interface from the list,
then click the Properties button. Ensure that the button marked Enable this connection
is checked. From the Configuration drop-list select DHCP/Static IP address, then
click OK.
4. Select the DNS tab add or delete DNS Servers in the DNS Servers list.

To activate or deactivate network connections, do the following:
1. System → Administration → Networking
2. Select Network settings+Connections Tab+Ethernet connection
Activate/Deactivate

4.2. Browse Network Computers
1. To view computers on the network, open:

Places → Network Servers
2. You may need to enter a username and password, and a domain. You should obtain
these from your network administrator.
3. A list of network resources will be displayed.

4.3. Email
The Evolution groupware suite can handle all your email, contact lists, tasks and calendar
needs. It also can act as a newsreader and also integrates with the Gnome panel clock,
giving you one-click access to your task list.

Evolution can be launched by clicking Applications → Internet → Evolution Mail from the
desktop menu system.

Alternatively the Mozilla Thunderbird email client is available. To install this popular
email client, install the mozilla-thunderbird package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing
and Updating Applications [p. 21]).

To start Thunderbird, choose Applications → Internet → Thunderbird Mail Client from the
desktop menu system.

39
Common Tasks

4.4. World Wide Web

The powerful and secure Mozilla Firefox web browser is included in Ubuntu. Firefox
features tabbed browsing, pop-up blocking, in-built search facilities, live bookmarks and
more. Also supported are popular plug-ins such as Java, Macromedia Flash, and Real
Player. Firefox can be launched by clicking Applications → Internet → Firefox from the
desktop menu system.

4.4.1. Viewing Online Audio and Video in Firefox

In order to view online audio and video streams in Firefox, you may need to install some
plugins. Which plugin you choose to install depends on the media player which you prefer
(see Section 2, “Video” [p. 35]).
1. For the Totem Gstreamer plugin (the default Ubuntu media player), install the
totem-gstreamer-firefox-plugin package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2,
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. For the Totem Xine plugin, install the totem-xine-firefox-plugin package from the
Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p.
21]).
3. For the Mplayer plugin, install the mozilla-mplayer package from the Multiverse
repository (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
4. The changes will take effect when you close and open Firefox.

These steps will install the plugin for Firefox. However, to play some formats,
you may need to add some extra codecs (see Section 3, “Multimedia Codecs” [p.
38]).

4.4.2. Macromedia Flash for Firefox

To view flash graphics from the Mozilla Firefox web browser:
1. Install the flashplugin-nonfree package from the Multiverse repository (see Chapter 2,
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To download and install the plugin, enter the following command in a terminal:

sudo update-flashplugin

3. The plug-in will be available the next time you start Firefox.

4.4.3. Java plugin for Mozilla Firefox

Some websites require the Java plugin for Mozilla Firefox. To install the java plugin,
install the sun-java5-plugin package (for i386 machines) or the j2re-1.4-mozilla-plugin
package (for amd64 machines) from the Multiverse repository.

40
Common Tasks

4.4.4. NVU Web Authoring System

NVU is a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) graphical web design application,
similar to Dreamweaver.
1. Install the nvu package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To start Nvu, choose Applications → Programming → Nvu from the desktop menu
system.

4.4.5. Bluefish Web Development Studio

Bluefish is a powerful editor for web designers and programmers. Bluefish supports
many programming and markup languages, and includes many utilities for designers and
programmers.
1. Install the bluefish package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To start Bluefish, choose Applications → Programming → Bluefish Editor

4.5. Instant Messaging

4.5.1. Gaim

Gaim is the default instant messenger client in Ubuntu. With Gaim you can talk to people
who use AIM/ICQ, Gadu-Gadu, GroupWise, IRC, Jabber, MSN, Napster and Yahoo. The
ability to use one client instead of several is a great benefit and allows you to have all of
your buddies in one window so you can just click a name and talk. To start Gaim, choose
Applications → Internet → Gaim Internet Messenger from the menu.

4.5.2. XChat-GNOME

XChat-GNOME is a advanced, graphical, multi-platform Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client.
Its features include advanced scripting support (perl and python) and a clean, easy to use
interface.
1. Install the xchat-gnome package from the main repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To start XChat-GNOME, choose Applications → Internet → Xchat-GNOME IRC
Chat .

4.5.2.1. Joining #ubuntu with XChat-Gnome

One excellent way to get help with Ubuntu or introduce yourself to IRC is to join Ubuntu's
official support channel on Freenode.
1. Start XChat-Gnome as above.

41
Common Tasks

2. When you start XChat-Gnome for the first time, it will ask you for an IRC Nickname
& your real name. Pick anything you want for your nick (first initial & your last name
is good, or be more creative), put your real name or part of it, and press OK.
3. In the Server Window that opens next, select Ubuntu Servers, and press Connect.

4.6. Peer To Peer

4.6.1. BitTorrent

BitTorrent capability is included in Ubuntu by default. Find a BitTorrent .torrent file
online, click on it in Firefox, and the Gnome BitTorrent client should start automatically.

Alternatively, download a .torrent file and double click on it.

4.6.2. aMule File Sharing Client
1. Install the amule package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To open aMule, choose Applications → Internet → aMule

4.7. News Readers

4.7.1. Pan News Reader
1. Install the pan package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications
[p. 21]).
2. To open Pan Newsreader, choose Applications → Internet → Pan Newsreader.

4.7.2. Liferea News Reader
1. Install the liferea package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To open Liferea Feed Reader, choose Applications → Internet → Liferea Feed
Reader.

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Common Tasks

5. Office
5.1. Introduction
Ubuntu comes with a comprehensive office suite installed - OpenOffice.org. The
OpenOffice.org project is one of the most successful open source projects in the
world, and provides a powerful wordprocessor, spreadsheet, presentation designer and
database management, and provides support for most languages. The Suite has excellent
compatibility with other major Office suites, such as Microsoft Office.

For more information about OpenOffice.org, see the OpenOffice.org website
[http://www.openoffice.org/product/index.html].

However, you may wish to add extra programs to your system. This section outlines a
number of other useful office applications.

5.2. GNOME Office
The GNOME desktop features a separate office suite. These programs are generally lighter
and faster than the programs in the OpenOffice.org suite, and have fewer features as a
result. But this may be exactly what you want. The Suite has excellent compatibility with
other major Office suites, such as Microsoft Office.

The GNOME Office Suite includes the following software:
• A word processor (Abiword);
• A spreadsheet (Gnumeric);
• A database management program (GNOME-DB);
• A diagram editor (Dia);
• Two graphics applications (Inkscape and The GIMP); and
• A project management application (Planner).

Each of these applications can also be installed separately.

To install the GNOME Office suite:
1. Install the gnome-office package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2,
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. The Office applications can then be found in the menu at Applications → Office, and
the Graphics applications can be found at Applications → Graphics.

5.3. GnuCash Accounting Application
GnuCash is a program to manage your personal or business finances. Designed to be easy
to use, yet powerful and flexible, GnuCash allows you to track bank accounts, stocks,

43
Common Tasks

income and expenses. As quick and intuitive to use as a checkbook register, it is based on
professional accounting principles to ensure balanced books and accurate reports.

To find out more about GnuCash, see the GnuCash website [http://www.gnucash.org/].

To use GnuCash:
1. Install the gnucash package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. You can open GnuCash by running the command gnucash (see Section 1.2, “Start
a Program Manually” [p. 51] ). If you wish, you can add a menu entry for the
program gnucash (see Section 1.1, “Menu Editing” [p. 51] ).

5.4. Scribus Desktop Publishing Application

Scribus is a professional desktop publishing program. For more information, see the
Scribus website [http://www.scribus.org.uk/].
1. Install the scribus package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating
Applications [p. 21]).
2. To install additional templates, install the scribus-template package from the Universe
repository (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).

You will need to use Synaptic Package Manager to install this package

3. To start Scribus, choose Applications → Office → Scribus .

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Common Tasks

6. Graphics & Drawing
Ubuntu has some very powerful, world-class graphics and drawing applications available.

6.1. gThumb Image Viewer

gThumb is an advanced image viewer and browser. It has many useful features, such
as filesystem browsing, slide show, image catalogs, web album creation, camera
import, image CD burning, batch file operations and quick image editing features like
transformation and color manipulation.

gThumb is included in Ubuntu by default. To start it, choose Applications → Graphics →
gThumb Image Viewer .

gThumb's excellent help files are accessible from Help → Contents.

For more advanced photo & image editing, see The GIMP, below.

6.2. The GIMP (Gnu Image Manipulation Program)

The GIMP lets you draw, paint, edit images, and much more! GIMP includes the
functionality and plug-ins of other famous image editing and processing programs.

The GIMP is installed in Ubuntu by default, and can be started by choosing Applications
→ Graphics → GIMP Image Editor .

More information is available from the GIMP homepage. [http://www.gimp.org/]

6.3. Inkscape Vector Graphics Editor

Inkscape is a powerful editor for working with the SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) format.
1. Install the inkscape package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating
Applications [p. 21]).
2. To start Inkscape choose Applications → Graphics → Inkscape SVG Vector
Illustrator .

6.4. Blender 3d Modeller

Blender is an integrated 3d suite for modelling, animation, rendering, post-production,
interactive creation and playback.
1. Install the blender package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating
Applications [p. 21]).
2. To start Blender choose Applications → Graphics → Blender 3d modeller.

45
Common Tasks

7. Games
Ubuntu comes with a number of games by default, including Aisleriot Solitaire, Gnometris,
and Mines.

Explore Ubuntu's Games menu at Applications → Games .

7.1. Frozen-Bubble

In Frozen-Bubble you attempt to shoot bubbles into groups of the same color to cause them
to pop.
1. Install the frozen-bubble package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2,
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To start Frozen-Bubble, choose Applications → Games → Frozen-Bubble.

7.2. PlanetPenguin Racer

Race Tux, the Linux mascot, down a snow- and ice-covered mountain as quickly as
possible, avoiding the trees and rocks that will slow you down.

Ensure you have hardware accelerated 3D drivers installed for your video card.
For more information see Section 3, “Hardware” [p. 60] .

1. Install the planetpenguin-racer package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2,
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To start PlanetPenguin Racer, choose Applications → Games →
PlanetPenguin-Racer.

7.3. Scorched3D

Scorched3D is a 3D remake of Scorched Earth, an artillery duel game.

Ensure you have hardware accelerated 3D drivers installed for your video card.
For more information see Section 3, “Hardware” [p. 60] .

1. Install the scorched3d package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. To start Scorched3D, choose Applications → Games → scorched 3d.

7.4. Windows Games

Many games which are available for Windows can be run on Linux through emulators.
Examples of these are Wine and Cedega

46
Common Tasks

1. For information about Wine, see the Ubuntu wiki [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Wine].
2. For information about Cedega, see the Ubuntu wiki [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Cedega]

47
Common Tasks

8. Programming

8.1. Basic Compilers
1. In order to be able to compile programs, some extra packages are necessary. These
can be installed all at once, as follows:
2. Install the build-essential package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating
Applications [p. 21]).

8.2. Java (1.5)

The following instructions are only for i386 and amd64 computers. For PowerPC
machines, please look at the Ubuntu Wiki. [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/JavaPPC]

1. To install the Java Runtime Environment (to run java programs), install the
sun-java5-jre package from the Multiverse repository (see Section 6, “Extra
Repositories” [p. 28]).
2. To install the Java Development Kit (to compile java programs), install the
sun-java5-jdk package from the Multiverse repository (see Section 6, “Extra
Repositories” [p. 28]).
3. To choose which java installation you want to use, run:

sudo update-alternatives --config java

and pick the option which you prefer.

8.3. Development Tools

A list of handy open source development tools for use on Ubuntu such as Integrated
Development Environments (IDEs) and powerful editors.
• Anjuta [http://anjuta.sourceforge.net/] is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
for C and C++.
• Bazaar-NG [http://www.bazaar-ng.org/] is a decentralised version control system used
for Ubuntu development.
• Bluefish [http://bluefish.openoffice.nl/index.html] is a powerful editor for experienced
web designers and programmers.
• Eclipse [http://www.eclipse.org/] is an IDE for Java and other programming languages.
It forms the basis for closed-source programs such as JBuilder.
• Eric [http://www.die-offenbachs.de/detlev/eric3.html] is a fully featured Python and
Ruby IDE.
• Glade [http://glade.gnome.org/] is a User Interface designer for building GNOME
applications.

48
Common Tasks

• IDLE [http://www.python.org/idle/] is the Python IDE built with the Tkinter GUI
toolkit.
• KDevelop [http://www.kdevelop.org/] is a IDE for KDE which supports many
programming languages.
• MonoDevelop [http://www.monodevelop.com/Main_Page] is an IDE for writing
mono/.net applications in C# and other languages.
• NetBeans [http://www.netbeans.org/index.html] is a Java IDE that features support for
CVS and a form builder.

8.4. Programming Documentation

Some useful documentation for programming with Ubuntu.

8.4.1. Dive Into Python

Dive Into Python is a book on learning how to program in the preferred Ubuntu language,
Python. Aimed at programmers with some previous experience, it comes installed with
every Ubuntu installation.

You can read Dive Into Python here
[file:///usr/share/doc/diveintopython/html/toc/index.html].

8.4.2. PyGTK Tutorial

PyGTK Tutorial is a tutorial on developing with the graphical toolkit often used for
developing Ubuntu applications. It assumes that you have knowledge of Python but not
necessarily GTK.
1. Install the python-gtk2-tutorial package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and
Updating Applications [p. 21]).

You will need to use Synaptic Package Manager to install this package

2. To access the documentation, visit python-gtk-tutorial
[file:///usr/share/doc/python-gtk2-tutorial/html/index.html].

8.4.3. Other Documentation

Devhelp is an application to read and search all of the documentation that you install.
1. Install the devhelp package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating
Applications [p. 21]).
2. Choose: Applications → Programming → Devhelp

49
Chapter 4. Configuring Your System
This chapter contains information on configuring your system.

50
Configuring Your System

1. Desktop Tricks
This section details some tips for using and customising Ubuntu's desktop environment
(called GNOME), and the file manager (called Nautilus).

1.1. Menu Editing

Ubuntu comes with the Alacarte Menu Editor, so you can customize your menus and add
entries for applications that don't automatically appear after they are installed.

To add a new menu entry:
1. Open Alacarte with Applications → Accessories → Alacarte Menu Editor, or by
right-clicking on any top-level menu and choosing Edit Menus.
2. In Alacarte's left-hand pane, choose the submenu the new entry should appear in.
3. Choose File → New Entry. In the New Entry window, choose a Name, Comment,
Command and Icon. The Command will usually be the package name, Name is what
will appear on the menu, and the Comment will appear in the tooltip that appears near
the menu entry. Icons are added to the /usr/share/pixmaps directory by default, or
can be chosen from anywhere in your files.

To change the order of menu entries, use the up and down arrows on the right-hand side of
the Alacarte window.

To stop a menu entry from being displayed, use the checkboxes beside each entry. This
does not erase the menu entry, so you can restore it later in the same way.

1.2. Start a Program Manually

Sometimes it can be useful to start a program manually, for example when the program
does not have an entry in the menu. This is easy to do with the Run Applications dialogue.

For an application you intend to use regularly that does not have a menu entry, it is also
very easy to add a menu entry to Ubuntu. (see Section 1.1, “Menu Editing” [p. 51] )
1. Open the Run Applications dialogue by typing:#Alt-F2
2. Enter the name of the program you wish to run, and press Enter.

1.3. Run programs automatically when GNOME starts
1. Choose System → Preferences → Sessions .
2. Click on the Startup Programs tab.
3. Use the Add, Edit, and Delete buttons to manage programs to run at startup. Some
programs will automatically add themselves to this list when you configure them.

51
Configuring Your System

1.4. Login automatically to GNOME when the computer starts

It is possible to login a user automatically when the computer boots. This is not
recommended for most computers, as it is not secure and may allow other users access to
your information
1. System → Administration → Login Screen Setup
2. Select the Security tab. Check the Enable Automatic Login checkbox option.
3. Choose the user you wish to be automatically logged in.

1.5. Change Display Mode in Nautilus

Ubuntu's file manager Nautilus provides two modes in which you can interact with your
filesystem: Spatial mode and Browser mode.
• In Browser mode, the file manager window represents a browser, which can display any
location. Opening a folder updates the current file manager window to show the contents
of the new folder.
• In Spatial mode, the file manager window represents a particular folder. Opening a
folder opens the new window for that folder. Each time you open a particular folder, you
will find its window displayed in the same place on the screen and the same size as the
last time you viewed it (this the reason for the name).

Browser mode is the default setting on Ubuntu, but you may wish to change this:
1. In Nautilus, choose Edit → Preferences.
2. Click on the Behavior tab.
3. Unselect the Always open in browser windows check box.
4. Close and reopen Nautilus.

1.6. Show hidden files and folders in Nautilus
1. In Nautilus, use the Ctrl-H shortcut keys to toggle hidden files and folders on and off,
or select View → Show Hidden Files.
2. To permanently show all hidden files and folders, choose Edit → Preferences.
3. Click on the Views tab.
4. Select the Show hidden and backup files check box.

1.7. Open the Location Bar in Nautilus

The Location Bar is the bar in your file manager in which you can type an address. Toggle
the bar on and off with: Go → Location... You can also use the Ctrl-L shortcut keys.

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Configuring Your System

1.8. View remote SSH, FTP, and SFTP servers using Nautilus
1. Make sure the Nautilus Location Bar is open (see Section 1.7, “Open the Location
Bar in Nautilus” [p. 52] ).
2. In the Location Bar, enter the following:

For SSH, use:

ssh://username@ssh.server.com

For FTP, use:

ftp://username@ftp.server.com

For SFTP, use:

sftp://username@sftp.server.com

Replace username with your username and replace everything after the @ symbol
with the server's address. You will be prompted for a password if needed. If there is
no username (anonymous) omit the username and the @ symbol.

Alternatively, to specify your password manually, change one of the above like so:

ftp://username:password@ftp.server.com

3. To access remote servers easily through Nautilus, add a permanent bookmark to the
server by selecting Places → Connect to Server... and entering the details for the
remote server.

1.9. Change the default "Open with" program for a file type
1. In Nautilus, right click on the file and choose Properties from the menu that appears.
The Properties dialog opens.
2. Click on the Open With tab. A list of applications appears.
3. Select the default application you want for the file type. If the application is not on the
list, use the Add button to add the application to the list.

1.10. Open files with administrative privileges from the file manager
To enable support for opening files with administrative privileges from the file manager,
you need to add a Nautilus script:

Please note that opening files with administrative privileges constitutes a security
risk. Always ensure that you are familiar with the file that you are opening.

1. Open a new file to edit in the relevant directory:

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ Administrator

2. Insert the following lines into the new file:

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Configuring Your System

for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
gksudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done

3. Save the edited file (an example [../sample/nautilus_open_as_administrator])
4. Make the edited file executable:

chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ Administrator

5. You can now open files as root by right clicking on the file and selecting Scripts →
Open as Administrator

1.11. Install Extra Fonts

This section describes how to install extra fonts from the Ubuntu archives.
1. For international fonts, install the following packages from the Universe repository
(see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]):

xfonts-intl-arabic
xfonts-intl-asian
xfonts-intl-chinese
xfonts-intl-chinese-big
xfonts-intl-european
xfonts-intl-japanese
xfonts-intl-japanese-big
xfonts-intl-phonetic

2. For Microsoft TrueType core fonts, install the msttcorefonts package from the
Multiverse repository (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications
[p. 21]).
3. For Ghostscript fonts, install the gsfonts-x11 package (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
4. After installing any new font, rebuild the font information files by typing the
following at a terminal prompt:

sudo fc-cache -f -v

If you prefer to download individual fonts by hand, you can install them simply and easily
by opening a file manager, and typing fonts:/// into the location bar (See Section 1.7,
“Open the Location Bar in Nautilus” [p. 52] ). Then you can simply drag the font you
downloaded into the group of existing fonts.

1.12. RAR Archiver
1. Install the rar package from the Multiverse repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).

54
Configuring Your System

2. Run:

sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/unrar

3. To open a rar file, double click on it.

1.13. Advanced Desktop Applets

gDesklets is a system for bringing mini programs (desklets), such as weather forecasts,
news tickers, system information displays, or music player controls, onto your desktop, in a
symbiotic relationship of eye candy and usefulness.
1. Install the gdesklets and gdesklets-data packages from the Universe repository (see
Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. Choose: Applications → Accessories → gDesklets
3. For more information, visit the gDesklets website [http://www.gdesklets.org/]

1.14. Hide Recent Documents in the Places menu

To hide Recent Documents from the Places menu, open a terminal and run the command:

chmod 400 ~/.recently-used

To enable it again, run the command:

chmod 600 ~/.recently-used

1.15. Show the Computer, Home, and Trash desktop icons in GNOME
1. Open the Configuration Editor, by running the program gconf-editor (see
Section 1.2, “Start a Program Manually” [p. 51] ).
2. Choose apps → nautilus → desktop.
3. Tick the box beside computer_icon_visible, home_icon_visible, and
trash_icon_visible. The changes take effect immediately.

1.16. Change my preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird
1. Choose System → Preferences → Preferred Applications
2. Click on the Mail Reader tab, and select the Custom option.
3. In the Command text box, type mozilla-thunderbird %s, then close the dialog.

1.17. Restart GNOME without rebooting the computer
1. Save and close all open applications.
2. Use the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace shortcut keys to restart GNOME.
3. If Ctrl-Alt-Backspace is disabled, type

55
Configuring Your System

sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

(See Section 1.18, “Preventing the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace shortcut keys from restarting
X” [p. 56] to disable Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.)

1.18. Preventing the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace shortcut keys from restarting X
1. Make a backup copy of your existing /etc/X11/xorg.conf file:

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup

2. Open /etc/X11/xorg.conf for editing:

gksudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

3. Add the following lines to the end of the file:

Section "ServerFlags"
Option "DontZap" "yes"
EndSection

4. Save the edited file (an example [../sample/xorg.conf_disablectrlaltbackspacegnome]).
5. The change will take effect the next time you log in to GNOME. If you want the
change to take effect immediately, restart GNOME manually. (See Section 1.17,
“Restart GNOME without rebooting the computer” [p. 55] .)

56
Configuring Your System

2. Partitions and Booting

2.1. Graphical Partition Editor

Gparted is a graphical tool to edit disk partitions.
1. Install the gparted package (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating
Applications [p. 21]).
2. You can run the application with System → Administration → Gnome Partition
Editor .

2.2. Make partitions available from Ubuntu

Windows and other partitions should be automatically available from any Ubuntu system.
If they are not, you can enable them using the graphical disks tool.
1. Open System → Administration → Disks
2. Select the correct hard disk, and click the Partitions tab.
3. Select the relevant partition, and click Enable.
4. To unmount the partition, click Disable.

2.3. Make partitions automatically available

Again, Windows and other partitions should be automatically available from Ubuntu. If
they are not, the following procedure will make them automatically available:
1. Read Section 3.7.1, “Check disk space usage and view the partition table” [p. 63]
2. First make a directory where the partition can be made available ("mounted"):

sudo mkdir /media/windows

3. Next, backup your disk configuration file and open the file in a text editor with
administrative privileges:

sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab

4. Append the following line at the end of file:

/dev/hda1 /media/windows ntfs umask=0222 0 0

Replace /dev/hda1 with the correct device name for your partition.

If your Windows partition uses the FAT32 filesystem, replace ntfs with vfat
in the above command.

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Configuring Your System

If you have a FAT32 filesystem, it is also safe to allow read-write access. To
do this, change the value of umask to 0000.
5. Save the edited file (an example [../sample/fstab_automountntfs])
6. The changes will take effect when the computer is restarted.

2.4. Run a system command automatically at startup

Sometimes it can be useful to add a custom command to the startup process so that your
computer executes it on every boot. To do this:
1. Edit the crontab with administrative privileges (see Section 3.3, “Root And Sudo” [p.
17]):

sudo crontab -e

2. Insert the following line:

@reboot /home/user/command

Replace /home/user/command with the full address to your command.

3. Save the file and exit.

2.5. Change default Operating System at boot

To change the Operating System which starts by default when booting, it is necessary to
edit the configuration file for booting.
1. Make a backup of your boot configuration file, and open it in a text editor:

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
gksudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

2. Find this line:

...
default 0
...

3. Replace with the following line:

default X_sequence

4. Save the edited file (an example [../sample/menu.list_changedefaultosgrub])

2.6. Permanently disable/enable boot-up services

This requires administrative privileges (see Section 3.3, “Root And Sudo” [p. 17]).
1. Run Services Settings: System → Administration → Services.
2. Enter your password.

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Configuring Your System

3. Tick/untick the services you want running, then click OK when done.
4. For greater control over the boot-up services, install the bum from the Universe
repository (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]) and
run it: System → Administration → Boot-up Manager.

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Configuring Your System

3. Hardware

3.1. Digital Cameras

Most USB digital cameras will be automatically detected by Ubuntu. Simply plug in and
switch on your USB digital camera, Ubuntu will then ask you if you would like to import
the photos from your camera. Click on Import, Ubuntu will then show you a preview of
your photos. Choose a location to save your photos to, then click on Import, Ubuntu will
then save your photos to your hard drive.

If you do not get the auto-import popup with your camera, it might be worth starting
gThumb and trying File → Import Photos.... See Section 6.1, “gThumb Image Viewer” [p.
45] for more on gThumb.

3.2. 3D Graphic Cards

3.2.1. Introduction to 3D Video Acceleration

Most video hardware should work automatically with Ubuntu. However with some types
of video hardware, 3D acceleration (which is needed by some games) will not be supported
automatically. This section details how to get this working with some popular video
hardware.

The first step is to find out whether 3D acceleration is working.
1. To do this, enter in a terminal:

glxinfo | grep rendering

2. If 3D acceleration is working, the following will be displayed:

direct rendering: Yes

3. If not, follow the instructions in the following sections to activate 3D acceleration.

3.2.2. 3D Nvidia Video Card Driver

No Nvidia Video cards have 3D acceleration enabled automatically with Ubuntu, because
the manufacturer does not release open source drivers. However, it is possible to activate
3D acceleration. The process depends on which type of video card you have.
1. If you have an older TNT, TNT2, TNT Ultra, GeForce1 or GeForce2 card, install
the nvidia-glx-legacy and nvidia-settings packages from the Restricted repository (see
Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. Alternatively, if you have a newer card, install the nvidia-glx package from the
Restricted repository (see Chapter 2, Adding, Removing and Updating Applications
[p. 21]).
3. To enable the new driver, run the following command in a terminal:

60
Configuring Your System

sudo nvidia-glx-config enable

4. You may adjust the settings of the new drivers by running the application
nvidia-settings (see Section 1.2, “Start a Program Manually” [p. 51]). If you wish,
add a menu entry for this program (see Section 1.1, “Menu Editing” [p. 51]).

3.2.3. 3D ATI Video Card Driver

Many ATI video cards work well with Ubuntu automatically. To check that 3d acceleration
works with your card, see Section 3.2.1, “Introduction to 3D Video Acceleration” [p.
60] . If it does not work, this procedure should activate it.
1. Install the xorg-driver-fglrx package from the Restricted repository (see Chapter 2,
Adding, Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. You now need to configure the computer to use the new driver so run this command
in a terminal:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg

3. When the dialogue appears and asks whether to do automatic detection of your video,
pick Yes.
4. When asked to select a driver, pick fglrx.
5. Follow the remaining instructions as appropriate.
6. Restart your machine for changes to take effect.

3.3. Keyboard Layouts
This section deals with adding keyboard layouts to your system, and switching between
them easily.

3.3.1. Add a Layout

To add a keyboard layout to your system:
1. Go to System → Preferences → Keyboard
2. Choose Layouts
3. Press Add... to add further keyboard layouts. It is simpler to have two layouts; the
maximum is currently four.
4. Close the dialogue.

3.3.2. Switch Keyboard Layouts

To switch between keyboard layouts, you can set a key combination:
1. Go to System → Preferences → Keyboard
2. To configure your layouts, choose Layout Options

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Configuring Your System

3. Expand the Group Shift/Lock behaviour option
4. Choose the key combination that enables you to switch between keyboard layouts.
The default is by pressing both Alt keys at the same time. A common alternative is to
use Alt-Shift.
5. Close the dialogue
6. You can now use your key combination to switch between keyboard layouts.

3.3.3. Keyboard Indicator

Alternatively add the Keyboard Indicator applet to your panel:
1. Right-click on an empty space on the panel where you want to add the applet
2. Click Add to Panel...
3. Choose Keyboard Indicator from the Utilities section
4. You can now right-click on the Keyboard Indicator to manage your keyboard layouts.

3.4. Wireless Cards

Many wireless cards are automatically detected by Ubuntu during installation. A
complete listing of wireless cards which work with Ubuntu can be found on Ubuntu Wiki
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/HardwareSupportComponentsWirelessNetworkCards]. Please
add your wireless card to the list if it works with Ubuntu.

Some cards may not work automatically with Ubuntu. If this is the case, please look at the
Wireless Troubleshooting Guide [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/WirelessTroubleshootingGuide]
on the Ubuntu Wiki which is an excellent resource for troubleshooting wireless cards.

All information regarding wireless networking on Ubuntu is collected at Wireless
Networking Central [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/WifiDocs] on the Ubuntu Wiki.

3.5. Modems

3.5.1. Winmodems

Most winmodems are not supported by Ubuntu, but drivers can be found that will enable
the use of such modems. First you need to identify what chipset your winmodem is using:

wget -c http://linmodems.technion.ac.il/packages/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo ./scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

Read this file, it should list what modem chipset you have. Once you are
aware of the chipset you have, see http://www.linmodems.org/ and follow the

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Configuring Your System

directions for your modem. More infomation can be found at SettingUpModems
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/SettingUpModems] on the Ubuntu Wiki.

3.5.2. ADSL Modems

All PPPOE and router-style ADSL modems are supported by Ubuntu (that use ethernet
for the connections), and some USB ADSL modems are supported too. For router-style
ADSL modems, just connect it up, configure the modem as per your ISPs instructions
and configure networking in Ubuntu. For information on PPPOE modems see this guide
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/ADSLPPPoE] on the Ubuntu wiki.

3.6. Printers
Some printers will be automatically detected by Ubuntu; for those that are not, choose
System → Administration → Printing then choose Printer → Add Printer and run the
Printer Install Wizard.

There are some printers that need further setup. Search the databases at LinuxPrinting.org
[http://www.linuxprinting.org/] or check the Ubuntu Wiki's Printer page
[https://wiki.ubuntu.com/HardwareSupportComponentsPrinters] for possible information
on your printer.

3.7. Other Tips
3.7.1. Check disk space usage and view the partition table
1. Launch System → Administration → Disks
2. Select the Harddrive, then the Partitions tab
3. Each partition will be listed under Partition List, with disk space and mount point.

3.7.2. List devices
1. To list mounted devices, run the following command in a terminal:

mount

The listing shows the device (such as a hard disk partition), the mount point (where
you access the files), the filesystem type and the mount options.

This example shows the hda2 hard disk partition mounted as '/', with the filesystem
type ext3. The partition is mounted with two options, one to allow the device to be
read from and wrote to and the other to remount the device as read only in the event of
any errors.

/dev/hda2 on / type ext3 (rw,errors=remount-ro)

2. To list PCI devices:

lspci

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Configuring Your System

3. To list USB devices:

lsusb

3.7.3. Mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROMs manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders
1. Assuming that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM
2. To mount CD/DVD-ROM:

sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide

3. To unmount CD/DVD-ROM:

sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

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Configuring Your System

4. Networking

4.1. Change the Computer Name
1. System → Administration → Networking
2. Select the General tab. Enter the name of the computer in the Hostname field.
3. Click OK, close all open applications and reboot.

4.2. Networking Utilities

4.2.1. Firestarter Firewall

A firewall protects a computer system from unauthorized access. It is not normally
necessary to install a firewall on an Ubuntu system, because access to the system is closed
by default. However, if you run any services which you allow other computers to access
(for example, the Apache web server), it is advisable to install a firewall. Firestarter is a
program which allows you to control a firewall through a graphical interface.
1. Install the Firestarter package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. After it is installed, run Applications → System Tools → Firestarter to configure your
firewall. The firewall will now start in the background when your computer starts.

4.2.2. Graphical Network Monitor

Etherape displays network activity among different hosts using circles of varying size.
1. Install the etherape package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. Choose: Applications → Internet → Etherape

4.2.3. Network Traffic Analyzer

Ethereal is a network traffic analyzer/sniffer that captures packets off the network in real
time and displays the contents of them.
1. Install the ethereal package from the Universe repository (see Chapter 2, Adding,
Removing and Updating Applications [p. 21]).
2. Choose: Applications → Internet → Ethereal

65
Chapter 5. Getting More Help
There are a number of places from which you can obtain help with your Ubuntu desktop
system, these include:
• The Ubuntu Documentation Website [http://help.ubuntu.com] - this contains this
guide, and other guides produced by the Ubuntu Documentation Team for Ubuntu and
Kubuntu.
• The Ubuntu Wiki [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UserDocumentation] - this contains many
guides contributed by the community.
• Web Forums [http://www.ubuntu.com/community/forums] - here you can ask questions
on a forum and receive answers from the forum community.
• Mailing Lists [http://lists.ubuntu.com] - here you can ask questions by email, and receive
answers from the mailing list community.
• IRC chat: irc.freenode.net channel #ubuntu - chat in realtime with the irc community.
You will need an irc client to connect. Ubuntu comes with a messenger client, open
Applications → Internet → Gaim Internet Messenger .

For more information, visit the How to Get Help [https://wiki.ubuntu.com/HowToGetHelp]
wiki page.

66
Appendix A. Creative Commons by
Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0
CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION IS NOT A LAW FIRM AND DOES NOT
PROVIDE LEGAL SERVICES. DISTRIBUTION OF THIS LICENSE DOES NOT
CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP. CREATIVE COMMONS
PROVIDES THIS INFORMATION ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. CREATIVE COMMONS
MAKES NO WARRANTIES REGARDING THE INFORMATION PROVIDED, AND
DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ITS USE.

License

THE WORK (AS DEFINED BELOW) IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS
CREATIVE COMMONS PUBLIC LICENSE ("CCPL" OR "LICENSE"). THE WORK
IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT AND/OR OTHER APPLICABLE LAW. ANY USE
OF THE WORK OTHER THAN AS AUTHORIZED UNDER THIS LICENSE OR
COPYRIGHT LAW IS PROHIBITED.

BY EXERCISING ANY RIGHTS TO THE WORK PROVIDED HERE, YOU ACCEPT
AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. THE LICENSOR
GRANTS YOU THE RIGHTS CONTAINED HERE IN CONSIDERATION OF YOUR
ACCEPTANCE OF SUCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS.
1. Definitions.
a. "Collective Work" means a work, such as a periodical issue, anthology or
encyclopedia, in which the Work in its entirety in unmodified form, along with
a number of other contributions, constituting separate and independent works
in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a
Collective Work will not be considered a Derivative Work (as defined below) for the
purposes of this License.
b. "Derivative Work" means a work based upon the Work or upon the Work and
other pre-existing works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization,
fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction,
abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which the Work may be recast,
transformed, or adapted, except that a work that constitutes a Collective Work
will not be considered a Derivative Work for the purpose of this License. For the
avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical composition or sound recording,
the synchronization of the Work in timed-relation with a moving image ("synching")
will be considered a Derivative Work for the purpose of this License.
c. "Licensor" means the individual or entity that offers the Work under the terms of
this License.

67
Creative Commons by Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0

d. "Original Author" means the individual or entity who created the Work.
e. "Work" means the copyrightable work of authorship offered under the terms of this
License.

f. "You" means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has
not previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work, or who
has received express permission from the Licensor to exercise rights under this
License despite a previous violation.
g. "License Elements" means the following high-level license attributes as selected by
Licensor and indicated in the title of this License: Attribution, ShareAlike.

2. Fair Use Rights. Nothing in this license is intended to reduce, limit, or restrict any
rights arising from fair use, first sale or other limitations on the exclusive rights of the
copyright owner under copyright law or other applicable laws.

3. License Grant. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby
grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the
applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below:

a. to reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collective Works,
and to reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collective Works;

b. to create and reproduce Derivative Works;

c. to distribute copies or phonorecords of, display publicly, perform publicly, and
perform publicly by means of a digital audio transmission the Work including as
incorporated in Collective Works;

d. to distribute copies or phonorecords of, display publicly, perform publicly, and
perform publicly by means of a digital audio transmission Derivative Works.

e. For the avoidance of doubt, where the work is a musical composition:

i. "Performance Royalties Under Blanket Licenses." Licensor waives the
exclusive right to collect, whether individually or via a performance rights society
(e.g. ASCAP, BMI, SESAC), royalties for the public performance or public
digital performance (e.g. webcast) of the Work.

ii. "Mechanical Rights and Statutory Royalties." Licensor waives the exclusive
right to collect, whether individually or via a music rights society or designated
agent (e.g. Harry Fox Agency), royalties for any phonorecord You create from
the Work ("cover version") and distribute, subject to the compulsory license
created by 17 USC Section 115 of the US Copyright Act (or the equivalent in
other jurisdictions).

f. "Webcasting Rights and Statutory Royalties." For the avoidance of doubt,
where the Work is a sound recording, Licensor waives the exclusive right to collect,
whether individually or via a performance-rights society (e.g. SoundExchange),
royalties for the public digital performance (e.g. webcast) of the Work, subject to the

68
Creative Commons by Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0

compulsory license created by 17 USC Section 114 of the US Copyright Act (or the
equivalent in other jurisdictions).

The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or
hereafter devised. The above rights include the right to make such modifications as are
technically necessary to exercise the rights in other media and formats. All rights not
expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved.
4. Restrictions. The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and
limited by the following restrictions:
a. You may distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform
the Work only under the terms of this License, and You must include a copy of, or
the Uniform Resource Identifier for, this License with every copy or phonorecord
of the Work You distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally
perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that alter or restrict
the terms of this License or the recipients' exercise of the rights granted hereunder.
You may not sublicense the Work. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this
License and to the disclaimer of warranties. You may not distribute, publicly display,
publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform the Work with any technological
measures that control access or use of the Work in a manner inconsistent with the
terms of this License Agreement. The above applies to the Work as incorporated
in a Collective Work, but this does not require the Collective Work apart from the
Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collective
Work, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove
from the Collective Work any reference to such Licensor or the Original Author,
as requested. If You create a Derivative Work, upon notice from any Licensor You
must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Derivative Work any reference to
such Licensor or the Original Author, as requested.
b. You may distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform
a Derivative Work only under the terms of this License, a later version of this
License with the same License Elements as this License, or a Creative Commons
iCommons license that contains the same License Elements as this License (e.g.
Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Japan). You must include a copy of, or the Uniform
Resource Identifier for, this License or other license specified in the previous
sentence with every copy or phonorecord of each Derivative Work You distribute,
publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform. You may not offer
or impose any terms on the Derivative Works that alter or restrict the terms of this
License or the recipients' exercise of the rights granted hereunder, and You must
keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties.
You may not distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally
perform the Derivative Work with any technological measures that control access or
use of the Work in a manner inconsistent with the terms of this License Agreement.
The above applies to the Derivative Work as incorporated in a Collective Work, but

69
Creative Commons by Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0

this does not require the Collective Work apart from the Derivative Work itself to be
made subject to the terms of this License.
c. If you distribute, publicly display, publicly perform, or publicly digitally perform
the Work or any Derivative Works or Collective Works, You must keep intact all
copyright notices for the Work and give the Original Author credit reasonable to
the medium or means You are utilizing by conveying the name (or pseudonym if
applicable) of the Original Author if supplied; the title of the Work if supplied;
to the extent reasonably practicable, the Uniform Resource Identifier, if any, that
Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work, unless such URI does not refer
to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work; and in the case of a
Derivative Work, a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Derivative Work
(e.g., "French translation of the Work by Original Author," or "Screenplay based
on original Work by Original Author"). Such credit may be implemented in any
reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Derivative Work or
Collective Work, at a minimum such credit will appear where any other comparable
authorship credit appears and in a manner at least as prominent as such other
comparable authorship credit.

5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer

UNLESS OTHERWISE AGREED TO BY THE PARTIES IN WRITING,
LICENSOR OFFERS THE WORK AS-IS AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS
OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND CONCERNING THE MATERIALS,
EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTIBILITY, FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NONINFRINGEMENT, OR THE ABSENCE OF
LATENT OR OTHER DEFECTS, ACCURACY, OR THE PRESENCE OF ABSENCE
OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT DISCOVERABLE. SOME JURISDICTIONS
DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES, SO SUCH
EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

6. Limitation on Liability. EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE
LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL
THEORY FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR
EXEMPLARY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS LICENSE OR THE USE OF
THE WORK, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
OF SUCH DAMAGES.

7. Termination

a. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any
breach by You of the terms of this License. Individuals or entities who have received
Derivative Works or Collective Works from You under this License, however, will
not have their licenses terminated provided such individuals or entities remain in

70
Creative Commons by Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0

full compliance with those licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 will survive any
termination of this License.
b. Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is perpetual (for
the duration of the applicable copyright in the Work). Notwithstanding the above,
Licensor reserves the right to release the Work under different license terms or to
stop distributing the Work at any time; provided, however that any such election will
not serve to withdraw this License (or any other license that has been, or is required
to be, granted under the terms of this License), and this License will continue in full
force and effect unless terminated as stated above.

8. Miscellaneous

a. Each time You distribute or publicly digitally perform the Work or a Collective
Work, the Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms
and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.

b. Each time You distribute or publicly digitally perform a Derivative Work, Licensor
offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms and
conditions as the license granted to You under this License.

c. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law,
it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this
License, and without further action by the parties to this agreement, such provision
shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and
enforceable.

d. No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach
consented to unless such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the
party to be charged with such waiver or consent.

e. This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the
Work licensed here. There are no understandings, agreements or representations with
respect to the Work not specified here. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional
provisions that may appear in any communication from You. This License may not
be modified without the mutual written agreement of the Licensor and You.

Creative Commons is not a party to this License, and makes no warranty whatsoever
in connection with the Work. Creative Commons will not be liable to You or any party
on any legal theory for any damages whatsoever, including without limitation any
general, special, incidental or consequential damages arising in connection to this license.
Notwithstanding the foregoing two (2) sentences, if Creative Commons has expressly
identified itself as the Licensor hereunder, it shall have all rights and obligations of
Licensor.

Except for the limited purpose of indicating to the public that the Work is licensed under
the CCPL, neither party will use the trademark "Creative Commons" or any related
trademark or logo of Creative Commons without the prior written consent of Creative

71
Creative Commons by Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0

Commons. Any permitted use will be in compliance with Creative Commons' then-current
trademark usage guidelines, as may be published on its website or otherwise made
available upon request from time to time.

Creative Commons may be contacted at http://creativecommons.org/.

72
Appendix B. GNU Free Documentation
License
Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright © 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor,
Boston,
MA
02110-1301
USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but
changing it is not allowed.
Version 1.2, November 2002

PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful
document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy
and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their
work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document
must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public
License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free
software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing
the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software
manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it
is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose
purpose is instruction or reference.

APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License.
Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use
that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such

73
GNU Free Documentation License

manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You
accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
under copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a
portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another
language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document
that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document
to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of
mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship
could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of
legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as
being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released
under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.
If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or
Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License.
A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25
words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a
format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising
the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor,
and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage
subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent
if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called
"Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup,
Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available
DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human
modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque
formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word
processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally

74
GNU Free Documentation License

available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
processors for output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages
as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page.
For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the
text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the
body of the text.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either
is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in
another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such
as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the
Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section
"Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that
this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be
included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the
meaning of this License.

VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or
noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice
saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical
measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make
or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you
distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section
3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly
display copies.

COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers)
of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires
Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the
back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally
prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with

75
GNU Free Documentation License

changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy
these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the
first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you
must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy,
or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general
network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a
complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter
option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque
copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the
stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy
(directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before
redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an
updated version of the Document.

MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions
of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely
this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing
distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In
addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

GNU FDL Modification Conditions
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the
Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be
listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous
version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for
authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of
the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than
five), unless they release you from this requirement.
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the
publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other
copyright notices.

76
GNU Free Documentation License

F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public
permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form
shown in the Addendum [p. 80] below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover
Texts given in the Document's license notice.
H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at
least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the
Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating
the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then
add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a
Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the
Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History"
section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four
years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to
gives permission.
K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title
of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the
contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their
titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
M.Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the
Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title
with any Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as
Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your
option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to
the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be
distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but
endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer
review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition
of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up
to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified

77
GNU Free Documentation License

Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added
by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes
a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the
same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the
old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission
to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified
Version.

COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under
the terms defined in section 4 [p. 76] above for modified versions, provided that you
include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license
notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical
Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant
Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section
unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or
publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to
the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various
original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections
Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete
all sections Entitled "Endorsements".

COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various
documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow
the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other
respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually
under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document,
and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an

78
GNU Free Documentation License

"aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal
rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the
Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the
aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document,
then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover
Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must
appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the
Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations
requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations
of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant
Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original
English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers.
In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or
a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History",
the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing
the actual title.

TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly
provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or
distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License
will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free
Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to
the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document
specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies
to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified

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GNU Free Documentation License

version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may
choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the
document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Sample Invariant Sections list

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy,
distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the
Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover
Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the
"with...Texts." line with this:

Sample Invariant Sections list

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being
LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the
three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing
these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU
General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

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