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CHAPTER ONE 1.

0 Background Information Examination leakages have for many years continued to dent the credibility of our education system in Zambia. The standards of education have continued to improve but the progression raises more questions than answers. For more than a decade now at the end of each year when most educational institutions are conducting end of year examinations, examination malpractices become regular news headlines. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb this vice but all in vain. Generally, the Zambian populace refers to examination malpractices as leakages. A visit to most schools which have been approved as examination centres by the Examination Council of Zambia show that, strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers, until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils. According to Mwenya Chileshe (2010:2) “Most students go to the extreme end of using money, sex, bullying, extortion and blackmail or whatever tool that comes their way to obtain prior knowledge of questions. Lecturers too, in almost all tertiary institutions in Zambia, receive heat from students or relatives who want to have access to what may come in the dreaded examinations.” Mwenya observation can be confirmed with Post News paper (2007) dated 28th April in which it was reported that, “It is not only Colleges and Universities suffering from examinations malpractices - it happens even with professional bodies! On 28th April 2007, the Attorney-General, Mumba Malila, stated that it was shameful that “even some learners of the legal profession at the Zambia Institute of Advanced Legal Education (ZIALE) cheated their way into the profession by helping themselves to leaked

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examination papers”. There had been examinations leakages at ZIALE earlier in the year.” Nevertheless, examination malpractices have too much to do with the minds of all people involved from preparation of questions, printing, delivery and finally storage at the last stage which is the school. If any of the individuals involved in this chain is dishonest, the efforts of all stakeholders become irrelevant. Examinations Council of Zambia (ECZ) whose mission is “to set and conduct examinations of high and comparable standards that reflect the quality of educational system in Zambia” has not been spared. In The Zambia Daily Mail of Wednesday 11th November 2009, ECZ stated that a total of 327 cases of examinations malpractices and leakages were recorded during the 2008 examination session. Of these, 5 cases were at Grade 7, 55 at Grade Nine, and 267 cases occurred at Grade twelve level. Results were nullified in all subjects and 57 people involved in these practices were convicted. All provinces recorded one or more cases of malpractice with Luapula recording 75 cases, the highest number at Grade 12. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Of late, Grade 9 and 12 final examination malpractices have become rampant in Zambia especially in high schools. This scourge has become a worrisome problem to the Ministry of Education and the Examination Council of Zambia, whose aim is to conduct examinations without prior knowledge to them by the supposed to be candidates throughout the country. To this date it affects to be little on accurate and reliable information to show the actual causes and sources of examination leakages. Therefore, this study will investigate factors causing examination malpractices.

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1.3 HYPOTHESIS It was hypothised that teachers are the sources of examination leakages in Zambia. 1.4 IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES Independent Variable: - Teachers Dependent Variable: - Examination Leakages 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To identify the causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia. 2. To identify the role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations. 3. To investigate if the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages. 4. To formulate mitigation measures of ending examination leakages in Zambia. 1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What patterns have changed in the education sector in Zambia between 1995 and 2012 which might have led to mal practices? 2. To establish and identify patterns of examinations conduct and the possible loop holes through examinations materials may leak to the candidates in basic and High School? 3. Is there any relationship between economic status of Teachers and Examination officers and their attitudes towards work? 4. What is the attitude of pupils, teachers, DEBS towards examination leakages in Zambia?

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3 Target Population The research intends to cover Grade 9 and 12 Pupils at Chinyongola Basic School and Kafunshi High School in Chibombo respectivel of Chibombo District of Zambia.8.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Undoubtedly. 1. The process depicted the prevailing situation using stratified random sampling method.2 Sample size The sample size consisted of 50 respondents that will include of 20 Grade 9 and 20 Grade 12 Pupils. 4 . The research results will provide a bench mark for future researchers on the same subject. 1Study Design The study used both the qualitative and quantitative designs in order to give accurate information on examination leakages at Grade 12 level of final examination. a study of this magnitude and sensitivity would be confronted at two major fronts. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1. 1.1. 8. 1. 3.8. The findings will contribute to the already existing literature on examination leakages in Zambia. Teachers and District Education Board Secretary (DEBS) officials at Chibombo District education offices. by respondents not being willing or free to tell the truth by way of protecting their self image or may fear to expose their superior‟s weaknesses. 2.8 teachers and 2 DEBS Officers. The research report will be a partial fulfilment of the requirement of the award of a Bachelor Degree in Education (secondary).8 METHODOLOGY 1.

8. It was designed and administered to those who were willing to be interviewed at their own convenient time.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS 5 .4 Data Collection Both primary and secondary data will be used in collecting information. stratified random sampling method of sampling was applied.8. In an attempt to choose 40 pupils from 2 schools without bias. Questionnaires Self administered questionnaires and interview guides were used in data collection where it was not possible to meet all the respondents at one point. In this particular case.5 Data Collection Instruments Interview Guide The study covered a wide range of questions on examination leakages.8.6 Sampling Procedures The simple random sampling procedures were used in this research for its high degree of representatives.1. 1. 1. 1.

District Education Board Secretary: An officer in charge of the education system in a district. Copying: Reproduction of another candidate‟s work with or without permission. Malpractices: A deliberate act of wrong doing. contrary to the official examination rules and is designed to place a candidate at an advantage. CHAPTER TWO 6 . Leakage: Disclosure of any part of the examination to the public prior to the examination date.Candidate: An officially authorised person to sit for an examination at a particular time and centre. Invigilator: An officer working under oath to conduct examination to the public prior to the examination date.

bullying. ECZ stated that a total of 327 cases of examinations malpractices and leakages were recorded during the 2008 examination session. stated that it was shameful that “even some learners of the legal profession at the Zambia Institute of Advanced Legal Education (ZIALE) cheated their way into the profession by helping themselves to leaked examination papers”. Lecturers too. There had been examinations leakages at ZIALE earlier in the year. Widespread malpractices It is not only Colleges and Universities suffering from examinations malpractices . sex. Of these. Results were nullified in all subjects and 57 people involved in these practices were convicted. and 267 cases occurred at Grade twelve level. Most students go to the extreme end of using money. receive heat from students or relatives who want to have access to what may come in the dreaded examinations. the Attorney-General.LITERATURE REVIEW Sadly. All 7 . In The Zambia Daily Mail of Wednesday 11th November 2009. Mumba Malila. Examinations Council of Zambia (ECZ) whose mission is “to set and conduct examinations of high and comparable standards that reflect the quality of educational system in Zambia” has not been spared. extortion and blackmail or whatever tool that comes their way to obtain prior knowledge of questions. 5 cases were at Grade 7. suspending or expelling some students for examinations leakages and related malpractices.it happens even with professional bodies! On 28th April 2007. in almost all tertiary institutions in Zambia. 55 at Grade Nine. no examination session comes to an end without nullifying.

Zambia inherited a highly academic and segregationist education system based on race. Over the years the system evolved based on examinations as a means of selecting few Zambians to meet the demands of the settlers. Mention has to be made that before independence. It has been noted that education was determined by the needs of traders. one may soon be required 8 . and conceptualise that having leakages is the best way of going through an education system? Do they seriously think about the damage leakages cause to society? What about themselves being expelled or contracting deadly diseases in the process of getting a leakage? Zambia’s education system A critical look at our general education system may help us answer the question. got diplomas and degrees. The idea was to give indigenous people basic education to make them efficient labourers on farms. even to become a Zambian president. the highest number at Grade 12. act. and the more advanced the academic qualification. Today. sex. These went on to tertiary education. behave. or as Bible readers. administrators and missionaries and not by the indigenous people themselves. one was assured of employment. think. Why is our education system haunted with examinations leakages? Why is it that most of our students. young and old alike. the more chances of getting a lucrative job. Equipped with such papers. the education offered to an average Zambian was of poor quality and not every Zambian had access to it. fees and ethnicity. Consequently. believe. settlers. religion. intelligence. in industry. the system began to acknowledge only those students who managed to pass in academic subjects as suitable to proceed for further training.provinces recorded one or more cases of malpractice with Luapula recording 75 cases. in government offices.

which where once 100% open to poor Zambians. religious. The government has not put in place policies which promote pupils with other interests not related to academics. resourced. Discrimination Education reforms after independence and to date can rightly be viewed from the “anti-colonial discourse” perspective. and class-based inequalities. Kabaso (2012:6) argues that. football.to have a degree. sexual.to mention a few. Only rich Zambians can afford to send their children to well equipped. staffed. gender. passing examinations is highly emphasised. “The system further favours an academic approach to learning over the hands-on skills approach. have almost become a domain for rich Zambians. Schools now discriminate based on gender (Chipembi Girls or Matero Boys) or intelligence (David Livingstone) . This shows the seriousness some Zambian people attach to academic qualification. dancing or farming. The anti-colonial discursive framework acknowledges the roles educational systems play in producing and reproducing racial. policies such as carpentry. and expensive schools like Chengelo in Mkushi or Baobab in Lusaka.” In view of the above. the minority elite Zambians . In the case of Zambia.have manipulated the education system to safeguard their interests. linguistic. 9 . Those who cannot score very high in this system are abandoned along the way and labelled as „failures‟ or „drop-outs‟. Many missionary schools. bricklaying. ethnic.who have replaced the colonisers . music. An analysis of their fee structures and their academic entry requirements favours those who have received privileged basic education rather than those coming from humble backgrounds.

s/he should be enrolled in Grade 10.For many years. pupils and students are under pressure to perform well in academic subjects so that they may have a better future. Professor Geoffrey Lungwangwa. No consideration was made for pupil- 10 . I fear to say the obvious that such students will look for other ways of passing the subject s/he failed at Grade Nine. and the manner in which they are implemented. but managed to score a pass grade in five other subjects. Mention is made here of two former Ministers of Education. decreed that as long as a pupil at Grade nine meets mere passes in six subjects. they fight main and might to do well in academics. It is difficult to predict that if a student failed at Grade 9 in English that s/he will pass next time around at Grade 12. It is no longer strange to find students even in some of our renowned universities failing to differentiate between a verb and a noun. Those who think they cannot succeed the conventional way resort to leakages! Lack of political will and vision Some pronouncements made by our politicians. Honourable Andrew Mulenga (2002-2004) made a pronouncement that all those who failed to meet a minimum 40% pass mark in English. adversely affect and exacerbate the demand for leakages and examination malpractices. such skills have been looked upon as fit for failures. Since few Zambians want to be failures. Minister of Education in 2009. Given this scenario. It is now common to find students with excellent grades in English at Grade 12 who fail to express themselves intelligibly to others in English. should proceed to Grade 10. themselves former teachers and administrators before ascending to positions of political authority. nothing was put in place to help these pupils reach a minimum level of language proficiency. Good as the policy was.

Pupils no longer break for holidays to rest but to go through yet another rigorous drilling at some coaching centre. examination coaching centres. Additionally.schools especially rural schools. They buy examination 11 . Children will be going through an education system without receiving an equitable and quality education. Little or no learning and teaching materials had been bought. guardians. teachers and friends want to see their wards get good marks during the initial years of their education in the hope that they will go to colleges or universities and get high paying job. Tuition centres. funding to such . The result is that some schools now have a ratio of 85 pupils per teacher. they should not only busy themselves pleasing donors and voters at the expense of destroying the same future of the people voting for them. and private schools have become the order of the day. Moral. Only bright learners benefit. The objective of such help is simple . This has radically reduced the teacher-pupil contact resulting in poor delivery on the part of the teacher and poor pupil self-actualisation. “There is an increased pressure from the community on pupils to perform better in academics regardless of their abilities and academic history. The community Kabaso (2012:28) notes that.teacher ratio. Our politicians and policy makers probably need to carry out researches before they make certain pronouncements. no improvements to existing infrastructure were made. many will be forced to look for leakages. financial and spiritual resources are dispensed in abundance to pupils so that they can achieve this golden goal with ease.” Parents. Since pupils want to pass and go to colleges. private tuitions.to pass examinations at any cost! Some tuition centres are actually sources of leakages. class space.

Their self confidence is gone as they will want others to think. leakages affect the smooth running of society. friends. As professionals. faultfinders and grossly inefficient. such individuals become mediocre. If they become medical doctors. This way. rumour mongers.or is it the other way around! Evidence has been emerging indicating the precarious position of examinations which has to be defended at four fronts: against the teachers.papers which they use to drill their pupils in order to attain a 100% pass in examinations. bootlickers. pupils. they will wrongly diagnose their patients and send them to the grave. and teachers need to have realistic expectations from their children. they will want to win their way through rigging elections. In discharging their duties. they will fail to comprehend the complex rules of business and lead a country into underdevelopment. They no longer recognise ethics as a value. general. parents are duped and send more and more children to these centres thinking real teaching goes on. corrupt. relatives. individuals involved in leakages lose their moral direction. guardians. secondary and 12 . They should understand that it is not a diploma or degrees which count in life. If they are lawyers. Their policies will be warped and visionless. Literature supports that examination leakages is common in primary. Firstly. talk or work for them.There is need to emphatically tell our children that the means does not justify the end . Many of us wouldn‟t be around if parenting required degrees! Effects of leakages Simple as it may appear. public and the examination council of Zambia. they would corrupt justice and promote unjust causes. If they become politicians. Parents.

Sometimes. Nonetheless. no parents will take children to a school associated with failure. these foreign materials can be already 13 . Smuggling in of foreign materials in an exam room which will assist an individual to answer questions is another vice common among the examination candidates. teachers entrusted to invigilate exams ought to be honest when carrying out their duties. believe. The best a teacher can do is to teach well before an exam so that the learners perform well during exams.2010). young and old alike. only diligent teachers should be involved in examinations and those found wanting should be punished severely. owners of schools are sometimes under pressure if their school results are poor (Mwenya. It can no longer be denied that establishing a private school is good business. Honestly. behave. Additionally. This is common especially among external candidates who just register for some subjects at GCE centres. It is important that a candidate‟s identity is scrutinised before registering for an exam and just before sitting for an exam.higher institutions in Zambia. Teachers also play a negative role sometimes in assisting their learners to answer examination questions. think. Therefore. act. and conceptualise that having leakages is the best way of going through an education system? Do they seriously think about the damage leakages cause to society? What about themselves being expelled or contracting deadly diseases in the process of getting a leakage? Impersonation: This is where someone will write an exam on behalf of somebody else. This is common in some private schools were the pass rate in an examination is a tool of advertising. Why is our education system haunted with examination leakages? Why is it that most of our students. Examination Papers tend to come reach candidates before the actual day.

It is therefore cardinal that invigilators are vigilant in ensuring that no candidate enters an examination room with foreign papers. Doctors who administer wrong medication and kill patients. The University of Zambia has in the recent years recorded a very high failure rate for first year students. Qualifications obtained by exam malpractices are just as bad as those obtained from Matero University (forged).2012:7). 14 . This is a very serious warning that we need to curb examination malpractices in order to produce learners who will acquire the necessary knowledge in order to help our country develop. We all have a personal role to play and assist curb examination leakages at all levels of our educational system. It is important that incentives are given to all people entrusted to conduct examinations so that they are motivated to work well in accordance with the stipulated conditions (Kabaso. Our country needs highly qualified manpower in order to develop. Lastly.answered questions. Leakages lead to having workers who are functionally illiterate. It is the best tool to evaluate the performance of learners. Can you imagine having teachers who cheat instead of teaching. It is meaningless to continue having graduates who are functionally illiterate. Malpractices deny the nation to have a genuine gauge of our progress. It is surprising that some pupils who have very good grades at grade twelve fail to perform well at tertiary level of education. the media is challenged to follow up cases of exam malpractices so that we get to know if those caught are prosecuted. teachers and the curriculum. Motivation of invigilators is also important but the government has never appreciated invigilators for many years now. We hear of culprits being arrested as headlines but rarely do we hear of any outcome of the cases from the police and the courts of law. Examinations play a very important role in the education system.

612 people.1 Introduction to the chapter Background Information of the research setting The research was done in Chibombo at Chinyongola Basic Kafunshi High School. Chibombo District is a district of Central Province. Its headquarters are at Chibombo.The more the public hear of punishments given to offenders. Zambia. CHAPTER THREE PRESENTATION OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS 3. the better the chances of malpractices being reduced. As of the 2000 Zambian Census. the district had a population of 241. and it lies between the Lukanga Swamp in the west and the end of the Luangwa Valley in the east.0 3. and 15 . It includes good commercial farmland north of Lusaka.

laziness of pupils in study as the major contributing factor to examination leakages in Zambia. the researcher interviewed the all total sample size of 50 respondents in ascertaining the major causes of Examination mal.practices in Zambia and the following were the results. In line with the above objective.2 Research findings in relation to the research objectives 3.2.Figure 1: Location of Chibombo District on the map of Zambia 3. 16 . Causes of Exams Leakages 20 15 10 5 0 Laziness Sylabus Laziness Corruption Sylabus Pressure Figure 2: Causes of Examination leakages in Zambia As shown above. in which 20 respondents said that.1 Causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia. four man causes of examination leakages were found.

2. Chinyongola Basic School and Kafunshi High School in Chibombo. pressure from the community to work hard and pass with good marks often makes the pupils victims of the examination mal practices. 17 .10 respondents said that. pupils themselves and Examination Council of Zambia IT staffs. The respondents indicated that: the major sources of examination leakages are teachers. 12 respondents reviewed that failure to finish syllabus in class forces students to seek for examination leakages and sometimes teachers often contribute so as to compensate what they did not cover in the class. 3. Then external courses includes people from the outside who have access to Examination council of Zambia data base or assist in transporting the boxes for exams. examinations leakages are as a result of the corrupt invigilators who are mainly teachers. The internal sources includes those from Examnination Council of Zambia and teachers in charge of handling and receiving examination papers. Out of the all 50 respondents (100%) of the respondents said that both and internal causes results in mal practices.1 b Sources of examination Leakages According to the research findings done at the two schools. The research also revealed that.

Preventive measures 10% 50% 40% Security Sensitization Law Figure 2: Preventive measures The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders such as the Examination council of Zambia. until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils. The findings showed that out of 10 Teachers and DEBS representative interviewed. the Ministry of education has ensured that the rooms are secured with the strong locks and strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers.2. Zambia Police and Parent Teacher Associations (PTA)‟s has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb these vices as shown above on Figure 2. 4 respondents representing 40% showed that the Ministry of education conducts sensitization and swearing ceremonies‟ to all invigilators so that if one is found is dealt by the Laws of Zambia.3. 18 .2 Role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations.

3. Percentage Yes.3 Investigation on whether the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages. Do economic status of Frequency officers in charge of examinations contribute examination leakages. Social standing No do not Total 14 50 72% 28% 100% Table 1 : Investigation of economic status of officers contribution to examination mal practices. the researcher found that social and economic status of individual in charge of examinations such as IT specialists.. police officers and Headteachers and in general teachers do contribute to 19 .poor salaries and 36 allowances.2. markers.1 respondent representing 10% from Figure 2 shows that the Ministry of Education in conjunction with the Zambia Police service prosecute every wanting person found with examination papers before the date of the examination. As shown above.

20 . 32 respondents representing 64% on Figure 3 showed that involving guidance teachers from the onset will reduce examination malpractices. 3. Out of the 50 (100%) interviewed. the findings attribute examination leakages to be rampart from the outside school practices.4 Solutions to examination leakages in Zambia.2. however. The research also aimed at coming up with sustainable measures in ensuring free examinations in Zambia. Whilst 14 respondents representing 28% denied of examination administrators to be responsible for the examination leakages. Enforce security measures Strengthern Law 12% Involve Guidance 24% Teachers 64% Involve Guidance Teachers Strengthern Law Enforce security measures Figure 3. Solutions to Examination leakages in Zambia. Recommendations. opinions and suggestions‟ from respondents brought fourth sustainable measures as shown on Figure 3 above.examination mal practices this was supported by 36 respondents representing 72% of the respondents. It was proposed that if guidance teachers help students on developing study skills and successful examination habits will help in reducing examination malpractices.

by incorporating Zambia Police Officers in guarding the place and invigilations.On the other hand. 12 respondents representing 24 % above. 21 . store houses. The other 6 respondents representing 12% suggested of developing efficient security measures to examination classrooms. proposed that: the Goverment of Zambia should develop strong Laws concerning examination malpractices so that everyone fears to curb into it.

new tricks to beat genuine supervisors and examiners.1 Causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia. 22 .0 Introduction to the chapter The aim of this chapter is to analyse the research findings presented in the previous chapter. 4.CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS 4. Cheating behaviour exhibited by the school. One serious problem plaguing Zambia‟s system of education today is large examination malpractice coupled with intellectual dishonesty. in relation to the literature review and research findings. Smuggling of prepared notes into examination hall. School administrators were recently called upon to desist from helping their students to perpetrate in examination malpractice. Our pupils and students devise as a daily routine. The fact remains that examination malpractice has become usual practice in Zambia. The incidence of examination malpractice is multi dimensional in nature. They insult. Empiricism shows that examinations indicate the extent of factual knowledge acquired by students. threaten and even assault invigilators and supervisors who failed to cooperate with them in their unholy and nefarious acts. population is a big problem to our people. predict future educational achievement and provide a means of selecting suitable candidates for certain educational courses or occupation. One of the principal aim of examination is to assess how much learning has taken place and to what extent the educational objectives and goals have been achieved. embarrass. Examination has been recognized as forming the nucleus of education without which the enterprise will be incomplete.

Instead. he could be described as being digitally lazy. however. No doubt. the person is lazy in a calibrated manner. the researcher learnt that the laziness is the major cause of examination mal practice in Zambia. such people prefer to waste their time on other pastimes such as gambling. which always constitute a waste of mental and physical resources.Individual however put the blame on lack of proper social value system. he will always want to take dangerous short cuts in order to achieve his objectives. This ugly tendency is one of the basic causes of examination malpractices. When one is lazy in every way. When one is negatively inclined or when one becomes evil minded. good and evil or uprightness and causes of examination mal practices include corrupt invigilators. Such people go to lengths to make sure they pass their tests or examinations through the back door. That is to say. they want to pass by all means. The other inclinations. therefore. it is very important that we should avoid all forms of laziness when it comes to our studies. they could do awful things in this direction. one who is as lazy as this finds it difficult to engage in those things that could bring him true benefits. And when their parents aid them. When exams come. A student who has lost the correct perception of the differences between right and wrong. For lazy people will always find it difficult to make good academic students. the high premium attached to paper qualifications as prerequisite for admission and gainful employment. Such people do not make good students because. both mentally and physically. they will never take time to listen to their teacher. On the causes of examination malpractice in Zambia. In order to help ourselves. spend time in reading their books or even carry out useful functions in the home. which the researcher has described as the evil or negative 23 .

guardians. For he who cheats in examination simply betrays the fact that he does not know the true meaning and value of genuine education which is to polish an individual into a competent and productive human being within his given environment. stories have been told about students who conspired and stabbed their examiner to death because he prevented them from carrying out their unwholesome practices in the examination hall. they even help their children. parents. When people lose their perceptions of the differences between good and evil. Hence. The researcher also generalised the findings in relation to failure to finish syllabus in time by teachers and pressure from the community. We must endeavour to run away from such ugly things if we wish to reap the benefits of genuinely acquired knowledge. When the society. they become more interested in special examination centres where they will be free to do as they like than in studying their subjects well in order to pass through their examinations in a dignifying manner. right or wrong.” It is therefore supported that.perverseness will not see anything wrong in using any and every means at his disposal to acquire a certificate. pupils and students to perpetrate their negative inclinations in this direction. teachers and friendswant 24 . When students become negatively inclined. even if it involves shedding of blood. they no longer see the actual acquisition of knowledge as the more important thing to passing the examination while yet passing for illiterates persons in the subjects of their choice. parents and teachers lose their ability to see the difference between right and wrong. In which the researcher supported Kabaso (2012:28) views which are reflected in the literature review in which it was asserted that: “There is an increased pressure from the community on pupils to perform better in academics regardless of their abilities and academic history .

Tuition centres. it is generalised that they stem from Examination Council of Zambia staffs. those involves in transporting or preparing examination papers or in publishing the papers. financial and spiritual resources are dispensed in abundance to pupils so that they can achieve this golden goal with ease. invigilators and external sources that includes. examination coaching centres. Teachers. 25 . On the sources of examination leakages. and private schools have become the order of the day. The findings showed that.to see their wards get good marks during the initial years of their education in the hope that they will go to colleges or universities and get high paying job. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders such as the Examination council of Zambia. Ministry of education conducts sensitization and swearing ceremonies‟ to all invigilators so that if one is found is dealt by the Laws of Zambia. private tuitions.the Ministry of education has ensured that the rooms are secured with the strong locks and strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers. Pupils no longer break for holidays to rest but to go through yet another rigorous drilling at some coaching centre. 4.2 Role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations. Moral. Zambia Police and Parent Teacher Associations (PTA)‟s has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb these vices as shown above on Figure 2 of the previous chapter. until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils. Ministry of Education in conjunction with the Zambia Police service prosecute every wanting person found with examination papers before the date of the examination.

The findings show that economic status of officers involved in the administration of examination do causes examination mal practices in that. This is common in some private schools were the pass rate in an examination is a tool of advertising.3 Investigation on whether the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages. owners of schools are sometimes under pressure if their school results are poor (Mwenya. It can no longer be denied that establishing a private school is good business.2010). bricklaying.However. despite all the above measures examination mal practices continues in Zambia. The literature supports the above findings in that. music. no one wants to fail in life as education is concerned. policies such as carpentry. teachers also play a negative role sometimes in assisting their learners to answer examination questions. dancing or farming. “The system further favours an academic approach to learning over the hands-on skills approach. passing examinations is highly emphasised.” In view of the above. Those who cannot score very high in this system are abandoned along the way and labelled as „failures‟ or „drop-outs‟. 4. Therefore. Kabaso (2012:6) argues that. 26 . football. The government has not put in place policies which promote pupils with other interests not related to academics.

4. 27 . opinions and suggestions‟ from respondents brought fourth sustainable measures as shown on Figure 3 in the previous chapter shows three sustainable measures to include: 1. Strengthening Law to punish offenders. The research also aimed at coming up with sustainable measures in ensuring free examinations in Zambia. increasing number of school. Ensuring security measures 3. Recommendations.4 Solutions to Examination leakages in Zambia. employing more teachers and help students with problems that student face. Strengthening guidance counselling in schools 2. The researcher generalised the above findings in that.Therefore the solution is to help students understand their subject. since the major cause of examination leakages is laziness of pupils and failure to finish syllabuses by teachers in time contribute to examination malpractices.

Generally. Nevertheless. The standards of education have continued to improve but the progression raises more questions than answers. It is so because they know that if today they are found giving pupils leakages and later being reprimanded. the Zambian populace refers to examination malpractices as leakages. the following year the same teachers will be found teaching somewhere else in other schools. "Unlike lawyers and other professionals. the efforts of all stakeholders become irrelevant. For more than a decade now at the end of each year when most educational institutions are conducting end of year examinations. delivery and finally storage at the last stage which is the school. The researcher claimed that the government and the Examination Council of Zambia (ECZ) were to blame for the spate of examination malpractices recorded countrywide. printing." he said. examination malpractices become regular news headlines. examination malpractices have too much to do with the minds of all people involved from preparation of questions. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb this vice but all in vain. 28 . CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. teaching and lecturing in Zambia does not belong to the accreditation body and as such teachers are not scared to commit an offence.CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY. If any of the individuals involved in this chain is dishonest.1 Summary Examination leakages have for many years continued to dent the credibility of our education system in Zambia.

5. desks and employing qualified teachers. The government can play a very big role in curbing this menace by providing enough classrooms. This is so because of the loose linkage that exists between the ECZ and the Ministry of Education. The local examination body was also to blame for the high wave of examination leakages. 29 . during an examination.2 Conclusion Having known the causes and sources of examination mal practices in Zambia. adequate seats and adequate number of teachers in a school. The ECZ also should share the blame about the examination malpractices that we are seeing now. the school should ensure that each student gets his/her own question paper and provide enough invigilators. And with the existing high poverty levels. Right now teachers are engaging in leakages because there are no stiffer laws that stop them from doing so. And also. solutions are only possible where there are Examination Halls. In conclusion. A class where theft are 150 students sitting on the floor and windows with some armed with knives and locally made pistols. teachers are not afraid to engage in the business of selling of examination papers to parents and pupils at any price they feel like. there is a need for the government to introduce a Bill to Parliament that would seek to form an accreditation body for the teaching profession so that teachers who would be found abrogating the rules and regulations could be barred from practising anywhere in the country. large classrooms. The researcher concludes that. an invigilator will not risk his life to prevent examination malpractice.

finger prints on certificates should be used for identification as no two persons. 4. 6. 5. School managers and Principals should occasionally pay visits to exam halls to observe what is going on. even identical twins could have the same finger print. they could notice any cheating behaviour. The number of invigilators and supervisors should be increased in the exam halls.3 Recommendations In relation to the number of observable challenges.5. The students should be thoroughly searched before entering the hall. That is why it is used in crime detection. career prospects and requirement for various careers. 3. They will then have the tactics to follow on how to finish the syllabus for a particular term or at least cover a large part of it. Holidays may be more in number but reduced in length as students are reluctant to resume from long holidays. Guidance Counselors should be employed in all schools to guide the students on study habits. In this way. Apart from photographs. Exam officers. Teachers should he trained properly in their fields. the researcher recommends the following:1. 30 . 2. Continuous assessment should be practiced correctly. It will reduce examination malpractices as 40% of marks are accumulated from various assessment techniques such as projects and assignments before actual examinations.

Kabsy Digital Media. Kabaso Sydney (2012)Examination malpractices: A threat to Zambian education.Zambia.References Mulenga Andrew (2009) Examination malpractices in Zambia whose failure. Lusaka. Mwenya Chileshe (2010) Zambia: Education . 31 . causes and effects Lusaka.Post Newspaper.Chalimbana College .Zambia. NISTCOL. United States of America. Chicago.Culture of leakages.

In your work as a Teacher at this institution how many cases of examination leakages have you recorded? Yes examination leakages? No 7. What do you think are the common causes and sources of 32 . Education Level College University Others Female 26 -30 31-35 Above 36 3. Please answer all the questions carefully. How does your school define examination mal practices and leakages? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. Background Information Gender: Male Age: Below 25 2. 5.APPENDIX SECTION APPENDIX A SELF ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS Instructions. 1. For how long have you worked for Kafunshi High School/Chinyongola basic school ? …………………………………………………………………………………………. Marital Status Single Married Divorced 4. Fill your answers in the blank spaces and boxes as provided below.

..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................................... ............ ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................... ............................. 9......................... ............... .................................................................... 11............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Thank you for your participation........... ............. ...... What measures have you put in place to fight/mitigate examination leakages at this school? Who are your cooperating partners in this fight? .................................................................. .................................................................................... 8............................... ........................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................. What has been the attitude of pupils towards leakages? .................... ............................................................................ ............................................................... What punishment do you put to culprits found with examination papers before the actual date? ......................................... 10......................... what do you think should be done prevent/mitigate examination mal practices in Zambian Schools?.................................................. ............... In your own opinion............................................................................ 33 ...................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................................................................................................................

..... Why pupils do often fears an examination? 5. What do you think are the major purposes of sitting for an examination as a Grade 7..... Examination council of Zambia should do to examination leakage? reduce/minimize examination leakages..9 or 12 pupil? 4. What do you think are the causes of leaking examinations considering both the leaker and the receiver? 10..APPENDIX B INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR GRADE PUPILS Respondent no. How do pupils access examination leakages? 8.. Which sexes (Gender) are more prone to leakages? 9.. What are examination malpractices and do they happen at this school? 6........ 34 ...... 11.. What really happens when a candidate is caught with an What do you think.. How do you define an examination? 3.... 1.. Where do you think examination leakages come from? 7... What have been the challenges/strengths you have so far experienced in Zambian education as a pupil? 2.......

.APPENDIX C INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR DEBS OFFICIALS Respondent no.... What measures have you put in place as an examination Council of Zambia and Ministry of Education? 8..... What are some of the positive observable changes you have In your opinion. what do you think should be done by the encountered as the education body? relevant key stakeholders to minimize examination leakages in Zambia? 35 .... what do you think are the common causes of examination leakages in Zambia? 6.. 11. In your own way. What has been the attitude of the key stake holders in promoting education and mitigating examination leakage sin Zambia? 9. What policy has the Government put in place to minimise examination leakages in the education ministry? 10... What have been the challenges/strengths you have so far experienced in Zambian education? 2........... What is the primary purpose of the Examination Council of Zambia (Mission statement/vision)? 3.... 1... How many cases have you reported so far for Grade 12 in the district in the last 2 years? 7..... When did the ECZ become a semi –autonomous institution and why? 4....... What have been the differences between Cambridge Overseas School Certificate with the current ECZ papers? 5.

APPENDIX D WORK PLAN AND TIME SCHEDULES Activity 1 Description Activity Development of Data collection instruments 2 3 4 Data Collection Data processing and analysis Report writing. typing and editing 5 Production of the final draft and submission 3/05/2013 1 week 26/05/2013 4 days 22/06/2012 18/07/2012 2 weeks 1 week 10/06/2012 2 weeks of Dates Duration 36 .

S/N DESCRIPTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ream of A4 paper Pens Refreshments Data Transport Totals typing. QUANTITY 4 10 Processing. binding 300 300 845 (ZMK). UNIT PRICE (ZMK) 25 1.50 200 250 AMOUNT (ZMK) 80 15 300 250 37 .APPENDIX E BUDGET PLAN The following is an itemized list and amounts that was spent for the research to successfully carry out the research without any much financial constraint.