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CHAPTER ONE 1.

0 Background Information Examination leakages have for many years continued to dent the credibility of our education system in Zambia. The standards of education have continued to improve but the progression raises more questions than answers. For more than a decade now at the end of each year when most educational institutions are conducting end of year examinations, examination malpractices become regular news headlines. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb this vice but all in vain. Generally, the Zambian populace refers to examination malpractices as leakages. A visit to most schools which have been approved as examination centres by the Examination Council of Zambia show that, strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers, until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils. According to Mwenya Chileshe (2010:2) “Most students go to the extreme end of using money, sex, bullying, extortion and blackmail or whatever tool that comes their way to obtain prior knowledge of questions. Lecturers too, in almost all tertiary institutions in Zambia, receive heat from students or relatives who want to have access to what may come in the dreaded examinations.” Mwenya observation can be confirmed with Post News paper (2007) dated 28th April in which it was reported that, “It is not only Colleges and Universities suffering from examinations malpractices - it happens even with professional bodies! On 28th April 2007, the Attorney-General, Mumba Malila, stated that it was shameful that “even some learners of the legal profession at the Zambia Institute of Advanced Legal Education (ZIALE) cheated their way into the profession by helping themselves to leaked

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examination papers”. There had been examinations leakages at ZIALE earlier in the year.” Nevertheless, examination malpractices have too much to do with the minds of all people involved from preparation of questions, printing, delivery and finally storage at the last stage which is the school. If any of the individuals involved in this chain is dishonest, the efforts of all stakeholders become irrelevant. Examinations Council of Zambia (ECZ) whose mission is “to set and conduct examinations of high and comparable standards that reflect the quality of educational system in Zambia” has not been spared. In The Zambia Daily Mail of Wednesday 11th November 2009, ECZ stated that a total of 327 cases of examinations malpractices and leakages were recorded during the 2008 examination session. Of these, 5 cases were at Grade 7, 55 at Grade Nine, and 267 cases occurred at Grade twelve level. Results were nullified in all subjects and 57 people involved in these practices were convicted. All provinces recorded one or more cases of malpractice with Luapula recording 75 cases, the highest number at Grade 12. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Of late, Grade 9 and 12 final examination malpractices have become rampant in Zambia especially in high schools. This scourge has become a worrisome problem to the Ministry of Education and the Examination Council of Zambia, whose aim is to conduct examinations without prior knowledge to them by the supposed to be candidates throughout the country. To this date it affects to be little on accurate and reliable information to show the actual causes and sources of examination leakages. Therefore, this study will investigate factors causing examination malpractices.

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1.3 HYPOTHESIS It was hypothised that teachers are the sources of examination leakages in Zambia. 1.4 IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES Independent Variable: - Teachers Dependent Variable: - Examination Leakages 1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To identify the causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia. 2. To identify the role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations. 3. To investigate if the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages. 4. To formulate mitigation measures of ending examination leakages in Zambia. 1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What patterns have changed in the education sector in Zambia between 1995 and 2012 which might have led to mal practices? 2. To establish and identify patterns of examinations conduct and the possible loop holes through examinations materials may leak to the candidates in basic and High School? 3. Is there any relationship between economic status of Teachers and Examination officers and their attitudes towards work? 4. What is the attitude of pupils, teachers, DEBS towards examination leakages in Zambia?

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a study of this magnitude and sensitivity would be confronted at two major fronts. 1. 4 . 1.8. 1Study Design The study used both the qualitative and quantitative designs in order to give accurate information on examination leakages at Grade 12 level of final examination.1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1. Teachers and District Education Board Secretary (DEBS) officials at Chibombo District education offices. 8. The findings will contribute to the already existing literature on examination leakages in Zambia.2 Sample size The sample size consisted of 50 respondents that will include of 20 Grade 9 and 20 Grade 12 Pupils.3 Target Population The research intends to cover Grade 9 and 12 Pupils at Chinyongola Basic School and Kafunshi High School in Chibombo respectivel of Chibombo District of Zambia.8 METHODOLOGY 1. The process depicted the prevailing situation using stratified random sampling method.8 teachers and 2 DEBS Officers. 1. The research report will be a partial fulfilment of the requirement of the award of a Bachelor Degree in Education (secondary).8. 1. 2. The research results will provide a bench mark for future researchers on the same subject.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Undoubtedly. by respondents not being willing or free to tell the truth by way of protecting their self image or may fear to expose their superior‟s weaknesses. 3.

5 Data Collection Instruments Interview Guide The study covered a wide range of questions on examination leakages. It was designed and administered to those who were willing to be interviewed at their own convenient time. stratified random sampling method of sampling was applied.8. 1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS 5 . Questionnaires Self administered questionnaires and interview guides were used in data collection where it was not possible to meet all the respondents at one point. 1.1. 1.6 Sampling Procedures The simple random sampling procedures were used in this research for its high degree of representatives.8. In an attempt to choose 40 pupils from 2 schools without bias. In this particular case.8.4 Data Collection Both primary and secondary data will be used in collecting information.

contrary to the official examination rules and is designed to place a candidate at an advantage. Invigilator: An officer working under oath to conduct examination to the public prior to the examination date. CHAPTER TWO 6 . Malpractices: A deliberate act of wrong doing. Leakage: Disclosure of any part of the examination to the public prior to the examination date. Copying: Reproduction of another candidate‟s work with or without permission.Candidate: An officially authorised person to sit for an examination at a particular time and centre. District Education Board Secretary: An officer in charge of the education system in a district.

In The Zambia Daily Mail of Wednesday 11th November 2009. Examinations Council of Zambia (ECZ) whose mission is “to set and conduct examinations of high and comparable standards that reflect the quality of educational system in Zambia” has not been spared. Lecturers too. and 267 cases occurred at Grade twelve level. no examination session comes to an end without nullifying.it happens even with professional bodies! On 28th April 2007. Most students go to the extreme end of using money. There had been examinations leakages at ZIALE earlier in the year. stated that it was shameful that “even some learners of the legal profession at the Zambia Institute of Advanced Legal Education (ZIALE) cheated their way into the profession by helping themselves to leaked examination papers”. bullying. All 7 .LITERATURE REVIEW Sadly. suspending or expelling some students for examinations leakages and related malpractices. 5 cases were at Grade 7. ECZ stated that a total of 327 cases of examinations malpractices and leakages were recorded during the 2008 examination session. the Attorney-General. Results were nullified in all subjects and 57 people involved in these practices were convicted. receive heat from students or relatives who want to have access to what may come in the dreaded examinations. in almost all tertiary institutions in Zambia. extortion and blackmail or whatever tool that comes their way to obtain prior knowledge of questions. 55 at Grade Nine. sex. Of these. Mumba Malila. Widespread malpractices It is not only Colleges and Universities suffering from examinations malpractices .

fees and ethnicity. It has been noted that education was determined by the needs of traders. Today. settlers. Zambia inherited a highly academic and segregationist education system based on race. religion. believe. got diplomas and degrees. Why is our education system haunted with examinations leakages? Why is it that most of our students. The idea was to give indigenous people basic education to make them efficient labourers on farms. the education offered to an average Zambian was of poor quality and not every Zambian had access to it. Mention has to be made that before independence. the highest number at Grade 12. Consequently. young and old alike. the more chances of getting a lucrative job. even to become a Zambian president. the system began to acknowledge only those students who managed to pass in academic subjects as suitable to proceed for further training. one may soon be required 8 . or as Bible readers. in government offices. sex. in industry. one was assured of employment. behave. intelligence. and conceptualise that having leakages is the best way of going through an education system? Do they seriously think about the damage leakages cause to society? What about themselves being expelled or contracting deadly diseases in the process of getting a leakage? Zambia’s education system A critical look at our general education system may help us answer the question. Over the years the system evolved based on examinations as a means of selecting few Zambians to meet the demands of the settlers. act.provinces recorded one or more cases of malpractice with Luapula recording 75 cases. administrators and missionaries and not by the indigenous people themselves. Equipped with such papers. and the more advanced the academic qualification. These went on to tertiary education. think.

passing examinations is highly emphasised.” In view of the above. Only rich Zambians can afford to send their children to well equipped. gender. have almost become a domain for rich Zambians. Kabaso (2012:6) argues that. and class-based inequalities.have manipulated the education system to safeguard their interests. dancing or farming. An analysis of their fee structures and their academic entry requirements favours those who have received privileged basic education rather than those coming from humble backgrounds.to have a degree.who have replaced the colonisers . football. which where once 100% open to poor Zambians. Schools now discriminate based on gender (Chipembi Girls or Matero Boys) or intelligence (David Livingstone) . staffed. music. ethnic. The anti-colonial discursive framework acknowledges the roles educational systems play in producing and reproducing racial. bricklaying. policies such as carpentry. religious. In the case of Zambia. “The system further favours an academic approach to learning over the hands-on skills approach. resourced. The government has not put in place policies which promote pupils with other interests not related to academics. the minority elite Zambians . and expensive schools like Chengelo in Mkushi or Baobab in Lusaka. linguistic. Those who cannot score very high in this system are abandoned along the way and labelled as „failures‟ or „drop-outs‟. Discrimination Education reforms after independence and to date can rightly be viewed from the “anti-colonial discourse” perspective.to mention a few. This shows the seriousness some Zambian people attach to academic qualification. Many missionary schools. 9 . sexual.

It is now common to find students with excellent grades in English at Grade 12 who fail to express themselves intelligibly to others in English. It is no longer strange to find students even in some of our renowned universities failing to differentiate between a verb and a noun. Mention is made here of two former Ministers of Education. Since few Zambians want to be failures. and the manner in which they are implemented. Minister of Education in 2009. I fear to say the obvious that such students will look for other ways of passing the subject s/he failed at Grade Nine. they fight main and might to do well in academics. s/he should be enrolled in Grade 10. nothing was put in place to help these pupils reach a minimum level of language proficiency. pupils and students are under pressure to perform well in academic subjects so that they may have a better future. Professor Geoffrey Lungwangwa. themselves former teachers and administrators before ascending to positions of political authority. No consideration was made for pupil- 10 . Good as the policy was.For many years. Those who think they cannot succeed the conventional way resort to leakages! Lack of political will and vision Some pronouncements made by our politicians. It is difficult to predict that if a student failed at Grade 9 in English that s/he will pass next time around at Grade 12. Honourable Andrew Mulenga (2002-2004) made a pronouncement that all those who failed to meet a minimum 40% pass mark in English. decreed that as long as a pupil at Grade nine meets mere passes in six subjects. but managed to score a pass grade in five other subjects. such skills have been looked upon as fit for failures. should proceed to Grade 10. Given this scenario. adversely affect and exacerbate the demand for leakages and examination malpractices.

Little or no learning and teaching materials had been bought.teacher ratio. The objective of such help is simple . The community Kabaso (2012:28) notes that. no improvements to existing infrastructure were made. many will be forced to look for leakages. guardians. Since pupils want to pass and go to colleges. This has radically reduced the teacher-pupil contact resulting in poor delivery on the part of the teacher and poor pupil self-actualisation. “There is an increased pressure from the community on pupils to perform better in academics regardless of their abilities and academic history. Only bright learners benefit. Moral. class space. Tuition centres. Children will be going through an education system without receiving an equitable and quality education.to pass examinations at any cost! Some tuition centres are actually sources of leakages. and private schools have become the order of the day. Pupils no longer break for holidays to rest but to go through yet another rigorous drilling at some coaching centre.” Parents. teachers and friends want to see their wards get good marks during the initial years of their education in the hope that they will go to colleges or universities and get high paying job.schools especially rural schools. They buy examination 11 . private tuitions. funding to such . Additionally. The result is that some schools now have a ratio of 85 pupils per teacher. they should not only busy themselves pleasing donors and voters at the expense of destroying the same future of the people voting for them. examination coaching centres. Our politicians and policy makers probably need to carry out researches before they make certain pronouncements. financial and spiritual resources are dispensed in abundance to pupils so that they can achieve this golden goal with ease.

There is need to emphatically tell our children that the means does not justify the end . They should understand that it is not a diploma or degrees which count in life. If they become medical doctors. they will want to win their way through rigging elections. Their policies will be warped and visionless. Literature supports that examination leakages is common in primary. public and the examination council of Zambia. bootlickers. such individuals become mediocre. general. If they are lawyers. rumour mongers. they will fail to comprehend the complex rules of business and lead a country into underdevelopment. Parents. If they become politicians. This way. guardians. talk or work for them. Firstly.papers which they use to drill their pupils in order to attain a 100% pass in examinations. individuals involved in leakages lose their moral direction. In discharging their duties. As professionals. they would corrupt justice and promote unjust causes. pupils. They no longer recognise ethics as a value. faultfinders and grossly inefficient.or is it the other way around! Evidence has been emerging indicating the precarious position of examinations which has to be defended at four fronts: against the teachers. friends. leakages affect the smooth running of society. parents are duped and send more and more children to these centres thinking real teaching goes on. corrupt. and teachers need to have realistic expectations from their children. they will wrongly diagnose their patients and send them to the grave. relatives. secondary and 12 . Their self confidence is gone as they will want others to think. Many of us wouldn‟t be around if parenting required degrees! Effects of leakages Simple as it may appear.

only diligent teachers should be involved in examinations and those found wanting should be punished severely. Examination Papers tend to come reach candidates before the actual day.higher institutions in Zambia. these foreign materials can be already 13 . Honestly. act. Teachers also play a negative role sometimes in assisting their learners to answer examination questions. teachers entrusted to invigilate exams ought to be honest when carrying out their duties. This is common especially among external candidates who just register for some subjects at GCE centres. Why is our education system haunted with examination leakages? Why is it that most of our students. believe. Nonetheless. Smuggling in of foreign materials in an exam room which will assist an individual to answer questions is another vice common among the examination candidates. It is important that a candidate‟s identity is scrutinised before registering for an exam and just before sitting for an exam. think. It can no longer be denied that establishing a private school is good business. This is common in some private schools were the pass rate in an examination is a tool of advertising. owners of schools are sometimes under pressure if their school results are poor (Mwenya. The best a teacher can do is to teach well before an exam so that the learners perform well during exams. behave. Therefore.2010). young and old alike. Additionally. no parents will take children to a school associated with failure. Sometimes. and conceptualise that having leakages is the best way of going through an education system? Do they seriously think about the damage leakages cause to society? What about themselves being expelled or contracting deadly diseases in the process of getting a leakage? Impersonation: This is where someone will write an exam on behalf of somebody else.

Doctors who administer wrong medication and kill patients. teachers and the curriculum. It is the best tool to evaluate the performance of learners. The University of Zambia has in the recent years recorded a very high failure rate for first year students. Qualifications obtained by exam malpractices are just as bad as those obtained from Matero University (forged). Leakages lead to having workers who are functionally illiterate.answered questions. It is important that incentives are given to all people entrusted to conduct examinations so that they are motivated to work well in accordance with the stipulated conditions (Kabaso. This is a very serious warning that we need to curb examination malpractices in order to produce learners who will acquire the necessary knowledge in order to help our country develop. Malpractices deny the nation to have a genuine gauge of our progress. Our country needs highly qualified manpower in order to develop.2012:7). Can you imagine having teachers who cheat instead of teaching. Lastly. Examinations play a very important role in the education system. We all have a personal role to play and assist curb examination leakages at all levels of our educational system. It is therefore cardinal that invigilators are vigilant in ensuring that no candidate enters an examination room with foreign papers. It is surprising that some pupils who have very good grades at grade twelve fail to perform well at tertiary level of education. We hear of culprits being arrested as headlines but rarely do we hear of any outcome of the cases from the police and the courts of law. Motivation of invigilators is also important but the government has never appreciated invigilators for many years now. the media is challenged to follow up cases of exam malpractices so that we get to know if those caught are prosecuted. 14 . It is meaningless to continue having graduates who are functionally illiterate.

and 15 . Zambia. As of the 2000 Zambian Census. It includes good commercial farmland north of Lusaka. Its headquarters are at Chibombo. CHAPTER THREE PRESENTATION OF THE RESEARCH FINDINGS 3. the district had a population of 241.0 3.612 people. and it lies between the Lukanga Swamp in the west and the end of the Luangwa Valley in the east. the better the chances of malpractices being reduced.1 Introduction to the chapter Background Information of the research setting The research was done in Chibombo at Chinyongola Basic Kafunshi High School. Chibombo District is a district of Central Province.The more the public hear of punishments given to offenders.

16 . Causes of Exams Leakages 20 15 10 5 0 Laziness Sylabus Laziness Corruption Sylabus Pressure Figure 2: Causes of Examination leakages in Zambia As shown above. the researcher interviewed the all total sample size of 50 respondents in ascertaining the major causes of Examination mal.Figure 1: Location of Chibombo District on the map of Zambia 3. laziness of pupils in study as the major contributing factor to examination leakages in Zambia.2 Research findings in relation to the research objectives 3. in which 20 respondents said that. In line with the above objective.2.practices in Zambia and the following were the results. four man causes of examination leakages were found.1 Causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia.

10 respondents said that. The internal sources includes those from Examnination Council of Zambia and teachers in charge of handling and receiving examination papers. pressure from the community to work hard and pass with good marks often makes the pupils victims of the examination mal practices. Then external courses includes people from the outside who have access to Examination council of Zambia data base or assist in transporting the boxes for exams. 12 respondents reviewed that failure to finish syllabus in class forces students to seek for examination leakages and sometimes teachers often contribute so as to compensate what they did not cover in the class. The respondents indicated that: the major sources of examination leakages are teachers. 17 . The research also revealed that. examinations leakages are as a result of the corrupt invigilators who are mainly teachers.1 b Sources of examination Leakages According to the research findings done at the two schools. Chinyongola Basic School and Kafunshi High School in Chibombo. 3. pupils themselves and Examination Council of Zambia IT staffs. Out of the all 50 respondents (100%) of the respondents said that both and internal causes results in mal practices.2.

4 respondents representing 40% showed that the Ministry of education conducts sensitization and swearing ceremonies‟ to all invigilators so that if one is found is dealt by the Laws of Zambia. until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils.2 Role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations. the Ministry of education has ensured that the rooms are secured with the strong locks and strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers. The findings showed that out of 10 Teachers and DEBS representative interviewed. Zambia Police and Parent Teacher Associations (PTA)‟s has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb these vices as shown above on Figure 2. Preventive measures 10% 50% 40% Security Sensitization Law Figure 2: Preventive measures The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders such as the Examination council of Zambia. 18 .3.2.

1 respondent representing 10% from Figure 2 shows that the Ministry of Education in conjunction with the Zambia Police service prosecute every wanting person found with examination papers before the date of the examination.poor salaries and 36 allowances. markers. 3. the researcher found that social and economic status of individual in charge of examinations such as IT specialists. As shown above. police officers and Headteachers and in general teachers do contribute to 19 . Social standing No do not Total 14 50 72% 28% 100% Table 1 : Investigation of economic status of officers contribution to examination mal practices.2. Do economic status of Frequency officers in charge of examinations contribute examination leakages.3 Investigation on whether the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages.. Percentage Yes.

Recommendations. the findings attribute examination leakages to be rampart from the outside school practices.examination mal practices this was supported by 36 respondents representing 72% of the respondents.4 Solutions to examination leakages in Zambia. Out of the 50 (100%) interviewed. It was proposed that if guidance teachers help students on developing study skills and successful examination habits will help in reducing examination malpractices.2. opinions and suggestions‟ from respondents brought fourth sustainable measures as shown on Figure 3 above. Whilst 14 respondents representing 28% denied of examination administrators to be responsible for the examination leakages. Enforce security measures Strengthern Law 12% Involve Guidance 24% Teachers 64% Involve Guidance Teachers Strengthern Law Enforce security measures Figure 3. however. 32 respondents representing 64% on Figure 3 showed that involving guidance teachers from the onset will reduce examination malpractices. 3. 20 . Solutions to Examination leakages in Zambia. The research also aimed at coming up with sustainable measures in ensuring free examinations in Zambia.

The other 6 respondents representing 12% suggested of developing efficient security measures to examination classrooms. proposed that: the Goverment of Zambia should develop strong Laws concerning examination malpractices so that everyone fears to curb into it. by incorporating Zambia Police Officers in guarding the place and invigilations. 21 . 12 respondents representing 24 % above.On the other hand. store houses.

The incidence of examination malpractice is multi dimensional in nature. in relation to the literature review and research findings. Empiricism shows that examinations indicate the extent of factual knowledge acquired by students. threaten and even assault invigilators and supervisors who failed to cooperate with them in their unholy and nefarious acts. Cheating behaviour exhibited by the school. population is a big problem to our people. Examination has been recognized as forming the nucleus of education without which the enterprise will be incomplete. embarrass. The fact remains that examination malpractice has become usual practice in Zambia. 22 . One of the principal aim of examination is to assess how much learning has taken place and to what extent the educational objectives and goals have been achieved. predict future educational achievement and provide a means of selecting suitable candidates for certain educational courses or occupation. Smuggling of prepared notes into examination hall. School administrators were recently called upon to desist from helping their students to perpetrate in examination malpractice. 4. One serious problem plaguing Zambia‟s system of education today is large examination malpractice coupled with intellectual dishonesty.CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS 4. Our pupils and students devise as a daily routine.1 Causes and sources of examination leakages in Zambia.0 Introduction to the chapter The aim of this chapter is to analyse the research findings presented in the previous chapter. They insult. new tricks to beat genuine supervisors and examiners.

they could do awful things in this direction. When one is lazy in every way. the person is lazy in a calibrated manner. it is very important that we should avoid all forms of laziness when it comes to our studies. On the causes of examination malpractice in Zambia. one who is as lazy as this finds it difficult to engage in those things that could bring him true benefits. therefore. the high premium attached to paper qualifications as prerequisite for admission and gainful employment. In order to help ourselves. he will always want to take dangerous short cuts in order to achieve his objectives. which the researcher has described as the evil or negative 23 . he could be described as being digitally lazy. That is to say. spend time in reading their books or even carry out useful functions in the home. Instead. For lazy people will always find it difficult to make good academic students. A student who has lost the correct perception of the differences between right and wrong. This ugly tendency is one of the basic causes of examination malpractices. both mentally and physically. The other inclinations. When one is negatively inclined or when one becomes evil minded. they will never take time to listen to their teacher. good and evil or uprightness and causes of examination mal practices include corrupt invigilators. No doubt.Individual however put the blame on lack of proper social value system. the researcher learnt that the laziness is the major cause of examination mal practice in Zambia. which always constitute a waste of mental and physical resources. such people prefer to waste their time on other pastimes such as gambling. however. And when their parents aid them. Such people go to lengths to make sure they pass their tests or examinations through the back door. Such people do not make good students because. they want to pass by all means. When exams come.

right or wrong. In which the researcher supported Kabaso (2012:28) views which are reflected in the literature review in which it was asserted that: “There is an increased pressure from the community on pupils to perform better in academics regardless of their abilities and academic history . guardians. When people lose their perceptions of the differences between good and evil. parents. When students become negatively inclined. teachers and friendswant 24 . The researcher also generalised the findings in relation to failure to finish syllabus in time by teachers and pressure from the community. they even help their children. even if it involves shedding of blood. pupils and students to perpetrate their negative inclinations in this direction. For he who cheats in examination simply betrays the fact that he does not know the true meaning and value of genuine education which is to polish an individual into a competent and productive human being within his given environment. stories have been told about students who conspired and stabbed their examiner to death because he prevented them from carrying out their unwholesome practices in the examination hall. parents and teachers lose their ability to see the difference between right and wrong. they become more interested in special examination centres where they will be free to do as they like than in studying their subjects well in order to pass through their examinations in a dignifying manner. We must endeavour to run away from such ugly things if we wish to reap the benefits of genuinely acquired knowledge. they no longer see the actual acquisition of knowledge as the more important thing to passing the examination while yet passing for illiterates persons in the subjects of their choice.perverseness will not see anything wrong in using any and every means at his disposal to acquire a certificate. Hence.” It is therefore supported that. When the society.

The findings showed that.2 Role played by key stakeholders in the administration of Examinations. invigilators and external sources that includes. On the sources of examination leakages. 4. those involves in transporting or preparing examination papers or in publishing the papers. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders such as the Examination council of Zambia. Ministry of education conducts sensitization and swearing ceremonies‟ to all invigilators so that if one is found is dealt by the Laws of Zambia. Moral.the Ministry of education has ensured that the rooms are secured with the strong locks and strong rooms have been erected in most schools for the safe keeping of examination papers. 25 . Zambia Police and Parent Teacher Associations (PTA)‟s has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb these vices as shown above on Figure 2 of the previous chapter. private tuitions. and private schools have become the order of the day. until the day on which the paper is supposed to be written by the pupils. Tuition centres. financial and spiritual resources are dispensed in abundance to pupils so that they can achieve this golden goal with ease.to see their wards get good marks during the initial years of their education in the hope that they will go to colleges or universities and get high paying job. Teachers. it is generalised that they stem from Examination Council of Zambia staffs. Ministry of Education in conjunction with the Zambia Police service prosecute every wanting person found with examination papers before the date of the examination. Pupils no longer break for holidays to rest but to go through yet another rigorous drilling at some coaching centre. examination coaching centres.

Therefore.” In view of the above. despite all the above measures examination mal practices continues in Zambia. policies such as carpentry.2010). The literature supports the above findings in that. passing examinations is highly emphasised. “The system further favours an academic approach to learning over the hands-on skills approach. owners of schools are sometimes under pressure if their school results are poor (Mwenya. 26 .3 Investigation on whether the economic status of officers in charge of examinations could contribute towards their in efficiency work culture and examination leakages. This is common in some private schools were the pass rate in an examination is a tool of advertising. 4. football. teachers also play a negative role sometimes in assisting their learners to answer examination questions. Kabaso (2012:6) argues that. bricklaying.However. It can no longer be denied that establishing a private school is good business. Those who cannot score very high in this system are abandoned along the way and labelled as „failures‟ or „drop-outs‟. The findings show that economic status of officers involved in the administration of examination do causes examination mal practices in that. dancing or farming. The government has not put in place policies which promote pupils with other interests not related to academics. no one wants to fail in life as education is concerned. music.

Ensuring security measures 3. Strengthening guidance counselling in schools 2. Recommendations.Therefore the solution is to help students understand their subject. Strengthening Law to punish offenders. employing more teachers and help students with problems that student face. opinions and suggestions‟ from respondents brought fourth sustainable measures as shown on Figure 3 in the previous chapter shows three sustainable measures to include: 1.4. increasing number of school.4 Solutions to Examination leakages in Zambia. The research also aimed at coming up with sustainable measures in ensuring free examinations in Zambia. 27 . The researcher generalised the above findings in that. since the major cause of examination leakages is laziness of pupils and failure to finish syllabuses by teachers in time contribute to examination malpractices.

the following year the same teachers will be found teaching somewhere else in other schools. examination malpractices have too much to do with the minds of all people involved from preparation of questions." he said.CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. the Zambian populace refers to examination malpractices as leakages. The researcher claimed that the government and the Examination Council of Zambia (ECZ) were to blame for the spate of examination malpractices recorded countrywide. 28 . It is so because they know that if today they are found giving pupils leakages and later being reprimanded. the efforts of all stakeholders become irrelevant. Nevertheless. "Unlike lawyers and other professionals. For more than a decade now at the end of each year when most educational institutions are conducting end of year examinations. teaching and lecturing in Zambia does not belong to the accreditation body and as such teachers are not scared to commit an offence. The Ministry of Education in partnership with major stakeholders has ruthlessly tried all efforts to curb this vice but all in vain.1 Summary Examination leakages have for many years continued to dent the credibility of our education system in Zambia. printing. The standards of education have continued to improve but the progression raises more questions than answers. delivery and finally storage at the last stage which is the school. examination malpractices become regular news headlines. If any of the individuals involved in this chain is dishonest. Generally.

The researcher concludes that. large classrooms. the school should ensure that each student gets his/her own question paper and provide enough invigilators. adequate seats and adequate number of teachers in a school. there is a need for the government to introduce a Bill to Parliament that would seek to form an accreditation body for the teaching profession so that teachers who would be found abrogating the rules and regulations could be barred from practising anywhere in the country. The local examination body was also to blame for the high wave of examination leakages. This is so because of the loose linkage that exists between the ECZ and the Ministry of Education. And also. solutions are only possible where there are Examination Halls. The government can play a very big role in curbing this menace by providing enough classrooms. In conclusion. teachers are not afraid to engage in the business of selling of examination papers to parents and pupils at any price they feel like. desks and employing qualified teachers. And with the existing high poverty levels. an invigilator will not risk his life to prevent examination malpractice. during an examination.2 Conclusion Having known the causes and sources of examination mal practices in Zambia. A class where theft are 150 students sitting on the floor and windows with some armed with knives and locally made pistols. 29 .5. The ECZ also should share the blame about the examination malpractices that we are seeing now. Right now teachers are engaging in leakages because there are no stiffer laws that stop them from doing so.

even identical twins could have the same finger print. Apart from photographs. 4. career prospects and requirement for various careers. 3. That is why it is used in crime detection. they could notice any cheating behaviour. School managers and Principals should occasionally pay visits to exam halls to observe what is going on.3 Recommendations In relation to the number of observable challenges. 2. It will reduce examination malpractices as 40% of marks are accumulated from various assessment techniques such as projects and assignments before actual examinations. Guidance Counselors should be employed in all schools to guide the students on study habits. Teachers should he trained properly in their fields. They will then have the tactics to follow on how to finish the syllabus for a particular term or at least cover a large part of it. In this way.5. The students should be thoroughly searched before entering the hall. finger prints on certificates should be used for identification as no two persons. The number of invigilators and supervisors should be increased in the exam halls. 30 . Holidays may be more in number but reduced in length as students are reluctant to resume from long holidays. 5. Continuous assessment should be practiced correctly. the researcher recommends the following:1. 6. Exam officers.

Kabsy Digital Media.Post Newspaper. Chicago.Culture of leakages. NISTCOL.Chalimbana College . 31 .Zambia. Lusaka. causes and effects Lusaka. United States of America. Mwenya Chileshe (2010) Zambia: Education . Kabaso Sydney (2012)Examination malpractices: A threat to Zambian education.References Mulenga Andrew (2009) Examination malpractices in Zambia whose failure.Zambia.

1. How does your school define examination mal practices and leakages? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. Marital Status Single Married Divorced 4. Education Level College University Others Female 26 -30 31-35 Above 36 3. Fill your answers in the blank spaces and boxes as provided below. In your work as a Teacher at this institution how many cases of examination leakages have you recorded? Yes examination leakages? No 7.APPENDIX SECTION APPENDIX A SELF ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS Instructions. For how long have you worked for Kafunshi High School/Chinyongola basic school ? …………………………………………………………………………………………. 5. Background Information Gender: Male Age: Below 25 2. What do you think are the common causes and sources of 32 . Please answer all the questions carefully.

... what do you think should be done prevent/mitigate examination mal practices in Zambian Schools?.................. Thank you for your participation................................................................................... ....... 10...................................... What punishment do you put to culprits found with examination papers before the actual date? ............................... What measures have you put in place to fight/mitigate examination leakages at this school? Who are your cooperating partners in this fight? ...................................... 11........................................... .................................................................................... ........................................................................................ ....................................................... In your own opinion............................................................................................................................................................ What has been the attitude of pupils towards leakages? ..................................... ................................. ....................................................................................................................... ........... 9............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ...... ......................................................................................... ........................................................................................... 8................................................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................................... ................................................. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................... 33 ................................................................ ....................................................................................................... .......................

.. What do you think are the causes of leaking examinations considering both the leaker and the receiver? 10.. What have been the challenges/strengths you have so far experienced in Zambian education as a pupil? 2.. How do pupils access examination leakages? 8... What do you think are the major purposes of sitting for an examination as a Grade 7. 11..... Which sexes (Gender) are more prone to leakages? 9...... Where do you think examination leakages come from? 7.APPENDIX B INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR GRADE PUPILS Respondent no...9 or 12 pupil? 4........ Why pupils do often fears an examination? 5.. 1... 34 .. What really happens when a candidate is caught with an What do you think. How do you define an examination? 3........ What are examination malpractices and do they happen at this school? 6. Examination council of Zambia should do to examination leakage? reduce/minimize examination leakages.....

..... What have been the differences between Cambridge Overseas School Certificate with the current ECZ papers? 5....... What has been the attitude of the key stake holders in promoting education and mitigating examination leakage sin Zambia? 9. What are some of the positive observable changes you have In your opinion........ what do you think should be done by the encountered as the education body? relevant key stakeholders to minimize examination leakages in Zambia? 35 . 1. What have been the challenges/strengths you have so far experienced in Zambian education? 2........... What is the primary purpose of the Examination Council of Zambia (Mission statement/vision)? 3... When did the ECZ become a semi –autonomous institution and why? 4. How many cases have you reported so far for Grade 12 in the district in the last 2 years? 7... In your own way. what do you think are the common causes of examination leakages in Zambia? 6. What measures have you put in place as an examination Council of Zambia and Ministry of Education? 8.... What policy has the Government put in place to minimise examination leakages in the education ministry? 10.....APPENDIX C INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR DEBS OFFICIALS Respondent no. 11.

APPENDIX D WORK PLAN AND TIME SCHEDULES Activity 1 Description Activity Development of Data collection instruments 2 3 4 Data Collection Data processing and analysis Report writing. typing and editing 5 Production of the final draft and submission 3/05/2013 1 week 26/05/2013 4 days 22/06/2012 18/07/2012 2 weeks 1 week 10/06/2012 2 weeks of Dates Duration 36 .

S/N DESCRIPTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ream of A4 paper Pens Refreshments Data Transport Totals typing. UNIT PRICE (ZMK) 25 1.APPENDIX E BUDGET PLAN The following is an itemized list and amounts that was spent for the research to successfully carry out the research without any much financial constraint. QUANTITY 4 10 Processing.50 200 250 AMOUNT (ZMK) 80 15 300 250 37 . binding 300 300 845 (ZMK).