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OPTIMISING PERFORMANCE

The Welding Handbook
Welding done better

Maritime Welding Handbook
Welding and Related Processes for Repair and Maintenance Onboard 12th edition Revision 0

Notice: All welding is carried out on the welder’s own risk and account. Welding should be executed by a qualified and experienced welder and adequate safety measures should always be adhered to. The information and guidelines in this Welding Handbook are based on general information and knowledge at hand and are believed to be accurate and reliable, but the information and guidelines are not to be taken as a guarantee or warranty for a special purpose. The information and guidelines are provided to the welder solely for his own consideration, and Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS assumes no legal responsibility or liability for eventual damages and/or losses should the information and/or guidelines turn out to be incorrect or un-suitable. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS is not liable for any loss or damages whatsoever and howsoever arising which is due to force majeure, other events beyond the reasonable control of Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS or events that could not reasonably be foreseen by Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS when this Welding Handbook was made. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS is in no event liable for indirect, incidental or consequential damages or losses, including damages for loss of profits, resulting from lack of conformity, including but not limited to loss resulting from goods or software not working when connected to other goods/software or for any related cause thereto. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS’s liability shall in any event not exceed the total purchase price of theWilhelmsen Ships Service AS goods used during the welding operations. These conditions are automatically accepted by anybody using the information and guidelines in this Welding Handbook.

INTRODUCTION
A ship at sea depends upon the knowledge, skills and self-reliance of the crew to carry out necessary maintenance and repair work. One of the important skills required is a good command of modern welding techniques. The purpose of the Welding Handbook for maritime welders is to provide guidance in modern welding and related processes and to provide the welder with a source of practical information on the right solution to specific onboard welding problems. Experience gained from user contact and welding training of crewmembers showed that documentation aimed specifically at on board welding solutions was needed. This led to the development of the first welding handbook for on-board repair and maintenance welding already the 1950es. This edition of the UNITOR Welding Handbook builds upon all the earlier editions and on Wilhelmsen Ships Service’s business activity. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS enjoys close co-operation with its customers and would like to thank the many who have taken the effort to contribute with examples of successful solutions to real life maintenance situations.

Unitor’s business activity traces back to 1905 and the company NAG with Acetylene production as a basic activity. The first maritime deliveries from this period were supply of Acetylene as fuel gas for the guiding light beams from numerous lighthouses along the long and weatherbeaten coast of Norway. The focus changed towards gas and arc welding techniques when these were developed to useful production and repair methods through the 1930es. A main objective became to develop and maintain a range of welding equipment that is suitable for onboard welding, backed by a worldwide service network, training and documentation. In 1943 the company name was changed to UNITOR. Mergers and increasing activity in the department for sales to ships led to the establishment of this department as a separate company; Unitor Ships Service AS in 1968. In 2005 the company was bought by Wilh.Wilhelmsen ASA and the brand Unitor is now incorporated in Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS, a part of Wilhelmsen Maritime Services AS, a company in the Wilh. Wilhelmsen Group 

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
1 Safety in Welding 2 Solutions
9

1.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 5.01 5.02 6.00 

2.01 Introduction & quick guides to processes 35
2.02 Filler material consumption 47 2.03 Metal identification 50 2.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel 55 2.05 Problem steels 62 2.06 Stainless steels 65 2.07 Cast iron 78 2.08 Copper and copper alloys 104 2.09 Aluminium 112 2.10 Evaluation of welds 114

3 consumables

3.01 Coated Electrodes 125 3.02 TIG Welding Rods & Fluxes 199 3.03 Wires for Wire Welding 217 3.04 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes 241 3.05 Brazing Rods & Fluces 251 3.06 Cold Repair Compounds 277

4 arc welding and cutting Process & equipment

4.01 Electrode welding & gouging 333 4.02 TIG Welding 381 4.03 Wire Welding 403 4.04 Plasma Cutting 441

5 gas welding and cutting process & equipment

4.05 Current Distribution System 455 5.01 Ac/ox cutting, welding, brazing 459 5.02 Gas Supplies and gas distribution system 511

529 6 miscellaneous information

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
1 SAFETY IN WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to use the handbook . . . . . . . . . . . Welding instructions and training . . . . Personal protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.04.01 Arc welding face shields . . . . . 1.04.02 Protective goggles . . . . . . . . . . 1.04.03 Welder's protective clothing . . Work site protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05.01 Welding curtain . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05.02 Welding blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05.03 Fire extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.06.01 Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.06.02 Fume extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety check list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07.01 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07.02 Work place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07.03 Hot work procedure . . . . . . . . . 1.07.04 Operator protection . . . . . . . . . . 9 10 11 12 13 14 18 20 22 22 22 23 24 26 28 30 30 31 32 32 2.06.02 Austenitic Stainless Steel . . . . 2.06.03 Ferritic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . 2.06.04 Martensitic Stainless Steel . . . 2.06.05 Duplex Stainless Steel . . . . . . . 2.06.06 Clad Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06.07 Stainless Steel corrosion types 2.06.08 Storing and handling of Stainless Steel onboard . . . . . . 2.06.09 Grinding/cutting consumables  for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07 Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.02 Grey cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.03 White cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.04 Malleable cast iron . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.05 Ductile cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.06 High alloy cast iron . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.07 Identification of cast iron . . . . . 2.07.08 Preparation of the work piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.09 Arc welding of cast iron . . . . . . 2.07.10 Braze welding of cast iron . . . . 2.07.11 Cold repair on cast iron . . . . . . 2.08 Copper and copper alloys . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.02 Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.03 Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro) . . 2.08.04 Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.05 Nickel bronses (Cunifer) . . . . . . 2.09 Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 Evaluation of welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10.01 Typical welding faults . . . . . . . . 2.10.02 Inspection of welded joints . . . 2.10.03 Crack detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 68 69 70 71 72 74 75 78 78 79 80 80 81 82 83 84 87 95 97 104 104 104 105 106 107 112 114 114 118 123

2 SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.01.01 Quick reference for cutting . . . 2.01.02 Quick reference for joining . . . 2.01.03 Quick reference for rebuilding, hardfacing and coating . . . . . . 2.01.04 Quick reference to cold repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.02 Filler material consumption . . . . . . . . . 2.03 Metal identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . 2.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.02 Unalloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.03 Low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.04 Heat resistant steel . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.05 Low temperature steel . . . . . . . 2.04.06 Weathering steel . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.05 Problem steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06 Stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 39 40 43 45 47 50 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 62 65 65

3 CONSUMABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 3.01 Coated Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.02 Types of electrodes . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.03 Storing and re-drying . . . . . . . . 3.01.04 Classification and approvals . . 3.01.05 Welding positions . . . . . . . . . . . 126 127 128 134 140 148 

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
3.01.06 GPO-302 N General Purpose Electrode For Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.07 GPR-300H High Recovery Electrode for Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.08 SPECIAL-303 N Double Coated Electrode for Mild and Ship Quality Steel . . . 3.01.09 LH-314 N Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.10 LHH-314 H High Recovery Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel 3.01.11 LHV-316 N Vertical Down Welding Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.12 LHT-318 N Electrode for High Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.13 LHL-319 N Electrode for Low Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.14 LHR-320 N Electrode for Weathering Steel 3.01.15 TENSILE-328 N Electrode for Difficult-toWeld Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.16 IMPACT-329 S Electrode for Heat Resistant Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.17 WEARMAX-327 Electrode for Joining & Wear Resistant Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.18 ABRATECH-330 Electrode for abrasive wear . . 3.01.19 18/8-321 N Electrode for Stainless Steel . . 3.01.20 23/14-322 N Electrode for Stainless Steel . . 3.01.21 DUPLEX-325 N Electrode for Duplex Steel . . . . 3.01.22 PICKLING GEL Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel 3.01.23 NIFE-334 N Nickel Iron Electrode for Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.24 NICKEL-333 N Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron 3.01.25 TINBRO-341 Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . 3.01.26 ALBRONZE-344 Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . 3.01.27 ALUMIN-351 N Electrode for Aluminum . . . . . . 3.01.28 CH-2-382 Electrode for Chamfering . . . . . 3.01.29 ACA-384 Electrode for Air Carbon Arc Gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02 TIG welding rods and fluxes . . . . . . . . . 3.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.02 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.03 IMS-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.04 ICROMO-216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.05 18/8 Mo-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.06 IDUPLEX-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.07 ICUNI-30-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.08 IALBRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.09 I-FLUX-238 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

150

184 186 188 190 192 194 196 199 200 201 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 217 218 219 221 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238

152

154

156

158

160

162

164 166

168

170

172 174 176 178 180 182

3.03 Wires for Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.02 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.03 Storage and handling for Flux Cored wires . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.04 GPS-W-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.05 HST-SF-203 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.06 HST-SF-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.07 S 316 M-GF-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.08 S 309 M-GF-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.09 Icuni-W-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.10 Ialbro-W-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.11 Alumag-W-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.12 Abratech-W-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.04 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . 241 3.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
3.05 3.06 3.04.02 MS-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 3.04.03 Alumag-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 3.04.04 Aluflux-234 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Brazing Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.02 Bronze-264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.03 FC-Bronze-261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.04 FC-Wearbro-262 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.05 FC-Cast Iron-268 S . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.06 AG-45-253 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.07 AG-60-252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.08 Tin-241 AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.09 Fluxes for Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.10 Bronze Flux-261 PF . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.11 Wearbro Flux-262 PF . . . . . . . . . 3.05.12 AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF . . . . . . . . . 3.05.13 Albro Flux-263 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold Repair Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.02 Typical application areas . . . . . 3.06.03 How do Polymers work? . . . . . 3.06.04 How to prepare the surface . . 3.06.05 How to apply the product . . . . . 3.06.06 Polymer Kit-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.07 Product overview . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.08 Leak Stop - Pipe repair . . . . . . 3.06.09 Metalgrade Ready-Stick . . . . . 3.06.10 Metalgrade Express . . . . . . . . . 3.06.11 Metalgrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.12 Metalgrade Hi-Temp . . . . . . . . . 3.06.13 Aquagrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.14 Ceramigrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . 3.06.15 Ceramigrade Liner . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.16 Ceramigrade Abrashield . . . . . 3.06.17 Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild . . . . . . . 3.06.18 Rubbergrade 6 Remould . . . . . . 251 252 256 258 260 262 264 266 268 270 271 272 273 274 277 278 278 280 281 282 284 286 288 292 296 298 304 308 312 316 320 324 328 4.01.03 Power source characteristics . 4.01.04 Selecting power source . . . . . . 4.01.05 UWI-150 Autoline . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.06 UWI-203 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.07 UWR-320 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.08 UWI-400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.09 UWR-852 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.10 Primary extension cables . . . . . 4.01.11 Secondary cables . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.12 Electrode holders, cable connectors & return clamp assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.13 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.14 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . 4.01.15 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.16 Electrodes for electrode welding & gouging . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.17 Air Carbon arc gouging . . . . . . 4.02 TIG Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.03 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.04 Tungsten electrodes . . . . . . . . . 4.02.05 TIG torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.06 Regulator & accessories . . . . . 4.02.07 Preparing the torch . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.08 Welding parameters . . . . . . . . . 4.02.09 Welding technique . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.10 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.11 Rods and Flux for TIG welding 4.03 Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.03 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.04 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.05 UWW-161 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.06 SC 12 RC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.07 Regulator & accessories . . . . . 4.03.08 Application areas . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.09 Preparation for welding . . . . . . 4.03.10 Welding technique . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.11 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.12 Wires for wire welding . . . . . . . 340 342 344 348 350 352 358 359 360 363 370 371 373 374 377 381 382 383 384 386 388 391 393 394 395 396 400 403 404 405 411 412 414 420 426 428 429 431 434 438

4 ARC WELDING AND CUTTNG PROCESS & EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 4.01 Electrode welding & gouging . . . . . . . . 335 4.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 4.01.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
4.04 Plasma Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.03 Plasma cutting equipment . . . . 4.04.04 UPC-1041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.05 Cutting technique . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.06 Maintenance and trouble shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.05 Current Distribution System . . . . . . . . . 441 443 445 446 447 450 452 455 5.01.24 Soldering and brazing techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 5.01.25 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 5.01.26 Consumables and parameters for brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 5.02 Gas supplies and gas distribution system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.02 Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.03 Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture 5.02.04 Carbon-Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.05 Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.06 Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.07 Rules & Safety precautions for handling and use of Gas cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.08 Gas Distribution System for Acetylene and Oxygen . . . . . . . 511 512 513 514 515 516 518 522 524

5 GAS WELDING AND CUTTING PROCESS & EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 5.01 Ac/Ox cutting, welding, brazing . . . . . 461 5.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 5.01.02 The Combination Torch UCT-500 464 5.01.03 UCT-500 Components and spares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 5.01.04 The Unitor Workshop Cabinet . 468 5.01.05 Welding and grinding goggles 470 5.01.06 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 5.01.07 Portable gas equipment . . . . . . 472 5.01.08 Gas hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 5.01.09 Hose connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 5.01.10 Gas regulators for cylinders . . 480 5.01.11 Flashback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 5.01.12 Flashback arrestors . . . . . . . . . 483 5.01.13 The acetylene/oxygen flame . . 484 5.01.14 Operating instructions for UCT-500 cutting torch . . . . . . . . 486 5.01.15 Cutting procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 488 5.01.16 Common cutting faults . . . . . . . 490 5.01.17 Operating instructions for UCT-500 brazing, welding & heating torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 5.01.18 Maintenance of blowpipes . . . 494 5.01.19 Heating techniques . . . . . . . . . . 496 5.01.20 Flame straightening techniques 497 5.01.21 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . 499 5.01.22 Butt joints for gas welding of steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 5.01.23 Consumables and parameters for gas welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

6 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . 529 5.04 International system of units . . . . . . . . . 5.05 The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.06 General conversion factors . . . . . . . . . . 5.07 Roman numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.08 Metric and decimal equivalents of fractions of an inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.09 Wire cross section AWG/mm2 . . . . . . . 5.10 Common gauge series for sheet thickness and wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11 Physical properties of some elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.12 Hardness comparison table . . . . . . . . . 5.13 Corrosion of galvanic couples in sea water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.14 Temperature scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15 Pressure variations related to temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.16 Abbreviations and welding terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 531 532 533 534 534 535 536 537 538 540 541 542 

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
1.00 

SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    10 How to use the handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    11 Welding instructions and training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    12 Personal protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    13 Work site protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22 Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   24 Safety check list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   30 

SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00

Introduction
Welding and related thermal processes utilize compressed gas and/or electric current to provide a concentrated heat source which melts or burns away steel and other metals. Proper safety precautions are required to avoid accidents related to the gas and power supplies, to the sparks, heat, fumes, and visible and invisible rays from the heat source. Authorities in most countries have laid down regulations and guidelines related to welding and other hot work processes, their application onboard ships, the equipment to be used and the protection of the operator. These regulations must be available onboard, and be known and adhered to when hot work is to be done. A welded component that fails may represent a safety hazard to crew, ship and cargo. Classification societies and other authorities have consequently issued regulations and welding procedures for a number of applications onboard. These should be known and followed wherever applicable, and welding should be performed by qualified personnel under proper supervision. In this chapter as well as in other parts of the handbook, you will find guidelines on safe handling of equipment, how to protect yourself, and safety precautions that should be observed when welding and related thermal processes are used on board a ship. You will also find extensive information on how and where to use filler materials, and some guidelines as to identifying metals. This handbook, however, cannot be considered to be a complete manual for each of these areas, dealing in detail with all the aspects of the various items. Additional information should be sought in other publications from Wilhelmsen Ships Service, from authorities and others and by attending training courses. Approved Unitor welding courses will deal in detail not only with the technique required for a successful weld, but also with the safety aspects around welding onboard.

SAFETY DEPENDS ON YOU Do not install, operate or repair equipment for welding or related thermal processes unless you are thoroughly ­familiar with: – The Instruction Manual for the equipment to be used. – Rules and regulations relating to the handling and installation of the equipment. – Rules and regulations relating to hot work onboard. – Proper use of protective equipment and accessories related to the hot work, like fire extinguishers, fume extraction equipment, etc. – Proper use of the filler material and fluxes for the job.

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The process Before commencing work. starting with the chapter on solutions. you have a basic understanding of welding. the temperature must be above +5°C. These are explained in an extensive “Abbreviations and welding terminology” section in the “Miscellaneous Information” chapter. Cold repair components require no outside energy. joining. and a number of examples on welding applications. If you know little about welding and your objective is to become familiar with the welding processes on a self-study basis. on the other hand. take the time to check the details of the equipment and the technique you should use from the section on processes. Use the consumables correctly When a solution is found you should check the specifics of the consumables you are going to use. and also the instruction manual on the specific power source you have onboard.SAFETY IN WELDING How to use the Handbook Read this first Familiarize yourself with the chapter you are now reading. but also advise if special procedures should be followed for the particular product at hand. Power and gas supply Safe operation and successful results depend on you being familiar with these chapters. rebuilding and coating. When facing a problem Consult the solutions chapter.00 11 . Ensure that the gas supply is in proper order and correctly maintained. and follow the advice given here whenever you weld. from primary power to arc and then through consumables to solutions. and that the cables are of correct size. The energy is built into the products and is released when the base and activator is mixed together. read the book from the beginning. 1. In this chapter you will also find a number of useful tables and comparisons. as well as information on how to identify metals. You will also find tables for calculating filler material consumption. that the welding machine is suited for the process at hand. start with the chapters at the back of the book and follow the processes from gas to flame. You should also read through the special instruction manuals for the process and equipment you are going to use. The descriptions given in the chapter on consumables will not only give you technical information on the consumables. If. The remaining questions Reading through the handbook you will come across terminology and abbreviations you may not be familiar with. In order for the chemical reaction to take place. Here you will find quick guides to cutting. des­c­rip­tions of the most common metals.

Wilhelmsen Ships Service has designed and certified a number of well recognised welding academies around the world. ensuring that high quality workmanship is carried out onboard the world’s fleets.00 Welding instruction and training As the world’s leading welding supplier to the marine industry.com/shipsservice International Maritime Training Centre – Mumbai.com. – Antipolo. soldering and cutting • Cold repairs using cold repair components Materials: • Steel • Stainless Steel • Copper and copper alloys • Cast iron • Cast steel • Aluminium Throughout the years thousands of seafarers have completed our courses. It is crucial that pressurised gases and arc welding equipment are handled in a safe and secure way. By attending the our approved training academies.com Phone: + 30 210 4239 100 Internet site: www.wilhelmsen.com Phone: + 47 67 58 45 50 Internet site: www.greece. ensuring that good quality workmanships is carried out onboard the world’s fleet. The pupils can be enrolled and trained at short notice. we endeavour to offer flexible solutions. health and safety issues are an essential and an important part of the welding training offered.org Norwegian Training Centre – Manila. can be very challenging. and can therefore arrange courses throughout the year. and with the numerous kinds of metals onboard.imtcmumbai. Welding and related processes are complex and require hands-on training.SAFETY IN WELDING 1.wilhelmsen. These are all elements the crew must take into consideration in order to work effectively. Working in the ship’s operating environment. which teaches skills that are otherwise difficult to obtain.ph Consolidated Training Systems Inc – Manila.ntcm.ph People Soft Inc. These courses aim to help shipboard welders overcome the daily maintenance challenges onboard.com. To sign up or to obtain more information please contact your local Wilhelmsen Ships service office or the below academies. the vessel’s crew will be certified and trained to perform quality welding repairs onboard. in awkward positions. Over the years.mumbai@wilhelmsen. In order to meet world fleets logistical time challenges and requirements. and courses may be tailor-made to fit the pupil’s individual needs. and safety related issues are always a top priority for running the vessel.manager@ntcm. Unitor Welding Centre – Oslo. brazing. The consequences of not adhering to correct safety procedures can be both hazardous for the crew and damaging to the vessel. the Philippines Contact: training. These ­academies offer tailor made solutions for maintenance and repair welding onboard vessels. The courses offer training in the following processes: • Stick electrode welding • TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding • MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding • MAG (Metal Active Gas) welding • Plasma cutting • Gas welding. The Philippines Contact: marketing@ctsi.com Phone: +91 22 2570 5570 Internet site: www. Greece Contact: wss.ph Phone: +632 8120 742 Internet site: www. Norway Contact: weldingschool. The Wilhelmsen Ships Service approved academies offer both practical and theoretical training as to how to select the correct welding methods and filler materials.com/shipsservice Unitor Welding Centre – Piraeus.biz Phone: + 632 4210994 & 421-0998 12 . Therefore. thousands of seafarers have completed our courses.com.ph Phone: + 632 5240 572 Internet site: www.compass.cs@wilhelmsen.com. the Phillippines Contact: dbjaurigue@sourceasia. India Contact: imtc.norway@wilhelmsen.

there is always a risk of flying chips which are a potential danger. He must therefore always wear a safety helmet. Protection against chemicals Most of the products in the Unitor Cold Repair Component range are to be considered harmless. A welder must always use complete personal protection equipment – but it is also important that he uses the correct type of equipment for the job.00 Protection against burns Burns may be caused by hot work pieces. 1. molten metal. He must concentrate on the welding operation and cannot see what may be happening in the surrounding area. Protection against flying chips When using a chipping hammer to remove slag from the weld. safety shoes etc. usually due to insufficient or incorrect protective equipment. red-hot electrodes etc. when handling polymer products. welding curtains and/or blankets should be used. can offer correct and complete protection equipment which will provide maximum safety for the welder in all situations. The chips are sharp and can cause serious damage to the eyes. Protection against ultraviolet and infrared light Many welders have experienced the discomfort of arc-eye or “sunburnt” skin on unprotected parts of the body. sparks. 13 . General body protection A welder at work is isolated from his surroundings. which will offer him protection against accidents beyond his control. ultra violet and infrared light. Wilhelmsen Ships Service. Nevertheless we always recommend that one does the mixing and application in a ventilated area and always wear the gloves supplied with the set.SAFETY IN WELDING Personal protection Why do you need protective equipment? Protection against electric shocks Electric shocks can be the cause of two types of accidents: – Direct accidents caused by the shock itself can be anything from minor burns to heart failure. who supply a full range of welding equipment all over the world. – Indirect accidents caused by falls from scaffolding and platforms. Work site protection In order to protect the surrunding area from sparks and spatter.

and a head band that allows unique possibilities for adjustment: • Distance to face • Angle in relation to face • Height on head • Head diameter • Stay-up friction The AutoVision Welding face shield Replaceable inside and outside protective lenses. The shield is equipped with a light powered quick automatic darkening glass that switches from low shade (4) to selected shade within to selected dark state within 0. The Autovision Plus Fresh Air Welding Shield This Shield is the AutoVision Plus with respiratory unit.SAFETY IN WELDING 1.0004 sec)The low shade state allows for good vision while chipping slag.00 Arc welding face shields and glasses A welder should bear in mind that proper protection is absolutely necessary to guard himself against the danger of electric shocks. A clear safety glass is placed in the fixed frame under the flip-up frame protecting the eyes when chipping slag. The Flip-Vision Welding face shield This is the AutoVision face shield with headband where the AutoVision cassette is replaced with a flip-up front frame. from shade 9 to 13 which is from the lowest TIG welding settings (5-10A) to extreme processes at + 400A arc current. and both glasses and shields conform to relevant EN standards. ultra-violet rays and bits of welding slag in the eye. It gives the user clean.4 milliseconds (0. Unitor face shields for welding are made from a lightweight. The flip-up front frame is fitted with a filter shade glass with shade selected according to 14 . burns.Dark mode is adjusted with a knob at the side of the shield. cold or moisture. robust plastic material which is unaffected by heat. The airflow will keep the user fresh and let him concentrate on the work. The kit is CE approved and conforms to EN 12941-TH2P. headband and sweatband for the headband is available as spares. Fresh air kit for face shield The fan battery recharges in 2-4 hours and will provide up to 220 liters per minute for at least 8 hours. grinding and repositioning for next arc striking. filtered air inside the helmet. The AutoVision Plus Welding face shield The basis is a lightweight well designed shield which allows good air flow for the welder. and prevents inhalation of welding fumes.

The filter shade glass is protected against spatter by a clear protection glass fitted in front of it. 1. Face Shield with handle The face shield with handle is also supplied with shade 11 dark glass and clear protection glass as standard. Shade 11 glass is supplied as standard with the shield. Safety helmet with face shield The Flip-Vision face shield is also available with safety helmet instead of headband. flip-up front frame and shade 11 glass Face shield with handle and filter shade 11 glass Spares for AutoVision Plus Autovision Plus Outside Cover Lens10 pcs and 2 frames Autovision Plus Headband complete with nuts and bolts Autovision Plus FreshAir Headgear without hose and fan Autovision Plus FreshAir Face seal with attachment screws Autovision Plus FreshAir Filter Spares and accessories for Autovision (old model) Autovision Outside Cover Lens 10 pcs 112 X 93mm Autovision Inside Cover Lens 10 pcs 97 X 47mm Headband Complete For Autovision Sweat Band For Autovision Product no.00 The Flip-Vision Welding face shield Safety helmet w/face shield Face shield w/handle Face shields Description Autovision Plus FreshAir Weldshield with respiratory unit AutoVision Plus Welding Face Shield with Adjustable Shade 9 To 13 FlipVision shield with flip-up frame. head band and shade 11 glass Safety helmet with face shield. 196 767000 196 767001 196 709485 196 619114 196 619098 196 766997 196 766998 196 766999 196 767002 196 767003 196 709469 196 709477 196 709493 196 709501 15 . It is designed to also protect the hand holding it from radiation.SAFETY IN WELDING welding current used. The glasses have dimension 60 x 110 mm.

the safety glass shall be placed in the fixed frame. Filter shade glass Filters out harmful infra-red and ultra-violet rays from the welding arc. The filter glasses are supplied in sets consisting of 5 safety glasses. and reduces visible light to a level which is sufficient to see the welding process without straining the welder’s eyes. Safety glass (Polycarbonate) The glass should be placed nearest to the eyes to protect against slag or other particles while chipping/grinding. The protection glass should be replaced at regular intervals. Protection glass Is placed in front of the filter shade glass to protect against spatter. When ordering face shields. Guide to arc welding glasses Amperage Filter Quantity Shade in Unit < 20 A 8–9 5 sets 20–40 A 9–10 5 sets 40–80 A 10 5 sets 80–175 A 11 5 sets 175–300 A 12 5 sets 300–500 A 13 5 sets Safety Glass 10 pcs Protection Glass 10 pcs Product number unit 196-633230 196-633248 196-633255 196-633263 196-633271 196-633289 196-633222 196-633214 16 . Filter Shade Glass should be selected after consulting the welding process and amperage (see table).SAFETY IN WELDING 1. 5 protection glasses and 5 filter shade glasses. B.00 Glasses for Arc Welding The glasses have dimension 60 x 110 mm and are manufactured in accordance with DIN standard and are CE approved. filter shade glass of correct shade should be ordered in addition to the filter shade 11 glasses which is included. Items to be mounted into Unitor face shield in the following manner: A B C A. When using a shield with a flip-up front frame. The glasses are marked Protane Shade SO 1 DIN 0196 CE C.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 1.00 17 .

176-632950 Product Safety Spectacles – Clear Pcs. 1 Product no. One more protection glass must be placed in the fixed frame. Product Pcs. 1 Product no. 176-653410 18 . The temple arm length and angle is adjustable. The ventilation slots are designed to prevent entry of sparks and spatter. A protection glass must be placed in front of the filter shade glass in order to protect against spatter. 176-175273 Product Safety grinding goggles non mist Pcs. 176-632943 Welding and grinding goggles Lightweight goggles with soft and comfortable surfaces against the face. For grinding only. Safety grinding goggles Half mask goggle of clear soft synthetic none-mist material. Not for use when doing arc welding. The filter shade glass are mounted in a flip-up front frame.00 Safety spectales clear for eye protection Comfortable protective spectacles with integrated side guards. at the same time ensuring sufficient air circulation to prevent dampness and fogging of the glasses. For use during daily maintenance work in workshop and on site for protection against flying objects. Fitted with Shade 4 lens. For use when doing brazing and light duty gas welding and cutting work. The lens is made of scratch-resistant anti glare material.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. 1 Product no. Safety spectales Shade 4 for brazing and welding Same modern lightweight design and features as the Clear version. Welding/Grinding 1 Goggles w/flip-up-frame Product no. Product Safety Spectacles – Shade 4 Pcs.

All glasses come in sets of 10 pcs. Guide to gas welding glasses Application Filter Pcs/ Shade set Glass Silver 3 10 Brazing Gas Welding 5 10 & Cutting – General 6 10 Gas Welding & Cutting – 7 10 Thick material Protection Glass 10 Product number 176-633305 176-633313 176-633321 176-633354 176-633297 19 . The protection glass should be replaced at regular intervals. A. Protection glass When using goggles with a flip-up front frame. Items to be mounted into Unitor face shield in the following manner: A B A 1. B. Filter shade glass In order to filter out the strong glare of the flame. the protection glass should be placed in the fixed frame. They are available in different grades of shade for various types of work.SAFETY IN WELDING Glasses for gas welding and cutting The Unitor gas welding glasses have a diameter of 50 mm and fit the goggles.00 A. Protection glass One protection glass must be placed in front of the filter shade glass in the flip-up front frame in order to protect against spatter.

SAFETY IN WELDING 1. It is specially important D Leather trousers with belt that the welding jacket is worn when E Leather cuffs welding overhead. 196-632786 196-632794 196-633057 196-510438 196-510446 196-633016 196-175935 196-184184 196-510420 196-510453 196-633040 176-233148 6 pairs. When dry the leather acts as an electric insulator. 20 I Pcs/set Product no. to protect the body F Arm protector and arms against falling sparks and G Leather apron slag. They provide protec B TIG and gas welding gloves tion during welding. Large for welding workpiece or where movement is C Leather jacket.00 F C E A B I D G H Protective clothing Welder’s protective clothing Made from specially treated leather. Pos. Product these protective clothes are heat and A Welders gloves for electric arc welding wear resistant. 12 pairs pcs pcs pcs pair pair pcs pair Electrode quiver for max 2 kg electrodes pcs Heat resistant mitten pcs . Therefore always wear dry protective clothing when doing arc welding. especially when Working gloves the welder has to work close to the C Leather jacket. 6 pairs. Extra large for welding restricted. H Leather spats In addition to protection against sparks and molten metal. the task of the protective leather clothing is also to protect against electric shock.

They will protect fully from sparks and the radiation from an arc. and further insulation against heat in the inner layers. and should always be kept by acetylene cylinders as a safety precaution. Special welding gloves with long gauntlets are necessary. These must be of leather. Special softskin gloves are available for this purpose.00 21 . It is also suitable for handling hot work pieces. It is designed to make it possible to close an acetylene cylinder valve even if the escaping gas is on fire. 1. Heat resistant mitten This is a special mitten with a heat and fire resistant woven kevlar outer layer.SAFETY IN WELDING Electric arc welding gloves Gloves must always be worn when arc welding. Long lined welding gloves are recommended for welding with coated electrodes. just for handling of equipment and consumables. Working gloves This type of glove is not designed for hot work. TIG and Gas welding gloves Thick welding gloves will hamper the control of the torch or rod. but will give less protection than the thicker welding gloves when touching hot metal. Gloves for Arc and TIG welding confirm to NEN-EN 12477.

The top of the curtain has 7 holes and the curtain comes complete with 7 heavy-duty hooks. In order for the curtain to be drawn freely the pipe should be less than 30 mm.4 x 2 m Welding spatter blanket Non-asbestos woven glass fabric with a fire retardent weavelock. The curtain with hooks is supplied in a plastic bag. Nom. Product Pcs. 196-633065 Welding curtain w/ 1 hooks.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. The welding blanket is supplied in a carton box.00 Work site protection Welding Curtain The purpose of the Welding Curtain is to avoid other personnel being harmed by the welding work taking place. but is not heat resistant to direct exposure to hot slag/iron spatter from the arc. Thickness 0. Size: 2 m high and 1. Product no. It is possible to join two or more curtains together by the use of snap on buttons along the side. for protecting combustible materials and delicate machinery from spatter and spark during welding and cutting. or hooked up on an existing pipe or wire. orange 1. 196-646067 Welding spatter blanket 1 22 . Product Pcs. but still enables one to see trough the curtain. With the hooks the curtain can be put in a frame. The curtains are in accordance with EN 1598. Available in a roll 1m x 10m.3 m wide. The curtain blocks out all hazardous ultraviolet and infrared light from the welding arc. Maximum pipe diameter the hooks will fit on is 41 mm. It is made of self-extinguishing material.82mm. Product no. Max operating temperature 550 °C.

Extinction Mechanism The multi-purpose ABC powder acts: -on the flames. the device is pressurised by pressing on the striking handle. The flow rate is controlled by the tap on the final control valve.7 kg. which protects the user from heat radiation. When sprayed. by cooling and forming a layer of heat insulating and fireproof “varnish”. and is of the hightest performance in its category. which coats the fire. 291-667394 PP3P 1 . -on the embers. liquefiable solid and gas fires. The fact that it is so simple to use means that risks of incorrect use are greatly reduced. 23 1.SAFETY IN WELDING Fire extinguisher Always keep a fire extinguisher ready when welding outside workshop. Easy to use 0peration Once the safety pin has been removed. B or C The multi-purpose nature of the ABC powder extinguisher ensures that it is effective against these three types of fire. It complies with European AENOR . Technical Properties This device was designed using highly reliable materials and the latest corrosion-resisting protection technologies In order to be ideally suited to the requirements of the maritime environment. For solid material fires (class A). preventing it from re-igniting.EN 3 standard. the ABC powder forms an insulating screen. The PP3P is a lightweight ABC dry powder fire extinguisher. For liquid. Instructions for use Temperature limits: -20 °C to +60 °C Product Pcs. Efficiency Classes A.00 Weight: 4. it replaces the conventional water products. by negative catalysis. Product no. which are sometimes not recommended for use with electrical currents. it acts in the same conditions as the BC powder and is ideally suited for Industrial hazards.

or the use of a face shield with fresh air connection. may comprise several different components depending on the type of electrode. It should be avoided by the use of a good extraction unit. lead. leaded tin bronze and brass) contains items such as tin. Fumes from these substances can result in serious health damage if inhaled. Welding of stainless or acid-resistant steel produces smoke containing nickel and chrome. The composition of the smoke will therefore vary depending on the type of electrode. Welding or cutting cadmium-plated material can produce fumes which contain cadmium oxide. precautions must be taken against dangerous fumes before welding commences. Welding of galvanized materials or materials surface treated with substances containing zinc. gives off fumes which contain zinc oxide. means that the fumes given off may contain numerous components which can be dangerous if inhaled.00 Welding fumes Welding fumes. etc. Different welding methods and different metals. nickel lead or mercury. Inhaling these substances can seriously affect the respiratory system. the smoke may contain substances which could constitute a health risk. Electric arc welding with coated electrodes. When weIding these types of steel or materials plated or coated with substances containing chrome. ­cadmium. When welding or cutting old steel plating. Inhalation of these fumes can result in zinc poisoning with very unpleasant effects. remember that the surface coating may contain lead or mercury. are not considered to be particularly dangerous as long as inhalation of these fumes is kept at a reasonable level. The base material. zinc. Cadmium plating is sometimes used instead of zinc plating. the welder can minimize the risk of fume inhalation by positioning himself so that the smoke rises some distance from his nose and mouth or by using a welding face shield with fresh air supply. Risks The fumes given off when welding unalloyed or low-alloyed steel which has not been surface treated. See the Coated Electrodes section on smoke classes. Copper alloys (tin bronze. When correctly positioned. When welding or cutting any type of material that has been plated or surface coated. The best protection is the use of a smoke extraction unit. 2. or smoke consists of a mixture of gases and dust particles. For on board use a self contained unit with filter is a safe and flexible solution. When the base metal has been surface-treated. Lung damage can result from the inhalation of this substance. The filler material and method of welding. which indicates the degree of smoke pollution. The composition of the fumes depends on: 1. this unit will protect the welder against fume inhalation and also prevent the smoke spreading in the surrounding area and contaminating the area for others. leaded gun metal. Welding temperature tends to vaporise these items. it is essential 24 .SAFETY IN WELDING 1. If it is not possible to use a smoke extraction unit. Electrodes are divided into smoke classes 1 to 7.

cutting and brazing with a gas torch can produce smoke which may contain several toxic substances.00 Avoid direct inhalation of welding fumes. Proper ventilation must be arranged. Inhalation of large quantities of carbon monoxide can lead to suffocation. and must use a face shield with fresh air connection. it is primarily the nitrous gases (NO2 + NO) that are a health hazard. varnished. pipes etc. can be formed in confined spaces. tanks. Use Fresh Air supply. painted or oily.SAFETY IN WELDING that a smoke extractor unit is used. be unknown. 25 . Of the gases given off. There are special books on the subject. This section points out some of the more usual risks connected with welding smoke. High concentrations. The amount of nitrous gases in the smoke depends on several conditions. and when working in confined spaces. Use fume extraction. the welder must not leave the torch alight when he is not actually using it. the welder must be equipped with. The result of this research work may bring new important factors to light and all those involved in welding should keep themselves informed of the development in this area. so precautions can be taken to protect against health risks which may. Welding. The use of large size torches in confined spaces can quickly produce dangerous concentrations. nose or throat. and welding smoke is also undergoing continuous research. 1. which constitute a health risk. If this is not possible. as yet. Carbon monoxide may be given off due to incomplete combustion of the gases or if the material being welded or cut is plastic surfaced. No warning is given of the presence of these gases in the form of irritation of the muceous mem­brane in eyes.

These are the recommended precautions . Fume Class 1: Ensure sufficient ventilation when welding in confined spaces. Fume Class 2: Fume Class 3: Fume Class 4–7: Spot extraction shall be used when welding indoors.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. It is important to understand that NHL* is a theoretical value and should not be used for calculating ventilation capacities: Fresh air needed to dilute the fumes Fume Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NHL* (m3/h) 0 3000 7500 15000 35000 60000 >100000 – – – – – – <3000 < 7500 < 15000 < 35000 < 60000 < 100000 * NHL = Nominelt hygenisk luftbehov i m3/t Nominal hygene air supply in m3/h 26 .00 Welding fumes All Unitor Electrodes are issued a fume Class number according to Danish standard. For outdoor welding see Fume Class 3. Other protective measures are normally not needed in larger well ventilated spaces. Spot extraction is always recommended when welding in confined spaces. The standards state the connection between Fume Class and NHL* that is a theoretical value to describe the amount of fresh air needed to dilute the fumes to "safe" concentrations. Spot extraction is recommended when welding indoors. Special protective measures are normally not needed outdoors if there is enough wind or draught to keep fumes and gases from the welders breathing zone. Larger spaces shall be well ventilated.

1. thus providing a lower noise level and reduced maintenance. Active carbon filter If required an optional activated carbon filter can be placed on top of the main filter to remove smell. It is also possible to add hoses on the exhaust side to completely remove the filtered air from the area if required. At low welding fume concentrations.SAFETY IN WELDING FumeClean 230 welding fume extractor With this unit a welder is easily protected against inhaling welding fumes that might have harmful effects. The last stage is a High Efficiency Particle Arrestor HEPA 12 which guarantees a filtration efficiency of 99. the extraction capacity can be halved.9% under all circumstances. in which situation both motors operate at half speed. The large area of the main filter provides a long life and a constant high efficiency since filter cleaning does not have to take place very frequently. It is compact and lightweight and can be used anywhere a welder can work. Four-stage filtration system When the welding fumes enter the unit they first pass a metal pre-separator.00 27 . then the fumes flow through a aluminium pre-filter and into the main filter which has a total area of 12m2. Two powerful motors The two motors guarantee an adequate extraction capacity under all conditions. Automatic start When the welding cable is placed in a slit on top of the unit the automatic start/stop function can be used and the unit will automatically switch on when welding starts and off when welding stops.

relative humidity IP class Net weight Ordering information Description Product no.5 M. operating temperature Max. operating temperature Max. Ø 45 mm Connection Piece For Two Hoses Ø 45 mm Carbon Brushes 2 Sets W. HEPA filter Min.5 m 196 735878 hose and nozzle with magnet foot Optionals Bulkhead Bracket Hose Connection Outlet Side Active Carbon Filter Spare parts Disposable Cartridge Filter High Efficiency Particle Filter H12 Funnel Nozzle With Magnetic Foot Extract/Exhaust Hose 2.4 m2 99. FumeClean 230 complete with 2.00 Technical Data Number of motors Motor power consumption Power supply 1phase Noise level High vacuum suction Extraction volume speed setting ‘low’ Extraction volume speed setting ‘high’ Filter surface main filter Filter surface HEPA filter Filter efficiency incl.9% 5°C 40°C 80 % 50 16 kg Dimmensions 196 740399 196 740381 196 740431 196 740415 196 740423 196 740373 196 740449 196 740456 196 740407 . Seals 230V 28 2 2x1kW 230V 50/60Hz 70dB 22 000 Pa 140 m3/h 230m3/h 12 m2 0.SAFETY IN WELDING 1.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 1.00 29 .

(Red for acetylene. is correctly connected to mains. and with correct colour coding for the gas. Never use defective welding cables. ✓ Hoses shall be in good condition. Protect cylinders against heat and mechanical damage. without leaks or damage. black for shielding gases and filt­ ered air). Keep your welding equipment well maintained. and a heat resistant mitten shall be available. in upright position. Use correct hose conn­ ectors and hose clamps. and fitted with correct and properly functioning regulators for the gas. ✓ The valve opening of the acetylene cylinder shall point away from other compressed gas cylinders. Use safety cable connectors where both halves are protected to prevent contact with deck when disconnected. ✓ Cables shall be of oil resistant type with undamaged insulation and properly mounted cable connectors. blue for oxygen.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. 30 . Never use oil or grease in connection with welding gases and never use copper in connection with acetylene. and that you are familiar with its operation.00 Safety check list for welding and related processes Preparation for hot-work onboard should include. Acetylene and oxygen regulators shall be fitted with flashback arrestors. Pieces of pipe and twisted wire must never be used. without being limited to the points below: Equipment ✓ Check that the power source functions correctly. ­ ✓ Ensure that gas cylinders are properly secured.

✓ Check all gas connectors for leaks. ✓ Both welding and return clamp cables should be stretched to the work place. behind bulkheads and inside pipes or containers. and insulation (TIG. and that personnel familiar with its use is present. if necessary with special fume extraction equipment. electrodes (TIG. and post a warning sign that welding is in progress. MMAW). and the return clamp should be fastened with good electrical contact directly on the work piece. Ensure that the work place is properly ventilated. Plasma). Flame Spray. Plasma). in doorways.g. 31 . including torch valves. hatches. TIG. liquids and gases from workplace and adjacent spaces including spaces above/below decks. GMAW. including check of blowpipes (AC/ OX). etc. Plasma. ✓ Shield the work place to protect others from sparks and radiation from the arc. Replace defective gaskets with original gaskets only. Even Argon may be a safety risk if it replaces air in a confined area due to excessive leaks.00 ✓ Keep hoses and cables clear of passage ways and protected from sparks.SAFETY IN WELDING ✓ Check that torches and electrode holders are in good working order. Work place Tidy up the work place and remove any flammable materials. hot metal and mechnical damage e. Keep cables and hoses clear of passage ways. ✓ Ensure that sufficient and correct fire fighting equipment is available at the workplace. know where the return current goes. This is especially important when working on galvanized or coated surfaces which may produce harmful fumes when heated. Place return clamp (return clamp) directly on the work piece. nozzles (AC/OX. Cover any openings through which sparks may be led to other areas onboard which have not been prepared for hot work. 1.

oily rags.00 Cover openings! Sparks may travel far! Hot work procedure ✓ Ensure that all relevant check lists. Operator / assistant protection ✓ When working. goggles). and do not carry combustible material. (Gas quick couplings and an unlocked safety cable connector may act as emergency cut-offs). within view of the welder and with possibility to cut off gas and power supply. heat and electric shock.SAFETY IN WELDING 1.g. wear safety shoes and a proper boiler suit with long sleeves. lighters. and when necessary also use additional leather clothing for protection against sparks. ✓ Use head and face protection (helmet. an assistant protected in the same manner as the welder should accompany him. ✓ If work has been done inside a confined space the assistant should be placed outside. certificates and permits for hot work have been issued. 32 . matches. ✓ Welding gloves should always be used. Ensure that filter glasses are unbroken and have the correct shade. Do not wear clothes of highly combustible materials or wet clothes. e. ✓ If work is being done outside the ship’s workshop. shield. Ensure proper ventilation.

Only when this has been assured should fire fighting equipment be retumed to its normal storing place. 811053 Rev. rayon and polyester. 02 A3 Wall Chart “Safety Checklist for Welding and Related Thermal Processes”. Avoid synthetic materials. including nylon. No. Available wall chart: ID No. For same reason avoid zips. When work is paused or completed ✓ Always remove coated electrodes from the electrode holder and switch/close off gas and current at the source (welding machine.00 For light duty work (200 Amps or lower) • Working overall w/long sleves (flame retardent material). ✓ Never use acetylene or oxygen to blow away dust from yourself or the workplace.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. • Safety boots with steel toes. 33 For heavy duty work (above 200 Amps) • Working overall • Safety boots with steel toes • Face shield w/head band • Welders gloves • Leather jacket • Leather trousers . When hot work is completed the work place shall be inspected at regular interval to ensure that no risk of fire remains. cylinder valve. Always keep dry and keep the workplace dry. • Face shield w/handle or face shield w/ head band • Welders gloves For work in vertical and overhead position • Working overall • Safety boots with steel toes. • Face shield w/head band • Welders gloves • Arm protector • Leather spats ✓ Where necessary use a fresh air unit or breathing apparatus to avoid inhaling fumes and dust from the welding process. gas outlet) also during short breaks for meals etc. ✓ Do not leave the workplace unattended. Preferably without too many pockets that easily catch sparks. especially when arc welding.

wilhelmsen. please refer to our online product catalogue at http:// wssproducts. approvals.ADDITIONAL WELDING LITERATURE AVAILABLE: 1.00 Cylinder safety ID no 811049 Protect your gas cylinders and Safety checklist for welding equipment and related thermal processes ID no 806123 ID no 811053 Welding Consumables Selector ID no 804006 The solutions guide Unitor cold polymer repair ID no 804004 The solutions guide Unitor maintenance and repair welding ID no 804005 For latest product updates.com 34 . user instructions and further technical details.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   107 Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    45 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    40 •  Quick reference for rebuilding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   104 •  Aluminium brass (Yorc albro) . . .    74 •  Grinding/cutting consumables for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   114 •  Typical welding faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    70 •  Clad Steel . . . . .    43 •  Quick reference for cold repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . hardfacing and coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   123 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    72 •  Storing and handling of Stainless Steel onboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    71 •  Stainless Steel corrosion types . . . . . . . .    69 •  Duplex Stainless Steel . . . .    55 Problem steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    50 Unalloyed/low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    78 Copper and copper alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   114 •  Inspection of welded joints . . . . .   118 •  Crack detection . . . . . . . . . . . . .   106 •  Nickel bronzes (Cunifer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   105 •  Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   112 Evaluation of weelds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SOLUTIONS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .01 Filler material consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    68 •  Martensitic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . .    36 •  Quick reference for cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    47 Metal identification . . . . . . . .    75 Cast iron . . . . . . . . .    66 •  Ferritic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    62 Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    39 •  Quick reference for joining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    65 •  Austenitic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . .

but also on the electric power and gas supply of correct quality and sufficient quantity but also that the equipment used is the right one for the job.SOLUTIONS Introduction 2. Capillary Brazing Rods Braze Welding Rods Gas welding Rods TIG Solid Wire Flux Cored Wire Coated Electrodes (Stick Electrodes) Coated Gouging Electrodes Copper Coated Carbon Electrodes Cold Repair Compound Power Supplies Gas Supplies 36 . indicating the process and filler material which should be used. process and gas/power supplies. A successful solution is dependent not only on choosing the right filler material. equipment and processes show these relations. SYMBOL FILLER MATERIAL PROCESS AC/OX Cutting AC/OX Heating AC/OX Brazing AC/OX Brazing AC/OX Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding Flux Cored Arc Welding Manual Metal Arc Welding Manual Metal Arc Gouging Air Carbon Arc Gouging Plasma Cutting Cold Repairs All arc processes All processes except coated electrodes and self-shielding flux cored wire. The overview on power/gas supply.01 This chapter is intended to be a quick reference for finding alternative solutions to specific problems. All solutions are linked to one of the symbols below which relates the solution to filler material type.

for DC) = Unitor Wire Welder (portable. 2. portable) = Unitor Plasma Cutter (portable) = Unitor Wire Feeder (portable. = Gas distribution with outlet point.SOLUTIONS UWR UWI UPC UWF UWW = Unitor Welding Rectifiers (DC) = Unitor Welding Inverter (DC.01 P 0 W E R S U P P L Y E Q U I P M E N T A N D P R O C E S S E S G A S S U P P L Y E Q U I P M E N T A N D P R O C E S S E S 37 . for DC) = Three phase mains connection = One phase mains connection 16A 230V 50/60Hz = Welding current distribution with outlet point.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.01 38 .

especially in cracks in combination with MMA weldlng. Torch electrode and nozzle. 30mm for portable equipment. most flexible solution. efficient removal of old welds and weld residues. thickness limitation 100 mm or 500 mm with optional nozzles. B: Good solution for groove preparation. Thickness limitation aprox. A2: Good solution. MMA processes.SOLUTIONS Quick reference for cutting PROCESS AC/OX MMA ACA Plasma ALLOY Mild steel Low alloy/ cast steels 2. A1: Best. and also for large scale groove /crack preparation. Thickness limitation aprox. 30mm for portable equipment. See AC/OX See coated electrodes and process. 39 . See Plasma process. also for thicker materials. C: Best method for fast. Comments A0: Best solution.01 A A 1 1 B B B B B B C C C C C C A A A A A A 2 2 High alloy/ stainless steels Cast iron Copper with alloys Aluminium with alloys Consumable parts 0 0 0 0 Cutting CH-2 ACA  gouging electrode electrode nozzles.

. . . . . . . as shown for stainless steel below. . . and under each of the filler materials.   box 4 Copper . . . . . . . . . . . and further information will be found in this chapter under the metal in question. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   box 2 Yorcalbro . . . joining stainless steel to: Cunifer/nickel alloys . . .   box 1 Bronze: . . . . . . .01 The table on the next pages will suggest some solutions for joining metals. . .   box 9 Full scale table overleaf Bronze Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Icuni (W) *) Cunifer Nickel Alloys 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . You should also note that with the TIG (GTAW) arc or the gas flame it is fully possible to join metals without additional filler material when the material thickness is small and the joint is suited for it. . . . . .   box 5 Cast iron . . .g. . . . . . welding Cunifer Nickel Alloys Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) outside corners in sheet metal constructions. Unalloyed/ Lowalloyed/ Cast Steels LH (E) LHV (E) LHT (E) LHL (E) *) **) ***) METAL Unalloyed/ Lowalloyed/ Cast Steels “Problem” Steels Bronze Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) AG-60 AG-45 yorcalbro Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) AG-60 AG-45 Brass Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) AG-60 AG-45 Copper Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) AG-60 AG-45 Cast Iron Nife (E) Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Tensile (E) Nickel (E) *) **) Stainless Steels 23/14 (E) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) “Problem” Steels Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) **) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) Stainless Steels Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) 23/14 (E) *) Tensile (E) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) *) 18/8Mo (W) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) Duplex (E) Iduplex (W) *) Cast Iron Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) *) **) *) **) *) **) Icuni (W) *) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) *) **) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Nife (E) Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) ****) Copper Brass Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) Ialbro (W) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) *) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) yorcalbro Example. .   box 6 Stainless steel . . .SOLUTIONS Quick reference for joining 2. . . . . . . . . . How to use the table: The metals are found both in the top horizontal row and in the left vertical column. .   box 7 “Problem” steels . . . . . . . . . . . . The corner box (box 7 in the example below) will always show the alternatives for joining the metal to itself. . . . . . . . . . . . .   box 3 Brass . . . . . . The possibilities of joining one metal to another are found on the horizontal/vertical line connecting the metal through the diagram. e. . .   box 8 Low alloy steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Each possibility has its advantages and limitations. . . . . . .

***) For unalloyed steel MS wire. GPR. **) Also brazing with FC-bronze (Bronze) or FC-Wearbro for surfacing. ****) Cast Iron components that may be heated evenly may be braze welded with FC-Cast iron.Quick reference for joining METAL Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) 18/8Mo (W) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) Duplex (E) Iduplex (W) *) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Tensile (E) Nickel (E) *) **) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) Ialbro (W) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) Nife (E) 23/14 (E) Tensile (E) Nickel (E) Tensile (E) Impact (E) Tinbro (E) Impact (E) *) **) Albronze (E) *) *) **) LH (E) LHV (E) LHT (E) LHL (E) *) **) ***) Cunifer “Problem” Unalloyed/ Stainless Nickel Bronze Yorcalbro Brass Copper Cast Iron Low alloyed/ Steels Steels Alloys Cast Steels SOLUTIONS Unalloyed/ Icuni (W) Low alloyed/ Tinbro (E) Cast *) **) Steels Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) “Problem” Icuni (W) Steels Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Stainless Icuni (W) AG-60 AG-60 AG-60 AG-60 Tensile (E) Steels Tinbro (E) AG-45 AG-45 AG-45 AG-45 23/14 (E) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) *) *) Nife (E) Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) ****) Cast Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Iron Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) *) **) *) **) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) *) **) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) E = Coated electrode W = Welding wire/rod Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Copper Icuni (W) *) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Brass Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) Yorcalbro Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) *) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Bronze Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) Also capillary brazing with AG-60 and AG-45 (AG-60 only for Yorcalbro). SPECIAL and GPR are additional alternatives. Aluminium welding: Coated electrode: Alumin Welding Wire: Alumag 41 Cunifer Icuni (W) Nickel *) Alloys 2.01 . and coated electrodes GPO.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.01 42 .

rope.01 Examples of applications Wearmax (E) Tensile (E) Wearmax (E) Tensile (E) Abratech-330 (E) Chain. hardfacing and coating The table shows all the possibilities within the Unitor range of filler materials for the applications listed. wire drum FC-Wearbro (B) Spot welds on ladder steps Tensile (E) Impact (E) Cargo grab teeth Impact (E) Spark proof overlay on tools FC-Wearbro (B) Building up machine parts Tensile (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Rebuilding valve seats on exhaust valves Impact (E) Rebuilding edges on butterfly valve Rebuilding gear teeth Rebuilding valve closing surfaces 43 . The various filler materials have specific advantages or limitations. 2. and further information will be found under each of the filler materials.SOLUTIONS Quick reference for rebuilding.

Unique surface properties against mechanical wear are obtainable. See the process and the description of the powder alloys Hardalloy.01 Property Rebuilding with approx. Universalloy and Bronzalloy for full information.SOLUTIONS Quick reference for rebuilding. hardfacing and coating 2. base Base material material Unalloyed/ low alloyed cast steels “Problem” IMS (W) LHT (E) LHR (E) LHL (E) GPR (E) Tensile (E) Rebuilding with improved wear resistance properties Wearmax (E) Impact (E) Tensile (E) Abratech-330 (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Abratech-330 (E) Wearmax (E) Impact (E FC-Wearbro (B)* Rebuilding with improved corrosion resistance Wearmax (E) Tensile (E) 23/14 (E) Duplex (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Wearmax (E) Impact (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Nickel (E) Zinc-coat (P) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* W = Welding wire/rod E = Coated electrode B = Brazing alloy *) Flame spray powder alloys may be used on any base material except pure copper to rebuild for wear and corrosion resistance. steels Cast iron Nife (E) Nife (E) Nickel (E) Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) FC-Cast iron (B) FC-Wearbro (B)* Stainless 18/8 Mo (W) steels Duplex (E) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) Copper Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Brass Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Tensile (E) Impact (E) * Wearmax-327 (E) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Icuni (W) FC-Wearbro (B)* Yorcalbro Ialbro (W) Bronze Cunifer Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Icuni (W) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Nickel (E)* Aluminium Alumag (W) Alumin (E) 44 .

Where the base material is not weldable. If the base material is so corroded that there is nothing to weld on. Specifically. Polymer products can. 6. Where there is restricted space. The curing time is down to a few minutes for several of the products. chapter 3 consumables. 4. 2. For cold repairs products see. Sometimes welding method /equipment / consumable or operator knowledge is not available. If one or more of the reasons below apply. Where you need non-metal repairs.SOLUTIONS Quick reference for Cold repairs When repairing a base material. Cold repair compounds require no rigging-up time. 1. leading up to distortion of the work piece. chemical resistance and wear resistant properties are improved. Where distortion of base material is unacceptable. always start with considering welding or brazing techniques. Welding causes expansion and contraction. 2. 3. Where there is a need for emergency repairs. 7. Where specific properties are required. consider using polymer. if necessary. Certain casted metal alloys are not weldable due to their chemistry. 5. Large surfaces that are worn are also much faster overlaid with polymer compounds than with weld bead overlays. as well as solutions for repair or joining of plastics and composite materials. Cold repair systems are cold-curing processes. Cold repair systems offer solutions for rubber gasket repairs or moulding. and no need for energy in the form of oxygen / acetylene or electricity The energy is built into the consumable (product) and is released when mixing base and activator. a new part can be “casted” with the repair compound.01 45 . be injected through small diameter holes. Where hot work like welding is not permitted due to fire / explosion hazard. In many cases polymer compounds have better properties than weld overlays. There is no risk of heat ignition or sparks.

01 46 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

08 1.33 Plate Section thickness size t mm mm 2 Deposit volume per m.74 0. throwing away long electrode stubbs.05 0.5   4   16   21   5   25   31.5 2   3 4 5 6 7 mm 0 0. Note that spatter.5   8   32   40.5   3    4.03 0.5   31.5 1 1.73 1. e.5   9   40.07 0.5    7. may influence on the total consumption.5   3      9   12.5   9   81   94 10 100 114 11 121 138 12 144 162 13 169 190 14 196 224 15 225 248 → Deposit volume per m.60 1.06 0.54   51 10   50   64 12   72   93 15 113 141 18 162 204 20 200 252 22 242 204 25 323 405 47 . W kg/m 0.50 0.32 0.25 0.05 0. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.03 0.49 1.02 0. weld metal” found in the data table for each electrode in the filler material section.5   6   36   42   7   49   57   8   64   73. V cm3/m 2 3 4 7 22 25 32 42 Deposit weight per m. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.27 1.009.16 0. The steel weight of deposit per meter is also given.13 0. welding positions and work routines. – The approximate deposit weight in kg of copper alloys is found by multi­ plying the deposit volume by 0.11 1.5    8. –  For coated electrodes the required number of electrodes (for steel) is found by dividing the deposit weight by the value “(number of electrodes per kg. Square Butt Joint t < 4 mm t > 4 mm Plate Root thickness opening t s mm 1   1.20 0.25 0. W kg/m 0. –  The approximate deposit weight in kg for aluminium is found by multi­ plying the deposit volume by 0.39 3.10 0.17 0.18 a a meashure Section size a s mm mm 2 →   2      4    6   2.17 0.45 0.5    6.25 0.SOLUTIONS Filler material consumption Fillet Weld The tables give approximate weld deposit volume for various joint types.58 0.98 2.5   5   12.g.5 2 2.5 3 3 Deposit volume per m.40 0.02 Outside Corner   2      2    3.5   16   6   18   22   7   24.0027.5   4      8   10.08 0.95 2.76 1. W kg/m 0.89 1. –  For steel welding wires and rods the deposit weight given equals the weight of filler material required.33 0.02 0.

5   6      1   27   7    1.5   33.5   5    1   26   6      1   36   7    1.31 0.02 50° Flat Plate Root thickness opening t s mm mm Deposit volume per m. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.00   4      1   11.23 1.SOLUTIONS Single V-joint Single V-joint 2.62 4.29 0.75 2.19 0.5   8    1.63 2.04 1.51 3.44 0.65 0.02 2.5 10    2   77.05 1.11 4.5   60. W kg/m 0.5   57   9    1.5   42   9    1.5   6      1   23   7    1.94 80° Vertical Plate Root thickness opening t s mm mm Deposit volume per m.46 70° Vertical Plate Root thickness opening t s mm mm Deposit volume per m.97 1.09 0.47 0.77 1. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.13 0.86 0.5   9    1.13 0.44 0.5   65.76   4      1   13   5    1   19.5   70 10    2   90 11    2 107 12    2 125 14    2 165 15    2 188 16    2 211 18    2 263 20    2 320 25    2 488 Single V-joint Single V-joint 60° Flat Plate Root thickness opening t s mm mm Deposit volume per m.66 0.5   49   9    1.5   45   8    1.49 0.56 0.37 0.17 2.02 1.17 0.10 0.5   8    1.76 0.5   51.57 0. W kg/m 0.5   81.60 1.30 0. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.15 0.55 1.33 1.60 1.23 1.81 2. W kg/m 0.02 1.22 0.55 0. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.94 2.5 11    2   78.69 0.5   5    1   16.5   51 10    2   66. W kg/m 0.30 0.59 0.26 0.5   39   8    1.34 1.5 12    2   91 14    2 120 15    2 135 16    2 151 18    2 189 20    2 227 25    2 341   4      1   15   5    1   22.5   6      1   31   7    1.38 0.20 0.14 0.86 1.15 1.5 10    2   104 11    2 124 12    2 145 14    2 193 15    2 219 16    2 247 18    2 308 20    2 376 25    2 577 48 .5 11    2   92 12    2   107 14    2 141 15    2 160 16    2 180 18    2 223 20    2 271 25    2 411   4      1   17.89 1.38 0.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.02 49 .

wrought iron. smooth surface. Not necessary Very light Acid test Lead and white metal White to grey. rough. From bronzered to Not necessary Yellow. Unalloyed steel. White cast iron As above Normally too hard to file. silvery crystalline surface. Dark grey or rusty. Heavy Other tests for identification. Chisel test Magnet test Various grades of Shiny coppered red-brown to green surface. Rather brittle. (verdigris). can be smooth or low-alloy steel. Some are not filable. Very brittle. Heavy rusty. Magnet test. Very tough to very brittle. Stainless steel Shiny silver-grey if polished. Copper Shiny grey. very smooth surface. see following pages for description Chiselling test. From tough to brittle. White. Not necessary Very heavy None 50 . surface.SOLUTIONS Metal identification 2.03 Test Appearance of Appearance of Appearance of Comparative untreated metal surface after filling fracture surface weight of metal surface and relative toughness Metal Grey cast iron Dark grey or Light grey. Heavy None Aluminium and Very light grey aluminium alloys Very white and smooth surface. Very finegrained. Spark test. uneven granular Rough granular surface. Smooth surface. Shiny white when polished. Fine-grained grey surface. Shiny silver-grey. None Medium-grey Heavy colour. rather Dark grey. depending carbon steel on field of application. Heavy File test. depending on type. Matt grey if unpolished. Not necessary Heavy None Brass and bronze Various grades of yellow-brown or green-brown. very smooth shiny surface. Some alloys are unfilable. smooth. smooth velvety surface.

Cast iron. material chiselled away is in the form of brittle fragments. 51 . with forked ends. but the pressure has to be increased. The file does High-alloy steel not bite into the metal and the pressure has to be increased. High resistance. High resistance. Type of steel Unalloyed and Low alloyed steel Medium-carbon steel Brinell hardness 100 200 2. with steel pointed ends. The file leaves Tool steel marks. but the metal is almost as hard as the file. colour and length of the sparks. Monel Weak red sparks. Unalloyed steel (Cast steel). ending in many pronged yellow stars.SOLUTIONS Filing test Restance to file No resitance. 400 500 Spark test This test may be carried out in the ship’s workshop and is very useful for identifying the type of steel and determining its approximate carbon content. The metal can be High-carbon steel filed. Little resistance. Hold a sample lightly against the grindstone and note the shape. Unalloyed and low alloyed steels are difficult to tell apart. Chisel test Unalloyed steel Manganese steel The sparks separate at the end into several small sparks (leaf shaped). and end in stars. the file bites into the metal.03 300 Medium resistance. Long (continuous) shavings are formed when chiselled. Stainless Bright yellow sparks. the file bites into the metal. quickly extinguished. but with difficulty. but when tested together it is comparatively easy to see the difference. The metal does not give off shavings. Cast iron Weak red sparks. The sparks split up. High speed steel Weak red sparks. Some sparks are short.

but remember: no pre-heating.SOLUTIONS Magnet test Aluminium/magnesium test 1.03 3. stainless steel: good weldability. If stainless steel: poor weldability. 2. If unalloyed / low-alloyed steel: good weldability. Magnetic Indicates a Ferritic normal steel. 52 . If the filings glow the metal is alumin­ ium. Black: Al + Cu Al + Ni Al + Zn Grey/brown: Al + Si (over 2%). magnesium-alloyed aluminium or magnesium is as follows: Place the component on a piece of paper and file some shavings onto the paper. Manganese steel. If all the filings spark in the flame. Clean a small area of the metal. the metal is magnesium and must not be welded. White: Pure aluminium. Drip onto it one or two drops of 20% caustic soda (NaOH) solution. Hold the paper over a flame and let the filings fall into the flame. Wait 5 minutes and wash with clean water. 2. Flame test Another simple test to find out whether the component is of alumin­ ium. Non-magnetic This indicates an Austenitic stainless steel. Unchanged: Magnesium (Mg). If some of the filings spark in the flame the aluminium is alloyed with magnesium (seawater resistant aluminium).

will confirm spark test selection Easily separated by colour. Ability to harden. carb steel High carb. Lead alloys will show boiling lead under oxy flame. Colour variation assists with usage check. stainless or hard ferrite stainless FILE TEST HACKSAW-FILE TEST Cuts easily Monel Very Slightly Magnetic SPARK TEST SOLUTIONS No Spark Sparks Won't oxy cut Cst irons. lead-tin. Martensitic stainless steel. manganese steel Aust. 53 2.METAL IDENTIfICATION MAGNETIC TEST Non Magnetic Strongly Magnetic OxY CUT TEST Hard Oxy cuts Low alloy & plain carbon steels OxY CUT TEST Oxy cuts Won't cut Work hardened Aust. High alloy tool and die steels. zinc alloys Aluminium alloys Magnesium & alloys Oxy cuts Won't oxy cut COLOUR SPARK TEST White RELATIVE WEIGHT Heavy Light Aluminium & alloys Magnesium & alloys OxY FLAME Dull grey Magnesium burns brightly Aluminium drosses Grey cast iron Fractured surface marks paper. brasses. stainless steel Red to yellow Copper Bronze Brass Low alloy high tensile Files soft Malleable & SG irons Grey cast iron Ferritic Stainless Nickel COLOUR CHECK Soft silvery Nickel Bright chrome Stainless (Ferritic) Files hard White cast iron. steel Work hardened Aust. Nickel Austenitic Manganese and Stainless Steel OxY CUT TEST Copper. usage & fracture. bronzes. High alloy tool & die steels Very easily cut. Usage will assist final checks. Higher zinc alloys fume. chip. stee.03 . lead. tin & zinc alloys Lead cuts with penknife. bright red colour dulls to brown oxide. Mang. common usage. Mild steel Med. chips smoothly & brittle Malleable or SG iron Chips tough & rough Lead. Aust. Chromium steels. common usage.

03 54 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

mild steel or black steel. MS.) – Welding deck equipment in position (winches. A common composition of this type of steel is (%): C 0. nickel (Ni). molybdenum (Mo).18 S 0. unalloyed steel will usually be found in the superstructure.057 Mn 1. LH. etc. Carbon is not an alloy element. Heat resistant steel Heat resistant steel is a low alloy steel.03 2. carbon steel and carbon manganese steel. frames. engine mountings. The addition of these alloying elements imparts heat resistant characteristics and the steel retains its strength at 55 Use the following Unitor filler materials for welding unalloyed steel: GPO. – Low alloy steel (containing 1–5% alloy elements). – High alloy steel (containing more then 5% alloy elements). and tool steel. flat iron and rod iron are usually in unalloyed steel. silicon (Si). Iron is the main component in most types of steel.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Introduction Steel can be generally classified as an alloy of Ferrum (Fe). TENSILE. This type of steel is also termed mild steel. HSTSF. weather steel. LHL. see the section on identification of metals. low temperature .40 S 0. On board a ship we find this type of steel in hullplates. IMS. – Welding cast steel (important). ICROMO. On board a ship. Angle iron. deck plates. – Parts which are subject to heavy vibration (pipes. Lifting lugs and other parts subject to sudden loads. If there is doubt as to whether steel to be welded is unalloyed or low alloy. Unalloyed steel Often referred to as carbon steel.18 Al 0. ship quality steel (sometimes referred to as high tensile steel). alloyed with a certain percentage of molybdenum (Mo) and sometimes also chromium (Cr). etc. LHV. chrome (Cr).30 P 0.02 Si 0. better known as iron. LHV. heat resistant steel. GPR. LH.03 steel. Steel is classified in three grades: – Unalloyed steel (containing up to 1% alloy elements).). and carbon (C).03 Mn 0. LHT. GPS. SPECIAL Low alloy steel Low alloy steel includes construction steel.30 C 0. higher strength filler materials should always be used. deck beams and bulkheads. Use: SPECIAL. cranes. A common composition of this type of steel is as follows (%): Fe Rest Si 0. To differentiate between cast steel and cast iron.04 Higher strength filler materials must be used for welding low alloy steel. Alloy elements are metals such as manganese (Mn).60 P 0. LHR. They should always be used for welding the following components (including components in unalloyed steel): –Lifting equipment subject to heavy loads.

manganese steel and hardwearing steel Steel quality St 37-C St 42-C St 42-D St 52-C St 52-D St 50-1 St 50-2 St 60-2 St 70-2 MN-steel CN 18 SCM 22 SE 3 MS 362–441 216 412–490 235 – – 510–608 314 – – 490–673 274 – – 588–706 333 686–834 363 ca.3 – 0. 210–220 – ca.50 C 0.05 0. boiler plates and high pressure pipes.18 22 – ca.8 0.90 S 0.009 – 0.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel high temperatures. Use LHR electrode for welding.03 Si 0.05 0.06 0.18 0.4 0. 400 24 ca. Weathering steel Weathering steel can be exposed to the weather without being painted.3 0.009 0.06 0.10 Cr 1.04 0.009 0. 120 0.22 0.04 For welding of heat resistant steel.2 0.009 – – – – – 1.05 0.2 0.18 0. Mo 0.06 0. 180–190 – ca. 130 21 – 20 – 15 10 ca.8 0. 0.2 – – – 1. 25 13 18 17 ca. Selection of the correct electrode for the job will depend on the percentage of Mo and Cr in the alloy. SCM 22 Hard wearing steel: SE 3 MS .6 – – – – 12.05 0.4 0.08 0. The LHL electrode are a low temperature electrode for use on this type of steel.2 0.2 – 0.35 0.3 – – – – – 0.05 – – – – – 0.06 0.4 – – – – – – – – 0.6 – – – – 0.5 0. 150–160 0.18 ca.6 – – 0.3 0. high strength steel.35 0. On board you will find this steel in boiler tubes.2 – 0.25 800–950 600 600–750 400 590–740 330 Steel types Construction steel: St 37-42 High strength steel: St 52-70 Mangan steel: Mn-steel 56 Heat treated steel: CN 18.4 0.8 1.05 0.00 Mn 0.5 0. Low temperature steel Low temperature steel containing nickel is today used more and more in processing equipment onboard ships carrying low temperature cargo.009 0.3 0.5 1.3 0. 200 240–290 180–230 350–500 1.009 0. filler material with heat resistant deposit only may be used. We also find this type of steel in Ice – class hull plates. This type of steel contains Copper and Nickel.04 0.30 P 0.5 0.05 0.009 0.06 – – – – Tensile Yield strength N/mm2 Nmm2 Elong- ation % Hardness HB % C % Si % Mn % P % S % Cr % Cu % N % Ni % Mo % Max. 2. A common composition is as follows (%): Fe Main comp.009 0.35 0.5 0. LHT and ICROMO are Standard construction steel.8 – 0. 140–150 – – – ca.75 0.05 0.05 0.03 heat resistant filler materials in the Unitor range. Good corrosion resistance to seawater and flue gases. 700 ca.05 0.

Joining galvanized steel pipes forming a V-butt joint. Larger size steel pipes (over160 mm) with a wall thickness more than 3 mm forming an I-butt joint. Small diameter steel pipes (diameter up to 160 mm) with a wall thickness of up to 3 mm forming an I-butt joint or T-joint (flange to pipe).04 MS-200 IMS-210 GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N MS-200 FCBRONZE-261 BRONZE-264 Thin plate galvanized steel constructions like air ducts and air channels. V-butt joint or a T-joint. FC-BRONZE-261 BRONZE-264 57 .SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Description Joining of smaller diameter steel pipes (diameter less than 30 mm) where a capillary joint may be used. rounded edges on the joint. Solution AG-60-252 AG-45-253 Examples 2.

SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Description Welding of thin sheet steel plate constructions as for example tanks and cover plates. Larger size fabrication and repair jobs like welding of unalloyed steel bulkheads and deck in all positions.04 General purpose repair welding of unalloyed steel parts. GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N Fabrication of smaller steel parts like shelves. GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N Welding of clamps and brackets. Solution GPO-302N/ SPECIAL-303N MS-200 IMS-210 Examples 2. and tack welding constructions before full welding. ladders and gangways in unalloyed steel. 58 .

tanks. Solution GPR-300H LHH-314H Examples 2. bulkheads. holds. beams. deck.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Description For a rapid and large size weld build up in the downhand position on unalloyed steel/low alloyed steel constructions. Welding repairs of low alloyed ship­ building steel used in the hull. steam and cargo pipes made of low alloyed steel.04 SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N Welding on cranes and lifting equipment. stiffeners. SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LH-316N TENSILE-328N 59 . Steel that takes vibration. frames etc. strain and sudden loads. Seawater. Deck and engine auxiliaries welded to deck or floor plates. hatch covers.

). LH-314N Weathering steel used for sea-water and flue gases. Solution LHT-318N ICROMO-216 Examples 2. LHL-319N 60 . lugs. etc.04 Welding subject to high loads (Lifting.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Description Boiler plates and tubes of heat resistant chromium molybdeniujm alloyed steel. SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N TENSILE-328N Cast steel repairs. Iceclass hull plates. LHR-320N Low temperature applications.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.04 61 .

So. are marketed by the steel works. Including build-up work. it is. etc.SOLUTIONS: Problem Steels Problem Steels (difficult to weld steels) Among the low alloy steels.S. In principle. welding with austenitic stainless or nickel-based consumables is considered to be one of the best methods. 62 . and welding can destroy the hardening. all these steels can be welded with matching ferritic consumables with the aid of preheating and postweld heat treatment to avoid hydrogen cracking in the heat affected zone (HAZ). cracks.05 Cracks in bearing housings. The risk of cracking is reduced by the higher solubility of hydrogen and the greater ductility of the weld metal. tool steel. Joining machine parts in U. in this case. building up and restoring worn edges. In many cases the steel has been hardened by annealing. Machine parts. there is also a large group of special steels with complicated chemical composition. Grab shovels. often not possible to preheat or to perform any postweld heat treatment. All these steel types are difficult to weld. high speed steel. In the case of repair welding. or heavily stressed machine parts. however. TI steel. There are so many types of low alloy steel on the market today that even specialists have difficulty in keeping track of the entire range. The example on solutions for “problem” steel that are given here are all based on using the electrode:         Unitor Tensile-328N 2. vanadium steel. For cargo handling equipment and dredger applications the Unitor Abratech330 and Wearmax-327 should also be considered. Most types can be welded satisfactorily with Unitor Tensile having a tensile strength of 850 N/mm2. Numerous types of special alloys not classified under existing standards. These include spring steel. This electrode may be used both for joining and for building-up work.

Mechanical structures.). repair and maintenance. Frame fractures. Pitting in hydraulic pistons. Cast steel. 63 .SOLUTIONS: Problem Steels 2. rebuilding damaged and keyways. joining. cargo pipes. Rebuilding worn pinion teeth. Sliding surfaces. Spring steel. Cracks in fuel pipes.05 Repair of tool steel and high speed steel. Shafts. joining and repairing. NB! The electrode LH may also be used. Welding pinion to shaft. Steel that is difficult to weld. NB! Flame spraying with hard­ alloy may also be a solution. and steel subject to vibration and loads (engine foundations etc.

05 64 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

or a combination. The chrome carbide cannot combine with oxygen to create chrome oxide. 5. Many stainless alloys contain larger amounts of chromium for further improving corrosion resistance and to increase resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. that is the content at which an effective layer is formed that seals the surface against any further atmospheric corrosion. 40% higher). (carbides – sigma phase – ferrite). Occurence of structural changes following welding. By chemical composition or heat treatment. Carbon increases strength. 40% less). The chromium combines with oxygen and creates an invisible though impregnable chromium oxide on the surface. The AISI classifies stainless steel by their metallurgical structures. or crack formation along or through the crystals (stress corrosion). 65 . 2. Molybdenum also improves high temperature strength. This system is useful because the structures (Austenitic. such as strong pitting. the stainless steel receives one of the following micro structures when manufactured: Austenitic. but in connection with stainless steel and in amounts above 0. Poorer heat conductivity (approx. Martensitic or Ferritic/Austenitic.06 The following are some characteristic differences between stainless steel and normal steel: 1. Chromium (Cr) is the element that makes stainless steel stainless or corrosion resistant. This reduces the corrosion resistance in local areas leading to intergranular corrosion. ferritic or martensitic) indicates the general range of mechanical and physical properties and weldability. The carbon content in stainless steel materials and consumables are therefore kept at a very low level. Sensitivity to certain corrosion phenomena. 3.04% it will cause chromium carbide formation (chrome carbide particles) between 430870°C. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) established a numbering system to classify the stainless steel alloys. Small amounts of Molybdenum (Mo) increase resistance to pitting type corrosion and general resistance to certain corrosive media. Higher coefficient of expansion (approx. Nickel (Ni) in excess of about 6% increases corrosion resistance slightly and greatly improves mechanical properties. Ferritic. Greater sensitivity to cold working.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Introduction Stainless steel belongs to the high alloy steel group. It must contain at least 11. Stainless steel alloy with molybdenum is therefore referred to as acid resistant. 2.5% chromium. 4.

0 – 3.0 – 19.0 Mo 2.0 10.08 17.0 10.15 0.10 25.08 18.0 17.08 16.0 – 12.0 16.0 18.0 19.08 22.0 – 3.08 0.0 – 19.03 % S.0 Mo 3.06 S (min) 0.0 12.20 P 0.0 – 6.0 – 24.0 8.0 .0 3.5 – 3. and AISI 316 L is the most commonly used. other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of 2.0 – 18.08 17.0 10.0 8.08 16.75-1.0 1.0 317 L 0.20 Co) 23/14-322N (E) S-309-M-GF-222 (W) * Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise stated Unless otherwise stated.0 17. Balance Fe.5 Si 0.0 – 18.0 348 0.0 Si 0.0 22.0 2. 1.0 3.12 0.0 – 15.0Mo 0.0 Other 2.0 – 12.03 18.65 Cb+Ta (10x%C min but 0.0 % Mn.0 19.0 – 10.0 – 10.0 – – S-309-M-GF-222 (W) IMPACT-329S (E) 18/8-321N (E) 310 310 S 314 316 316 L 316 N 0.0 19.25 24.0 8.15 0.0 11.0 % Si.0 – 2.03 19.0 Mo Ti (5x%C min) 1.0 9.0 with a few exceptions exceeds 7%.0 10.0Mn 2.03 0.0 24. These are the chromium nickel steel of the AISI 200 and 300 series in which chromium usually exceeds 17% and nickel AISI Composition % * Type Carbon Chromium C Cr 0.0 – 19. 0.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Austenitic Stainless Steel The highest tonnage of weldable stainless steel produced are of the austenitic grades.0 – 14.0 – 20.0 10 – 14.0 9.0 347 0. 66 .0 – 30.0 –22.0 – 26.0 12.15 0. Autenitic stainless steel has the highest corrosion resistance of all the stainless steel. Most materials for chemical carriers are selected from this group of materials.0 – 20.0 – 4.5 Si 1.0 Mo 0.60 Mo (opt) 0.08 0.0 – 15. Austenitic grades are non-magnetic.20 0.0 – 18.25 0.0 – 37.0 – 19.0 – 22.0 – 13.15 0.0 17.0 – 19.5 Si 1.06 301 302 302 B 303 303 Se 304 304 L 305 308 309 309 S 23/14-322N (E) 0.0 – 13.03 0.0 – 3.0 – 20.0 16.8.16Ni S-316-M-GF-221 (W) 18/8 Mo-221 (T) 317 0.0 – 20.0 Si 0.08 17.0 17.0 – 24.0 321 0.15 0.0 23.0 9.0 11.0 – 26.0 330 0.15 S (min) 0.0 329 0.08 17.0 – 21.0 10 – 14.0 – 18.15 Se (min) – – – – 2.0 – 15.0 – 12.0 34.0 18.0 – 19.0 – 26.0 8.08 0.20 P 0.04 P Cb + Ta (10x %C min) Cb 13 x Cmax 0.10-0.0 347 M 0.0 – 10.045 P and 0.0Si 2.0 Si – 2.0 – 3.0 8.0 .0 – 13. May be welded with (E) Electrode (W) Wire Welding (T) Tig 18/8-321N (E) S-316-M-GF-221 (W) 18/8 Mo-221 (T) Nickel Ni 6.0 – 20.0 – 19.12.0-3.0 8.0 17.0 Mo 1.0 –22.10 Ta max 0.0 – 19.0 – 10.0 19.0 – 15.0 – 4.

317 (for best corrosion resistance). 67 . S 31600. Flange ring welded on gives less stress set up in the material. 316 (for better corrosion resistance). S 31000. 2. there might not be enough oxygen to maintain the passive oxide film and crevice corrosion might occur (Duplex are available in these situations). S 31700.06 Flange ring made by hammering back the pipe end (mechanical working) must be avoided. • Cannot be hardened by heat treatment. • In crevices and shielded areas. • Unified Numbering system UNS: 30400. In general welds must not be located too close to one another.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Austenitic stainless steel has the following characteristics: • Non-magnetic. but can be hardened by working. Avoid welding mild steel to stainless steel. especially the chloride ion can also break down the passive surface film. • They are suitable only for low concentrations of reducing acid. 310 (for high temperature). Some limitations: Austenitic stainless steel has some limitations: • The maximum temperature under oxidizing conditions is 925°C. • Very high levels of halide ions. • Can easily be welded • Grade: 304 (most used). Crossed weld joints are undesirable.

6 Si – 0.5 1.5 – 11.0 max) 1. 0.0 16.025P.00 0.0 1.0 Si 0. 0.75 – 1. 1.0 % Si. They are non-hardening by heat treatment. Balance is Fe Ferritic stainless steel has the following characteristics: • Magnetic.2 Mo. • Unified numbering system UNS: S 40900.02 S 2. 0. 2.0 – 18.0 – 18.5 – 19. 1. 0. 0.060 P.01 28 – 30. Unless otherwise noted.0 17. Principal applications are products requiring resistance to corrosion and scaling at evlevated temperatures rather than high strength.0 409 0.15 Se (min) 0. 1.5 – 4.25 N 0. 0.0 Ni.12 14. • Poor weldability.07 0.0 – 16.06 405 0.0 – 2.015 Ni.12 14.0 Si – 0.06 25.0 1. 0. other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of 2.0 439 F 0.75 Si 0. 0.045 S.5 Mo.0 0. 1.2 Mo 0. 0.60 P.75 – 2.0 1. • Grade: 409 (high temperature).15 AI. 3.20 16.030 % S.0 – 30.75 18. Ti 12 x C (1.0 – 27.75 29-4 0.0 – 18.75 – 18.0 – 18. 0.5 – 14.2 Cu 0.2 + 4 (%C+%N) 0.0 Si Max.01 28.3 AI 1. 0.0 17.5 AISI Composition % * Type Carbon Chromium C Cr Manganese Ni Other 0.060 S.75 – 1. Ti min.0 – 27.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Ferritic Stainless Steel These are the grades AISI 400 series that contain from about 14 to 27% chromium and no nickel.02 Ni.08 11.08 10.025 P. o.0 – 18.20 0.25 Mo.15 S (min).035 N max (Cb+Ta) min 0.15 Cu 0.0 430 0.75 1. 0.0 Si 0.12 0.25 434 436 439 442 444 446 0. 0.15 Cu 0.5 – 4.0 1.0 1.60 Mo (opt) 0.1 – 0.2 – 10 Ti 0. 6 x C.75 Ni.045 P 1.04 Ni.12 0.025.045 % P and 0.5Ni.2 Si.0 Max 429 0. They are magnetic in all conditions.2 Si. 0.0 – 23.0 0.02Ni.0 1.0 1. • Cannot be hardened by heat treatment. 0.25 Mo.12 14.5 Ni.12 14. 0.0 1.3 * Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise noted.25 430Fse 0. 430 (most used). (Cb+Ta) Min 5 x % C.5 23. 0. 0.3 29-4-2 0.0 1. 68 .75 – 15 Mo 0.025 S May be welded with: (E) Electrode (W) Wire Welding 23/14-322N (E) S-309-M-GF-222 (W) 26-1 0.0 1. 3.025 0.0 % Mn. S 43000.

75 Mo May be welded with (E) Electrode (W) Wire Welding 2.25 11.0 23/14-322N (E) 422 0. 0.) – 1.25 W.25 Mn.0 440A 0. 403 410 414 AISI Composition % * Type Carbon Chromium C Cr 0.25 Mo. Chromium content is lower and carbon content higher than the ferritic group. Martensitic grades are used to resist abrasion in stream and gas turbine components and for such applications as bearings. These grades are magnetic in all conditions.0 12.20 15. 0.5 Ni 0.0 – 14.025 P.040% P.5 – 13.5 Ni 1.25 – 2.0 % Mn.15 Se (min. Balance is Fe. has the following characteristics: • Magnetic.0 Ni. 0.2 – 0.5 Si – 1.0 11.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Martensitic Stainless Steel This steel. They are not as corrosion resistant as the austenitic and ferritic types. 0. + Unless otherwise noted. 0.0 – 17. 0.75 Si. pump shafts etc. 0.15 min.0 – 18. and 0.75 Mo 0.0 – 18. also in the AISI 400 series.15 0. 0.0 S-309-M-GF-222 (W) Non-weldable * Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise noted.60 – 0.0 – 14.030% S.95 – 1.025 S 1.60 Mo (opt) 1. (min. 0. is the iron chromium alloys capable of being heat treated to a wide range of hardness and strength levels.5 Other 0.25 – 2. 0. 1.0% Si. ball bearings.06 416 416Se 420 0. 0. S 42000.15 – 0. • Grade: 410 (most used).15 0. • Poor welding characteristics.15 S.0 431 0. S 44004.75 – 1. 0.0 – 4. 0.75 – 0. 440C (for very high hardness).5 – 13.0 12.060P. other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of 1.0 – 18.5 – 10.15 0.20 16.0 440B 0.15 11.75 _ 1. • Can be hardened by heat treatment.3 V.0 Mn. • Unified numbering system UNS: S 41000.0 440C 0.95 16.5 11. 69 .25 Mn. Martensitic stainless steel.5 – 13.060 P.75 Mo 0. 12.).0 – 13.15 0.75 16.

• Have higher tensile and yield strength than austenitic or ferritic stainless steel. 2. crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.12 – – 25 Sandvik SAF 2304 23 4 – 0.5 3 0. Weight savings can be up to 25%. Compositions are modified to favour the high ferrite levels by increasing the chromium to 22-26%.16 – Mn 1. UR 45N 22 5. UR 35N 23 4 – 0.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Duplex Stainless Steel (Austenitic – Ferritic) The duplex stainless steel consist of a microstructure of about 50% ferrite and 50% austenite. decreasing the nickel to 4-8% and adding copper up to 2%. cargo loading pipes. increasing molybdenum to 2-5%.4462/PRE35 Krupp Falc 223 Mannesmann A F22(1. forgings pipe DUPLEX-325N Electrode product forms depending on manufacturer IDUPLEX-222 TIG-rod Duplex Stainless steel has the following characteristics: • High resistance to stress corrosion cracking. • Grade: 2205.4462) 22 5. ladder material. bars. the main reason for the increased use of duplex is that the resistance against pitting corrosion is superb compared to austenitic stainless steel.17 – – 35 Fabr. • Unified numbering system UNS: S 31803. de Fer. Duplex stainless steel is used for applications such as tanks. • Increased resistance to chloride ion attack. Composition (%) Manufacturer Grade Cr Ni Mo N Cu Other PREN 23% Cr Mo-free Duplex Stainless steel Duplex stainless steel grades.1 – – 25 22% Cr Duplex Stainless steel Avesta 2205 22 5.3 3 0. They were developed to provide a higher strength. heating coils. 70 .06 Duplex stainless steel has good weldability but great care must be taken to use the correct consumable and to follow the welding procedure. 1. corrosion resistant alternative to the 300 series austenitic stainless steel. Avesta SAF 2304 23 4 – 0. • Very weldable. These compositions provide excellent resistance to pitting.5 Böhler A 903 Creusot Ind. however.14 – – 34/35 Nippon Kokan NK Cr22 Sandvik SAF 2205 Sumitomo SM 22Cr TEW Remanit 4462 Valourec VS 22 Product forms May be welded with all product forms plate. Due to the high yield strength of duplex stainless steel the plate thickness can be reduced considerably in comparison to austenitic stainless steel.5 3 0.1 – – 25 Creusot Ind.

Stainless steel Backing steel 2. When the steel backing is one layer short of the stainless steel cladding. abrasion resistance of the clad face. The result is a composite with the strength of the backing steel and with corrosion resistance.06 Clad steel with a stainless cladding is found on board some chemical tankers. 321 L 309 316 S-309-M-GF-222 (W) 316 L 317 1. Clad steel is composite materials. 71 . made by mill rolling or exploding a thin sheet of a metal that has desired properties over a base ("backing") plate of carbon or alloy steel. For welding of the backing steel use: Basic coated Low Hydrogen electrodes LH-314N or SPECIAL303N. Alloy cladding • Low carbon nickel • Nickel • Monel • Inconel • Cupro Nickel Cladding Backing steel Alloy Cladding (AISI) Welding (E) Electrode (W) Wire Welding 405. The cladding metal may be a stainless steel alloy.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Clad steel Clad steel is also referred to as compound steel or sandwich steel. an over alloyed consumable like 23/14-322 N must be used. 430 304 23/14-322N (E) 304 L 347. nickel or nickel alloy. 410. or copper or copper alloy. 2. It is fully weldable if the proper procedure is followed.

3 x %Mo + 16 x %N.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Stainless steel corrosion types A very thin layer of chromium oxide which is formed on the surface of the metal protects stainless steels against Corrosion. It occurs almost exclusively in acidic or strongly alkaline solutions. The Pitting Resistance Equivalent. The resistance against pitting is improved with increased Cr and Mo contents. This passive layer can be damaged by mechanical or chemical action. This is a corrosion attack that proceeds at the same rate over the entire surface. The resistance against general corrosion is mainly improved by increasing the content of Cr and Mo in the steel. Some stainless steels can be made sensitive to intergranular corrosion by elevated temperatures (500 °C-900 °C) at which carbide precipitation occurs at the grain boundaries resulting in 72 . If the protecting layer is destroyed in an aggressive environment. The maximum temperature at which a specimen in a special test solution shows no signs of pitting corrosion is called the Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT). Intergranular corrosion A localized attack at and adjacent to the grain boundaries is called intergranular corrosion. These regions then have a decreased corrosion resistance. is a way of describing the relative influence of the mentioned elements. The precipitation of chromium carbides can be prevented either by a low C content or by a stabilizing elements like Nb or Ti. resulting in holes in the metal. One way of expressing PRE is: PRE = %Cr + 3. General corrosion This is a type of localized attack which is highly destructive. This kind of attack is most commonly found in stainless steel in chloride containing environments. Cr depleted regions. the material will corrode. Pitting corrosion 2. Also N has a favourable influence. PRE.06 Different types of corrosion can occur and the choice of stainless steel is based on the requirements from the actual environment.

lap joints and under bolt and rivet heads.g. The risk increases with increasing salt concentration. Steels with good resistance to pitting corrosion have also good resistance to crevice corrosion. SCC is seldom found in 73 . Crevice corrosion is a kind of corrosion which occurs in narrow crevices filled with a liquid and where the oxygen level is very low e. The resistance of the austenitic stainless steels is improved by increased Ni content.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Crevice corrosion solutions with temperatures below 60 °C. SCC 2. For austenitic stainless steels the risk for SCC is especially big in solutions containing chlorides or other halogens. A special form of crevice corrosion is called deposit corrosion. This is when the corrosion is found under non-metallic deposits or coatings on the metal surface. During stress corrosion cracking the metal or alloy can remain virtually unattacked on most of its surface. Stress corrosion cracking.06 Corrosion attacks on a metal subjected to a tensile stress and exposed to a corrosive environment are called stress corrosion cracking (SCC). on gasket surfaces. while fine cracks progress through it. tensile stress and also increased temperature. The ferritic Cr steels totally without Ni are under normal conditions unsensitive for SCC as well as steels which are ferriticaustenitic.

• Store in wood protected frames away from grit blasting and grinding. Product no: 196-632984 • Stainless steel chipping hammer made out of hardened Martensitic stainless steel. 6 pcs. Special tools for welding of stainless steel • Stainless steel wire brush. footwear do not get in direct contact with the stainless surface.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Storing and handling of stainless steel onboard • Stainless steel must be stored under deck and protected against moisture. 2.06 • Pipe end should be covered (plugged) in order to prevent impurities from entering inside. • Using ordinary unalloyed steel shipping hammers or wire brushes on stainless steel will deposit iron and iron oxides triggering rusting. electrode ends and coating to be removed after welding. 2 litre. • Cover tank bottom so that equipment. dust. • Handling equipment. straps. textiles or plastic in order to prevent direct contact with iron surfaces. • Stainless steel should be kept separated from ordinary steel. forklift forks to be protected with wood. salt or iron particles that can trigger corrosion. tools. Product no: 196-632992 • Pickling Gel to remove oxides and discoloration after welding. 2 rows. • Slag. Product no: 095-661778 Stainless steel wire brush Stainless steel martensitic chipping hammer Pickling gel for stainless steel 74 . hooks. Use only tools made out of stainless steel.

structural peaks etc.06 75 . Working tools should be adapted to this (e. The corrosion resistance in stainless steels is created by oxide layers from one or several of the alloy components. Never switch a grinding disc between stainless steels and normal steels! This will immediately pollute the stainless steel with free iron.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Grinding/cutting consumables for stainless steel Generally: When working on stainless steels. (e. one should avoid polluting the steel surface with free iron. chrome) This oxide layer can be drastically reduced around sharp edges. Provides better corrosion resistance Structural peaks acting as attack points for corrosion damage the properties of the steel. To keep the stainless steel corrosion resistance at its best. Flexible grinding tools enable better control of heat development (e. will act as starting points for corrosion.g. Free iron on the the steel surface.g.This may change the metal structure and Smooth surface. fibre discs / mop discs). grinding consumables). Avoid excessive heat to build up during grinding on steels. Stainless steels are normally softer than regular steels (Typical for AISI 304 & 316 ). the aim must be to keep a smooth/polished surface without structural peaks.g. 2.

bronze and copper Size 4" / 100mm 5" / 125mm 7" / 180mm 9" / 230mm Cutting wheels Packs of 25 pcs 751016 633595 633611 633627 Grinding wheels Packs of 10 pcs 750992 633603 633619 633635 76 . chlorine and sulphur compounds. Iron free (inox) grinding discs is to have less than 0. soft Applications: Grinding and cutting in stainless steels.06 INOX depressed wheels SS Grit: Aluminium oxide Grit size: #24 Bonding: Resin. 2.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel INOX. aluminium.10 % content of iron. Contains no free iron and the aluminium oxide grit used contains very small amounts of bonded iron. disc with soft grit bonding for cutting and grinding on soft metals.

The fan pattern improves cooling during operation. Mop discs packs of 10 pcs #36 #60 #80 633691 633699 633707 633715 633723 633731 633739 633747 633755 77 . Disadvantage: frequent change of fibre discs.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Fibre discs (sanding paper) Should be used in connection with plastic backing pads. aluminium. Fibre discs (sanding paper) for SS Grit: Aluminium oxide Bonding: Resin Applications: Grinding on most steels. paint. plastics etc. Fibre discs contain Aluminium oxide grit with resin bonding. incl. The abrasive flaps contain alumina zirconia with resin bonding. wood.06 Plastic backing plate Mop discs Sanding paper flaps mounted on backing plate. iron free Resin Grinding on almost any metal. Very suitable for stainless steel grinding and polishing. incl. hardened and alloy steel. Contains no free iron. hardened and alloy steel. stainless steel. Mop discs for SS Grit: Bonding: Applications: Size Grit size 4" / 100mm 5" / 125mm 7" / 180mm Mop disk Aluminium zirconia. Applicable on stainless steels. Size Fibre discs packs of 25 pcs Grit size #24 #36 #50 4" / 100mm 692574 633643 633667 5" / 125mm 692582 633651 633675 7" / 180mm 692590 633659 633683 Plastic backing plate 755900 755918 755926 Fibre discs 2. Provides very smooth surfaces due to the flexibility of the disc.

While steel melts at approximately 1450°C. The excess carbon separates out during solidification and remains present and dispersed throughout the cast iron in the form of free carbon (graphite). high damping capacity on vibrations and ready machinability. making it easier to melt and allowing it to run freely into a mold to assume the shape intended for the casting. and on the assumption that " iron is iron" often end up with a poor result without understanding why. etc. cast iron repairs has been a feared operation to welders. white or ductile irons.75% can remain in solution when the metal solidifies. such as high fluidity. many grades of cast iron can indeed be welded successfully. Cast iron is essentially an alloy of ferrum (iron). Welders who attempt to repair cast iron based upon their experience from welding steel. Thus the welding properties of cast iron differ from those of steel. high alloy cast iron.07 Hence. low These different cast irons cannot be identified by chemical analysis alone. Because of this it cracks easily when subjected to local heating and cooling. The carbon content ranges from 2. that separate out when the cast iron solidifies are the length of time it takes to solidify and the amount of silicon that is present. Thus the percentage of free graphite is a function of the cooling rate. and the techniques for joining it together followed. Although up to 6% of carbon can be dissolved in iron when molten. Two of the factors. pump and valve housings. as is the case when welding. the special properties of this material must be understood. It is the form of the excess carbon that determines the kind of iron that the melt becomes. which means that it is present in excess of the amount that can be contained in solid solution. On boars ships cast iron has found wide uses as for instant engine blocks.5%.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Introduction To approach welding of cast iron. Silicon tends to drive out any carbon in solution as graphite if it is given enough time and temperature. cargo lines. water jackets. heads. liners. shrinkage.4% up to 4. pipe fittings. Due to its high content the cast iron is brittle and has very little elongation when subjected to strain. This excess carbon is the reason for many of the desirable properties of cast iron. However. But the carbon is also source of problems. 78 . In the following we shall take a look at the characteristics of the various types. transmissions. carbon and silicon. With regard to the fifth type. actually less than 1. which influence the amount of carbon. There are five common types of cast iron: Grey White Malleable Ductile High alloy 2. the high carbon content of cast iron lowers the melting point to 1100–1300°C (depending on type). this is obtained by adding quantities of alloying elements to gray. manifolds.

neither in cold nor in red-hot condition.2% maximum Phosphorous 0. The wide range of strengths in gray irons. cast iron scrap. the flakes also serve as crack-indicators. However. Characteristics: Soft.2% maximum Manganese 0.4% Sulphur 0.0–2. but larger flakes.6–0. Graphite flakes 2.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Grey cast iron Grey cast iron is the least expensive and most commonly used of all cast metals. limestone and coke – are all relatively inexpensive. and gray cast iron cannot be bent or forged to shape. 79 .25% Silicon 2. We estimate that approximately 90% of all cast iron is in the form of gray iron. The presence of the graphite flakes promotes ready machinability. In the middle the material will cool slower and contain fewer.0–3. steel scrap. In small or thin-walled parts the graphite is evenly dispersed throughout the material. In large-dimension castings the material near the surface will contain comparatively small graphite flakes.7% Ferrum Rest. which gives the alloy its name.07 General analysis of gray cast iron: Carbon 3. which will cool off first. High machinability. Good weldability (Unitor NICKEL-333N or NIFE-334N). When using casting molds of sand the molten metal gets a slow rate of cooling. explains the extensive use of these irons where high resistance to dynamic stress is not a governing factor. The raw materials – pig iron. (illustration). plus manufacturing economy. This gives most of the carbon time to collect as graphite flakes between the iron crystal borders. as this is the part of the casting. useful damping properties and resistance to wear. Due to the presence of free graphite a fracture will have a gray appearance. from 137 MPa to more than 390 MPa. Less brittle than white cast iron.

During a period from 1 to 6 days. which does not permit the carbon to move to the crystal borders. Iron with this microstructure is called malleable and its properties are opposite to those of white iron.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron White cast iron White cast iron has a similar chemistry to gray iron. Characteristics: Hard Brittle Abrasion-resistant Non-weldable Malleable cast iron Malleable cast iron starts life as an ordinary white cast iron. but become trapped inside the crystals. malleable cast iron is limited in application to relatively small parts.07 Iron Carbides Etched white iron Ferrite Malleable iron with temper carbon aggregates 80 . the carbon actually moves through the solid iron to collect in little gobs or nodules of graphite. It is then annealed (heat treated) in a furnace at a temperature above 870°C. The strength of malleable cast iron varies from 340 MPa to 520 MPa. Characteristics: Will absorb mild to medium torsion forces. White cast irons are useful for wear resistant service but due to their crack sensitivity they are very difficult to weld and may be considered unweldable. This is achieved by keeping the silicon content low and by rapid cooling. Fair to good weldability. at which point the silicon can break down the iron carbides into iron and carbon. 2. but is different in that the carbon is present in the form of iron carbide (Fe3C) instead of as free carbon (graphite). hence the name white cast iron. it is easily machinable. and is malleable. which is very brittle and hard. In a fracture the iron carbide will give the surface a silvery white appearance. This results in a martensitic structure. Due to the cost of manufacturing it. very hard and brittle. When strength goes above 410 MPa welding becomes difficult. Instead of being hard and brittle. from which it is derived.

instead of flakes as in gray iron. 81 . or compacted aggregates as in malleable iron.8% Up to 0. It meets the demands for increased size of equipment. toughness.03% max. By adding trace amounts of magnesium or cerium to the molten metal. Ferrite 2. 0. spheroidal graphite iron. Ductile iron may be welded very satisfactorily with Unitor NIFE-334N General analysis of nodular irons: Carbon Silicon Manganese Phosphorous Sulphur 3. the surface tension mechanism is altered and when the graphite precipitates it forms nodules or spheroids. yet retains the advantages of superior castability and machinability. higher operating speeds and lower production costs by having high strength.1% 1.07 Graphite Nodules In addition magnesium not in excess of 0. or cerium in quantity of a few thosandths of 1% is included. Ductile iron has mechanical properties approaching steel. and SG iron) bridges the gap between gray iron and steel.1% max.08%. This graphitic form dispersed thorough the casting contributes remarkable ductility to the casting.8% 0.2–4. and creates strengths equaling many good grade steels. It has yield strength from 275 MPa to 830 MPa with an elongation in 2 inches from 2% to 25%. and a resistance to shock loading.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Ductile cast iron Ductile cast iron (also known as nodular graphite iron.8–2. It's tensile strength ranges from about 340 MPa to 1030 MPa as cast.

0–6. and ductile irons. Meehanite The name Meehanite refers to a group of cast ferrous materials manufactured under rigid metallurgical control so that their properties meet established engineering specifications.0% 1.8–2.6% 5. Excellent weldability.313 Mpa 1. ranging from soft types with exceptional machinability to stronger types whose strength properties approximate or exceed that of many cast steels. In general high alloy cast iron is weldable. chromium and molybdenum.0–32.0% 0.4–1.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron High alloy cast irons High alloy cast iron is a general classification that applies to gray iron.07 82 . General analysis of Ni-Resist irons: Carbon Silicon Manganese Nickel Chromium Copper Molybdenum Characteristics: High resistance to corrosive acids and atmospheric corrosion. The addition of alloys to that extent radically changes the microstructure and the properties of the castings to which they are added.8–5.5% 10. copper and silicon. The most common alloying elements are nickel.0% maximum 1. There are many types of Meehanite. They are considered high alloy when the alloy contents exceeds 3%.0% maximum 2. Strength 137 MPa . Characteristics: High density Very high strength Fair weldability Ni-Resist irons In this series of cast iron alloys the corrosion resistance of gray cast iron is enhanced by the addition of appreciable amounts of nickel.0% 13. white irons.

The perhaps simplest method to distinguish cast iron from cast steel is to use a hammer and chisel on a place of the casting where a little chiseling will do no harm. small known samples). Cast iron Faint red streaks terminating in complex bushy sparks yellow in colour. and most often they will have a visible casting line where the two halves of the mold they were cast in met.07 Shaving Mild steel The leaf is smaller and gives rise to a number of sparks. Chips Volume of Stream Relative Length Colour at Wheel Colour at end GREY CAST MALLEABLE IRON CAST IRON Small 0. 2. One can easily identify a copper alloy or an aluminum alloy casting by their color. as the name implies.75 m Straw Straw Cast iron. Cast steel when chiseled will from a continuous chip. while the cast iron forms no chip but comes away in small fragments: A spark test will also give ready identification between the types of ferrous metals. always be in the form of casting.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron How to identify cast iron Cast iron will. To help us establish which metal a casting is made from we have a couple of easy tests.6 m Red Straw Moderate 0. to distinguish between cast steel and cast iron by appearance alone is not easy. However. Description of Many small Longer shaft spark stream repeating than grey (compare with sprigs. they will have no welded joints. 83 . iron. repeating sprigs. Unalloyed steel (Cast steel). Castings have one thing in common. Some streaks are shorter.

Remove imperfections in the weld area. When this has been established. such as blowholes. If the part has broken into two or more pieces. cracks. This will prevent the crack from opening further during the repair.07 If the damage is in the form of a crack in the material. Suitable groove profiles for various material thicknesses can be as follows: 2. particularly on surfaces to be machined or filed later. the sides of the fracture should be ground to a 45° bevel. using a brush or by chemical means. thickness above 40 mm Groove preparation by grinding Grind a 90° V-groove as indicated in the sketches. and at a distance of 3 mm. rust and paint from the surface. This is necessary to prevent excessive melting of the base material in these . it may be difficult to determine where the crack actually Preventing crack propagation Material thickness up to 20 mm Material thickness 20–40 mm Material thickness above 40 mm Alternative shape. using either a grinding machine or by gouging electrodes. fatigue areas and porosities down to sound metal. The use of a crack detector set to find the complete extent of the crack is absolutely recommended (see "Inspection of welds"). A grinding machine may be used for this work. grease. ends. Then remove casting skin to a width of 20 mm on both sides of the edges to be welded.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Preparation of the work piece First clean off all oil. Cracks should be "V-ed" or "U-ed" out. drill a 3 mm hole at the end of the crack. 84 Sharp corners and edges should be rounded of wherever possible.

as it will otherwise become part of the weld pool and combine with the iron to form a superhard zone of iron carbide in the weld. Take care not Move torch rapidly along each side of the groove. You will know immediately when the free carbon is removed. As the carbon burns it looks like a bright red particle or "star". To further remove excess carbon embedded in the surface the workpiece can be seared. Searing must not be confused with preheating. If edge rounding is omitted. always remove a thin layer of the surface by a file after completing grinding.07 File after grinding To avoid this. Iron sparks Grinding wheel Graphite flakes in cast iron Graphite smear 2. Use a steel brush to remove loos material. Searing The more carbon you can remover from the weld area. hard spots will be evident in the weld deposit. using an oxy-acetylene torch with an oxidising (excess oxygen) flame. and is only intended to remove surface carbon. In preparing the casting by grinding. Use a wire brush over the surface from time to time. This gives a cleaner surface. Regardless of what we do to remove surface graphite. 85 . some graphite will nevertheless be melted up and become part of the weld. Unitor cast iron electrodes are so made that they can take up 1% graphite without causing the formation of iron carbide. Before any welding can be done this carbon must be removed. the less chance there will be for hard spots in the weld. a certain amount of carbon (graphite) is removed from the metal and smeared over the surface to be welded by the grinding wheel.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron areas during the welding process. to put too much heat into the material when executing it. Use a lager blowpipe and move the inner cone of the flame forward over both sides of the welding groove.

bright and makes an ideal base for welding. This method. The filler metal will have better flow characteristics and improved welds will be evident. In addition it gives the advantage that if the part to be welded is oil-impregnated (as a number of cast iron parts are bound to be). The carbon flakes in the metal are saturated with oil. it is essential that the following procedure be followed: Always remove enough metal initially so that. Repairs of areas requiring drilling and tapping Before welding areas which will subsequently require drilling and tapping. deposit and the base metal makes this necessary. the final drilling and tapping can be performed entirely in the deposited weld metal without penetrating the base metal. By removing the chill from the metal welding will be easier. see the data sheet under “Technical Data for Consumables”. requires more preparation and welding. After gouging with Unitor CH-2 382. but increase in time and labor will be compensated for in tool savings. The variance in density in the weld 86 2. Drill and tap breakage will result if this procedure is not adhered to.07 A crack in cast iron. This method of groove preparation requires no other equipment than that used for ordinary arc welding and gives a very attractive U-shaped groove that is clean. Another advantage is using CH-2 382 to prepare the metal for welding is the small amount of heat imparted to the casting prior to welding.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Groove preparation by electrode gouging The most efficient method of removing unwanted metal and preparing surfaces for welding is to use gouging and chamfering electrode Unitor CH-2 382. The oily deposits in the welding area have evaporated. of necessity. after filling. . the heat generated by the process will cause the oil to evaporate from the graphite flakes in the welding zone. For correct application of gouging electrode CH-2 382.

copper alloys and stainless steel. NIFE-334N is used for multi-bead welding on heavy gauge material. Remember that cold welding of cast iron can only be done by electric arc welding. see under heading "Poor Welds". 2. Unitor NICKEL-333N For use on old. which has greater tensile strength. Use 100 Amps and the correct polarity. Select a 3. The temperature must be maintained throughout the welding operation. Use a hammer and chisel to remove the beads. it means that only smaller parts. Unitor NIFE-334N To be used on cast iron that takes strain. and which can be dismantled and brought into the workshop can be hot welded on board. and demands care in preheating. Use this electrode to “butter” the sides of oily cast iron to seal the surface. Cast iron has a low coefficient of thermal conductivity. Also to be used for joining cast iron to steel. The bead which exhibits the least porosity on the Hot welding In hot arc welding the part must first be evenly heated to approximately 500°C.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Arc welding of cast iron Below is a short description of the cast iron electrodes Unitor NICKEL333N and Unitor NIFE-334N to help you select the correct electrode for the work.2 mm electrode of NICKEL-333N and NIFE-334N. Do not deposit more than maximum two layers for NICKEL-333N. When hot welding cast iron the temperature of the workpiece must be contact surface indicates the most suitable electrode for the binding layer for this particular base metal.07 87 . Complete data on these electrodes are found in the section “Technical Data for Consumables”. Electrode binding test Grind off a small area of the material close to the welding zone. oil-impregnated cast iron and on thin material dimensions. It has greater tensile strength than NICKEL-333N. As the means for preheating on board will normally be limited to the welding torch. Too quick heating can cause tension cracks. For information on porosity. vibrations and sudden loads. it's causes and correction. Then finish the filling-up to join the parts together with Unitor NIFE-334N. Especially if the casting to be welded has any appreciable material thickness it is important that the preheating proceeds slowly. and deposit a 4-5 cm bead with each of them without weaving.

the alternative is "cold" arc welding. The molten pool must be clear of slag. The finished welded part must then be allowed the slowest possible cooling down to room temperature. Opposed to cold welding. one can also point the electrode 10° in the direction of travel. and to reduce the heat input.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron monitored by means of temperature indicator crayons or by an electronic thermometer. which may drastically reduce its strength. and large cast iron parts. as this may result in structural changes in the base material. If the deposit has a high bead contour. Burying the piece in kieselguhr. NB: Allow to cool off slowly! Cold welding If the necessary equipment for preheating or for achieving the required slow cooling rate is not available. free to expand. the setting is too 88 . The method is so called because of the low heat input to the base material when correctly executed. This structural state will be very similar to that of white cast iron. Large. The reason why slow cooling is important is that if the rate of cooling is high. with resulting hard zones when the weld cools off. Amperage setting When cold welding cast iron a low ampere setting should be used. Thereby deep fusion between the filler material and the base material is avoided. or parts which are difficult or time-consuming to dismantle should be cold welded. On board cold arc welding is by far the most commonly used method. may be hot welded. the carbon will have no time to segregate as graphite in the crystal border areas. hot welding can proceed continuously. and easy to control. We will instead have the carbon bound to the iron in the form of iron carbide.07 Smaller parts. It should be remembered that deep fusion will dig up and bring into the weld pool more graphite than need be. Deep fusion will also put lots of unwanted heat into the base material with increased risk of cracking. This will cause the molten pool to blow forward and act as a cushion. It is important that the temperature does not exceed 600°C. In order to avoid digging into the base material. This graphite will give rise to iron carbide. Do not overdo low amperage setting. hard and brittle. 2. sand or cinders will help to give it a slow cooling rate. complicated parts should be cold welded.

attached to the workpiece itself if possible. However. the quality of Unitor cast iron electrode is very high. Reduce the amperage range by 5-10% for overhead welding. and the electrodes can be used with both polarities without difficulty. The amperages listed are for flat or downhand welding positions. Recommended amperages are as follows: Unitor NICKEL-333N . the choice of correct polarity will influence very much on the result of the work. The operator must be aware of the effects of the different polarities.5 mm 55-110 Amp. For Unitor NICKEL-333N and Unitor NIFE-334N amperages should be set approx. . To ensure good electric conductivity the return cable clamp should be Choice of polarity If the current source for the welding is a welding rectifier (DC-machine). Some electrode manufacturers make cast iron electrodes that can only be used with negative polarity. and about 5% for vertical welding. type of machine. as the heat input and the melting of the base material varies considerably according to the polarity selected. consistent with easy control. etc. If ampere setting is too high the electrode may become red hot. Desired Bead Contour.3.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron low.4. Furthermore.2. 10% lower than those used with conventional cast iron electrodes. In general. NICKEL-333N has high ohmic resistance. Straight polarity (Cathode) 2. Setting will vary with the size of the job.2 mm 75-100 Amp. flat bead contour. . the amperage is set too high.2 mm 80-140 Amp. Unitor NIFE-334N . the welding current should be as low as possible. The above settings are approximate. If there is excessive spatter and undercutting.0 mm 85-160 Amp. line load. It is recommended practice to select a setting halfway between the figures and make a trial weld. some years ago the general low quality of cast iron electrodes made it necessary to use negative polarity to achieve binding between base material and weld deposit.3.07 Reverse polarity (Anode) 89 . and good wash at the edges of the deposit.

and instead to weld short. sulphur and gasses. inst. The welding Remember that cast iron is very brittle. However. and the firs bead has to be "painted" on to it. carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The low heat input till reduce the formation of iron carbides. low amperage setting and high welding speed should be used for this run to reduce heat input. The high heat input will also cause the formation of iron carbides. Length of arc To reduce the voltage across the arc. This will cause excessive melting and digging into the material. phosphorous. This would be 90 in cases where the composition of the base material makes good bonding more difficult. concentrated heat input to the base material.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron If the electrode is connected to the minus pole of the machine (straight polarity) we get high. Correct size electrode Always use the largest size diameter electrode that the groove can accept (but not at the expense of not getting down into the groove!). with hard zones in the weld and the heat affected area. oxygen. F. with only 1–2 % elongation.5 mm electrode. a 4. the shortest practicable arc should be maintained. straight stringer 2. Using a large size diameter means that you reduce the heat input in relation to the amount of filler metal deposited. The more impurities contained in the base material the lower the quality of the weld. when welding it is crucial to the success of the operation that the heat input to the base material is kept at a minimum to avoid cracking. Hence. Should the shrink forces exceed the tensile strength of the cast iron it will crack. continuous beads (as when welding mild steel).07 .0 mm electrode deposits four times as much weld metal at only two times as much amperage compared to a 2. if the first bead shows porosity. In addition to contaminants such as phosphorous and sulphur. cast iron contains quantities of the gassed nitrogen. The way to achieve this is to avoid putting down long. When welding with DC. If we connect the electrode to the plus pole (reverse polarity) we get a wide. Excessive melting will bring unwanted quantities of these impurities into the weld. in cases where the cast iron is heavily contaminated and has poor weldability. reverse polarity to the electrode should be the first choice. a small diameter electrode. shallow weld zone with minimal amounts of graphite. and to help minimize heat input into the base material. By experience it may be found that the first pass should in some cases be done with a somewhat longer arc than the following runs. straight polarity may be tried in the first run in order to use the higher heat input and melting to achieve bonding between the base material and the weld deposit. However.

the next bead should not be put down until the bare hand can be laid alongside the first bead with comfort. just hard enough to leave a slight indent on the weld deposit is usually sufficient. If you burn yourself. Take your time. 91 . and will provide some stress relief. When each bead of 20–30 mm has been deposited. fill the crater and withdraw the electrode a little backward on the bead before breaking the arc. as vibrations will reduce the effect: R = 3 mm Rounded edge Recommended shape of head. do not spoil your work by trying to rush it. Weaving should be avoided or kept to the minimum required to "wash out" the deposit and to catch the sides of the groves. it is too hot to go on with the welding. the filler metal must be ductile. while to light peening will have little or no effect in relieving stresses.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron beads of maximum length 20–30 mm (1") at a time. Do not wave in excess of one-half electrode diameter to each side of the direction of the weld. Peening offsets contraction forces. Always peen from the crater back to the starting point. Peening the bead immediately after depositing will stretch it to accommodate some dimensional change in the weld area. Wrong Correct After the initial bead has been deposited and peened. On thin dimensions the peening should not be vertical on the bead. Too heavy blows may cause cracks. peen it with a round-nosed peen hammer. While the bead is still hot. Use rapid moderate blows.07 Weld contraction may cause cracks. 2. Since the casting is quite rigid.

Repairing crack with tied ends Put the two first beads (2 . then cover the entire surface before proceeding to build up and join. without peening. then backstep towards free end. Parts subject to high stresses To strengthen the transition zone transverse grooves may be cut in the sides of the welding groove.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Sometimes more than one short run can be done at a time. Then weld alternatively from each end of the crack. Remember the build-up should always be done with Unitor NIFE-334N 92 Cut transverse grooves in the sides. using chamfering electrode Unitor CH-2 382. Repair of separated parts Starting from one edge. Then proceed to fill up the groove. Fill them first.3 cm each) starting from the hole drilled at each end of the crack. using the backstep technique. First fill up these grooves with the electrode selected for the first layer. and the beads can be spaced well away from each other to prevent heat build-up.07 Start welding at tied end. . and then cover the entire surface of the groove with a deposit of the same electrode. use the backstep technique across the part to the opposite edge. This technique is called skip-welding and speeds up the work considerably: Repairing crack with free end 2. but only when the length to be welded is considerable.

using Unitor NICKEL-334N. Be careful to let each bead of 2 .SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron A way to reduse shrinkage stress In order to reduce the shrinkage stresses. This is done as follows: Remove all damage material on the casting. Now weld the patch to the casting. Grind the edges of the casting at an angel of 45° halfway down its wall thickness.07 Stacking Steel insert technique It is sometimes desirable to insert a steel patch in the centre section of a large housing or motor block.3 cm cool off before proceeding with the next bead. Casting steel-patch 2. using the backstep technique as indicated in the sketch. Usually the pushed-out section has been broken in so many pieces that it is not practical to try to join the pieces. The patch should be "doomed" slightly by striking with a ball-peen hammer until a bulge is formed. Place the patch in the hole and secure it in position but do not tackweld it. Seal in the contaminants. As this will prevent the patch from expanding to heat. do not put down a complete root bead first. Select a piece of low carbon steel. A small pneumatic hammer is suitable for this kind of hammering. The least expensive method or repairs is to fit a steel patch into the hole. Bevel edges to 45°. Use Unitor NIFE-334N for the build-up. round off wherever possible. "Stack" the beads stepwise as shown in the sketch. Avoid leaving sharp corners. Grind the edge of the patch 45°. one half the thickness of the casting's wall. oil and grease from the area where the repairs is to take place. Take care to keep the heat down (hand warm before proceeding each new bead!) and hammer each bead while still hot. before proceeding to build up. advancing each bead (starting always with the root bead) 2 . A frozen block may have suffered the same damage. Remember to file the ground area to remove surface graphite. Using a piece of cardboard cut a template to obtain the correct shape for the steel patch.3 mm. Hammering cracks. It should fit the hole with a clearance of 2 . Use a Crack Detection kit to make sure there are no hidden 93 . Using the template as a guide cut the patch out of the piece of steel. Clean off dirt. A gear may have shattered and pushed out an area in the housing. paint.3 cm forward at a time.

Alternatively the parts may be rebuilt by braze welding. When repairing defects in raised areas. All machining will then be done on the solid weld metal deposit. Fill in the grooves.5 mm) to seal in all contaminants. It is better to prepare the area for repair by machining to a dept slightly below the desired final surface. using Unitor FCCastiron 268 S or Unitor FC-Wearbro 262. it will be necessary to rebuild parts where sections have been worn down or broken off. Do not alternate sides or weld around the edges. Do not use a grinder for cutting stress relieving grooves. Do not quench.07 Filling holes that penetrate clear through the casting Begin to weld at one side and run straight stringer beads side by side until the hole is closed. Remove slag. which is fully machinable. which must be machined after welding. Apply thin deposits (1. 94 . Peen each weld pass lightly to reduce shrinkage stresses. such as bosses. 2. If the area is large enough to accept more than one groove. Then "paint" on weld metal by using a long arc and fast zigzag movements. it is unwise merely to chip out the defects and fill the defective areas. Then build up the surface 2 mm (1/16") above the required dimension to allow for machining. there should be a minimum of 6 mm (1/4") between the groves. Weld from one side only. use stringer beads. In explaining the salvage process a broken-off cog on a wheel is taken as an example. Cut stress-relieving grooves in the area to be built up. The groves will not be geometrically correct for the dispersion of stresses from the casting surface. Built up section.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Build up of missing section Occasionally. using Unitor CH2 382. Such action will create stress cracks.

it is recommended to use the crack detector set to find the complete extent of the crack. While there is several processes for braze welding. and braze welding is thus a form of mechanical bonding. In braze welding the cast iron is heated to bonding temperature. Actually. This is the minimum temperature to which it must be heated to form a bound (surface alloy) between the filler metal and the cast iron.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Braze welding of cast iron General The name braze welding comes from the relatively slow-flowing nature of the filler material. Use a file to remove surface graphite from the groove. bevel each side of the fracture to 45°. The use of braze welding on cast iron has the decided advantages of low heat and ductility. If the damage is in the form of a crack in the material. which gives the joining process much in common with ordinary gas welding. is called "tinning" (also called "wetting out" or "bonding"). Grind off casting skin to a width of 20 mm on each side of the edges to be welded. Remember that braze welding is a surface bonding. and round off edges and sharp corners. Groove preparation Prepare a 70°–90° groove. the use of an oxy-acetylene torch to provide the necessary heat will be the method employed on board. A condition for using braze welding on cast iron is that it must be possible to preheat an area on each side of the weld zone to 300–400°C. a form of martensitic cast iron that is very brittle and hard due to the presence of iron carbide. and partly because the brazing filler alloy has a great capacity to yield and accommodate any cooling stresses. In practice this limits braze welding to smaller parts and thinner dimensions. If the part has been broken into two or more pieces. In braze welding the cast iron is not melted. and that the lager the surface of a joint the better the bonding. Drill 3 mm holes at each end of the crack. paint and rust from the surface. The low heat used in braze welding greatly reduces the possibility of this formation. Preparation of the workpiece Remove oil.07 95 . both of which reduce and/or eliminate the two serious problems traditionally associated with welding cast iron. 2. as opposed to gas welding. The problem of contraction during cooling. By braze welding cast iron one is to a certain degree independent of the quality of the base material. which then occurs. The phenomenon. For larger components "cold" electric arc welding is recommended. at a distance of about 3 mm from the ends to prevent the crack from opening further during brazing. where the parent metal is melted and forms a chemical bonding with the filler metal. These are avoided partly due to the lower heat required. II. it refers to the almost microscopically thin layer in which the alloys of both the cast iron and the molten filler metal intermix. These are: I. The tendency for high heat to form unwanted white cast iron.

which should be held flat at an angle of about 15 . most. Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 has a low bonding temperature. When the filler has flowed freely into the seam. Touch the rod to the surface Braze leftward When the brazing work is completed.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Searing Even after filling there will still be graphite present in the surfaces to be joined. which is called "searing" should be practiced as a matter of course before attempting to braze weld cast iron. Remember that cast iron is one of the more brittle and crack-sensitive base metals. Surplus flux must be removed by hot water and brushing. This process. the joining can be done with the filler rod Unitor FC-Wearbro 262. The filler also fuses to oil impregnated cast iron. Then melt off a drop from the rod into the groove and spread it out by continually moving the torch. Braze welding When braze welding cast iron the flame should be adjusted to have a slight surplus of oxygen (oxidising flame). if not all. By playing the inner cone of an oxidising flame from the welding torch over the surfaces off the groove.07 Preheating After the searing is completed. This filler metal is extremely easy to work with. of this graphite can be burnt away. 96 . The base material shall not melt. Technical details on the rods are found in the section "Consumables". 2. Typical uses are brazing of cracked parts and building up worn surfaces such as gear and gear wheel teeth. However. and approximately 1 cm above the groove. melt off a new drop and repeat the procedure. and melt off a little of the flux coating. where a hardwearing surface is required. the part should be allowed to cool slowly in kieselgur or dry sand.30° to the workpiece. the strength and machinability is lower than for FC-Castiron 268S.400 °C with a wide spread of heat to each side. Alternatively. Heat the starting point to a dark red heat. which can inhibit "tinning". Do not stir the weld pool with the rod. Brazed connections are compact and machinable. Joining is done with the filler metal Unitor FC-Castiron 268S. Graphite is a refractory material. has high tensile strength and the structure and color of cast iron. preheat the part(s) to 300 . applying the same technique as described for FCCastiron 268S. The rod is flux coated and the use of additional flux is not necessary. Thus care should be exercised in the preheating to ensure that it is even and uniform.

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Cold repair of cast iron General Where there are limitations to hot work, cold repair materials are an alternative. Polymer materials are essentially epoxy or polyurethane products with additions of metal or ceramic filler. They are cold curing materials consisting of a base and activator that are mixed together. During solidification and curing it does not develop any heat. Polymer materials form a surface bonding and it is absolutely essential that the base materials surface be cleaned in order to give good addition. Therefore: 1) Surfaces must be cleaned and ruffed up in order to give a good bonding. 2) Measure out base and activator according to instructions 3) Mix base and activator thoroughly together. Any unmixed material will not solidify. 4) At first only apply a small amount of product and make sure to press it hard into the prepared surface securing good bonding. Afterwards add more product and build up to required height. If needed, a reinforcement bandage can be added to the product in order to increase strength. NB. In order for curing to take place the ambient temperature for polymers must at least be + 5°C. Polymer products are organic material that will start to carbonise at 150°C.This will make a natural limitation to polymer when it comes to high temperature application and in cases where there are specific demand for fire retardant properties. One must also check that the polymer product to be used is resistant to the cargo the part is handling. Recommended products: Metalgrade Express Metalgrade Rebuild Leak Stop Pipe repair I, II or III

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97

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 1. In some repair situations the cast iron is so corroded and oxidized that welding is cannot be done In this kind of situations cold repairs might be the solution. Clean surface to remove grease and accumulated dirt. Remove as much of the loose metal and oxides as possible. Thoroughly abrade the edge and the surrounding surface of the hole. If the hole is large, a metal mesh formed to the shape of the hole should be made. Measure up and mix a small quantity of Metalgrade Express and apply it along the edge of the hole. Remember to squeeze the product hard into the surface to secure good bonding. The first thin covering acts as a "wetting layer" to improve adhesion. Place the pre cut mesh down in the hole so that it makes contact with the polymer along the edge. If needed secure it with additional polymer. Allow drying for 6 minutes (at 20°C). With the mesh securely fastened measure up and mix a sufficient quantity of Metalgrade Rebuild. Apply the product on to the mesh spreading it out evenly. Apply the product to totally encapsulate the mesh and blend it in with the Metalgrade Express already on the cast-iron edge. If the mesh size is too big, and the polymer falls trough, apply reinforcement bandage on the mesh to prevent it happening. If necessary, support the mesh by placing steel wires across the hole. The wires can be fastened to the edge by a small tack weld or by drilling a hole with slightly bigger diameter.
98

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SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 2. After welding has successfully been employed to weld a crack, it sometimes turns out that there is liquid penetrating through porosity in the weld or heat affected zone.

The porosity is often caused by residue oil in the cast iron structure. Instead of risking cracking by further welding, polymer can be used to seal the surface area. The surface must be thoroughly degreased and abraded. In some cases grind or drill out the porosity to half it’s depth. Remember that grinding has a tendency to polish the surface and require abrading afterwards.

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If you are repairing small areas, simply measure, mix and apply the Metalgrade Express. Use the Metalgrade Rebuild if larger areas are to be covered. It is very important to squeeze the product hard into the surface in order to secure good bonding and sealing.

99

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 3. Another area of application where polymer can be useful is on pipes, conduit and ducting made of cast iron. Holes, cracks and splits in piping may be tackled from the outside of the pipe without complete disassembly of the system. Using polymer also avoids welding cast iron in position, something that can be difficult. Thoroughly degrease the area to be repaired. Remove all paint, rust and scale. Make sure the surface is abraded. internal surface of the backing plate. Press the plate firmly over the area. The plate should now be held in place until the product has set, this could be done using wire, plastic strapping or cable ties.

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Once the patch has set the ties can be removed. Measure out, mix and apply more products over the patch to totally encapsulate it. If a highpressure repair, the product must be applied to the patch and the complete circumference of the pipe.

The repair may require the use of a metal backing plate to strengthen the repair. Select a piece of steel plate of equal thickness to the damaged pipe and shape it to the outside dimensions of the damaged area. The plate should extend 5 cm beyond each side of the damaged area.

Thoroughly abrade the inside and outside of the plate to achieve a coarse profile. Measure up, mix and apply Metalgrade Rebuild or Express to the prepared pipe surface and to the

Wrap reinforcement tape around the pipe and patch totally encapsulating it. Make sure the product is impregnating the tape so that the final surface consists of product that can be smoothed out and blending in with the pipe surface.

100

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 4. Polymer cold repair can also be used with good results on cast iron that requires large surface area repairs. Welding will in most cases crack the cast iron because of high heat input, wile polymer being a cold curing process has none of these problems. Flange repairs are a typical application area and so are cast iron pump housings where cavitational wear gouges out the metal. When fluid flow environment is creating wear, the correct product to use is Ceramigrade Rebuild and/ or Liner (information on this products to be found in the Unitor Welding Handbook).

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101

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron

Description Large cast iron components ex­posed to vibration, strain and sudden loads, and where several layers of weld metal may be needed, e.g. cargo pipes, valve bodies, machine bases, pump housings, pump impellers, flywheels. Oil-impregnated cast iron, often found in motor blocks, gear boxes, cylinder heads, fuel pump cylinders, and frames in fuel oil purifiers.

Solution

Examples

NIFE-334N

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NICKEL333N

Smaller parts that can be preheated and allowed to cool slowly after welding, e.g. pump housings, levers, pillow blocks, exhaust manifolds, pulleys, and gear wheels with broken or worn teeth. Repair of holes in cast iron components by inserting a steel plate, welding cast iron to steel.

FCCAST IRON-268 NIFE-334N

NIFE-334N NICKEL333N

Rebuilding cast iron, for example valve seats in cylinder heads, or exhaust valve housings.

NIFE-334N NICKEL333N

102

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES

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103

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Introduction
The most common type of copper is electrolytically refined and treated to obtain different qualities. Pure copper has limited use on board except as copper piping. Cast parts are usually in brass or bronze alloy. Copper normally contains a small amount of oxygen. Oxygen combines with the copper forming copper oxide. The oxide is distributed in the metal in very small quantities and does not affect the mechanical characteristics of the metal. However, during welding the oxide can cause porosity in the weld. Copper which is heated up to approx. 900°C will become brittle and weak as the copper oxide diffuses to the crystal boundaries where it collects and weakens the strength of the metal, in hot and cold condition. In this way, welding will weaken the metal in a joint. The best method of joining copper piping is therefore brazing with FC-BRONZE or with AG 45 or AG 60.

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Brass Straight brasses

Copper alloys Bronze Special brasses Naval brass Brass Brass is usually an alloy of copper and zinc, but other alloy elements may also be present. The zinc content in brass may vary from 5–50% in the different types. The type of straight brasses used for mechanical purposes will usually contain between 63–75% copper, i.e.: –  Cu 70%, Zn 30% (70:30 brass) –  Cu 60%, Zn 40% (Muntz metal) Admiralty brass Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro)

Different types of special brasses are also available: e.g. Admiralty brass (Cu 70%, Zn 29%, Sn 1%) or Naval brass (Cu 58–64%, Sn 1%, Zn balance). Both these may be brazed the same way as straight brasses. Aluminium brass however should be treated in a special way.

Brazing: AG 45 or AG 60 with AG 60/45 FLUX
104

FC-BRONZE and BRONZE FLUX FC-WEARBRO and WEARBRO FLUX

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro) Copper sea water piping on board ships has increasingly been replaced by Yorcalbro pipes. Yorcalbro (aluminium brass) is an alloy with the following chemical composition and mechanical specification: Some years ago, numerous welding tests were carried out on Yorcalbro pipes using the TIG (GTAW) process. The results were very satisfactory. Both small and large size pipes were welded in these tests, and the conclusions were as follows:

Alloy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Cu 76%, Al 2%,     Zn 21,96%, As 0.04% Tensile strength: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .     Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . . Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   310–370 N/mm2 Hardness: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .     Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . .     Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elongation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .     Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . .     Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific weight: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8.34 Outside coefficient per °C: . . . . . .   000013. The use of Yorcalbro piping allows a higher flow rate in the pipe than possible with copper piping. A flow rate up to 3.5m/s is permitted in Yorcalbro pipes compared to 1.52 m/s in copper pipes. Aluminium brass pipes are more durable than copper pipes. Aluminium brass pipes have a widespread use in cooling water installations, sanitary installations, oil coolers, heat exchangers, heat coils etc. In view of the widespread use of aluminium brass piping on ships, maintenance is inevitable. Common repairs include welding of leakages and replacement of pipe lengths subjected to corrosion. The most serious problems appear to arise in connection with the repair of leakages in large-dimension Yorcalbro pipes.

  580–700 N/mm2   360–470 N/mm2   165–194 HB   83–111 HB   63–78 HB   8–15%   55–65%   65–75%

2.08

– Pipes with diameters less than 4'' where the repair can take the form of an overlapped joint should be silver brazed using Unitor AG 60 and Unitor ALBRO flux. – Pipes with diameters exceeding 4'' should be TIG welded using Unitor IALBRO-237MF and the special flux, IFLUX-238PF. Wire welding: IALBRO-W-237. – Pipes should be unstressed before welding takes place, and cold bended piping should be annealed at 400–500°C for approximately 20–30 min. Finished welds, and an area covering approx. 15 cm to either side of the bead should be annealed. Annealing temperature 300–400°C for 30–40 min.

105

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Bronze Bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin, which may also contain small quantities of other alloys. Phosphor bronze contains 0.05% to 0.1% phosphorus. Lead bronze is used in bearings. Sn 10%, Pb 5–25%, remainder copper. Gun metal, Cu 88%, Sn 10%, Zn 2%. Welding: TINBRO-341 Brazing: AG 45, AG 60 and AG 60/45 FLUX FC-BRONZE and BRONZE FLUX FC-WEARBRO and WEARBRO FLUX Aluminium bronze (Cu + Al) This type of bronze has good strength properties, may be machined, and is also suitable for casting. The main advantage of these bronzes is their excellent resistance to corrosion in seawater which makes them suitable for ships’ propellers, etc. These alloys contain up to 15% aluminium. Other alloy elements are Fe, Ni and Mn. Nickel aluminium bronze contains Cu 79%, Al 9.5%, Ni 5%, Fe 4.2%, Mn 2.3%. This alloy shall not be preheated before welding. Manganese aluminium bronze is used for ships’ propellers and consists of Al 9–10%, Mn 11%, Fe 2–3%, Ni 1–2% and the remainder copper. Welding: ALBRONZE-344 Brazing: AG 45, AG 60 and AG 60/45 FLUX FC-BRONZE and BRONZE FLUX FC-WEARBRO and WEARBRO FLUX

2.08

Bronze Tin bronze (Phosphor bronze) Lead bronze Gun metal Nickel bronzes Cunifer NiAl Aluminium bronzes MnAl

106

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Nickel bronzes (Cunifer) “Cunifer 10” (copper nickel) and “Cunifer 30” (cupro nickel) are supplementary alloys to Yorcalbro. These alloys are corrosion resistant – the higher the nickel content, the higher the resistance. Strength and hardness also increase in relation to nickel content.
(Alloy)

port where the seawater is polluted by sulphides, the pipes may become coated with sulphide-containing sludge which can stimulate corrosion over a prolonged period even when the vessel moves to cleaner waters. In such cases the use of “Cunifer 10” or “Cunifer 30” piping is recom­

CUNIFER 10 (Copper nickel) Ni 10%, Fe 2% Cu 87%, Mn 1%

CUNIFER 30 (Cupro nickel) Ni 30%, Fe 0.7% Cu 68.5%, Mn 0.8%

Tensile strength N/mm2 – Hard (untreated) 530–580 630–700 – Heat treated 390–500 – Annealed 310–390 360–400 Elongation % – Hard (untreated)   10–  15    5–  10 – Heat treated   20–  35 – Annealed   40–  55   40–  55 – Hardness HB – Hard (untreated) 155–184 165–204 – Heat treated   97–126 – Annealed   78–  97   87–107 8.9 0.000016 8.9 0.000015

2.08

Specific weight – Outside coefficient per °CV

These alloys which have special properties and are widely used on vessels in river and canal traffic, on lakes, or on vessels which regularly call at ports where the water is heavily polluted or contains, sand or sludge. They have excellent resistance against wear by erosion, corrosion and abrasion. When it is envisaged that the piping in a cooling system will be exposed to sulphide polluted seawater, material with good resistance against water of this type should be chosen. Industrial discharge may contain sulphides, and even during a short stay in a

mended. The use of 70/30 piping was previously limited due to high cost. However, the recommendation for the use of these pipes over the entire dimension range is based on the fact that 70/30 pipes have a considerably higher resistance to pitting corrosion than 90/10 pipes. Thermal power plants all over the world use 70/30 pipes to handle polluted cooling water. The same recommendation applies to vessels which are regularly subjected to polluted water in cooling systems. Brazing: AG60 and AG60/45 FLUX. TIG welding: ICUNI 30-239. Wire welding: ICUNI-W-239.

107

building up wear edges that have worn down. Solution Examples AG-60-252 AG-45-253 2. Bronze pump impeller. TINBRO-341 108 . FCBRONZE-261 BRONZE-264 FCWEARBRO-262 TINBRO-341 BRONZ-ALLOY Building up blade of pump impeller or walls in pump housing.08 Copper pipe of more than 30 mm diameter where I-joint is used for butt welding or T-junction for branching. or rebuilding wear.SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys Description Copper tubes and fittings of diameters up to 30 mm with capillary joint. TINBRO-341 Repair of cracks in large pump housings.

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys Description Filling holes in small valve housings where wear or corrosion has caused damage. Yolcalbro pipe diameter over 100 mm. for patching or for joining. for joining or for patching over pittings. Solution FC-BRONZE261 BRONZE-264 TINBRO-341 Examples Building up worn threads or surfaces in valve and pump components. AG-60-252 IALBRO-237MF IALBRO-W-237 109 .08 Rebuilding worn sliding surfaces on bronze bearings. FCWEARBRO-262 Yorcalbro-pipe diameter less than 100 mm. where a capillary joint can be made. FC-BRONZE261 BRONZE-264 2.

where capillary joint can be prepared. ICUNI-30-239 ICUNI-W-239 Conductors and cables of copper.08 Joining Cunifer pipes with diameter under 100 mm. like heating coil boxes. SOLDERING TIN-241 AG 110 .SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys Description Repair of large components in Yorcalbro. Solution Examples IALBRO-237MF IALBRO-W-237 2. for flanges and for Tjunctions. for butt welding. like heat exchangers. ICUNI-30-239 ICUNI-W-239 Large components in Cunifer. AG-60-252 Cunifer pipes over 100 mm.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.08 111 .

Filler materials for Aluminium in the Unitor range are: Coated electrode: ALUMlN-351N Gas welding rod: ALUMAG-235 Wire welding: ALUMAG-W-235 For gas welding of aluminium it is required to use a flux that removes oxides. before a new oxide film has time to develop.000°C. Included oxides will also reduce the strength of the weld. Use Unitor ALUFLUX-234F. When alloyed with copper and silicon. the difference in melting temperatures will make it difficult for the metal of the workpiece to bind with the filler. The melting point of aluminium oxide is over 2. aluminium retains the same appearance as pure aluminium and approximately the same low weight. Thorough cleaning and the use of flux is therefore essential when gas welding aluminium. but strength can be compared to mild steel. Only a limited number of aluminium alloys are considered suitable for use on board ships. As an alloy. and the absence of colour change when heated to melting point. 112 . easily shaped metal with low strength. The strength of aluminium can be considerably improved by the addition of small quantities of alloy elements. It is characterized by low weight.09 AIMg 3 and AIMg 1 are seawater resistant aluminium alloys. Other characteristic properties of aluminium are a high coefficient of expansion. Welding should be done immediately after cleaning. excellent corrosion resistance and good electrical conductivity.SOLUTIONS: Aluminium Metals and welding solutions: Aluminium Pure aluminium (Al) is a soft. Unless this layer of oxide is effectively removed during the welding operation. considerably higher than that of aluminium. aluminium can be used for the manufacture of cast components (silumin). a refractory skin of oxide quickly forms on the surface. When aluminium and its alloys come into contact with air. which melts at 660°C. 2. good electrical and heat conductivity.

ALUMAGW-235 113 . Solution Examples ALUMAG-235 and ALUFLUX-234F ALUMIN-351 Cracks in larger parts.09 Holes or fractures in smaller parts. ALUMAG-235 and ALUFLUX-234F ALUMIN-351N Plate and tube constructions in gang way. seawater resistant aluminium and cast aluminium. Cover plates and smaller parts.SOLUTIONS: Aluminium Description Welding repairs of pure aluminium. ALUMAGW-235 2.

Pores Pores in the weld may be due to moisture content in the electrode coating. penetration will be too high. penetration at the root may be irregular or insufficient. Bead edge faults may also occur at correct current output if the arc is too long or if electrode movement is incorrect. especially when welding with basic electrodes. i. insufficient melting and fusion between the filler and the base metal. Insufficient penetration may be due to the current setting being too low.10 Root faults When laying the first bead along the root in a butt joint. or the rate of travel too high. A larger electrode diameter should be used. and the base material preheated. Bead edge defects Bead edge irregularities can occur if current output is too high. When welding upwards on a vertical plane and using a weaving movement. Fusion faults may also occur if a small electrode is used on a large area of cold base material. fusion faults may result. Pores in the weld may also arise if the base material to be welded is wet or damp. allowing air into the weld zone. Fusion faults If the current is too low or rate of travel too high. the electrode should be momentarily held still at each side of the bead to obtain good penetration and avoid edge defects. When current is excessive. A porous weld will have reduced strength properties. Edge faults and undercut may act as fracture indicators in the welded connection.e. 114 . The electrode may also be too large for the groove to be welded.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Typical welding faults Unmelted edge Bead crown too high Undercut Crack Poor fusion Embedded slag Pores Root fault 2. Other reasons can be because of to long an arc.

In cases where heat cracks are caused by these substances. The higher the melting point. The water in the coating will change into hydrogen in the arc and end up as hydrogen porosity dissolved in the weld metal and the Hydrogen cracks heat affected zone (HAZ) immediately (cold cracks) adjacent to the molten zone. switch to basic electrodes. a heat crack will result. the higher is the risk of hydrogen cracks. This type of crack can be avoided by clamping workpieces in special jigs which control shrinkage. Steel with a high yield point will contain a certain amount of hardened structure. 2. Segregated substances are first and foremost carbon and sulphur. Heat cracks and if shrinking in the metal is greater than the stretch in the weld. just after coagulation of the bead.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Heat cracks Heat cracks may appear during or just after the cooling off period. A heat crack will occur in the middle of the bead and will appear as a straight crack on the surface. At a narrow. Shrinkage cracks Hydrogen cracks (Cold cracks) Weld metal cracks are caused by hydrogen and may occur in any type of steel which has been hardened or which may become hardened during the welding process. there is very little deformation property in a weld. Shrinkage cracks Shrinkage cracks occur when the deformation property (toughness) of the weld is less than the actual shrinkage movement. normally martensite. Basic electrodes are the best safeguard against shrinkage cracks. Shrinkage cracks will usually appear across the weld direction and be caused by considerable lengthwise shrinkage. the material is not weldable. critical temperature range. If heat cracks appear when welding with basic electrodes. This layer prevents fusion of the crystals. When combined with hard phases in the weld and sufficient stress it will form cracks. There are two main causes: Impurities in the base material which have a tendency to segregate and may form a layer in the middle of the weld. The most common reason for hydrogen cracks is that moist or damp electrodes is used during welding.10 115 . Tension across the weld can cause heat cracks even if the base material does not segregate in the weld.

are forced to dissolve in the weld metal and make it brittle. Other hydrogen sources are rust. 116 . an elevated working temperature is necessary in order to reduce the cooling rate.35 and below are usually weldable without any problems at normal steel thickness. All slag must be properly removed after finishing each weld bead. 2. Preheating the groove to say 50 °C will help considerably in reducing the amount of hydrogen. To determine elevated working temperatures. Slag embedded in weld Slag consists of non-metallic particles originating from the coating of the electrode. Note the following: Hard phases form when the weld is cooled rapidly from melting temperature to room rature. paint or condensation along the welding groove. Conclusion: Dry basic electrodes when there is risk of cold cracking. The elevated temperature also allows the hydrogen to diffuse. Slag embedded in the weld will seriously affect the strength of the weld.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds The cracks might occur long time after welding is completed and are therefor often referred to as cold cracks. When preparing the welding groove. Try to avoid burning cavities. If the Ec dimension of the plates and heat input are known. these standards will state whether heating is necessary and the level at which it should take place. make sure there is sufficient gap to provide good fusion and easy slag removal.10 Steels with Ec = 0. although correct planning and heat treatment can reduce tension considerably. Ec = %C + %Mn + %(Cr+Mo+V) + %(Ni+Cu) 6 5 15 Tension cannot be avoided when welding. The following formula describes this process in the case of standard carbon-manganese steel. mostly carbon. Use a chipping hammer and wire brush for this purpose. Alloying elements. please consult BS 5135:1984 or SS 064025. oil. as steel expands when heated. For the more highly alloyed steels and steels with thicker dimensions. Clean off mill scale and rust from the surfaces to be welded and make sure you choose the correct electrode for the welding position to be used. as any slag deposited in such cavities will be difficult to remove.

10 117 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

118 . a magnifying glass. The materials should be examined to see if they meet specifications for quality. adequate root opening to permit full fused penetration and correct groove angle to minimise volume of weld metal. oxide film. and dimensions. participate in visual inspection. and freedom from discontinuities. but. Nevertheless. flatness.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Inspection of welded joints Inspection indicates whether the prescribed standard of quality has been met. The pieces to be joined should be checked for straightness. bent. paint. A good joint design will provide access for the welder. but also to give assurance of weld quality. Often little more than a passing glance is required as a preliminary inspection. and sometimes a straight edge and square for determining straightness. Torch. Warped. prior to.10 Visual inspection from start to finish Visual inspection is the best buy in Non Destructive Testing (NDT) but it must take place constantly. despite its almost casual nature. type. during and after welding. Ruler and Welders gauge – grease. a weld-size gauge. size. In addition to good eyesight and proper light. not only to meet the specifications. alignment. This function may be the responsibility of the superintendent or other representative of the ship owner: Prior to welding Visual inspection should begin before the first arc is struck. as well as the appointed inspector. everyone involved in the job. In a sense. improperly cut or damaged pieces should be ordered for repair or rejected. Alignment and fixtures should be scrutinised. it can be a significant factor in weld quality. the tools for visual inspection are simple – a pocket rule. heavy scale – that should be detrimental to the weld shall be removed. A conscientious worker does not knowingly pass on work in which he recognises discontinuities of his own making. it is usually desirable that someone is assigned the responsibility for quality checking each operation. The joint preparation must be correct before welding is started. oil. Joint preparation should be checked. Foreign matter 2. cleanliness. Check Material Certificate Inspector’s tools: Magnifying glass. and perpendicularity.

Each welding process has its advantages and limitations. and each introduces problems affecting joint preparation. Only qualified people must be assigned to the job.10 Check at regular intervals that the consumables used match specification 119 . So are the welding consumable (filler metals). If the root opening is too wide. welding procedures and operator training.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Remember: 50% of quality is edge preparation Faults to look for: Improperly cut edges Disalignment Groove angle and root opening If the gap is too narrow. To ensure uniform results the welders procedures must be spelled out in detail and followed rigorously during welding. In most inspection situations the welding process is decided beforehand. Inspection prior to welding also includes verification of correct process and procedures are to be employed – that the electrode type and size and the equipment settings for voltage and amperage are as specified – and that provisions are made for required preheat or post heat. it will melt through 2. leaving slag at at the root. but it is important that they have been stored properly in unopened containers unharmed by moisture. the weld will bridge the gap.

type of consumable etc.10 Slag trapping may also be caused by a convex bead Check that welding parameters are according to procedure with regard to type of current. however. During welding Assuming the preliminary requirements are met. increasing the risk of trapping slag when the next pass is made 2. inspection of a specimen at the beginning of the operation and periodically as the work progresses may be adequate. Examination of a weld bead and the end crater may to a competent inspector reveal quality deficiencies such as cracks.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Excessive penetration Lack of penetration The root pass in multi pass grooves are especially susceptible to cracking Groove welds are prone to undercut along the edges. it may be desirable to inspect each layer before the next. On simple welds. amperage. Check that the welding parameters match the parameters laid down in the approved welding procedure. inadequate penetration. polarity. the productive inspection will take place while the weld is being done. When more than one layer of filler metal is deposited. The root pass in a multipass weld is the most critical one with regard to weld soundness. and gas and slag inclusions. 120 .

SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds After welding Visual inspection after welding has been completed is also useful in evaluating quality. the presence of excessive porosity and slag inclusions may be an indication of insufficient current even if the dial readings on the machine tell otherwise. radiographic. For filled joints it is also important that the leg lengths are equal. The objective of visual inspection at this stage is not only to detect non permissible faults. since the peening action may seal fine cracks and make them invisible. Shot blasting should not be used prior to examination. 2. leading to repairs or rejection of the work. The extent and continuity of the weld. surface flaws such as cracks. It only makes the construction stiffer and heavier. Underwelding is a violation of specification and can not be tolerated. If the inspector has a sound knowledge of welding. Thus. 121 . porosity. As welding progresses. A 10x magnifying glass is helpful in detecting fine cracks and other faults. its size. even if ultrasonic.10 A-measurement Leg length Leg length The designer has specified a weld size and this should be observed. but the information acquired through visual examination allows corrections to be made before results from more sophisticated methods become available. warping. Welds must be cleaned from slag to make inspection for surface flaws possible. Dimensional variations from tolerances. and faults in appearance are detected visually at this stage. Subsequent tests will also give clues to faults in equipment or procedures. but also to give clues as to what may be wrong in the entire repair /fabrication process. or other methods are to be employed. There is no point in submitting an obvious bad weld to sophisticated inspection methods. and unfilled craters can be detected. Overwelding is costly and serves no useful purpose. he can read much from what he sees. and the length of segments in intermittent welds can be readily measured or recorded.

wet electrodes or flux. Cold cracks (Hydrogen cracks) Wet electrodes or flux. High impurity level in base material Slag inclusion Faulty technique. 122 . Insufficient electrode angle. Insufficient preheating. insufficient flux/gas coverage. Speed of travel too fast. rusty or dirty plates. What to look for PRIOR TO WELDING: • Type/state of base material • Joint design • Welding process • Consumables • Welding procedure • Welder’s qualifications What to do DURING WELDING: • Compare welding parameters with procedure • Inspect each layer before the next What to look for AFTER WELDING: • The final weld result • Size of weld (measuring) Faults and causes: 2. Underfill Too high welding speed Undercut High current.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Summing up inspection of welded joints. Insufficient preheat.10 Surface porosity Excessive speed. Wrong electrode size or off-spec welding parameters. Hot cracks Excessively high current.

There are also other non-destructive methods. 123 . Step 4) Spray developer evenly over the inspection area and wait a few minutes until the area dries white. Cleaner. Penetrant. cracks and slag inclusions radiographic and ultrasonic methods must be used. Step 1) Remove surface rust. 3 pcs. Any surface defects will appear in red contrast. but they require specialised personnel and equipment. a dye penetrant that penetrates down in cracks and porosity. and a developer. Step 2) Spray penetrant over the area and allow to soak for about ten minutes. The dye penetrant kits consist of a cleaner to clean the surface for grease and oil. inspection method. spray cleaner to degrease the inspection area.10 Step 3) Remove all excess penetrant using a dry cloth and wipe dry. Leave to dry. paint by mechanical means. scale. Cloth. 1 pcs. Set 096-653535 Set 096-653543 Set 096-653550 Set 096-653568 * Kit comes in convenient Shoulder carry case and consist of: 3 pcs. 2 pcs. It is a low cost and easy to use.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Crack Detection By using dye penetrant we can detect surface cracks not readily visible to the eye. Developer. 2. For detection of internal porosity. Dye Penetrant Inspection products Product description Magna Flux Crack detection kit* Cleaner SKC-S 10 pcs of 400 ml in a box Penetrant SKL-SP1 10 pcs of 400 ml in a box Developer SKD-S2 10 pcs of 400 ml in a box Unit Product no.

10 124 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   251 Cold Repair Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   126 Tig Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   277 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   241 Brazing Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   217 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . .01 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   199 Wires for Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONSUMABLES coated Electrodes . . . .

. . . . . . .   178 DUPLEX-325 N Electrode for Duplex Steel . . . . .   134 Classification and approvals . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   140 Welding positions .   152 SPECIAL-303 N Double Coated Electrode for Mild and Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   182 NIFE-334 N NICKEL-333 N TINBRO-341 ALBRONZE-344 ALUMIN-351 N CH-2-382 ACA-384 Nickel Iron Electrode for Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . .   190 Electrode for Aluminum .   128 Storing and re-drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   160 LHT-318 N Electrode for High Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . . . .   184 Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 GPO-302 N General Purpose Electrode For Mild Steel . . .   174 18/8-321 N Electrode for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 126 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   166 TENSILE-328 N Electrode for Difficult-to-Weld Steel . . . . . . . . . .   154 LH-314 N Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . .   176 23/14-322 N Electrode for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COATED ELECTRODES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   162 LHL-319 N Electrode for Low Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   156 LHH-314 H High Recovery Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . .   168 IMPACT-329 S Electrode for Heat Resistant Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   194 Electrode for Air Carbon Arc Gouging . . . . . . .   196 3. . . .   150 GPR-300H High Recovery Electrode for Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   158 LHV-316 N Vertical Down Welding Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   180 PICKLING GEL Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . .   164 LHR-320 N Electrode for Weathering Steel .   188 Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . . .   192 Electrode for Chamfering . . . . .   186 Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Types of electrodes . . . . . . . . . . .   170 WEARMAX-327 Electrode for Joining & Wear Resistant Overlays   172 ABRATECH-330 Electrode for abrasive wear . . . . . . .

Label. It is composed to cover all normally occurring applications on board. Each electrode therefore covers a wide range of applications.01 127 .and machine-part steels • Cast iron • Aluminium and aluminium alloys • Copper and copper alloys • Air-carbon-arc gouging • Gouging with standard equipment A Product Range Selected for Maritime Use High quality coupled with versatility is a basic factor for the selection of arc welding electrodes in the Unitor standard range. The Unitor standard range has been composed with this in mind. 3. Easily welded electrodes are necessary to achieve good results without too stringent demands on the welder’s skill. This greatly reduces the electrodes moisture absorption rate. The information label that is placed on the box gives all relevant information to how the electrodes are to be used. With the Best Welding Properties Special care has been taken to select electrodes with the best all-round welding properties. All Unitor electrodes have an imprint with name. Electrodes with LMA properties are marked "LMA electrodes". Welding on board is often required in awkward positions. Combined with other undesirable effects this can turn into hydrogen cracking also known as cold cracking in the weld. the moisture turns into hydrogen in the arc that again ends up as hydrogen porosity in the weld deposit. In order to extend the electrodes usable lifetime and safeguard against cold cracking. AWS number. and if applicable. When welding. whenever possible the electrode’s welding properties are equally good also in the vertical and over-head positions. Packed for Maritime Conditions The electrode box is made of high density polyethylene making it the right place for storing and protecting electrodes from moisture pickup. This reduces the number of electrode types needed on board. contamination and physical damage. yet to be as compact as possible. cap and box are made out of the same recycled material and does not need to be separated when recycling. the Unitor electrodes for structural work have been given Low Moisture Absorption properties when manufactured.COATED ELECTRODES Introduction The Unitor standard electrode range contains electrodes for: • Mild and low alloy steels • Cast steel • Heat resistant steel • Low temperature steel • Weathering steel • Stainless and acid-resistant steels • Tool. LMA Properties All electrode coatings are hygroscopic ( they absorb moisture from the atmosphere ).

the extremely high temperature behind it causes an explosion-like expansion effect and the metal is drawn towards the molten pool. providing good electrical conductivity in the arc. Mains electricity supply Electrode holder Welding cable Return cable Return clamp Welding machine Workpiece 3. To strike an arc the electrode must first touch the workpiece. High speed films have been taken of the process in the arc from a coated electrode. At the temperatures found in the arc (approx. At this point the slag separates from the metal. Arc Electrode The arc will immediately melt some of the coating and core wire of the electrode tip. floats up and forms a coating on top of the weld. These films indicate that the globules actually explode. The actual transfer of metal from the electrode to the workpiece is in the form of molten globules of different sizes depending on the type of electrode used. This so-called pinch force is stronger than the force of gravity. 7000 °C) the gas will be ionized. As soon as the globule leaves the electrode. the arc is formed. and the gas shield shown in the figure is formed. and when the electrode is withdrawn slightly. and the resulting crater in the end of the electrode aids directional stability of the weld. and overhead welding is thereby made possible. it is covered by slag material from the electrode coating. Some electrodes produce globules that are so large that they actually shortcircuit the arc for a moment.COATED ELECTRODES Types of electrodes What happens when the arc is struck? The electrode is part of an electronic circuit. This drop is then carried through the arc to the molten pool. The core rod in the electrode melts faster than the coating.01 The Arc A Weld deposit B Penetration C Heat affected zone (HAZ) Metal globule Gas shield Slag Core rod Coating A B C Weld pool 128 . When a drop leaves the electrode. This action causes a shortcircuit. In these cases it is of special importance that the welding power source has a fast dynamic response so that extreme currents and spatter are avoided.

0 mm etc.e. The coating may also contain substances (i.COATED ELECTRODES Types of electrodes Electrodes for manual arc welding (sometimes referred to as stick welding) consist of a rod and a coating material. As a rule. which increase the metal depositing properties of the electrode during welding. When molten. 3. the alloy in the rod will be similar to the material to be welded. The object of the electrode coating is to provide easy striking and a stable arc. Electrode size (2. which acts as protection against the atmosphere during welding. and when it is melted together with the coating material. The coating elements form a slag when cool which further protects the weld during the cooling down process. 4. the coating also provides a gas shield around the molten pool. 3. Control of Recovery By adding metal powder into the coating we can regulate the electrodes recovery (Deposition rate). iron powder).01 The coated electrode Rod core grip end Coating Electrode size Rod core 129 .) indicates the diameter of the rod core.5. The coating material also contains elements which affect the transport of metal across the arc and provide good mechanical and chemical properties to the alloy formed between the base material and the rod core in the electrode. it provides the filler which is necessary to obtain a welded joint.2. The rod forms part of the welding circuit.

For AC welding this function is essential in order to perform welding. Gas Shield The shielding ingredients in the coating is to provide a dense smoke shield preventing Oxygen and Nitrogen from reaching the pool / arc area Slag Formation Slag forming elements are part of the electrode coating and they are there in order to: 1) Protect crater and globules against oxygen during the droplet transfer. Metal Transfer The transfer of metal globules from the electrode tip to the molten pool is made possible by a combination of elements in the coating "exploding" the droplets over and the current that performs a "pinch" effect. Alloying Elements In the arc the temperature reaches 7000 °C. The slag is the mould.COATED ELECTRODES Types of electrodes The function of the core rod is to provide electricity to the arc and to melt and become weld deposit. AIR AIR 3. Many of the elements might evaporate and will have to be compensated for by putting alloying elements into the coating. The coating consisting of metals. The arc is in this way concentrated to one spot directly under the electrode tip. 4) Form the weld: Welding is a small scale casting operation and requires a mould. 2) Clean the weld pool by combining itself with impurities and bring them to the surface before solidification. By adding ionising elements that evaporates during welding we create a plasma cloud where the current can travel. minerals and organic substances have several functions: Ionisation Air is a non conductor. 3) Give the weld a slow cooling rate.01 Crater Formation Elements in coating that makes the melting boundary of the coating to be behind that of the core rod. 130 .

which is an advantage when welding in different positions. The Basic type (Low Hydrogen) Organic electrodes contain large quantities of organic substances such as cellulose. The Acid type 4. This type of electrode is when alloyed well suited for re.01 131 . The coating contains oxides of the low pH value hence the term acid. The Organic type (Cellulose) 2. when necessary. as different electrodes have different properties in different welding positions and types of joint. Unalloyed basic electrodes give moderate welding speed in the flat position but are faster than other types when welding vertically upwards. the amount of weld metal deposited per electrode is greater than that of 3. The most common types of electrodes are: 1. The organic-rutile electrode is usually the cold welding type. Rutile electrodes are relatively insensitive to moisture. which influence the choice of electrode. the first rule is to select one which produces a weld metal quality equal to or better than that of the base material and. The metal transfer is referred to as explosion arc and the electrodes are well suited for vertical down welding. The reason for this is that basic electrodes can be deposited at a higher current in the vertical position than other types of electrode. Acid electrodes provide good fusion. The rate of welding is not particularly high. The impact values are low because of oxygen level in the weld metal. The Rutile type 3.COATED ELECTRODES Types of electrodes When selecting an electrode. The rutile type of electrode has especially good welding properties both with AC and DC. Big opening between plates can easily be bridged using this type of electrode. even if it is the first bead in a Vgroove weld. is approved for the material in question. the metallurgical character which is an acid. Alloyed acid electrodes are suitable for welding steel with a nominal tensile strength of up to 440 Mpa. Acid electrodes produce an Iron Oxide / Manganese Oxide / Silica type of slag. Basic electrodes Basic electrodes are often referred to as Low Hydrogen electrodes. Rutile electrodes can also contain cellulose. but the deposit is of good quality and slag is easily removed.and hard surfacing because of its shallow penetrations and high weld buildup. In addition. a high rate of welding and are equally suitable for AC and DC. Basic electrodes with low moisture absorption (LMA) have a lower initial moisture content and the speed of remoisturing is much lower than of normal basic electrodes. characterized by a spray arc globular transfer. Rutile electrodes contain large quantities of the mineral rutile (up to 50 %) or components derived from Titanium Oxide. Unalloyed rutile electrodes are not normally recommended for welding steel with nominal tensile strength exceeding 440 Mpa. After special heat treatment the coating has a very low hydrogen content. Welding position and type of joint are other factors. hence the name. The arc is stable and slag is easily removable.

The slag from basic electrodes has a lower melting point than that from rutile or acid electrodes. The risk of slag inclusions during normal production welding is therefore unusually small when basic electrodes are used. The higher the hardenability of the steel to be welded. The superiority of basic electrodes from this point of view appears when welding manganese-alloyed structural steels. The weld metal from basic electrodes has a low hydrogen content and usually has good toughness even at low temperatures. pressure-vessel steels and ship’s plate with a nominal tensile strength of 490-530 MPa. Basic electrodes are less likely to produce either hot cracks or cold cracks compared with other types of electrode. The normal result is therefore a higher fusion rate and higher arc-time factor when welding vertically upwards with basic electrodes compared with other types. which can be used in this position. Double coated electrodes These electrodes consist of a thin layer of rutile coating extruded onto the core rod followed by a thicker basic layer.01 Core rod Basic coating Rutile coating 132 . in spite of this. The slag is normally not quite as easy to remove as the slag from acid or rutile electrodes. This results in a smaller number of electrode changes. In this way the electrode gets the fine droplet transfer of rutile electrodes and the deposit strength of the basic electrode. 3. the greater the necessity to use basic electrodes and the greater the need for low moisture content in the coating. it can be classed as easily detachable.COATED ELECTRODES other electrodes. even if the slag is not completely removed between beads during multi-run welding. but.

electrode is drier than ordinary electrodes from the very beginning. The pick-up of the surrounding air humidity during the day is very low.coating does not affect other properties. The risk for hydrogen cracking in the heat-affected zone will decrease. low moisture pick-up. you will gain extra security with LMA electrodes. (Cold cracks/Hydrogen cracks) If you weld high tensile steels or very thick plates of medium strength. LMA stands for Low Moisture Absorption. You will still get • the same good weldability • the same mechanical properties • the same low fume formation • the same price Unitor LMA electrodes: SPECIAL-303 N LH-314 N LHH-314 H LHV-316 N LHT-318 N LHL-319 N LHR-320 N 18/8-321 N 24/14-322 N DUPLEX-325 N Electrodes with LMA properties are marked 3. LMA will decrease the risk for HAZ cracking.COATED ELECTRODES Unitor LMA electrodes Electrodes with special coating properties.01 Electrode LMA 133 . LMA gives you less problem with porosity. The LMA. i. The electrode can be exposed longer and will still give you a porosity free weld metal. All other properties are unchanged. An LMA.e.

(BS 5135. To achieve extreme low hydrogen levels. and procedures for handling and redrying .0 ml/100 g. As a guideline we recommend the following temperatures in the storage room: Temperatures °C (°F) 5–15 15–25 Above 25 (41–59) (59–77) (77) Max. Relative humidity in % 60 50 40 3. rust. These cracks generally form in the coarse-grained. heataffected zone (HAZ) of the base plate. The purpose is to avoid hydrogen absorption to the extent possible.COATED ELECTRODES Storing and re-drying If properly stored. <4. < 5 and < 3 ml/100 g Storage and handling Welding consumables should be stored in their original packing. hydrogen porosity can lead to hydrogen cracking (cold cracking) if the component welded is under strain. to achieve a hydrogen level of 5–10 ml/100 g. a redrying temperature of 42–400 °C is recommended for 1–2 hours. Scale C). By following the recommended storage. During certain periods in the summer and in a tropical climate. Hydrogen levels are measured as ml H2 /100 g weld deposit and typical levels for different electrode coating types are as follows: Rutile and Acid >15 ml/100 g Basic < 10. The most important factors which influence the risk of hydrogen cracking are: •  Chemical composition of the steel •  Cooling rate •  Hydrogen content of the weld metal Hydrogen is always present in small quantities during welding and is a prerequisite for the occurrence of cold cracking. oil. it is possible to maintain low relative humidity by keeping the temperature in the storeroom at least 10 °C (18 °F) above the outdoor temperature. Redrying should be restricted to 1 cycle. the moisture level in electrode coatings can be minimised.01 During the winter.5–1 hour. Redrying should be restricted to a maximum of 3 cycles. Redrying Rutile electrodes showing signs of damage by moisture can be redried at a temperature of 90–110 °C for 0. If not. transported and used electrodes will form weld deposits with low hydrogen content. General background When welding carbon-manganese and low alloyed steels cold cracking (often referred to as hydrogen cracking) can occur. The most common sources of hydrogen are: •  Moisture in the electrode coating •  Moisture in the air •  Condensation. along with the associated risk of cold cracking. vibration or load. paint or   pri­mer in the welding joint area. Basic electrodes are normally redried at a temperature of around 350 °C for 2 hours. 134 . sufficiently low relative humidity can be maintained by air de-humidification.

COATED ELECTRODES Re-dried basic electrodes can be stored in a heated cabinet at 80 °C without further moisture pick-up. Always do when there is application requirements. Welding electrodes should be stored in their original package. Worksite 135 . Observe recommended re-drying temperatures and holding times for Unitor electrodes stated on box label Max exposure time for electrodes in the open is 8 hours.01 All basic electrodes and stainless steel electrodes should be re-dried before use. Heating Cabinet at 80 °C 3. Stainless steel electrodes which have been stored outside of their electrode box and have become damaged by moisture pick-up can be redried at a temperature of 300–350 °C for 1–2 hours. Minidryer 300–350 °C Rutile electrodes normally no need for re-drying. Redrying should be restricted to a maximum of 3 cycles. Preferably in a de-humidified area or in a heating cabinet. Unused electrodes should be re-dried before being returned to the heating cabinet.

the cover cannot stand open. a rim around the opening prevents rainwater from entering. 50/60 Hz 400 1. This product should be used for drying electrodes only. but always closes to prevent the intrusion of unwanted moist air. Spare Parts: H Heating element. The Minidryer-350 Ordering Information: Minidryer-350. The dryer is very robust in design and are all-over insulated with 40 mm mineral wool. Caution: Use gloves when handling warm electrodes from inside the Minidryer350. There are two of this elements inside the Minidryer-350 (400W). It can also stand permanently in a tilted position. The heating element is rated 200W. With the cover in an open position.COATED ELECTRODES Storing and re-drying Minidryer-350 The Minidryer-350 is designed to restore moist electrodes. The Minidryer-350 is equipped with 2 m primary cable and plug.8 100 to 350 Ø100 x 460 170 x 170 x 570 136 . This heating element can also be used for the old Unitor Minidryer. or to pre-dry electrodes before welding when this is required. knob for Minidryer-350. The dryer may be used with electrodes of both 350 and 450 mm length. 3.01 T Thermostat w/reg. Product number: 094-637835. the electrodes will protrude approximately 40 mm and are easily accessible. It has a thermostat for continuous selection of the temperature from 100 to 350 °C (212 °F to 662 °F). Product number: 094-637843. When the dryer is tilted. Type Mains Voltage V Heater Output W Primary Operating Width x Depth x Height Current Temperature Inner Dimensions Outer Dimensions A °C mm mm Electrode Capacity kg 8 Net Weight kg 7 Minidryer350 230. When the dryer is in a tilted position. Product number: 094-637827.

This information is given on the box label for the individual electrodes. Unitor Heating Cabinet-85 (094-637850) 85 °C (185 °F) can be used for this purpose. Mild steel rutile and rutile / organic electrodes such as GPO-302 N normally need no re-drying Re-drying covered electrodes more than three times is not recommended.314 N LHH-314 H LHV-316 N LHT-318 N LHL-319 N LHR-320 N TENSILE-328 N IMPACT-329 S WEARMAX-327 ABRATECH-330 18/8-321 N 23/14-322 N DUPLEX-325 N NIFE-334 N NICKEL-333 N TINBRO-341 ALBRONZE-344 ALUMIN-351 N CH-2-382 ACA-384 Normally no need for re-drying Normally no need for re-drying 300 °C (572 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350°C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 250 °C (482 °F) 250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour 250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour 250 °C (482 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 200 °C (392 °F) 80 °C (176 °F) 200 °C (392 °F) 1 hour 250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour Not needed from sealed packing. Unitor Minidryer-350 (094-637827) 100–350 °C (212–662 °F) can be used for this purpose. for Unitor electrodes: GPO-302 N GPR-300 H SPECIAL. Recommended re-drying temperatures. holding time two hours. Failure to follow these recommendations may produce pores and weld failure. butt this will not influence the performance of the product. Open packing: redry at 80 °C (176 °F) 1 hour.01 137 . After re-drying.303 N LH.COATED ELECTRODES Re-drying of Electrodes Customers are recommended to redry low hydrogen electrodes before use whenever there are application requirements relating to weld metal hydrogen content and / or radiographic soundness. 120°C (248 °F) 1 hour 180°C (356 °F) 10 hours* Re-drying time is measured from the point at which the re-drying temperature has been reached. the electrodes can be returned to a heating cabinet and kept at a minimum temperature of 70 °C (158 °F). * The copper coating will oxidize during the process. 3.

50/60 Hz 85 500 1. The cabinet contains five shelves and every shelf is removable. knob for Heating Cabinet-85 Product number: 094-63 78 84 The whole cassette is available as product number 094-777853 Type Mains Voltage V Heater Output W Primary Operating Width x Depth x Height Current Temperature Inner Dimensions Outer Dimensions A °C mm mm Electrode Capacity kg Net Weight kg 70 Heating 230. The Heating Cabinet . Caution: Use gloves when handling warm electrodes from inside the heating cabinet. No chemical products are to be used within the heating cabinet. Ordering Information: Heating Cabinet-85 Product number: 094-637850 Spare Parts: H Heating element for Heating Cabinet-85 Product number: 094-637876 T Thermostat w/reg. Cabinet.COATED ELECTRODES Storing and re-drying The Heating Cabinet-85 This cabinet is specially designed as a ships’ store for repair and maintenance electrodes.3 30-85 460 x 520 x 860 564 x 640 x 1095 350 138 . The active parts in this oven are enclosed in a unit located in the bottom of the oven. The shelves are slanted to prevent the content from sliding out when the door is opened in rough seas. The Heating Cabinet -85 3.01 The oven has a simple yet rugged construction. A thermostat allows for stepless setting of the temperature from 30 °C up to 85 °C (86 °F up to 185 °F). and can be transported with a fork lift truck. This unit can be easily removed as one unit.85 have 100 mm mineral wool in the bottoom and 50 mm in the top and side walls.

compound steel: 18/8-321 N 2.2 mm GPO-302 N 4.0 mm 1 package Ship quality steel.7 kg 1.5 kg Contents and Applications Areas Instruction and information: Unitor Welding Handbook: Sheet metal and thin walled pipes: SPECIAL-303 N 2. Weight with electrodes 110.5 mm LHT-318 N 3.2 mm Low temperature steel: LHL-319 N 3. copper alloys and aluminium.2 mm General mild steel repairing. horizontal. vertical down welding: LHV-316 N 3.2 mm Heat resistant steel: LHT-318 N 2. 094-670000 094-669994 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 4. cast iron.7 kg 1. • Compact design with easy access to contents.4 kg 1 package 5.0 mm 1 package 5.COATED ELECTRODES Storing and re-drying Arc Welding Cabinet A complete‘mini-store’ for covered electrodes. including 27 packages of electrodes selected to cover all normal welding applications on mild steels.2 mm Weathering resistant steel: LHR-320 N 3.2 kg 5. Product Description Electrode cabinet complete Electrode cabinet empty Arc Welding Cabinet Ship quality steel and cast steel: SPECIAL-303 N 2. all positions: GPO-302 N 2. high recovery: LHH-314 H 5.5 mm Cast iron: NICKEL-333 N NICKEL-333 N Aluminium: ALUMIN-351 N 2.2 mm 1 package 23/14-322 N 3.0 mm 1 package General mild steel repairs.0 mm 1 package GPR-300 H 5.1 kg 8.8 kg 3. stainless to mild steel. ‘problem steels’. stainless steels.0 mm 1 package Ship quality steel. and with zinc/yellow-chromate passivated shelves for optimal corrosion and scratch resistance.5 mm 3. horizontal.2 kg 2 packages 10.0 kg 1. with final coating by powder spraying and baking.0 kg 2.2 mm 1 package "Problem" steels: TENSILE-328 N 2.2 kg 5.8 kg 1.2 mm 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1.0 mm 1. • Sturdy.5 kg 5.6 kg 2.2 kg 1.2 mm 2 packages SPECIAL-303 N 4.5 mm 1 package 18/8-321 N 3.8 kg 1. high recovery: GPR-300 H 4. corrosion resistant construction from electrogalvanized steel plates.7 kg 1.5 mm Cutting & gouging: CH-2-382 3.1 kg 1.8 kg 1 package 5.5 mm 1 package SPECIAL-303 N 3.2 mm 3.2 mm Hardfacing: WEARMAX-327 2.3 kg 1.5 kg Product no.2 mm 4.7 kg Stainless steel. and separate room for the welding handbook.6 kg 139 .01 Dimensions: 600x600x300 mm free distance above cabinet 310 mm.2 kg Bronze & brass: ALBRONZE-344 3.7 kg 2. ship quality steel.6 kg 1.5 mm GPO-302 N 3.

01 Product Name GPO-302 N GPR-300 H SPECIAL-303 N LH-314 N LHH-314 H LHV-316 N LHT-318 N LHL-319 N LHR-320 N 18/8-321 N 23/14-322 N DUPLEX-325 N TENSILE-328 N IMPACT-329 WEARMAX-327 ABRATECH-330 NIFE-334N NICKEL-333N TINBRO-341 ALBRONZE-344 ALUMIN-351 N Classification and Approvals CLASSIFICATIONS AWS E 6013 E 7024 E 7016 E 7018 E 7028 E 8018-G E 8018-B2 E 8018-C1 E 8018-G E 316L-17 E 309MoL-17 E 2209-17 E 312-17 – E 307-26 E Ni Fe-C1 E Ni-C1 E Cu Sn C E Cu A1 A2 – EN DNV GL APPROVALS LR 2 2Y 3YH15 3YH5 3YH5 4Y40H10 – 5Y42H5 3YH15 316L SS/CMn – BV 2 2 3. 3YH10 3YH5 3YH5 3YH10 UP 5Y40MH5 3YH10 316L 309Mo 2209 ABS 2 2 3H10. Because of this we will mostly refer to EN and AWS in the Nomenclature for Welding Consumables. In America one refers to AWS (American Welding Society) for classification of electrodes. BS and NEN.COATED ELECTRODES Classification and Approvals The European Community for Standardization has developed a new nomenclature in welding. EN 499 Covered electrodes for manual arc welding of non alloy and fine grain steel EN 757 Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of high strength steel EN 1600 Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of stainless and heat resisting steel EN 1599 Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of creep-resisting steel DIN 1913 BS 639 NEN 2560 DIN 8529 DIN 8556 BS 2926 NEN 3581 DIN 8575 BS 2493 NEN 3580 3. Several new standards have come in force already and more changes can be expected within the near future. 3Y 3YH5 3YH5 3Y SR 3Y400H5 3YH5 E316L-17 SS/CMn DUPLEX E 38 0 RC 11 2 2 E 42 0 RR 73 2 2Y E 38 2B 32 H10 3YH10 3YH10 E 42 4 B 42 H5 3YH5 3YH5 E 42 4 B 73 H5 3YH5 3YH5 E 46 5 B 41 H5 3YH10 4YH10 E CrMo 1B 42 H5 – H10 – E 46 6 2Ni B 32 H5 5YH5 6Y46H5 E 46 5 Z B 32 3YH10 3YH15 E 19 12 3 L R 1 2 316L 4571 E 23 12 2 L R 3 2 309Mo 4459 E 22 9 3 N L R 3 2 DUPLEX 4462 E 29 9R32 – – – – – – AL SI 12 140 . This nomenclature replaces the current European standards like DIN. Euronorm EN.

The full grading code consists of a digit and one or more letters. H or H15 = hydrogen level in weld metal of <10 ml H2/100g (glycerine method) or <15 ml H2/100g (mercury method). 47 J at °C +20 +/-0 -20 +/-0 -20 -40 +/-0 -20 -20 -20 -40 -40 -40 -60 -60 -60 Grade Tensile properties 1 2 3 2Y 3Y 4Y 2Y40 3Y40 3Y42 3Y46 4Y40 4Y42 4Y46 5Y40 5Y42 5Y46 Yield strength MPa (min) 305 305 305 375 375 375 400 400 420 460 400 420 460 400 420 460 Tensile strength MPa 400-560 400-560 400-560 460-660 460-660 460-660 510-690 510-690 520 550 510-690 520 550 510-690 520 550 3. HH or H10 = hydrogen level in weld metal of <5 ml H2/100g (glycerine method) or <10 ml H2/100g (mercury method). Letters indicate higher tensile steels.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to Approvals This page shows the grading which the electrode has under its relevant classification society approvals.01 Note: ABS deviates slightly on yield and tensile strength limits for grades 2Y and 3Y and also on impact test values in all grades. Impact properties Elongation % 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 20 19 22 20 19 22 20 19 min. The digit indicates the tensil and notch toughness grade (see table). H5 = hydrogen level in weld metal of <5 ml H2/100g (mercury method). 141 . Approvals may be carried out by the following classifications societies: American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Bureau Veritas (BV) Det Norske Veritas (DNV) Germanisher Lloyd (GL) Lloyds Register of Shipping (LR) Lettering Code: Y = approved for higher tensile steels.

142 . flat fillet weld. % 22 20 20 20 18 Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 Welding position All positions. Flat butt weld. except vertical down. Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Metal recovery % <105 <105 >105≤125 >105≤125 >125≤160 >125≤160 >160 >160 Type of current AC + DC DC AC + DC DC AC + DC DC AC + DC DC 3.6   – 1 Ni 1. H5   5 H10 10 H15 15 Chemical composition* Symbol Mn Mo Ni No symbol 2.2 Z Any other composition * If not specified Mo <0.4–2.3–0. V <0. Nb <0. flat fillet weld.4 –   0. max.01 E 46 6 2Ni B 3 2 H5 Covered electrode for manual metal-arc welding.8–2. Z No requirements A +20 0    0 2 –20 3 –30 4 –40 5 –50 6 –60 Symbol Coating type A Acid B Basic C    Cellulosic R Rutile RR Rutile (thick coated) RC Rutile-Cellulosic RA Rutile-Acid RB Rutile-Basic Hydrogen ml/100 g Symbol deposited weld metal. Ni <0. Cu <0.2 2 Ni 1. Vertical down and positions according to symbol 3. All positions.6   0.0 –   0.6–1.6 3 Ni 1.2.3–0.05.8 Mn 1 Ni    >1.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to EN 499-1995 Symbol 35 38 42 46 50 Tensile Yield strength strength MPa MPa 440–570 470–600 500–640 530–680 560–720 355 380 420 460 500 Elongation min.4 0.6   – MnMo    >1. Symbol Impact energy Charpy-V Temp °C for 47J min. horizontal-vertical fillet weld. Flat butt weld.0 0. Cr <0.4 –   1.0 –   – Mo 1.4–2.6–1.4 0.2 1 NiMo 1.6–3.4 – >2.2.05.3.3.3–0.6–1. Single values shown in the table mean maximum values.

max H5 H10 5 10 Symbol Impact Energy Charpy-V Temp °C for 47J min.3-0.0 1. Vertical down and positions according to symbol 3.6-1.4-2.6 1. Symbol Hydrogen content.0 1.6 1.3-0.6 1. 143 .0 1.8-2.05.3-0. Cu<0.2-1. MPa MPa min. V<0.6 1.10.025.01 Covered electrode/ manual metal arc welding.6 0. Z A 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 No requirements +20 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 Symbol Chemical composition of all-weld metal. Cr<0.8-2.2. Only basic electrode covering.3-0. P<0. flat fillet weld.020.2 - 0. Symbol Metal recovery. Nb<0. S<0.3-0.2.8-2.4-2.0 0.6 1.6 0.0 0.2 - 0. horizontal-vertical fillet weld.8-2.3-0.6-1.5 Ni Mo 2 Ni Mo Mn 1 Ni Mo Mn 2 Ni Cr Mo Mn 2 Ni Mo Mn 2 Ni Cr Mo Z * If not specified C 0.4-2.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to EN 757-1997 Symbol Yield strength Tensile strength Elongation min.3-0. except vertical down Flat butt weld.3-0.4 1.6-1.0 - - 0. % Type of current 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ≤105 ≤105 >105 ≤ 125 >105 ≤ 125 >125 ≤ 160 >125 ≤ 160 >160 >160 AC+DC DC AC+DC DC AC+DC DC AC+DC DC Indicates mechanical properties after stress relief treatment.6 Any other agreed composition Mn Mo Mn 1Ni 1 Ni Mo 1. %* Mn Ni Cr Mo 1.6 0.4-2. % 55 62 69 79 89 550 620 690 790 890 610-780 690-890 760-960 880-1080 980-1180 18 18 17 16 15 Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 Welding positions All positions All positions.3-0.8 - 0.0 0.6 - 0. Mo<0.2 - 1.3.6 1. Single values shown in the table are maximum values.05. E  62 7 MnNI B 3 4 H5 T 3.4-2.4 1.6-1. Flat butt weld.6 1. ml/100 g deposited weld metal. flat fillet weld.6 - 0. Ni<0.3.4-2.03-0.4 0.

2 1.0-4.04 1.4-1.5 2.030 0.0 2.0 7. horizontal-vertical fillet weld.030 0.025 0.0 2.0-17.0-27.5-19.5 2. Cu 1.0-27.25 N 0.0 10.0 24.035 0.04-0.0-22.5 1.08 0.025 0.0 2.0 22.04 0.0-7.025 0.20 0.2 1.025 0.2 1.0 4.5-3.025 0.0 1.5 1.0 18.0 2. flat fillet weld.025 0.025 0.0-3.0 17.2 1.0-11.0-20.0-25.5 2.0 2.15 1.0 7. flat fillet weld.2 1.5 8.5-10.030 0.0-8.2 1.0 - 1.25 * Single values shown in the table are maximum values.0-13.025 0.025 0.14 0.04 0.0-4.0 18.2 20 25 5 Cu N L 0.0-13.2 25 22 2 N L 0.025 0.5-4.2 Mn 1.5 3.5 2.025 0.0 11.0 21.035 0.0-4.0 14.5-7. N 0.0 1.2 25 9 4 N L 0.0 11.0-21.0-25.0-11.0-27.04 1.0 22.0-3.030 0.20-0.0-23.5 4.0-20.0 23.45 18 36 0.0 8.035 0.20 N 0.04 Si 1.2 Heat resisting types 16 8 2 0.0 14.025 0.0 33.12 0.12 0.0 24.0-20.0 2.0-18.0-3.5-2.0 10.5 1.2 25 7 2 N L 0.5 2.10 0.0 18.5 2.0 2.04 1.0-14.5 Nb Other elements Martensitic/ferritic 13 13 4 17 3. Chemical composition of all-weld metal.0-20.030 0.0 Ni - 3.0-11.15 25 20 0.0-21.0 1.035 0.5-3.5-16.5 1.0 17.035 0.025 0.0-21.04 1.0-2.04 0.0-14.0 7.04-0. Cu 1.5-10.0 N 0.0-18.025 Cr 11.0 5.030 0.2 1.0-14. %* C 0.030 0.2 1.0-27.0-31.0-23.0 22.5-19. 144 . Type of electrode covering: R= rutile covering B= basic covering Symbol Metal recovery.025 0.0 26.0-8.0 18.0-21.0-21.5 - 0.0 24.0 17.0-12.0 24.20 Cu 1.025 0.04 1.0 20.2 1.08 0.025 0.0 16.030 0.08 19 9 H 0.5-3.2 18 16 5 N L 0.5-3.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to EN 1600-1977 Covered electrode/ manual metal arc welding.6-1.5-4.2 27 31 4 Cu L 0.0 2.0 1.15 22 12 0.0 3.0 9.0-3.5 9.025 0.025 0.0 2.0.5 2.0 12.0 4.0-4.2 1.0-6.0 3.0-27.0-20. Flat butt weld.0 2.04 1.30.0 9.0 17.0 24.5 18.04 0.2 1.5-9.5 1. High corrosion resistance 18 15 3 L 0.5-1.0 18.0-10.08-0.20 N 0.10-0.0 - 9.5 16.0-5.0-10.0-5.025 0.0 2.030 0.0-24.06 0.5-4.025 0.030 0.030 0.025 0.0 1.0-27.030 0.0-37.030 0.08 25 4 0.030 S 0.5 2.025 0.04 1.5.0-14.2 Fully austenitic.0-13.0 18.025 0.0 7.0 1.030 0.20 N 0.0 17.0 2.5 17.030 0.01 Austenitic 19 9 19 9L 19 9 Nb 19 12 2 19 12 3 L 19 12 3 Nb 19 13 4 N L Austenitic-ferritic.2 1.5 6.0-20.030 0.0-13.0-21.10 0.5 - - - - - - Nb Nb N 0.04 1.2 25 9 3 Cu N L 0.0 2. except vertical down Flat butt weld.06-0.2 1.08 0.0 23.0-25.0 20.0-12.030 0.5 3.0 10.5 2.0 1.030 0.030 0.0-5.5 N 0.0 1.025 0.025 0.5 2.0 24.0 2.04 1.2 1.2 1.0-18.0 11.0-5.5 2.35-0.20 Cu 0.04 1.2 20 16 3 Mn N L 0.025 0.0 27.0 19.20 25 20 H 0.0 15.030 0. W 1.0-5.5-3.025 0.025 0.025 0.0 15.025 0.0 10.030 0.2 1.025 0.08 0.20 N 0.0 9.0-21.0 - - - - 2.0-15.25.5-3.030 0.0-28.2 Special types 18 8 Mn 18 9 Mn Mo 20 10 3 23 12 L 23 12 Nb 23 12 2 L 29 9 0.0-33.025 0.030 0. High corrosion resistance 22 9 3 N L 0.2 1.0-22.035 0.0 Mo - 0.0 9.5 P 0.0 2.0-11.0-22.0-5.2 1.0 11.0-14. Vertical down and positions according to symbol 3.5 2.5 - - 2.5 2.030 0.5 18.030 0.0 30.5 14.0-27.0-4.5 2.030 0.0-11.030 0.0 2. % Type of current 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ≤105 ≤105 >105 ≤ 125 >105 ≤ 125 >125 ≤ 160 >125 ≤ 160 >160 >160 AC+DC DC AC+DC DC AC+DC DC AC+DC DC E 23  12  2L R 3 2 Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 Alloy Symbol Welding positions All positions All positions.0-29.0 18.025 0.0 1.

iron pow. For ∅ 2. for which the test is mandatory. where “z” is 4. Basic. 27 / –29 27 / –29 27 / –29 10 11 12 13 19 20 22 27 14 15 16 16 18 18 18 24 27 28 48 Cellulosic Cellulosic Rutile Rutile Rutile/Acid Acid Acid Acid.8 or 16). E E 70 70 18 16 M –1 HZ Designates welding position.9 MPa). All positions but in the vertical. Not spec. b) Limits are 53–72 ksi (365–496 MPa). 48 331 22 58 399 17 58 399 22 58 399 22 58 399 22 58 399 22 58 399 22 b) b) 24 58 399 17 58 399 22 58 399 22 58 399 22 27 / –29 27 / –29 Not spec. Energy Position min % Charp-V J/°C ksi MPa ksi MPa 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 70 70 70 70 70 70 a) 70 70 70 70 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 48 331 22 48 331 22 48 331 17 48 331 17 48 331 22 48 331 22 Not spec. and mandatory hydrogen limits for weld metal. E 7018. with an average value not exceeding “z” ml. Not spec. 27 / –18 Not spec. Basic. E 7024) meets the require­ ments for improved tough­ ness and ducility (E 7024). 3. c) H–V fillets: – pol. Code Welding position All positions except vertical-down Flat and H-V fillets. high reco. Type of Current AC – x x x x x x x x – x x x x – x x x x DC + pol + pol – pol + / – pol + / – pol c) + / – pol – pol c) + / – pol + / – pol + pol + pol + pol + pol + pol + pol + / – pol c) + / – pol + pol + pol a) Nominal value 70 ksi (482 MPa). Designates that the electrode meets the requirements of the moisture pick-up test (optional for all basic electrodes except E 7018 M. 1 2 4 145 .1-1991 Covered electrode for manual metalarc welding Designates an electrode (E7018M) for military require­ ments. Rutile. high reco.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to AWS A5. coating type and current type. 27 / –29 27 / –29 27 / –46 27 / –29 27 / –46 67 / –29 Not spec.01 AWS Classifi- cation E 6010 E 6011 E 6012 E 6013 E 6019 E 6020 E 6022 E 6027 E 7014 E 7015 E 7016 E 7016-1 E 7018 E 7018-1 E 7018M E 7024 E 7027 E 7028 E 7048 Tensile Yield strength min. Designated min. high reco. Not spec. Impact Elongation Welding Type of coating Strength min. 27 / –29 Not spec. V-down only. asreceived or redried. high reco. iron pow. Designates that the electrode meets the requirements of the hydogen test (optional for basic electrodes. Basic. 77 ksi (ksi (531 MPa). Basic Basic Basic Basic. Basic. Acid. of H2/100 g deposited metal. iron pow. (1 ksi = 1000 psi ~ 6. Rutile. iron pow. Greater tough­ness. Not spec. tensile strength in ksi. R Designates that the electrode (E 7016. iron pow.4 mm the limit is max. In addition there are requirements on: • Chemical composition of the weld metal • Radiographic test. low moisture level and pick-up.

0/0./MPa min.1/0. coating type and current type. high recovery Type of current AC DC – x x x – x x x x + pol + pol – pol +/– pol + pol + pol + pol c) +/– pol c) +/– pol E 80 18 C1 Designated min.3 Mn/Mo ~1.3/0.05 Ni ~2.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to AWS A5.5 Cr/Mo ~1. Designated chemical composition of weld metal.05%.5 Cr/Mo ~0.5 Mn/Mo ~1./MPa 480 550 550 620 620 690 690 760 760 830 830 830 390 460 470–550 530 540–620 600 610–690 670 680–760 740 745–830 745–830 Code 1 2 Welding position All positions except vertical-down Flat and H-V fillets 3.0 Cr/Mo ~2. AWS Welding Type of coating Classification Position E xx 10 E xx 11 E xx 12 E xx 13 E xx 15 E xx 16 E xx 18 E xx 20 E xx 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Cellulosic Cellulosic Rutile Rutile Basic Basic Basic.5/1.5 Ni ~3.5/0.3/0.5/0. AWS classification E 70 xx-x E 80 xx-x E 80 xx-C3 E 90 xx-x E 90 xx-M E 100 xx-x E 100 xx-M E 110 xx-x E 110 xx-M E 120 xx-x E 120 xx-M E 120 xx-M1 Tensile strength Yield strength min.5 Cr/Mo/V ~0.0/0. tensile strength in ksi.3/0.5 Ni/Cr/Mo/V ~1.0 Cr/Mo ~2. 0. 146 .9 MPa). J 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 68 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 Not required °C –40 –40 –40 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –18 –18 –18 –59 –59 –73 –73 –73 –73 –73 –101 –101 –101 Suffix –A1 –B1 –B2 –B2L* –B3 –B3L* –B4L* –B5 –C1 –C1L* –C2 –C2L* –C3 –NM –D1 –D2 –D3 –G/–M/–W Alloying system Nominal values Wt% C/Mo ~0.5 All other alloy steel electrodes * C max.5 Cr/Mo ~2.0/0.3/1.5/0.0/0.5 Ni ~2. (1 ksi = 1000 psi ~ 6. iron powder Acid Acid.8/0.01 AWS classification E 8018-NM E 8016-C3 E 8018-C3 E 8016-D3 E 8018-D3 E 9015-D1 E 9018-D1 E 10015-D2 E 10016-D2 E 10018-D2 E 9018-M E 10018-M E 11018-M E 12018-M E 12018-M1 E 7018-W E 8018-W E 8016-C1 E 8018-C1 E 7015-C1L E 7016-C1L E 7018-C1L E 8016-C2 E 8018-C2 E 7015-C2L E 7016-C2L E 7018-C2L All other Impact energy min.5-1996 Covered electrode for manual metal-arc welding Designates welding position.5 Ni ~3.05 Ni/Mo ~1.3/1.1/0.5 Cr/Mo ~1.3 Mn/Mo ~1.

0 21.0–3.0 12.0–22.0 4.03 – 0.04 0.70–1.20 0.03 – 0. Same coating and types as for –15 but with a mild steel core wire.0–32.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to AWS A5.03 0.90 0.0–25.90 1.75 0.04 0.5–16.0–37.75 0.0 0.90 0.08–0.5–2.0–13.0–26.5–24.0 0.06 0.75 0.30 0. Same coating and type as for –16 but with a mild steel core wire.75 0.08 0.90 0.04 0.0–14.03 – 0.04 0.04 0.5 1.5–1.9–3.0 2.0–14.03 0.08 0.75 0.03 – 0.5–3.03 – 0.0–6.5 20.75 0.0 11.03 – 0.75 0.04 0.75 2.0–14.30 0.75 0.75 0.0–18.0 18.0–21.15 0.0 0.75–1.0 0.18–0.0–14.0 7.5 1.0 17.5 18.03 – 3.03 – 0.5 0.5 0.0 1.0–3.5–2.90 0.60 0. but higher silica content in coating gives following: – More of a spray arc and finer rippled bead surface in H-V fillets. For use with DC+ and AC.04 0.75 0.00 – – – – – – – ≥6xC≤1.75 0.5–2.5 0.03 – 0.02 – 0.0–5.12 0.04 0.02 0.5 0.01 147 .5 1.5 25.03 – 3.5 0.4 0.5 1.0–2.0–10.90 0.04 0.75 0.0 12.75 0.75 2.0–20.04 0.75 0.10 0.5–12.5–9. –25 –26 AWS C 0.5–2.5–13.90 0.0–17.75 0.75 0.0–2.0 2.75 0.04 0.0 22. Flat and horizontal positions only.0–10.5–2.08 0. Rutile coating.70–1.90 0.0 10.0 P S N Cu classification E 209 -xx E 219-xx E 240-xx E 307-xxx E 308-xx E 308 H-xx E 308 L-xx E 308 Mo-xx E 308 MoL-xx E 309-xx E 309 L-xx E 309 Cb-xx E 309 Mo-xx E 309 MoL-xx E 310-xx E 310 H-xx E 310 Cb-xx E 310 Mo-xx E 312-xx E 316-xx E 316 H-xx E 316 L-xx E 317-xx E 317 L-xx E 318-xx E 320-xx E 320 LR-xx E 330-xx E 330 H-xx E 347-xx E 349-xx E 383-xx E 385-xx E 410-xx E 410 NiMo-xx E 430-xx E 502-xx E 505-xx E 630-xx E 16-8-2-xx E 7 Cr-xx E 2209-xx E 2553-xx 9.75 0.75 0.5 0.04 0.0–25.03 – 0.5 0.75 0.0 3.04 0.90 0.0–25.5 0.20 0.5–2.0–3.5 0.0–25.0 17.04 0.0 9.03 0.0–25.0 2.0 8.0–12.0 22.5–8.5–3.08 0.0–4.12 0.75 0.75 0.5–1.30–4.75 0.5–5.0 24.0–20.0–3.0–14.90 0.04–0.90 0.04 0.03 – 0.04 0.75 0.30 0.02 – 1.00 0.0 22.5–21.05 0.75 0.0–21.0 26.0 Ni Chemical composition of undiluted weld metal Mo 1.04 0.60 0.10 0.0–20.5–23.0 0.75 0.0–27.0–28.90 0. Suffix –15 –16 –17 Coating type and usability characteristics For use with DC+ only. – Mitre to slight concave H-V fillets.03 – 0.04 0. All positions.0 25.08 0.0 0.0 20. E 312 –17 Indicates compositional type.0 18.03 – 0.0–14.0–4.0–28.03 – 0.35–0.75 0.0 25.0 19.5 11.0 25.0–21.03 – 0.0 0.03 – 0.5 0.2 4.0 17.5 1.0 ≥8xC≤1.03 0.75 0.5–2.03 0.90 0.04–0.5 1.65 3.015 – 3.0–2.90 0.5 0.0 0.03 0.90 0.06 0.10–0.0–21.75 0.00 – – – – 0.90 0.25–4.0–3.0 33.90 0.06 Cr 20.04 0.07 0.75 2.0–22.75 0.0–12.04 0.0 5.0–14.75 0.75 0.0–33.04 0.75 0.0–28.03 0.5 0.0–3.0–20.5 0.0 14.40 – – ≥8xC≤1.0 12.0 0.0–21.90 0.0–19.04 0.0 18.75 1.03 – 0.03 0.14 0.0–36.25 0.0 2.75 14.03 – 0.75 0.0 3.5–2.0 19.90 0.5–2.0 11.5–2.5 0.0 12.75 0.0 32.75 0.04 0.0–21.75 0.0 ≥8xC≤0.0 30.40–0.0 9.10–0.75 0.5–2.03 0.03 – 0.30 – – – – Mn 4.04 0.08 0.5 6.04 0.4 8.75 0.90 0.75 0.0–2.0 8.5 1.5–2.4 4.12 0.0–10.2–4.0 1.0 22.45–0.0 0.2 0.6 0.7 9.04 0.90 0.65 0.0–14.03 0.0–2.0–2.0–21.75 0.0 4.13 0.0 18.75 2.04 0.0–11.0–21.0 9.03 – 0.0 8.0–11.85–1.0–3.5–2.75 0.03 0.6–1.0 22.5–2.5–2.0 0.5–2.10–0.5–2.03 – 0.0 0.5 1.90 0. Usually basic coating.5 0.5 1.0–2.70 0.5 0.04 0.03 – 0.04 0.04 0.5–2.25–0.5 15.0 18.0 14.30 0.5 0. Flat and horizontal positions only.5–7.90 0.04 0.75 0.5 Si 0.04 0.10 0.0 2.5–2.35–0.0 18.0–17.20 0.0–36.0–21.03 0.0 33.0–10.2–5.0–3.20 – – – – – – – 0.5 20.0–21.75 0.7 4.0–14.0–3.02 0.75 0.0 32.0–22.03 – 0. All positions.5–2.0 9.0 2.5 11.08 0.04 0.0 9.90 1.75 0.0 18.0 19.0–14. – Slower freezing slag permits improved handling with a drag technique.5–2.03 – 0.0 2.5 0.0–14.90 0.10 0.5 11.04 0.04 0.03 – 0.90 0.0 8.0 18.0–2.03 – 0.45–0.08 0.75 0.75 0.0 12.08–0.0 0.04 0.10–0.03 0.90 0.0–21.75 0.9 Nb + Ta – – – – – – – – – – – 0.06 0.04 0.5 2.0–4.0 12.0–11.0–21.45 0.03 – 0.5–29.04 0. As for –16.75 0.75 0.0 28.5–2.5 16.4-1992 Covered electrode for manual metalarc welding.90 0.75 0.0–3.90 0.04–0.03 – 0.5–2.0 20.45 0.75 0.0–10.03 – 0.0–8.03 – 0.5 0.90 0.75 0.03 0.2–2.5–10.04 0.15 0.0 19.75 0.12 0.5–2.0 1.0 11.10 0.5–2.5 0.0 25.5 0.75 0.90 0.0 1.04 0.0–22.0–37.06 0.35–0.03 – 0.5 3.0 12.0–12.04 0.0–28.5 0.12 0.5 17.25 1.0–11.0 1.0 17.0 18.0–7.0 0.65 2.03 – 0.0 9.15–0.75 0.5 0.5 3.04 0.5 1.03 – 0.0–16.0–3.5 6.0–6.0–21.0–4.75 0.0 0.0 0. – When making vertical-up fillets the slower freezing slag requires slight weave to produce flat profile.5 0.03 – 0.

COATED ELECTRODES Welding positions AWS according to ASME section IX EN according to ISO 6947. NEN-EN 287 Welding positions according to EN 26947 AWS: 1G EN: PA AWS: 1F EN: PA AWS: 1G EN: PA AWS: 2F EN: PB PA PB AWS: 2G EN: PC AWS: 2F EN: PB AWS: 2G EN: PC AWS: 2F EN: PB PC PB 3.01 AWS: 3G EN: PG (down) PF (up) AWS: 3F AWS: 5G AWS: 5F EN: PG (down) EN: PG (down) EN: PG (down) PF (up) PF (up) PF (up) PF PG AWS: 4G EN: PE AWS: 4F EN: PD AWS: 6G EN: H-L045 AWS: 4F EN: PD PE PD 148 .

01 149 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

PD General structural steel DIN 17100 St33.50 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 29 At 0°C = 70 Typical mech. ** 90% of max.0. X46 DIN 1626-1630 St37.4 5. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. 17Mn4 vessel steel NF A 36-205 A37 (CP).2 5.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 StE255 to StE315 NF A36-203 E275D 3.GPO-302 N General Purpose Electrode for Mild Steel Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Materials to be welded Imprint Unitor GPO-302 N/ 6013 SFA/AWS A 5. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 510 Diameter mm. sec. C. StE290. A34-2. 2.0 Current range. St44.0.2 Product No.7. D Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210. StE240.6 86 53 39 1 2 2 * SDS available on request. per box 095-699165 095-699173 095-699181 Boxes per carton 3 3 3 Re-drying temperature: Normally no need.7. St45.1 E 6013 DNV 2 GL 2 EN-ISO 2560-A E 38 O RC 11 LR 2 BV 2 ABS 2   AC   DC+/PA PB PC PF PG PE. A550AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr.10 . A42 (CP). HII. 50 57 65 0. 40A-C.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI.2 4. B.5 3.3 1. 150 . A48 (CP) NF A36-207 A510AP.0 Length mm. E28-2 (–3) E30-2 (–3) BS 4360 Gr.0/4.360 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St35. A530AP. kg per box 5.15 . 350 350 350 Electrodes per box 295 190 120 Net weight. A 60–100 80–150 100–200 400 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.01 All weld metal composition C 0.2 4.8 1.5 3. 164-Gr.7.65 Si 0. 2.05 . 43A-C Ship plates   Grade A. StE320. St37-2 to St44-3 NF A35-501 A33.7 API 5 LX X42.8.0. E24-2 (–4).12 Mn 0. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. 360/400. StE360.7.

GPO-302 N Unitor GPO-302 N is a general purpose electrode with a medium thick organic rutile coating which produces a fast-freezing slag. 151 .) GPO-302 N strikes and restrikes easily and is the electrode least affected by rust and paint residues on the workpiece. It is a versatile electrode for all mild steel constructions on board. GPO-302 N may be used in all positions including vertical down. 3. etc. beams. With its good welding characteristics GPO-302 N 2. except the higher grade steels that require basic coated electrodes (hull plates.0 mm. a good solution for thin sheetplate welding. Suitable for tack welding and welding on clamp fitments. This. and the electrode’s ability to easily bridge large gaps makes it an excellent general purpose repair electrode on board. GPO-302 N bridges wide gap.01 Suitable for welding in the vertical-down position.5 mm is. Application areas range from tack welding of plate and tube constructions to complete welding jobs of medium strength. together with SPECIAL-303 N 2. The excellent restriking properties makes the electrode well suited for tack welding. if necessary without changing the welding current setting.

GS45.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St.2 4.8 7. B.0 5.25 . E455D Materials to be welded 3. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37. AP). StE320.35.0/4. AM2. DH.12 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 555 Diameter mm.8 5. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St. AM1. HII. E430D.0 Length mm. properties of weld metal Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.8. 50D Ship plates Grade A.6 5.45 .0 13. A 130–170 180–230 250–340 300–430 480 Mn 0. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.5 5. StE360. A34-2.1 6. A48 (CP.01 All weld metal composition C max. 0. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP.45.0 6. St. 450 450 450 450 Electrodes per box 85 51 35 23 Net weight.7. 164-Gr.8 5.7 API 5 LX X42.0 Current range. A52 (CP. 17Mn4. 69 69 68 72 2. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr. 360/400/430. AH.GPR-300 H High Recovery Electrode for Mild Steel Identification: Classifications Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor GPR-300 H / 7024 SFA/AWS A 5.5 21. GS52 BS3100 A1. ** 90% of max. StE240.0 6.3 Product No.7.0. E344D. St44. X52. E390D.5 9. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. A530 AP.E255 to St. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D.65 Impact value ISO-V (J) At -20°C = 50 Recovery % 180 Typical mech. C.5 3. A2. kg per box 5. D. per box 095-699231 095-699249 095-699256 095-699260 Boxes per carton 3 3 3 3 Re-drying temperature: Normally no need. E. 152 .0. A3.6 2 2 3 4 * SDS available on request.1 E 7024 DNV 2 GL 2Y EN-ISO 2560-A E 42 0 RR 73 LR 2Y BV 2 ABS 2 Approvals AC DC+/PA PB General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. ST52. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33. A42 (CP. AP). E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D.7.7.0 5. AP). sec. 3. X46.95 Elongation % 26 Si 0.0/4. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.2 4. StE290. 3.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI.

and high deposition rate reduce the risk of heat deformation and stress. The electrode can be used at a welding speed of up to 50 cm/min. the coating containing approx. 180%.5 to 6 mm. when A-measurement (throath thickness) is 3. During welding.01 153 . When horizontal/vertical fillet welding on heavier material. 5 mm. the electrode should be pulled along the groove allowing the coating to be in contact with the base material. GPR-300 H is a typical electrode where large sections of steel are to be replaced but it is also useful for general repair work. observe all necessary safety precautions concerning the fumes from the primer. However.GPR-300 H Unitor GPR-300 H is a high recovery electrode of rutile type for welding in the flat and horizontal-vertical position. a large electrode diameter e. 60% iron powder. The high welding speed. Consult the chapter on welding fumes. The electrode is suitable for welding materials which have zinc and iron oxide rust protective primer coatings. Welding with this electrode ensures low spatter. The A measurement should be 7/10 of material thickness.g. good welding properties. The bead has a smooth surface and the slag is self-releasing. This electrode is recommended for welding flanges to tubes in the horizontal position. in relation to A-measurement can be used. Preferably use DCpolarity. GPR-300 H has a recovery value of approx. 3. It is specially suitable for horizontal-vertical and horizontal fillet welding.

5 3.01 All weld metal composition C max. E430D.7 API 5 LX X42.0 Current range. AH.35.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D.8. StE360.9 Net weight.2 143 77 46 24 Product No.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St. X46. per box 095-699199 095-699207 095-699215 095-699223 2 2 2 3 Boxes per carton 6 3 3 3 * SDS available on request.45. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP. AP). C.0 2. ST52. HII.70 . A2. amperage Packaging data Re-drying temperature: 300 °C (572 °F) for two hours. 3YH10 ABS 3H10. E390D.2 4.0/4.E255 to St.30 . 154 .0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. 164-Gr.1 E 7016 DNV 3YH10 EN-ISO 2560-A E 38 2B 32 H10 GL 3YH10 LR 3YH15 BV 3.7. AP). E.10 Mn 0. A52 (CP. AP). A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr. 350 350 350 450 420 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. sec. PD General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. AM1.7. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.4 1. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.0/4.7.1. StE290.0 Diameter mm. A530 AP. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP. 2. 0. A3. 2. A 40-80 50–90 90–150 120–190 Length mm.2 4.70 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 28 At –20°C = 120 Typical mech. DH.6 0. A34-2.7. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33.1 5. 360/400/430. GS45. 75 54 57 79 Electrodes per box 115 200 120 75 0. 17Mn4. 3Y Elect LMA rode   AC   DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.0 2. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D.SPECIAL-303 N Double Coated Electrode for Mild and Ship Quality Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor SPECIAL-303 N / 7016 SFA/AWS A 5.1 4. X52. StE240.0. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St. B. E344D. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37. ** 90% of max.7 4. St. GS52 BS3100 A1. St44. A42 (CP. A48 (CP.5 3. AM2.9 1. D. E455D Materials to be welded 3. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 530 Diameter mm.20 Si 0. kg per box 1. 50D Ship plates Grade A. StE320.

vertical welding should be conducted in the upward direction. Root edge Controlled burn through Molten pool Core rod Basic coating Rutile coating 3. The 2 mm size is ideal for use on sheet metal plates and thin walled pipes. Unitor SPECIAL-303 N welds on AC as on DC+ with minimal spatter level.01 Sheet metal plates Roots runs on plate and pipes. Excellent in difficult position welding Welding mild and ship quality steel 155 . Ideal electrode for high quality jobs performed by non-welders. Very good positional welding properties.SPECIAL-303 N Unitor SPECIAL-303 N is a double coated basic electrode with special coating components combining the excellent running characteristics of a rutile electrode with the very good mechanical properties of a basic electrode.

Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. AM1. A52 (CP. StE290. St. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr. sec.6 Product No. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 540 445 29 At –20°C = 140 At –40°C =   70 Welding data Packaging data Diameter mm. StE240. A34-2.3 20.1 62. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D.10 Mn 0. StE320. B.7 API 5 LX X42. amperage Diameter mm. GS45. AP).8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St.70 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) Typical mech.2 4 Length mm. 2. E430D. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33. X52. 17Mn4. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP.0/4.01 All weld metal composition C 0.0 5. E455D Materials to be welded 3. HII. kg per box 4.7. 58 80 85 1. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. E390D.45.5 31.8. ST52.5 3.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D. E.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. AP). StE360. ** 90% of max.75 .35. per box 095-699264 095-699272 095-699280 Boxes per carton 3 3 3 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours. A42 (CP. 360/400/430.7.1.2 4 Current range. St44.E255 to St. E344D.30 . AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.0 1. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP.0.0/4.0 5.5 2 3 3 * SDS available on request. AP). D. AH. A3. 2.5 3. PD General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. DH. 350 450 450 Electrodes per box 161 95 78 Net weight. A 75–105 95–155 125–210 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.5 2.7. C. GS52 BS3100 A1. 156 . X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37. A2.0. AM2.1 E 7018 DNV 3YH5 GL 3YH5 EN-ISO 2560-A E 42 4 B 42 H5 LR 3YH5 BV 3YH5 ABS 3YH5 Elect LMA rode DC+/PA PB PC PF PE. A48 (CP.25 Si 0.LH-314 N Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor LH-314 N / 7018 SFA/AWS A 5.7. X46. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St. 50D Ship plates Grade A. A530 AP.02 . 164-Gr.

thus reducing the risk of cold cracks. All basic electrodes should be used with a short arc. Hydrogen content is low. 20% iron powder. you cannot go wrong when using a basic electrode. Yield point controlled steel refers in this case to ships’ steel normally used for deckplates. A short arc. use a hammer and chisel on the material and consult the chisel test under the section on metal identification. See the section on after-drying of basic electrodes. To determine whether you have cast iron or cast steel. Slag is easily removed.01 Motor base plates. Unitor LH-314 N is commonly used for welding ordinary cast steel in high pressure valves and other machine parts. Joining deck and hull plates. If you are uncertain as to wether the steel is unalloyed or low alloyed. The electrode must be protected against humidity and welding with damp electrodes should not be attempted. less than 5 ml/100g weldmetal. low alloyed and yield point controlled steel in all positions. Unitor LH-314 N produces a weld of good mechanical properties and is therefore well suited for heavily loaded components such as lifting lugs. 3.LH-314 N Unitor LH-314 N is a heavily coated electrode of basic type for welding unalloyed. Well suited for X-ray examination. The electrode will operate with DC positive or negative polarity. hull plates and frames. motor base plates and similar heavily stressed parts. Welding cast steel. the coating containing approx. 157 . For vertical-down welding electrode LHV-316 N is recommended. Lifting lugs. Vertical welding should be carried out upwards. LH-314 N has a recovery value of approx. 120%. It should not be used for cast iron. Basic electrodes produce a higher quality deposit than rutile and acid types.

E430D.7 Net weight. 158 . X46. HII.0. A48 (CP. St44. A530 AP. E344D.6 Product No. X52.0 Current range. St. StE240.01 All weld metal composition C 0.1 E 7028 DNV 3YH5 GL 3YH5 EN-ISO 2560-A E 42 4 B 73 H5 LR 3YH5 BV 3YH5 ABS 3YH5 Elect LMA rode   AC   DC+ PA PB General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. StE360. GS52 BS3100 A1. A52 (CP. AM1. 70 72 Electrodes per box 54 36 3. ST52. StE290.0 5. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP. 17Mn4.65 Impact value ISO-V (J) At -20°C = 110 At -40 °C = 65 Recovery % 165 Typical mech. D. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D.0/4.5 14.E255 to St. 4. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP. DH. 4.25 . 50D Ship plates Grade A.45.7.7. E455D Materials to be welded 3.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St. per box 095-699298 095-699306 4 4 Boxes per carton 3 3 * SDS available on request.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. B.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D. StE320.LHH-314 H High Recovery Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor LHH-314 H/ 7028 SFA/AWS A 5.4 9. C. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.5 5.10 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Mn 0.85 .35. AM2. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38.0 Diameter mm. AP).7 API 5 LX X42. A42 (CP.07 . 164-Gr. A 170–240 225–355 Length mm. E390D. GS45. sec. amperage Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours. 360/400/430. AP). AH. AP). St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33. ** 90% of max.1. kg per box 5. 450 450 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. A2. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.7. A3.0.7. A34-2. properties of weld metal 540 430 26 Welding data Packaging data Diameter mm.8. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St. E.7 5.0/4. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr.0 5. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37.25 Elongation % Si 0.

the coating containing approx. The high welding speed. 165%.5 to 6 mm.g. good welding properties. LHH-314 H is a typical electrode where large sections of steel are to be replaced but it is also useful for general repair work. observe all necessary safety precautions concerning the fumes from the primer.0 mm. LHH-314 H has a recovery value of approx. 3. the electrode should be pulled along the groove allowing the coating to be in contact with the base material. The electrode can be used at a welding speed of up to 50 cm/min. However. 65% iron powder. This electrode is recommended for welding flanges to tubes in the horizontal position. During welding. a large electrode diameter e. The electrode is suitable for welding materials which have zinc and iron oxide rust protective primer coatings. in relation to A-measurement can be used. 159 . It is specially suitable for horizontal-vertical and horizontal fillet welding.LHH-314 H Unitor LHH-314 H is a high recovery electrode of zirconium-basic type for welding in the flat and horizontal-vertical position. 5.01 The A measurement should be 7/10 of material thickness. and high deposition rate reduce the risk of heat deformation and stress. When vertical fillet welding on heavier material. when A-measurement (throath thickness) is 3. Consult the chapter on welding fumes.

E355D. 3.06 . 53 50 1. A2. 50D Ship plates Grade A.7. 160 . amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.0 2 2 * SDS available on request.01 All weld metal composition C 0. kg per box 4. ** 90% of max. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D.09 Mn 1. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 570 470 27 At –20°C = 130 At –40°C = 100 Welding data Diameter mm.5 E 8018-G DNV 3YH10 EN-ISO 2560-A E 46 4 B 41 H5 GL 4YH10 LR 4Y40H10 BV 3YH10 ABS 3Y Elect LMA rode DC+ PA PB PC PG PE. PD General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. E455D Materials to be welded 3. St. AH.3 .2 4.0 Product No. E. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St. C.7 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) Typical mech. E390D.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33.35. E430D. ST52.7.2 4.7. AM2. A34-2.45. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37.0 Current range.8. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP.7 27. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St. DH. GS45.0 Length mm. A 110–150 180–220 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.0. GS52 BS3100 A1. AP). 164-Gr. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210. X52.8 5. per box 095-699314 095-699322 Boxes per carton 3 3 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.E255 to St. StE240.LHV-316 N Vertical Down Welding Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor LHV-316 N / 8018-G SFA/AWS A 5.0/4. A530 AP. AM1.6 2. StE320.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr. A52 (CP. A42 (CP. StE360. 350 350 Electrodes per box 137 99 Net weight. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. A48 (CP.40 Si 0. HII.0.1.00 . AP). StE290. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.8 43. AP). B. 3. St44.7.0/4. 17Mn4. sec.7 API 5 LX X42. 360/400/430. D. A3. X46.

The electrode should be held at an angle of 40–85°C to the direction of welding. The electrode must be protected against humidity and no attempt should be made to weld with damp electrodes. It can be used in all positions.LHV-316 N Unitor LHV-316 N is a heavily coated basic electrode for welding unalloyed. This is an economical electrode. The slag from this electrode is very easily removed. Its range of application covers hull plates. Unitor LHV-316 N produces a deposit with very good mechanical strength and high crack resistance. deckplates. e. low alloy and some types of yield point controlled steel. weld a bead on either side of the root bead as shown 161 . lifting lugs and electric motor baseplates.01 When a large weld cross-section is required.g. LHV-316 N is specially developed for welding in the vertical-down position. The electrode can also be used for welding in the flat position and for overhead welding. and stressed or loaded parts such as frames. When welding in this position the electrode should travel in a straight line and be kept in light contact with both sides of the groove. See the section on afterdrying of basic electrodes. There is little heat transfer to the base material when welding with LHV-316N and deformation and stress is therefore kept to a minimum. LHV-316 N will weld any normal joint. This makes it possible to weld up to three times faster than normal. even from narrow grooves. It is often used for welding a root bead where LH-314 N is used for the subsequent build-up. maximum welding current can be used also in vertical welding. Joining deck and hull plates A short arc 3. V-grooves and fillets.

020 Cr 1.50 . kg per box 1.2% Creep strength Rm /1000 MPa Creep strength Rm /10.: 700 °C.5 3.80 Si 0. D4. 20MC5 25CD4.7 1.05. 2.2 Length mm.25 .05 .5 3. per box 095-699330 095-699348 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.0.10 Typical mech. 15C.65 0. 1 hour Diameter mm.8 1.000 MPa 350 250 170 Creep resistance RP/1.5 E 8018-B2 DNV H 10 EN 1599 E CrMo 1B 42 H5 GL – LR – BV UP ABS SR Elect LMA rode DC+/PA PB PC 13CrMo44 25CrMo4 15CD2. 0.7 Product No.05 16MnCr5 18CD4. 0.015 S max. properties * of weld metal Welding data Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 620 530 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 20 At -20°C = 38 * Stress relived temp. PD Materials to be welded 3.0%/10.2 Current range. 30CD4 PF PE. sec.45 Mo 0.0. A 70–105 95–150 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.0. 162 . 60 65 0.LHT-318 N Electrode for High Temperature Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor LHT-318 N / 8018-B2 SFA/AWS A 5.01 Elevated temperature steel Case hardening steel Q & T steel DIN 17155 DIN 17200 NF A36-206 DIN 17210 NF A35-551 NF A35-552 Creep data: Test temperature °C 400 450 500 550 600 (80) (50) (35) MPa 460 440 Yield strength RP0. 2. 16MC5.0. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. 350 350 Electrodes per box 75 48 Net weight.000 MPa 430 140 300 110 240   80 All weld metal composition C Mn 0.1. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. ** 90% of max.30 .20 .1 73 49 3 3 * SDS available on request.50 P max.

5–1 mm t < 12 mm 1–2 mm For t >12 mm welding from both sides is recommended 163 . For filling the joint use DC+ polarity. used for working temperatures up to 550°C. pre-heating of the welding area to 200–250°C is recommended. plates or pipes. Such type of steel is normally found in boilers. For root pass in open joints DC negative polarity is preferable. See section on afterdrying of basic electrodes. Vertical welding should be carried out upwards. e. The electrodes may be used in all positions. the temperature should be between 620°C and 720°C. For best results on Chromium alloyed materials thicker than 8–10 mm.5% Molybdenum. they should be protected against humidity. and nose thickness should be 0. boiler plate and boiler tubes 3. Boiler tubes welded to boiler tube plate Electrode for heat resistant steels. In cases where stress relieving is demanded. As for all basic electrodes the arc should be kept short.LHT-318 N Unitor LHT-318 N is a heavily coated basic electrode for welding low alloy steel and cast steel with up to approx. with DC positive or negative polarity. Note that for root passes. V-groove with 60° angle is recommended for butt welding of ship plates up to 12 mm thickness.01 V-groove for plates up to 12 mm thickness: 60° 0. As a general rule the temperature should be maintained for 1 hour per inch plate thickness (30 minutes for 1/2" plate) to ensure full effect. 1% Chromium and 0. but as for all basic electrodes.5–1 mm.g. Root opening should be 1–2 mm. The basic coating is of extra moisture resistant type. TIG welding with Icromo-216 may be an advantage.

020 S max. 0. 55 63 0. applic. ** 90% of max. E430D. 2.8 1.5Ni 285/355 (15N6).5 3. 2. E390D.LHL-319 N Electrode for Low Temperature Steel Identification: Classifications Imprint Unitor LHL-319 N / 8018-C1 SFA/AWS A 5. 490 to LT 60.5 E 8018-C1 DNV EN-ISO 2560-A E 46 6 2 Ni B 32 H5 GL LR BV 5Y40MH5 ABS 3Y400H5 Elect LMA rode Approvals 5YH5 6Y46H5 5Y42H5 Type of current Welding positions AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. sec. All weld metal composition C 0. A530FP.15 . E460T Materials to be welded 3. X56. E445D DIN 17280 11MnNi53.15 .9 1. 350 350 Electrodes per box 78 48 Net weight. 14NiMn6.020 Ni 2.0. A42FP. per box 095-683631 095-683649 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours. A52FP NF A36-207 A510FP.5 3. PD Pipe material Boiler & pressure vessel steel (for low temp.01 Can also be used for welding CorTen steel and Mayari R steels. 282 DIN 17102 StE315 to StE460 NF A36-203 E355D. X60 NF A36-205 A37FP. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.4 70 42 2 3 * SDS available on request.1.65 .0. A 70–110 105–150 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.65 Typical mech. 10Ni14 NF A36-208 1.8 Product No.02 . 0. A48FP.2 Current range. A550FP BS 1501 224-Gr. 13MnNi63.) Fine grained steel Low temperature steel High strength steel API 5 LX X52. 164 .2. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 610 520 26 At –60°C = 105 Welding data Diameter mm.5Ni 285/355 (10N9) NF A36-204 E420T. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. 2.2 Length mm.15 Si 0. kg per box 1.55 P max.10 Mn 0.

We also find this type of steel in Ice-Class hull plates. with short arc. Interpass temperature max.5 times core wire diameter.01 165 . Guide the electrode at a slight angle.6% Nickel giving 115–120% recovery. 100°C (210°F). The electrode is specially suited for low temperature applications. Excellent impact toughness at –60°C. Store dry.LHL-319 N LHL-319 N is an all position basic electrode with 2. weaving 2. Low temperature steel containing Nickel is used more and more in processing equipment onboard ships carrying low temperature cargo. 150°C (300°F). High notch values are obtained with max. 3. High strength fine grained structural steel with thickness above 15 mm should be preheated to approx.

amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. A48FP.9 1.2 Current range.90 Cu 0. kg per box 1.0.0.30 . PD Pipe material Boiler & pressure vessel steel (for low temp. sec. Mayari R steels Materials to be welded 3. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 590 500 27 At –20°C = 160 At –50°C = 70 Welding data Diameter mm. E445D DIN 17280 11MnNi53.5Ni 285/355 (15N6).) Fine grained steel Low temperature steel High strength steel Weathering steel API 5 LX X52.15 .50 Typical mech. 14NiMn6.02 . Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.5 3. 490 to LT 60.25 Si 0. 2.10 Mn 0. E430D.5 E 8018-G DNV GL EN-ISO 2560-A E 46 5 Z B 32 LR BV 3YH10 ABS 3YH5 Elect LMA rode 3YH10 3YH15 3YH15 Type of current Welding positions AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. per box 095-683656 095-699389 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.1. 2. A530FP.50 .0. 350 350 Electrodes per box 88 48 Net weight.3 66 40 2 2 * SDS available on request.5 3. E390D.LHR-320 N Electrode for Weathering Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Imprint Unitor LHR-320 N / 8018-G SFA/AWS A 5. 282 DIN 17102 StE315 to StE460 NF A36-203 E355D. E460T Commercial names Patinax. S max. 10Ni14 NF A36-208 1. A52FP NF A36-207 A510FP.7 1.020 Ni 0.55 P. 2.01 All weld metal composition C 0.75 .2 Length mm. ** 90% of max. X60 NF A36-205 A37FP. 59 70 0. X56. applic. 13MnNi63. 166 .0. A550FP BS 1501 224-Gr.8 Product No. Cor-ten A. A42FP.5Ni 285/355 (10N9) NF A36-204 E420T. 0. A 80–115 100–150 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.

The corrosion resistance of weathering steels is four to six times that of normal structural carbon steels. Weathering steels are low-alloy steels that can be exposed to the weather without being painted. Sea water corrosion 3. To maintain the weather resistance characteristic of the steel. it is important to use an electrode with same chemical composition.000 psi) with an ultimate tensile strength of 490 Mpa (70. The weld metal has excellent mechanical properties. These steels have a minimum yield strength of 350 Mpa (50.LHR-320 N LHR-320 N is a NiCu-alloyed electrode.000 psi).which deposits a weld metal with good corrosion resistance to sea-water and flue gases.01 Flue gases corrosion 167 . Cor-Ten A steel. for welding of weathering steel (Patinax steel. The steel protects itself by means of a dense oxide coating (patina) which forms naturally on the steel when it is exposed to the weather. This tight oxide coating reduces continuing corrosion. Mayari R steel) and for ship hull construction steel. which work under conditions where the protective paint coating wears off. It is particularly suitable for welding the shell plating of ice breakers and other ships. and two to three times that of many of the low-alloy structural steels. The weathering steels are covered by the ASTM specification A242.

5 3. 2.6 2. ** 90% of max.0. 300 350 Electrodes per box 79 50 Net weight.2 Length mm.5 3.0.0 Ni 9.0 .01 All weld metal composition Various steel grades such as: –  Armour plate –  Hardenable steel including steels difficult to weld –  Non-magnetic austenitic manganese steel –  Work hardening austenitic manganese steel –  Dissimilar steel grades (CMn-steel to stainless steel) C 0. A 50–85 80–125 610 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.3 78 42 6 7 * SDS available on request. sec.15 Mn 0. kg per box 1.2 Current range.TENSILE-328 N Electrode for Difficult-to-Weld Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals N. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 790 Diameter mm.0 .5 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 22 At +20°C = 30 Typical mech. 48 65 0.9 1. Imprint Unitor TENSILE-328 N / 312-17 SFA/AWS A 5.1.4 E 312-17 EN-ISO 3581-A E 29 9 R 12 EN 14 700 E Fe 11 Type of current Welding positions AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. per box 096-699470 096-699488 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.30.10.08 . 168 .00 Si 0.90 Cr 28.A.0 Product No. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.50 . 2. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.50 . PD Materials to be welded 3.

gear wheels.TENSILE-328 N Unitor TENSILE-328 N is a rutileacid high alloy electrode specially designed for use on steel types which are difficult to weld. The deposit may be filed. The slag is self-releasing. Use a short arc and hold the electrode almost at right angles to the workpiece. carbon steel. tool steel and manganese steel. Hardness as welded 200–300 HB. This electrode can be used for joining as well as building up. can workharden to approximately 450 HB. chrome-nickel. Machined or threaded surfaces adjacent to the welding area must be protected from spatter and oxidation.01 169 . Preheating is not usually necessary. the welding area must be grinded and cleaned down to bare metal. vanadium steel. highspeed steel. Unitor TENSILE-328 N has excellent weldability and produces a deposit free from pores. and may be polished to a high gloss finish. etc. 3. These types of steel are commonly used in main engine rocker arms and push rods. Before starting to weld. It can also be used to form a primary buffer layer when building up a specially hard surface. This can be done by interrupting the welding operation to allow the workpiece to cool down before continuing. e. pump shafts. When welding machine parts it is advisable to keep heat transference as low as possible. Power supply may be AC or DC positive polarity. spring steel.g.

4 1. kg per box 1. where following properties are required even at high working temperatures. Packaging data DDiameter mm.8 Typical mech. 3. 170 . Materials to be welded General applications: Wear resistant non-magnetic surface layers on most weldable steel surfaces.IMPACT-329 S Electrode for Heat Resistant Overlays Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.4 Product No. Imprint Unitor IMPACT-329 S DIN 8555 E 20-UM-250-CRTZ AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.2 4 Length mm.0 Mn 1. alloy steels and stainless steels. 350 350 Electrodes per box 39 27 Net weight.1 Ni Fe 10 Hardness as welded HB 250 2. A 70–120 90–150 C 0. per box 096-606460 096-606461 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour.36 1. properties of weld metal Tensile strength MPa 850 Diameter mm.A. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std. including cast steel. sec. 3. up to 900°C: Application examples: –  High “general” wear resistance –  High corrosion resistance –  High impact and pressure resistance –  High resistance against abrasion by metal to metal friction or caviation –  Rocker arms –  Valve parts –  Pump parts –  Flapper gates –  Extrusion screws –  Stream through valves 3.33 40 27 7 7 * SDS available on request.0 Hardness after work hardening HB 440 Si 0. 66 100 1. PD Main applications: Rebuilding worn exhaust valves in combustion engines.01 All weld metal composition Co Rest Cr 20 W 15 Elongation % 25–30 Current range.2 4 Welding data Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.

In order to minimise heat effects. Ensure slow cooling. For large diameter spindles the bead should be done in four parts. Weld preparation Suggested jig for holding Welding should as far as possible be carried spindles. pure base material Make room for at least two layers of weld metal. Also grind the bead itself to remove possible slag and spatter. low turning speed and fine feeding. Then start at the oppsosite side and do the second bead so it finishes where the first one started. Place the first bead towards the outer side of the groove. Preheating temperature depending on type of alloy in valve. the spindle should be immersed in insulating material or dry sand in order to ensure slow cooling. 3. Welding Electrodes should be dried at 250 °C for 1 hour prior to use. Cooling When the top layer is completed.01 5. 3. machine to correct tolerances. in order to obtain a smooth transition between beads. Control the temperature adjacent to the welding zones and do not start the next bead until the base metal has regained the correct temperature. 171 . 6. 2. Preheating Preheat the valve head evenly to 50–200 °C and maintain during welding. 4. Keep the arc short and hold the electrode as near as possible to 90°C to the work piece. Finally do the third. Final machining After cooling. out in the horizontal position. A suitable jig should be prepared.IMPACT-329 S 1. Put the first bead towards the outer side of the groove Second layer or top layer First layer or buffer layer Note: Each layer can consist of several beads Welding with IMPACT-329 S does not require any other electrode. holding the spindle in a tilted position allowing it to be rotated. Machine preparation Align the spindle in a lathe and turn a suitably wide and deep groove in the hardened face to remove all stellite down to clean. starting where the first one finished. Large diameters Small diameters Welding bead sequence Grind the starting and stopping point of each bead. and do about one third of the circumference. The Unitor miniheater electrode quiver may be used for this. use toolbit quality H1 or K10 with negative 4° cutting angle. the welding should be done in stages.

3 Mn 5–7 Hardness after work hardening HB 415 Si 1 (Max) Tensile Yield Elengation Hardness as strength strength % welded HB MPa MPa 650-700 Diameter mm. N-A-Xtra steel. per box 095-606454 095-606455 095-606456 Boxes per carton 6 3 3 Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour.9 1. properties of weld metal Welding data Packaging data Rest Cr 16–20 Ni 7–10 Mo 1.WEARMAX-327 Electrode for Joining & Wear Resistant Overlays Identification: Classifications Imprint Unitor WEARMAX-327 AWS A5. 3. Cargo handling equipment and dredger equipment. 2. Diameter mm.2 1. A 75–140 90–170 120–240 30–40 190 Recovery % 150 Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. Suitable for both joining and making wear resistant overlays. sec.5 3.6 3.5mm only) PE. 172 .3–2. 350 350 350 Electrodes per box 49 68 42 Net weight. PD Materials to be welded Repair of: Worn winch wheels and anchor windlass wheels on anchoring systems. AC DC+ PA PB PC PF (2. Trawler equipment subject to metal to earth wear and metal to metal wear.5 3. T1-steel.01 All weld metal composition Fe Typical mech. Shear blades.2 4 480-530 Current range. 80 103 105 0. 2.5 3. Fine grain steel. OXAR steel. Cr Mo steel.4 Product No.4 ~ E 307-26 Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.8 48 31 21 6 6 7 * SDS available on request. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std. Manganese steel. kg per box 1.2 4 Length mm.A.

does not cause wear on matching parts. like chain wires etc. machining or wear. 11051 WEARMAX 327 Available Winch wheel Chain 3.No. making it an excellent electrode for joining dissimilar metals.01 173 . The electrode is also designed to achieve high tensile strength and yield properties. The initial weld deposit is comparatively soft with high elongation. OXAR steel. the surface will harden to more than 400 HB providing a smooth hard and crack resistant layer with low coefficient of friction. When subjected to grinding. N-A-Xtra steel. sprocket wheels.WEARMAX-327 Unitor WEARMAX-327 is an electrode which produces a stainless deposit with excellent resistance against wear. Manganese steel. Areas of application: Anchor winch wheels and guides. T1-steel. windlasses drums and rollers. fine grain steel and shear blades. which despite being tough. This produces a surface. cranes and track wheels. HARDOX 400. Special publication ID. Also used for joining Cr Mo steel.

kg per box 3. Packaging data Diameter mm. AC DC+ PA PB PC Materials to be welded All weld metal composition Hardsurfacing of: Austenitic manganese steel with 12–14% Mn Harden able or self harden able steel Fe Rest Cr 31 Hardness HRC 57-62 Mn 0.5 Product No.01 Typical mech.ABRATECH-330 Electrode for Wear Resistant Overlays Identification: Classifications Imprint Unitor ABRATECH-330 DIN 8555 E 10-UM-60-G Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. Length mm.3 6 * SDS available on request.5 3.2 Current range. A 100-150 Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. Electrodes per box Net weight. 3.2 350 68 Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for two hours. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std. sec.3 Recovery % 170 C 3. 174 .A.34 28.2 Si 1. per box 095-725275 Boxes per carton 3 3. 95 1. properties of weld metal Welding data Diameter mm.

4 Pre-heat to 100–200°C Ce 0. The electrode deposit carbides in an austenitic matrix.2 mm = 100–120 A The electrode should be re-dried to 250° C for two hours before use Remove old welds using gouging electrode CH-2-382 ­ Ce 0.01 Buffer layer on Austenitic manganese steel is done using Wearmax-327 ← Abratech-330 ← Tensile-328N Buffer layer on harden able or self harden able steels is done using Tensile-328 N 175 .ABRATECH-330 General Information Unitor Abratech-330 is a hard surfacing electrode with excellent resistance to abrasive wear under moderate impact and pressure.382 Pre-heating: Depends on steels carbon equivalent ( Ce) and the shape and size of part to be welded. A small weaving motion from side to side might be employed. Alternative welding: Alternative A Large massive work pieces Ø 3. When welding Austenitic Manganese steel with 12–14% Mn it is an advantage to make a buffer layer with Wearmax-327.2-0. Normally the required hardness is obtained in one layer. We recommend as follows: Ce <0.8 Pre-heat to 200–300°C Austenitic Manganese steel must not be pre-heated. Weld using DC+ polarity and keep electrode angle close to 90°and with a short arc.2 No need for pre-heating Max 250 °C Max interpass temperature when welding Austenitic manganese steel should be 250 °C ← Abratech-330 ← Wearmax-327 Alternative B Smaller items with less volume and where interpass temperature is critical Ø 3.2 mm = 130–150 A The effect of dilution with base material is decreased when the welding seams are placed as above 3. When welding on harden able or self harden able steels it is an advantage to make a buffer layer with Tensile328 N.4-0. The interpass temperature of object not to exceed 250°C. Edge preparation: Left over of previous welds should be removed using the gouging electrode CH-2.

Nr.03% 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo1812 1.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN X2CrNiMoN17133 1.6 2. ** 90% of max.5 3. A351 UNS S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 J92900 J92900 S32100/ S31635 S34700/S34709 S34700/S34709 J92710 PE.1 1. 0.19.12 2343 C>0. 300 300 350 Electrodes per box 213 89 54 Net weight. 176 .12 (TP) 347 2338 347S31 G-X5CrNiNb189 1.4408 Z6CND17.4 E 316L-17 DNV EN-ISO 3581-A E 19 12 3 LR 12 GL LR BV 316L ABS E 316L 17 Elect LMA rode Type of current Welding positions Materials to be welded 316L 4571 316L AC DC+ PA PB PC AFNOR NF A35- 573/574/576/582 PF ASTM/ACI SIS A240.0 Ni 11.5 . sec. kg per box 1.6 1.12 (TP) 347 2338 347S31 X6CrNiNb1810 1.11 316 (TP) 316 (2347) carbon 316S33 X5CrNiMo17133 1.7 Product No.4429 Z2CND17.13.4 230 97 56 3 4 4 * SDS available on request.4571 Z6CNDT17.4436 Z6CND17. A312.3.5 3. 1554 3.5 .4406 Z2CND17. PD Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440/17445 W.0 . per box 095-699397 095-699405 095-699413 Boxes per carton 6 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.4404 Z2CND17.12 C (P) F-8M 316S33 G-X10CrNiMo189 1.03% 316S13 X2CrNiMo18143 1.4401 Z6CND17. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 570 460 40 At +20°C = 60 At –20°C = 55 Welding data Packaging data Diameter mm.6 2. 26 35 46 0. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.0 Mo FN 2.2 Current range. 1. A 30–45 45–90 60–135 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.4437 Z6CND17.030 Typical mech.7 1.2 Si max.13 á l’N Medium 316S31 X5CrNiMo17122 1. 0.4552 Z6CNNb18.2 Length mm. CPF-8C All weld metal composition C Mn 0.4550 Z6CNNb17.0 3–10 max.12 (TP) 316L 2353 carbon CF-3M C<0.18/8-321 N Electrode for Stainless Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Imprint Unitor 18/8-321 N / 316L-17 SFA/AWS A5.9 Cr 17.10 CF-8C.4410 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo1810 1.1.7 1. 1. amperage Diameter mm.4435 X2CrNiMoN17122 1.0 .12 C (P) F-8M Ti-Nb 320S31 G-X6CrNiMoTi17122 1.01 Extra low 316S11 X2CrNiMo17132 1.12 316Ti (2344) stabilized 347S31 Z6CNNb17.

Best result is obtained using Unitor Pickling Gel to remove discolouration and oxides after welding. When terminating the weld. use Unitor electrode 23/14-322 N. 177 .10 mm. Use a short arc. the elec­ trode should be move in a circle over the molten pool and finally moved quickly backwards in the groove for a distance of approx. An electrode of high alloy content may be used for welding material which has a slightly lower alloy content than the electrode. 10–14% nickel and 2–3% molybdenum. The electrode must be protected against humidity and welding with damp electrodes should not be attempted. If an ordinary wire brush is used. 2. The electrode should be held almost at right angles to the work piece. iron oxides will be deposited in scratches left by the brush.01 4. It is always preferable to use DC positive when welding stainless or acid-resistant steel. 3. it must be remembered that the final bead must be laid on the side exposed to corrosion. The formation of a pore containing high melt point slag in the middle of the crater is thereby avoided. It is suitable for all welding positions. 3. For welding stainless/ acid-resitant steel to low alloy steel. A long arc will increase arc tension. Use a brush with stainless steel wire bristles when cleaning up the weld. The dark oxide deposit formed on either side of the bead should also be removed. to prevent intercrystalline corrosion. A stainless steel electrode should have the same alloy composition as the base material. The electrode will operate on AC or DC polarity. 2nd run 1st run Welding piping and flanges. Welding: 1.18/8-321 N Unitor 18/8-321 N is a rutile basic type electrode for welding stainless and acid resistant steel containing 16–18% chromium. as this can lead to corrosion. but there are certain exceptions. resulting in lower current output and poor fusion. When welding tanks containing corrosive elements.

0 .50 .030 Typical mech.7 2.90 Cr 22. All weld metal composition C Mn 0.0.5 . 0. 178 .12 (TP) 316L 2353 CrNiMo- CF-3M claddings 316S13 X2CrNiMo18143 1. properties of weld metal Welding data Packaging data Diameter mm. PD Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440 Materials to be welded 3.11 316 (TP) 316 (H) (2347) 316S33 X5CrNiMo17133 1.20 Si 0.4406 Z2CND17.14.12 316Ti X6CrNiMoNb17122 1.01 First layer in 316S11 X2CrNiMo17132 1.4429 Z2CND17. AFNOR PC PF ASTM/ACI SIS UNS S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 S31635/S32100 S31635 S31640 S31640 PE.2 1.0 Ni 12.12 316Ti (2344) X10CrNiMoTi1812 1.4404 Z2CND17.12 2343 320S31 X6CrNiMo17122 1.13 á l’N 316S31 X5CrNiMo17122 1. A 50–90 90–120 85–180 510 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 32 At +20°C = 50 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. –  Build up stainless overlays on mild or low alloyed steel.0 2.4435 X2CrNiMoN17122 1.1.50 .4573 Z6CNDT 17.5 3.0 .4401 Z6CND17. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.12 C (P) F-8M X10CrNiMoNb1812 1. 36 53 56 1.23/14-322 N Electrode for Stainless Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Imprint Unitor 23/14-322 N / 309MoL-17 SFA/AWS A5. 300 350 350 Electrodes per box 84 50 35 Net weight.0 Product No. thickness of 12 mm. sec.13 316Cb –  Welding dissimilar metals: mild steel or low alloyed steel to stainless CrNiMo-steel up to max.Nr.5 3. per box 095-699421 095-699439 095-699447 Boxes per carton 6 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.4583 Z6CNDNb17. ** 90% of max. 2.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN X2CrNiMoN17133 1. 2.2 4.4580 Z6CND17.0 Mo FN 2.0 Length mm. kg per box 1.4 E 309MoL-17 DNV EN-ISO 3581-A E 23 12 2 LR 32 GL LR BV 309Mo ABS SS/CMn Elect LMA rode 309Mo 4459 SS/CMn Type of current Welding positions AC DC+ PA PB W. amperage Diameter mm.0 12–22 max.7 2.3.2 4.0 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 610 Current range.5 81 43 28 4 5 6 * SDS available on request.24.4436 Z6CND17.4571 Z6CNDT17.

Best result is obtained using Unitor Pickling Gel to remove discolouration and oxides after welding. 23/14-322 N can also be used for welding unalloyed steel to stainless steel. Stainless steel overlay on ordinary steel. This combination should preferably be avoided. A certain amount of mixing with the unalloyed steel is unavoidable and the electrode is therefore over-alloyed to ensure that the weld will remain stainless. but providing an over-alloyed electrode is used the weld will remain stainless. the unalloyed steel side is welded first using an unalloyed steel electrode. It is suitable for all welding positions and can be used with AC or DC positive polarity.23/14-322 N Unitor 23/14-322 N is a rutile-basic high alloyed electrode for welding stainless and acid-resistant steel. 23/14-322 N 5. 23/14-322 N provides a weld with good mechanical properties and high crack-resistance.01 Stainless steel pipe Welding mild steel to stainless steel. Mild steel electrode 3. It is specially designed for welding stainless compound steel. The same rules as for 18/8-321 N apply with regard to cleaning up the weld. 179 . For this reason. 5 4 1 3 2 Mild steel 3. Mild steel electrode 4. 23/14-322 N Unalloyed steel Stainless steel Procedure to be followed when welding compound steel. Mild steel electrode (LH-314 N) 2. The electrode may also be used for building up a stainless steel surface on ordinary steel. and as will be seen from the sketch. 1. followed by 23/14-322 N on the stainless side.

40 max.DUPLEX-325 N Electrode for Duplex Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor DUPLEX-325 N / 2209-17 SFA/AWS A5. 2. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 820 660 25 At +20°C = 50 Welding data Diameter mm. 0. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. 300 350 Electrodes per box 91 55 Net weight.5 Mo FN 2.7 2.20 Si 0.5 3.90 Cr 21. 38 55 1. Stainless steel to Duplex steels.01 All weld metal composition C Mn 0. ** 90% of max.4 91 47 4 5 * SDS available on request.2 Length mm. PD Duplex – stainless steel EN 10088-11-2 X2CrNiMoN 22 53 X3CrNiMoN 27 52 X2CrNiN 23 4 W. kg per box 1.4460 1.0 Ni 8.4362 AFNOR Z2 CN 22. Materials to be welded 3. A 50–90 80–120 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.1.10.0 1.5 á l’N ASTM/ACI 2205 SIS S 2377 UNS S 31803 S 31500 S 31200 S 32304 Can also be used for welding dissimilar materials: Unalloyed and low alloyed steels to Duplex stainless steel. 1.23.7 .5 3.50 .030 Typical mech.4462 1.5 .0. per box 095-699454 095-699462 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.0 Product No.4 E 2209-17 DNV DUPLEX EN-ISO 3581-A E 22 9 3 N L R 32 GL 4462 LR – BV 2209 ABS DUPLEX Elect LMA rode AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. sec.50 .2 Current range. 2.4417 1. Nr.3. 180 .3 25 .5 . Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.

A long arc will increase arc tension. Mild to Duplex. resulting in lower current output and poor fusion. 8. corrosion and pitting. Bulkhead panel to tanktop + corrugated bulkhead panel to tanktop. 181 .   b. cargo loading pipes. Duplex stainless steel consists of two phases. austenite and ferrite. Duplex stainless steel. 5. Stiffeners to bulkhead panel. Bulkhead panel. 7. Applic­ able up to service temperatures of 250°C. Mild steel.DUPLEX-325 N Unitor DUPLEX-325 N is a rutile basic type electrode for welding of Duplex stainless steel used in tanks. Use a short arc. heating coils and ladders. Duplex stainless steel. 6a. Material Mild steel. Duplex stainless steel. 3. Tanktop. DUPLEX-325 N can also be used for joining Duplex steel to mild steel. Duplex stainless steel. Mild steel. Duplex to stainless and stainless to mild steel. 2. 3. both about 50%. 4. Stiffeners to hull. Hull. Duplex stainless to mild steel. Bulkhead to corrugated bulkhead panel. Tanktop. Hull (Section weld). It has high resistance to general corrosion and pitting corrosion.01 Name 1. (Section weld). Best result is obtained using Unitor Pickling Gel to remove discolouration and oxides after welding. results in a very high yield and tensile strength as well as an excellent protection against chloride-induced stress. The combination of these two in one structure. Stainless steel.

Caution: Storage temperatures higher than 45°C must be avoided since they accelerate the ageing process and destroy the product. Do not pickle in direct sunlight. 182 . rubber apron and face visor. contains acids and heavy metals. per container 095-661778 Containers per carton including 4 brushes Protective clothing Users should wear rubber boots.5 kg Product No. and must hence be treated according to local wastewater requirements before discharge. protective gloves. They should be kept in an upright position with the lids tightly closed. NB. Pickling chemicals are sensitive to high temperatures. The waste water. This can be done with neutralising agent or slaked lime. Recommended temperature limits for application: 10°C . pH 6. SDS available on request. Container should be stored indoors at 20°C. Rinse off the reminding gel using fresh water. Application data 3.5–5 Nitric Acid HNO3 8–20 Binder Rest pH: 0 Flamable: No Do not contain chloride containing agents such as hydrochloric acid (HCL) Packaging data Container Content 2 litre Net Weight per container 2.recommendation) Classifications Shelf life Storage Product consistency and colour White gel ASTM A-380 A1 BS CP-312 13 months when stored in unopened original containers at 20°C. The storage area should be clearly defined and beyond the access of unauthorised persons.40°C.5-10. Allow the gel to remain for 50-90 minutes. % Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 0. Pickling chemicals give best result when they are fresh. after rinsing. The waste water treatment should adjust the pH value of the clear water. and precipitate heavy metals into a sludge which should be sent for waste disposal. Spread a thick layer on to the work surface using the brush supplied.PICKLING GEL Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel Identification: Packaging type White HD-polyethylene plastic container (approval according to UN.01 Stir the gel to a smooth consistency. Chemical composition Vol.

preferably when the welds are still warm and the weld oxides less hard. oil and paint have to be removed. The result will be oxidation ranging from light tinting to a blue and black scale. Users should wear protective gloves and face visor. and then rinsed with water. For Mo-alloyed steels this time should be extended. 7. 2. Pretreat oxides. 5. Storage temperature higher than 45°C must be avoided since this accelerate the ageing process. A corresponding chromium depletion in the metal below the oxide also occurs. The pickling area should be ventilated.PICKLING GEL During welding of stainless steel the weld and the adjacent area to the weld will become exposed to the air at elevated temperature. The gel should be allowed to remain for at least 50 minutes. 3.: Material Safety Data Sheet. The work piece should be cold when the gel is applied. 6. with Neutralising Agent. 1. 4. corrosion will be the result. although the air temperature must not be below + 5°C (41°F). Ref. Pickling restores completely the materials corrosion resistance. Weld Discoloration/oxidation of surface Chromium depletion Pickling products are hazardous substances that must be handled with care. The bottles must be stored in an upright position with the lid tightly closed. After appropriate time. Application 8. It also removes surface micro slag particles and other contaminates which may cause local corrosion. rinse off the reminding gel using fresh water. Organic contaminants such as grease.e. If this is not removed. local water pollution control regulations should be consulted 9. Unitor Pickling Gel is used to remove this oxides and the underlying chromium depleted layer. Do not pickle in direct sunlight. If necessary brush the weld with a stainless steel wire brush. Give the area to be pickled time to cool down to below 40°C after welding. slag and weld defects mechanically. Storing temperature 20°C. Stir the gel to a smooth consistency and spread a thick layer on to the work piece using the brush supplied. For the deposit of heavy metals. Pickling residuals and rinse water should be neutralised to pH-7 i.01 Apply with the brush Leave the paste to work Remove with water 183 . Stir the gel before use 3. If necessary the gel may be allowed to remain on the work piece over night as there is no risk for corrosion.

0 .NIFE-334 N Nickel Iron Electrode for Cast Iron Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. sec.0 Elongation % 12 Hardness HB 180 Typical mech.4 . 350 350 Electrodes per box 68 51 Net weight.0 . 90 70 0.9 1.0 Current range. per box 096-699512 096-699520 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 200 °C (392 °F) for two hours.2 4. 184 . 3.0 C 1. kg per box 2. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.8 45 30 2 3 * SDS available on request.15 E NiFe-CL-A EN-ISO 1071 E NiFe-CL-A1 AC DC+/PA PB DIN 1692 GTS-35-10 GTS-45-06 GTS-55-4 GTW-35-04 GTW-40-05 GTW-45-07 GTW-S 38-12 PC DIN 1693 G GG-40 G GG-50 G GG-60 PF PG PE.01 All weld metal composition Ni Fe 47.2 2.A.48.0 42. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.2. ** 90% of max. A 75–100 85–160 300 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.2 4. PD For welding and repair DIN 1691 G G 10 G G 15 G G 20 G G 25 G G 30 G G 35 Materials to be welded 3.0 Length mm. 3.56. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 375 Diameter mm. Imprint Unitor NIFE-334 N / NiFe-C1 SFA/AWS A5.4 Product No.

NB: Allow to cool off slowly. malleable cast iron and grey cast iron.NIFE-334 N The Unitor NIFE-334 N electrode has been specially developed for cold welding of different types of cast iron especially nodular cast iron. 3. the heat transfer to the base material is kept to a minimum by welding only very short beads (2–3 cm) at a time. it will have a tendency to surface during welding and form pores in the deposit. 185 . Smaller parts. The cold welding process is normally used on large. this process also burns out the oil contained in the carbon flakes. As well as forming a suitable welding groove.e. preheated to approx. In the cold welding process. The weld metal is easily machineable. complicated cast iron parts where the use of heat would involve considerable risk of transverse fractures. The carbon flakes in the metal are saturated with oil. Large complicated parts should be cold welded. 500°C and continuously welded. Unitor electrode CH-2-382 should be used to prepare the grooves. which are present in all types of cast iron. If the oil is not burnt off. The same welding procedure applies as for Nickel-333 N. using a 3 mm drill.01 A crack in cast iron. The oily deposits in the welding area have evaporated. This is a special electrode for gouging without the use of oxygen. – Drill a hole at the end of the crack. to prevent further fracturing during welding. After gouging with Unitor CH-2. When welding oily cast iron. may be hot welded. free to expand. Prepare the damage area in the following manner: – Use crack detector to find the end of the crack fracture. the bead being peened and allowed to cool before welding the next bead. Smaller parts may be hot welded i.

5. 2.6 Elongation % 12 Hardness HB 150 Typical mech. 186 .2 90 45 2 2 * SDS available on request.8 1. 50 65 0.0 .1.01 All weld metal composition Ni Fe 92.5 3. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.2 Length mm. A 55–110 80–140 100 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.0 C 0. ** 90% of max. Imprint Unitor NICKEL-333 N / Ni-C1 SFA/AWS A5. kg per box 2. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.0 3.0 .2 Product No. sec.2 Current range. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 300 Diameter mm. 2.95.0 2.5 3. 300 350 Electrodes per box 121 68 Net weight.8 .NICKEL-333 N Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. PD For welding and repair DIN 1691 G G 10 G G 15 G G 20 G G 25 G G 30 G G 35 Materials to be welded 3.A. per box 096-699496 096-699504 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 80 °C (176 °F) for two hours.15 E Ni-CL EN-ISO 1071 E Ni-CL3 AC DC+/PA PB DIN 1692 GTS-35-10 GTS-45-06 GTS-55-4 GTW-35-04 GTW-40-05 GTW-45-07 GTW-S 38-12 PC DIN 1693 G GG-40 G GG-50 G GG-60 PF PG PE.

AC or DC negative or positive polarity may be used. After welding. NIFE-334 N is used for multibead welding on heavy gauge materials. When a bead is completed.01 Start welding at the end of the crack and work inwards. 2–3 cm Drill a 3 mm hole at the end of the crack. to prevent further fracturing during welding. Allow the weld to cool before continuing. A general rule is that the welding area should be hand warm before welding the next bead of 2–3 cm (cold welding). When repairing a crack which has not split the workpiece into two separate parts. it must be peened to counteract shrinkage. 187 . Prepare the damaged area in the following manner: Use a crack detector to determine the actual length of the crack or fracture. 3. to be followed by beads welded with NIFE-334 N. always weld from the outer ends of the crack and inwards. Weld in short beads. or as a first bead on oily cast iron. Use a fairly short arc. Peening the bead counteracts the shrinkage forces. the bead’s tendency to shrink can cause cracking. NICKEL333 N is for use on thinner materials. using a 3 mm drill. The thickness of the material is the deciding factor in choosing between NICKEL-333 N or NIFE-334 N. Start from the crater and work backwards to the starting point.NICKEL-333 N Unitor NICKEL-333 N is a special electrode for cold welding of oily cast iron. Drill a hole at the end of the crack. Hold the electrode almost at a right angle to the work and weld in short beads of 2–3 cm at a time.

TINBRO-341 Electrode for Copper Alloys Identification: Classifications Imprint Unitor TINBRO-341 AWS A5. per box 096-606458 Boxes per carton 6 Re-drying temperature: 200 °C (392 °F) for one hour. PD Materials to be welded Copper and copper alloys i. 3.4 Product No. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std.33 43 6 * SDS available on request.6 ~ E Cu SnC DIN 8555 E 30-UM-150-C Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. Packaging data Diameter mm.e. 188 . 63 1. 350 Electrodes per box 42 Net weight.5–9. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 350–400 Diameter mm.5 Elongation % 15–25 Hardness HB 100–150 Mn 1 Recovery % 103 Typical mech.2 Length mm.01 All weld metal composition Cu Rest Sn 7.: Brass Bronze Tin-Bronze Leaded Gun-metal Steel Castiron Seawater resistant deposit 3. sec. DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. 3.A. A 70–90 Welding data Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. kg per box 1.2 220-260 Current range.

For welding these materials. braze with AG-60 and Albro Flux 263 PF. Parts not be overheated. etc. TINBRO-341 is not recommended for welding Yorcalbro (aluminium-brass) or Cunifer (copper-nickel. This will facilitate welding. a 3 mm gap should be used. or where mini­mum fusion with the base material is required. On parts requiring thin surfacing. Small parts should be brazed with AGAreas of application include joining of 60 and AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF. make an 80° welding groove with V or X profile. It is recommended that larger copper alloy parts should be pre-heated to 300–500°C. Use a short arc and hold the electrode almost at right angles to the work. The electrodes must be stored in a dry place and must be handled carefully to avoid damage of the coating. oxidation. cupro-nickel). weave the electrode from side to side. the following processes should be used: Yorcalbro For dimensions up to approx. When material thickness is more that 4 mm. When making joints. and welding current can be reduced. Clean the welding area thoroughly to remove any oily deposits.01 189 . For larger dimensions. covering an area of up to three times the electrode diameter.TINBRO-341 Unitor TINBRO-341 is a tin-bronze elec­­ Cunifer trode for DC welding. use TIG welding with Ialbro 237 MF. positive polarity. welding should be carried out at 80–110 Amps. Larger dimensions should be TIG welded brass and tin-bronze as well as joinwith Icuni 30 329. Machine or grind off fatigued material. 3. ing these to steel and cast iron. 4".

01 All weld metal composition Cu Rest Al 7 Elongation % 10 Mn Fe 1.2 350 Current range. per box 096-606457 Boxes per carton 6 Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour. 350 Electrodes per box 46 Net weight. 190 . A 80–160 Welding data Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.2 Length mm.8 Recovery % 103 Typical mech. sec.e.A. Packaging data Diameter mm. 81 0. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 550 Diameter mm. PD Copper and copper alloys i. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std.92 48 6 * SDS available on request. 3. 3.ALBRONZE-344 Electrode for Copper Alloys Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.2 Hardness HB 140–170 2. Imprint Unitor ALBRONZE-344 AWS A5.6 ~ E Cu Al A2 DIN 8555 E 31-UM-150-C AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.3 Product No.: Bronze Aluminium bronze Steel Cast iron Seawater resistant deposit Materials to be welded 3. kg per box 1.

Use a short arc. Cast cupro-aluminium parts and similar materials must be annealed after welding by heating the welding area to 650°C. Applications include ships’ propellers. The deposit has low coefficient of friction and excellent weldability. It is also used for welding gliding surface overlays on steel. Remove the slag from the bead with chipping hammer and wire brush before starting on the next bead. bearing shells. Clean the welding area thoroughly and remove all oxidation.01 191 . Unitor ALBRONZE-344 is not recommended for welding Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes. 3. The workpiece must then be allowed to cool down slowly to below 500°C to ensure that the metal does not lose any of its properties. The groove can be formed by grinding.ALBRONZE-344 Unitor ALBRONZE-344 is a bronze electrode made specially for joining and cladding of bronze alloys as well as for joining these metals to steel and cast iron. Hold the electrode almost at right angles to the workpiece and use a weaving movement. valves and turbine blades. The temperature must not exceed 200°C during welding. When surfacing steel parts. pump parts. The pre-heating requirement will depend on the size and type of the base material. Make a suitable welding groove using a 60–90° angle. Pre-heating is normally not required but it may be necessary to pre-heat large workpieces up to 150°C. pumps. The welded deposit has high strength properties and good resistance against cavitational wear and corrosion in seawater. Machine or grind off fatigued metal. The length of each stroke should not exceed three times the electrode dia­ meter. condensers. AC or DC positive polarity may be used.

Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.8 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 13 Typical mech.0 .2341) G-Al Si 10 Mg (3.01 All weld metal composition For welding forged and cast aluminium alloy containing more than 7% Si as main alloying element.0 Si Fe 11. Re-drying temperature: In vacuum packing and therefore no need for re-drying.2 Length mm.13.89.0 Product No.2583) G-Al Si 11 G-Al Si   9 Mg G-Al Si   9 Cu 3 G-Al Si   7 Mg G-Al Si   6 Cu 4 Also applicable as surfacing electrode.2 Current range. 3. A 70–110 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. 32 0. G-Al Si   5 Mg (3. 192 . ** 90% of max.7 164 3 * SDS available on request.0 .2381) G-Al Si 12 (3. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 160 Diameter mm. kg per box 1.ALUMIN-351 N Electrode for Aluminium Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. Al 86. per box 096-699538* Boxes per carton 6 * This box is placed inside a vacuum metal pouch. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. Imprint Unitor ALUMIN-351 N EN-ISO 18273 EL-AlSi12 DC+ PA PB PC PF Materials to be welded 3.A. 350 Electrodes per box 71 Net weight. 3. sec.5 max. 0. Opened packages: 80 °C for 1 hour.2581) G-Al Si 12 (Cu) (3.2381) G-Al Si 10 Mg (Cu) (3.

the material is magnesium. Grooves and the surrounding area must be thoroughly cleaned. Use as short arc as possible and weld rapidly. Cover plate ears welded back on 3. If there are only a few sparks here and there. remove the slag and overlap the end of the bead by about 1 cm when re-striking. or at a slight angle to the weld direction Note: Use the shortest possible arc. Aluminium or magnesium? It may be difficult to determine whether a part is aluminium or magnesium. Hold the electrode almost at right angles to the workpiece. Hold the electrode almost vertically the workpiece. When welding with Aluminium electrodes: Arrange suitable ventilation or use Fresh Air kit mounted in face shield. and may be welded. 300°C if possible 193 . tubes. If the fillings spark or seem to explode in the flame. Thin parts should be backed up before welding. the tip at a slight angle to the weld direction. preferably moisture-controlled.ALUMIN-351 N Unitor ALUMIN-351 N is used for joining and building up aluminium parts with a thickness of more than 2 mm sheets. If welding is interrupted. place.01 Joining a cast aluminium cover. It is preferable to weld in the flat position. NB. Large parts or castings should be pre-heated to approx. Use DC. All slag must be cleaned off the finished weld with brush and water. positive polarity setting. and most of the fillings just glow. 300°C. Magnesium parts must not be welded (magnesium bomb!). Such parts should be pre-heated to approx. When welding materials more than 3 mm thick. gangways. Hold the paper over a flame. pistons. etc. When first received the electrode box is placed inside a vacuum metal pouch. castings (covers). sections. Aluminium electrodes absorb moisture very easily and must be stored in a dry. a 60° V-groove and an air gap of 1–3 mm should be used. the material is alumi­nium alloyed with magnesium. Use the following test to determine whether a part is aluminium or magnesium: File a few shavings onto a small piece of paper.

2 Current range. Imprint Unitor CH-2-382 AC DC+/PA PB PC PG PE.2 Length mm.01 Welding data Diameter mm. per box 096-606459 Boxes per carton 6 Re-drying temperature: 120 °C (248 °F) for one hour. 350 Electrodes per box 36 Net weight. 3. properties of weld metal 3.CH-2-382 Electrode for Chamfering Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. kg per box 1. PD Steel/Cast steel Stainless steel/Cast stainless steel Cast iron Copper/Copper alloys Aluminium/Aluminium alloys N. N. Materials to be chamfered All weld metal composition Typical mech. 194 . A 160–280 Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. N. 3. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std. Packaging data Diameter mm. sec.A.A.4 Product No.A.A. 57 – – 7 * SDS available on request.

Hold the electrode at an angle of 15–20° to the workpiece. move the electrode back and lower to correct angle. Should this happen inadvertently. 1 2 3 3. The arc will strike after a few seconds. Direction of travel. Hold the electrode vertically and press lightly against the workpiece. 6. proceed as in this sketch. Warning! Do not cut down into the workpiece. If a deeper groove is required. 5.01 4 5 6 195 . 3. Work downwards when cutting into a vertical surface. 4. otherwise as shown in figures 1–3.CH-2-382 Gouging Technique 1. 2.

N. Can be used to groove. 200–350 200–450 400–600 Approx.37 0. 6.A.01 Welding data Air pressure (bar) Fume class* (Consumption 400–900 l/min) Danish Std.3 8.61 3. but this will not influence the performance of the product.3 8. 196 .1 Product No.0 15 x 5 Current range. kg per box 0. DC+ PA PB PC PG PE. Amps. Note: The copper coating will oxidize during the process. At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi) At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi) At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi) 7 7 7 * SDS available on request. kg/electrode 0.3 8. PD Materials to be gouged All weld metal composition Metal removal capasity Gouging and cutting of all electrically conductive materials.8 1.ACA-384 Electrode for Air Carbon Arc Gouging Identification: Copper coating over black carbon Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. bevel or pierce any material. per box 096-758474 096-758466 096-758458 Boxes per carton 5 5 5 Re-drying temperature: 180 °C (356 °F) for 10 hours. gouge. cut. N. Diameter mm.A. 6. 6. 305 305 305 Electrodes per box 50 50 50 Net weight. Packaging data Diameter mm.0 15 x 5 Length mm.A.27 0.0 15 x 5 Diameter mm.3 2.

hissing sound and clean. 3. An electrode angle of 45­–70° is used to obtain the deepest groove. When air-arc gouging with 8 mm electrodes and using 100 m cable.ACA-384 Unitor ACA-384 is a DC electrode for gouging by the air-arc method. The fumes from air-carbon-arc electrodes are dangerous and must not be inhaled. Use approved ear protectors when working with air-arc electrodes and protect your body and head against molten metal spray. The depth and contour of the groove is controlled by the electrode angle and speed of travel. 35°) The position of the electrode when gouging in the overhead position 197 . Arrange for suitable ventilation or use an air mask. The amount of metal which can be removed increases with increasing current. WARNING! Wet or damp air-carbon-arc electrodes will give off splinters and are dangerous in use. every electrode has an ideal current level which is slightly below its maximum. the arc is used to melt the metal. It is possible to cut grooves with a depth of up to 25 mm. the welder will notice a considerable increase in electrode consumption. 35° will provide a normal groove depth and highest speed of travel. and the molten metal is then blown away by a jet of compressed air. The air blast is directed along the rear of the electrode towards the arc. A combination of wide electrode angle and slow speed of travel will produce a narrow. Most of those who have had some welding or cutting experience should be able to master the gouging technique by practising 2 or 3 times a day for about a week. smooth groove surface. the cable size should be minimum 95 mm2. The width of the groove will usually be about 3 mm wider than the electrode diameter. Hold the electrode holder so that the electrode slopes back from the direction of travel. Adjust the speed of travel to obtain an even. In this process. An electrode angle of approx.01 The electrode held at a narrow angle to the groove (approx. This method has several advantages – it can be used for cutting stainless steel and other materials which are difficult to cut with an oxyacetylene torch. deep groove. A typical application of the air-arc method is the removal of sections which have been welded to the deck for securing deck cargo (flushing). If the ideal level is exceeded. Damp electrodes must be dried out in a drying oven at 180 °C (356 °F) for 10 hours before use. However.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.01 198 .

. . . . . . . . . 214 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 I-FLUX-238 PF . . 204 18/8 Mo-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 IMS-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 IALBRO-237 MF . . . . . 202 ICROMO-216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02 199 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 ICUNI-30-239 . . . . . . .TIG WELDING RODS AND FLUXES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 IDUPLEX-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The electrodes Power source Argon do not melt. All rods are supplied in 500 mm lengths for convenient use. 3.02 Gas shielding Rod Work piece 200 . and also gives rod data and basic information on application areas and use. The filler metal is cylinder inserted into the molten pool in the form of a separate Return rod.tig welding rods AND FLUXES Introduction Regulator w/flow meter In Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG). TIG Welding torch Rods for TIG welding Unitor rods for TIG Welding are supplied in sealed plastic containers. The label on each container fully identifies the contents. an arc is struck between a Tungsten electrode and the workpiece. The process has cable a similar welding technique as gas welding but use Welding electricity as cable energy source. An inert gas flow (Argon) protects Gas hose the electrode and pool from the surrounding air.

28-1979 Mechanical properties of weld metal Impact Energy Charpy-V J/°C Not required Not required Not required Not required 27/-46 27/-62 27/-73 27/-29 68/-51 68/-51 68/-51 68/-51 Not required Condition AWS Tensile Yield Elongation Classifications strength strength min. MPa (0.2% proof) ER 80 S-B2 ER 80 S-B2L ER 90 S-B3 ER 90 S-B3L ER 80 S-Ni1 ER 80 S-Ni2 ER 80 S-Ni3 ER 80 S-D2 ER 100 S-1 ER 100 S-2 ER 110 S-1 ER 120 S-1 ER XX S-G 550 550 620 620 550 550 550 550 690 690 760 830 Not required 470 470 540 540 470 470 470 470 610-700 610-700 660-740 730-840 Not required 19 19 17 17 24 24 24 17 16 16 15 14 Not required *1) *1) *2) *2) As-welded *1) *1) As-welded As-welded As-welded As-welded As-welded As-welded 3.05% 201 . % min.8/ 0.3/ 0. wt% ~1.02 *1) PWHT 620 +/-15°C Heat in furnace to given temperature.5 ~1. hold for 1 hour.1 ~2. MPa min.5/ 1.3/ 0. hold for 1 hour.5 ~2. cool in furnace to 316°C and then in still air. Suffix -B2 -B2L* -B3 -B3L* -Ni1 -Ni2 -Ni3 -D2 Alloying system Cr/ Mo Cr/ Mo Cr/ Mo Cr/ Mo Ni Ni Ni Mn/ Mo Nominal value. cool in furnace to 316°C and then in still air.4 ~3.4 ~1. 0.5 * C max.tig welding rods AND FLUXES Classification Guide to AWS A5.1 ~1.0 ~2.5/ 1. *2) PWHT 690 +/-15°C Heat in furnace to given temperature.

02 17Mn4. E430D Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0. AP.1 Mn 1 Si 0.8. 1. per package 097-604850 202 .5 Product No. A48 (CP. E390D. casting and forgings 15Mo3.5424 / WMoSi Classification Type of current Welding positions Flux Materials to be welded AWS A5. Also recommended for welding of high tensile steels.0 Length mm. FP).05 0. 500 Rods per package 150 Net weight per package kg 1. FP).5424     DCNo flux required. E355D. 15Mo3 StE285 to StE400 E275D. Boiler & pressure vessel steel DIN 17155 NF A36-205 NF A36-206 BS 1501-261 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 Pipe material for elevated temperatures Fine grained steel DIN 17102 NF A36-203 ARGON 6–9 l/min 3. 19Mn5. AP. 15Mo3 A42 (CP.5% Mo-types.28 ER 80 SG EN 12070 W MoSi DIN 8575 SG Mo Werkstoff No. AP) 15D3.5% Mo steels and fine grained steels suitable for working temperatures from –45°C up to 550°C.IMS 210 Description: TIG welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloy creep resistant 0. 18MD4. plate. Imprint 1. A52 (CP. 15Mo5 St45. 2. Identification: Copper coated.6 Mo Fe 0.5 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation Impact value MPa MPa % ISO-V (J) ≥570 ≥480 ≥23 At +20°C = ≥180 At –45°C = ≥47 Packaging data Diameter mm.

In general. TIG welding of steel is suitable for thin sheets and pipes of small diameters where the wall thickness of pipes does not exceed 6 mm.02 203 . Thoroughly clean the welding area before commencing welding.5%) steel and fine grained steel suitable for working temperatures from –45°C up to 550°C. It is also recommended for welding of high tensile steel. A TIG welding rod used for Gas welding will become too fluid and give a porous weld It is therefore important not to use gas welding rods for TIG and vice versa. Gas welding rods for mild steel welding (including MS-200) have a low silicium content. IMS-210 can also be used to advantage when making root runs on large thicknesses where the subsequent filler and capping runs are done by arc welding with coated electrodes. 3.IMS 210 Unitor IMS-210 is a copper coated TIG welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed creep-resistant Momolybdenium (up to 0. have a high silicium content to keep the molten pool fluid. TIG welding rods on the other hand.

30CD4 3.1 Si 0. Elevated temperature steel DIN 17155 13CrMo4 4 DIN 17200 25CrMo4 NF A36-206 15CD 2.05 15CD 4.6 Mn 1 Cr 1. Identification: Copper coated. 20MC5 Quenched & Tempered steel NF A35-552 25CD4.5 Tensile Yield strength MPa strength MPa ≥560 >520 Length mm. 1. per package 097-305532 Mechanical properties as welded Temperature AW SR 680/2h Diameter mm. 500 ≥460 >440 Rods per package 56 Net weight per package kg 1 Packaging data 204 .5 Elongation % ≥22 ≥22 Rest Impact value ISO-V(J) +20°C ≥100 +20°C ≥130 Product No. Also recommended for welding of high tensile steels. 16MC5.7339 ER 80 SG * * Nearest ER 80-B2 Type of current Welding positions Flux Materials to be welded     DCNo flux required. Classification AWS SFA 5. 2.28 EN 12070 WCr Mo1 Si BS 2901 A 32 DIN 8575 SG Cr Mo 1 Werkstoff No.02 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0.ICROMO 216 Description: TIG welding rod for welding of low alloy creep and hydrogen resistant Cr-Mo steels.05 ARGON 6–9 l/min Case hardening steel DIN 17210 16MnCr5 NF A35-551 18CD4.2 Mo Fe 0. Suitable for working temperatures up to 550°C.

like boiler tubes. with pointed wolfram electrode. It is suitable for working temperatures up to 550°C. On heavy wall thicknesses it can be used for making the root run while filler and capping runs can be done by arc welding with coated electrodes.02 205 .ICROMO 216 Unitor ICROMO-216 is a ChromeMolybdenum alloyed rod for TIG welding of heat resistant steel. Direct current is used. 3. negative to electrode. The workpiece is welded with the Leftward welding technique.

12 2343 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 12 1.4437 Z6CND 17. Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440/1744.12 (T) 347 2338 34700/S34709 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C <0. Identification: Stainless surface appearance.4436 Z6CND 17. 316S11 X2CrNiMo 17 13 2 1. 1.8 Cr 18.Nb- stabilized 316S33 G-X10CrNiMo18 9 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 10 320S31 X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 347S31 X6CrNiNb 18 10 1.4571 Z6CNDT 17.12 C(P)F-8M Ti. per package 097-602979 206 .03% CF-3M 316S13 X2CrNiMo 18 14 3 1.8 Elongation % Rest Impact value ISO-V(J) At +  20°C = ≥80 At –120°C = ≥35 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile Yield strength MPa strength MPa ≥550 ≥320 ≥35 Packaging data Diameter mm. 500 Rods per package 42 Net weight per package kg 0.0 Length mm.02 Mn 1.4406 Z2CND 17. AFNOR NF A35.12ál’N (TP) 316LN Med carbon 316S31 X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1.12 C(P)F-8M J92900 1.4435 X2CrNiMoN 17 2 2 1.12 316Ti (2344) S32100/S31635 1. Imprint: ER 316LSi / RW 1.03% 316S33 X5CrNiMo17 13 3 1.5 Product No.5 ARGON 6–9 l/min Flux Materials to be welded W.12 (TP) 316L 2353 C<0.9 ER 316 LSi EN 12072 W 19 12 3 LSi DIN 8556 Mo 1912 Werkstoff No.11 316 (TP) 316 (2347) C>0.4408 Z6CND 17. 2.4401 Z6CND 17. low carb.18/8 Mo 221 Description: TIG welding rod with extra low carbon for welding stainless CrNiMo-steels.4410 1.5 Mo Fe 2.7 Si 0. ASTM/ACI SIS UNS J92800 S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 J92900 3.Nr.4404 Z2CND 17.4430     DCNo flux required.4430 Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.02 1554 573/574/576/582 A240/A312/A351 CF-3M Ext.4450 Z6CNNb17.8 Ni 12.

Remember there is considerably more shrinkage in stainless steel than in mild steel and the the tacks should therefore be placed as closely as possible. but with the advantages TIG can offer. When welding thin sheets and pipes (less than 2 mm) it is always an advantage to use TIG. Argon hose Small hole to let the gas escape Backing gas used to prevent oxidization inside pipes. it is a very useful filler rod on board chemical tankers. In piping this can be done by introducing argon gas and blocking the pipe ends. a suitable grooved back-up sheet underneath the weld will prevent oxidization.18/8 Mo 221 Unitor 18/8 Mo 221 is a rod for welding stainless and acid resistant steel. The Leftward welding technique is used. As 18/8 Mo may be used on both stainless and acid resistant sheet and pipes. . Burn-through is difficult to avoid when using coated electrodes on thin sheets. 3. Application areas are similar to those for the coated electrode 18/8 321 N. using coated electrodes. . . This filler rod may also be used as a root bead when welding thicker sheets with prepared V-grooves. or used as root bead in V-grooves. . Note: The hot surface of the back of the weld will be attacked by air unless it is shielded. The groove can subsequently be filled. ­­ 207 .02 . When welding sheets. combined with a pointed tungsten electrode alloyed with rare earth metals. TIG welding thin sheets and pipes­­ . For TIG welding DC negative polarity welding current is used.

Welding 316 LN stainless steel to duplex stainless steel C 0.14 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa > 680 Diameter mm. EN 10088 Duplex stainless steel X2 CrNiMoN 22-5-3 X3 CrNiMoN 27-5-2 X2 CrNiN 23-4 W. 2. 1. 500 >480 Rods per package 42 Elongation % >22 Net weight per package kg 0.0 Ni 9.5 Cr 23.0 N Fe 0.0 Mo 3.IDUPLEX-222 TIG welding rod for welding of Duplex stainless steel Identification: Stainless surface appearance. per package 097-725309 Packaging data 208 .0 Length mm.4462     DCNo flux required. No. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.9 ER 2209 EN 12072 W 22 9 3 L DIN 8556 SG X2CrNiMo N 2293 Werkstoff No.6 Si 0. 1.025 Mn 1.4462 1.02 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Dissimilar joints as welding unalloyed and low-alloyed steel to duplex stainless steel.4460 1.5 Impact value ISO-V (J) At +20°C=>50 Product No.4417 1. Imprint: RW 2293 NL/ ER 2209.4362 ARGON 6–9 l/min Flux Materials to be welded 3.

02 Remember to only use stainless steel wire brushes and chipping hammers when working with stainless steel 209 . Remember there is considerably more shrinkage in duplex stainless steel than in mild steel and the tacks should therefore be placed as closely as possible Included angle Root Gap When welding V and U butt welds the included angle and root gap is slightly bigger than for AISI 316 stainless steel. ­ Rapid cooling of weld deposit should be avoided as the material structure may suffer 3.IDUPLEX-222 Unitor Iduplex-222 is a TIG rod for welding duplex stainless steel grades like WNr. The rod can also be used for welding duplex to mild steel and duplex to stainless steel (AISI 304. but with the advantages TIG can offer. The deposit offers elevated mechanical strength and toughness resistance to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 316 LN). This filler rod may also be used as a root bead when welding thicker sheets with prepared U or V-grooves. using coated electrodes. The groove can subsequently be filled. In piping this can be done by blocking the pipe ends and introducing Argon gas. Interpas temperature should not exceed 250°C during welding. For TIG welding connect the torch to DC negative polarity. Application areas are similar to those for coated electrode Duplex-325 N. After welding.4462. A pointed Tungsten electrode alloyed with rare earth metals (Turquoise colour code) must be used. Shielding gas must be Argon. Note: The back of the weld will oxidize (oxygen will attack the hot surface) unless it is shielded. Burn-through is difficult to avoid when using coated electrodes on thin sheets. When welding thin sheets and pipes (less than 2 mm) it is always an advantage to use TIG. remove discoloration by using Unitor Pickling Paste.1. UNS 31803.

0815 Werkstoff No.4 Cu Rest Hardness HB ±115 Product No.5 Length mm. 500 ≥200 Rods per package 92 Packaging data 210 .7 ER Cu Ni BS 2901 C 18 DIN 1733 WSG-Cu Ni 30 Fe Werkstoff No. per package 097-335547 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥420 Diameter mm.0837     DCNo flux required.0 0.0 Mn Fe 1. cupronickel pipes) containing up to 31% Ni.0883 ARGON 7–9 l/min Flux Materials to be welded 3. 2. 2.0 Ti 0.ICUNI 30 239 Description: TIG welding rod for welding of copper-nickel alloys (cunifer. Copper-nickel wrought alloys Grade Cu Ni 20 Fe (DIN 17664) Grade Cu Ni 30 Mn 1 Fe (DIN 17664) Grade Cu Ni 30 Fe 2 Mn 2 (DIN 17664) Werkstoff No.02 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Copper-nickel cast alloys Grade G-Cu Ni 10 Grade G-Cu Ni 30 Werkstoff No. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.0872 Werkstoff No. 2. 2.0835 Ni 31.0875 Werkstoff No.5 Elongation % ≥30 Net weight per package kg 2. 2. Identification: Copper-nickel colour surface appearance. 2. 2.

Typical applications are welding flanges on pipes.ICUNI 30 239 Unitor ICUNI 30 329 is a TIG welding rod for welding of copper nickel alloys. Cunifer pipes. patching leaking pipes. pipe joints. beads can be laid in the horizontal position. If practically possible. For TIG welding DC negative polarity is used in combination with a thorium alloyed electrode.02 Permanently installed pipe. Permanently installed pipe. like. etc. Vertical axis. welding should take place in the workshop so that. No flux is used in this process. Typical applications 3. for example. Larger pipe diameters are usually TIG welded with Unitor ICUNI 30. as far as possible. use backing gas. Pure argon must be used as shielding gas. Small diameter Cunifer pipes can be joined by means of overlap joints (capil­lary action) using Unitor AG-60 silver solder combined with AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF. Whenever possible. 211 . Horizontal axis. Joint surfaces and adjacent areas must be thoroughly cleaned with a stainless steel brush or emery paper before welding begins. If practically possible use backing gas inside pipe to further improve the result. Thoroughly clean the welding and adjacent area with a stainless steel brush or emery paper before commencing welding.

0962 3.0 0. Wrought copper aluminium alloys: –  Grade Cu AL 5A (DIN 17665) –  Grade Cu AL 8 (DIN 17665) –  Werkstoff No. per package 097-519736 212 . 500 250–300 Rods per package 81 Net weight per package kg 1.4 Length mm.0918 –  Werkstoff No. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.5 Mechanical properties as welded Packaging data Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 500–600 Diameter mm.0920 Cast copper aluminium alloys: –  Grade G-Cu AL 8 Mn (DIN 1714) –  Werkstoff No.7 ER Cu A1-A2 DIN 1733 SG-CuAI8Ni2     DC- ARGON 7–9 l/min Flux Materials to be welded I-FLUX 238 PF. As 0.4 Elongation % 25 Product No. 2. 250 gram container. 2. 097-603092. Zn21. 96%.5 1.04%) Chemical composition as welded (W%) AL Mn Ni Cu Rest Hardness HB 115 8. Al 2%.IALBRO 237 MF Description: Flux-coated TIG welding rod for welding of aluminium-brass pipes also known as Yorcalbro pipes. 2. 2.02 Trade name types: –  Yorcalbro (Cu 76%. order No. Identification: Serrations w/greyish flux.

When the arc is extinguished the groove must be cleaned before the bead is continued. –  Cold bent piping should be annealed at 400–500°C for approx. Whenever possible. 20–30 min. pipes with a thickness up to and including 1. as well as the area covering approx.5 mm may be butt welded with a 1. –  Strike the arc on a separate piece of metal placed close to the weld zone. welding should take place in the workshop. Flux deposits must be washed off with water.5 mm root gap is recommended. Larger pipes should be TIG welded using Unitor IALBRO 237 MF. a 70° V-groove with 1. This alloy is widely used in seawater resistant piping. –  Use a contact thermometer when annealing Yorcalbro pipes.IALBRO 237 MF Unitor IALBRO 237 MF is a flux-coated filler rod for TIG welding of aluminumbrass pipes also known as Yorcalbro pipe. Horizontal axis. Annealing temperature 300–400°C for 30–40 min. no V-groove being necessary. Yorcalbro pipes with diameter less than 4" can be joined by means of overlap joint (capillary action) and silver brazed using Unitor AG-60 combined with Albro Flux 263 PF. –  As a general rule. 15 cm on either side of the bead should be annealed. position welding may be used with Leftward welding technique. Vertical axis.02 213 . –  Completed welds. Welding procedure: –  Piping must be unstressed before welding. This improves welding penetration considerably. For thicknesses exceeding 1. Permanently installed pipe.5mm. In TIG welding of joints it is strongly recommended that I-Flux 238 PF is applied to both sides of the joint and on the inside. in the horizontal position. In cases where this is not possible. –  Base material temperature during welding should never exceed 150°C Permanently installed pipe. –  Weld in long continuous beads as quickly as possible. –  Thoroughly clean the welding area with a steel brush or emery paper.5 mm aperture. Typical applications Also use I-flux 238 PF inside pipe joints 3.

Application Apply with brush.I-FLUX 238PF Description: Flux for TIG welding rod IALBRO-237 MF for use on Yorkalbro. especially on the inside of pipes. may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment Keep out of the reach of children Do not breathe dust In case of contact with eyes. Identification: White/Grey flux in paste form inside container. respiratory system and skin Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed Harmful to aquatic organisms. HARMFUL R22 R36/37/38 R48/20/22 R52/53 S2 S22 S26 S36/39 S46 S56 Harmful if swallowed Irritating to eyes. Working area should be adequately ventilated.02 Packaging data Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. 214 . Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. The flux is corrosive. seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point 3. 097-603092 *SDS available on request. rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection If swallowed. Use as additional flux on both sides of the joint.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.02 215 .

02 216 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    219 Storage and handling for Flux Cored wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    238 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    224 HST-SF-232 . . . . . . . . .    226 S 316 M-GF-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    228 S 309 M-GF-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    221 GPS-W-200 . . . . . . . . .    232 Ialbro-W-237 . . . .    218 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    236 Abratech-W-230 . . . . . . . . . . .    222 MS-W-201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 217 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    230 Icuni-W-239 .    234 Alumag-W-235 . . . . . . . .

The spools are packed in individually sealed plastic bags and cardboard cartons and labelled with information fully identifying the wire with technical data and classifications. Gas shielding Wire Work piece 218 . An inert gas.WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Introduction Regulator w/flow meter In Wire welding an arc is struck between a continuosly fed wire and the workpiece. shaft Diameter 50 mm. 51 mm width.03 Wires for wire welding (GMAW and FCAW): Description Unitor standard range of welding wires for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) is supplied on 200mm Diameter spools. The labels also provide basic information on use. torch Cylinder Argon CO2 Argon + CO2 3. Wire feeder The wire used can be solid or flux Power source cored. In some cases the flux Spool cored wire is self shielded Return and does not require cable any additional Wire welding shielding gas. active Gas hose gas or a mixture of the two protects the pool from the surrounding air.

15 - Mn 0.80 - P <0.90-1.70 0.85 1.50 <0.035 <0.15 0.90-1.50 0.90-1.65-0.07-0.03 219 .60 0.18-1993 Chemical composition of wire or rod C <0.07 0. MPa min.45-0.50 Classifications ER 70 S-2 ER 70 S-3 ER 70 S-4 ER 70 S-5 ER 70 S-6 ER 70 S-7 ER 70 S-G Mechanical properties of weld metal Impact Energy Charpy-V J/°C 27/-29 27/-18 Not required Not required 27/-29 27/-29 Not required Shielding gas AWS Tensile Yield Elongation Classifications strength strength min.025 S <0. % min.025 <0.70 0.025 <0.00-1.50 <0.50 <0.15 0.40-0.035 <0.40 0.07-0.80-1.40 1.50-0.025 <0.40 1.50-2.07-0.025 <0.035 <0.025 <0.50 <0.07-0.30-0.40-1.025 <0.2% proof) ER 70 S-2 ER 70 S-3 ER 70 S-4 ER 70 S-5 ER 70 S-6 ER 70 S-7 ER 70 S-G 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 3.85 0.035 <0. MPa (0.50 <0.06-0.19 0.15 0.15 0.035 <0.00 - Si 0.035 Cu <0.50 <0.035 <0.WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Classification AWS Guide to AWS A5.

MPa Elongation min. (10 ksi= 10 000 psi = 69 MPa. 0= flat and horizontal 1= all positions Indicates a cored wire Shielding gas= Ar/CO2 E 7 1 T -1 Indicates usability and Performance capabilities.20-1995 Designates an electrode Indicates primary welding positions. tensile strength in 10 ksi units.) AWS Classifications E 6xT-1 E 6xT-4 E 6xT-5 E 6xT-6 E 6xT-7 E 6xT-8 E 6xT-11 E 6xT-G E 6xT-GS E 7xT-1 E 7xT-2 E 7xT-3 E 7xT-4 E 7xT-5 E 7xT-6 E 7xT-7 E 7xT-8 E 7xT-10 E 7xT-11 E 7xT-G E 7xT-GS Tensile strength Yield strength MPa min. M Indicates min.03 Suffix Shielding gas Multiple-pass Single-pass Flux type Rutile Rutile Rutile Basic-Rutile Basic Rutile Basic-Rutile Basic-Rutile Rutile Rutile - - Current type DC+pol DC+pol DC+pol DC+pol DC+/-pol DC+pol DC-pol DC-pol DC-pol DC-pol - -1 x x x -2 x x -3 x -4 x x -5 x x x -6 x x -7 x x -8 x x -10 x -11 x x -G x x -GS x x 220 . % Impact Energy Charpy-V J/ºC 27/-18 No requirements 27/-29 27/-29 No requirements 27-29 No requirements No requirements No requirements 27/-18 No requirements No requirements No requirements 27/-29 27/-29 No requirements 27/-29 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 No requirements No requirements No requirements 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 414 No requirements No requirements 414 414 414 414 414 No requirements 414 414 No requirements 22 No requirements No requirements 22 22 22 22 22 No requirements 22 22 No requirements 3.WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Classification Guide to AWS A5.

Gas shield range Coils taken out of protective packaging may be exposed to normal on board workshop conditions for maximum of 48 hours. Deteriorated products Cored wire products that are rusty. properly stored to prevent moisture contamination.or moisture contamination.WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Storage and handling recommendation for Flux-cored Wires used in Gas-shielded Flux-cored Arc Welding and Self Shielded Flux-cored Arc Welding Scope Tubular cored wires on coil or spool for Flux-cored Arc Welding and Selfshielded Flux-cored Arc Welding. relative humidity max. Applicable for all types: Packaged in plastic bag and outer carton. dirt and dust. 60%. can be stored for up to three years. or have been exposed to atmospheric moisture contamination over long periods of time cannot be restored to their original condition and shall be discarded. Recommended storing conditions include: – temperature 15–250 °C.03 221 . Storage Tubular cored wire. During work stops exceeding more than 8 hours. 40%. Handling Self shield range. In all cases the products shall be protected against contamination of moisture. requires controlled storing conditions to prevent excessive moisture contamination. – temperature 25–350 °C. relative humidity max. Only products on steel coil can be stored in a holding oven at 40–1OO °C for a maximum of 30 days. even when packed in the original undamaged cartons. have suffered from serious water. the wire coils shall be stored under the conditions mentioned above in a plastic bag. unbaked version: Coils and spool taken out of protective packaging may be exposed to normal on-board workshop conditions for maximum 2 weeks. Cored wire. 3.

StE320.8.85 S ≤0.67–2. StE290. Wire identification: Solid copper coated steel wire on a spool. St44. 18 ER 70 S-6 EN 440 G422CG3Si1 DIN 8559 SG 2 Werkstoff No.5 m/min 22 V 10–20 mm Diameter mm 0. X46.08 Mn 1. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A 36-205 A37 (CP.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 StE255 to StE420 NF A36-203 E275D. St52. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33. X52. AP). A550AP DIN 17175 St35. DH. A48 (CP. E355D. A42 (CP.7. E390D. 17Mn4. 43D Ship plates   Grade A. E. Classification Type of current Welding positions Shielding gas AWS A 5.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0. B. A43-2. AP) BS 3059 Part 1 HPS 33 Elevated temperature steel NF A36-207 A510AP. E445D Materials to be welded 3.03 P Fe ≤0. C. St45. A530AP.0/4.05 Product No.7 API 5 LX X42. A52 (CP.0/4. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37. HII. StE240. 1. General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. AH. E24-2 (–4 to E36 –2 (–4) BS 4360 50D. D. PD ARGON +20% CO2 or pure CO2 10–15 l/min.GPS W 200 Description: Solid wire for GMA welding of structural steels.7.5125     DC+ PA PB PC PF PG PE.7.4 Si 0.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. StE360.025 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation Impact value MPa MPa % ISO-V (J) At +20°C = >120 ≥ 510 ≥ 430 ≥ 22 At –20°C = ≥70 Wire speed Volt Stick out 7. per spool 090-590117 1 Welding data Packaging data Net weight per spool kg 5 222 .7. E430D.8 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Deposition rate kg/h 0. AP). AP). EH Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.68 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1.

Stable arc and little spatter. It can be used for welding sheets in thin as well as larger thicknesses. Clean all rust. scale and old paint from the area.GPS W 200 GPS-W-200 is a copper coated welding wire for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed structural steel. Use 80/20% Ar/CO2 or pure CO2 shielding gas. 3.03 223 .

E28-2 (–3) E30-2 (–3) BS 4360 Gr. per spool 090-160100 7 Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 12 m/min. StE360.8 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Packaging data Net weight per spool kg 4. St44.01 Al Fe 2 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength MPa 615 Deposition rate kg/h 0.7.4–0. B.7 API 5 LX X42. StE320.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0. X46 DIN 1626-1630 St37.0/4. 40A-C.7 Si 0. All position welding.0/4 Materials to be welded 3. Classification AWS A 5. 43A-C Ship plates   Grade A. General structural steel DIN 17100 St33.MS-W-201 SELFSHIELD Description: General Purpose Self-Shielded Electrode wire for the welding of mild steel and ships steel. D Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.7. E24-2 (–4). A34-2. including vertical down.4 P 0. StE240. Wire identification: Tubular Flux Cored Wire on a spool. 20 V 9. StE290. .7.23 Mn 0. C. St37-2 to St44-3 NF A35-501 A33.20 Type of current Welding positions Shielding gas E 71 T-GS EN –     DCPA PB PC PF PG PE.5 224 .7.007 S 0.3 Product No.7 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1.5 mm Diameter mm 0. PD No shielding gas required.

It has all-position welding capabilities.MS-W-201 SELFSHIELD Unitor MS-W-201 Selfshield is a selfshielded electrode wire designed for the welding of mild steel where superior weld metal mechanical properties are required. Lifting lugs Motor base plates 3. It will make root beads in groove welds without backing bars. Typical applications General plate welding. Unitor MS-W-201 Selfshield has good arc action and low spatter for excellent operator appeal. Slag removal is very good with minimal slag sticking. including the 3G vertical up and vertical down positions.03 Joining deck and hull plates Mild steel welding in thin sheet metal 225 . including hull plate and stiffener welding on ships.

GS45. AP) NF A36-207 A510AP. C. D. General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. 50D Ship plates   Grade A.17 Mn 0. A52 (CP. 19Mn5 NF A 36-205 A37 (CP. PD Shielding gas No shielding gas required. E.28 P 0. X52.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0. A2. E355D. HII. AP).0/4 Boiler & pressure vessel steel DIN 17155 HI. A48 (CP. StE240.0/4.8. A3. Wire identification: Tubular Flux Cored Wire on a coil. TTSt45 Materials to be welded 3. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33.7. StE360.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 StE255 to StE420 NF A36-203 E275D. per spool On Request 7 Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 10 m/min. E24-2 (-4) to E36-2 (-4) BS 4360 Grade 43D. DH. AH. A42 (CP. BH E 71 T-8 T 532 NWH     DCPA PB PC PF PE. E390D.7 API 5 LX X42.7.1 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 27 At –29°C = 45 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1. St45. B. St44.20 EN BS 7084 DIN NEN-ISO NFA 81-350 T SS 51. 490 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St35.7 Coil size mm 245 x 75 Net weight per spool kg 6. 17Mn4. StE320.HST-SF 232 SELFSHIELD Description: General Purpose Self-Shielded Electrode wire for the welding of mild steel and ships steel.65 Si 0.7–5. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.33 Product No.009 S 0. E430D. AP).0/4.75 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 635 550 Deposition rate kg/h 1. St52. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. 18–24 V 12–25 mm Packaging data Diameter mm 1.2. AM2.7. A530AP. A43-2. GS52 BS100 A1. X46. 360 to 223/224/225-Gr. E445D Low temperature steel SEW 680-70 TTSt35. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37. TTSt41. StE290. AP). A550AP BS 1501 151/154/161/164-Gr.2.7. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.004 Al 0. AM1.12 226 .

Size diam. including hull plate and stiffener welding on ships. paint or primer. Recommended for single and multipass welds. rebuilding pitting corrosion in cargo and ballast tanks. On many applications the slag is self peeling. 3.HST-SF 232 SELFSHIELD Unitor HST-SF 232 is designed for the Self Shielded Wire welding of 5 mm and thicker steel.03 227 . rust. The Self Shield-232 also has excellent slag removal. Ideal for fillet welding.7 is recomm­ ended for welds where it is necessary to produce wider passes (weave technique) and for welding plate with contaminations such as oil. Self Shield-232 generates a fast freezing slag which supports high deposit rates. The superior arc action and handling of Self Shield-232 make it a high operation appeal electrode. Typical applications: General plate welding. 1. It has excellent low temperature impact toughness. out of position. Deposit rate up to 3 kg/h. This feature results in fast joint speeds for economical welding in the flat position.

per spool 090-597518 7 Welding data Packaging data Net weight per spool kg 2.4410 1.4450 Z6CNNb17. AFNOR NF A35.03 Si 0.2 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1.5 228 .12 (TP) 316L 2353 C<0. For posistion welding preferred Ar + CO2 Mix. Wire identification: Tubular stainless steel wire on a spool.8 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation Impact value MPa MPa % ISO-V (J)  ≥510 ≥350 ≥30 At +20°C = ≥47 -120°C = ≥32 Wire speed Volt Stick out 11 m/min 22 V 15–25 mm Diameter mm 0. A351 Ext.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C ≤0.5 Cr 19.9 Coil size mm 200 x 55 Deposition rate kg/h 1.4408 Z6CND 17.6 Mn 1.4435 X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1.Nr. 1. Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440/1745 W. 316S11 X2CrNiMo 17 13 2 1.10 Product No.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN X2CrNiMoN 17 13 3 1. A312.4571 Z6CNDT 17.4401 Z6CND 17.12 316Ti (2344) S32100/S31635 1.0 Ni 12.4404 Z2CND 17. carbon 316S31 X5CrNiMo 17 12 2 1.4430     DC+ PA PB PC PF PG Shielding gas ARGON +20% CO2 or pure CO2 22–25 l/min. low carb.2–3.22 E 316 LT 1–4/–1 EN 12073 T 19123 LPM (C) 1 Werkstoff No.13 á l’N Med.4437 Z6CND 17.03% 316S33 X5CrNiMo17 13 3 1.12 C(P)F-8M J92900 1.S 316 M-GF 221 Description: Flux cored wire for welding of stainless steel: 19% Cr/12% Ni/3% Mo types.12 2343 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 12 1.0 Mo Fe 2. ASTM/ACI SIS UNS S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 J92900 Materials to be welded 1554 573/574/576/582 A240.03% CF-3M 316S13 X2CrNiMo 18 14 3 1. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.4406 Z2CND 17.12 C(P)F-8M Ti-Nb stabilized 316S33 G-X10CrNiMo18 9 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 10 320S31 X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 347S31 X6CrNiNb 18 10 1.12 (TP) 347 2338 34700/S34709 3.11 316 (TP) 316 (2347) C>0.4436 Z6CND 17.4429 Z2CND 17.

For position welding Ar/CO2 is preferred. The wire operates with a very stable. When welding very thin sheet and pipes (less than 2 mm). If there is an overlap joint (capillary joint) silver brazing should also be considered. As shielding gas use preferably 80% Ar 20% CO2. smooth weld bead surface. 3% Mo types of stainless steel. spatter free arc producing a bright. 3. The slag is self-releasing. Pure CO2 can also be used.03 229 . TIG welding should be considered. 12% Ni. It is also suitable for related stabilised steel grades if service temperature is below 400 °C.S 316 M-GF 221 Unitor S 316 M-GF is a rutile flux cored wire designed for welding 19% Cr.

4580 Z6CNDNb 17. Also welding of clad steel.13 316Cb S31640 X10CrNiMoNb 18 12 1. Wire identification: Tubular stainless steel wire on a spool.4459     DC+ PA PB PC PF PG Shielding gas ARGON +20% CO2 or pure CO2 22–25 l/min. 1.11 316 (TP) 316 (H) (2347) 316S33 X5CrNiMo 17 13 3 1.12 316Ti S31635 X6CrNiMoNb 17 12 2 1.4 Si 0.03 Mn 1.Nr.2–3.4404 Z2CND 17.7 Ni 12.4573 Z6CNDT 17.5 230 .8 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation Impact value MPa MPa % ISO-V (J) ≥550 ≥450 ≥25 At +20°C = >47 –60°C = ≥32 Wire speed Volt Stick out 13 m/min 24 V 15–25 mm Diameter mm 0.4436 Z6CND 17.12 316Ti (2344) 3. AFNOR ASTM/ACI SIS UNS S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 S31635/ Materials to be welded First layer in 316S11 X2CrNiMo 17 13 2 1.5 Mo Fe 2. Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440 W.7 Cr 22.4401 Z6CND 17.4435 X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1.10 Product No.12 (TP) 316L 2353 CrNiMo- CF-3M claddings 316S13 X2CrNiMo 18 14 3 1.4583 Z6CNDNb 17.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN X2CrNiMoN 17 13 3 1. For posistion welding preferred Ar + CO2 Mix.13 316Cb S31640 –  Welding dissimilar metals: mild steel or low alloyed steel to stainless CrNiMo-steel up to max. thickness of 12 mm.4406 Z2CND 17.2 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1.22 E 309 Mo LT 0-4 EN 12073 T 23 12 2 LPM1 DIN 8556-86 E 23132 Werkstoff No.4571 Z6CNDT 17.12 2343 320S31 G-X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 1.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) X10CrNiMoTi18 12 1. C ≤0.4429 Z2CND 17.9 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Deposition rate kg/h 1.13 á l’N 316S31 X5CrNiMo 17 12 2 1. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5. –  Build up stainless overlays on mild or low alloyed steel.S 309 M-GF 222 Description: Flux cored wire for welding of stainless steel and welding mild steel to stainless steel. per spool 090-606041 7 Welding data Packaging data Net weight per spool kg 2.

03 Mild steel stiffener to stainless steel 231 .S 309 M-GF 222 Unitor S 309 M-GF is a rutile flux cored wire designed for welding of clad steel (compound steel). mild steel and corrosion resistant overlays on mild steel. No granulation of crystals up to 350 °C. Use 80%/20% Ar/CO2 preferably as shielding gas. Pure CO2 can also be used. For position welding use Ar/CO2. It can also be used for welding of stainless steel with chemical composition of up to 23% Cr. 3. and 2. stainless steel. no oxidation below 800 °C working temperature. 13% Ni.3% Mo.

No.ICUNI W 239 Description: Solid wire for GMA welding of copper-nickel alloys containing 10–30% Ni.0882 CuNi30FeMn2 DIN 17658 G-CuNi 10 G-CuNi 30 W.0883 W. 2.0872 2. 2. per spool 090-590109 232 .05 1 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥360 >200 Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 7.5 Cu Rest Hardness HB 120 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1. 2.0882 2.6 Elongation % ≥30 Ti <0.8 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Net weight per spool kg 2 Product No.0878 2.0835 UNS C 70600 C 71500 C 71600 Materials to be welded 3.5 m/min 22 V 8–10 mm Deposition rate kg/h 1.80 Packaging data Diameter mm 0.No.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Mn 0.2–2.7 ER Cu Ni DIN 1733 SG-Cu Ni 30Fe Werkstoff No. Copper-nickel wrought alloys Copper-nickel cast alloys DIN 17664 CuNi10Fe1Mn CuN20Fe CuNi30Mn1Fe 2. Wire identification: Solid copper-nickel wire on a spool. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.0837     DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.0815 2. PD Shielding gas ARGON 15–20 l/min.80 Ni Fe 30 0.

and for joining these to steel. use backing gas inside pipe to further improve the result. containing up to 30% Nickel. stainless steel. Use pure Argon as shielding gas. Thoroughly clean the welding and adjacent area with a stainless steel brush or emery paper before commencing welding. cast iron. bronze or brass. It may also be used to provide corrosion resistant overlays on cast iron and mild steel. 3.03 233 . Cunifer pipes with a small diameter and thin walls should be welded using TIG welding. If there is an overlap joint (capillary joint) silver brazing should be considered. If practically possible.ICUNI W 239 Unitor ICUNI-W is a wire for welding copper-nickel alloys (cunifer) in wrought or cast form.

PD Shielding gas ARGON 15–20 l/min.0918 2.63 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1. per spool 090-777972 234 .IALBRO W 237 Description: Solid wire for GMA welding of copper-aluminium alloys e.05 1 Packaging data Diameter mm 0. High resistance to corrosion and wear.0920 W. A12%.7 ER Cu Al-A1 DIN 1733 MSG-Cu Al 8 Werkstoff No. Wire identification: Solid copper-aluminium wire on a spool.0 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥430 ≥180 AI 8 Elongation % ≥40 Hardness HB ± 120 Cu Rest Melting range °C 1030–1040 Mechanical properties as welded Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 7. 2. Copper-nickel wrought alloys Copper-aluminium cast alloys DIN 17665 CuA15As CuA18 DIN 1714 G-CuA18Mn W. 2.04%) 3.Yorcalbro.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Mn ≤1. Zn 21.0962 Materials to be welded Trade name types: –  Yorcalbro (Cu 76%.No. As 0.5 m/min 22 V 8–10 mm Deposition rate kg/h 1. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.43–2.96%. 2.g.8 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Net weight per spool kg 5 Product No.0921     DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.No.

including aluminum bronzes like Yorcalbro. Use pure Argon as shielding gas.IALBRO W 237 Unitor IALBRO-W is suited for welding most bronze/brass alloys. If there is an overlap joint (capillary joint) silver brazing should be considered. 3. Yorcalbro pipes with a small diameter and thin walls should be welded using TIG welding. and for wear or corrosion resistant overlays on steel and cast iron. It is also suited for rebuilding or joining materials to steel or cast iron.03 235 . in wrought as well as cast forms. Thoroughly clean the welding area with a stainless steel brush or emery paper before commencing welding.

per spool 090-590083 236 .8. Aluminium wrought alloys: DIN 1725/Part 1: Aluminium cast alloys: DIN 1725/Part 2: G-AlMg3. G-AlMg3Si. Wire identification: Solid aluminium wire on a spool.ALUMAG W 235 Description: Solid wire for GMA welding of aluminium alloys with maximum 5% Mg.05 1 Packaging data Diameter mm 1 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Net weight per spool kg 2 Product No.5.4 Ti <0.15 Al Rest Elongation % ≥17 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥240 ≥110 Deposition rate kg/h 0.69–1.15 Mg 5.7Mn. AlMg4. G-AlMg3 8 (Cu) G-AlMg5. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5. AlMg3 AlMg2Mn0. G-AlMg5Si (generally all cast alloys containing magnesium as main alloying element) AlMg5. AlMg2.10 ER 5356 DIN 1732 MSG-AlMg5 Werkstoff Nr. 3. AlMg4Mn Materials to be welded 3.3556     DC+ PA PB PC PF Shielding gas ARGON 15–20 l/min.57 Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 12 m/min 23 V 8–10 mm Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1.0 Cr ≤0.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Mn 0.

AlMgSi and AlMg(Cu) alloys. Longer cables may cause uneven or interrupted wire feed. and also where high ductility is required. It is specially suited for welds which must be resistant to seawater and high tension. Use a stainless steel brush. Make sure that cast components that have to be pre-heated are well supported. torch cables of more than 3 m length should be avoided. not an ordinary steel brush which will rub iron oxides into the aluminium and contaminate the weld pool. 3. so that they do not sag when temperature rises. e. AlMgMn. Clean the joints and adjacent surfaces thoroughly. Cast aluminium should be preheated to approximately 300 °C before welding is commenced. Use pure Argon as shielding gas.ALUMAG W 235 Unitor Alumag-W is a magnesium alloyed wire for welding all common wrought and cast aluminium alloys.03 237 .g. Cast alloys that have been preheated must be allowed to cool slowly after being welded. AlMg. As the aluminium wire is quite soft.

Classifications Classifications Classifications Approvals Approvals Type Approvals of current Type of current Welding positions Type of current Welding positions Welding positions Shielding gas Shielding gas Shielding gas Materials to be welded Materials to be welded Materials to be welded Chemical composition as welded (W %) Chemical composition Chemical as welded (W %) composition Mechanical as welded (W %) properties as welded Mechanical properties as Mechanical welded properties as welded Welding data Welding data Welding data Packaging data Packaging data Packaging data Description: Self –Shielded Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing Description: Self –Shielded Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing Description: Wire identification: Self –Shielded Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing Tubular Flux Cored Wire on spool Wire identification: Wire identification: Tubular Flux Cored Wire on spool DIN 8555 Tubular Flux Cored Wire on spool MF 10-60 DIN 8555 DIN10-60 8555 MF MF 10-60 N.4 B B 0. ABRATECH-W-230 ABRATECH-W-230 ABRATECH-W-230 AC DC+/AC AC DC+/DC+/- PA PA PB PB PC PC PC No shielding PA gas PB required No shielding gas required No shielding gas Hard surfacing of: required Low/medium carbon steels. Austenitic manganese steel with 12.7 mm mm per spool kg Diameter Spool size Net weight 1.4 3.7 6. Mn Austenitic manganese steel with 12.03 1 26 Si Cr Si Cr 1 26 Hardness 4.6 300 X 100 15 mm mm size per spool kg Diameter Spool Net weight mm mm per spool kg 1.14 % Low/medium carbon steels.7 12 RC mm Kg/h weldmetal 8.5 m/min 32 V 10 mm 5. N.5 Cr B 0.6 300 X 100 15 1.5m/min SC 12speed/Voltage RC mm out Kg/h weldmetal Wire Stick Deposition rate Kg wire/kg SC 8.14 % Mn Mn Si 0. N.4 0.A. 090-230230 per spool Product No.3 Diameter Net weight6.5 Austenitic manganese steel with 12.5 Mn Mn 0.A.5 1 26 HRC Hardness 60 HRC Hardness HRC 60 Wire speed/Voltage Stick out Deposition Kg wire/kg 60 rate SC 12 RC Deposition mm Kg/h weldmetal Wire speed Volt Stick out rate Wire speed/Voltage Stick out Deposition rate Kg kg/h wire/kg / 32 V 10 5. per spool Product No.7 6.3 8.14 % Mn Low/medium carbon steels.5 C C 4.5m/min / 32 V 10 Spool size 5.A.3 SS-062802 7 238 . per spool 090-230230 090-230230 Fume class * 7 SS-062802 Fume class * 6. Hard surfacing of: Hard surfacing of: C 4.3 8.5 0.6 300 X 100 15 Kg wire/kg Fume SS-062802 class* weldmetal SS-062802 Fume class * 7 Product7No.5m/min / 32 V 10 5.

The deposit will crack because of its hardness at regular intervals without this cracks progressing into the base material Areas of application: Protection of surfaces subject to extreme wear and abrasion caused by solids or slurry. The wire deposit chromium carbides in an austenitic matrix.300˚C Feeder screws Austenitic Manganese steel must not be pre-heated. There is no slag to be removed after welding.200˚C Pre-heat to 200 . There is no need for shielding gas because the wire is a shelf shielded flux cored wire producing its own gas protection. Edge preparation: Left over of previous welds should be removed using gouging electrode CH-2-382. Pre-heating: Depends on steels carbon equivalent (Ce) and the shape and size of part to be welded. The required hardness is obtained in one layer.ABRATECH-W-230 ABRATECH-W-230 General information Unitor Abratech-W-230 is a hard surfacing self shielded flux cored wire with excellent resistance to abrasive wear under moderate impact and pressure. Specifically meant for dredgers and cement carriers facing heavy abrasion combined with medium and light impact. Wear plates Dredger Buckets 3.2 Ce 0.8 No need for pre-heating Pre-heat to 100 . Weld using a small weaving motion from side to side. We recommend as follows: Ce <0.2-0. The interpass temperature of the object not to exceed 250˚C Connect the torch to + polarity.03 239 .4 Ce 04-0.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.03 240 .

. . .   248 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04 241 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   244 Alumag-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   242 MS-200 . . . . . . . . . .   246 Aluflux-234 F . . . . .

Rods for gas welding Unitor rods for Gas welding are supplied in sealed plastic containers.2 mm (1/8 in) use Leftward welding. 3.GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES Top valve Introduction Gas welding utilizes the high flame temperature in the oxy-acetylene flame (3100 °C) to melt the base material. We distinguish between two different welding techniques: Leftward welding and Rightward welding. The label on each container fully identifies the contents. 242 . Rightward welding. The weld is an alloy consisting of the parent material and the filler rod. All rods are supplied in 500 mm length for convenient use. and also gives rod data and basic information on application areas and use. For material thickness above 3. Leftward welding.2 mm (1/8 in) use Rightward welding.04 For material thickness up to 3. Cylinder Welding Filler rod attachment Regulator Flashback arrestors Hoses Shank Non return valves/ Flashback arrestors Welding attachment Weld Filler rod A consumable in the form of a filler rod is added to the pool.

and for brazing. The flame will be shorter and sharper than the neutral flame. brass. This zone is less bright and more white in colour than the inner cone. and is used for welding cast iron. The inner cone of the flame has a bright blue light and extends only a short distance from the tip. and for soft soldering. The carburizing flame The carburizing flame has excess of acetylene.GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES The neutral flame Two distinct zones may be seen in the neutral flame. bronze and zinc alloys. When igniting an Ac/Ox torch one normally opens fully for Acetylene and only slightly for Oxygen. Hottest spot in flame 3100°C x Neutral flame. 3. obtaining a strongly carburizing flame. Around this inner cone is the flame envelope which is darker and less intensely blue. This flame is slightly hotter than the neutral flame. The oxidising flame By increasing the Oxygen flow slightly beyond the point where the secondary zone disappears one will obtain an oxidising flame (with excess oxygen). but is considerably brighter than the flame envelope. and is used for heating. 243 . with a shorter.04 Carburizing flame. and is recognised by a secondary flame zone between the inner cone and the flame envelope. approximately twice as long as the inner cone. Reducing the Oxygen flow slightly again will give a carburizing flame with a small secondary flame zone. By adding Oxygen (and if necessary reducing the Acetylene flow) the secondary zone will be reduced. Oxidizing flame. more pointed inner cone. This flame is neutral. cutting and for most steel welding work. and a neutral flame is obtained just as the secondary zone disappears. This soft flame (also called a reducing flame) is used for welding of aluminum and aluminum alloys.

5 3. R St 37. Classification Flame setting AWS / A 5. HII Chemical composition as welded (W%) C Si Mn S ≤0.2.5 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 20 +20°C = ≥50 Product No. U St 37. per package 092-539551 092-539569 244 .2.0 3.3 St 37.0 P235GH-P265 GH.04 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥390–440 Diameter mm.15 1. St 37.2.030 P Fe ≤0.0 Mechanical properties as welded Packaging data 3.2%.0.0. U St 37.2 R 60 EN 12536 OII BS 1453 A 2 DIN 8554 61121 Neutral Flux Materials to be welded No flux required. St 44.030 Rest 0. 2.3 St 44.0 Length mm. St 44. HI. 500 500 ≥300 Rods per package 280 125 Net weight per package kg 3.1 0. Identification Copper coated steel rod.MS 200 Description Gas welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed structural steel with a carbon content of less than 0.

Maximum temperature of the workpiece should be 350°C.04 20° 45° Vertical Rightward welding 245 . Select the blowpipe according to the thickness of the workpiece. It is therefore important that Gas welding rods are not used for TIG welding and vice versa. The flame should be neutral.MS 200 Unitor MS 200 is a Gas welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed structural steel. The MS rod is specially suited for gas welding. gas welding of unalloyed steel is suitable for thin sheets and pipes of small diameters. It can be used for welding thin as well as heavier sheets. TIG welding rods have a high silicium content making the molten pool fluid. scale and old paint from the area. Gas welding rods including our MS 200 for mild steel have a low silicium contents in order to perform satisfactorily when gas welded. thicker workpieces should be welded Rightwards. In general. Clean all rust. having a viscosity that makes in-position gas welding easy. where the wall thickness does not exceed 6 mm. For TIG welding use IMS-210. Select the diameter of the wire according to the thickness of the workpiece. 45° 45° Leftward welding 45° 45° Rightward welding 3. Workpieces less than 4 mm thick should be welded with the Leftward technique. Do not overheat the workpiece. For larger dimensions it may be advantageous to use electric arc welding with coated electrodes.

04 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Mn 0. Aluminium wrought alloys: DIN 1725/Part 1: AlMg5. Flux Materials to be welded 3.8.5 Cr ≤0. AlMg2Mn0. 3. G-AlMg3Si. G-AlMg3(Cu) G-AlMg5. 250 gram container. 3 Length mm.15 Al Rest Melting range °C 562–633 Product No. 246 . AlMg4. Shielding gas: Argon.4 Ti <0.7Mn. AlMg4Mn Aluminium cast alloys: DIN 1725/Part 2: G-AlMg3.ALUMAG 235 Description Gas welding rod for wrought and cast aluminium alloys containing up to 5% Mg.3556 Flame setting Slight acetylene surplus Aluflux 234 F. 6–9 l/min. Generally it can be used for all cast alloys containing magnesium as the main alloying element. Identification Imprint 5356 ALMG 5 Classification AWS A5. 500 ≥110 Rods per package 47 Packaging data Alumag-235 may be used for TIG-welding if High Frequency stabilized AC current is available. AlMg3.0 Elongation % ≥17 Net weight per package kg 0. AlMg2. G-AlMg9 (generally all cast alloys containing magnesium as main alloying element).15 Mg 5. Order no.10 ER 5356 DIN 1732 WSG-Al Mg5 Werkstoff No. 092-603043.5. G-AlMg5Si. per package 092-514265 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥240 Diameter mm.

3. always replace the lid after use. If the work pieces are thick. Slight surplus of acetylene. 247 . it is also recommended to use flux at the back of the joint. Make sure that pre heated cast components are well supported. The flux is highly corrosive on aluminum and should be removed immediately after welding. AC is required to break the oxide layer on the aluminium surface. Clean the joints and adjacent surfaces thoroughly. Therefore. together with ALUFLUX 234 F. not an ordinary steel brush which will rub iron oxides into the aluminum and contaminate the weld pool. Cast alloys that have been pre-heated must be allowed to cool slowly after being welded. seawaterresistant aluminum and cast aluminium. TIG (GTAW) welding For TIG welding of aluminium it is necessary to use a special alternating current (AC) power source with high frequency or impulse generator to stabilise the arc. Use a stainless steel brush. Repair of aluminium cover plate. Cast aluminum should be preheated to approximately 300°C. Carburising flame.04 Remember that fluxes can be contaminated. a flux which re­duces oxides and counteracts oxidation in the welding zone.ALUMAG 235 Unitor ALUMAG 235 is used for welding pure aluminium. This flux which is in powder form can be mixed with clean water into a paste that is painted onto the welding area and the welding rod. Gas welding In gas welding a flame with a slight excess of acetylene is used. by scrubbing with hot water. so that they do not sag when the temperature rises.

Application Mix to a paste with distilled water and apply with brush on rod and joint edges. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. The flux is corrosive.04 248 . R22 R48/20/22 R52/53 S9 S13 S22 S29 S60 Harmful if swallowed Harmful : danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed Harmful to aquatic organisms. 3. drink and animal feedingstuffs Do not breathe dust Do not empty into drains This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste HARMFUL Packaging data Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. 092-603043 * SDS available on request.. may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment Keep container in a well-ventilated place Keep away from food. Identification White flux in powder form inside container.ALUFLUX 234 F Description Flux for gas welding rod Alumag-235 on aluminium.

04 249 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.04 250 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   273 Albro Flux-263 PF . . .BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES Introduction .   274 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   252 Bronze-264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   258 FC-Wearbro-262 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   260 FC-Cast Iron-268 . . . . .   270 Bronze Flux-261 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   262 AG-45-253 . . . . . . . .   271 Wearbro Flux-262 PF . . .   272 AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   266 Tin-241 AG . . . . . .   268 Fluxes for Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05 251 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   264 AG-60-252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   256 FC-Bronze-261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The flux should liquify approx. Because brazing is a surface alloy the surface must be cleaned. but brought to the bonding temperature. The function of the flux is to dissolve oxides.BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES Introduction When brazing. Brazing is a mechanical bonding. Without the flux to suspend water vapour. a film will prevent the brazing alloy from bonding A clean surface with sufficient flux allows the brazing alloy to flow out and bind to the surface Brazing rod with flux Blowpipe Brazing alloy Base material When brazing. grease and oxides. the parent metal is heated to bonding temperature. detach them from the the parent metal and the rod. 100°C before bonding temperature. Welding is a chemical bonding which involves structural changes in the base material. This is the minimum temperature to which the parent metal must be heated to form an alloy of the filler metal and the parent material. the parent material is not melted. 3. This film acts as isolation that prevents bonding. The composition of the flux must be matched to type of brazing rod. When adding the brazing rod and flux we obtain a surface alloying. In most cases an oxide-film covers the surface of the parent metal and the rod before and during brazing. Each brazing alloy has its own bonding temperature which is independent of the parent material. and keep them in suspension.05 252 .

In Capillary Brazing the alloys are thin flowing in consistency (Silver brazing) and they are ideal for use in capillary joints. 253 . Brazing can further be divided into Capillary brazing/Silver brazing and Braze welding. In Braze welding the alloys are mostly thick floating in consistency and the joint preparation like in welding.BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES If the bonding temperature is below 400°C the method is termed Soldering. Note that they all utilise capillary action. 3. If the bonding temperature is above 400°C the method is called Brazing. Brazing Methods Soldering 400°C Brazing Capillary Brazing Brazing “Welding” Paralell surfaces with minimal space between.05 Typical Capillary/Silver brazing joints. Space between surfaces similar to that used in gas welding.

They are designed specially for use with the Unitor alloys. Phosphorous is prohibited (by Norwegian regulations) on brass pipes and red bronze. excessive bending should be avoided to ensure that the coating remains undamaged. Many brazing alloys contain Cadmium or Phosphorous. These elements offer certain advantages with regard to price. Even though special care has been taken to ensure flexibility in the coating.BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES Unitor soldering and brazing alloys have been selected with versatility and ease of use in mind. The label on each container fully identifies the contents. This reduces the number of alloys needed to be kept in stock and gives the operator an easier choice. Both elements. which is a suitable length if unnecessary bending of the rod shall be avoided. and may be dangerous if used incorrectly. however. It is good economy to braze the remaining part of a rod to the next instead of discarding the stump Both rods and fluxes are supplied in sealed plastic containers for protection against humidity. are dangerous or prohibited in applications frequently needed on board. Unitor brazing rods may therefore safely be used as true general purpose filler material onboard. Apart from the soldering tin. In addition a range of fluxes is supplied. Cadmium is extremely poisonous and must not be used on any piping or equipment carrying drinking water or food. Each alloy has been selected to cover a wide range of applications. either as addition to the flux coating on the rod. all alloys are supplied in 500 mm lengths.05 254 . but a number of these are developed for special applications. Where practical flux-coated rods have been selected to ensure the best soldering/brazing properties. and also gives basic information on application areas. 3. or with the un-fluxed rods. and only the cast-iron brazing rod contains phosphorous. In the industry there is a wide range of brazing alloys available for special applications. The soldering tin contains flux in ducts inside the solder. because the silver content can be reduced without reduction of the capillary effect. which is supplied on a spool. Unitor brazing alloys are all Cadmium free.

05 255 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

No. per package 093-174326 093-514240 3. universal brazing bronze (brass) rod for the brazing of steel. It gives a very smooth and attractive surface. 2. nickel and nickel alloys.6 Si 0. copper and copper alloys. cast iron. 093-603076. Mn and Sn guarantees a strong and high-quality deposit.35 Elongation % Al ≤0. Working temperature °C 900 Melting range °C 870–900 Flame setting Flux Chemical composition approx. Cu 60 Mn 0. The addition of Si.7 3 256 . 3 5 – ≥35 Packaging data Length Quantity mm.01 Zn Rest Melting range °C 870–900 Product No.005 Hardness HB 100 Ni ≤0.4 Sn 0.0531 Type of joint Classification Flame setting Neutral or slight oxygen surplus.8 RB CuZn A EN 1044 CU 304 BS 1453/1845 C2/CZ 6AC DIN 8513 L-Cu Zn 39 Sn Werkstoff. (%) Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. Identification Bare bronze coloured rod.05 Mechanical properties Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥490 Diameter mm. Classification AWS A5.BRONZE 264 Description An easy-flowing. per package 500 500 54 36 Net weight per package kg 1.

Remove inside burr. cast iron. Apply Unitor Bronze Flux 261 PF paste to the rod and joint edges. Do not use too large a blowpipe. Braze with Leftward technique. Bronze brazing requires thorough cleaning of the joint surfaces. 257 . Move the torch in a circle until the drop melts and flows outwards. Check the temperature by melting off a drop from the rod on the joint surface and move the torch in a circle around the drop until it melts and flows outwards. 3.BRONZE 264 Unitor Bronze 264 is used to braze welding steel. so any surplus after brazing should be cleaned off with hot water. The use of bronze rod for joint brazing has become widespread as brazing is easier than ordinary welding and requires less heat. Flux is corrosive. Repeat this process to form a continuous bead. Choice of blowpipe will depend on the thickness and size of the workpiece.05 Bronze Flux 261 PF. Cast iron joint surfaces must be clean and bright (i. good mating of the parts and correct working temperature. copper and brass with high copper content (red bronze) and also for welding brass and bronze. The flame should be adjusted with a slight excess of oxygen (oxidising).e. malleable cast iron. or you may overheat the joint. Melt of a drop. cleaned off with grinder). Brazing provides a tough. Clean off burr. Use silver solder AG 60-252 for Yorcalbro and Cunifer. strong joint. round off sharp edges. Graphite should be removed with a sharp tool or by means of chemicals.

2 3 Length Quantity mm. per package 093-233551 093-233569 Zn Rest 3.3 Elongation % 30 Net weight per package kg 1 1 Sn 0. May be used for brazing galvanized steel without destroying the galvanized surface. bronze.1 Ag 1 Hardness HB 125 Product No. (%) Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. Working temperature °C 890 Solidus-Liquidus °C 870–890 Working range Flux Chemical composition approx. aluminium bronze. Yellow flux. 093-603076. per package 500 500 69 32 Mn 0. cast iron and steel. Cu 60 Tensile strength MPa 450–550 Diameter mm. brass. Identification Flux coated rod.FC BRONZE 261 Description A flux-coated brazing rod for joining and surfacing copper.05 Mechanical properties Packaging data 258 . Classification NF A 81-362 59 C 1 ISO 3677 B Cu 59 ZnAgSi 870-890 Type of joint Flame setting Neutral or slight oxygen surplus.

Braze with Leftward technique. solid parts must be thoroughly pre-heated with a good spread. cast iron. Leftward brazing. Place the filler rod in the groove and melt off a drop. Brass may be brazed without melting the base metal.FC BRONZE 261 Description and uses Unitor FC-Bronze 261 is a flux-coated special brazing bronze with a low melting point for joining and surfacing copper. 3. Lift away the rod and spread out the filler before applying the rod again. Hold the torch at an angle of 35–40°C and the flame tip about 10 mm from the metal.05 10 mm 259 . Galvanized piping can be brazed without destroying the galvanized surface to any significant degree. due to the low melting point of the filler. A typical application. Unitor FC-Bronze 261 is specially suitable for position welding. Wash off surplus flux with water after brazing. For brazing brass and galvanized steel. use an oxidising flame (with surplus of oxygen). bronze. aluminiumbronze. brass. steel and galvanized steel. Heat the starting point to dark red glow. FC-Bronze 261 is not recommended for use on Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes. Paint Unitor Bronze flux 261 PF on the joint surfaces. Bulky. Joint preparation for brazing galvanized pipes. otherwise a neutral flame. use silver solder AG-60 252 instead. Workpieces up to 5 mm thick may be brazed without grooving. Round off the edges and clean thoroughly.

per package 093-233577 093-233585 3. brass. steel. per package 500 500 33 13 Net weight per package kg 1 1. Cu 49 Tensile strength MPa 400–600 Diameter mm.FC WEARBRO 262 Description A flux-coated wear-resistant bronze rod used for applying a hard-wearing surface to bronze.05 Mechanical properties Packaging data 260 . Also used for braze welding cast iron. cast iron and malleable cast iron. Blue flux. (%) Wearbro flux-262 PF (250 g container) product no. Identification Flux coated rod. 093-603068. Working temperature °C 910 Solidus-Liquidus °C 890–920 Working range Flux Chemical composition approx. 3 5 Ni 10 Elongation % 15–20 Length Quantity mm.1 Zn Rest Hardness HB 175 Product No. Classification ISO 3677 B-Cu 48ZnNi Si 890-920 Type of joint Flame setting Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. copper.

It has a low coefficient of friction and is seawater resistant. 3. Avoid over­heating. Powder residue must be removed after brazing. Building up worn teeth on a gear wheel. The surface must be cleaned down to bare metal and rough edges rounded off. copper. high strength and toughness. cast iron and malleable iron. gear wheels. Spread the filler out with the flame before melting off the next drop. The metal is tough. In the case of cast iron.g. Adjust the flame with a slight surplus of oxygen (oxidising) and heat the area where work is to commence to a dark red heat.05 261 . Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 is specially suitable for building up damaged machine parts which have been subjected to impact. bearing surfaces and shaft journals. Building up worn shaft journals. cams of all types. wear or bending strain. Apply Wearbro Flux 262 PF to the area to be surfaced. Due to its low bonding temperature. then continue the process. steel. The finished surface is easily machined. e. non-porous and easily machineable. the surfaces must be filed down with a coarse file to remove surface graphite. it is also suitable for braze welding cast iron. brass. valve seats. wear-resistant.FC WEARBRO 262 Description and uses Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 is a fluxcoated wear-resistant bronze for surfacing bronze. Apply the end of the rod to the surface and melt off a drop. Braze with Leftward technique.

(%) Additional flux not necessary. per package 093-682310 Rest Mechanical properties 3. Classification Type of joint N.A. Working range Working temperature °C 1170 Solidus-Liquidus °C 1150–1190 Flux Chemical composition approx.FC CAST IRON 268 S Description Flux coated rod for joining and surfacing cast iron and brazing cast iron to steel. Identification Flux coated rod. 4 Length Quantity mm. per package 450 14 Net weight per package kg 0. Oil impregnated cast iron may also be brazed with FC-Castiron 268 S.5 Ni Fe 0.5 Hardness HB 185 Product No. Pink colored flux. Flame setting Slight oxygen surplus. C 3.05 Packaging data 262 .8 Tensile strength MPa 250–320 Diameter mm.7 Si 3.5 Mn 0.

Braze with Leftward technique. Brazed connections are compact and machinable. As a general rule.05 Braze Leftward. allow the part to cool slowly in diatomite or dry sand. has high tensile strength and the structure and colour of cast iron. to 300–400°C. shape and thickness of the workpiece. Surplus flux must be removed. When the filler has flowed freely into the seam.FC CAST IRON 268 S Description and uses Unitor FC-Cast iron is a flux coated filler metal for brazing welding cast iron. It is usual to drill a hole at the end of the crack. Typical uses are brazing of cracked parts and building up worn surfaces such as gears and sprockets. Melt off a drop from the flux-coated rod into the groove and spread out by continually moving the torch. After brazing. Adjust the flame to give a slight surplus of oxygen (oxidising). The area to be brazed must be properly cleaned and any casting skin removed. The choice of method – brazing or arc welding – for repairs to cast iron depends on the size. The filler metal is extremely easy to work with. The filler also fuses to oil contaminated cast iron. Round off any sharp edges or corners. which should be kept at an angle of 15–30° to the workpiece. brazing is used for small machine parts and arc welding (cold welding) on larger. Do not stir the weld pool with the filler rod. more complicated parts. Heat the starting point to a dark red heat. Note that the weld pool must not be stirred with the filler rod 263 . Cracks must be surface ground or prepared with a 90° V-groove along the crack. Preheat the parts with a good spread of heat on either side. melt off a new globule and repeat the procedure. malleable iron and cast iron/steel joints. Brazing a cast iron manifold Building up worn parts such as gear wheels 90° Preparation of joint 3.

Working range Working temperature °C 730 Solidus-Liquidus °C 680–740 Flux Chemical composition approx.4 Zn Rest Hardness HB 130 Product No. (%) AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250 g container) product no. Cu 30 Tensile strength MPa 400–480 Diameter mm. per package 093-519744 3. 2. Identification Bare silver coloured rod. Classification ISO 3677 B AG 44 CuZn 675-735 DIN 8513 L-AG 44 Type of joint Flame setting Neutral. 093-778461. stainless steel.05 Mechanical properties Packaging data 264 .AG 45 253 Description Bare cadmium free silver rod for joining of all types of steel. This brazing rod gives a very good joint and can be used for brazing nipples.0 Length Quantity mm. sleeves and unions to copper pipes. copper alloys. copper. cast iron and hard metals. nickel and nickel alloys. per package 500 28 Ag 44 Elongation % 20 Net weight per package kg 0.

Coat joint surfaces with flux 265 . malleable iron. When silver brazing brass fittings to copper pipe. Maximum capillary gap is 0. silver brazed to a lathe tool 3.05 Brazing brass bends to copper pipes. AG-45 utilises capillary action and good mating of joint faces is essential to obtain the required. Melt off and spread a drop of the rod while moving the flame continuously.1 mm. and the flame must be kept in continuous motion until the flux has melted. (Norwegian regulations prohibit the use of filler metal with phosphorous content for brazing brass pipes or red bronze (sleeve bends)).AG 45 253 Description and uses Unitor AG-45 is a very fluid silver brazing alloy with high capillary action. Unitor AG 60 252 is recommended. the filler metal must have 45% silver content in order to obtain a proper joint. to the filler rod and the surfaces. The area to be brazed should be heated evenly to 600–650°C. nickel alloys. The alloy is cadmium-free and may therefore be used for brazing equipment carrying drinking water or food. AG-45 is Phosphorous free. stainless steel. Apply flux AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF. Maximum capillary gap between joint surfaces 0. Flux residue after brazing must be removed with hot water and a steel wire brush. which is in paste form. for joining all types of steel. For brazing of salt water-resistant Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes. cast steel. Too much heat may give unsatisfactory results. copper alloys. SG iron and hard metal. The joint faces must be cleaned properly.1 mm. It is essential to coat the surfaces with paste in order to «moisten» the metal and ensure correct capillary action. Hard metal bit. Use a neutral flame.

cast iron. high strenth silver rod for joining all types of steel.0 Cu 21 Tensile strength MPa 430 Length Quantity mm. copper alloys. per package 093-233601 266 .05 Chemical composition approx. Identification Flux coated rod. cunifer pipes type 90/10 and 70/30. 093-604371. 3. stainless steel.AG 60 252 Description A flux coated cadmium free. On Yorc Albro: ALBRO FLUX 263 PF (250 g container) product no. nickel. copper. 093-778461. Yorcalbro pipes (aluminiumbrass).5 Zn Rest Hardness HB 130 Product No. seawater resistant. 2. per package 500 24 Ag 55 Elongation % 25 Net weight per package kg 0. Classification ISO 3677 B AG 55 ZnCuSn 620–660 DIN 8513 L-AG 55 Sn Type of joint Flame setting Neutral. Pink flux. nickel alloys. (%) Mechanical properties Packaging data Diameter mm.5 Sn 2. Working range Working temperature °C 650 Solidus-Liquidus °C 630–660 Flux AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250 g container) product no.

On aluminum bronze and Yorcalbro. Use a neutral or reducing flame. the joint surfaces must also be coated with flux. etc. The patch should not be larger than necessary. Clean off any burrs. This can result in overheating of the pipe. Ideally.1mm. Coat the joint surfaces with flux. AG-60 is Cadmium-free and may therefore be used for brazing workpieces which will be in contact with foodstuff. Preheat thoroughly with a good spread. Clean the contact surfaces thoroughly. AG-60 is a capillary filler. The correct temperature is reached when the flux melts.g. Proper mating of the joint surfaces is essential. e. The larger the patch. Typical uses and types of joint on Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes 3. otherwise it may be difficult to obtain sufficient heat beneath the patch. a filler containing at least 50% silver is required for providing the joint with the same degree of corrosion resistance as the metal in the pipe. 55% silver. For capillary brazing of saltwater pipes. Brazing a patch on a pitted pipe. On other metals use AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF. the capillary gap between joint surfaces should not exceed 0. Melt off a drop of AG60 and spread evenly with the flame.05 Use additional flux AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF For Yorkalbro use Albro flux 263 PF 267 . preferably with emery paper. with slight surplus of acetylene. etc. drinking water. It is specially suitable for joints requiring high corrosion resistance and strength. In order to obtain a good capillary joint. patching pipes. In addition to the flux coating on the rod. unions. Cut out the patch and make sure it mates well with the pipe surface. use ALBRO Flux 263 PF.AG 60 252 Description and uses Unitor AG-60 is an easy flowing flux-coated brazing alloy containing approx. when brazing pipe nipples. the more heat must be applied to the outside of it in order to build up the correct brazing temperature at the centre of the patch. Large patches should be TIG welded. Flux residue should be cleaned off with hot water and a steel wire brush.

batteries. 1. (%) Additional flux not necessary.5 268 . If welding torch: Soft reducing flame. Sn 95. electrical connections.8 Tensile strength MPa 90 (Ms 58) Diameter mm.TIN 241 AG Description Flux cored lead free silver alloyed soft solder wire on spool for tinning and joining of electric conductors. electrical instruments. per package 093-777973 Cu 0. Classification DIN EN 61190 Sn96 Ag04 Cu0.5 Length Quantity mm. refrigeration plants.5 Ag 3. etc.7 Type of joint Flame setting Preferably use soldering iron.05 Mechanical properties Packaging data Net weight per package kg 0. Working temperature °C 230 Melting range °C 217 Working range Flux Chemical composition approx. Identification Flux cored tin wire on spool. radios. per package – – Product No.7 3.

oxides. The use of flux-filled ducts ensures that the flux melts before the solder. It is not normally necessary to apply any additional flux except in the case of materials having an oxide surface coating of high melting point (use liquid flux or hydrochloric acid).05 269 .TIN 241 AG Description and uses Unitor SOLDERING TIN 241 AG is a soft soldering wire on a spool. The surfaces must be clean and free from oily deposits. Apply the heat indirectly so that it travels through the metal to the soldering point. Heat may be applied with a welding torch or a soldering iron. 3. adjust to a reducing flame and avoid direct contact between flame and solder. Heat indirectly when using a welding torch. etc. A soldering iron is preferred. A soldering iron is recommended. the wire has ducts filled with high quality flux. but if a welding torch is used.

Flux powder may be mixed with distilled water or methylated spirits if a paste is required.05 The different types of fluxes are formulated to melt at a temperature just below the bonding temperature of the filler metal. Unitor fluxes are normally in paste form. Always wash your hands afterwards. avoid direct contact with the skin. In this way the flux medium acts as a temperature indicator and shows when the correct bonding temperature has been reached. especially if you have scratches or open cuts. Always replace the cap on the flux tin after use to prevent drying out and contamination. Fluxes for welding are dealt with in the chapter on welding rods. 3. but may also be supplied as powders. Surplus flux remaining on the workpiece after brazing should be removed by rinsing in clean water and brushing. 270 .BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES Fluxes for Brazing A flux must possess the following properties: • It must dissolve oxides • It must prevent the formation of new oxide skin • It must reduce the surface tension of the filler metal • It must act as a heat indicator • It must remain active for a time at melting temperature. Good ventilation is necessary wherever welding or brazing takes place. When handling flux. without burning.

obtain special instructions before use Keep locked up and out of the reach of children Do not empty into drains.BRONZE FLUX 261 PF Description Flux for brazing rod Bronze-264 and FC-Bronze-261. 093-603076 3. dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point In case of accident or if you feel unwell. Application Apply with brush. With FC Bronze-261: As additional flux on joint edges. seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) Packaging data Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. Identification Yellow flux in paste form inside container. With Bronze-264: On rod and joint edges.05 271 . Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. The flux is corrosive. Toxicity Harmful R60 R61 S53 S1/2 S29/56 S45 May impair fertility May cause harm to the unborn child Avoid exposure .

The flux is corrosive. 093-603068 Toxicity Harmful Packaging data 3. dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point In case of accident or if you feel unwell. Identification Blue flux in paste form inside container. Use as additional flux for surface that are to be overlayed.WEARBRO FLUX 262 PF Description Flux for brazing rod FC-Wearbro 262. R60 R61 S53 S1/2 S29/56 S45 May impair fertility May cause harm to the unborn child Avoid exposure .obtain special instructions before use Keep locked up and out of the reach of children Do not empty into drains. Application Apply with brush. seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing.05 272 .

seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point Toxicity Packaging data Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. Flux is corrosive.05 273 . With AG60-252: As additional flux for joint edges. With AG 45-253: On rod and joint edges. Application Apply with brush. R60 R61 R25 R34 S1/2 S26 S36/37/39 S45 S56 May impair fertility May cause harm to the unborn child Also toxic if swallowed Causes burns Keep locked up and out of the reach of children In case of contact with eyes. Identification Pink flux in paste form inside container. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice Wear suitable protective clothing. gloves and ece/face protection In case of accident or if you feel unwell. 093-778461 3.AG 60/45 FLUX 252 PF Description Flux for silver brazing rods AG-60-252 and AG-45-253.

zinc chloride. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. Flux is corrosive. other components and water. Application Contents Toxicity Apply with brush as additional flux for joint edges. may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment S2 Keep out of the reach of children S23 Do not breathe vapour S26 In case of contact with eyes. dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point S36 Wear suitable protective clothing S46 If swallowed. Potassium bifluoride. DANGEROUS TO ENVIRONMENT R36/37/38 Irritating to eyes. rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice S29/56 Do not empty into drains. HARMFUL. respiratory system and skin R48/20/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed R51/53 Toxic to aquatic organisms.ALBRO FLUX 263 PF Description Flux for silver brazing rod AG-60-252 on Yorcalbro. Identification White flux in paste form inside container.05 274 . 093-604371 Packaging data 3. seek medical advice immediatly and show this container or label Gross weight in grams 250 Product No.

05 275 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.05 276 .

. . . . . . .   300 Metalgrade Hi-Temp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   328 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   282 Cold Repair Kit-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06 277 . . . . . . . . . . . .   281 How to apply the product .   278 How do Cold Repairs work? . . .   296 Metalgrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   292 Metalgrade Express . . . . . . . . . . . .   316 Ceramigrade Abrashield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   284 Product overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   324 Rubbergrade 6 Remould . . .   320 Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   286 Leak Stop – Pipe repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   288 Metalgrade Ready-Stick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   304 Aquagrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . .   278 Typical application areas . . . . . . .   308 Ceramigrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   312 Ceramigrade Liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cold repair compounds Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   280 How to prepare the surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

They have excellent chemical resistance and are suitable for permanent immersion in many environments including seawater. The products are compatible with all ferrous and non-ferrous metals as well as most plastics. Where hot work like welding is not permitted due to fire / explosion hazard. The basic range of products is selected in order to provide a versatile program for on-board applications. Cold repair systems are cold-curing processes. hydrocarbons. oils and a very wide range of chemical solutions. The curing time is down to a few minutes for several of the products. and no need for energy in the form of oxygen / acetylene or electricity The energy is built into the consumable (product) and is released when mixing the base and activator. Where the base material is not weldable. Cold repair compounds require no rigging-up time. Unitor Rubbergrade products are cold-vulcanising elastomeric repair materials for use on rubber as well as metal components.06 Where there is a need for emergency repairs.cold repair COMPOUNDS Introduction Unitor Metalgrade and Ceramigrade products are a range of cold curing metal repair and rebuilding materials based on the latest polymer resin technology which is the result of many years of development. Certain casted metal alloys are not weldable due to their chemistry. The application areas complement and extend the various welding and related thermal processes already in use. Sometimes welding method / equipment / consumable or operator Activator + base 278 . and have in many cases proved themselves as permanent repairs. Typical application areas: 3. providing an even more complete repair system than previously. There is no risk of heat ignition or sparks.

cold repair COMPOUNDS knowledge is not available. be injected through small diameter holes. In many cases polymer compounds have better properties than weld overlays. Where there is restricted space.06 279 . Where you need non-metal repairs. as well as solutions for repair or joining of plastics and composite materials. Where distortion of base material is unacceptable. Cold repair systems offer solutions for rubber gasket repairs or moulding. if necessary. a new part can be “casted” with the repair compound. Polymer products can. resulting in distortion of the work piece. Large surfaces that are worn are also much faster overlaid with polymer compounds than with weld bead overlays. Where specific properties are required. Welding causes expansion and contraction. Specifically. chemical resistance and wear resistant properties are improved. If the base material is so corroded that there is nothing to weld on. 3.

The adhesion to the base material (substrate) is partly mechanical (approx. As the chemical reaction or “cure” progresses.cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS How do Cold Repairs work? Cold repair compounds are basically chemical reactions between resin (Base) and hardener (Activator) producing an extensive interlocking polymer network. Provided that these small molecules contain at least two reactive “groups” of “sites” per molecule. it does not influence the base material by diluting it . Since it is mostly a mechanical bonding. extremely long. the size of the polymer chain increases until ultimately the material becomes a solid. The type of base material is thus of no concern. 75%) and partly chemical hydrogen bonding (approx.the reactive components are generally liquids on account of their relatively small size or low “molecular weight”. the chemical reaction can proceed in a progressive. It is a cold curing repair method that needs no specialised application equipment or outside energy. chain-like molecules resulting from the chemical reaction between a large number of much smaller molecules. All these repair materials are essentially polymers. repeating units. 280 .06 In the uncombined state . chain building fashion to yield long molecules made up for regular. 25%). 3. i.e.

Create if possible a cross scoring pattern. 3. Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. Carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner before applying product. Roughen surface with a coarse file. Parts which should not adhere to the products must be coated with a release agent. Roughening increases the surface area and gives a better ”key” Most castings have an open structure that contaminants can penetrate into.cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS How to prepare the surface Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. Use release agent on the threads of a bolt. Profile 75-125 microns. rasp. pump repairs) should be abrasive blasted to a minimum standard SA 2 1/2. A die grinder. The blasting medium should be angular grit. needle scaler or angle grinder may also be used. Rubber surfaces must be roughened using the special abrading tool. make sure the surface is roughened. If grinding.06 281 . not polished. abrasive paper or saw blade. CRITICAL applications (eg. Abrading tool for rubber. Remove contamination using a cleaner then re-blast the surface. Parts which have been salt or chemically impregnated should be heated to 80°C by hot air overnight to sweat out the contamination.

If a critical application. Fluid grade materials can be mixed together in the base container. NB: The work site temperature must be above 5°C (40°F) in order for the polymer chemical reaction to take place.cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS How to apply the product Application should be carried out as soon as possible after surface preparation is completed.06 After securing the surface. This will also remove any entrapped air present in the mix. building up to the required height. add the Reinforcement Bandage. Mix Base and Activator until streak free. do not heap the product on. otherwise oxidation can take place. Wrap the bandage to required thickness and cover it with product. Do not apply product when relative humidity exceeds 85% nor when surface is less than 3 °C above the dew point. In order to add further strength to the repair. Incomplete Do not heap the product when mixing Spread out evenly 3. When applying the product on the surface to be repaired. Do not heap product when applying Press on a thin layer 282 . A good bonding is secured by pressing a thin layer of product onto the surface. This will lead to bad bonding and entrapment of impurities. squeezing out any impurities like oil and water. add more product. use mixing ratio by weight. working it down in cracks and openings. Paste materials should be mixed on a clean flat surface. Spreading the mixed product out thinly on a board will assist in dissipating the heat and slow down the curing reaction. Always measure out Base/Activator quantities accurately in line with the instructions on the data sheet.

06 283 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

The kits consists of: 1 set Leak-Stop II 1 set Metalgrade Ready-stick 1 set Metalgrade Express 1 set Metalgrade Rebuild 1 set Metalgrade Hi-Temp 1 set Aquagrade Rebuild 1 set Ceramigrade Rebuild 1 set Ceramigrade Liner 1 set Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild 1 set Rubbergrade 6 Remould 3. Each product has its specified place in the kit. The complete basic package is available in a handy kit. 106-659300 The Unitor Cold Repair system covers emergency repairs as well as permanent repairs on pipes. Unitor Rubbergrade products are cold-vulcanising elastomeric repair materials for use on rubber as well as metal components.POLYMER COLD REPAIR KIT-A Unitor Cold Repair System for High Performance Repairs Cold repair System KIT-A Total weight of kit 12. and have proved themselves as permanent repairs. The basic range of products is selected in order to provide a versatile program for onboard applications. The products are compatible with all ferrous and non-ferrous metals as well as most plastics. and the individual products may be refilled as needed. They have excellent chemical resistance and are suitable for permanent immersion in many environments including sea water.5 kg Product no. hydrocarbons.06 284 . providing an even more complete repair system than previously available. oils and a very wide range of chemical solutions. Unitor Metalgrade. including non-weldable materials. Aquagrade and Ceramigrade products are a range of cold-curing metal repair and rebuilding materials based on the latest polymer resin technology which is the result of many years of development. all types of mechanical equipment and machine components onboard. The application areas complement and extend the various welding and related thermal processes already in use.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 285 .

defects.10 kg 101-659243 0. It is used to seal joints. For pipes ø< 1" (25 mm) 1 tape 2" x 4' (50 mm x 1200 mm) For pipes ø 1-2" (25 mm . A ceramic and stainless-filled one part water based paste.95 kg 104-659250 286 . ducts etc. Set of 3 pairs of sticks giving: 0.16 kg 0. simply immerse in water then wrap around the leak.42 kg 101-663427 0. Ideal for repairs to leaking pipes. Base & Activator giving: 0.72 kg Repair Compound A two component extremely fast cold-curing metal repair compound supplied in Base and Activator containers. Cut off the needed length and knead the two parts together till streak free. Base & Activator giving: 0. It is temperature resistant up to 1093 °C (2000 °F).86 kg 101-659227 0. Used wherever there is an emergency and urgent need to get equipment back into action.50 mm) 1 tape 2" x 12' (50 mm x 3600 mm) For pipes ø > 2" (50 mm) 1 tape 4" x 12' (100 mm x 3600 mm) Base and activator in two separate sticks.23 kg 0.50 l Engineering Repair Compound. Set weight kg Product no. Use for sealing of leaks in pipes.5 l Engineering Repair Compound.PRODUCT OVERVIEW Repair Set Each set comes complete with all necessary application equipment technical data sheets and Health & Safety Data sheets.33 kg 100-630384 100-606006 100-630392 0. A two component normal cold-curing engineering repair compound. 0. cracks and voids in cast iron. A good machineable product with high mechanical properties and good heat resistance. A two component engineering repair compound. Name Description Leak Stop Pipe repair Sets Leak Stop I Set Leak Stop II Set Leak Stop III Set Metalgrade Ready Stick Set Metalgrade Express Set A special bandage impregnated with a resin system which is activated by immersion in water. The product can be mixed applied and will cure under water.25 l Rapid Repair Compound. Can be used together with Leak Stop to plug the hole before wrapping the tape. tanks. The Metalgrade Ready Stick be used to plug the actual hole before putting on the tape. Preferably mix above water. steel and stainless steel 10 pouches giving: 0. Base & Activator giving: 0.13 l Repair Compound.58 kg 101-659235 3.06 Metalgrade Rebuild Set Metalgrade Hi Temp Set Aquagrade Rebuild Set 1.

59 kg 103-659284 0. Base & Activator giving: 0.143 l Engineering Repair Compound A two component cold-curing vulcanising repair fluid that can be moulded or painted on to rubber or metallic surfaces.92 kg 102-659276 5. Specifically ment for Dredgers and Cement carriers. gaskets. A two component cold-curing vulcanising repair compound. For repairs of hoses. Provides a strong long term repair on rubber items or on metallic surfaces.143 l Engineering Repair Fluid.5 l Engineering Repair Fluid. impellers. Base & Activator giving: 0. Set 3 x 0. A two component ceramic cold curing fluid that is used as a liner in order to prevent cavitation and erosion found in fluid flow environments. Used for rebuilding heavy wear on pumps.59 kg 103-659292 3. A two component ceramic cold curing compound with excellent resistance against heavy abrasion. Set of 3 x 0.5 l Engineering Repair Compound.00kg 102-659268 0. Set weight kg Product no. valves etc.4 kg 102-725291 0. 1.06 287 . electric cables etc.PRODUCT OVERVIEW Name Description Ceramigrade Rebuild Set Ceramigrade Liner Set Ceramigrade Abrashield Set Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild Set Rubbergrade 6 Remould Set A two component ceramic cold-curing compound with excellent resistance to cavitation and erosion found in fluid flow environments.

29 °C/. 4"x12' (100 mm x 3. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. 2"x12' (50 mm x 3./Kit weight Leak Stop I 100-630384 / 158 g. 1 pc.20 °F Service temperatures Chemical resistance Health and Safety Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. 288 .e Leak Stop II 100-606006 / 232 g. 1 pc.6 m) black repair tape in a pouch 1 pc. Safety Data Sheet Grey knitted fibreglass tape Mixing ratio Ready for use as supplied only requires wetting with water before use Pot life (mins) (working life) 2–3 minutes Recommended Temperature Limits For Application 5 °C to 30 °C/40 °F–100 °F Curing time Technical data Curing times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial setting Full mechanical strength 18 Gauge knitted fibreglass Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C (68 °F) Bond Strength Tensile Strength Flexural Strength Hardness (Shore D) Dry heat + 260 °C/500 °F ASTM D2095-72 ASTM D638-111 ASTM D790-1-B ASTM D2240 16 kg/cm2 275 kg/cm2 159 kg/cm2 230 psi 3920 psi 2260 psi 20 °C (68 °F) 5 30 3.6 m) black repair tape in a pouch Application For use on pipe diameter 0–1" (0 mm–25 mm) For use on pipe diameter 1"–2" (25 mm–50 mm) For use on pipe diameter 2"–4" (50 mm–100 mm) With all kits comes 1 x pair of Gloves. Working data sheet. As long as good practise is observed Leak Stop can be safely used.2 m) black repair tape in a pouch 1 pc.LEAK STOP Product specification sheet – Leak Stop Product Description Identification Application data Product name/ Product No. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use. .e Leak Stop III 100-630392 / 325 g.e Kit consists of: 1 pc. 2"x4' (50 mm x 1.06 Phys / Mec properties 82 type (d) Minimum temp.

Surface preparation Remove all pressure from the pipe. So BE PREPARED TO WORK SWIFTLY. Leak Stop Repair Tape is a specially treated and knitted fibreglass impregnated with a polyurethane resin which is activated by immersion in water. 1. 289 . For plastic pipe. grease. Remove oil. A saw blade must also be used to create a cross hatch pattern. remove Leak Stop Repair Tape. Rough score surface Water activate Leak Stop 3. For active leaks when pressure cannot be removed: Holes should be stopped using a pipe repair clamp. Open pouch at the notch. Rough score a four inch (10 cm) path 360° around the pipe centring leak site. for about five seconds. you must roughen the area with a coarse file. This is particularly useful on polypropylene and PVDF piping. including gravity fed drip. as with copper or stainless.06 Position over leak site NOTE: Water activates the resins. Leak Stop works best on a rough surface. Abrade surfaces with a coarse grit sandpaper. the external mould release must be removed. If the surface is smooth. submerge the roll in water and squeeze two or three times. If the pipe surface is pitted by rust. WORKING TIME is three to five minutes. Areas of application: Repairs to leaking pipes. remove the loose scale. rasp or saw blade. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.LEAK STOP Instructions for use Before proceeding. so apply entire roll as any amount remaining cannot be saved. Mixing During mixing and application gloves should be worn at all times to protect the hands. 2. loose rust scale. sealant tape and paint from repair area.

After 5–7 plies. 3. wrap from bottom of roll. you will observe resin foam coming through the tape which is desirable and aided by pulling tightly. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed Leak Stop can be safely used. 5. smooth out Wrap while pulling firmly A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. smooth and firmly press the wet resin back into the wrap. Finish the final roll as if a single roll application. Wet gloves. 4. Application Remove roll from water and wrap quickly and tightly as follows: Centre tape over leak site. Wet gloves in water. KEEP HANDS MOVING QUICKLY AND WET GLOVES FREQUENTLY TO AVOID STICKING Continue rapid hand movement pressing and polishing resin in motions around and parallel to the pipe. The information provided in this instruction for use sheet is intended as a general guide only. Firmly press and smooth end of roll into wrap in the direction of application. 290 .06 NOTE: If thicker application is needed spend a little less time finishing the first roll and immediately begin the application of the next. Users should determine the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. building to a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12 mm) and use a second roll if necessary. Continue until entire roll is applied.LEAK STOP 3. Cleaning After application dispose of gloves. Continue process until resins are no longer tacky. pulling firmly throughout application. The repair should now have a smooth hard surface and an enamel-like appearance with no fibreglass substance showing throught the resins.

5 bar 1 1 1 1 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 3* 4* 5* 6* 7* 8* 400 psi/28 bar 1 1 1 2* 2* 2* 2* 3* 4* 5* 6* 8* 8* 9* 9* 3. Leak Stop I 100-630384 1 pc.5 bar 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2* 2* 2* 3* 4* 4* 5* 5* 1" (25 mm) 1 1/2" (38 mm) 2" (50 mm) 2 1/2" (63 mm) 3" (75 mm) 3 1/2" (88 mm) 4" (10 mm) 5" (125 mm) 6" (150 mm) 8" (200 mm) 10" (250 mm) 12" (300 mm) 14" (350 mm) 16" (400 mm) 18" (450 mm) Number of Leak Stop I rolls 150 psi/10. For use on pipe diameter 0–1" (0–25 mm). For use on pipe diameter 2"–4" (50–100 mm). 1 pc. For use on pipe diameter 1"–2" (25–50 mm). If used outside this diameter area: Leak Stop II 100-606006 Leak Stop III 100-630392 Nominal Pipe Size 50 psi/3.06 * Leak Stop III should be used in multiple roll applications 291 . 2" x 12' (50 mm x 3.LEAK STOP The Leak Stop products are available in three sizes.5 bar 1 1 1 2 2 400 psi/28 bar 1 1 2 3 3 1 pc. The product is recommended for pressures up to 400 psi (28 bar). 4" x 12' (100 mm x 3. If used outside this diameter area: Nominal Pipe Size 50 psi/3.6 m) black repair tape in a pouch.2 m) black repair tape in a pouch. 2" x 4' (50 mm x 1.6 m) black repair tape in a pouch.5 bar 1 1 1 1 2 1/2" (13 mm) 3/4" (19 mm) 1" (25 mm) 1 1/4" (21 mm) 1 1/2" (38 mm) Number of Leak Stop I rolls 150 psi/10.

Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practise is observed MetalGrade Ready-Stick can be safely used.86 kg KIT CONSISTS OF 3 x 120 g Putty Base 3 x 120 g Putty Activator 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Spatula 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Appearance Putty Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 5 °C 30 10 °C 25 15°C 20 20 °C 15 25 °C 15 30 °C 12 35 °C 10 40 °C 5 Colour Black Metalgrade Ready-Stick Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all necessary equipment all in one carton box set Activator Component Appearance Putty Identification Colour Beige / Brown Mixing Ratio Weight 1 1 Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 1 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.20 °C / .96 1.96 5 °C 80 180 10 °C 60 120 15 °C 45 90 20 °C 35 70 25 °C 30 60 30 °C 28 60 35 °C 26 55 40 °C 20 45 8 days 7 days 6 days 4 days 3 days 2 days 2 days 1 day 9 days 8 days 7 days 5 days 5 days 4 days 4 days 3 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D412 ASTM D4060 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D256 Wet heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 500 70 MPa 8 MPa - > 5000 hours 80 > 5 kJ/m2 Minimum temp .75 Kg Engineering Repair Compound Gross Weight: 0.METALGRADE READY-STICK Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Ready-Stick Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO Product No 101-659227 Metalgrade Ready-Stick 0.06 Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 90 °C / 195 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. Health and Safety 292 .4 °F Slump Resistance 15 mm thickness Excellent 10200 psi 1200 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.95 1. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.

METALGRADE READY-STICK Instructions for use Before proceeding. tanks. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. This should be broken off or cut from both sticks in the ratio of 1 : 1. especially in fluid flow repairs. A) Remove all contamination (oil. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. Mix Base and Activator in the ratio of 1 : 1. MetalGrade Ready-Stick is a two component. 3. 1. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. fast curing.06 Thoroughly mix by hand kneading until streak free 293 . D) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. Areas of application Sealing of leaks in pipes. synthetic metal repair compound. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a Cleaner. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to MetalGrade Ready-Stick must be coated with a release agent. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. Mixing Only sufficient product which can be applied within the usable life should be mixed. Cut off equal length of Base & Activator sticks 2. ducts etc. not polished. radiators. Alternatively a die grinder. Re-close the plastic wrapper sleeve immediately after use. C) Roughen the surface. E) Parts (for example. solvent free. the cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. Where possible. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. Cut off equal size pieces from both the Base and Activator sticks. preferably with abrasive blasting. needle scalar or angle grinder may be used. The two components should then be thoroughly mixed by hand kneading until completely streak free and in a uniform black colour. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings.

Hole in small diameter pipe Pipe Joints 5. 3. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the MetalGrade Ready-Stick is set. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. Machining Once the MetalGrade Ready-Stick has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed MetalGrade ReadyStick can be safely used. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. 4. grinding and machining etc.06 Valve taps 294 . When MetalGrade Ready-Stick is used to repair leaking pipes. The mixed material should be pressed firmly onto the prepared area. working the material into any cracks or surface defects. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. 6.The information provided in this Instruction for use sheet is intended as a general guide only.METALGRADE READY-STICK 3. sanding. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Application Prepared Surfaces should be dry.

06 295 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

7 5 °C 9 90 300 10 °C 8 45 150 15 °C 7 35 120 20 °C 6 25 90 25 °C 5 20 80 30 °C 3 15 70 35 °C 2 15 60 40 °C 2 10 40 1 day 7 days 5 days 4 days 3 days 2 days 2 days 1 day Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D695 ASTM D1002 ASTM D790 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D785 ASTM D149 ASTM D257 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 585 47 MPa 18. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.25 ltr Engineering Compound Gross Weight: 0.06 5000 hours Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.5 MPa 48 MPa 78 100 30 volts/mil 1 x 109 Ohm/cm Minimum temp .8 1.5 40 °C 1 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade Express can be safely used. Health and Safety 296 . Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.4 °F Slump Resistance 15 mm thickness Excellent 7000 psi 2700 psi 6600 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Flexural Strength Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Hardness (Rockwell R) Dielectric Strength Surface Resistivity Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.9 1 Colour Beige Paste Identification Appearance Colour Metallic Grey Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 1 Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 3 1/2 25 °C 3 30 °C 2 35 °C 1. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.6 1.86 kg Supplied complete with all necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 8 10 °C 5 15°C 4 0.20 °C / .METALGRADE EXPRESS Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Express PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 435 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Roll reinforcement bandage 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Product Description Metalgrade Express Product No 101-659235 Engineering Repair Compound Metalgrade Express 0.

abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. not polished. ducts etc.METALGRADE EXPRESS Instructions for use Before proceeding. C) Roughen the surface. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. Using the Spatula provided the mixed material should be pressed firmly 3. a cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. Mix Base and Activator from the respective jars onto a clean mixing surface in the ratio indicated. radiators. solvent free. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. Application Prepared Surfaces should be dry. needle scalar or angle grinder may be used. E) Parts (for example. MetalGrade Express is a two component. synthetic metal repair compound. Where possible. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to MetalGrade Express must be coated with a release agent. using the spatula provided. tanks. 1. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. preferably with abrasive blasting. fast curing. A) Remove all contamination (oil. 2. The two components should then be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. 3. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. Mixing Only sufficient product which can be applied within the usable life should be mixed. especially in fluid flow repairs. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. Alternatively a die grinder.06 Scored hydraulic or pneumatic rams Worn bearing housing 297 . On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings. Areas of application Sealing of leaks in pipes. D) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner.

If Reinforcement Bandage is used to strengthen the repair. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Additional MetalGrade Express should then be applied over the surface. 5. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a Cleaner. 4. Repairing stripped threads 6. 3. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed MetalGrade Express can be safely used. Once the MetalGrade Express has reached initial set the material can be separated from surfaces treated with release agent.METALGRADE EXPRESS onto the prepared area. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Machining Once the MetalGrade Express has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. When MetalGrade Express is being used to repair leaking pipes. grinding and machining etc. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set.06 Small pump housing repair 298 . working the material into any cracks and surface defect. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the MetalGrade Express is set.The information provided in this Instruction for use sheet is intended as a general guide only. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. the bandage should be impregnated with MetalGrade Express. sanding. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair. or the bandage should be laid over the surface of the MetalGrade Express and pressed into the surface.

06 299 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.20 °C / .9 1.5 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Gross Weight: 1. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Health and Safety 300 .85 5 °C 50 100 10 °C 45 70 15 °C 40 60 20 °C 35 55 25 °C 30 50 30 °C 25 45 35 °C 20 35 48h 40 °C 15 25 24h 8 days 6 days 5 days 4 days 3 days 3 days 14 days 10 days 9 days 7 days 5 days 4 days 3 days 2 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D695 ASTM D1002 ASTM D790 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D785 BS 4247 Part 1 Wet heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 540 55 MPa 19 MPa 38 MPa 80 100 Excellent Minimum temp . Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade Rebuild can be safely used.06 5000 hours Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 90 °C / 195 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.4 °F Slump Resistance 15 mm thickness Excellent 8000 psi 2800 psi 5600 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Flexural Strength Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Hardness (Rockwell R) Nuclear Decontamination Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.METALGRADE REBUILD Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Rebuild PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 933 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Roll reinforcement bandage 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Product Description Metalgrade Rebuild Product No 101-659243 Engineering Repair Compound Metalgrade Rebuild 0. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.5 Colour Beige Paste Identification Appearance Colour Metallic Grey Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 2 Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 13 25 °C 12 30 °C 10 35 °C 9 40 °C 6 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.7 1.08 kg Supplied complete with all necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 20 10 °C 18 15°C 15 1 2.

Lids should be replaced immediately after use. solvent free. oversized bearing housing. D) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner. scored hydraulic rams etc. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. not polished. 1. E) Parts (for example. C) Roughen the surface. Areas of application : Worn or damaged shafts. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. Alternatively a die grinder.METALGRADE REBUILD Instructions for use Before proceeding. needle scalar or angle grinder may be used. Where possible. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings. a cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. Mixing Mix Base and Activator from the respective jars into the mixing container provided in the ratio indicated. preferably with abrasive blasting. 3. using the spatula provided. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. cracked casings. 2. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to MetalGrade Rebuild must be coated with a release agent. The two components should then be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. synthetic metal repair compound.06 Hole in metal casing Worn spline 301 . distorted flange faces. especially in fluid flow repairs. MetalGrade Rebuild is a dual component. sloppy keyways. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. cracked engine blocks. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. A) Remove all contamination (oil.

6. grinding and machining etc.06 Once the MetalGrade Rebuild has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. If Reinforcement Bandage is used to strengthen the repair. the bandage should be impregnated with MetalGrade Rebuild. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair. working the material into any cracks and surface defect. Failure to follow this Flange rebuilt Worn impeller shaft 302 . Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed MetalGrade Rebuild can be safely used. the mixed material should be pressed firmly onto the prepared area. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. or the bandage should be laid over the surface of the MetalGrade Rebuild and pressed into the surface. Machining procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. 5. Application Prepared surfaces should be dry. 4. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. 3. Using the Spatula provided. The information provided in this Instruction for use sheet is intended as a general guide only. Once the MetalGrade Rebuild has reached initial set the material can be separated from surfaces treated with release agent. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the MetalGrade Rebuild is set. can be carried out using standard engineering practices.METALGRADE REBUILD 3. When MetalGrade Rebuild is being used to repair leaking pipes. sanding. Additional MetalGrade Rebuild should then be applied over the surface.

06 303 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade HiTemp can be safely used. 1 pc. Option 2) Air dry for 5–7 hours then cure at 100 °C (210 °F) for 2–4 hours prior to operation. bases and solvents.06 Shear Strength   6 hours at room temp.METALGRADE HI-TEMP Product specification sheet – Hi-Temp PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF Tin with repair compound.7 MPa 280 psi 390 psi 3.56 g/cm3 Coefficient of thermal expansion ASTM E-831-93. although sub-surface phase will not dry fully for 16–24 hours Best applied when the ambient temperature is: 7 °C to 35 °C/45 °F–95 °F Curing time Option 1) Air dry for 16–24 hours then gradually raise temperature to operating conditions. one working data sheet APPLICATION For use on hight temperature applications Product Description Metal Grade HI-TEMP Product No 101-663427 Kit weight 420 g.e With all kits comes 5 x pair of Gloves. . 5 pair of gloves. + Maximum temp. °C-1 8x10-6   6 hours at room temp. 24 hours at room temp. Health and Safety 304 .9 MPa 2. + ASTM D 1002   1 hour at 200 °C / 400 °F Service temperatures Chemical resistance 24 hours at room temp.6 MPa    90 psi 1.40 °F This product is resistant to a wide range of acids.40 °C/. Technical data Phys / Mec properties Specific Gravity 1. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use. Safety Data Sheet Pouch with metallic grey paste Mixing ratio Ready for use as supplied only stir Pot life (mins) (working life) 15* Identification Application data * Paste will begin to dry and "skin" immediately when the pouch is opened. Water blisters may appear if transition through 100 °C (210 °F) is too rapid. + 1093 °C/2000 °F Minimum temp. However. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. 1 pc. 0. immersion service is not recommended due to it's slightly porous structure. Working data sheet.

D) To ensure that all contamination is removed. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease should be removed using a cleaner. Mixing Hi-Temp is a ready to use. the surface should be cross-scored to improve adhesion. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to Hi-Temp must be coated with a release agent. they should be burned out at high temperature. preferably with abrasive blasting.  3. steel and stainless steel. It is formulated using the most advanced inorganic resin technology and is temperature resistant up to 1093 °C (2000 °F). Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading of contamination. the cleaner should be worked into the surface with a brush and washed off using excess cleaner. If embedded oils are present in porous castings. 1. working the material into any cracks and surface defects. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings. needle scalar or angle grinder may be used. stacks. Hi-Temp should not be used on aluminium or aluminium alloys. heat exchangers and turbines. Prior to applying the product. Let the product air dry for five to seven hours at room temperature. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. 2. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. 3. Use a spatula or putty knife and press the material onto the prepared area. Alternatively. a die grinder. single part paste. cracks and voids in cast iron. Hi-Temp is used to seal joints.06 Repairs pin holes. Application Prepared surfaces should be dry. Hi-Temp can be used for applications ut to 9 mm (3/8") thick. Abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. defects. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. NB. manifolds. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. make sure content is mixed thoroughly by stiring. C) Roughen the surface. A) Remove all contamination (oil. not polished. Use a small spatula and apply required amount of product onto a clean working surface. 305 . low pressure systems including incinerators. make sure the surface is roughened. E) Parts (for example.METALGRADE HI-TEMP Instructions for use Before proceeding. cracks and warped surfaces on high temperature. If grinding. carry out a final degreasing vith a cleaner. Metal Grade Hi-Temp repair compound is a ceramic and stainlessfilled one-part water based paste.

grinding and machining etc. Users should determine the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Machining First step Work procedure for heavy build up Second step Cure for 16–24 hours before applying second layer ­ 6. Let the product fully cure (16–24 hours) before adding another 9 mm (3/8") in a second step. First apply Hi-Temp. 4.METALGRADE HI-TEMP When used on heavy sections and where build-up will exceed 9 mm (3/8") use the following technique: Fill section up to 9 mm (3/8") in one step. 306 . Hi-Temp exhibit high thermal conductivity as well as excellent resistance to abrasives. Continue this procedure until the groove is filled. 3. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the kit. fuels. For repairing holes. oils and solvents. Cleaning In uncured state Hi-Temp is cleaned up with soap and water. It is also recommended that the paste be heat cured at 90 °C (200 °F) between applications. The information provided in this Instructions for Use sheet is intended as a general guide only. then form and place the screen inside the hole and then apply secondt coating of Hi-Temp to cover the screen. Health and safety Hi-Temp can be safely used as long as normal good practices are observed. and upon exposure to high temperatures would effervesce and bubble. Let the product cure again.06 When the material is fully cured for a minimun of 24 hours at 20 °C (68 °F). The water in sections above 9 mm (3/8") would not dry out. The reason for 9 mm (3/8") maximum thickness per layer for the Hi-Temp product is that it is a single component system in an aqueous solution. The water must have the possibility to dry out. 5. repairs should be made using a metal screen. sanding. can be carried out using standard engineering practices.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 307 .

Health and Safety 308 .4 °F Slump Resistance 15 mm thickness Good 5100 psi 2600 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.95 kg necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Mixing Ratio Weight 1 1 Colour Beige Identification Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 1 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.AquaGRADE REBUILD Product specification sheet – Aquagrade Rebuild Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 805 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Appearance Paste Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 5 °C 45 10 °C 40 15°C 35 20 °C 25 25 °C 25 30 °C 20 35 °C 20 40 °C 15 Colour White Aquagrade Rebuild Product No 104-659250 Engineering Repair Compound Aquagrade Rebuild 0.20 °C / .6 5 °C 360 480 10 °C 240 360 15 °C 120 300 20 °C 80 240 25 °C 90 180 30 °C 80 180 35 °C 70 150 40 °C 60 120 14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 16 days 12 days 10 days 8 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 6 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D412 ASTM D4060 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D256 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 625 34 MPa 18 MPa > 5000 hours 85 4 kJ/m2 Minimum temp . Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed AquaGrade Rebuild can be safely used.06 Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.5 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 0.7 1.55 1. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.

applied and set on wet surfaces or underwater in both fresh and salt water. AquaGrade Rebuild is a two component. C) Roughen the surface. The two components should be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free and a uniform colour is achieved. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. Where possible. needle scaler or angle grinder may be used. using the spatula provided. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. fastening and filling in underwater applications e. Application Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly onto the prepared area. valves. A) Remove all contamination (oil.g pipes. Mix in the raio indicated. Areas of application : bonding.AQUAGRADE REBUILD Instructions for use Before proceeding. solvent free. pumps. working the material into any cracks and surface Leaking pipes underwater 3. not polished.06 Pipes leaking water 309 . 1. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. 3. tanks etc. Alternatively a die grinder. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. preferably with abrasive blasting to SA2. AquaGrade Rebuild is designed to be mixed. 2. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. especially in fluid flow repairs. wet surface and underwater repair compound. Mixing Transfer the contents of Base and Activator containers from the respective jars into the mixing container provided. grease and dirt) with a cleaner.

4. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set.06 310 . Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed AquaGrade Rebuild can be safely used. Leaking tanks 3. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. sanding and grinding can be carried out using standard engineering practices. 5. 6. Apply on wet surfaces or underwater in the same manner as above water. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Machining Once the AquaGrade Rebuild has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet.AquaGRADE REBUILD defect. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 311 .

20 °C / .5 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.08 cc / 100 cycles > 5000 hours 80 3 kJ/m2 Minimum temp . Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed CeramiGrade Rebuild can be safely used.8 5 °C 90 240 10 °C 80 180 15 °C 60 120 20 °C 40 90 25 °C 30 90 30 °C 20 60 35 °C 15 60 40 °C 10 50 7 days 6 days 6 days 5 days 5 days 3 days 2 days 2 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 4 days 4 days 3 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D412 ASTM D4060 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D256 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 555 84 MPa 24 MPa Slump Resistance 10 mm thickness Good 12400 psi 3500 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.06 0. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.8 1. Health and Safety 312 .5 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 1.04 kg necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Mixing Ratio Weight 1 2.4 °F Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.5 Colour Off White Identification Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 2.CERAMIGRADE REBUILD Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Rebuild Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 895 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Plastic Spatula 1 Plastic Applicator 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Appearance Paste Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 5 °C 18 10 °C 15 15°C 12 20 °C 10 25 °C 10 30 °C 8 35 °C 6 40 °C 5 Colour Light Blue Ceramigrade Rebuild Product No 102-659268 Engineering Repair Compound Ceramigrade Rebuild 0.8 1.

Areas of application: Re-building pumps. E) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner. A) Remove all contamination (oil. solvent free. C) Roughen the surface. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. Where possible. turbine blades. D) Equipment which has been saltimpregnated should be heated to sweat out the salt contamination. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. Additional CeramiGrade Rebuild should then be applied over the surface. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. If Reinforcement Bandage is used to strengthen the repair. F) Parts (for example. or the bandage should be laid over the surface of the CeramiGrade Rebuild and pressed into the surface. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. then the surface re-blasted. Alternatively a die grinder. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings. 3. preferably with abrasive blasting to SA2.CERAMIGRADE REBUILD Instructions for use Before proceeding. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. especially in fluid flow repairs. CeramiGrade Rebuild is a two component. Repeat this process until all salt contamination is eliminated. synthetic repair compound. not polished. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to CeramiGrade Rebuild must be coated with a release agent. a cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner.06 Cavitation in housing Rebuilding end covers 313 . impellers. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. needle scaler or angle grinder may be used. 1. propellers. the bandage should be impregnated with CeramiGrade Rebuild. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. fast curing. valves etc.

Mixing Transfer the contents of Base and Activator containers from the respective jars into the mixing container provided. using the spatula provided. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Eroded impellers 5. When CeramiGrade Rebuild is being used to repair leaking pipes. 3. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. When a second coat is required.CERAMIGRADE REBUILD 2. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair.06 Corroded tube plates 314 . Application Prepared Surfaces should be dry. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the CeramiGrade Rebuild is set. working the material into any cracks and surface defect. this should be done as soon as the first coat has set. Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly onto the prepared area. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed CeramiGrade Rebuild can be safely used. grinding and machining etc. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. Machining Once the CeramiGrade Rebuild has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. 6. sanding. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. (within 4 hours) 4. The two components should be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free and a uniform colour is achieved. 3. Mix in the raio indicated. Once the CeramiGrade Rebuild has reached initial set the material can be separated from surfaces treated with release agent.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 315 .

5 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 0.4 °F Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.67 1.0 1.CERAMIGRADE LINER Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Liner Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 775 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Plastic Spatula 1 Technical Data Sheet 2 Safety Data Sheets Base Component Ceramigrade Liner Product No 102-659276 Engineering Repair Fluid Ceramigrade Liner 0.06 0.92 kg necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Liquid Colour Clear/Amber Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 45 10 °C 35 15°C 30 1 5 Liquid Identification Appearance Colour Blue Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 4 Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 25 25 °C 20 30 °C 15 35 °C 13 40 °C 10 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed CeramiGrade Liner can be safely used.55 5 °C 300 360 10 °C 240 300 15 °C 210 270 20 °C 180 240 25 °C 180 240 30 °C 150 210 35 °C 130 190 40 °C 120 180 10 days 9 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 5 days 3 days 2 days 20 days 15 days 15 days 14 days 14 days 10 days 7 days 3 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D412 ASTM D4060 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D256 Wet heat + 60 °C / 140 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 645 70 MPa 16 MPa Slump Resistance 2 mm thickness n/a 10200 psi 2300 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.20 °C / .09 cc / 100 cycles 5000 hours 80 5 kJ/m2 Minimum temp . Health and Safety 316 .

F) Parts (for example. Areas of application : Re-building pumps. then the surface re-blasted. Mixing Transfer the contents of Base and Activator containers from the respective jars into the mixing 3. preferably with abrasive blasting to SA2. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. especially in fluid flow repairs.CERAMIGRADE LINER Instructions for use Before proceeding. CeramiGrade Liner is a two component. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. A) Remove all contamination (oil. not polished. E) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner. 1. synthetic repair fluid. 2. turbine blades. Where possible. needle scaler or angle grinder may be used. D) Equipment which has been saltimpregnated should be heated to sweat out the salt contamination. Alternatively a die grinder. impellers. grease and dirt) with a Cleaner. Repeat this process until all salt contamination is eliminated. fast curing. solvent free. a cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. C) Roughen the surface.06 Impeller resurfacing 317 . the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. valves etc. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to CeramiGrade Liner must be coated with a release agent. propellers.

Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed CeramiGrade Liner can be safely used.06 4. The mixture is initially fluid. procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. Mix in the ratio indicated. 3. Once the CeramiGrade Liner has reached initial set the material can be separated from surfaces treated with release agent. 6. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the CeramiGrade Liner is set. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only. When CeramiGrade Liner is used to repair leaking pipes. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. Failure to follow this General wear on butterfly valve surface 318 . this should be done as soon as the first coat has set ( within 4 hours ). When a second coat is required.CERAMIGRADE LINER container provided. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Machining Once the CeramiGrade Liner has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Application Prepared Surfaces should be dry. using the spatula provided. The two components should be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free and a uniform colour is achieved. 3. Using the brush provided the mixed material should be painted evenly onto the prepared area. but becomes thicker as it sets. sanding. grinding and machining etc. working the material into any cracks and surface defect. 5. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair.

06 319 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

Excellent against water. The product will become brittle. Chemical resistance Health and Safety 320 .5 kJ/m2 70–75 MPa 5.06 Service Temperatures Dry heat + 85–90 °C / 000 °F + 80–85 °C / 000 °F .5 MPa Minimum temp 3. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed Ceramigrade Abrashield can be safely used. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use. ketones and chlorinated hydrocarbons.84 kg necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Colour Identification Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 38 100 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C to 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm 3 5 °C 120 380 10 °C 100 350 15 °C 60 320 20 °C 40 300 25 °C 30 240 30 °C 25 220 35 °C 20 200 40 °C 10 180 72 hours 7 days Volume Solids % Base 31.86 1. Against esters.5 DIN 53454 DIN 53455 SABS 1449–1996 ASTM B117 DIN 53505 DIN 53453 DIN 53452 ISO 4587 Wet heat Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 526 80–85 MPa > 20 MPa Slump Resistance 10 mm thickness Good 00000 psi 0000 psi Activator Base Mixed Activator 1.91 1. tests are recommended. aliphatic alcohols and aromatics. detergents. Resistant to solvents.9 30 Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Flexural Strength Lap Shear Strength Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 90–95 mm3 > 5000 hours 78–81 2.4 kg Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 5.20 °C impact resistance will be considerably reduced.CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Abrashield Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 5400 g Base + Activator (3600 g Base in a 2 liter tin) (1800 g Activator in a 1 liter tin) 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Appearance Paste Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 5 °C 50 10 °C 45 15°C 35 20 °C 25 25 °C 15 30 °C 11 35 °C 8 40 °C 5 Colour White Red Mixing Ratio Weight 33 100 Ceramigrade Abrashield Product No 102-725291 Engineering Repair Compound Ceramigrade Abrashield 5. diluted acids and alkaline.4 °F Below . grease.20 °C / . Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. oil.

Mixing Transfer the content of Base and Activator containers from the respective jars onto a clean mixing plate. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. 1. E) Where deep abrasive wear and/or a high build up is required.CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD Instructions for use Before proceeding. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. synthetic repair compound. Application Prepared surfaces should be dry. fast curing.8 Kg per 1m2 on 1 mm thick application. Machining Ones the Ceramigrade Abrashield has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. sanding. Afterwards add more product.06 .Surface preparation A) Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. Alternatively a die grinder. building up to the required height. Ceramigrade Abrashield is a two component. The two components should be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free and a uniform colour is achieved. Mix in the ratio indicated. “Anchoring “ the product in this way will give a better key. 2. D) Surfaces subject to abrasive wear is often gouged out and highly polished and must be cross-scored to secure bonding. the surface should be cross-scored to improve adhesion. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. First pressing and squeezing a thin layer of product hard onto the surface secure a good bonding. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. Areas of application: Protection of surfaces subject to extreme wear and abrasion caused by solids or slurry. 3. It consists of large ceramic particles in an epoxy matrix. working the material into groves and surface defects. solvent free. 5. Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly onto the prepared area. grinding and machining etc. Failure to follow this 321 3. needle scaler or angle grinder may be used. using the spatula provided. Specifically meant for Dredgers and Cement carriers facing heavy abrasion combined with medium and light impact. Where possible. Guide to coverage rate: 1. Preferably the mixing ratio should be by weight. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings C) Roughen the surface preferably with abrasive blasting to SA2. not polished. 4. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. bonding can be secured and improved by welding small angle irons to the surface to be coated.

The welding runs give the polymer side support and stability. Users should determine the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed Ceramigrade Abrashield can be safely used. Ceramigrade Abrashield can also be used in combination with the hard surfacing electrode Abratech-330 to fill in between runs.CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable.06 Improve addition by “Anchoring” the product by welding small angle irons to the surface to be coated. Edges are welded with Abratech-330. 322 . Wear plates and conveyer line pan Bearing plates for clinker chutes Grading and vibrating screens. 6. Large surfaces filled in with Ceramigrade Abrashield 3. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 323 .

RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD Product specification sheet – Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 3 x 150 g packs Base + Activator 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Pair of gloves 1 Technical Data Sheet 2 Safety Data Sheets Base Component Product Description Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild Product No 103-659284 Engineering Repair Compound Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild 0.5 MPa 260 % 65 Minimum temp . Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild can be safely used. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Health and Safety 324 .98 1.43 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 590 g necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Liquid Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 15 10 °C 10 15°C 10 - - Colour Brown Paste Identification Appearance Colour Black Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume - - Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 8 25 °C 8 30 °C 7 35 °C 6 40 °C 5 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.04 5 °C 60 480 10 °C 50 240 15 °C 35 180 20 °C 25 180 25 °C 25 150 30 °C 20 150 35 °C 15 150 40 °C 15 120 14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 18 days 15 days 14 days 12 days 12 days 8 days 7 days 7 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D624 ASTM D790 ASTM D2240 ASTM D149 ASTM D257 ASTM D257 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 962 4 MPa 4.2 0. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.20 °C / .4 °F Slump Resistance 12 1/2 mm thickness Excellent 600 psi 650 psi Activator Base Mixed Tensile Strength Tear Strength Elongation Hardness (Shore A) Dielectric Strength Surface Resistivity Volume Resistivity Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.06 Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.

please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. Cut any corner and squeeze out the RubberGrade 6 Rebuild onto the repair surface/s. ducting. impellers. synthetic rubber repair compound. 1. The contents are now ready to be mixed. Mixing Remove the twin pack from the aluminium outer foil by cutting along the lines indicated. working the material into any cracks and surface 3. solvent free. Take care not to puncture the pack. If there is.RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD Instructions for use Before proceeding. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner.06 Hose repairs 325 . valves etc. these surfaces should be treated with a release agent. All surfaces MUST be dry. The pack will warm up as it is being mixed. rubber rollers. Areas of application: hoses. Any areas of frayed or fragmented rubber should be cut away to provide a sound repair area. Electrical insulation repairs Ensure there is no unmixed material caught in the corners of the pack. Application Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly onto the prepared area. All loose dust particles must be removed and the surface wiped with a cleaner. RubberGrade 6 Rebuild is a two component. gaskets. 3. ease them out of the corners using the white plastic clip. 2. Edges of repair areas should be rebuilt. Remove the divider strip ( black rubber ) and take off the plastic divider clip. On certain repairs such as gaskets and castings where one surface is not required to bond to RubberGrade 6 Rebuild. Mix the two components by kneading and squashing them together for 4 -5 minutes. Rubber surfaces are best roughened using a stiff-bristled or stiff-wire brush.

Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. 5.RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD defects. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable.06 Electrical insulation repairs 326 . Machining Once the RubberGrade 6 Rebuild has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. sanding and grinding can be carried out using standard engineering practices. 6. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed RubberGrade 6 Rebuild can be safely used. Gaskets and seals repairs 3. Take care not to trap air bubbles in deep cavities. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. 4. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 327 .

For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.5 MPa 250 % 65 Minimum temp .20 °C / . Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.04 5 °C 60 480 10 °C 50 240 15 °C 35 180 20 °C 25 180 25 °C 25 150 30 °C 20 150 35 °C 15 150 40 °C 15 120 14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 18 days 15 days 14 days 12 days 12 days 8 days 7 days 7 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D624 ASTM D790 ASTM D2240 ASTM D149 ASTM D257 ASTM D257 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 962 7 MPa 4.43 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 590 g necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Liquid Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 15 10 °C 10 15°C 10 - - Colour Brown Liquid Identification Appearance Colour Black Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume - - Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 8 25 °C 8 30 °C 7 35 °C 6 40 °C 5 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.98 1. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed Rubbergrade 6 Remould can be safely used.RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD Product specification sheet – Rubbergrade 6 Remould PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 3 x 150 g packs Base + Activator 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Pair of gloves 1 Technical Data Sheet 2 Safety Data Sheets Base Component Product Description Rubbergrade 6 Remould Product No 103-659292 Engineering Repair Fluid Rubbergrade 6 Remould 0.06 Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.2 0. Health and Safety 328 .4 °F Slump Resistance 12 1/2 mm thickness 1015 psi 650 psi Activator Base Mixed Tensile Strength Tear Strength Elongation Hardness (Shore A) Dielectric Strength Surface Resistivity Volume Resistivity Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.

synthetic rubber repair compound. Areas of application : hoses. Edges of repair areas should be rebuilt. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. rubber rollers. Castings of shock absorbers Ensure there is no unmixed material caught in the corners of the pack. RubberGrade 6 ReMould is a two component. valves etc. 2. If there is. ease them out of the corners using the white plastic clip. solvent free. these surfaces should be treated with release agent. All surfaces MUST be dry. Mix the two components by kneading and squashing them together for 4 -5 minutes. Cut any corner and pour out the RubberGrade 6 ReMould onto the repair surface/s. ducting. 3. gaskets.06 Making a new O-ring 329 . Remove the divider strip ( black rubber ) and take off the plastic divider clip. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. The contents are now ready to be mixed. Take care not to puncture the pack. All loose dust particles must be removed and the surface wiped with a cleaner. Rubber surfaces are best roughened using a stiff-bristled or stiff-wire brush.RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD Instructions for use Before proceeding. Mixing Remove the twin pack from the aluminium outer foil by cutting along the lines indicated. 1. The pack will warm up as it is being mixed. On certain repairs such as gaskets and castings where one surface is not required to bond to RubberGrade 6 ReMould. Any areas of frayed or fragmented rubber should be cut away to provide a sound repair area. impellers.

Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. sanding and grinding can be carried out using standard engineering practices. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only. Machining Once the RubberGrade 6 ReMould has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. Flanges and mating repairs Hatch cover seals 3. 4. Take care not to trap air bubbles in deep cavities. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed RubberGrade 6 ReMould can be safely used.06 330 . working the material into any cracks and surface defects.RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD 3. 6. 5. Application Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly over the prepared area.

06 331 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

06 332 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .   403 Plasma cutting & gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   441 Current distribution system . . . . .   335 TIG welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   455 4. . . . .   335 Electrode welding & gouging . . .01 333 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   381 Wire welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARC PROCESSES & EQUIPMENT electric Welding Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

01 334 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

. . .   340 Selecting power source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   358 Primary extension cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   342 UWI-150 . . . .   374 Air Carbon arc gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   348 UWR-320TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   336 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cable connectors & return clamp assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   360 Electrode holders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   370 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   344 UWI-203TP . . . . . .01 335 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   371 Edge preparation . .   352 UWR-852 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   377 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   350 UWI-400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   363 Accessories . . . . . . . .   373 Electrodes for electrode welding & gouging .   339 Power source characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   359 Secondary cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

In 1938. Different electrode holders are required depending on the type of welding work. The electrode is consumed and acts as a filler material mixing with the melted base material to fill up the joint. but it took some years of refining coatings and testing the reliability of welded joints before the process was accepted in the fabrication of steel constructions. In this chapter the following will be described: • Normal welding/gouging with coated electrodes • Air-Carbon-Arc gouging with copper coated carbon electrodes Each of these areas require their special electrode holder.01 Arc processes require a complete electric circuit. and to melt the tip of the coated electrode. as for all arc welding processes. The first coated electrode was patented by the Swedish engineer Oskar Kjellsberg in 1905. a process that was first introduced in 1888 in Russia. By selecting the correct electrode. 4. most metallic material may be arc welded in any position and in any thickness down to approximately 2 mm.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Introduction The principle of Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) commonly called “stick electrode” welding is. 336 . thereby introducing MMA welding as a production process for the maritime market. Even quite unsophisticated welding machines like a step-down transformer may be used as power supply. Always remember proper connection of the return clamp. The popularity of the Manual Metal Arc Welding process is to a large degree based on its versatility in addition to its modest requirements for equipment. The electric arc formed between electrode and workpiece has two objectives. however. and the only welding equipment required in addition to the power supply is a suitable electrode holder. Initially manual metal arc welding was done with bare metal electrodes without any coating. at least for the less demanding electrodes. to melt the edges of the joint forming a melt pool on the workpiece. the world’s first wholly welded oceangoing ship was launched in Malmø. based on the electric circuit.

will have a temperature between approximately 6000°C in the arc from a coated electrode and up to 28000°C (8 times the surface temperature of the sun) in the plasma arc used for cutting. arc. The arc. moving from the negative pole (-) to the positive pole (+). The electrons will then no longer flow in a steady stream but flow back and forth in the cable. return clamp and return cable. being the heat source for the welding or cutting process. Properly connected return cable is therefore always required to ensure good welding conditions and avoid accidents by unintended welding arcs being established e. workpiece. 337 .g. electrode holder or torch depending on the process. as shown in the diagram. Note that the workpiece must be a part of the electric circuit in all arc welding processes. Basically there are two different types of electric current. AC is achieved when the power supply switches positive and negative polarity at a frequency which normally is 50 or 60 times per second (50 or 60 Hz). Practical setup Welding machine Welding cable Return cable Electrode holder Electrode Return clamp Arc Workpiece 4. at a poor return cable connection. alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). welding cable. DC is a stream of negatively charged electrons flowing through the cable. an electric circuit is required. and 100 or 120 times a second the current will actually be zero. electrode.01 Welding current The arc properties are dependent on the current supplied to it.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING To establish an arc for welding and cutting. The welding current flows through the entire system and back to the power source. consisting of the power source.

To avoid the dangers the current pulses represent in cases of electric shock. The only welding application that requires AC as welding current is TIG welding of aluminium.01 DC current. Where burns are the main danger from an electric shock from DC. constant towards the positive (+) pole. 4. several countries have issued regulations on how smooth the DC current shall be in order to be accepted as DC without requirements for open circuit voltage reducing devices. These requirements should be observed when installing welding equipment on board. 338 . However. still delivering AC to the welding arc. and the simplest form of welding power sources are transformers that reduce the mains voltage and provide means for adjusting the amperage (welding current). The pulsating effect of AC has proven to be especially dangerous to an operator in case of electric shock. the AC pulses may in addition cause cramps and heart failure as the pulses affect the nervous system. DC as welding current DC is by far the best suited and most commonly used current for welding processes. As the AC actually is zero each time it changes direction only electrodes specially developed for AC will be usable with welding transformers. It is normally obtained through a welding power source (inverter or rectifier) that rectifies the AC from the mains supply to a DC of correct amperage and voltage for welding. in onboard repair and maintenance welding the Wire Welding Process Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process is an alternative for aluminium welding which offers several advantages. 50 or 60 complete cycles per second. as the back and forth flowing electrons serve the purpose of tearing up the unmelted oxide layer that forms on top of an aluminium melt pool. Authorities in several countries have therefore issued special regulations and demands for open circuit voltage reducing equipment for welding power sources with AC output. AC current cycling from one direction through zero to the opposite direction.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING AC as welding current Mains power will normally be AC. and is done with DC.

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Basic principles There are three different types of current used for Welding: DC-.01 – electrons + 30 % + 70 % electrons 50 % electrons +– AC Alternating current 50 % 70 % DC- – DC+ 30 % Direct current moving from – to + 339 . There are restrictions on alternating current used on board ships because this type of current goes deep into the body and can harm vital organs if the body becomes part of the electric circuit. Connecting the electrode to + polarity gives the opposite reaction with a high burn-off rate on the electrode. This type of current changes direction 50 or 60 times per second (50-60 Hz). high weld build up and shallow penetration.polarity to get the necessary penetration. Manual Metal Arc welding Transformers: Alternating Current Inverters & Rectifiers: Direct Current + or – Welding machine Return cable Welding cable Electrode holder Arc Return clamp Coating Core rod Shielding smoke Base metal Molten weld Travel Metal transfer 4. If we want deep penetration we can connect the electrode to – polarity and thereby bombard the base material with electrons that make 70% of the heat accumulating in the base material. while filler passes and capping runs are done with DC+ polarity. Transformer power sources produce alternating current (AC).or + polarity. Rectifier and inverters produces direct current (DC) which is regarded as a safe type of current to use on board. Most root runs are done with DC. The principal task of all power sources is to take alternating current from the mains and bring the high voltage down to a suitable working voltage. DC+ and AC. Rectifiers and inverters also convert the AC current into DC current. This type of current runs in one direction (from – to +) so we can manipulate by connecting the electrode to either .

and may increase the possibility of welding faults. The power source will attempt to keep a constant arc voltage by increasing / decreasing the amperage as the arc length shortens / increases. These dynamic properties of the welding power source are expressed in the dynamic characteristic of the machine. Constant current characteristic (CC) Machines with constant current characteristic are designed to keep the welding current approximately constant. The two basic types of static characteristics are constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV).01 . Welding with coated electrodes needs characteristics between these two. with more current variation and high short circuit current. For Air Carbon Arc gouging a flatter characteristic. The optimal current variation range is different for different processes. is preferred. with variations within a narrow range when the arc length. it shall also automatically adjust these values as conditions in the welding arc changes. Some welding power sources will have adjustable characteristics to enable the welder to choose exactly the characteristic suited for the job at hand. and the characteristic curve will therefore be practically flat. The relation between amperage and voltage supplied from a welding power source is called the static characteristic of the machine. For TIG welding a steep characteristic 340 Dynamic characteristics of a short circuit with very little current variation is best. as shown in the figure below. 4. and will also offer advantages in the spray arc range. When the short circuit is broken a voltage peak will occur. Excessive height or duration of these peaks will give an unstable arc and spatter from the weld pool. a current peak will occur before the machine adjusts to the short circuit condition. As the short circuit starts. small short circuits will constantly occur in the arc. A quick response to changes in the arc characterizes a well designed welding power source and is a prerequisite for good welding properties. and thereby the arc voltage. Constant voltage characteristic (CV) This characteristic is used only for the Wire Welding process when a wire feeder with constant feed speed is used. When welding with electrodes with large droplet transfer.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Power source characteristics A welding power source shall not only supply current of a set amperage and voltage. increases or decreases. This characteristic is required for gas metal arc welding in the short arc range.

01 U I . providing a higher current (within limits) when the arc length shortens. the melt-off will increase. U = 20 + 0. thereby reducing the meltoff and allowing the welding wire to be fed closer to the melt pool again.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Constant Current characteristic (TIG) A step constant current characteristic is best for TIG.05 * I (IEC 974) 341 Constant Voltage characteristic (CV) 4. strictly limiting the amperage variations when arc length (and voltage) varies.04 * I (IEC 974) U I For Wire Welding the ideal characteristic is constant voltage. It will reduce the current if arc gets too long. U = 10 + 0. If the arc gets too short the current will increase. U = 14 + 0.04 * I (IEC 974) I U Constant Current characteristic (ACA) A flatter constant current characteristic is optimal for Manual Metal Arc Welding (stick). and normal arc length will automatically be established again.

2. UWI-150 Autoline UWI-203TP UWI-320TP 4. A welding machine must be able to supply sufficient power.01 UWR-852 UWI-400 342 . 4.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Selecting power source The four most important considerations when choosing a welding machine for use on board are: 1. As welding is only one of many skills which must be mastered by a ship’s mechanic. Construction and operation must meet all requirements with regard to operator safety. 3. the first three points on our check list will normally be fulfilled. including special requirements to current type (AC/DC) and open circuit voltage that exists for welding machines used on board. and the remaining question is the size and capacity of the machine. The choice will depend on how well prepared you wish to be to cope with unexpected repair on board. operation should be simple and should provide ease of welding so that continual practice should not be necessary to achieve good results. By choosing a welding inverter or rectifier (DC arc welding) from the Unitor range. and be able to handle all the necessary welding jobs that are needed on board. the efficiency and quality required in general repair work and also the welding processes to be handled by the power source. Machines must be suitable for the special environment on board a ship and must be able to handle the special and varying voltages provided by the vessels’ power supply.

lighter work with 1. including comprehensive Plating work using all dimensions of coated electrodes Preparing grooves with gouging electrodes x Air-Carbon-Arc gouging. max 4. 3. consult the section dealing with welding cables. hole piercing. *Also available for wire welding: UWW-161TP.0 mm UWI UWI UWR UWI UWR 150 203TP 320TP 400 852 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 34. see page 414. 343 .2 12.2 18 Properties: Choice of welding characteristic to suit all types of work (Electrode. Portable or Stationary: Weight kg. weld-removal or surface “flushing” of steel plates TIG welding. cutting.4 mm Tungsten electrodes x x x x Wire welding* with optional wire feeder. 6. Wire welding) Stepless full-range welding current adjustment during welding x x x x x x x x x x Remote control of welding current by cable during welding Possible to parallel connect two machines 4.01 Connection to mains: 1 phase 115-230 Volt 50/60 Hz x x x x x 3 phase 380-440 Volt 50/60 Hz (x) = Limited capacity for the most current demanding electrodes. max. TIG.25 mm Repair welding. all types of work including large dimensioned pipes TIG welding.6 – 2.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Selection guide. For information on the capacity of the individual models when welding with long welding cables. power sources: Unitor welding machine range Light welding repairs and tack welding with coated Electrodes. pipe welding and light plating work Using coated electrodes.5 229 x x x x x x x All types of repair welding.

electrode holder and return clamp. dust. • Lift-Arc start in TIG mode provides easy and soft TIG arc starting. • Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source constant regardless of fluctuation in input power from 10% below lowest to above highest rated input voltage. V Max. • Step-less adjustment of welding current through whole current range: 20-150 A (for stick welding) 5-150 (for TIG welding). frequency Hz Mains voltage V Recommended fuses (slow) A Protection class - Approval marks - Weight Kg Height x Width x Length cm Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT: CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN Technical Data 4. • Casing of high grade aluminium and industrial plastic to eliminate corrosion damage. • Supplied with instruction manual. • Fan on demand to eliminate unnecessary internal contamination. primary cable. greatly improving reliability.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-150 AutoLine Stick / TIG Dual Process Welding Inverter • Connects to any primary voltage between 110 and 240V with AutoLine technology which require no action from the operator. touchable sensing voltage V Duty cycle at max. • Wind tunnel design for the internal cooling air flow protects electrical components and PC boards from dirt. TIG A Open circuit voltage. max. An optional TIG remote control will in addition provide current adjustment and downslope on the torch. current % Mains phases - Mains phase. Electrode A Welding current range.01 Property 20-150 5-150 69 16 30 1 50/60 115/230 32/16 IP23 S. • Automatic Hot Start for stick arc starts makes arc striking easy and prevents electrode sticking.2 23x14x34 344 . A built-in circuit that reduces the open-circuit voltage to below 16 volts when the welding power source is not in use. carrying strap. CE 6. • Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. debris. • Safe in use. Description Unit Welding current range.

01 345 . 2 rows. steel. 2 rows. 6 pcs Chipping hammer steel. 5 set Filter glass set shade 11 for up to 175 A. 5 set Long lined welding gloves. 6 pairs Wire brush. head band and filter shade 11 glass Filter glass set shade 9 for up to 40 A. 2 pcs Chipping hammer stainless steel Welding gauge type J Product no. 5 set Filter glass set shade 10 for up to 80 A. mounted on the welding machine – 3 m welding cable with quick ­connector and electrode holder (627877) – 3 m return cable with quick ­connector and return clamp (633164) – Instruction manual Description UWI-150 AutoLine with basic accessories Unit pcs Product no. 6 pcs Wire brush. stainless steel.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Ordering Information: The order numbers include: – UWI-150 Autoline welding machine – 1 pce carrying strap – 2 m primary cable. 196 619098 196 709485 196 633248 196 633255 196 633263 196 632786 196 632976 196 632984 196 633008 196 632992 196 516161 4. 191-709659 UWI-150 Autoline Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding UWI-150 Autoline as a manual electrode welding unit 3m Welding cable with quick connectors and electrode holder and 3m return cable with quick connector and return clamp are included with the UWI-150 Autoline Optional Equipment UWI-150 Autoline Description Unit Face shield with handle and filter shade 11 glass Flip-Vision shield with flip-up frame.

01 346 . 197 632794 197 150000 197 607810 191 719575 197 510010 197 597328 197 597310 Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50) 4. 6 pairs TIG-torch T-150 with gas valve and DIX 25 for UWI-150 Accessories kit for TIG-torch Remote control for UWI-150 AutoLine TIG-welding Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for gas flow adjustment Product no.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Application set-up for TIG welding TIG welding Accessories for UWI-150 AutoLine Description Units Specially thin and soft TIG gloves.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.01 347 .

• Lift-Start in TIG mode provides easy and soft TIG arc starting. • Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. greatly improving reliability.2 Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT: CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN Technical Data 325 230 4.01 460 Ordering Information: Description Product no. chamfering electrodes like CH2 and electrodes for ACA gouging.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-203 TP Stick / TIG Dual Process Welding Inverter • Connects to any primary voltage between 380 and 440V without need for any action from the operator. primary cable. carrying strap. frequency 50/60 Hz Mains voltage V 380-440 Recommended fuses (slow) A 10 Protection class IP 23S Approval marks CE Height mm 325 Length mm 460 Width mm 230 Weight kg 12. electrode holder and return clamp Description Unit Property Welding current range. Increased setting provides optimal characteristics for stiffer. • Supplied with instruction manual. more penetrating electrodes like E6010 types. The order numbers include: UWI-203 TP with basic accessories 191-203203 – UWI-203 welding machine – 1 pce carrying strap – 4 m primary cable. • Automatic Hot Start for stick arc starts makes arc striking easy and prevents electrode sticking. max V 65 Duty cycle at max. debris. • Step-less adjustment of welding current through whole current range: 5 –200A. mounted on the welding machine – 3 m welding cable with quick connector and electrode holder – 3 m return cable with quick connector and return clamp – Instruction manual 348 . Open Circuit Voltage below the 70V limit set by the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen. • Safe in use. DC A 5-200 Open circuit voltage. • Casing of high grade aluminium and industrial plastic to eliminate corrosion damage also contributes to low-weight which together with compact outer dimensions provides good portability. • Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source constant regardless of fluctuation in input power from 10% below lowest to above highest rated input voltage. • Adjustable Arc Force for stick electrode welding allows the arc characteristics to be -changed for specific applications and electrodes: Low Arc Force setting for smooth running electrodes like LH and SPECIAL. current % 40 Mains phases 3 Mains phase. dust. • Wind tunnel design for the internal cooling air flow protects electrical components and PC boards from dirt. • Total Protection (TP) function close the machine down in case one phase in the power supply falls out.

5 set Filter glass set shade 11 for up to 175 A. 2 rows. 6 pcs Chipping hammer steel. Optional Equipment UWI-203 TP Description Unit Face shield with handle and filter shade 11 glass Flip-Vision shield with flip-up frame. 197 632794 197 200000 197 607810 197 510010 197 597328 197 597310 4.01 Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50) 349 . 6 pcs Wire brush. 6 pairs TIG-torch T-200 with gas valve and DIX 70 connector Accessories kit for TIG-torch Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for gas flow adjustment Product no. stainless steel. 196 619098 196 709485 196 633248 196 633255 196 633263 196 632786 196 632976 196 632984 196 633008 196 632992 196 516161 Application set-up for TIG welding TIG welding Accessories for UWI-203 TP Description Units Specially thin and soft TIG gloves. head band and filter shade 11 glass Filter glass set shade 9 for up to 40 A. steel. 2 rows. 5 set Filter glass set shade 10 for up to 80 A. 2 pcs Chipping hammer stainless steel Welding gauge type J Product no. 5 set Long lined welding gloves.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-203 TP Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding UWI-203 TP as a manual electrode welding unit 3m Welding cable with quick connectors and electrode holder and 3m return cable with quick connector and return clamp are included with the UWI-203 TP. 6 pairs Wire brush.

Increased setting provides optimal characteristics for stiffer. • Supplied with instruction manual. carrying strap. electrode holder and return clamp Description Unit Property Welding current range. 191-320320 350 . frequency 50/60 Hz Mains voltage V 380-440 Recommended fuses (slow) A 16 325 Protection class IP 23S Approval marks CE Height mm 325 Length mm 460 230 Width mm 230 Weight kg 18 Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT: CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN Technical Data 4. more penetrating electrodes like E6010 types. primary cable.01 460 Ordering Information: The order numbers include: UWI-320 TP welding machine 1 pce carrying strap 4 m primary cable. current % 30 Mains phases 3 Mains phase. • Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source constant regardless of fluctuation in input power from 10% below lowest to above highest rated input voltage. chamfering electrodes like CH2 and electrodes for ACA gouging. • Total Protection (TP) function close the machine down in case one phase in the power supply falls out. • Wind tunnel design for the internal cooling air flow protects electrical components and PC boards from dirt. dust.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-320 TP Stick / TIG Dual Process Welding Inverter • Connects to any primary voltage between 380 and 440V without need for any action from the operator. • Lift-Start in TIG mode provides easy and soft TIG arc starting. • Step-less adjustment of welding current through whole current range: 5 –320A. • Automatic Hot Start for stick arc starts makes arc striking easy and prevents electrode sticking. • Adjustable Arc Force for stick electrode welding allows the arc characteristics to be -changed for specific applications and electrodes: Low Arc Force setting for smooth running electrodes like LH and SPECIAL. • Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. max V 8 Duty cycle at max. • Safe in use. DC A 10-320 Open circuit voltage. greatly improving reliability. • Casing of high grade aluminium and industrial plastic to eliminate corrosion damage also contributes to low-weight which together with compact outer dimensions provides good portability. mounted on the welding machine Instruction manual Description UWI-320 TP Unit pcs Product no. Open Circuit Voltage only 8V. debris. well below the 70V limit set by the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen.

two rows Unitor Welding Handbook Unit set pcs pcs pcs par pcs pcs pcs pcs Product no. 400 A Dix 70. 197 632794 197 200000 197 607810 197 510010 197 597328 197 597310 4. 3 m cable 50 mm2 Remote amp.01 351 . head band and filter shade 11 glass Chipping hammer steel Wire brush steel. 811002 Application set-up for TIG welding TIG welding Accessories for UWI-320 TP Description Units Specially thin and soft TIG gloves. 3 m cable 50 mm2 Electrode holder assembly. 191-670406 195-594317 196-594325 191-670414 196-709485 ID no.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-320 TP Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding Basic accessories kit for UWI-320 TP Description Basic accessories kit for UWI-320 TP Consisting of: Return clamp assembly. 400 A Dix 70. control 8 m Welding gloves Face shield with flip-up front frame. 6 pairs TIG-torch T-200 with gas valve and DIX 70 connector Accessories kit for TIG-torch Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for gas flow adjustment Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50) Product no.

Instruction manual. frequency 50-60 Hz.01 Description Unit Type UWI-400 Welding current range. • Conforms to code of safe working practices for Merchant Seamen. • Automatic shut down function against input voltage. Technical Data 320 400 492 4. frequency Hz Mains voltage V Recommended fuses (slow) A Efficiency % Insulation class Protection class Approval marks Height mm Length mm Width mm Weight kg Property 5-400 70 30 3 50/60 380-440 20 85 H IP 23 CE 400 492 320 34. • Remote on/off and remote amperage control. • Fan on “demand” tunnel cooling. DC A Open circuit voltage. current % Mains phases Mains phase.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-400 Multi purpose welding inverter • Multi function welding machine for Stick electrode. • Step-less current control from 5-400 A. 191-670398 352 . V Duty cycle at max. • Parallel connection for extra power (2xUWI-400). arc force control and anti-stick functions.5 Ordering Information: The order numbers include: UWI-400 3 m primary cable. TIG and Wire welding. • Hot start. fluctuations outside ± 10% of rated voltage range. • Can be connected to any 3 phase primary voltage between 380 V and 440 V. • Display information to operator on display stating reason for shut down. max. Description UWI-400 Unit pcs Product no.

400 A Dix 70.01 353 . 191-670406 195-594317 196-594325 191-670414 196-709485 ID no. 3 m cable 50 mm2 Electrode holder assembly. two rows Unitor Welding Handbook Unit set pcs pcs pcs par pcs pcs pcs pcs Product no. Stick Electrode accessories Description Basic accessories kit for UWI-400 Consisting of: Return clamp assembly.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-400 Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding UWI-400 as a manual electrode welding unit with a remote control unit and welding cables. 3 m cable 50 mm2 Remote amp. head band and filter shade 11 glass Chipping hammer steel Wire brush steel. 25 m 4. 400 A Dix 70. 811002 191-670422 Miscellaneous Remote control cable extension. control 8 m Welding gloves Face shield with flip-up front frame.

Specially thin and soft TIG gloves.01 354 . Hose joint for 1/4” hose. Clip 8-14 mm for hose.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-400 Application set-up for TIG welding UWI-400 as TIG welding unit with a remote control unit. 4. control 8 m must be used for TIG welding Accessories kit for TIG torch Argon / C02 regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min. 197-200000 191-670414 197-607810 197-510010 197-597328 197-597310 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 197-632794 Argon for TIG shielding gas is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50). Unit pcs pcs pcs pcs pcs pcs mtr pcs pck 6 pairs Product no. mtr. pcs. TIG torch set and return cable. 10 pcs. Flow control meter for use on torch nozzle Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment Gas hose 1/4” black for shielding gases. TIG welding accessories (Based on having Stick electrode accessories) Description TIG torch T-200 complete with DIX 70 for UWI-400 Remote amp.

pcs CO2 regulator with flow adjustment pcs Flow control meter for use on torch nozzle pcs Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment pcs Gas hose 1/4” black for shielding gases mtr Hose joint for 1/4” hose pcs Clip 8-14 mm for hose.01 355 . Torch pcs Wire torch T-400MP w/3 m cable pcs Argon/CO2 regulator w / flow adjustment 0-32 l/min.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-400 Application set-up for Wire welding UWI-400 as wire welding unit with a SC 12 RC wire feeder. 193-657106 193-607451 197-510010 197-510012 197-597328 197-597310 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 197-632794 Argon or Argon CO2 for Wire Welding shielding gas available in 10 l cylinders (E-10/M-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50(M-50) 4. wire welding torch and return cable. 10 pcs pck Specially thin and soft gloves 6 pairs Product no. Wire welding accessories (Based on having Stick electrode accessories) Description Unit Wire feeder SC 12 RC ex.

in necessary length 2 195-594317 pcs 5 6 7 5 196-594325 195-175851 pcs m Torch f/air carbon arc gouging with safety connector and air connector 196-528703 pcs 4.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Application set-up for Air Carbon Arc Gouging or Stick Electrode welding using 2 x UWI-400 in parallel Electrode/return clamp assembly 2 x UWI-400 max output 700 Amps Pos. 2 pcs Conversion assembly safety Dix-70 male.01 Air supply 7 3 4 1 356 . 2 pcs Return clamp assembly 400 A with Safety connector w/3 m cable 50 mm2 Electrode holder assembly 400 A with safety connector w/3 m flexible cable 50 mm2 Welding cable 70 mm . Description 1 2 3 4 1 6 1 2 1 6 Product no. 195-632894 195-632901 195-634121 Unit pcs pcs pcs Cable connector Dix-70 male/female complete Triple connection Dix-70 male/male/female.

357 . 191-676973 191-670414 2 NB In this location the remote control extension cables can be mounted Remote control cable extension 25 m Product No. NB. NB. 191-670422 4. 1 Pos. If only one machine is switched on the current in the parallel cable may damage the other machine. both machines must be switched on.01 Length depends on distance from welding machine to work site and desired work radius. control 8 m Product no. The extension cable can be connected into longer lengths if necessary. Description 1 Remote control parallel connection cable 2 Remote amp.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Remote control assembly Important: If parallel connection of two UWI-400 machines.

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWR-852 Superior power for heavy duty Air Carbon Arc Gouging. Excellent arc welding performance with Stick and TIG welding
Built-in arc control: lets you get in tight without sticking the electrode. An electrode compensation circuit ensures consistent arc control performance regardless of the electrode size. Hot Start: makes it easier to start difficult-to-start Stick electrodes such as E-6010 and E-7018. Simple control panel: features single range amperage adjustment and provides easy, efficient operation. Line voltage compensation: ensures consistent weld performance by keeping output power constant even if primary input power varies by ±10%. 14-pin receptacle: provides quick, direct connection to remote controls and switches. Enclosed circuit boards: provide additional protection from contaminants resulting in longer service life. PC board protection: prevents the wire feeder power or other stray voltages (less than 115 VAC) from harming the power source PC board. Thermal overload protection: helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. A warning light indicates power shutdown. Fan-On-Demand: The fan operates only when needed, reducing noise, power consumption and the amount of airborne contaminants pulled through the machine. 115 V receptacle: provides15 amps of auxiliary power. Power cord strain relief provided for convenience at installation.

Technical Data

Ordering Information:

4.01

The order numbers include: UWR-852 with instruction manual. NOTE: Primary cable is not included. Fixed installation is recommended on the primary side. Description UWR-852 Remote Control with 8 m cable Remote Control extension cable 25 m Unit pcs pcs pcs Product no. 191-735860 191-670414 191-670422

Description Unit Type UWR-852 Welding current range, DC A Welding current at 60% duty cycle A Open circuit voltage, max. V Duty cycle at max. current % Mains phases Mains phase, frequency Hz Mains voltage V Recommended fuses (slow) A Recommended primary cable mm2 Efficiency % Insulation class Protection class Approval marks Height incl. lifting eye mm Length mm Width mm Weight kg

Property 50-850 650 70 30 3 50/60 380/440 90/80 3x10+PE 85 H IP 23 CE 762 966 585 229

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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Primary extension cables
The Unitor power sources are delivered with a 2 or 3 meter primary cable. If a longer primary cable is needed this is our recommendation for length and dimension. Note that dimensioning of the cable does not only depend on cable length but also the voltage on the mains.
Size 3 x 2,5 mm2 + G 3 x 4,0 mm2 + G 3 x 10 mm2 + G Product no. per m. 195-526335 195-526343 195-526350

UWI-150 Autoline Conductor size 2.5 mm
2

230 V # 45 m # 60 m

380 V – –

440 V – – 2+G

4.0 mm2

UWI-203TP Conductor size 1.5 mm
2 2

230 V – – –

380 V # 30 m # 50 m # 80 m

440 V # 200 m # 300 m # 500 m 3+G

2.5 mm 4.0 mm2

UWI-320TP Conductor size 2.5 mm
2

230 V # 60 m # 100 m

380 V # 150 m # 250 m

440 V # 200 m # 350 m 3+G

4.0 mm2

4.01
UWI-400 Conductor size 4.0 mm
2

230 V – – –

380 V # 50 m # 100 m # 150 m

440 V # 50 m # 100 m # 150 m 3+G

6.0 mm2 10.0 mm2

UWR-852 Fixed installation 3+G
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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Secondary cables (welding and return cables)
The cross-section dimension of a welding cable must be compatible with both the welding current which will be used and the total length of welding and return cable which will be used in the welding circuit. The first requirement is the maximum load the cable can carry without overheating. The following maximum load ratings apply to neoprene insulated welding cable at 25°C ambient temperature. Cable Cross- Section 35 mm2 50 mm
2

Maximum welding current at varying duty cycles 100% 60% 30% 225A 285A 335A 430A 290A 365A 460A 560A 410A 520A 650A 790A

Weight kg per m. 0,42 0,56 0,78 1,03

70 mm2 95 mm
2

As guideline, it should be noted that normal hand welding using coated stick electrodes and TIG welding is carried out at a duty cycle (effective welding time) of 30-40%, while wire welding and air carbon arc gouging may have a duty cycle of up to 60%. The maximum current values are based on the capacity of the cables alone. However, the voltage drop in the cables will often be the decisive factor when choosing the right cable size. The theoretical voltage drop in 100 meters copper cable of four different cross sections is shown for increasing currents in the following diagram:

4.01

360

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
It will be seen that the voltage drop in 100 meters 70 mm2 cable is 6 V at 250 A DC. When using longer lengths of cable, the voltage drop will increase proportionately, i.e. on a 200 meter length of 70 mm2 cable, the voltage drop will be 12 V at the same amper­ age. It should be noted that for AC current, the voltage drop can be more than double the value for DC current due to inductive resistance, especially when the welding cables lie across a steel deck. When the voltage drop is excessive, welding characteristics suffer accordingly. How large a voltage drop that can be tolerated will depend on the type of welding machine and type of electrode. The following table shows the theoretical cable lengths relevant to the different cable cross-sections and the different types of welding machines based on the following calculation: Maximum allowed voltage drop for a welding machine is – the maximum output voltage at the corresponding current – minus the conventional load voltage (IEC 60974-1). The maximum length of welding cable (total length from return cable and electrode holder cable) for this voltage drop is calculated as followed: Length < voltage drop/current · conductivity of copper (58) · cable cross section

Current 150 A 200 A 300 A 400 A

Cable cross- Section UWI-400 35 mm2 50 mm2 70 mm2 50 mm2 70 mm2 95 mm2 50 mm2 70 mm2 95 mm2 70 mm2 95 mm2 460 m 657 m 920 m 391 m 548 m 740 m

Welding machine type UWI-320 TP 298 m 425 m 595 m UWI-203 TP UWI-150 176 m   64 m 251 m   91 m 352 m 128 m

255 m   97 m 357 m 136 m

174 m   77 m 243 m 108 m 330 m x) x)

4.01

x) Bring machine to work site and use short electrode/ground cables only

Note: By connecting two cables in parallel, the voltage drop can be halved and the distance from machine to welding area thereby doubled.

361

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Unitor Welding Cable
Welding cables used on board, on deck or in an engine room, are exposed to both rough weather, oil and mechanical wear. The welding_ cable supplied by Unitor has wear, flame and oil-resistant insulation on a polychloroprene rubber basis. It is recognized by its marking at regular intervals with the text “Unitor oil resistant welding cable”, size of cable, and the standard for welding cable H01N2-D. H01N2-D means that the cable is produced to an international harmonized standard. The conductor is built up from 0.2 mm diameter tinned copper strands to ensure flexibility. The cable is available in cross section areas 35 mm2, 50 mm2 and 70 mm2, and may be supplied in standard lengths of 10 m, 20 m or 50 m, fitted with Unitor Safety cable connectors. Cable size comparison   AWG
  3   2   1   1/0 mm2 26.7 33.6 42.4 53.5 AWG 2/0 3/0 4/0 mm2 67.4 85.0 107.2

It may also be ordered in other lengths, without connectors mounted. Cable drum The cable drum with crank and floor stand is used for storage of up to 100 m cable. The crank may be disengaged to avoid accidents when unwinding cable. Note that welding cables should always be stretched out when used, and excessive lengths should not be used. A coiled up cable, whether on a drum or in a coil on deck will act as an electromagnet when welding current is flowing. This will cause increased resistance in the welding circuit which may have negative influence on the welding result. The electromagnetic field created may also influence vulnerable equipment in the vicinity of the coil.

4.01
Ordering information
Cross section area mm2 35 50 70 95 Max Amp at 60 % D/C 290 365 460 560 Product no. Weight kg/m Pr. meter 0,42 0,56 0,78 1,03 10m incl. 20 m incl. 50 m incl. connectors connectors connectors

195-175836 195-175794 195-175786 195-175778 195-175844 195-175828 195-175810 195-175802 195-175851 195-320002 195-320010 195-183665 195-655266 195-175729

   Cable drum for up to 100 m cable, order no.

362

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holders, Cable connectors and return clamp assemblies Cable connectors and return clamps are important – but often neglected – parts of the welding current circuit. The voltage drop in a poor or a wrongly positioned return clamp can be considerable, equal to many meters of additional cable, and the welding arc will suffer accordingly (see section on voltage drop in welding cable). The Electrode holders Unitor’s fully insulated electrode holders are of the lever screw type and feature an especially robust and safe clamping arrangement for the electrodes. The holders are of strong and simple construction. There are three types of electrode holder available, the 200A, 400A and 600 A. All Unitor electrode holders also come complete with 3 m cable and connector. The return connection The return connector must be sufficiently dimensioned to provide good contact for the welding current load to be used. The positioning of the return clamp determines how large a part of the vessel or of the work piece is to be utilized as part of the welding current circuit. The return clamp should always be placed as close as possible to the welding area, or on the work piece itself if this is not an integral part of the hull. The thickness of material between welding point and return clamp must be sufficient to carry the current load that is to be used. Think carefully before fixing the return clamp so that sensitive machine parts such as ball bearings etc. are not used as a bridge for welding current. There are three types of return clamps available, the 200A, 400A and 600A. All Unitor return clamps also come with 3 m cable and connector. The Cable connectors Cable connectors must be insulated in such a way that the danger of handling or short-circuiting through the deck is reduced to a minimum. This applies both to connected and unconnected parts. There should be no possibility of short-circuiting in connected plugs and sockets attached to cables, even if they should come into occasional contact with salt water. There must be good contact and little resistance at the contact areas and at the welding cable connections to the connectors. Unitor Safety cable connectors meet these requirements, more than 1400 mm2 contact area ensuring good contact between plug and socket, and when carefully assembled, the connectors are as good as watertight against spray and when decks are sporadically washed. The connectors may be used on cable dimensions from 35 mm2 up to 95 mm2 and are designed to accept up to 750 A welding current. Dix quick-action connectors are used for front panel connections on the welding machines. These provide easy polarity changes, but are not fully insulated and are therefore not recommended as cable connectors. Adapters for connection to Unitor Safety connectors are available.

4.01

363

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holder assemblies
Electrode holder assembly 200 A with Dix 25 connector w/3 m cable 25 mm2 Product no. 196-627877 For use on UWI-150 and UWW 161TP

Electrode holder assembly 200 A with Dix 70 connector w/3 m cable 35 mm2 Product no. 196-627885 For use on UWI-200, -201, -202, -203 TP

Electrode holder assembly 400 A with Dix 70 connector w/3 m cable 50 mm2 Product no. 196-594325

4.01

For use on UWR-303, UWI-320 TP and UWI-400

Electrode holder assembly 400 A with Safety connector w/3 m Super flexible cable 50 mm2 Product no. 196-522680 For use with extension cables where Safety connectors are used
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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Return Clamp Assemblies
Return clamp assembly 200 A with Dix 25 connector w/3 m cable 25 mm2 Product no. 195-633164 For use on UWI-150 and UWW-161TP

Return clamp assembly 200 A with Dix 70 connector w/3 m cable 35 mm2 Product no. 195-633172 For use on UWI-200, -201, -202, -203TP

Return clamp assembly 400 A with Dix 70 connector w/3 m cable 50 mm2 Product no. 195-594317 For use on UWR-303, UWI-320TP and UWI-400

4.01

Return clamp assembly 400 A with Safety connector w/3 m cable 50 mm2 Product no. 195-633180 For use with extension cables where Safety connectors are used

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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holders
Electrode holder Twisty 200 Amps. For electrode dia. 1.6–3.2 mm. Product no. 196-552497

Electrode holder Twisty 400 Amps. For electrode dia. 1.6–5.0 mm Product no. 196-513051

Electrode holder 600 Amps. For electrode dia. 1.6–8.0 mm. Product no. 196-511006

4.01

Electrode holders confirm to EN 60974-11

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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Return clamps
Return clamp 200 Amps. Jaw opening 70 mm. Product no. 195-653881 Return clamp 400 Amps. Jaw opening 70 mm. Product no. 195-653899 Return clamp 600 Amps. Jaw opening 70 mm. Product no. 195-653907 Return clamp 800 Amps. Jaw opening 60 mm. Product no. 195-175745
Return clamp 200 A/400 A/600 A. Grind off rust and paint before connecting return clamp in order to ensure optimal contact with the workpiece

4.01

Place return clamp in direct contact with work piece. Use of the ships hull as return conductor is against regulations. Make sure to grind the connection surface free from paint and rust before connecting the return clamp.

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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Cable Connectors
Cable connector Dix 25 male/female complete 230 A / 60 % Duty Cycle. Cable size 10–25 mm2 Product no. 195-632885 Cable connector Dix 70 male/female complete 460 A / 60 % Duty Cycle. Cable size 35–70 mm2 Product no. 195-632893 Cable connector Dix 120 male/female complete 650 A / 60 % Duty Cycle. Cable size 90–120 mm2 Product no. 195-736744 Cable connector Safety male/female complete 460 A / 60 % Duty Cycle. Cable size 35–70 mm2 Product no. 195-513044 Cable shoe for 35 mm2 cable 10 pcs Product no. 195-632919 Cable shoe for 50 mm2 cable 10 pcs Product no. 195-632927 Cable shoe for 70 mm2 cable 10 pcs Product no. 195-632935 Cable shoe for 95 mm2 cable 10 pcs Product no. 195-738633
368

4.01

2 pcs 70 mm2 cable 0. Product no. 195-634121 Triple connection Dix 70 male/male/female. female70 – male 25. 195-633073 This is how the Adapter Plug works: PROBLEM: DIX 25 female DIX 70 male SOLUTION: Adapter plug DIX 70/25 4.01 Female 70 Male 25 369 .3 m long. 2 pcs Product no. 2 pcs Product no.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Conversion assembly Safety Dix 70 male. 195-632901 For parallel connecting 2xUWI-400 welding machines For stick welding or air carbon arc gouging Adapter plug Dix 70/25.

01 Description: Wire brush. The welding gauge type “J” provides the possibility to measure 60°. for measuring throat thickness (a-measure) up to 20 mm and reinforcement up to 10 mm.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Accessories Chipping hammer The chipping hammer is used for the removal of slag after arc welding. removal of slag. 80° and 90° groove angles. Chipping hammer. 4. rust etc. a brush with stainless steel bristles and a chipping hammer made of stainless steel must always be used. Chipping hammer. Welding gauge type J. 196-632976 196-632984 196-633008 196-632992 196-516161 370 . When working on stainless steel. 2 rows. Welding gauge Correct groove preparation and sufficient weld deposit is required for a successful welded joint. steel. steel. The hammer is of robust construction and well balanced. The brush is available with steel or stainless steel bristles. stainless steel. Available in mild steel and stainless steel. 2 rows. stainless steel. 70°. Wire brush A wire brush is used for cleaning the welding surfaces. Wire brush. Unit 6 pcs 6 pcs 2 pcs pcs pcs Product no.

The angle of the electrode . Welding surface appearance at different current values: Surface welded at correct current value. Settings The table gives the ampere limits for the most important electrode diameters.0 450 350 350/450 350/450 50-100 90-150 120-200 180-270 220-360 Length of arc When arc welding with electrodes. A short arc prevents the formation of molten slag ahead of the molten pool. the amperage is set near to the upper limit. In order to obtain a good weld we must ensure that the following points are correct: . Approximate current values are given in the descriptions of the different types of electrodes.0 5.01 Current value too low.0 250/300 40-80 2. uneven surface. even. electrode travel and angle are correct. fusing with the base material will be unsatisfactory. vertical-up and overhead welding the welder should use the lower limit.5 3. it is important that the arc be kept as short as possible in order to avoid the formation of pores and to prevent slag becoming embedded in the weld. and are also shown on the electrode package labels.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Welding Techniques Having examined the necessary equipment and studied the safety precautions which must be carefully followed. 4. and this is where most mistakes are made. but coarsely beaded surface. For root-welding. and other faults are likely to occur.Electrode travel Current Current output is the most important factor in arc welding. When current.25 4. Slag may become embedded in the weld. Current output too high. This is of particular importance when welding with basic electrodes. The values given are only valid for unalloyed and low-alloy electrodes and for the stated electrode lengths. the molten pool of the weld will proceed smoothly and slag will form behind the pool. For fillet-welding in horizontal and flat positions and also for vertical-down welding. as well as rules of thumb for calculating them. The guiding rule is that the arc gap should be equal to the diameter of the wire core of the electrode.The current . It is a good rule to use slightly more current than required rather than risk using too little.The length of the arc .0 450 6. 371 . If the current output is insufficient.   Diameter   Length   Amperage 2. we shall now look at the actual welding operation.

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Electrode angle The electrode must be held at the correct angle during the welding operation. Correct Incorrect 372 . with or without weaving. The illustration shows the angles to be used when welding in the horizontal welding position. In this way an even surface can be built up without high spots or craters. Electrode travel Move the electrode at an even rate of travel in the welding direction. The illustration shows the faults that can occur if the electrode is moved too quickly or too slowly in a fillet weld.01 When building up a flat surface. Correct rate of travel is important to achieve a good weld. When starting the next parallel buildup run. 80° 90° Arc gap equal to electrode diameter RATE OF TRAVEL TOO HIGH Edge faults Convex Poor fusion RATE OF TRAVEL TOO SLOW Incorrect profile Overlap Slag 4. the electrode should be held at an angle of 60° and weaved gently from side to side as the weld advances so that the height of the deposited filler is about 1/3 of the width of each bead. the tip of the electrode should overlap the previous bead by about 1/3 of the bead width.

01 373 .ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Edge preparation 4.

0 095-699264 095-699272 095-699280 095-699298 095-699306 LHV-316 N 3.2 095-699397 095-699405 095-699413 23/14-322 N 2. 0. Up to 2. pumps and valves Stainless steel AISI 309.5 095-699421 3. Specially suitable for vertical down welding High temp. Tanks.0 095-699231 095-699249 095-699256 095-699260 SPECIAL-303 N 2.7% Ni Weather resistant steel Corrosion resistant to sea-water and flue gases Stainless steel AISI 304/316 L.0 095-699181 GPR-300 H 3.5 3.2 4.2 095-699389 18/8-321 N 1.0 5.2 4. steel Ice Class hull plates.0 095-699322 LHT-318 N 2.01 LHL-319 N 2.5 095-699330 3.5 095-683656 3. steel Boiler plates and pipes up to 550 dgr. Up to 1% Cr.0 4.2 095-699314 4. Joining stainless to steel. General applications Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel. Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING The complete Unitor range of maintenance electrodes for shipboard use Product name Diameter Product no.2 095-699173 4.2 095-699215 4.0 095-699223 LH-314 N LHH-314 H 2.5 095-699207 3.2 095-699348 4. Large welds in flat position Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.6 2.0 6. piping. Application onboard Unalloyed steel General applications Easy to weld.C. Stainless steel overlays. all positions including vertical down Unalloyed steel Large welds in flat position Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel. Thin plate material General applications Double coated electrode.0 5.2 095-683631 095-683649 LHR-320 N 2.5% Mo Low temp.2 095-699439 4.5 3. Compound steel. 095-699165 GPO-302 N 2. easy to weld.0 095-699447 374 .0 095-699199 2.5 3.5 3.

2 4. Copper alloys Bronze and brass. Joining copper alloys to steel.2 096-606460 4.5 096-699470 3.wear resistant overlays. Joining of duplex to stainless and steel.2 096-606459 ACA-384 6.2 096-606457 ALUMIN-351 N 3. wear resistant overlay against gauging abrasion. Joining cast iron to steel.5 3.2 096-699512 4. 095-699454 095-699462 Application onboard Duplex steel.2 Product no. Exhaust valves.0 096-606461 CH-2-382 3.5 3. drawn and castings Hard surfacing Wear resistant overlays Winchwheel pockets.0 096-699520 NICKEL-333 N 2. Application include welding work onboard dredgers and cement carriers. Bronze and brass. Many layers.2 096-606458 ALBRONZE-344 3.0 095-606454 095-606455 095-606456 ABRATECH-330 3. Aluminium Rolled. Joining copper alloys to steel. Oily cast iron. vanadium steel. 375 . Hard surfacing. high carbon steel. TENSILE-328 N 2. Chamfering/Gauging Using standard equipment. Difficult to weld steel Spring steel.5 3.0 096-758466 15x5 096-758458 4. Chamfering/Gauging Air carbon arc gouging. pressure and impact. Tolerant to high Carbon content.01 Tech sheets for all products under section Consumables. tool steel.2 095-725275 IMPACT-329 S 3.2 096-699538 WEARMAX -327 2. cable drums.2 096-699488 NIFE-334 N 3.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Product name DUPLEX -325 N Diameter 2.3 096-758474 8. Gouing and weld removal using compressed air. Cast Iron High strength. Hard surfacing High temp.2 096-699496 096-699504 TINBRO-341 3.

01 376 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

model UWI400 is a suitable power source for air-arc cutting having the special characteristic required for this process. 4. a special electrode holder with air ducts. free from slag. – Removal of defective welds. and further surface preparation is usually not necessary. The method is therefore also useful for cutting stainless steel and other materials. The cables from the positive terminals are then lead to the worksite and connected at the electrode holder. which are difficult to cut by the oxyacetylene method. Two welding machines may also be connected together in parallel by connecting the negative terminal from both machines to ground at the worksite. model UWR-303 may be used as power source. – Cutting and perforating. The air carbon arc process leaves a clean surface. which is subsequently blown away by a jet of compressed air. The equipment consists of a welding power source suitable for air carbon arc gouging. See the description of UWI-400 for details on this. cable and air hose. General uses include: – Forming welding grooves. For smaller jobs using small size carbon electrodes. – Removing welding beads and burrs from plating. – Removing defects on cast iron and removing excess metal. a compressed air source (5-7 bar). copper coated carbon graphite electrodes.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Air-Carbon-Arc Gouging The air-carbon-arc process utilizes the arc effect to melt the metal. The power source In the Unitor range.01 377 .

make sure that molten metal does not fall directly on to the electrode holder. If amperage is too low. – Fit the electrode in the holder so that it protrudes approx. which direct jets of compressed air parallel with the electrode to the molten pool. dismantle and clean the valve at least once a month and make sure that the air passage is not obstructed.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING The electrode holder A special jaw-type electrode holder is used for air carbon arc gouging. – Check the current and remember that the high arc voltage will usually require a higher than usual setting on the amperage scale. – Clean the electrode jaws occasionally with a steel brush to ensure good contact. gouging will be unsatisfactory. – Check connections for correct polarity. but avoid touching the workpiece with the electrode once gouging has commenced. Lubricate the 0-rings with special valve grease. cable connectors and a quick connector 30UPH for compressed air. 150 mm from the holder. the air outlets in the electrode jaws must be positioned on the right side of the electrode so that the main stream of the compressed air jet is lead beneath the electrode. – Keep the arc short. – When the electrode is moved from right to left. – Check that the air supply is switched on and the air-valve on the holder is in the open position before striking the arc. – When gouging in the overhead position. 5–7 bar. The jaws are fitted with nozzles. – Set the air pressure at 5 to 7 bar. Compressed air supply 400–900 l/min at a pressure of approx.01 Electrode holder for air carbon arc gouging 378 . It is supplied complete with integrated compressed air hose/welding cable. The holder will accept round and flat electrodes. Blow out the air line before connecting to the holder to remove any condensation. The holder is also equipped with a cut-off valve for compressed air. 4. – When the equipment is in regular use. General rules for air-carbon-arc gouging – Check that all screw connections are properly tightened to minimize any loss of effect.

5 m. 70mm2 Product no 196 528703 196 740969 Description Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging 600A with safety cable connector and air connector Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging 1600A with DIX-120 cable connector and air connector Max. Gouging torch Welding cable with Cable connector. Length: 30 cm.01 379 .ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging with safety cable connector and air connector Air hose Length: 30 cm Dia: 3/8” Connector : 30UPH Monocable with swivel connection. Electrode size 10 mm 19 mm 4. Length 2.

01 380 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

. . . . . . . . . . . .   400 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   395 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   394 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   393 Welding parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   384 Tungsten electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   388 Regulator & accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   382 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   386 TIG torch . . . . . . . . . . . .   383 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   398 Rods and Flux for TIG welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 381 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TIG WELDING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   391 Preparing the torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cunifer. and stainless. intense and well directed heat supply which ensures deep penetration and small heat affected zones. The most frequently used applications are welding of aluminium-brass (Yorcalbro). with little need for finishing (no slag). TIG torch and an accessories kit. Among the unique advantages of using the argon gas protected TIG arc as heat source for welding are • An easy-to-learn method which may be used in all positions. It may be used with UWR-rectifiers and scratch-start of the welding arc. a complete TIG-equipment consists of a supply of argon gas with flow-meter. smooth welds of high quality. but the process may be used with good results on all weldable materials. UWI-400 with TIG torch T-210 and 10 l Argon cylinder. or with UWIinverters with lift-start. • Clean.TIG WELDING Introduction The TIG welding process is in many cases the only practical solution to several necessary repair jobs on board. The TIG Equipment Unitor TIG equipment is easy and uncomplicated to use. heat resistant or acid resistant steels.02 382 . 4. Apart from the welding machine. • A stable.

Cunifer and York Albro. In time. as it is a definite advantage to adjust current during welding. Equipment set-up: – Gas cylinder with supply to torch. – Return clamp and return cable from workpiece to positive polarity 4.02 383 . basic principle. A welding rod is added to the pool to produce a weld build-up. This is referred to as the burn-off rate. Tungsten electrode Gas shield Filler rod All Unitor welding machines are supplied with characteristics especially suited for TlG. The welding rod is normally made of a metal similar to the metal being welded. it will be necessary to regrind the electrode to a point. The Unitor Welding Rectifiers and inverters are well suited for TIG welding. It is also used on thin walled plates and pipes up to 3 mm. Remote control for welding current should be used.TIG WELDING Basic principle Onboard applications normally require welding current up to max 150 ampere direct current (DC). – Torch connected to negative polarity of DC power source. Heat is produced by an electric arc that is struck between a Tungsten electrode and the work piece. The Tungsten electrode will not melt despite very high temperatures. but it will be gradually be consumed during ignition and to some extent during actual work. The arc and the electrode are shielded by an inert gas (usually Argon) that also surrounds the weld pool and prevents oxidation. The TIG welding. The electrode tip is grinded to a point to constrict the arc to a single spot on the metal surface. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding (also called Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GTAW) is a process that is primarily used for high quality metals such as stainless steel.

It is necessary to adjust the gas flow and a regulator with flow-meter is therefore needed. It is a colourless and odourless inert gas. non-toxic and nonflammable.TIG WELDING Shielding gas Shielding gas is necessary for the TIG process. –  To protect the hot tungsten electrode against the oxidizing effect of the air. The Unitor R510 gas flow regulator for argon is specially designed for this purpose and has a capacity of 0–32 l/min. The gas which must be chemically inactive (inert). R510 regulator with flow meter in order to adjust gas flow in l/min.95% is commonly used. Argon is supplied in 10 or 50 litres 200 bar gas cylinders. Note that when welding stainless steel it may also be necessary to use backing gas to protect the backside of the weld from the oxidizing effect of the air. ensuring a stable arc and suitable heat transfer. –  To protect melt pool and electrode during cooling after the arc is broken. For the TIG process. –  To protect the molten pool against contamination and oxidation from the air. a purity of 99. –  To protect the hot end of the filler metal rod from oxidation. 4. A separate gas supply (cylinder. It is obtained from air which contains approximately 1% argon. heavier than air.02 Onboard a ship it is necessary to have a flow-meter that functions correctly also when positioned out of vertical. Argon has proven to be the most suitable gas for this purpose. 384 . has several functions in the TIG process: –  To provide the atmosphere needed for ionization. regulator and hoses) should be used for this purpose.

6 18 2.32mm x1/14” Forged brass with bursting disc. slightly heavier than air.TIG WELDING Shielding gas ARGON Ar Argon is a colourless.02 385 . Outside diameter mm Valve outlet connection Valve type 1 nM3 = 1. primarily to protect the molten pool against contaminants in the atmosphere.3ft3 1kg = 2.637 kg.2 11 200 200 18 81 22 99 1000 1690 140 230 W24. Cylinder data Cylinder type: Product No: Application Colour Water capacity I Gas capacity kg Gas capacity nM3 Filling pressure bar Empty weight kg appr. 1kg =0. inlet filter and positive pressure cartridge 1 bar = 14.5 psi 1 M3=35. odourless gas.611 nM3 E-10 E-50 For use on: Steel Stainless steel Aluminium Yorcalbro Cunifer 715-905565 715-905174 Welding Welding Grey Grey 10 50 3. Overall length mm appr. It is nontoxic and non-combustible. Argon is an inert gas used as a shielding gas for TIG and MIG welding.32mm x1/14” W24.2 lbs 4. Gross weight kg appr.

4 mm. AWS A5. EN 26848. 197-674710 197-674736 386 .6 mm. use and disposal of thoriated electrodes are expected. It is expected that TlG-welding electrodes containing thorium will disappear from the market in the foreseeable future. This problem can occur during welding (vapours) as well as when grinding the electrode tip (grinding dust). more stringent legal regulations regarding production. The danger to the welder arises when thorium oxide gets into the respiratory canals. especially as an environmentally friendly and technically better solution is already available.” but when enclosed in a tungsten matrix.02 Description Tungsten electrodes 1. Thorium is a so-called “a-emitter. longer service life Standardised in national and international norms (ISO 6848. Thorium is however a radioactive element and as such represents a potential danger to health and environment.12. In the near future. Unitor tungsten electrodes is alloyed with Lanthanum (colour code gold) and is sold in sturdy boxes of 10 pcs. Unit 10 pcs 10 pcs Product no. the “a” radiation emitted externally is negligible. Tungsten electrodes 2. The new electrodes offer: • Environmentally friendly-no radioactive constituents • Can be transported. stored and disposed of without legal restrictions • Suitable for welding all materials • Better ignition performance than thorium alloyed type electrodes • Low burn off rate.TIG WELDING Tungsten electrodes Thoriated TIG welding electrodes with 2 % thorium oxide (colour code red) are currently the most widely used electrodes worldwide. JlS Z3233) 4.

02 387 Wrong grinding 15–20° xx x Correct grinding orrect Out of Too short Too long C point centre a point a point .90-1.20 Th02 3.90-1.20 La203 1. Grinding must be done length wise.20 Ce02 0.80-4. the point will melt and contaminate the weld with tungsten deposit. Too short a point.TIG WELDING Overview of Tungsten electrodes   CODE   WL10   WL15   WL20   WC20   WZ8   WT10   WT20   WT30   WT40   WS OXIDE ADDITIVES Wt. If the electrode has too long a point compared to the welding current. Wrong grinding will result in an unstable arc and that bits of tungsten will brake off and fall into the weld deposit during welding.% 0.80-3.80-2.90 Zr02 0. give an unstable arc and insufficient heat consentration.20 Th02 1.5 La203 1.80-2.20 Th02 2. x 4.70-0.80-2. straight towards the point.20 La203 1.20 Th02 Rare earths COLOUR CODE Black Gold Blue Grey Green White Yellow Red Purple Orange Turquoise REMARKS Lanthanum AC and DC Cerium DC low current Pure Tungsten AC only Zirconium AC only Thorium DC only   WP AC and DC low current Correct Grinding of Tungsten electrodes for DC welding The angle of grinding depends on the welding current.

Note that TIG gas nozzles are brittle and may break if dropped or treated carelessly. The handle ensures a secure grip and reduces heat transfer to the welder’s hand. These nozzles will stand for higher temperatures than the ordinary Accessories The torches are supplied complete for use. including nozzle.TIG WELDING TIG TORCH General description The Unitor TIG torches are lightweight torches well adapted to general applications onboard. Unitor is supplying nozzles of aluminium oxide (AL203). A remote amperage control can be fixed on the TIG torch by velcro straps in order to adjust amperage during welding. but the accessories kit is recommended as it contains necessary spares. A screw type gas valve opens fully at only 3/4 turn.02 388 . which are recognized by a light brown color. To ensure full electrical insulation. 4. ceramic cups. the head of the torch is produced with a resilient. The gas connection fits directly onto the Unitor argon regulator or to the standard right hand threaded screw couplings for gas hoses. is less than 10 cm. Cable and gas hose are protected by a heat and spatter resistant sheeting to ensure long working life. recognizable by the pink colour. the torches have low weight and are easy to operate for repair and maintenance work in all positions. switches the gas on and off. As standard. high-temperature non-conductive silicone coating. The replaceable heat-shield (3) in front of the torch head is made from teflon and has the combined function of forming a gas tight seal for the alumina nozzle (6) and of deflecting heat from the torch head. The torches are supplied with 4 m cable/hose package. the total length of the head. Used with the short back cap (1). The torches are rated at 150A and 200A at 60% duty cycle. ensuring accessibility in narrow spaces. Being gas cooled. Separate welding cable and gas hose (8) ensure that extensions may be easily connected.

Short back-cap Long back-cap Heat shield Collet 1. -203. -201.4mm    1 pcs Alumina nozzle 6    2 pcs Alumina nozzle 7    2 pcs Tungsten electrodes 1. for UWI-150.02 Accessories kit consists of: Short back cap    1 pcs Heat-shield    1 pcs ColIet 1. -202.TIG WELDING Parts list and order numbers 2 1 4 3 5 8 6 7 Pos. Product no Unit – 197-150000 pcs – 197-160010 pcs – 197-200000 pcs – 197-607810 pcs Spares 1 197-551192 pcs 2 197-551200 pcs 197-613767 pcs 3 4 197-551168 pcs 4 197-551150 pcs 5 197-551184 pcs 5 197-551176 pcs 6 197-551135 pcs 6 197-551127 pcs 7 197-674710 pck 7 197-674736 pck Description TIG-torch T-150 complete with DIX 25 incI.6 mm    1 pcs Collet body 2.6mm Collet 2. no.4mm    3 pcs Collet body 1. euro-connector and torch mounted trigger for UWW-161MP TIG-torch T-200 complete with DIX 70.6 mm alloyed for DC TIG welding    3 pcs Accessories kit for TIG-torches. nozzles and electrodes.6 mm CoIlet body 2. electrode and nozzle.4 mm alloyed for DC welding 4. 389 .4mm Collet body 1. TIG-torch T-161 with 4 m cable. spare heatshield. collets. including short back cap.6mm    3 pcs CoIlet 2.4 mm Alumina nozzle 6 Alumina nozzle 7 Tungsten electrode (10 pcs) 1. incI. for UWI-200.6 mm alloyed for DC welding Tungsten electrode (10 pcs) 2. electrode and nozzle. collet bodies. -320 and -400 Accessories kit for Unitor TIG-torches.

390 .02 1. 2.TIG WELDING Remote amp set up for TIG torch T-200 complete with DIX 70 (197-200000) when used on UWI-400 1 1. Remote amp control 8 m Remote amp control cable extension 25 m 191-670414 191-670422 This remote set up might also be used for stick electric welding Remote amp set up for TIG-torch T-200 complete with DIX 70 used on UWR-303 1 2 4. Remote control unit Remote control cable 10 m Remote amp control cable extension 25 m 191-676916 191-676924 191-645408 This remote set up might also be used for stick electrode welding.

Combined with the Flowcontrol needle valve used at the gas inlet of the machine or the wire feeder full flow adjustment is available at the work place regardless of distance to the gas cylinder/gas outlet. The Flowcontrol meter measures actual flow at the torch nozzle and is a useful tool for the operator. The flow rate in l/min is adjusted on the regulator Actual gas flow at the TIG or wire torch may deviate from what is set on the gas outlet station or on the cylinder regulator.02 391 . 3/8" RH threads Clip 8-14 mm for hose. In addition standard protective equipment for arc welding should be used. Product description Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min Gas hose 1/4" black. They give good protection of the hands while they ensure easy control of the torch and eventual welding rod. 10 pcs Spare parts for regulator: Flow meter gauge for Argon 0-32 L/min Contents gauge for regulator Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for use with machine/ wire feeder TIG Gloves for TIG and Gas welding Unit pcs mtr pcs pck pcs pcs pcs pcs 6 pairs Product no 197-510010 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 171-550210 171-550178 197-597328 197-597310 197-632795 4. especially if long gas hoses are used.TIG WELDING Regulator & Accessories The R510 regulator with flow meter supply a steadly stream of shielding gas to the torch. Also recommended are soft-skin TIG welding gloves. for shielding gases Hose joint for 1/4" hose.

Flow contr. TIG Equipment & Accessories for Unitor Welding Machine Range   Welding TIG Torch Remote Acces.A. Pcs. KIT Ar.A.4.   UWI-203 TP 197-200000 N. Pr. UWI-320 TP 197-200000 197-670414   UWI-400 197-200000 191-670414   Remote control for UWI-400 must be added if UWI-400 is to function in TIG mode. Pr. Pcs. Pcs. Pr. . 6 pairs TIG WELDING   UWI-150 A 197-150000 191-719575 197-607810 197-510010 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 196-632794 197-597310 197-597328   UWW-161 TP 197-160010 N. Control Pr. m Pr. Regl. Pr. Gas hose Hose Joint Hose Clip.02 392 Flow contr. Pcs. Pcs. Pcs. needle valve pcs. pck of 10 gloves Pr. TIG   Machine Pr. Pcs. meter at Nozzle pcs.

open torch valve 3/4 turn and adjust the regulator to a flow of 9-10 I/mm. the tungsten electrode tip will melt. it will be impossible to adjust to correct gas flow for the torch. For current setting see table on welding parameters. Check if the work at hand makes it necessary to use the short back cap. the small nozzle 6 (ø 9mm) should be used.02 Connection to Gas Supply Connect the gas hose to the argon regulator. and the nozzle and torch head may be damaged. collet and collet body. By taking backing gas from the same regulator that supplies the torch. collet and electrode are used. together with the 1. Connection to Welding Machine Two-thirds of the total heat developed in the TIG arc is developed on the positive side of the arc. This will prevent contamination of the welds. heat shield. nozzle. connect the remote control to the welding machine and have the current regulator available at the work site. 6 3– mm Check electrode protrusion 4. Let the gas flow a few minutes so that the whole gas system is thoroughly purged. If available. Then set correct flow for the job at hand and close the torch valve.6 mm (1/16”) electrode. with inert gas. The TIG torch must therefore always be connected to the negative pole of the welding machine (straight polarity). by disconnecting the Dix Connector at the end of the torch cable. If additional gas supply for backing gas is needed. collet body. Ensure that correct and unharmed nozzle. which is bombarded by the electron flow. and make sure all connections are properly tightened. This is easily done. If the welding current is to be 100A or lower.4 mm (3/32”) electrode. Ensure that collet body. and the return cable shall be connected to the welding rectifier’s plus pole.TIG WELDING Preparing the torch Always disconnect the torch from the power supply before changing nozzles or adjusting the electrode. this should be taken from a separate gas supply. and back cap are properly tightened. and that the electrode is properly pointed. If connected wrong. collet and collet body. 393 . For welding above 100A it is recommended to use the large nozzle 7 (ø 11mm) and 2. For flow setting see table on welding parameters. Open gas cylinder valve fully. The return clamp should preferably be fastened directly to the work piece. The electrode shall protrude 3-6mm outside the gas nozzle.

Actual current needed to form a proper molten pool will also partly depend on the size of the workpiece.7 (11mm) 2. nozzle and gas flow setting.6 (9mm) 1.0mm 20-70A 6 l/min 35° 1.6mm-1/16” 1.5-2.5 .7 (11mm) 2.4mm-3/32” 2. The material thicknesses given in the table below for the different current ranges are indicative.6mm-1/16” no.5mm 150-250A 9 l/min 60° 2.TIG WELDING Welding Parameters It is necessary to decide approximate range of welding current needed for the job at hand to select correct electrode.4mm-3/32” >4mm >2.4mm-3/32” no.   Material thickness   Steels and Stainless steels   Material thickness   Copper alloys   Welding current.0-1.4mm 1.5mm 1.6mm-1/16” 2.02 394 .2.   pure argon   Electrode   point angle   Collet size.6mm-1/16” 1.   diameter of electrode   Collet body.5 .4mm-3/32” 2. electrode-   Gas flow. the type of joint.6mm-1/16” 1.5mm <1.5mm 50-120A 7 l/min 45° 1. size   diameter of opening   Nozzle number and   diameter of opening   Tungsten   electrode size <1.6mm-1/16” no.4mm-3/32” 4. and the amount of preheating used.6 (9mm) 1.5mm 100-180A 8 l/min 60° 2.   DC.4mm-3/32” no.

Open the argon cylinder valve and the torch valve. Ensure that the gas valve is fully open. Gradualy tilt up. (3/4 turn from closed).the arc ignites and increase in intensity to the set amperage. Gradually tilt up the welding torch until the tungsten electrode tip touches the workpiece. The lift arc function 2–3 mm Place nozzle on location. Place the gas nozzle in a tilted angle on the ignition location so that there is a gap of 2-3 mm between the tungsten electrode tip and the workpiece. This will trigger the lift arc function. 4. Do not touch the electrode unless the DIX connector is disconnected.TIG WELDING Welding Techniques Before welding starts. If current remote control is available. Adjust welding current to correct setting and hold the arc steady until a molten pool is formed. Connect the equipment and purge the gas system. Note: To be absolutely certain that contamination is avoided the arc may be started on a copper plate placed on the workpiece. check that the torch is connected to the negative (-) polarity of a DC constant current power source. Check electrode and electrode stick-out. and then moved to the beginning of the bead. purge the gas system before setting correct gas flow on the regulator. If necessary.02 Raise the torch 395 . adjust to low or minimum current. and that sufficient gas is available from the gas supply. Raise the torch and lift it into the normal position. Striking the Arc Check that the electrode is properly pointed and protrudes 3-6mm from the nozzle.

The hot end of the rod shall be kept close to the melt pool and protected by the argon gas to avoid oxidation. Adjust welding current to minimum and rapidly lift the torch so the arc is broken. Hold the rod at an angle of approximately 30° to the workpiece. Note that a longer arc will increase the heat input and a shorter arc will reduce it. but in such a way that it does not touch the electrode or enter the arc between electrode tip and workpiece. contrary to what happens in gas welding. 396 . Vertical welding is normally done upwards. Finishing the bead. Lower the torch again to approximately 5mm distance from electrode tip to bead. Keep an arc length of approximately 3–6mm. and keep it in place for 15 to 20 seconds with the gas flowing to protect the molten pool and the electrode during the cooling-off period. or additional filler material may be used. Finishing the Bead 30° Welding with the forehand technique. Filler material may be added continuously or in a slightly dipping motion. If welding current remote control is used. Hold the torch at an angle of approximately 75° to the workpiece. 4. Vertical welding upwards with the forehand technique.02 Remove the welding rod from the pool. the heat input may be adjusted through the whole process by adjusting the current. which will contaminate the weld. Use of Filler Material Introduce the rod to the molten pool.TIG WELDING Welding TIG welding can be carried out in all welding positions and the procedure is largely similar to the gas welding forehand welding technique. The arc may be used just to melt the edges of the joint together.

or if the gas is shut off before the electrode has cooled down to below red glowing temperature. Clean the electrode by striking an arc against a copper plate. It will also be contaminated (by oxidation) if the shielding gas supply is not opened before the arc is struck. – That the argon supply is not contaminated (try changing to fresh cylinder). by polluted argon. resulting in contaminated weld deposit.TIG WELDING Contaminated Tungsten Electrode The tungsten electrode may be contaminated through contact with the molten pool or the filler metal rod.02 Strong draft may blow away the argon shield. the electrode removed and the contaminated part broken off. If there is little contamination the electrode may be cleaned by striking an arc against a copper plate and letting it burn for a few seconds. – That the electrode is held at the correct angle. or by the electrode being polluted. The electrode must be reground to the correct point and replaced in the torch. Remember gas supply. – That the correct size gas nozzle is being used. by insufficient cleaning of the weld area or of the filler rod. – That air does not enter into the gas hose. 397 . – That the gas nozzle is not defective or polluted. – That welding groove and filler rod are clean. 4. – That the gas flow has been correctly set. Contaminated Weld Pool This can be caused by insufficient or excessive supply of argon to the torch. If the electrode is heavily contaminated the welding current supply must be disconnected. – That wind or draft does not blow away the shielding gas. Check the following: – That the gas hose has been properly purged.

6 2.6 1.4 1.4 2.6 2.4 2.6 1.4 2 3 4 4.TIG WELDING Edge preparation Stainless steel Material thickness mm 1 Type of joint Welding current A Horizontal 25–60 60 40 55 80–110 110 80 105 120–200 130 110 125 120–200 185 180 Vertical 23–55 55 37 51 75–100 100 75 98 110–185 120 100 115 110–185 170 165 Overhead 22–54 54 36 50 70–100 100 70 95 110–180 115 100 110 110–180 165 160 Tungsten electrode mm ø 1.6 1.4 2.4 2.6 1.4 2.6 1.6 1.02 398 .

4 NB: When welding Stainless steel and Cunifer. as this is insufficient to oxidize stainless steel.6 1. 2 3 In order to avoid surface oxidation.4 2. This restricted volume is then purged with a suitable inert gas. The ideal concentration of oxygen is below 25 ppm. Gas in Gas out 4. Backing gas tool for larger pipe dia. pipes of stainless steel must be purged with inert gas sufficiently to remove all oxygen inside the pipe in the weld area.TIG WELDING Edge preparation Copper alloys (Cunifer. Horizontal 90–100 100–115 100–115 115–130 170–200 190–220 190–220 Tungsten electrode mm ø 1.02 Backing gas tool for small dia. pipe Gas in Out trough free opening The most common gas to use is Argon or Formier gas (90% N2 and 10% H2) 399 .6 2. backing gas must be used inside piping.4 2. Yorcalbro) Material thickness mm 1 Type of joint Welding current.6 1.6 1. The usual way to achieve this is to seal off a small length of the pipe on each side of the weld groove. sufficiently to remove all oxygen.

The deposit offers elevated mechanical strength and toughness reistance to stress corrosion cracking. Rods with diameter 2. A welding rod for TIG welding of copper nickel alloys.0mm are most used for TIG welding.0 mm   IDUPLEX-222 097-725309   2.5 mm   18/8 Mo-221 097-602979   2. This will improve bonding and penetration. patching leaking pipes etc.TIG WELDING Rods and Flux for TIG welding Welding rods     Product Product no. The flux is complementary to the flux found in the serrations of the lalbro TIG rod. No flux is used in this process.02 Unitor flux is supplied in paste form for use with the TIG rod Ialbro-237 MF for welding of Yorcalbro. This type of alloy is widely used in seawater resistant piping. for example Cunifer pipes. Can also be used for welding the root run in thick wall piping where the rest of the groove is filled up using the duplex electrode Duplex-325 N. especially on the inside of e. but with the advantages TIG can offer. pipe joints. In TIG welding of joints it is strongly recommended that I-Flux 238 be applied to both sides of the joint on the inside. Iduplex-222 is at TIG rod for welding Duplex stainless steel. Application areas are similar to the coated electrode 18/8-321 N in 1. IALBRO is a flux-coated filler rod for TIG welding of aluminiumbrass pipes (Yorcalbro). Description Unitor IMS is a welding rod for unalloyed and low alloyed steels.5 mm   IALBRO-237 MF 097-519736   2. 18/8 Mo is a wire for welding stainless and acid resistant steel. While the flux on the rod is sufficient for the actual welding zone. It is an advantage to use TIG welding in thin sheets and pipe walls.0 mm   ICUNI-30-239 097-335547   2. When welding very thin sheets and pipes (less than 2mm) it is always an advantage to use the TIG process. Small diameter Cunifer pipes can be joined by means of overlap joints (capillary action) using AG-60 silver solder combined with AG-60 Flux. Flux residues must be washed off with water after welding.0 mm   ICROMO-216 097-305532   2. Tech sheets for all above products under section Consumables. pipes. Typical applications are welding flanges on pipes.   IMS-210 097-604850   2. IFLUX is supplied in 250 gram tins.4 mm Flux     IFLUX-238 PF 097-603092 4.7 mm. The silisium content of the wire ensures smooth transfer and good profile of the bead. it is strongly recommended to use additional IFLUX on both sides of the joint. Duplex to Mild steel and Duplex to Stainless steel.g. Gas or tensile strength 560 Mpa. Yorcalbro pipes with a diameter less than 4” which can be joined by means of an overlap joint (capillary action) may be silver brazed using AG-60 combined with Albro Flux. Joint surfaces and adjacent areas must be thoroughly cleaned before welding. lcromo is a chromium-molybdenum alloyed welding rod for heat resistant steels types 10 Cr Mo-910 and 13 Mo-44 found in boiler tubes and other heat resistant components. 400 . This is also an advantage for the root bead when welding thicker sheets with prepared V-grooves.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.02 401 .

02 402 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   411 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   438 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   429 Welding technique .WIRE WELDING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .   405 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   426 Application areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   428 Preparation for welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   420 Regulator & accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   431 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   434 Wires for wire welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   404 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   414 SC 12 RC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 403 . . . . . .   412 UWW-161 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The wire melts and is transferred to the pool through the arc that is shielded by a gas. The advantages of wire welding are: • Increased deposition rate (Weight of weld deposited per hour). reel or coil wire Wire feed mechanism 4. The shielding gas is necessary to prevent oxygen from the air oxidising the pool. The gas has the same function as the coating on an electrode producing a smoke shield. • Increased operating factor (The time that the welder actually is welding).03 Return cable Gun and cable assembly Contact tip Weld Shielding gas 404 .WIRE WELDING Introduction In Wire Welding a wire from a reel is fed through a welding torch passing a contact tip supplying the welding current. Cylinder with shielding gas Spool.

magnesium. GMAW – Gas metal arc welding uses a solid wire. GMAW – Gas metal arc welding and FCAW – Flux cored arc welding. copper. In MIG welding we use inert gases like Argon. titanium. nickel alloys and highly alloyed steel.03 405 . Gas mixtures of inert gases and reactive gases (Argon + CO2) are regarded as MIG welding. Pure inert gas shielding is essential for welding alloys of aluminium. stainless steel. Solid wire 4.WIRE WELDING Basic principle The process can roughly be divided into two distinctive methods depending on the wire being fed. In MAG welding we use a reactive gas like Carbon Dioxide (CO2) to shield the pool. Metal transfer with the GMAW process is by one of two methods: Spray Arc or Short Circuiting Arc Flux Tubular wire Flux tubular wire. Carbon Dioxide is suitable for arc shielding when welding low carbon and low-alloy steel. Depending on shielding gas the process can further be divided into: MIG welding (Metal Inert Gas) and MAG welding (Metal Active Gas).

melting of a drop of filler material.WIRE WELDING Spray-Arc The spray-Arc is recognized by a relatively intense arc between the welding wire and the work piece. and this arc type is recommended for material thickness above 3 mm. 4. The wire touches the work piece and the welding current increases immediately. heating wire tip and base material until the wire feed speed again pushes the wire into contact with the work piece. Short Arc is also called short circuit transfer.8 mm solid steel wire will provide a spray arc if the welding current is above approximately 150 Ampere. providing a concentrated arc with low heat input to the work piece and rapidly solidifying deposit. The deposit rate is high. The short-arc method is therefore excellently suited for sheet metal welding. At currents below this level the steady spray will consist of gradually larger droplets until a spray no longer can be maintained. As a guideline a 0. This current level depends on the shielding gas. The arc is almost spatter free and provides deep penetration in the base material. The rapidly solidifying deposit also makes short-arc welding easy in any welding position. the alloy and the size of the welding wire. the transition current. but is instead Spray-arc welding transferred through rapid short circuits between wire and work piece. and the short-arc is established. The metal transfer is in the form of a continuous spray of molten metal droplets from the wire tip through the arc to the surface of the melted pool. As this drop is melted off the arc is re-established. This sequence repeats itself continuously approximately 100 times per second. To obtain a spray-arc it is necessary to have welding current above a certain minimum value. No metal is transferred through the arc with this technique.03 Short circuiting (short arc welding) 406 . and also for bridging large gaps in poorly aligned joints. (consisting of minimum 80% Argon or Helium).

WIRE WELDING Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Self-Shielded. The flux provides gas shielding for the arc and a slag covering of the weld deposit. The main problem with a continuous coated electrode is to find suitable means of making electrical contact with the core wire and coiling it without cracking the brittle coating. Such wires contain in their cores the ingredients for fluxing and deoxidizing molten metal and Power source wire spool/ reel return cable welding cable return clamp wire feeder wire liner welding gun the arc The arc: contact tip insulation nozzle cored wire shielding smoke base metal travel metal transfer molten weld metal solidified slag over weld metal 4. A continuous electrode would eliminate the welding time lost in changing electrodes and would eliminate the material lost in electrode stubs. The versatility and maneuverability of stick electrodes in manual welding stimulated efforts to mechanize the process allowing a continuous wire electrode to be used. The need for a continuous arc welding electrode led to the development of the self shielding flux cored wire where the material needed for shielding is contained inside the core of a hollow wire. Continuous electrical contact can be made with the wires at any distance from the arc and they can be coiled and packaged on any of the standard spools used for filler wire. The self-shielded flux-cored arc welding process is a development from the shielded metal arc welding. The "inside-out" construction of the flux cored wire solved both problems. The outcome of these efforts was the development of the semiautomatic and full-automatic processes for welding with continuous flux-cored tubular "wires".03 407 . In flux cored arc welding the heat is obtained from an arc between a continuous flux cored wire and the work.

Wires for self-shielded flux cored arc welding are available in standard sizes from 1 mm to 4 mm in mild steel and in some low alloy steel. as both are heated. When molten weld metal is transferred across the arc. semiautomatic welding with flux-cored wires is equivalent to manual shielded metal-arc welding with an electrode several feet long instead of one of a few inches. which form a protective gas covering of the weld pool. Welding equipment for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) can in most cases also be used for Self Shielded Flux Cored Arc Welding with small modifications (wire feeder rolls should be knurled. rather than being surrounded by them. However. In essence. The only difference being the weld metal of the electrode surrounding the shielding and fluxing chemicals. The self-shielded flux cored process is characterized by long wire extension beyond the contact tip (stickout). 4.WIRE WELDING for generating shielding gases and vapors and slag coverings. In the flux-core arc welding process. it can operate satisfactorily outdoors where strong air currents are encountered.03 408 .). He uses a welding gun instead of an electrode holder. By the press of the trigger completing the welding circuit. the self-shielded Knurled wire feeder rolls to be used flux-cored process does not depend on gas shielding. but it is correspondingly light in weight and easy to maneuver. This means that some oxidation and nitrogen pickup may occur before the metal enters the weld pool. insulation nozzle instead of gas nozzle etc. it may not be completely covered by molten flux since the metal surrounds the flux. partial shielding is provided by vaporization of ingredients of the flux. the operator activates the mechanism that feeds the wire to the arc. Also note that selfshielded flux cored arc welding takes place with welding torch connected to minus (-) polarity. as opposed to the gas-shielded flux cored process. Extensions from 6 mm to 30 mm are used depending upon the application.

the process is similar to gas metal-arc welding in as much as a gas is separately applied to act as an arc shield. Tubular electrode wire is used as in the self-shielded process. and sometimes alloying additions. If the gun is watercooled.03 base metal 409 . and the weld metal with mild and low-alloy steels has good ductility and toughness. It metal transfer gives high deposition rates. additional space is required. On the other hand. mixtures of 20% CO2 -80% Argon and 95% Argon . and high operating factors. scavenging. Note that the welding gun should be connected to the positive terminal (+). The guns and welding heads for semiautomatic and full-automatic welding with the gas-shielded processes are out of necessity more complex than those used in selfshielded flux-cored welding. but the ingredients in its core are for fluxing. regulator w/flow meter shielding gas cylinder gas hose wire spool/reel return cable welding cable wire liner welding gun the arc power source wire feeder return clamp The arc: gas nozzle solidified metal contact tip shielding gas 4.WIRE WELDING Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Gasshielded. and the tubular wires are classified by the AWS along with wires used in the self-shielded process.5% Oxygen. Radiographic quality welds are easily produced. lowalloy steels and stainless steel. The gas-shielded flux-cored process may be looked upon as a hybrid between self-shielded flux-cored arc welding and gas metal-arc welding. The process is adaptable to a wide variety of joints and gives the capability for all-position welding. In this respect. the process has similarities to the self-shielded flux-cored wire process. The wire feeder and power source is similar to the equipment used with the self-shielded flux-cored wire process. high deposition efficiencies. may also be used. The gas-shielded flux-cored process is used for welding mild steel. Although CO2 is generally used as the shielding gas. and gas metal arc welding with only small modifications (wire feed rolls should be knurled). deoxidizing. rather than for the generation of protective vapours. Space passages must be included for the flow of gases.

according to need. used. By adjusting the amperage to exactly the value needed to melt the quantity of filler material. 2. and whatever filler material introduced into the melt pool. Alternative 2 above is therefore not applicable. The constant In GMAW welding both parameters voltage characteristic of the power are guided by the equipment. This can be obtained in two ways: 1. the arc length and thereby the arc voltage must be kept at a constant value to obtain a uniform weld. possible to use such a combination if welding in the short-arc area is required. The combination of such a wire feeder and a constant current power source is a fully acceptable solution when welding in the spray-arc area. A wire feeder.03 410 . 4. The constant voltage Constant current power source characteristic is also suitable for If a traditional power source with spray-arc welding. Constant voltage power source. By adjusting the filler material feed speed to exactly the same speed as it melts. once the arc voltage and thereby the arc length has been selected. It is not. however. thereby source will automatically maintain the demanding less from the welder's skill arc length by adjusting the amperage but more from the equipment. which automatically adjusts the filler material feed speed (alternative 1 above) is therefore required. To maintain a proper short-arc requires the combination of a constant voltage power source and a constant speed wire feeder. and the work piece. but cannot be used constant current characteristic is for any other arc welding processes. In processes where the arc is established between a filler material which is continuously fed into the arc. as the mechanical adjustment of feed speed will be to slow to maintain a proper short-arc. it will supply relatively constant current regardless of arc length. and especially when flux cored wires are used. When welding with coated electrodes (SMAW) the welder's task is to feed the electrode according to alternative 1.WIRE WELDING Maintaining the arc. The basic principle of all arc welding is that an electric arc melts the surface of the work piece (joint). while the power source provides constant current.

Outside diameter mm Valve outlet connection Valve type 1 nM3 = 1.03 411 . The 80 % Argon and 20 % C02 mixture is suitable for welding all un. Each cylinder is labelled with the correct contents identification label.WIRE WELDING Shielding gas ARGON Ar Argon is a colourless. Overall length mm appr.5 psi 1 M3=35.6 18 2. For use on: Stainless steel Steel Cylinder data Cylinder type: Product No: Application Colour Water capacity I Gas capacity kg Gas capacity nM3 Filling pressure bar Empty weight kg appr.4 17.and low alloyed carbon steels and stainless steels. It is nontoxic and non-combustible.32mm x1/14” W24.2 11 200 200 18 81 22 99 1000 1690 140 230 W24.5 psi 1 M3=35.32mm x1/14” W24. slightly heavier than air. Overall length mm appr.3ft3 1kg = 2. gas mix tube and positive pressure Cartridge.9 200 200 18 81 21 98 1000 1690 140 230 W24.2 10.1 2. odourless gas. 1kg =0.611 nM3 E-10 E-50 715-905565 715-905174 Welding Welding Grey Grey 10 50 3.598 nM3 M-10 M-50 715-905573 715-905581 Welding Welding Grey/Yellow Grey/Yellow 10 50 3.571 kg.32mm x1/14” Forged brass with bursting disc.637 kg. inlet filter and positive pressure cartridge 1 bar = 14. primarily to protect the molten pool against contaminants in the atmosphere.3ft3 1kg = 2. The mixture gives a very stable molten pool together with optimum energytransmission. Outside diameter mm Valve outlet connection Valve type 1 nM3 = 1. Argon is an inert gas used as a shielding gas for TIG and MIG welding.C02 mixtures are used as shielding gas in MlG/ MAG welding processes. 1kg =0. Gross weight kg appr.2 lbs ARGON .32mm x1/14” Forged brass with bursting disc.2 lbs 4.CO2 MIXTURES Argon . Gross weight kg appr. 1 bar = 14. For use on: Aluminium Yorcalbro Cunifer Cylinder data Cylinder type: Product No: Application Colour Water capacity I Gas capacity kg Gas capacity nM3 Filling pressure bar Empty weight kg appr.

SC 12 RC Wire feeder principle The most flexible system is to include elements 2 . gas hose. feeding wire through the torch. Power source with amperage or voltage control.   2. • Contactor closes to supply welding current from the power source to the torch contact tip and wire.   6. and the arc is extinguished. and welding proceeds. • The arc starts as the wire touches the workpiece. 4. Power supply to wire feeder and gas valve. but limits the selection of wires to mainly aluminium alloys. Torch cable package containing welding current cable. preventing further current supply.   3. Depending on the area of use the elements of the Wire Welding equipment are arranged in different ways. Gas cylinder   5. secondly to ensure gas shield of deposit and wire tip until sufficient cooling has been obtained. Wire feed motor with drive rolls. Unitor Wire Feeder SC 12 RC is based on this principle and requires only welding current as power supply.   9. Wire spool. and control switch. Torch with contact tip for supplying current to the nozzle.   4.   8. As the practical length of the torch cable package with wire feed liner is limited to 3–4 m (especially when welding aluminium) these units are limited to applications close to the machine.9 except gas cylinder regulator in a compact portable wire feeder unit. Gas valve (solenoid). incorporating elements 7–11 in the torch. Wire feed control. more or less suited to onboard use. • After a brief moment the contactor opens. 412 • The gas valve closes.WIRE WELDING Equipment The basic elements in a complete equipment package for the Wire Welding process are:   1. preventing further gas supply. 10. Another system is built around very small wire spools. Gas regulator with flow adjustment.   7. Most commonly used are constant voltage power sources where all elements 1-9 are assembled in one unit. When welding is to be stopped the welder releases the torch control switch and the following sequence of events take place: • Wire feed motor stops. • Wire feed motor starts. often even with the gas cylinder mounted on the assembly. This is a flexible system regarding distance from the power source. due to the small wire spools. control circuit cables and wire feed tube (liner). which has the ability to utilize power sources with constant voltage characteristic. first to avoid that the wire sticks in the weld deposit. Welding current switch (contactor).03 . In a welding sequence these elements function as follows when the welder points the torch towards the starting point of the weld and pushes the torch control switch: • Gas valve opens to supply gas. 11. The sequence of events and the time delay between them is essential for a successful termination of the weld. and the other elements either in a control box or in the power source.

supply current 230 V. 4. supply current from DC-power source. UWW-161TP wire welder principle Short-arc welding does not normally require amperages above 100-150A.WIRE WELDING With a capacity of 500A at 100% duty cycle and selection possibility (DC+ or-to wire) this system covers the complete range of continuous wire welding applications for onboard repair and maintenance. UWI-400 Wire feeder UWF-SC 12 RC SC 12 RC principle. including short-arc welding if constant voltage power is available. The Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161TP includes polarity selection possibility. and covers all thin plate and light construction welding applications. 50/60 Hz.03 UWW-161TP principle. which is obtainable in portable units. 1 phase. The unit is therefore also able to use self-shielding flux cored wires. 413 .

03 325 Primary voltage Recommended fuse size Maximum touchable open circuit voltage Voltage adjustment range for wire welding Wire speed adjustment range for wire welding Welding current range for MMA (Stick) electrode welding Postflow gas adjustment range Length x Width x Height Weight (ex. 1 phase 230V 16A for use anywhere on board. 5 and 10. prevent machine damage from wrong primary voltage and overheating. only 12kg net weight. • Fully portable. Conforms with IEC/EN 60974-1. TIG and wire welding • Select between softer or crisper arc on the front panel to optimize the wire welding arc. • Safe in use. • Individual. Accessories) 1 phase 230V 50-60Hz 16A slow fuses 10V 10-26V 2-13m/min 5-140A 0-3sec 460x230x325mm 12.WIRE WELDING Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161 TP Multi Process Welding Inverter for Stick. Voltage reduction function reduces touchable Open Circuit Voltage to10V. • 2-step or 4-step trigger function for wire welding operator comfort • 2-step TIG-torch control with Liftarc start and adjustable gas postflow. • Automatic hot start and arc force control provides easy start and a stable arc in MMA modus • Protection against both overload and high input voltage. • CE-marked. • Polarity selection allows for wire welding with all wires including self-shielding wires without shielding gas.2kg 230 460 414 . step-less adjustment of both wire speed and welding voltage through whole adjustment range provide optimal settings for any wire Technical Data 4. with indicator light on the front panel.

Connect the electrode holder to the correct polarity for the electrode to be used 4. Product no. 193 161161 Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding Select MMA (stick) welding: In this mode a constant current characteristic for MMA welding is set and the terminals are live (10V). An automatic hot-start enables easy arc start.03 - + Connect the return cable to the other socket Connect the return clamp directly to the work piece 415 .cable connection sockets.5 m primary cable with plug. Select polarity Disconnect the TIG/MIG polarity selection cable from the +/.WIRE WELDING Ordering Information UWW-161 TP is supplied with: • 2. An automatic anti-stick function will cut the power if the electrode should get stuck in the melt-pool so that it can be removed without damage.8 mm wire • Electrode holder for MMA (stick) electrode welding with 3 m cable and Dix 25 connector • 3 m return cable with Dix 25 connector and return clamp • Adjustable carrying strap • Instruction manual Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161 TP. fitted on the welding machine • Gas hose socket with nut and hose clamp for connection to gas inlet • Wire welding torch with 3 m cable and connector complete for 0. And an automatic arc-force maintains a smooth and stable arc by momentarily increasing the current if bigger droplets in the arc tends to produce short circuits.

for Argon and Argon/CO2 Flow control meter for use at torch nozzle Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment at the gas inlet to the machine Gas hose ¼” black. the signal current will initialize an arc and an upslope function that increases the current to set value. one ear for ¼” hose. euro-connector and torch-mounted trigger 197 160010 TIG accessories kit 197 607810 The kit contains: – short back cap – spare heat-shield – 6 collets – 2 collet bodies – 4 nozzles – 3 electrodes 1. Gas Supply Accessories Gas regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min. Lift the torch slowly. Shielding gas and very small “signal” current will start flowing. non-protruding stainless. - + Release the button (step 2) in order to start the slope-down function that gradually reduces the welding current to zero.03 TIG-Torch T-161 with 4 m cable. The supply of gas will continue for the selected post-gas time.6mm 416 . Connect the return cable to the + socket and return clamp directly to the work piece Connect gas Set amperage TIG welding Touch the electrode to the work piece and press the torch button.6mm – 3 electrodes 1. bag of 10 pcs Pliers for ear clamps Argon 10 litres Argon CO2 mix TIG Accessories Product numbers 197 619247 197 597328 197 597310 176 576157 401 729442 401 768507 715 905565 715 905573 Product numbers 4. for shielding gas Hose clamps.WIRE WELDING Application set-up for TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding Select TIG welding In this mode a constant current characteristic for TIG welding is set Select polarity Connect the TIG/MIG voltage selection cable to the negative (-) cable connection socket and the electrode holder to the Euro-contact.

check information on the label. The wire advances until it contacts with the work-piece and the arc is lit. Press (step 1) and hold the torch button. Welding current is set with the VA knob on the front panel.03 - + 417 . 2 step wire welding (upper mode) Bring the torch close to the work-piece. Press (step 3) and release (step 4) the button to stop welding. The gas flow continues for the selected post-gas time 4 step wire welding (second mode) Bring the torch close to the work-piece. Press (step 1) and release (step 2) the torch button. Release the button (step 2) to stop welding. The wire advances until it contacts with the work-piece and the arc is lit. white scale. The gas flow continues for the selected post-gas time 4. Select Wire speed and Voltage Wire speed is set with the m/min knob on the front panel. Select polarity Connect the TIG/MIG voltage selection cable to the correct polarity for the selected wire.WIRE WELDING Application set-up for Wire (MIG/MAG) welding Select Wire welding: In this mode a constant voltage characteristic for wire welding is set.

UWW-161 is delivered with the V-groove 160003. Replace the cap (7). over the drive roll (3). When properly adjusted. a bolt inside the spindle (6). Thread the wire through the ingoing guide tube (8). Place the wire spool in place on the wire spool spindle (4). Ensure that the groove size in the feeding position on the drive roll matches the wire type and size. Rotate the spool counterclockwise if required to take up extra slack in the wire. Close the idle roll arm (2) and latch the spring loaded pressure arm (1) in place. Too much drag may result in wire feeding problems. Smooth V-groove Knurled V-groove Smooth V-groove Wire Loading Release the spring loaded pressure arm (1) and swing the roll arm (2) up from the wire feed drive roll (3). Each drive roll has two grooves in different siz es. Carefully detach the end of the wire from the spool. and into the outgoing guide tube. see table.WIRE WELDING Drive rolls The drive rolls in the wire feed system must be selected according to wire size and type. 2 1 6 5 4 4. cut the bent portion of wire off and straighten the first 10cm. It should be sufficient to ensure smooth feeding of the wire. the brake should provide only enough drag to prevent overrun of the spool and excess slack in the wire.03 8 S 7 3 418 . Make sure that the stud (5) engages in the corresponding hole in the wire spool Check the Friction Brake Adjustment. The roll pressure on the wire is adjusted with the screw on the pressure arm nut above the spring.

9–1.2 0.6 0.6–1. 2 0.0 1.8 0.0–1.6–1. but wears down quicker than steel liners ** = Steel liner is a more wear resistant alternative for black steel welding but should be avoided for stainless and non iron wires to avoid contamination of the weld Torch Neck Contact Tip Nozzle Aluminium wire Solid wire steel Wire size mm mm 4.03 419 .0 mm 10 tips 1.2 0.2 Max.0–1.WIRE WELDING Drive roll / Liner / Contact tip combinations Application area Cored wire stainless Solid wire stainless Solid wire non-iron X – – X X – X X X X Cored wire steel Product number Product description Drive Roll V-groove Drive roll U-groove Drive roll V-groove knurled Outgoing wire guide tube Non iron liner * Steel liner ** 10 tips 0. but not the best solution – = Not recommended.8 mm 10 tips 1. do not use * = Non iron liner can be used for all welding wires.2 O – X X X X X X X X X – O X X X X X X X O – X X X – X X X X X – O X X – X X X X O X – X X – ** ** ** X OUTGOING WIRE GUIDE TUBE WIRE FED LINERS CONTACT TIPS GAS NOZZLES All wires requiring gas shielding X = Well suited O = May be used.8 0.8–1-0 1.6 mm 10 tips 0.2 0.2 mm GAS NOZZLE WIRE FEED DRIVE ROLLS 160003 160004 160005 161164 590075 613756 711986 711994 712000 712018 160001 0.6–1.6–0.

3 to 17. Width 203 mm.03 394 508 203 420 . fully protected. Cable/hose extensions may be used between power source and wire feeder.7 mm self shield wire which is supplied in coils.6 kg (27 lb) Unit pcs Product No. and gas shielded solid wires. 193-657106 4. A self shield spool adapter is required for 1.5 Amperes 50/60 HZ Constant Voltage CV/DC With 14 pin and contactor control 1.6 to 2 mm (023 to 5/64 in) 100 volts 500 amperes 100% Duty Cycle 23 Length: 508 mm.8 mpm 0.6 to 2 mm. Standard spools with 300 mm diameter are fitted vertically inside the wire feeder. gas shielded flux cored wires. Height: 394 mm 11. Technical Data Type of input Power Welding Power Source Type Wire Feed Speed Range Wire Diameter Range Welding Circuit Rating IP Rating Overall Dimensions Weight Description Wire Feeder SC 12 RC. Adjustable wire spool friction brake and roll pressure setting for the feed system provides smooth feeding of both self shielded wires.WIRE WELDING SC 12 RC Unitor Wire Feeder For use with UWI-400 For wire range 0. Included with wire feeder is 3 m connection cables to welding machine and a drive roll kit for 0. ex torch 24 Volts AC Single Phase 3.8 mm solid wire.

Product No. 193-603118 193-602821 • Euro Connector 4.03 • Control cable 3 m • Gas hose 3 m • Power cable 3 m 421 . include the following items:   •  V-groove 0.030") drive roll kit   •  Compression spring for spools Product No.8 mm (0.WIRE WELDING Regulator w/ flow meter Gas cylinder 380–440 V 3 Phase Power source UWI-400 Gas hose Power cable SC 12 RC Wire feeder Control cable Wire torch Return cable Return clamp The order no.

0 mm Smooth U-groove 422 .03 SMOOTH U-GROOVE For soft wire Unitor product: Alumag-W-235 1.8 mm Ialbro-W-237 0.9 mm S 309 M-GF-222 0.9 mm Abratech-W-230 1.0 mm HST-SF-232 1.6 mm Knurled SMOOTH V-GROOVE For hard wire Unitor product: GPS-W-200 0.WIRE WELDING SC 12 RC Drive rolls KNURLED For cored wire Unitor product: HST-SF-203 1.7 mm S 316M-GF-221 0.8 mm Smooth V-groove 4.8 mm Icuni-W-239 0.

For Unitor Welding wire GSP-W-200 Ialbro-W-237 Icuni-W-239 0.8 mm 0.0 mm S-316M-GF-221 0.8 mm   V-Groove 0.6 mm Alumag-W-235 1. 2) Install drive rolls and turn drive roll nut to click.8 mm 0. Ingoing guide tube Drive roll kit Drive rolls 200 mm Normal Unitor spool size 4. 193-602839.9 mm (0.6 mm (1/16 in) 196-603134 193-603498 ** Included in Wire feeder when first received.9 mm S-309M-GF-222 0.035 in)   V-Groove Knurled 1. * This wire comes in the form of coil with 245 mm dia x 75 mm (6.7 mm Abratech-W-230 1.8 mm 193-603126*   (0.9 mm HST-SF-232 1.045 in)   V-Groove 1.0 mm   V-Groove Knurled 0.2 mm (0.9 mm 193-603142   (0.1 kg) and requires a spool adapter product no. 1) Install and secure wire guide.072 in)   U-Groove 0.030 in) 193-603118**   V-Groove 1.WIRE WELDING Drive roll & Wire guide kits for Wire feeder SC 12 RC Drive roll kit Product no.068/0.8 mm (0.6 mm (1/16 in) 193-603340 193-603373 MS-W-201 1.03 55 mm 423 .035 in)   U-Groove 1.

for shielding gas Hose joint for 1/4" hose Clip 8–14 mm for hose. 191-670422 195-175844 195-632893 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 UWI-400 Gas cylinder 1 3 2 SC 12 RC Standard cable/hose length 3 m 4. 1 25 m 1 25 m 1 1 Unit pcs mtr pcs mtr pcs pck Product no. 10 pcs Qty.03 424 .WIRE WELDING Accessories for Wire feeder SC 12 RC   Pos Description   1   2   3 Extension control cable 25 m Welding cable 50 mm2 Cable connector DIX 70 male/female complete Gas hose 1/4" black.

8-1.8 mm 1.1. Steel for 0. 1 2 3 Description Qty. 193-607451 193-613765 193-594622 193-594630 193-607455 193-607456 193-613766 193-613763 193-613764 193-594606 193-594614 193-607457 Wire torch T-400 MP for gas shielded wire w/3 m cable and connector w/1.2-1. Pos. Teflon for 0.0 mm Nozzle insulator Gas diffusor for T-400 Neck insulation for T-400 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 4 5 6 4.2 mm wire (blue) 3. complete with liner and contact tips for 0.4.5 m long Torch liner. Unit pcs pcs set set set set set set set pcs pcs pcs Product no.2.2 . It is delivered with 3 m cable.0-1.03 7 Torch liner.0.8-1.0 mm wire (red) 3.2 mm 1.2 mm wire.2 mm contact tip and steel liner (1.0 m long 425 .4 mm) Gas nozzle for torch Contact tips.6-2. consumable parts and spares 1 7 6 5 4 2 3 Torch T-400 MP The torch has adjustable neck and is delivered complete with tools for neck adjustment and contact tip change.4 mm 1.2 mm wire 4.0 m long Torch liner.WIRE WELDING Torch T-400 MP. Steel for 3 m for 1. The teflon liner allows for all wire types including aluminium.8–1.

WIRE WELDING Regulator & Accessories The R 300 + regulator with flow meter supply a steadly stream of shielding gas to the torch. especially if long gas hoses are used. 3/8" RH threads Clip 8-14 mm for hose. for shielding gases Hose joint for 1/4" hose. They give good protection of the hands while they ensure easy control of the torch and eventual welding rod. In addition standard protective equipment for arc welding should be used. 10 pcs Spare parts for regulator: Flow meter gauge for Argon 0-32 L/min Contents gauge for regulator Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for use with machine/ wire feeder TIG Gloves for TIG and Gas welding Unit pcs pcs mtr pcs pck pcs pcs pcs pcs 6 pairs Product no 197-510010 197-510012 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 171-550210 171-550178 197-597328 197-597310 197-632795 4. Also recommended are soft-skin TIG welding gloves. Combined with the Flowcontrol needle valve used at the gas inlet of the machine or the wire feeder full flow adjustment is available at the work place regardless of distance to the gas cylinder/gas outlet. The Flowcontrol meter measures actual flow at the torch nozzle and is a useful tool for the operator. Product description Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min CO2 regulator with flow adjustment Gas hose 1/4" black.03 426 . The flow rate in l/min is adjusted on the regulator Actual gas flow at the TIG or wire torch may deviate from what is set on the gas outlet station or on the cylinder regulator.

tip and outside. The spray is packed in an outer carton containing 6 X 400 ml canisters. The Anti spatter spray prevents the spatter from the welding arc from sticking to the metal surface being welded. Time consuming chipping and grinding is prevented.WIRE WELDING Accessories The multipurpose pliers provides means for spatter removal from the nozzle inside. The spatter can easily be wiped off with a brush after welding. and for cutting and pulling wire. Product description Multipurpose pliers for torch Anti Spatter Spray. 193-591990 193-633149 4. a barrier is formed preventing the molten globules from burning on to the surface. By spraying on a thin layer on each side of where the welding is to take place.03 427 . It has jaws for contact tip and nozzle removal and installation. 6 pcs of 400 ml in a box Unit pcs set Product no.

not necessary. Hydrogen. Oxygen. and will further add to the usefulness of the GMAW/FCAW processes in onboard repair and maintenance. • 23/14 type flux cored wire. and with proper selection of filler material. Among the most distinct advantages of the processes are: • Welding technique is easy to learn. short-arc. all claiming their superiority for certain alloy types. a mixture of 75-80% Argon and 20-25% Carbon Dioxide. welding positions. The only other alternative.WIRE WELDING Application areas GMAW and FCAW processes cover a wide range of applications known from MMAW (coated electrodes) and partly also the TIG process. even though thicker materials may be welded with the SC 12 RC-system and short arc. and solid wire filler material of Alumag. have been introduced to the market for ferrous materials. Non-ferrous metals Unalloyed/Iow alloyed and stainless steels Numerous gas mixtures based on Argon. • High quality welds. • Unique advantages for sheet metal and aluminium welding. Helium. In onboard repair and maintenance a stock of several gas mixtures will be expensive and highly impractical. • High deposition rate. Carbon Dioxide. and even traces of other gases. all positions all stainless steels weldable with 18/8 electrodes or 18/8 Mo rods. or for FCAW very little slag. TIG. 428 . all positions. all steels weldable with GPO/GPR/SPECIAL /LH/LHV electrodes. Flux cored wires with self-shielding properties requiring no shielding gas at all are being developed to cover an expanding range of applications. • No slag. all positions all stainless steels weldable with 23/14 electrodes. arc types etc. as especially aluminium welding with gas or coated electrode is difficult and requires considerable experience and skill from the welder. need special equipment and is only usable on materials of limited thickness. Welding is easily done in all positions. Based on one shielding gas. 4. • 18/8 type flux cored wire.03 Aluminium and copper alloys are excellently weldable both in spray. Disadvantages of the process have been among others heavy equipment and the need for using several different premixed shielding gases for different metals and alloys. lcuni and lalbro type. the following applications are covered: • MS type solid wire.and short-arc mode using argon as shielding gas. The last may be the most important advantage for repair and maintenance applications. These are to a large degree being eliminated by design of equipment as described under the UWW-170 and SC 12 RC principle. Overlap between short.and spray-arc mode will normally be in the material thickness range 3–6 mm. and by carefully selecting wires with or without flux core according to application area.

Worn contact tips or liners should be replaced. normally positive pole (+) to torch if solid wires are used. Spatter must be removed to avoid disturbance in shielding gas flow. Teflon liners are often an advantage for aluminium and stainless steel wires. • Check that the torch contact tip and nozzle are free from spatter. When aluminium wire is used the contact tip should have a slightly larger inner diameter than with other alloys. Poor return connection will influence on the equipment’s ability to provide the correct arc. Preparing the equipment Before welding starts make sure that correct shielding gas in sufficient quantity is available. Use correct size contact tip.WIRE WELDING Preparation for Welding As for other arc welding processes the GMAW and FCAW processes require that the welder and welder’s assistant use correct protective equipment and face shields with correct shade filter glass. The guidelines given in the chapter on safety should always be followed. if shielding gas is to be used. to allow for the heat expansion in aluminium. and if necessary clean the wire feed rolls and the wire liner in the torch cable. 429 . Mounting the wire spool • Check.03 A worn contact tip will give insufficient electrical contact. and that the contact tip is of correct size for the wire to be used. Check that the equipment is set for correct polarity according to the wire. and negative pole (-) to torch for some flux cored wires. Ensure that the return clamp is properly fastened to the workpiece. Ensure that the rolls and liner are of correct size and quality for the wire to be used. 4. with good electrical contact.

the weld bead should therefore be shielded. without uncoiling excessive wire between spool and feed rolls. This is checked by stopping the wire at the torch nozzle while keeping the feed button depressed. Round off wire tip before inserting wire in liner. Welding fume extractors must be positioned with care to ensure they do not affect the shielding gas. Shielding the workplace Strong draft may disturb the shielding gas flow and cause welding faults. Even at the highest wire feed speed the spooi shall stop immediately when the torch micro-switch is released.WIRE WELDING • Insert the wire spool in the wire feeder and straigthen approximately 10-15cm of the wire end. A sharply pointed wire will improve arc start. it maybe an advantage to round off the wire end with a file. Then insert the wire in the torch cable liner. When necessary. fasten the feeder rolls and feed the wire through until it protrudes from the torch. 430 Strong draft may disturb the gas shield. Do not touch the wire when testing this unless the equip­ ment has a cold feed switch. The sharp point will provide a better starting point for the arc than a flat wire tip surface.03 . The roll pressure may be tested by cutting the wire level with the torch nozzle and using an electrically insulating material to hold the wire back. especially for larger wire diameters. • To provide best conditions for arc start the wire should be cut off at a sharp angle 10-15 mm away from the nozzle tip before welding starts. Checking the wire feed function • Check and if necessary adjust the wire spool resistance. 4. To avoid damaging the liner or getting the wire stuck when feeding it through the liner. • The feed roll pressure should be adjusted to a pressure where they slide on the wire if the wire is stopped at the torch.

multiply by 10 and you will have feed rate per minute. Measure the wire length that has been fed. and depending on the characteristic of the power source. the welder may use the stick out to adjust the welding parameters while welding. While feeding in this way the wire will be electrically live and an arc will occur if contact is made. allow the gas to flow for a while to ensure that the gas supply system is fully purged. Travel speed and direction 4. Too short stickout may overheat the contact tip and will also allow more spatter to reach the nozzle. If in doubt of the actual wire feed speed at a certain setting on the machine.03 431 . a to short a stick out will give porosity. and the welding current will decrease with increasing stickout and vice versa. This voltage drop is part of what the equipment measures as arc voltage. The electric resistance and voltage drop in the wire increases with increasing stickout.WIRE WELDING Welding technique Set the correct parameters given for the base material. and insufficient shielding. Increasing stick out will • decrease penetration • increase deposition rate • increase bead size • decrease bead width. This distance decides how long the current carrying part of the welding wire is to be. travel speed and direction (5). While welding the welder controls five variables. wire and shielding gas that are to be used. When Flux Cored Arc Welding Self Shielded is to be used. Wire stickout The stick-out is the distance from the end of the contact tip to the baseplate. including the arc length. torch angles (6) and weaving (7). Too long stickout may result in too cold arc and insufficient gas shield and must be avoided. These parameters include (1) Gas flow rate (2) Wire feed speed (3) Amperage or voltage setting When setting the gas flow rate. When doing this remember to keep the wire away from contact with deck or workpiece. This may again cause turbulence in the gas flow. wire stickout (4). this may be checked by pressing the torch micro-switch and initiate wire feed for exactly 6 seconds. Within limits.

the angle between torch and workpiece along the weld. For steel and stainless steels both techniques are used. Forehand technique: When “Gas Metal Arc Welding” and “Flux Cored Arc Welding Gas Shielded” wires are used. and will also decide the heat input per distance to the base material.WIRE WELDING The speed with which the torch is passed along the bead will influence on bead size and width. Forehand technique Backhand technique 4. depending on welding position and alloy. Generally the difference with the two methods are as follows: Backhand technique: When Flux Cored Arc Welding Self Shielded wire are used. Welding may be done with the forehand (push) or backhand (pull) technique. and transverse angle .the angle between torch and workpiece sideways from the weld.03 The longitudinal angle will affect the penetration and bead form. For horizontal welding an angle between 70°-80° is frequently used. often with preference for forehand welding with solid wire and backhand for fluxcored wire. contaminating the weld. Too small angle should be avoided as the shielding gas flow may drag air in between torch and workpiece. To avoid oxides in the deposit the forehand technique is always used for all welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys. Transverse angle will normally be Torch angles 432 . Torch angles Torch angles may be defined as longitudinal angle .

When finishing the weld the heat input should be reduced to reduce penetration depth and weld pool size. Torch angles in vertical welding. Weaving To obtain a wider deposit than obtainable with a straight welding pattern. and 45° for fillet welds. 4. the torch may be moved along the groove in a side to side movement (weaving). When multiple passes are used. backhand technique This may be done by increasing travel speed and/or stickout the last 3-5 cm of the weld. When this technique is used the side to side movement must be stopped shortly at each side to ensure sufficient deposit at the sides of the weld. or the welder may increase the heat input. Arc starting and stopping When starting the arc on a cold workpiece. and releasing the torch switch immediately when the stop point is reached. Keep the torch in position over the weld until gas flow stops. Weaving in a continuous movement may easily result in insufficient deposit and undercut. moving the arc quickly back to the actual starting point and continue welding over the slightly preheated area. penetration may be insufficient to provide sufficient binding for a short moment before the weld pool is properly established. This may be done by starting the arc approximately 2-3 cm after the beginning of the weld. the transverse angle is increased or decreased to place the deposit correctly in the joint. in order to protect the deposit until the metal has solidified.WIRE WELDING 90° on a flat workpiece. which will weaken the joint considerably. Reduced electrode stickout for the first 1-2 cm will further improve heat input. To avoid a weakness in the joint the arc may either be started on a plate attached to the workpiece at the beginning of the joint.03 433 .

2 1.2 Horizontal & 1. 20% Co2 Shielding gas Joint Welding Gas opening position consumption mm l/min. Wire Welding parameters diameter Amp Volt Wire speed mm cm/min 55 65 80 85 95 105 16 17 17 17-18 18 18 290 340 420 440 500 550 Number of layers 1 1 1 1 1 1 0. VU: Vertical up 434 .5 125 130 120 120 150 330 145 150 300 22 22 20 20 21 32 21 21 30 3 4 4 6 50° 2 1. VD: Vertical down.8 Vertical down.6 6-10 0.8 0.5 4.2 1.8 0.6 2.2 1. 80% Ar.WIRE WELDING Edge preparation Steel.03 6 10 50° 1 1 10 H: Horizontal.2 95 19 430 510 480 500 460 460 330 1100 320 330 900 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 Material Type of thickness joint mm 2 3 110 19.8 0.2 1.8 0. Position welding.0 Steel.8 0. 1.9 1.0 2. 80% Ar. 20% CO2 Shielding gas Material Type of Welding thickness joint position mm Gas consumption l/min. Position welding. 1 1-2 H & VD H & VD H & VD H & VD H & VD VD H H VU VU H 10-12 10-12 10-12 10-12 10-12 12-15 12-15 15-20 15-20 15-20 15-20 Wire Welding parameters Number diameter Amp Volt Wire speed of mm cm/min layers 0.8 1.

5 1.5 1. 20% CO2 Shielding gas Material Type of thickness joint mm 3 (1/8”) 60° 6.5 1.7 (1/2”) 90° 19 (3/4”) 90° 25. 80% Ar. 1. 1.WIRE WELDING Edge preparation Stainless steel.6 1.9 85 85 90 90 105 125 15 15 15 15 17 17 460 460 480 480 580 720 Welding speed cm/min 45 50 35 30 38 40 Number of layers 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2.2 Stainless steel.6 1.6 1.03 5-6 7-8 435 . 18 18 20 20 20 20 Wire Welding parameters diameter Amp wire speed mm cm/min.5 Gas consumption l/min.4 (1”) 1.6 2 8-12 0.4 200-250 250-300 275-325 300-350 350-375 350-375 280-380 380-490 460-570 190-215 215-235 215-235 Number of layers 1 2 2 3-4 4.5 1.6 2. Position welding.5 (1/4”) 60° 9.5 (3/8”) 60° 12. mm cm/min. 80% Ar. 20% CO2 Shielding gas Material Type of Gas Wire Welding parameters thickness joint consumption diameter Amp Volt wire speed mm l/min.4 2.4 3.4 2. Horizontal welding.

7 (1/2”) With With With out With With out With out With With out Gas consumption l/min. 15 10 10 10 Wire Welding parameters diameter Amp Volt Wire speed mm cm/min 1.5 (3/8”) 9.WIRE WELDING Edge preparation Aluminium.0 1.6 2.0 1.0 1.5 (1/4”) 6.6 1.2 1.4 Gas consumption l/min.5 (3/8”) 75° 9. Horizontal welding. 18 20 18 20 20 25 25 25 Wire diameter mm 1.6 1.2 1.03 436 . Argon Shielding gas Material Type of Backing thickness joint plate mm 60° 6.5 (1/4”) 6. Argon Shielding gas Material Type of thickness joint mm 1 1.3 1.5 (1/4”) 50° 9.6 1.7 (1/2”) 75° 12. Horizontal welding.6 1.6 Welding parameters Amp Volt 180 250 220 280 260 270 310 300 24 26 24 27 26 26 27 27 Welding speed cm/min 38 40 60 60 45 55 45 45 Number of layers 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 4.0 40 50 60 90 15 15 15 15 600 700 810 1050 Welding speed cm/min 50 38 38 38 Aluminium.5 (3/8”) 60° 12.2 1.

20 20 20 23 23 25 25 25 Wire diameter mm 1.5 (1/4”) 60° 9.6 1. Argon Shielding gas Material thickness mm Type of Welding joint position * V OH V OH V OH V OH Gas consumption l/min.4 310 460 500 540 27 26 27 27 500 345 380 420 4.WIRE WELDING Edge preparation Aluminium.2 or 1.6 1. Horizontal.03 NB: When welding Cunifer backing gas must be used 437 . Argon Shielding gas Material Type of thickness joint mm 3 (1/8”) 6.6 1.7 (1/2”) 5 mm 5 mm Gas consumption l/min.6 1.6 2.6 1. 15-20 15-20 15-20 15-20 Wire Welding parameters diameter Wire speed Amp Volt mm cm/min 1.5 (3/8”) 90° 12.7 (1/2”) 60° 12.5 (3/8”) 60° 9.6 Welding parameters Amp Volt 180 200 210 220 215 225 225 240 23 23-24 23 23-24 22-23 23-24 23-24 24 Welding speed cm/min 50 55 45 50 30 40 25 35 Number of layers 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 6 60° 6.4 2. Position welding.2 or 1.2 or 1. OH: Over head *4 mm (1/16”) 4 mm (1/16”) Copper alloys.6 1.5 (1/4”) 90° 9.6 1.4 2.5 (3/8”) 60° 12.5 (1/4”) 60° 6.7 (1/2”) 75° 19 (3/4”) 75° 19 (3/4”) V: Vertical.

values only Final adjustment to be set by welder depending on welding position and wall thickness I plate thickness of base material Argon.9 090-606041 Ar/CO2 DC+ 11 50 13 24 Ialbro-W-237 0.0 090-590083 Ar DC+ 11 40 12 23 Abratech-W-230 1.5 50 12 20 HST-SF-232 1.03 438 .5 22 Icuni-W-239 0.5 32 Note: Approx.8 090-777972 Ar DC+ 9 40 7. ArgonlCO2 Mix: 20 I/mm.6 090-230230 N.8 090-590109 Ar DC+ 10 40 7.5 22 Alumag-W-235 1.5 22 MS-W-201 1.7 090-603423 Non DC10 55 S 316 M-GF-221 0.0 090-160100 Non DC11. 4. DC+ 8.A. gas type speed (Knob) speed GPS-W-200 0.WIRE WELDING Wires for Wire Welding Unitor Wire feeder/Wire welder SC 12 RC UWW-161 TP Unitor Size Order Shielding Current Wire Voltage Wire Voltage Wire mm no. Tech sheets for all above products under section Consumables.8 090-590117 Ar/CO2 DC+ 10 50 7.9 090-597518 Ar/CO2 DC+ 11 50 11 22 S 309 M-GF-222 0.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.03 439 .

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.03 440 .

. . . . .PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Introduction . . . . . . . .04 441 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   450 Maintenance and trouble shooting . .   446 UPC-1041 . . . . . . . . . .   443 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   447 Cutting technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   445 Plasma cutting equipment . . . . . . . . . .   452 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

04 442 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Introduction In flame cutting. Aluminum and its alloys are not possible to flame cut because its oxides have a higher melting point than the metal itself. The stream of oxygen. Some metals have refractory oxides (sluggish heavy kind of oxides with high melting point). to create a rapid oxidation of the steel (the steel catches fire and burns to become a slag). Iron and low carbon steels fit all the above requirements and are readily flame cut. 3) The heat produced by the combustion of the metal with oxygen must be sufficient to maintain the flame cutting operation. Base material So why cannot aluminum. the cutting torch with its high flame temperature of 3100 °C (5612°F) is used to heat the steel to its kindling temperature (ignition temperature) and then by introducing a stream of pure oxygen. It melts before it can be ignited. also assists in removing the material from the cut. It also has a refractory silicate oxide. at high pressure. Cast iron is not readily flame cut because the kindling temperature is above the melting point. copper. 2) The oxides (rust) of the metal should melt at a lower temperature than the metal itself. Jet of pure oxygen leads to rapid oxidation and removal of slag. Steel melts at 1535°C (2795°F) but can be ignited at 884°C (1623°F). Pure aluminum melts at 658°C (1216°F) but the aluminum oxides melts at 1926°C (3500°F) 443 4. stainless steel and those other metals be cut by this process? In order for a metal to be flame cut the following conditions must apply: 1) The melting point of the metal must be above kindling point (ignition point). 4) The thermal conductivity must be low enough so that the material can be brought to its kindling temperature. This process is referred to as a chemical process Cutting direction Cutting nozzle Pre-heating flame Stream of pure O2 Heating to kindling tempe­ ­ rature. which produces a slag coating.04 . 5) The oxides formed in cutting should be fluid when molten so as not to interrupt the cutting operation.

This electrically conductive ionized gas is called plasma. The significant difference between these states relate to the energy level.04 Plasma. is electrtrically conductive because free electrons are available to carry current).PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Non-ferrous metals such as aluminum and copper also have refractory oxides coverings. The molecules are split in molecular and atomic ions and free electrons. the gas. When this happens. So how can we overcome these nature’s physical laws for a process to work on a given metal? Simply by changing process from chemical (Flame cutting) to an electric (Plasma cutting). a liquid. liquid. If we add more energy to water. (At a temperature of between 2000°C (3600°F) and 10000°C (18000°F) a process of ionization and dissociation of the gas molecules take place. the ice melts and the result is water. We normally think of the three states of matter as solid. In Plasma cutting only one condition must apply in order to perform cutting: 1) The metal must be electrically conductive. which prohibit normal flame cutting. What is Plasma? One common description of plasma is that it is the fourth state of matter. By adding even more energy to the steam the gas become ionized. In addition they also have high thermal conductivity. and gas. This ionization process causes the gas to become electrically conductive. water and steam. For most commonly known element. Stainless steel cannot be flame cut with standard flame cutting equipment and technique because of the refractory chromium oxide formed on the surface. the fourth state of matter 444 . which has now become plasma. it vaporizes to the gas we normally call steam. If we add energy in the form of heat to ice. water these three states are ice. The process utilizes the electrically 4.

ionization energy and dissociation energy is released. plasma is produced and forced out trough the tip with high kinetic velocity. Due to the design of the torch tip this arc and the high velocity of flow of free electrons and ionized particles called the plasma jet is constricted to a very small cross section with high-energy concentration. consisting of heat.04 445 . forming what is referred to as the pilot arc. The high velocity air plasma jet will efficiently melt and blow away practically any electrically conductive material. Inside the plasma torch the arc is struck between the cathode (electrode .PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Basic principles conductive gas to transfer energy from an electrical power source trough a plasma-cutting torch to the material being cut. In the impact zone the high inherent energy of the jet. Upon impact with the positive pole of the work piece the arc is transferred from electrode / tip to electrode work piece following the plasma gas. The basic plasma cutting equipment consists of a constant current DC Pilot arc Transferred arc 4.polarity) and an anode (tip + polarity) As compressed air is introduced in the arc. and provide a narrow smooth cut. creating temperatures up to 28000°C (50000°F).

PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Plasma cutting equipment power supply. creating a plasma arc. Most of these hand held systems are rated at under 100 Amps. The main function of the power supply is to provide the correct energy to maintain the plasma arc after ionization. The output current (Amperage) of the power supply determines the speed and cut thickness capacity of the system. This is of great importance for shipboard use. This in turn. The process generally uses a single gas (usually air or nitrogen) Air is the most widely used plasma gas. positively charges the air stream. This method is referred to as “blowback“ technology. for cutting materials under 16 mm (5/8”) thick. current 100 A Working pressure: 5. due to the fact that compressed air is readily available at most location and that it is cheap compared to single gases.04 Return cable Return clamp Plasma cutting system Cutting torch 446 . The Unitor UPC-1041 uses NO HIGH FREQUENCY to initiate the plasma arc. Power source output: Max. The torch serves as the holder for the consumable tip and electrode. The arc starting circuit uses compressed air to force back the electrode from the tip. an arc starting circuit (High frequency or air type) and a torch. The tip and electrode constrict and maintain the plasma jet. creating an electric arc. 20A slow fuse 4. The consumable part life depends largely on air quality that must be oil and water free. Consumable parts life is acceptable (usually between 100 to 200 starts).0 bar Primary side input: Compressed air 6-7 bar 440 V 3 phase min. and provides cooling to these parts.

To protect the operator a micro switch built into the torch will cut the current to the torch if the nozzle is loosened. The air regulator includes both filter and water separator to protect the torch. and automatic air post flow provides rapid cooling of the nozzle after cutting. This is of great importance for shipboard use. (Do not interfere with radio communication and other electronicaly controlled equipment. A special nozzle for gouging is available. and the process is especially suitable for copper alloys. 4. the unit is built on the inverter principle which in addition to excellent cutting properties provides low weight and compact dimensions.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING UPC-1041 Plasma Cutter UPC-1041 is a high capacity air plasma cutter. The UPC-1041 uses NO HIGH FREQUENCY to ignite the plasma arc. The output is steplessly adjustable for precision cutting at slower speeds. or if the duty cycle is exceeded.) Cutting capacity is ut to 40 mm steel. causing the unit to heat up. Compact and Portable. aluminium and stainless steel. The plasma cutter may easily be passed through manholes and brought to any workplace on board. Power will automatically be restored when the air supply is corrected or the unit has cooled. which cannot be cut with the Acetylene/ Oxygen cutting process. and typical cutting speed is 500 mm/ min on 12 mm steel plate.04 447 . The plasma process is highly efficient for precision cutting and gouging of most electrically conductive materials. The unit will also automatically shut down if the air supply is insufficient. Air is utilised both for plasma gas and for cooling the torch.

complete with 6 m cable and connector • Insulated return clamp with cable • Built-in air regulator with filter and water separator • Accessories kit Description UPC-1041 plasma cutter complete with basic accessories & torch Unit pcs Product no. current Unit A A % Value 20-100 100 35 440 50-60 3 25 6-7 5.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Unitor Plasma Cutter UPC-1040 Technical Data Description Output data Current adjustment range Maximum current Duty cycle at max.0 190 11. min. 192-404100 4. slow blow A 195 Air / Nitrogen supply Supply pressure range to machine Setting on machine at free flow Air consumption bar bar L/min m3/h 410 575 Micellaneous Protection class IP Approval marks Weight kg Width mm Height mm Length mm UPC-1041 is supplied complete with • Torch.04 448 .4 23 CE 15 195 410 575 Input data Supply voltage V Frequency Hz Phases Fuses.

PTA 121 5 pcs Nozzle gouging 2.0 mm 20–40 Amps for UPC-1041 w. 1 spatter shield (pos 11). excl.5 mm for UPC-1041 w.2 (pos 8). 1 gauging nozzle 2. 1 tool for electrodes (pos 5). PTA 121 5 pcs Nozzle 1.no Description – – – 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 10 11 – 12 UPC-1041 Plasma cutter complete with 6m cable Torch PTA 121 with 6 m cable and drag shield for UPC-1041 (optional) Torch PTA 121 with 15 m cable and drag shield for UPC-1041 (optional) Hose assembly for PTA 121 torch 6 m. PTA 121 2 pcs Drag shield for UPC-1041 w. 1 drag shield (pos 12). PTA 121 5 pcs Tool for electrode change Swirl ring for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 Electrode for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 2 pcs Spatter shield for UPC-1041 w. torch head and handle Hose assembly for PTA 121 torch 6 m. 192-404100 192-404114 192-404115 On request On request On request On request On request 192-404005 – 192-404006 192-404007 192-404008 192-404009 192-404010 192-404111 192-404112 192-404013 4. 3 nozzles 1. torch head and handle Trigger button for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 Handle for UPC-1041 w.04 192-404016 449 . PTA 121 2 pcs Consumables kit complete (included with machine) The kit includes: 3 electrodes (pos 5). PTA 121 Torch head fir UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 2 pcs Nozzle 1. PTA 121 5 pcs Shield cup for UPC-1041 w.25 mm 50–100 Amps for UPC-1041 w. excl.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Torch consumables and spares Pos.5 (pos 9) Wheeled cutting guide with circle cutting attachment (optional accessory) Product no.

Air will flow for one second before the pilot arc strikes. When removing the finger from the trigger. When the cutting arc is established. Air will continue to flow for about 30 seconds. Reposition the torch to ensure that the pilot arc will reach the work-piece and make a new try. The pilot arc will burn for about 3 seconds. It is placed directly on the work piece at the edge where cutting should start Lift the trigger protection and press the triggerswitch on the torch handle.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Cutting technique Place the torch in position for cutting or gouging. For most cutting operations the contact cutting shield should be used. If contact with the work piece is not obtained within this time. 4. At correct speed the sparks goes straight through the metal with only a slight bending towards the beginning of the cut Pause briefly at the end of cut before releasing the trigger. the pilot arc goes out. pull the torch slowly across the surface that is to be cut.04 The plasma arc goes out immediately. the trigger protection will close over the button. 450 .

4. Tighten the allen screw on the outer ring with the wheels axis at 90° to the torch handle For cutting circles the allen screw in point 4 must be loosened to allow the torch to rotate in the wagon.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING For piercing holes Rest the contact drag shield on the work piece at 45° angle Press the trigger-switch on the torch handle. Air will flow for one second before the pilot arc strikes. Tighten the allen screw on the inner ring. slowly and in one smooth movement. The circle cutting bar is screwed into the wheel centre. Insert the torch to a position where the distance from nozzle tip to work piece is 3-4mm 3. Start moving torch across plate when observing that the arc penetrates.04 451 . 4. 1. and the centre tap is fastened at the correct radius. Pull off the drag shield 2. Circle cutting guide The wheeled wagon in the circle cutting set should be used when cutting on uneven surfaces where it is difficult to use the drag shield. straighten torch back up until 90° angle to plate. After cutting arc starts.

4. as a general guideline after 2 hours continues use. clean and oil free compressed air.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Maintenance and trouble shooting Disconnect power before maintenance Check torch Check tip Check electrode Check drag shield DAILY Inspect and. In especially dirty environments this procedure should be carried out more often. completely unscrew the glass cup after disconnecting compressed air. Check gas/Air Pressure UPC-1040 require 6–7 bar supply pressure Air Supply Precaution Air supply precaution: Use only oil-free dry compressed air. Normally the control air on board will have the best quality. Inspect and. The trap is emptied by pressing the bottom sealing while compressed air is connected. change the torch consumable parts. If cleaning the trap is necessary. Replace the nozzle if the opening is deformed or clearly oversized. Note: Electrode and nozzle must be changed at regular intervals. EVERY THREE TO SIX MONTHS Disconnect the machine from compressed air and electricity. Inspect cable connections and gas system. Clean the machine with dry. Remove the cover. if necessary. Always replace the electrode if the center has a pit more than 2 mm (1/16” deep). Never use a damaged torch. Use only oil-free dry compressed air! 452 . or after 200 starts. empty the moisture trap on the filter regulator on the rear side of the machine. Failure to replace worn nozzle or electrode in time will dramatically reduce the cutting capacity and eventually ruin the torch. if necessary.04 Carefully inspect the hose assembly and torch body with regard to any leak or damage.

Coil of 40 mtr.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING In order to ensure oil and water free air for plasma cutting.04 453 . 401 671768 Oil free air can be taken from the centre block Quick coupling Socket 20SM (1/4" threads) 405 191726 Mount 2/teflon tape Quick coupling Plug 20 PH 405 191825 Black Hose 1/4" 176 576157 Hose Clips 176 72 9442 4. Unitor recommend the following set up: Air line unit w/Filter/Regulator/Lubricator 401 624585 Air with oil mist Quick coupling Socket 400SH 405 191700 Rubber air hose 1/2".

04 454 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

. . . . . . .   456 4. . . . . . . . . . .05 455 . .CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Arc Welding Current Distribution System . . . . . .

is avoided. The 400A boxes uses standard Dix 70 contacts for welding 4. in ladders etc.CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Arc Welding Current Distribution System Unitor welding current distribution system may be tailor made to suit the specific needs of ship or offshore installations. and holes for cable glands have not been drilled / locked out in the housing. Connection of welding cables in the inlet/outlet is done with cable shoes. The remote control 456 socket is a 10 pole amphenol type. providing the following advantages: • Accidental falling/tripping due to loose cables along decks. The hinged door is closed with a key. female for both inlet and outlet stations. This must be done by the installer. The basic rule in this system is that the main welding power source(s) are located permanently in the workshop. see ordering information. The welding machine will be connected to the inlet station in the distribution system by flying leads. with size and positions of cable glands will vary for different installations. which are mounted on strategic places for immediate use by the welders on board.05 . • Outlets in possible gas danger areas may be disconnected when not in use. The housing is mounted to the bulkhead by use of brackets that are included with the inlets / outlets. often more time consuming and strenuous than the actual welding job. The system comes in two sizes.0 mm2 cable for remote control is recommended. Cable size must be chosen according to welding machine. A red diode 130 V AC is placed between the welding terminals to warn when outlet is live. • Correct welding parameters are easily obtainable as all the remote control possibilities of the welding machine is available at the outlet. therefore glands are not included. Minimum 1. Permanently installed welding and remote control cables lead to the welding outlets. when welding outside the work shop. • Accidental short circuiting somewhere along the often excessive lengths of live welding cables lying about is prevented. Installation. The socket is equipped with a screw cover. • The need for replacement of damaged lengths of welding cable is eliminated. are avoided. The inlet/outlets are made in stainless steel quality. for 400A and 800A. • Manhandling of long welding cables. • Fire and gas proof doors can be kept shut. There is a 10 position connection rail for connection of remote control cable. • Permanently installed and correctly dimensioned cables ensure more efficient use of power from welding machine. The remote control connection is done with a special connection cable and/or adaptor.

Pcs. Pcs. Pcs. Pcs. and standard Dix 70 cable connectors are used for connection. For these contacts the special Dix 120 cable connectors must be used. Pcs. The 800A boxes uses special heavy duty Dix 120 contacts for welding current. Pcs. Pcs.CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM current. Pcs. 195-624320 195-624338 195-736728 195-736736 195-624577 195-608760 195-603993 195-604157 195-604306 195-632893 195-736744 Welding current inlet Welding current outlet Remote control adapter Remote control connection cable 4. Pcs. Pcs. male on inlet station and female on the outlet. Product no. male on inlet station and female on the outlet.05 457 . These connectors allows for up to 120mm2 welding cable Description Inlet station Stainless steel 400 A Outlet station stainless steel 400 A Inlet station Stainless steel 800 A Outlet station stainless steel 800 A Remote control connection cable cable for UWI-350 MP Remote control connection cable cable for UWI-320/400/UWR-852 Remote control connection cable cable for UWR-303 Remote control adapter for UWI-320/400/UWR-852 Remote control adapter for UWR-303 Cable connector Dix 70 male/female Cable connector Dix 120 male/female Unit Pcs.

05 458 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

. . . . . brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   461 Gas supplies and gas distribution system . . . . . .   511 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PROCESS & EQUIPMENT Gas Welding Equipment . . . . . . . welding. . . . . . . . . . . .01 459 . . .   461 Ac/Ox cutting.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 5.01 460 .

. . . . . .   475 Hose connectors . . . . . .   488 Common cutting faults . .   482 Flashback arrestors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   478 Gas regulators for cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   470 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   490 Operating instructions for UCT-500 brazing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   504 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   496 Flame straightening techniques .   502 Consumables and parameters for gas welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   494 Heating techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   508 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   506 Consumables and parameters for brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   483 The acetylene/oxygen flame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   484 Operating instructions for UCT-500 cutting torch . . . . . . . . . welding & heating torch   492 Maintenance of blowpipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   497 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   503 Soldering and brazing techniques . . . . . . .AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Introduction . . . . . .   472 Gas hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   466 The Unitor Workshop Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   471 Portable gas equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   462 The Combination Torch UCT-500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   464 UCT-500 Components and spares . . . . . . . . . . . . .   480 Flashback . . . . . . . . . . . . .   468 Welding and grinding goggles . . . . . . . . .01 461 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   486 Cutting procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   499 Butt joints for gas welding of steel . . . . . .

1) has a temperature of 3100 °C.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Introduction The Acetylene/Oxygen flame is an efficient heat source which has been used for welding and related thermal processes since the early 1900’s. Acetylene is the fuel gas burning with the highest temperature. propane 2800 °C. The molecules are split in free atoms.01 462 . compared to e.5 parts oxygen). At temperatures around 3000 °C a relatively high degree of dissociation of hydrogen molecules takes place in the flame core. maximum approximately 3160 °C when mixed with oxygen (ratio 1 part acetylene to 1. The energy (kJ/cm2• S) from the core flame of acetylene compared to propane at various mixing rates with oxygen.g. which in itself is not impressive. This temperature difference. The total energy release from the acetylene/oxygen flame is therefore comparable to the energy from a theoretical flame with temperature 4500 °C. This stored energy is transfered through the flame and released immediately when the free atoms hit the workpiece and recombine to molecules. thereby storing energy. Even the neutral flame used for welding (mix ration 1:1. Hydrogen molecules dissociate on the surface of the core flame and recombine on the surface of the workpiece. is one reason for the high efficiency of the acetylene flame. 5.

Combustion velocity of acetylene compared to propane.5 so it is heavyer than air. Temperature variation through a neutral acetylene/oxygen flame. and thereby the possibility for heat distortion. This is an important safety factor to consider when working onboard a ship. heating and flame spraying (described in a separate section).AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Another advantage of the acetylene/ oxygen flame is the high combustion velocity of the mixture. It is also used to a certain degree for sheet metal welding and welding of small diameter pipes. 5. Safety: Acetylene specific gravity is 0. In the following the equipment and techniques used for these applications will be described.01 463 . Propane specific gravity is 1.9 so it is lighter than air. brazing. This ensures a concentrated flame which quickly heats up a limited spot to high temperature. Main application areas for the acetylene/oxygen flame in onboard repair and maintenance are cutting. The concentrated heat reduces total heat input in a workpiece.

covering most brazing/welding applications. the three most commonly used welding attachments (80 ltr. spanner and full instructions for use and maintenance are also included. UCT-500 compact kit in heavy duty PVC case The compact kit contains the UCT-500 shank. also a roller guide for cutting edges from 90° to 45° angle of plate surface. however. Non-return valves. The circular motion bar with centering pivot allows for cutting circular holes up to 960 mm diameter. The connection between torch handle and heating/welding/cutting attachments is based on 0-ring seals which ensures a gas-tight connection even if the connection nut should loosen. Attachments are easily changed without the use of tools. well balanced and easy to handle. 464 . welding and cutting applications for which the acetylene/oxygen flame may be used on board. Cutting nozzles covering cutting of steel up to 100 mm are included. Cleaning needles. light in weight compared to capacity. heating. It is fitted to the blowpipe handle to prevent any return flow which could allow gases to mix in the hoses. Acetylene and Oxygen inlets are fitted with non-return valves as standard . brazing and cutting work that may occur on board. cleaning needles and a spare parts kit with all the most commonly needed spares. In addition to spanner. One of the advantages of a high-pressure torch is an especially stable flame and high resistance to persistent flashback. The non-return valve is a spring-loaded valve which permits the gas to pass in one direction only.01 The UCT-500 Master kit has been assembled to cover all ordinary welding. UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty PVC case It includes a range of seven welding attachments. do not replace flashback arrestors in the gas supply system. brazing. and may be turned in any desired angle to the handle/gas valves. It is a high-pressure torch of the equalized pressure type. The larger attachments also function as monoflame heating attachments. the UCT-500 case contains an instruction book giving complete information on the use and maintenance of the equipment. 5.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING The Combination Torch UCT-500 The Unitor Combination Torch UCT500 covers all normally occurring. with the danger of hose explosions. 230 ltr and 650 ltr) and the cutting attachment with nozzles for cutting up to 25 mm steel. towards the blowpipe. The gas valves are symmetrically placed at the back of the handle and suit both left-and right-handed persons. The torch is simple to use.

01 465 .AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty PVC case. Product number: 170-500000 UCT-500 Compact kit in heavy duty PVC case. Product number: 170-500001 5.

0 2-3 3-5 5-7 7-10 9-14 Product No. 170-603415 170-603407 170-603399 Singleflame heating attachments   Size*   0-A 1800   0-A 2500   0-A 5000 Multiflame heating attachments   Size*   0-A1000   0-A2500   0-A5000 5. 170-174656 Flexible welding attachments These attachments can be bent to any desired shape. Material thickness refers to mild steel. 466 . Acetylene consumption is approx.5 0. containing complete instructions and one each of all items marked 1) below. Shank   1)2)   Shank complete w/ sockets and        non-return valves Welding attachments   Size*   1) 0-A 40   1)2) 0-A 80   1)2) 0-A 230   1) 0-A 400   1)2) 0-A 650   1) 0-A 1000   1) 0-A 1250 Material thickness mm <0. 170-183780 170-183798 170-183806 Product No.01 * The size indicates consumption of oxygen in nl/ h.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING UCT-500 components and spares UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty PVC case. UCT-500 Compact kit in PVC case containing complete instructions and one each of all items marked 2) below.5-1. 170-174565 170-174573 170-174581 170-174599 170-174607 170-174615 170-174623 Product No. 170-174631 170-234864 170-183756 Product No.   Size*   0-A160   0-A315   0-A500 Material thickness mm 1-2 2-4 4-6 Product No. 10% lower.

9 mm Flashback arrestor set FR-20AC+OX. 84–960 mm holde diam.a Roller guide 0°–45° nozzle angle Circular motion bar complete. 170-174730 Spares for UCT-500 Socket/ Non-return valve for shank AC.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Cutting attachments   1)2) Cutting attachments 75° Head Angle Cutting attachments 90° Head Angle Cutting attachments 0° Head Angle Material thickness Gas consumption mm OX nl/h Ac nl/h 3-10 10-25 25-50 50-100 1300 2150 5650 7800 460 520 690 810 Product no. 5 Product no. 170-174649 176-175356 Product no. 6 mm Socket/ Non-return valve for shank OX. 6 mm Socket/ Non-return valve for shank AC. 4 302 No. 170-174698 170-174706 170-174714 170-174722 Cutting nozzles for difficult access. 2 302 No. 170-597336 170-597344 170-651265 170-651257 170-619270 170-234997 170-500100 170-174789 170-613762 170-535005 170-174771 170-174813 n. 165 mm length Nozzle length mm 153 140 Material Gas consumption thickness mm OX nl/h Ac nl/h 35-40 40-75 6000 7000 450 800 Product no.a n. for UCT-500 shank Lubricant for O-rings SPARE PART KIT COMPLETE1) Containing 1 of each item below: Oxygen valve assembly (blue) Acetylene valve assembly (red) 0-ring set for welding/cutting attachments Coupling nut welding/cutting attachments Coupling screw for cutting nozzles Clamp sleeve for roller guide Sleeve for circular motion in roller guide 5.: 170-174664 170-234807 170-234815 Cutting nozzles. 3 302 No. for use with roller guide Product no.general use Nozzle type   1)2)   1)2)   1)   1) 302 No. 9 mm Socket/ Non-return valve for shank OX. 170-174672 170-174680 Gas consumption OX nl/h Ac nl/h 11500 1750 Product no.01 467 . 170-183863 170-183855 Gouging nozzle with stellite tip Furrow dimensions Width mm Depth mm 8-11 6-11 Cutting guides   1)   1) Tools   1)2)   1)2) Spanner for UCT-500 Cleaning needles for UCT-500 nozzles Product no.

Cleaning needle set for UCT-500 welding attachments cutting nozzles.01 468 . brazing and cutting operations normally occuring onboard. and allows for mounting the cabinet in corners or narrow openings. Torch maintenance equipment Spanner l5-. Welder’s accessories: Gas goggles with lift front. Softskin welding gloves for gas and TIG welding. Roller guide for 0°-45° cutting angles. • The door construction provides a stable work surface for torch assembly when open. hose sockets and hose clamps. Contents: Torch components: UCT-500 shank with non-return valves. 18-. 19-. w. 10–25 mm. Spare valve and complete 0-ring set for UCT-500. corrosion resistant construction from electro-galvanized steel plates. 094 589861 094 589846 A complete workshop for all the gas welding.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING The Unitor workshop cabinet for Gas Cutting. Gas welding cabinet complete Gas welding cabinet empty Product no. 5. Weight complete 56 kg. with final coating by powder spraying and baking. Double row steel wire brush. and ample room for additional spares and accessones. Gas ignitor Triplex. 650. 80. with hardplast protection surface for nozzles and blowpipes. 400. • Sturdy. 17-. Welding attachments: 40. Welding. Cutting attachments 900 with spare nozzle screw and nozzles for 3–10 mm. 25–50 mm and 50–100 mm steel thickness. 23-and 24 mm for UCT-500. 230. Spare coupling nut for welding attachments. centre and sleeve for 84-960 mm Diameters. Dimensions: 600 x 600 x 300mm Free distance above cabinet 310 mm. 1000 and 1250 nl/h. with spare clamp sleeve and circular motion bar compl. • New compact design with improved access to contents. • Shelves are zinc/ yellow-chromate passivated for optimal corrosion and scratch resistance. Heating and Brazing.

5 kg.0 mm 0. MS 3. 4.0 kg. Aluminium joining: Alumag 3.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Silver brazing: AG-60 2.0 kg.4 kg. One box each of Bronzeflux and Wearbroflux. 5.01 469 . AG-45 2.0mm 0.6 mm/0. One box each AG-60/45 flux for general use and Albroflux for use with AG-60 on Yorcalbro.0mm 1.5 kg. 5. 1. Tin soldering: Tin-241 AG soft solder on spool.0mm 0.0 mm 3.0mm 1. FC-Wearbro 3. Mild steel/heat resistant steels: MS 2. Bronze 3.0mm 1.0 kg.0 kg.5 kg and lcromo 2.0 kg.0 kg. 3.5 kg and one box Aluflux.5 mm 2kg. Bronze brazing: FC Bronze 2. UCT-500 instruction manual.0mm 1.0 mm 3.5 kg. flux coated brazing rod. Instructions and information: UNITOR Welding handbook.0mm 1.0mm 4. Cast iron joining and rebuilding: FC-Cast Iron.

One more protection glass must be placed in the fixed frame.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Welding and Grinding Goggles Lightweight goggles with soft and comfortable surfaces against the face. All glasses comes in sets of 10 pcs. Welding and grinding goggles w/flip-up front frame Product no. The filter shade glass are mounted in a flip-up front frame. 176-633305 176-633313 176-633321 176-633354 176-633297 Protection glass Safety Spectacles Safety spectacles clear Safety spectacles shade 4 Safety grinding goggles non mist 5. Filter Shade Glass Application Silver brazing General gas welding and cutting Gas welding and cutting thick material Filter Shade 4 5 6 7 Pcs/set 10 10 10 10 10 Product no. The ventilation slots are designed to prevent entry of sparks and spatter. They are available in different grades of shade for various types of work. at the same time ensuring sufficient air circulation to prevent dampness and fogging of the glasses. A protection glass must be placed in front of the filter shade glass in order to protect against spatter. 176-175273 Glasses for Gas Welding and Cutting The Unitor gas welding glasses have a diameter of 50mm and fit the goggles.01 pcs pcs pcs 176-632943 176-632950 176-653410 470 .

AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Accessories Heat Resistant Mitten Special mitten with woven kevlar outer layer and ample insulation against heat in the inner layers. 176-633198 176-633206 Miscellaneous Welders chalk is used to mark out positions when gas and plasma cutting on metals. 200/400/600/800°C Galvanizing spray Product no. Simply select a stick with the desired temperature and make a mark on the surface to be heated. Product no. Temperature sticks are a wax that melts at a preset temperature. The chalk is flat and can easily be kept in pocekts and tool boxes. 176-233148 Gas Welding Glows Special soft-skin gloves which protect without hindering feeling or move ability for handling torch valves or rod while welding. Triplex gas ignitor 2 pcs/pack Spare flint set 10 pcs/pack Product no. 196-632968 196-633081 196-633156 5. Also suitable for handling hot workpieces. May be used on either right or left hand. When the stick mark goes from solid to liquid the temperature have been reached Welders chalk. flat 5x13x127 144 pcs/pack Temperature indicator kit. with large sparks.01 471 . Heat resistant mitten Product no. Three flints mounted on head. Used for Gas and TIG welding. Gas welding gloves 6 pairs/pack 176-632794 Triplex Gas Igniter Easyto use.lt should always be kept by acetylene cylinders and outlets to make it possible to close the valve in case of fire.

The kit includes: • Acetylene and Oxygen cylinder regulators. • Gas ignitor • Welding goggles. • Gas welding gloves. one of the two UCT-500 kits available.and maintenance jobs by allowing cylinders and welding equipment to be brought to the worksite as a unit. • Unitor Welding handbook. To ensure a stable work surface all four legs are adjustable in length. • 10 m twin hose 1/4” with clips. It includes a holding clamp for small workpieces.01 472 . • Heat resistant mitten. • Flashback arrestors. The table is excellent for use as a welding table in workshops on board. (WxDxH) Dims. 176-176024 5. Mobile equipment considerably simplifies repair.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Portable Gas Equipment On board large ships.folded Weight Welding table 600 x 400 x 630mm 600 x 400 x 80mm 14 kg Product no. 176-526509 Portable Welding Table This sturdy work table is made of steel and fully galvanized for corrosion protection. and in cases when it is needed outside the workshop it is easily transported as the legs may be detached and fastened under the table surface. the gas cabinet and gas supply from the gas central can be supplemented by mobile welding and cutting equipment. Gas accessories kit Product no. The legs have pointed ends to ensure high friction and a good hull contact when used for arc welding. or where mobility is necessary for other reasons. and a suitable transport device for cylinders. Standard Accessories Kit for Acetylene and Oxygen Cylinders The Unitor range offers a complete accessories kit comprising all necessary equipment for use with Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders. The necessary equipment required for a complete mobile workshop is built up from Unitor standard gas accessories. Dims.

the trolleys are tested and certified according to the International Labour Office for the test and examination of lifting gear used in the loading and unloading of ships.01 Product no. which are firmly secured in the trolley by means of two clamps with wing screws. the trolley has been fitted with extra large rubber wheels for easy mobility. see under “Gas distribution”. As safety in transportation and lifting of gas cylinders is a paramount demand. Being intended to function as a complete mobile gas welding workshop. The sturdy but lightweight construction of steel pipes is fully galvanized for corrosion protection. As the weight of two full gas cylinders is approximately 150 kilos.L.) 200 kg. This trolley is specially designed for on board use. The trolleys are test loaded to 400 kg. Description Trolley SU-10 for one cylinder 5.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Gas Welding Transportable Equipment A-40/O-40 Cylinder Trolleys Trolley for Two 40 L or 50 L Cylinders for Mobile Gas Welding. For transport by crane the trolley is fitted with a lifting bow. 176-176016 176-526509 170-500000 Cylinder Trolley Su-10 for One Cylinder Unitor has also developed a trolley for transport of a single 40 I or 50 I cylinder. lockable accessories box. 176-176008 473 . which is also certified for lifting by crane. This box is dimensioned to take the complete UCT-500 welding and cutting set in steel case. plus a standard accessories kit for gas welding. The cylinder is firmly locked in place on the trolley. Weight of the trolley itself is 28 kg. For full information on trolley SU-10. The trolley takes both 40 L and 50 L size cylinders. For a complete mobile gas welding workshop the following items should be ordered (in addition to gas cylinders and consumables): Description Trolley for A-40/0-40 cylinders Standard gas welding accessories UCT-500 Master kit in PVC case Product no. the trolley is fitted with a large. and certified for Safe Working Load (S.W.

and has a low center of gravity which will keep it standing upright even at 30° out of vertical with all equipment mounted. 5.Trolley and BackFrame The Unitor A-5/0-5 trolley is the basis for a small but efficient portable welding and cutting workshop. Unitor A-5/0-5 trolley 176-534982 Standard gas welding accessories 176-526509 UCT-500 compact kit in PVC case 170-500001 Also available for transport of 5 litre cylinders are the back-frame and the portable rack. For a complete. Back-frame for 5 litre cylinders 176-176040 Portable rack for 5 litre cylinders 176-176032 474 . It is fitted with solid rubber wheels for easy transport. It is specially designed by Unitor for on board use. A double bracket with wing nut ensures safe and vibration-free fastening of 5 litre Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders.01 Description Product no. The strong lightweight steel construction is hot zinc coated for high corrosion resistance. Handles at top and bottom ensure easy carrying and lifting. Two double brackets for Unitor rod containers give the possibility to include a selection of four different rod types when transporting.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Gas Welding Transportable Equipment A-5/0-5 Cylinder . portable welding workshop the following items should be ordered (in addition to 5 litre gas cylinders and the consumables required): Description Product no. The UCT-500 compact kit may be fastened to the top of the trolley and the accessories box at the back will take all other necessary equipment for work.

blue/red Gas hose. For medium and large gas consumption the supply pressure must be increased when longer hoses and/or smaller hose diameters are used.0 mm (3/8”) AC + OX/m 6. When gas hoses are not in use they must be coiled and hung up so as to avoid. Acetylene hoses are colour-coded red. and from slag and sparks from electric welding.3 mm (1/4”) Argon/m Product no.3 mm (1/4”) Oxygen/m 9. blue Gas hose. for compressed air or propane.0 mm (3/8”) Acetylene/m 9. red Gas hose. Check that the rubber is supple and without cracks (do this by bending the hose). black 6mm (1/4) AC + OX/m 9. Do not use gas hoses for other purposes. of twin hose and is fitted with brackets for bulkhead mounting. Do not use hoses that have been damaged by flashback or hose fires. Normal hose lengths are 5 or 10 meters. Avoid undue stretching and kinking of hoses. as far as possible. 9 mm (3/8”) hoses are recommended. which may contain oil. Nitrogen or another inert gas should be preferred to blow through Acetylene and Oxygen hoses. Never use compressed air. Faulty hoses Inspect hoses at regular intervals.3 mm (1/4”) Acetylene/m 6. hose is adequate for the gas consumption for all blowpipes and cutting nozzles in the welding and cutting set UCT-500.g. Hanging hoses must be supported at suitable intervals. Repair a leak immediately by cutting off the damaged part. gas welding or Oxygen cutting. Hoses must never be repaired by patching. 176-526434 176-624312 176-175554 176-175562 176-175539 176-175547 176-576157 for welding gases. 195-175729 5. red Gas hose. blue/red Twin gas hoses. The drum for gas hoses takes up to approximately 100 m. If long hoses or equipment requiring greater gas flows than 8. Hoses of doubtful quality or condition should be scrapped. chemicals.01 475 . Description Twin gas hoses. Check the hoses for leakage by dipping them in water while they are under normal pressure. oil and grease.000 nI/h (normal liters per hour) are used. Keep hoses away from strong heat and extreme cold.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Gas Hoses UNITOR’s hoses for Acetylene and Oxygen are specially made for use with welding and cutting equipment. Unitor’s product range comprises the following hose dimensions: NB: Gas hoses are measured on their internal diameter. Blow new hoses clean internally before connecting to blowpipes. e.0 mm (3/8”) Oxygen/m 6. the entry of damp or dirt. and do not use air hoses Product no. Description Drum for gas hose 6 mm (1/4”). blue Gas hose. The hoses comply with the International norm ISO 3821 specifications for welding hose: Requirements:   Maximum working pressure 20 bar   Test pressure 40 bar   Minimum bursting pressure 60 bar Oxygen hoses are colour-coded blue.

3 Length m 20 Net weight Including hose Product no. makes the job easier and contributes to increased efficiency.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Self-retracting Hose Reel for Acetylene and Oxygen For safety. Self-Retracting hose reels let you pull out the required length of hose and store the rest out of harms way.01    Oxygen/    Acetylene 476 . it is easy to installed. tidiness and reduced wear and tear The handling of hoses cluttering the workshop floor is awkward and a waste of time. and have a well proven design that vouches for safe and maintenance free usage Single-layer retraction of the hose Open design for safety and easy service All steel construction 180 157 Ø13 (x4) 150 125 650 Ø620 220 Technical data Medium Max working pressure Mpa (psi) 2. This saves time. Kg 30 176-725260 5.0 (290) Hose dimensions Hose size mm 2X6. improves access for carts and trolleys and allows for easier cleaning. A workshop floor free from hoses reduces tripping accidents. The Unitor Self-Retaining hose reel are of robust construction.

01 477 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 5.

It is not necessary to use force. 6. Description Product no. set of 10 pcs Ear clamp for 9 mm (3/8") hose. 5. to fix hose to nipples. Hose connectors are used where long lengths of hose are needed.0 mm (3/8”) Acetylene hose Hose joint for 9. There are also snap-couplings for quick connection of hoses and regulators.01 478 . not metal wire. Material is high-grade brass.0 mm (3/8”) Hose nipple. This is international practice.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Hose connectors Hose connectors have loose hose nipples for 9 mm (3/8”) and 6 mm (1/4”) welding hose.3 mm (1/4”) Acetylene hose Hose joint for 6. The connecting nuts on the Oxygen couplings are right-hand threaded. 9. Gentle tightening spares the sealing surfaces and should give a perfectly gastight connection. Always use the correct hose couplings to connect the welding Right-hand threads Left-hand threads Connecting nut. Screw-couplings for Gas Hoses The screw-couplings are supplied in sets. The Acetylene couplings are left-hand threaded and the connecting nut has an indentation in the corners of the hexagon for easy identification. set of 10 pcs Hose clamp for 3/8” hose. Screw the couplings together into a gastight joint (check with soapy water). 176-175588 176-175596 176-175604 176-175612 401-729442 401-729443 401-768416 401-768432 401-768507 Hose joint for 6. Such snapcouplings must be specially made for use with Oxygen and Acetylene. and so designed that the interchange of Acetylene and Oxygen hose is impossible.3 mm (1/4”) Oxygen hose Hose joint for 9. or to join lengths of hose. or outlet stations.0 mm (3/8”) Oxygen hose Hose clamp for 1/4” hose. Included is also a connection stub for using the set as a hose joint. and gives the operator extra protection by reducing the possibility of interchanging hoses.3 mm (1/4”) hoses – never use metal tubing. Each set consists of two hose sockets with nuts for connection to gas regulator and torch. Nuts and connection stub for Acetylene are lefthand threaded and marked with a groove. set of 10 pcs Pincher tool for ear clamps Use good hose clips. set of 10 pcs Ear clamp for 6. left-hand threads Hose nipple.3 mm (1/4") hose. right-hand threads Connecting nut.

Description Quick coupling SG-1666 for 6. 5. use only special lubricants for use in pure Oxygen. If these lubricants thicken after long storage they must be thinned only with the thinners specified on the label.0 mm (3/8”) Acetylene hose Quick coupling S6-1878 for 9. Explosion hazard! If needed. Accidental connection of wrong gas is prevented by the different design of the male/female connection for Acetylene and Oxygen. 176-320218 176-320192 176-320200 176-320184 Lubricants for gas fittings IMPORTANT: Oil. grease or other organic lubricants must NEVER be used for the lubrication of fittings that come into contact with oxygen. oil or the like to thin lubricating paste.0 mm (3/8”) Oxygen hose Product no.3 mm (1/4”) Oxygen hose Quick coupling SG-16B8 for 9. By disconnecting the side towards the regulator automatically shuts off the gas flow.3 mm (1/4”) Acetylene hose Quick coupling S6-1676 for 6.01 479 . In addition the connecting sleeves are colour-coded red and blue. The quick couplings are designed for use on the cylinder regulators/ flashback arrestor and on the outlet stations. ensuring quick and gas-tight connection of the hoses without the use of tools.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Unitor Quick Connect Couplings. Never use White Spirit.

gasket Spare working gauge w. The connection to cylinder valves fit standard Unitor gas cylinder valves. Cylinder Regulator for Acetylene Oxygen Max.0-7. e. A sturdy one-piece manometer guard is available.8x1/14” Blue 171-510000 171-619379 171-550178 171-550194 171-550160 Argon/CO2 w/flow meter 200 0-35I/min.01 480 .8 2 24.32x 1/14” Black 197-510010 171-550178 171-550210 171-550160 Cylinder connection Colour coding Product number. providing a constant flow of gas. 6. and fits all the regulators.5 3 5 3/4”BSP Red 171-510001 171-550186 171-550202 171-550152 200 0-16 20 40 W21. to a suitable working pressure and to keep this as constant as possible.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Gas Regulators for Cylinders The purpose of a pressure regulator is to reduce gas pressure. blue for Oxygen and black for Argon. gasket Cylinder connection washer (10pcs) Gauge guard for cylinder regulators 5. inlet pressure Outlet pressure Safety valve opens at Max. All the cylinder regulators have safety valves that protect the gas hoses from excessive pressure.g. the pressure in a gas cylinder. and for sufficient capacity for all normally occuring purposes. for easy identification of gas type. All regulators are delivered with spare washers. hose connection for 6 mm (1/4”) and 9 mm (3/8”) gas hoses and full instructions for use. Unitor gas regulators are designed for reliability and safety of use. regulator R-510 Spare contents gauge w. The large adjustment knobs are colour coded red for Acetylene. capacity bar bar bar m3/h 15 0-2.

Internal seals and membranes will deteriorate with time. repairs should never be attempted on gas regulators. For correct pressure see the operating instructions for the torch you are using. Check the inlet union gasket and replace it if it is damaged. Then open the cylinder valve fully. 3. 5. If a pressure gauge does not register zero when the pressure is released. old or corroded regulators should be replaced. Relieve the pressures on the regulator until both gauges show zero. Open the cylinder valve slowly until the contents pressure gauge shows the cylinder pressure (the working pressure gauge should not move). or when finishing work. Use only the lubricants prescribed by the manufacturer. as this brings the risk of explosion. 4. Make sure that the regulator is closed by turning the regulating screw so far out that it runs freely on its threads. such leaks can be stopped by carefully tightening the screwed connection at the point in question. and as a rule gas regulators should be replaced with maximum 5 years intervals. Do not stand in front of the outlet or hold your hand in front of it whilst blowing it clean. it must be replaced.01 481 . the seal or the complete part must be replaced. Valves of cylinders containing flammable gases must never be blown clean if there is any risk of ignition of the gas. Faulty. Operation 1. Set the desired working pressure by turning the regulating screw inwards until the correct working pressure can be read on the working pressure gauge. Screw the regulator to the cylinder valve. 3. Check all connections for leakage by covering with soapy water or the like. make sure that the outlet union on the cylinder valve and the connector of the regulator fit each other. Never force a connection that does not fit. If not. This also applies to flashback arrestors. 4. blow the cylinder valve clean by opening it for a moment. 2. Before connecting the regulator to the gas cylinder.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Connection 1. close the cylinder valve. NOTE: Regulators and other equipment for Oxygen must never be lubricated with ordinary oil or grease. Between an Acetylene or Oxygen regulator and the hoses in use a flashback arrestor should always be installed. 5. Shut the regulator by turning the regulating screw outwards until it runs freely on its threads. Before connecting up. Apart from replacing damaged or faulty gauges. 5. or it has other defects. Never use a regulator for gases or pressures for which it was not designed. Make sure to use original gaskets and not home made ones. During interruptions. which may be a source of danger. Use a thick spanner to avoid damaging the connection nut. As a rule. 2.

AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Flashback Flashback is a phenomenon that may occur when. then the Acetylene valve. Flashback is mostly caused by reverse flow. i. This mixture can then be ignited by a backfire. so that an explosive mixture is present in the hose. If the sustained backfire is not quickly interrupted. and/or catching fire. Under no circumstances should welding or cutting be continued before both the equipment and the handling routines have been checked thoroughly.01 Flashback can result in the hose exploding. the hoses and in the worst cases even the regulators. allowing the flame to burn back into the blowpipe. A sustained backfire is characterised by an initial bang (backfire) followed by a whistling or screeching sound from the continued combustion. Shut them as quickly as possible. If a flashback reaches an Acetylene cylinder. which occurs when the torch is lit. To protect against a full flashback and the dangers this entails. Either the flame is extinguished. 3) Flashback implies that the flame burns back through the torch and into the gas supply system. the speed of combustion at one or more places in the flame hole becomes greater than the speed of gas flow. Before re-lighting after a sustained backfire the blowpipe must be cooled. often at the mixing point itself. Various types of flashback: 1) A Backfire implies that the flame burns back into the torch with a sharp bang. the regulator may catch fire. The degree of safety against flashback in a blowpipe depends on its design. and escaping combustion products can cause injuries. In extreme cases.g. which lacks the necessary safety equipment a serious accident can occur. A full fashback occurs only from very faulty handling. the welding equipment should be fitted with flashback arrestors and non-return valves. The hose will then explode.e. 2) In a Sustained Backfire the flame bums back into the torch with continued burning in the mixer. 482 . e. A backfire (popping) can easily occur if the flamehole is dirty or damaged – see separate chapter on maintenance of blowpipes. A backfire is fairly harmless in itself. for some reason or other. bad maintenance of the blowpipe or by wrongly set working pressure. flow of oxygen into the Acetylene hose. but it can be a sign of some fault in the equipment or gas supply. Handling of blowpipes in the event of flashback: In the event of sustained backfire the oxygen valve of the blowpipe must be shut first. or it is reignited at the nozzle opening. melting will occur in the torch. Sustained backfire is the result of incorrect handling and/or poor maintenance of the blow pipe. 5.

Type W-66S Type S55 • Indicator lever showing that the pressure activated cut-off has been activated. faulty handling.01 483 . The flashback arrestors supplied by Unitor are designed for use both with gas cylinders and gas outlet stations and incorporate several safety functions: • Non-return valve preventing reverse flow of gases. In some cases it may also pass the regulator and ultimately reach the cylinder.5 10 1. maintenance or gas pressure setting may lead to a penetrating flashback. 100°C). However. and are only noticed as a popping sound in the torch. The lever is also used for resetting the flashback arrestor. thereby preventing a gas mixture from reaching pipelines or cylinders.Normally these will stop in a well designed torch. require the installation of flashback arrestors for acetylene and oxygen. • Temperature activated cut-off to prevent further gas supply in case of fire (activated if the temperature rises to approx. • Pressure activated cut-off to prevent further gas supply after a flashback (activated by the pressure shock in front of the flashback). (W-66 only) • Indicator ring showing that the pressure activated cutt-off has been activated. • Flame filter to quench the flame front of a flashback or a burnback. such as the Norwegian Maritime Directorate.5 S55 f/Oxygen 50 5. as incorrect maintenance or use of gas welding equipment may cause flashbacks of various types. This means that the gas flame passes back through the hose(s). The ring is also used for resetting the flashback arrestor (S55 only) Full instructions for use are supplied with the units.5 10 171 183970 171 302976 171 708537 171 708545 W-66S f/Acetylene 19 W-66S f/Oxygen 110 S55 f/Acetylene 8. • Pressure relief valve to vent off excessive pressure in case of flashback or wrongly set working pressure (on W-66S only). 1.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Flashback Arrestors Flashback Arrestors Type W-66S and S-55 Maritime authorities. Description Capacity At inlet (M3/hour) pressure (bar) Product no.

In the flame envelope a secondary reaction takes place (2C0+H2+O2 → +2C02+H2 0+Heat). but the required Oxygen is taken from the surrounding air. 5. and is used for heating. resulting in flashback. The neutral flame Two distinct zones may be seen in the neutral flame. The inner cone of the flame has a bright blue light and extends only a short distance from the tip. burning close to the nozzle tip. NOTE! The Acetylene/Oxygen flame uses the oxygen supplied from the nozzle for the primary reaction taking place in the inner cone (C2H2+O2 → 2C0+H2+Heat). Around this inner cone is the flame envelope which is darker and less intensely blue. If the gas pressure is too high it may be difficult or impossible to ignite a flame. Inaccurate regulators or long gas hoses may result in pressure deviations that gives wrong pressure to the torch. This can cause the flame to burn backwards into the nozzle opening and accelerate through the gas channels. Too high gas pressures may cause the flame to leave the nozzle tip. but well away from the point where flashbacks may occur. This reaction needs as much Oxygen as the primary reaction. Therefore always ensure proper ventilation when working with the Acetylene/Oxygen flame.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING The Acetylene/Oxygen Flame A correct Acetylene/oxygen flame from a cutting nozzle or blowpipe is dependent on correct gas pressure being supplied to the torch.01 484 . starting at the distance from the tip where the gas flow has slowed down to match the flame velocity. The correct Acetylene/Oxygen flame shall be a quiet stable flame. This flame is metallurgically neutral. In such cases the actual pressure at the torch connection should be checked. cutting and for most steel welding work. Too low gas pressures may give a gas flow which is slower than the flame velocity of the gas mixture.

By adding Oxygen (and if necessary reducing the Acetylene flow) the secondary zone will be reduced. with a shorter. obtaining a strongly carburizing flame. and for brazing. This soft flame (also called a reducing flame) is used for welding of Aluminium and Aluminium alloys. When igniting an Ac/Ox torch one normally opens fully for Acetylene and only slightly for Oxygen. The flame will be shorter and sharper than the neutral flame. and for soft soldering. but is considerably brighter than the flame envelope. The oxidizing flame By increasing the Oxygen flow slightly beyond the point where the secondary zone disappears one will obtain an oxidizing flame (with excess Oxygen).AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING The carburizing flame The carburizing flame has an excess of Acetylene. brass. and a neutral flame is obtained just as the secondary zone dissappears. more pointed inner cone. and is recognized by a secondary flame zone between the inner cone and the flame envelope. Reducing the Oxygen flow slightly again will give a carburizing flame with a small secondary flame zone. and is used for welding cast iron. approximately twice as long as the inner cone. This flame is slightly hotter than the neutral flame.01 485 . This zone is less bright and more white in colour than the inner cone. 5. bronze and zinc alloys.

using the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). After finishing work. To facilitate changes of torch or cutter tips. In the event of sustained backfire. 2. Fully open the torch Acetylene needle valve (6). d. Check the sealing rings at regular intervals for damage. The required nozzle and working pressure for mild steel when using 6 mm (1/4”) hoses 10 m long are given in the cutting table. The torch is now ready for cutting. Oil or grease must never be used. which is recognized by a whistling or hissing sound. Replace them if they are defective. 6. Important I. c. and adjust the working pressure by means of the Oxygen regulator adjusting screw (3). 7 and 8) are closed. e. 486 . Slightly open the preheating Oxygen valve (7) to provide a little extra Oxygen to prevent troublesome sooting when the torch is lit. Fully open the torch Oxygen needle valve (5) and the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). the torch Oxygen needle valve must be kept fully open. Finally. Slowly open the cylinder valves for Oxygen (1) and Acetylene (2). releasing the cutting Oxygen valve lever (8) at the same time. k. relieve the pressure in the hoses and close all valves. and adjust the working pressure by means of the Acetylene regulator setting screw (4). and unscrew the regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4) so far that they run freely on their threads. first close the valve for preheating Oxygen (7) as quickly as possible. Other materials and hoses may require other nozzles and working pressures than those given in the table. Then shut the torch Acetylene needle valve (6). the sealing rings and sealing surfaces in the torch connection head should be lightly smeared with a special lubricant.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Operating instructions for Cutting Torch a. deformation or wear. Select the cutting nozzle (9) to suit the type and thickness of the workpiece. and all torch valves(5. NB. 5. When cutting. Finally.01 h. All valves are shut at the commencement of work: Cylinder valves (1 and 2) are shut. make sure that all torch valves are shut. j. the regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4) are screwed so far out that they run freely on their threads. The torch is normally extinguished by first closing the torch Acetylene needle valve (6) and then the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). Then press the cutting Oxygen valve lever (8). g. i. release the pressure in the hoses by closing the cylinder valves (1 and 2) and empty one hose at a time. keeping the torch needle valve for the other gas shut. Light the torch and adjust to neutral flame. f. Release the cutting Oxygen valve lever (8) and shut the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). Press down the cutting Oxygen lever (8) and readjust to normal flame by means of the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). b.

0 170-174706 A 311-3 3600 400 580-350 25-50 5 0.2 1.7 0.2 1. type no.5-4. mm   Distance to core tip   Acetylene pressure bar   Oxygen pressure bar   Product No. Oxygen 11500 Acetylene 1750 5.0 170-174722 A 311-5 7800-14100 700 380-180 Table for groove-cutter (Unitor Product No.   Cutting nozzle.8 3.   Gas consumption l/h Ox   Gas consumption l/h Ac   Cutting speed mm/min 3-10 2 0.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Cutting table – UCT-500   Material thickness.3-0.5 Gas consumption ltr.0-6. 174730) Dimensions of groove in mm Width 8-11 Depth 6-11 Working pressure Oxygen Acetylene 5.5-4.0 170-174714 A 311-4 6800 500 500-300 50-100 5 0.2 1.5 170-174698 A 311-2 1600 300 950-430 10-25 3 0.01 487 .0-2./hr.

– after which oxygen is applied. which burns (cuts) mild steel. The angle iron can be used to guide the torch for both square and bevel cuts. This is most easily done. Direct the preheating flame against the starting point at the edge of the plate. Open slowly but fully for the cutting Oxygen by depressing the cutting Oxygen lever.01 488 . It is not a melting process. Guide the torch steadily along the line to be cut. 5. Starting the cut from an edge 1.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Cutting Procedure Oxygen cutting is a process in which mild steel burns (oxidizes) in oxygen. Keep the flame cores 2–3 mm above the steel plate and preheat until the steel is brightly red hot. 3. Then bring the cutting torch towards you. by starting the cut as far away from you as practicable. Move the torch tip slightly off the edge of the plate to ensure that the cutting Oxygen jet passes the edge of the plate. The workpiece is heated up to approximately 900 °C. Methods for improving cuts A piece of angle iron can be clamped to the plate being cut. 2. Keep the nozzle at the distance from the plate indicated in the cutting table (2­–5 mm) and move the nozzle onto the plate. Use a cutting speed within the limits given in the cutting table and ensure that the slag blows through completely resulting in a steady stream of sparks downwards from the bottom of the cut. it is important to move the cutting torch nozzle evenly. When cutting.

With the cutting oxygen lever fully depressed lower the nozzle as the cutting jet pierces the plate. if necessary by inclining the torch slightly so that the sparks fly sideways. Lift the nozzle to approximately 12–20 mm above the surface. Keep the flame cores 4 .5 mm above the steel plate and preheat until the steel is red to white hot. Open slowly for the cutting oxygen. 3.01 Circular motion bar 489 . By using the sleeve for free movement of the nozzle in the guide and attaching the circular motion bar with center tip complete circles with radius 42 to 480 mm may be cut. Guide for UCT-500 cutting torch 5. In this guide the torch may be used in any angle between 90° and 45° to the surface. Cutting guide In order to ensure smooth cutting in steel plate the guide for UCT-500 should be used. Make sure that spatter of molten metal does not reach the nozzle tip. Keep the nozzle at correct distance from the plate (see cutting table) and proceed in the direction to be cut. Direct the preheating flame against the starting point. 2.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Starting a cut by piercing 1.

Too high cutting speed will give an uneven top edge. Too strong preheating flame will give a melted and rounded upper edge and pronounced cutback down through the surface. Too high oxygen cutting pressure or contaminated cutting oxygen hole in the nozzle will give slightly rounded upper edge and pronounced cutback in upper part of the surface. rounded top edge. G. Too low cutting speed or too low cutting oxygen pressure will give a rounded top edge and uneven surface with gouges in the lower part of the cut. C. contaminated with slag and melted steel. Lower part will be smooth and bottom edge sharp. B. D. or in some cases with pronounced drag lines. surface and the bottom edge will be acceptable.01 490 . pronounced drag lines in the surface and a rounded lower edge. Too short distance between nozzle and plate will give melted.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Common cutting faults A. F. 5. E. A correct cut shall give square corners and a smooth cut surface without pronounced cut gouges. Too long distance between nozzle and plate will give a melted and rounded top edge and cutback in upper part of the surface.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 5.01 491 .

Oil or grease must never be used. To facilitate changes of torch or cutter tips. The required blowpipe and working pressure for mild steel when using 6 mm (1/4”) hoses 10 m in length are given in the welding table. Hold the torch so that the nozzle points away from flammable objects. Important 1. Welding and Heating Torch a All valves are shut at the commencement of work: Cylinder valves (1 and 2) are shut. j. The working pressures relate to medium-strength flame.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Operating Instructions For UCT-500 Brazing. Shut the torch Oxygen valve (5). The torch is normally extinguished by first closing the torch Acetylene needle valve (6) and then the torch Oxygen needle valve (5). Select your blowpipe (10) to suit the type and thickness of workpiece. the sealing rings and sealing surfaces in the torch connection head should be lightly smeared with a special lubricant. e. c. Replace them if they are defective. release the pressure in the hoses by closing the cylinder valves (1 and 2) and empty one hose at a time. d. make sure that all torch valves are shut. Slightly open the torch Oxygen needle valve (5) to provide a little extra Oxygen to prevent troublesome sooting when the torch lightening lit. Fully open the torch Oxygen needle valve (5) and adjust the working pressure by means of the Oxygen regulator adjusting screw (3). and unscrew the regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4) so far that they run freely on their threads. then the Acetylene needle valve (6). first close the torch Oxygen needle valve (5) as quickly as possible. relieve the pressure in the hoses and close all valves. deformation or wear. f. Check the sealing rings at regular intervals for damage. In the event of sustained backfire. Finally. g. 5. keeping the torch needle valve for the other gas shut. i. h. and adjust the working pressure by means of the Acetylene regulator adjusting screw (4). and adjust to desired flame characteristic by means of the torch Oxygen needle valve (5). 2. Light the torch. Finally. After finishing work. b. the regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4) are screwed so far out that they run freely on their threads and both torch needle valves (5 and 6) are closed. The torch is now ready for use. Slowly open the cylinder valves for Oxygen (1) and Acetylene (2). Fully open the torch Acetylene needle valve (6).01 492 . which is recognized by a whistling or hissing sound.

3 0.3 650 591 Major welding and brazing jobs (heating torch) 1000 0.01 493 .5 0. brazing.3 0.   Size of welding attachment   Acetylene pressure bar   Oxygen pressure   Gas consumption   litre per hour bar Ox Ac 40 0.3 0.5 2 3 5   Material thickness.3 1000 909 1250 0.3 0.3 230 209 400 0.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Select the correct blowpipe to suit the thickness and size of material to be welded.3 0.3 0. open the torch needle valve so that the gas can flow freely during adjustment.3 80 73 230 0. To adjust the working pressure.3 1250 1136 1800 0.3 0. heating Working pressure and gas consumption for Unitor UCT-500 <0.3 1800 1636 174565 174573 174581 174599 174607 174615 174623 174631 5.3 40 39 80 0.3 0. Adjust the working pressure for one gas at a time. mm 1 3 5 7   Product No.3 400 364 650 0. Table for welding.

reamers or spiral drills for cleaning. Never use steel wire. The correct flame and an even flow of cutting oxygen can be obtained only by keeping the edges of the holes sharp and at right angles to the axis of the passages. Do not twist them. It ought not to be shorter than this. to avoid backfire (popping). These should run freely in the holes. Grinding blowpipes and cutting nozzles If the end of a welding or cutting nozzle has been damaged. Torches and cutting nozzles may be carefully cleaned externally by means of a soft brass brush. Welding blowpipes are so made that the length of the nozzle holes can be shortened by grinding off up to 3 times the hole diameter without the flame becoming smaller than that of a new burner. Thus a cylindrical part will always be left having a length at least equal to the diameter of the hole. it can be repaired. Do not use a steel brush. These can ruin the smooth surfaces of the hole. by grinding the surface against fine emery paper placed on a flat surface. On cutting nozzles up to approximately 4mm of material may be removed. A nozzle hole with an uneven edge or widened orifice will also increase the risk of backfire. Grinding down the nozzle end of a blowpipe 5.01 494 . just stick them straight in and pull them out.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Maintenance of Blowpipes Clean the flame and cutting oxygen holes with Unitor cleaning drills. It is very important that the small holes in the sealing end of the cutting nozzles should not be enlarged in any way.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 5.01 495 .

On cooling. normally demanding no other equipment than ordinary gas welding equipment. 5. the heated part has a tendency to expand. There is. As longitudinal expansion is prevented by the surrounding cold metal. which often arise in welded steel constructions. the temperature should not exceed 550– 600 °C. In flame straightening. 496 . This is a convenient method.01 Section bars are normally straightenened with the help of heating wedges. with the result that the end of the section moves upwards. Also. A normal welding flame or a normal flame from special multiflame heating attachments may be used. a convexity is created in the heated part. No special techniques are required except the need to be careful not to overheat and weaken parts. as shown above. whether it is for preheating/postheating in combination with welding processes or for heating steel for bending or forming. The steadily growing use of welding calls for an economical method of dealing with the deformations. The work should be allowed to cool slowly. the heated metal contracts. However. one area of heating that needs special know-how. On the next page we will give some guidelines on how to apply these heating wedges. the straightening of steel constructions. straightening is largely performed with a welding flame. especially in the case of high tensile steel. however. as this can cause deterioration. and how the shrinkage forces should be exploited in straightening. heat should not be applied to a spot that has been heated previously.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Heating Techniques The Acetylene/Oxygen flame is frequently used for heating workpieces onboard. When heat is applied as shown in the sketch. you need a good knowledge of how the work reacts to heating and cooling. Beside purely mechanical methods.

Angle bars. straightening in web direction Heat both flanges. Only heat the horizontal flange and start at arrow head 1. 2. straightening in flange direction Only heat the horizontal flange and start at the arrow head 1. and then no.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Flame straightening techniques Angle bars.01 497 . first no. T-bars. straightening in flange direction. 1 starting at the arrow head. 5.

1 starting at the arrow head. first no. starting at the arrow head. T-bars. 1. 2. straightening the web sideways Heat both flanges. starting from the arrow heads 1. 1 starting at the arrow head. first no.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING T-bars. and then no. straightening in web direction Heat both flanges. 2. straightening in flanges direction Heat both flanges at the same time.01 First heat the web no. 2. U-girders. U-girders. and then flange no. and then no. straightening the web sideways 5. 498 .

make sure that the weld penetrates completely and evenly on the reverse side of the material with no imperfections. Correct alignment of the workpieces is essential to a good joint. brass. adjust the flame until it has the characteristics required for the operation to be undertaken. which is the simpler method. A flame with a slight surplus of Acetylene is used for welding Aluminium. In either case. NB. A normal flame is used for welding all types of steel. In gas welding. the joined edges of the workpiece melt and fuse. A flame with an excess of Oxygen is used for welding cast iron. and copper. Rightward welding requires more expertise. The direction of weld is selected according to the thickness of the material. and welders with limited experience are therefore recommended to use leftward welding. Leftward welding Rightward welding 5.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Welding Techniques After lighting the torch. and for brazing. Flame types are given under the descriptions of the various filler materials. bronze and zinc alloys. It is important to adjust welding flame correctly for the material to be welded. with or without filler material.01 499 . Welding can be either leftward og rightward technique.

Do not hold the torch too far away from the workpiece. Horizontal leftward welding Adjust the equipment for the correct flame. this is called leftward welding. The welding flame points away from the finished weld.0–1. When welding cast iron and non-ferrous metals. Leftward welding is used for sheet thicknesses up to 3–4 mm and for thinwalled pipes. filler rod angles: 5. Brazing should also be performed using this technique. The metal on each side of the seam must melt before the filler rod is fed into the weld pool.01 Material thickness 1. (The core of the flame should be 2-3 mm from the workpiece). Vertical leftward welding Sheet steel up to 2.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Leftward welding When the filler rod is held in front of the torch in the welding direction. Move the torch with a slight rotational movement to melt both edges of the workpiece. When the material begins to melt. and welding is in process.5 mm thick can be welded by vertical leftward welding. Make sure to find the right speed. Weld in the same manner as for horizontal welding.5–3.5 mm 30° Material thickness 1. always weld leftward.0 mm 30°–60° 500 . such as aluminium and brass. feed the filler rod into the weld pool with small movements. Vertical leftward welding.

Rightward welding Rightward welding is used for material thicknesses from 4 mm and up. See also horizontal leftward welding. It is easier to handle the rod if it is bent as shown in the drawing. the risk of tensions in the workpiece is less than in the case of leftward welding. With rightward welding. The filler rod follows the torch in the welding direction. The blowpipe must not be moved sideways. Rightward welding is recommended for the joining of sheet metal and plate of more than 3–4 mm in thickness and for pipe welding. the filler rod follows the torch in the direction of the weld.01 501 . Vertical rightward welding and rightward overhead welding.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Rightward welding In rightward welding. 5. Horizontal rightward welding Start on the left-hand side of the workpiece and weld from left to right. Vertical rightward welding This is used for material thicknesses from 4 mm and up. Move the torch in the direction of weld and feed the filler rod with small rotating movements. The principle is the same as for horizontal rightward welding.

01 502 .5–2 mm Up to 1.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Butt Joints for Gas Welding of Steel (T = thickness of workpiece) 1.5 mm 1–2 mm Flange butt joint 2–3 mm Open square butt joint 60° Up to 2 mm 0–1 mm Close square butt joint 1–2 mm Single V-butt joint w/feather edge Over 3 mm 5.

5 3.2 % Packaging data: Diameter Mm 2. Product no. per package per package kg per package 280 125 3.5 092-539551 092-539569 Flux: No flux required Neutral ALUMAG-235 Description Gas welding rod for wrought and cast aluminium alloys containing up to 5 % Mg. 092-603043 Slight acetylene surplus Detailed information on these consumables to be found under the section Consumables.01 503 . 250 gram container.0 3. per package per package kg per package 47 0. Generally it can be used for all cast alloys containing magnesium as the main alloying element.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Consumables and parameters for Gas Welding MS-200 Description Gas welding rod for welding of unalloyed structural steel with a carbon content of less than 0. 5.5 092-514265 Flux: Aluflux 234 F. Packaging data: Diameter Mm 3 Length mm 500 Rods Net weight Product no.0 Length mm 500 500 Rods Net weight Product no.

Surplus flux remaining on the workpiece after brazing should be removed by rinsing in clean water and brushing. there is little deformation and change of structure in the workpiece. therefore not exceed 3 . Make sure that there is proper ventilation whenever you braze or solder and avoid contact with eyes. Fluxes serve three basic functions that are required to obtain a successful result.01 3. Flux eliminates the oxide layer on the surface of the base material during the heating process. only the filler material is melted in soldering and brazing processes. The dissolving ability of the fluxes is limited and they cannot be heated for any period of time. The soldering/ brazing time should. Most metals and combinations of metals can be joined by brazing and soldering. Due to the relatively low temperatures applied. brazing produces a bond of hight tensile strength with good corrosion resistance. mucous membranes. 5. but whereas both filler material and workpiece surfaces are melted in welding. Advantages of brazing and soldering 1. The flux is adapted to the filler material in such a way that it melts slightly before correct working temperature is reached.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Soldering and Brazing Techniques Soldering and brazing are thermal fusion processes for joining metals. liquefy and with the help of the flux spread out and bind to the surfaces of the workpieces. This applies not only to Unitor’s fluxes. When the filler solidifies it will stick firmly to the base material. of the liquified alloy so that it can spread uniformly. If the correct filler metal and flux is chosen. ensuring good wetting of the base material. 1. it will reach melting temperature range. and protects against further oxidation. 2. In this process there is a very faint alloying zone between the melted filler material and the base material. When heated. Keep in mind that most fluxes have a toxic content. 4.5 minutes. skin and open wounds. but to all types. Overheating may also destroy the properties of the flux. thereby indicating when filler material should be applied. The processes are related to welding. A quick and cheap method of joining materials which does not involve expensive equipment. The filler material will always have a lower melting temperature than the material to be joined. 2. Fluxes In brazing and soldering processes it is most often required to use a flux suited for the filler material and base material. When the filler material is applied the flux reduces the surface tension 504 . This bond is a result of the filler material’s ability to “wet” the workpiece. 3.

5.01 505 . and tensile strength of up to 490 Mpa is fully possible with a high quality general purpose brazing alloy like e. Correct mating of the surfaces to be joined. The solders alloyed with silver will normally have the best mechanical strength. 2. The parts must be heated evenly so that the entire soldering area reaches soldering temperature at the same time. The general term brazing covers two different application methods. The filler alloy is normally basen on tin (Sn). The workpiece must be preheated to a temperature equal to the melting point of the filler metal.g. Be careful not to overheat. AG-60.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING A good brazed or soldered joint depends on: 1. Brazing The term brazing is used when the melting point of the filler material is above 400 °C and below the melting point of the material in the workpiece. Correct flux. Soft soldering The principal difference between soldering and brazing is the working temperature of the filler material used. Whether the joint is to be made by capillary brazing. slightly carburizing (reducing) flame. It is essential that the surfaces to be joined are clean. 3. Correct preheating. capillary brazing and what is often called braze welding. Heat indirectly when using a welding torch for soldering. and in joints where a leak-tight connection is required. AC/OX soldering is done with a soft. Slight surplus of Acetylene. Reducing flame. soldering or braze welding depends on the type of joint and strength required. With correct joint preparation and brazing technique it is possible to obtain joints with high mechanical strength. and no overheating. Keep in mind that brazing and soldering are surface bonds. 4. Compared with brazing soldering gives a weaker joint. This may destroy the bonding properties of the solder. In soldering the working temperature of the filler alloy is always below 400 °C. Soft soldering is commonly used in electrical connections.

within max. The opening between the surfaces should preferably be 0. 2-3 minutes to avoid damaging the flux.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Edge preparation Capillary brazing Capillary brazing requires a filler material. and the heat from the workpiece will melt off filler material. and a joint with parallel surfaces. which will give assistance to the flux in removing oxides from the surface. Heating should be done with a neutral or slightly reducing flame. cooled off in water. Starting with the thicker part to ensure that both surfaces reach correct temperature quickly and simultaneously. which melts to a thin flowing liquid with excellent wetting properties. Do not heat directly on the filler material. Coat joint surface with flux 5. Heat the entire area of the joint uniformly.01 Flux residues should be removed to avoid corrosion. Heat evenly 506 . which will pull the filler in between the surfaces.1 mm to obtain sufficient strength and capillary effect. This effect is based on the surface tension of the liquid filler metal. and if the material allows. Where possible the surfaces should overlap 3–5 times the wall thickness of the thinner part.1 mm. Allow sufficient time for the capillary action to take full effect.0. The workpiece can then be released. Joint types Maximum capillary gap between joint Surface 0. When the joint has reached correct temperature the end of the brazing rod should be touched to the joint. With proper joints this will happen very quickly. Keep the workpiece in position until it has cooled off and the filler has solidified.05 .

The brazing technique is. As with capillary brazing the surfaces must be cleaned and correct flux should be applied where required. V-joint 3-12 mm. The joint should be preheated sufficiently before filler material is applied and melted off with the flame. Braze welding may be used to join a wide range of metals. and brazing may proceed using the forehand technique described under gas welding. X-joint Above 12 mm. wetting the workpiece surface correct temperature has been reached. however. as the base material is not melted. When the applied drop of filler flows outwards. and the joint types will be similar to gas welding except that the joint edges must be rounded off. I-joint Below 3 mm. 5. similar to gas welding with the leftward method.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Edge preparation Braze welding Contrary to the term braze welding is not a welding process. and is also used for rebuilding wear surfaces. Use the leftward technique for braze welding.01 507 . Brazing applications on pipes.

stainless steel. 093-778461 On Yorcalbro: ALBRO FLUX 263 PF (250 g container) Product no. AG-45-253 Description: Bare cadmium free silver rod for joining of all types of steel. copper. cast iron. high strength silver rod for joining all types of steel. copper. stainless steel. 508 . refrigeration plants. electrical connections.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Consumables and parameters for Brazing TIN 241 AG Description: Flux cored soft solder wire on spool for tinning and joining of electric conductors. seawater resistant.4 093-519744 Flux AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250g container) product no.0 Length mm 500 Quantity Net weight Product no per package per package kg per package 24 0. Packaging data Flux Diameter mm 2. nickel.5 093-233601 5. sleeves and unions to copper pipes. Packaging data Diameter mm 1. copper alloys.5 Length mm - Quantity Net weight Product no per package per package kg per package - 0. batteries. If welding torch: Soft reducing flame. 093-778461 AG-60-252 Description: Neutral. electrical instruments. nickel alloys. This brazing rod gives a very good joint and can be used for brazing nipples. nickel and nickel alloys. cast iron and hard match. copper alloys.0 Length mm 500 Quantity Net weight Product no per package per package kg per package 28 0. A flux coated cadmium free.5 093-777973 Preferably use soldering iron.01 AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250g container) Product no. etc. radios. Detailed information on these consumables can be found under the section Consumables. cunifer pipes type 90/10 and 70/30. Packaging data Diameter mm 2. 093-604371 Neutral. Yorcalbro pipes (aluminiumbrass).

093-603076. Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. universal brazing bronze (brass) rod for the brazing of steel.7 3 093-174326 093-514240 Flux: Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. nickel and nickel alloys. Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. The addition of Si.01 Detailed information on these consumables can be found under the section Consumables. Mn and Sn guarantees a strong and high-quality deposit. 093-603076. cast iron. May be used for brazing galvanized steel without destroying the galvanized surface. copper and copper alloys. FC-BRONZE-261 Description A flux-coated brazing rod for joining and surfacing copper. per package per package kg per package 69 32 1 1 093-233551 093-233569 Flux: Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. cast iron and steel.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Consumables and parameters for Brazing BRONZE-264 Description An easy-flowing. per package per package kg per package 54 36 1. 509 . Packaging data: Diameter Mm 3 5 Length mm 500 500 Rods Net weight Product no. Packaging data: Diameter Mm 2 3 Length mm 500 500 Rods Net weight Product no. aluminium bronze. It gives a very smooth and attractive surface. 5. brass. bronze.

Detailed information on these consumables can be found under the section Consumables.1 093-233577 093-233585 Flux: Wearbroflux 262 PF (250g container) product no. Packaging data Diameter Mm 3 5 Length mm 500 500 Rods Net weight Product no. Slight oxygen surplus. Packaging data Diameter Mm 4 Length mm 500 Rods Net weight Product no. 5. per package per package kg per package 12 0. brass.7 096-682310 Flux: Additional flux not necessary. FC-CASTIRON-268S Description Flux coated rod for joining and surfacing cast iron and brazing cast iron to steel. Also used for braze welding cast iron. steel. cast iron and malleable cast iron.01 510 . 603068 Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. per package per package kg per package 33 13 1 1. Oil impregnated cast iron may also be brazed with FC-Castiron 268. copper.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING FC-WEARBRO-262 Description A flux-coated wear-resistant bronze rod used for applying a hard-wearing surface to bronze.

GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   512 Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   513 Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   514 Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   515 Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   516 Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   518 Rules & Safety precautions for handling and use of Gas cylinders   522 Gas Distribution System for Acetylene and Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   524

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Introduction
Where and how to obtain supplies of the gases needed or board ship can be a great problem. There are cylinders of many different types on the market, and an even greater variety of types of valve and threaded connectors. An extra difficulty is that most countries have their own rules for the filling and inspection of cylinders, and this often means that only cylinders of the country’s own types can be serviced in a reasonable time. A sure way to avoid difficulties is to join Wilhelmsen Ships Service's world-wide Unitor gas supply system. Through this system, ready-filled gas cylinders are available in more than 1600 ports throughout the world. In these ports we have obtained official permission to refill our own cylinders. In some places, even with this permission, the filling routines can take great deal of time. But this is no problem for our customers, as we make sure of always having enough full cylinders in stock, ready to meet each customer’s immediate needs. Our standardized gas cylinders are owned, inspected and maintained by Wilhelmsen Ships Service. The cylinders are delivered to our customers under deposit conditions and can be returned to Wilhelmsen Ships Service or other authorized agent when they are empty.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Argon
Product name Formula Hazard class

Argon
Appearance and colour

Ar Colourless, odourless

Nonflammable gas
IMDG code

2.2
Substance Identification

Specific gravity (Air=1)

1.38 (heavier than air)

UN-1006

Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey
Cylinder Outlet Size Connection E-10 E-50 W24.32mm x 1/14” W24.32mm x 1/14” Nominal Filled Pressure Nominal Approx. Approx. Contents (bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (cu. Metres) (max) (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 2.2 11 200 200 3.6 18 140 x 1000 230 x 1690 18 81

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders manufactured to older standards. Argon Argon is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. It is non-toxic and noncombustible. Together with Helium, Neon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon, it constitutes a special group of gases known as the “rare”, “inert” or “noble” gases. The terms inert and noble mean that the gases have an extremely weak tendency to react with other compounds or elements. Argon forms no known chemical compounds. Argon is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 0.934% at sea level. Air is the only known source for the production of pure argon. Argon is non-toxic, but it is included among the simple asphyxiant gases. Argon is used as a protective shielding gas in TIG and MIG welding. In this process argon serves as an inert covering round the point of the electrode/ wire and the molten pool in order to protect the welding zone from the harmful effect of the air.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
ARGON- CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURE
Product name Formula Hazard class

Unimix
Appearance and colour

Ar - CO2 (80%/20%)

Nonflammable gas
IMDG code

Colourless, odourless gas
Specific gravity (Air=1)

2.2
Substance Identification

1.40 (heavier than air)

UN-1956

Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey/Yellow
Cylinder Outlet Size Connection M-10 M-50 W24.32mm x 1/14” W24.32mm x 1/14” Nominal Filled Pressure Nominal Approx. Approx. Contents (bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (cu. Metres) (max) (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 2.2 10.9 200 200 3.4 17.1 140 x 1000 230 x 1690 18 81

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders manufactured to older standards. ARGON-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES ARGON-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURE (UNIMIX) is a mixture of 80% argon and 20% Carbon Dioxide, which is used as a shielding gas in the MIG/MAG welding process. The mixture is suitable for welding all un- and low alloyed carbon steels. The mixture gives a very stable molten pool together with optimum energy-transmission. The mixture is relative inert in its chemical properties and is non toxic. Because the gas mixture is heavier than air, it will collect in confined and low areas. The result will be that the Oxygen level is reduced which can be a potential hazard. More on the effect of exposure to Oxygen deficient atmospheres can found on the next pages describing Oxygen. In general it can be said that when working with compressed gases, you should work in a well ventilated area.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
CARbon dioxide
Product name Formula Hazard class

Carbon dioxide
Appearance and colour

CO2

Nonflammable gas
IMDG code

Colourless, odourless
Specific gravity (Air=1)

2.2
Substance Identification

1.53 (heavier than air)

UN-1013

Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey
Cylinder Outlet Nominal Size Connection Contents (cu. Metres) C-9 CgA320 CgA320 4.95 14.85 C-27 Nominal Approx. Approx. Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 9 27 203 x 560 230 x 1210 19 55

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder and valve. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. It is non-toxic and non-combustible. It is considered a inert gases. The terms inert mean that the gases have an extremely weak tendency to react with other compounds or elements. Carbon dioxide is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 0.04% at sea level. It is produced by burning fossil fuels or chemical reactions. Carbon dioxide is non-toxic at low concentration but it is included among the simple asphyxiate gases. Concentrations above 5% are considered as dead threatening. Carbon dioxide is used as a protective shielding gas in MAG welding. In this process carbon dioxide serves as an active gas covering round the point of the electrode/ wire and the molten pool in order to protect the welding zone from the harmful effect of the air. It is additionally greatly used in the food and beverage industry either as a protective gas to conserve food products or carbonation of soft drinks and beers. A new application is water treatment to balance the acidity of potable water.

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AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Oxygen
Product name Formula Hazard class

Oxygen
Appearance and colour

O2

Nonflammable gas
IMDG code

Colourless, odourless, tasteless gas
Specific gravity (Air=1)

2.2 + 5.1
Substance Identification

1.11 (Slightly heavier than air)

UN-1072

Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Blue
Cylinder Outlet Size Connection 0-5 0-40 W21.80mm x 1/14” W21.80mm x 1/14” Nominal Filled Pressure Nominal Approx. Approx. Contents (bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (cu. Metres) (max) (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 1 6.4 200 150 1.3 7.8 140 x 620 230 x 1360 12 52

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders manufactured to older standards. Oxygen
Oxygen (02) is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. Oxygen normally amounts to 21% by volume of the earth’s atmosphere at sea level. Oxygen is produced industrially by rectification (distillation) of liquid air, from which the Oxygen boils off at minus 183 °C, and can thus be separated from the other air gases, for compression in steel cylinders. Oxygen itself will not burn, but the gas sustains combustion in the normal sense of the word. In pure oxygen combustion proceeds much more rapidly than in air, and the higher the pressure, the more violent the combustion. Even materials that are normally not combustible, or are difficult to ignite, can catch fire spontaneously or be set alight in pure Oxygen. We make use of this phenomenon for the Oxygen-cutting of steel.

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Oxygen can lead to the explosive ignition of ordinary oil, grease or other organic substances. For this reason a welder must never wear working clothes or use equipment that is contaminated with oil or grease. Be particularly careful to prevent equipment or fittings for Oxygen to come in contact with oil or grease. Only special lubricants may be used for Oxygen equipment.

AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Rules relating to Oxygen – Oxygen that leaks out into the air increases the danger of combustible materials igniting, i.e. body hair, clothes etc. catching fire. This can occur even with a small increas in the Oxygen content of the air, and can cause serious burns and other injuries. – Never use Oxygen instead of air to start a diesel engine. Never use Oxygen to blow dust from working clothes. lf clothing has been accidentally exposed to an increase in Oxygen content it may take a long time to get rid of the excess Oxygen, often several hours. – Never use Oxygen to freshen the air Oxygen Content (% by Volume) 15-19% 12-14% 10-12% 8-10% 6-8% 4-6% when you are working in a confined space. – Fittings for Oxygen must be kept free of dust and metal particles because of the danger of spontaneous combustion. Oxygen-deficient atmospheres The normal Oxygen content of air is approximately 21%. Depletion of Oxygen content in air, either by combustion or displacement with inert gas, is a potentional hazard to personnel. A general indication of what can potentially occur relative to the percentage of Oxygen available is given in the table below.

Effects and Symptoms (At Atmospheric Pressure) Decreased ability to work strenuously. May impair coordination and may induce early symptoms in persons with coronary, pulmonary, or circulatory problems. Respiration increases in exertion, pulse up, impaired coordination, perception, and judgment. Respiration further increases in rate and depth, poor judgment, lips blue. Mental failure, fainting, unconsciousness, ashen face, blueness of lips, nausea, and vomiting. 8 minutes; 100% fatal, 6 minutes; 50% fatal, 4-5 minutes; recovery with treatment. Coma in 40 seconds, convulsions, respiration ceases, death.

Note: Exposure to atmospheres containing 12% or less Oxygen will bring about unconsciousness without warning and so quickly that the individual cannot help or protect himself. An asphyxia victim should be taken into the open air quickly and given Oxygen or artificial respiration. Medical attention should be obtained immediately. Inhalation of an Oxygen-rich atmosphere also requires medical attention.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
ACETYLENE
Product name Formula Hazard class

Acetylene
Appearance and odour

C2H2

Flammable gas
IMDG code

Pure acetylene is a colourless gas with an ethereal odour Commercial (carbide)acetylene has a distinctive garlic-like odour
Specific gravity (Air=1)

2.1
Substance Identification

0.906 (Lighter than air)
FLammable limits % by volume

UN-1001
Extinguishing media

LEL 2.2 UEL 80-85

CO2. Dry chemical

Unusual fire and explosion hazard Gaseous Acetylene is spontaneously combustible in air at pressure above 2,0 BAR. It requires a very low ignition energy so that fires which have been extinguished without stopping the flow of gas can easily reignite with possible explosive force. Acetylene has a density very similar to that of air so when leaking it does not readily dissipate. Pure Acetylene can ignite by decomposition above 2.0 BAR, therefore, the UEL is 100% if the ignition source is of sufficient intensity.

Cylinder characteristics
Acetylene (Dissolved in a solvent supported in a porous medium) Colour: Maroon.
Cylinder Outlet Size Connection A-5 G 3/4” BSP G 3/4” BSP A-40 Nominal Contents (cu. Metres) (See note 1.) 0.7 5.6 Nominal Approx. Approx. Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 0.8 6.2 140 x 620 230 x 1360 14 67

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders manufactured to older standards.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Acetylene Acetylene is a colourless, flammable, and in the pure state odourless gas. It is can be manufactured by reacting Calcium Carbide with water in Acetylene generators. Ordinary commercial grades of Acetylene contain traces of impurities such as Phosphine, Arsine, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia, and have a garlic-like odour. The gas is slightly lighter than air. Acetylene alone burns in air with a very hot, bright and sooty flame. Mixed with air or Oxygen in the right proportion, Acetylene gives a concentrated, sootfree flame. When mixed with Oxygen the combustion is more intense than in air, and because of the Acetylene’s high carbon content (92.3% by weight) its maximum flame temperature is about 3100°C. Because of its high temperature, thermal value and speed of combustion (11.6 m/s), this is the most suitable gas flame both for welding and for cutting. Explosion and decomposition hazards Acetylene, is a highly flammable and explosive gas, and a mixture of Acetylene and air or Oxygen is explosive within wide limits. The explosive limits in air range from 2% to 82%, while if mixed with Oxygen the explosive range is from 2.5% to 93%. For this reason care must be taken to prevent an unnecessary or uncontrolled escape of Acetylene, and good ventilation must be assured in places where Acetylene is stored or used. Should escaping Acetylene from an open top valve or from the regulator, catch fire, put out the flame by closing the top valve. For this eventuality a fire-resistant mitten should always be kept handy. Should the flame make closing of the top valve difficult or impossible, it must first be put out by a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or dry powder extinguisher. Another property, which should be known and understood by personnel engaged in transporting or using Acetylene is that the gas can decompose into its constituents, Carbon and Hydrogen, if it is exposed to temperatures above 350°C (662°F) or if gaseous Acetylene at a pressure of more than 2 bar (200 kPa; 29 psig) is subjected to shock during storage or transportation. Decomposition proceeds rapidly and liberates a great deal of energy. Because of this property, Acetylene cannot be stored under pressure in the same way, for example, that Oxygen is stored. To avoid the decomposition characteristics of compressed, gaseous Acetylene the cylinders for storing the gas are filled with a porous mass, having minute cellular spaces. This eliminates the risk that any pocket of appreciable size remains, in which Acetylene in gaseous form may collect. The porous mass is saturated with Acetone, in which the Acetylene actually dissolves. The combination of these features - porous mass and solvent allows the Acetylene to be contained in cylinders at moderate pressure with greatly reduced danger of explosive decomposition occuring during normal handling and use. However, there still exists the chance that decomposition may be started by careless handling of the cylinder, such as hitting or dropping it, heating it, or by using incomplete or badly maintained welding equipment, thereby permitting a complete flash-

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
back of the welding flame into the cylinder. The signs of decomposition are: – The temperature of the cylinder shell rises, starting at the area within which the decomposition commenced. – The cylinder pressure increases (only evident when the cylinder is in use and a regulator with gauges is fitted on the top valve). – If, after a complete flash-back, the gas released from the top valve contains soot, and has an unusual smell. On suspicion that decomposition may have started in the cylinder, shut the top valve immediately, and remove regulator or other fittings attached to it. The cylinder must be checked for increase in temperature by repeatedly feeling the cylinder shell all over by hand. If temperature of the shell rises, but has not exceeded hand-heat (about 50°C) the cylinder must be taken to the railing immediately and thrown over board. The cylinder must be cooled by copius amounts of water while it is being moved. If the ship is in port, hang the cylinder by a rope into the sea and call the fire brigade. It is possible to stop a decomposition by keeping the top valve closed and cooling the cylinder with large quantities of cold water, but if this is to succeed it must be commenced at the latest five minutes after the decomposition has started, and must continue until the cylinder remains cold. However, out of consideration for the crew and the ship, do not try to save the cylinder but throw it over board as quickly as possible. longer be touched by the bare hand (more than about 50 °C), the danger of an explosion is imminent and the cylinder must not be moved. Start cooling the cylinder immediately with large amounts of cold water from a protected position. All personnel not taking part in this operation must be evacuated from the area. When the cylinder has been cooled until the water no longer steams from the shell, it can be moved to the railing and thrown over board. Remember that cooling must be continued without interruption throughout the removal operation. WARNING: The top valve of a cylinder containing decomposing Acetylene must be kept shut at all times! Fatal mistakes have been made in cases of this kind; even experienced welders have opened the cylinder valve fully, in the mistaken belief that this would release the pressure in the cylinder. In fact, the opposite happens. The Acetylene that evaporates out of the Acetone passes the decomposition zone on its way to the top valve, decomposition becomes explosive and the pressure in the cylinder increases much faster than it can be released, with the result that the cylinder may explode within seconds. Inhalation hazards Acetylene is a non-toxic but mildly anesthetic gas. Formerly pure Acetylene was combined with Oxygen and used as an anesthetic in hospitals. There is a risk of asphyxia when the Acetylene level in respiratory air reduces the Oxygen content to three-fourths or less of

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If decomposition has reached a point where the cylinder can no

GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
normal concentration. Hence it is important that Acetylene is handled only in well ventilated areas. Important safety reminders Under certain conditions Acetylene forms readily explosive compounds with copper, silver and mercury. For this reason contact between Acetylene and these metals, their salts, compounds and highconcentration alloys must be avoided. It is generally accepted that brass containing less than 65% copper in the alloys, and certain nickel alloys, are suitable for use in Acetylene service under normal conditions. Never use makeshift hose connectors made out of pieces of copper pipe - use a proper hose connector. Acetylene cylinders must be stored and used in an upright position. If the cylinders are used when lying on their sides or sloping, some of the Acetone will run out and into the reduction valve and hose. Drawing gas from Acetylene cylinders The Acetylene cylinders are filled with a porous mass, which is saturated with Acetone. An Acetylene cylinder with a volume of 40 litres normally contains 16 litres of Acetone. The Acetylene gas dissolves in (is absorbed by) the Acetone. At a Acetylene Cylinders A-40 1 2 3 4 5 pressure of 15 bar and a temperature of 15°C the cylinder will contain 6.000 n/l of dissolved Acetylene. To fill the cylinder with this quantity of Acetylene normally takes 8 hours. When you open the top valve to use the Acetylene, the pressure in the cylinder falls and the gas is released from the Acetone. If this process proceeds too quickly, ((boiling)) occurs in the cylinder, rather similar to the effect of opening a bottle of sodawater, and some of the Acetone will emerge with the gas. This is harmful both to the cylinder and to the weld. Admittedly, Acetone burns, but with very different characteristics from Acetylene. The rule is therefore that the cylinder should not be emptied more rapidly than by about one-eighth of the contents per hour. This corresponds to about 750 n/l per hour. However, for a short while (maximum 30 minutes) extraction from a full cylinder at about 15°C may be increased to about 2.500 n/l per hour. After that, the cylinder must be set aside for a period of rest. If gas consumption is greater than a single Acetylene cylinder can deliver, a sufficiently dimensioned gas central installation is normally used. The following gives the extraction rates for various combinations of interconnected A-40 Acetylene cylinders: Maximum extraction, nl/hr Continuous 700 1400 2100 2800 3500 Intermittent* 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500

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*FuIl cylinders at approx. 15 °C.

GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Rules and safety precautions for handling and use of Gas Cylinders
– Always make sure that the cylinder cap that protects the top valve is in place and screwed down before moving the cylinder. Cylinders, when not in active use, should have the cylinder cap in place and properly secured to prevent them from falling. – Never use slings, chains or magnets to lift gas cylinders. Use racks, baskets or cylinder trolleys specially designed for hoisting gas cylinders, and equipped with proper lifting lugs. – Cargo nets are not recommended for lifting gas cylinders. If a cargo net has to be used, it must be covered internally with a good tarpaulin to prevent the cylinders from sliding out through the mesh. – If a crane or winch is used to lift gas cylinders, and the crane driver is not in a position from which he can see the entire hoisting operation, a signalman must be stationed where he can see both the load and the crane driver. – Gas cylinders must never be hoisted or dragged by the cylinder cap or top valve. – Do not subject the cylinders to unnecessary impacts or jolts during transport. Do not allow the cylinders to fall, or knock against one another. – During transport, gas cylinders must always be handled as if they were full. Never be indifferent or careless because they are “empties”. Mistakes can be made, and full cylinders may be mixed with empty ones. Therefore, during transport treat all cylinders as if they were full.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
– If the cylinder valve cannot be opened by hand alone, put the cylinder aside and inform the supplier. Never use wrenches or other tools to open cylinder valves. On valves intended for valve keys, use only valve keys supplied by or approved by the gas manufacturer. Valves with handwheels must be operated by hand only, without tools. Never hammer the hand-wheel in order to get the valve open or shut. – It is important to make sure that the cylinder valve outlet union and the connector of the equipment to be used are a proper fit. Never force a connection that does not fit. Make sure that seals are in good condition and of the correct type. – Use only regulators, flashback arrestors, hoses, etc., designed for use with the gas in question. Improvising or substituting equipment can lead to serious accidents. – Never use gas cylinders as rollers or props for other cargo, or for any purpose whatever other than to contain a specific gas. – Take care to avoid using or storing gas cylinders in places where they could become part of an electrical circuit. Never touch a cylinder with a live electrode. – Check for gas leaks using soapy water. – Never use an open flame! – Never use flames to raise the pressure of a cylinder. Cylinders should not be subjected to temperatures above 45°C – As far as possible, avoid exposure of gas cylinders to moisture or salt water. Never expose cylinders to corrosive chemicals or gases. – The information that is cast or stamped on the cylinders must not be altered or removed. – Never try to repair or alter any feature of a gas cylinder or valve. WARNING It is extremely dangerous, and therefore forbidden, to attempt to transfer oxygen or acetylene from one cylinder to another on one’s own. Filling of gas cylinders shall be carried out only by qualified personnel at the filling factories. Failure to observe this rule has unfortunately led to the loss of several lives.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Gas Distribution System for acetylene and oxygen
Unitor’s gas distribution system for the storage and distribution of Acetylene and Oxygen was introduced in order to increase safety on board ship. The system was developed in close collaboration with the Norwegian maritime authorities, and is now included in the rules and regulations that apply to the handling and use of welding gases on board Norwegian ships. The authorities of several other countries have shown interest in the system, and have introduced it for use on board the ships of their own nations. The installation of Unitor’s central system on board ship reduces the risk of accidents to a far greater extent than before, because the gas cylinders remain stored in the cylinder store with the welding gases being fed to the point of use through permanently installed pipelines and fittings. Naturally, this does not entirely eliminate the need to take cylinders out of the store from time to time in order to carry out certain welding or cutting operations in various parts of the ship, but the practice of keeping gas cylinders in the engine room and transporting them from place to place, with the risk this entailed, has now practically ceased. Instead, one or two outlets for welding gases are provided in the workshop and engine room. The location of the cylinder central with direct access to the open deck (as provided in the Regulations) makes it easy to get rid of the cylinders in the event of an outbreak of fire, and everybody on board knows exactly where the cylinders are located. Efficiency and economy are improved by the fact that a sufficient supply of gas is assured, even for jobs needing large amounts of gas, e.g. for heating purposes. Acetylene can be drawn from two or more cylinders at the same time, which means less gas used per unit of time per cylinder, thus ensuring more efficient emptying of the cylinders.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Extracts from regulations relating to central system A central system for Acetylene and Oxygen consists of a cylinder store with fittings, piping systems and one or more outlet stations. The various components of the central system are subject to rules laid down by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate or similar organisations, and fittings are required to be of approved types. We quote from the Regulations: – The gas cylinder store shall be a separate room on or above the upper continuous deck. The room shall have bulkheads, deck and deckhead of steel and have a gastight separation from adjacent rooms. – On drilling platforms and special purpose ships the gas cylinder store may be located on an open deck. – The gas cylinder store shall be insulated, ventilated and so arranged that the temperature does not normally exceed 40°C. – The ventilation system shall not be connected to any other ventilation system on board. – The room shall not be used for any other purpose than the storage of gas cylinders. – Electrical installations in a gas cylinder system shall be of explosionproof types. – Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders shall not be kept in the engine room. – Pipes (on the low-pressure side) shall be seamless, of material ST35 or equivalent, and of wall thickness not less than 2.0 mm. On drilling platforms and special-purpose ships the wall thickness of pipelines on open deck shall be not less than 2.5 mm. – Pipelines shall be laid with the fewest possible joints. Joints shall be made by butt welds, of good workmanship. – Connections such as unions, sleeves, flanges etc. are not accepted as alternatives to welding. – Normally, only two outlet stations are allowed for each pipe system from the cylinder store or cabinet. On drilling platforms and special-purpose ships a greater number of outlet stations may be permitted. Approval of the number of outlet stations must be obtained in each individual case. – When the central plant is not in use the gas cylinder valves and other valves shall be shut. The above points are only extracts from some of the rules relating to central plants in ships. The complete rules are to be found in “Regulations relating to welding equipment etc. for the welding gases Acetylene and Oxygen on board ships, mobile drilling platforms and special-purpose vessels in offshore operations”, issued by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate. A copy of these Regulations can be obtained from Unitor. Approval and certification of central plants Before a central plant is allowed to be brought into use it must be inspected, degreased, blown through and pressure-tested in compliance with the rules of the Norwegian Maritime Directorate or similar organisations. When the plant is found to be in order an installation certificate is issued, valid for 5 years. The original of the installation certificate is to be posted in the

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
central gas storage. If any important component of the system is damaged, changed or replaced, the system shall be inspected again and a new installation certificate issued. The layout of the central system The layout of the central system and various components are shown in the drawing on the next page. The central store where the cylinders are kept must be situated on or above the upper continuous deck, and it must have access to the open deck. The door to the central store must be marked with a notice warning of gas under pressure. Fastening arrangements (3) for the number of Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders to be kept on board are to be welded to the bulkhead. The design of the fastening clamps makes it very easy to release the cylinders in case of a fire. From the cylinders the gas is carried through high-pressure hoses (4) to T-valves (6). The connection nuts for the highpressure hoses are right-hand threaded for Oxygen and left-hand threaded for Acetylene, to eliminate the possibility of the hoses being wrongly connected. Non-return valves (5) are fitted to prevent gas from flowing back through the T-valve to the gas cylinders. By using several T-valves connected by expansion pipes (8) it is possible to connect in series any desired number of cylinders. The last T-valve in the series is closed with a blind plug and connecting nut (7). From the T-valves the gas is led to a shut-off valve (9) where the central regulator R520(10) is located. The regulator has an adjusting screw with a locknut for pressure regulation. When the correct pressure has been set on the regulator (8 bar for oxygen and 0.8 bar for acetylene), the setting is locked by tightening the locknut. This makes it unnecessary to reset the pressures every time the plant is used, the gas flow being controlled simply by opening and closing the shutoff valve (9). The desired working pressure is set by means of a regulating valve at the outlet station, as required for the individual welding and cuffing operations. The safety valve of the central regulator (11) must be connected to a pipe to carry any escaping gas out to the open deck. The end of this pipe must be located not less than 3 metres above deck, and the outlet must be marked with a regulation sign as follows: “Gas danger. Fire, open lights and smoking prohibited.” From the low-pressure side of the regulator the gas is fed through a low-pressure steel expansion pipe (12) and connected to the permanent piping system serving the outlet stations by means of an outlet union (16). The pipelines are colour-coded. Blue pipes are for Oxygen and red for Acetylene. Where a pipe passes through bulkheads or decks it must be led through bushings (18), and the pipes are to be fastened to bulkheads with pipe clamps (17) at intervals of about 2.5 metres. The outlet stations are to be installed at suitable locations which are well ventilated and where the outlet station is protected from mechanical damage. If necessary, the outlet may be placed in a protective cabinet (25).

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Outlet stations on open decks must always be enclosed in protective cabinets. Each outlet station is fitted with shut-off valves (20) which should be closed during short interruptions in work. NOTE: There is a filter in the threaded inlet union for the shut-off valve of the gas pipeline, to prevent particles passing into the outlet fittings. In time this filter can become clogged; it should be unscrewed for inspection from time to time. Also fitted at the outlet station are regulators to set the desired working pressure (21), flashback arrestors (22) for Acetylene and Oxygen, and gauges for working pressure (23). In addition to the flashback arrestors, the welding torch should be fitted with nonreturn valves to prevent reverse flows and the mixing of welding gases in the hoses. See separate chapter on nonreturn valves.

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WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES

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miscellaneous information
International system of units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   530 The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   531 General conversion factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   532 Roman numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   533 Metric and decimal equivalents of fractions of an inch . . . . . . . . . . . .   534 Wire cross section AWG/mm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   534 Common gauge series for sheet thickness and wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   535 Physical properties of some elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   536 Hardness comparison table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   537 Corrosion of galvanic couples in sea water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   538 Temperature scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   540 Pressure variations related to temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   541 Abbreviations and welding terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   542

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miscellaneous information
International System of Units (SI)
The International System of Units (SI for short) is built upon seven base units and two supplementary units. Derived units are related to base and supplementary units by formulas in the right hand column. Symbols for units with specific names are given in parentheses.
 Quantity   Length   mass   time   electric current   thermodynamic temperature   amount of substance   luminous intensity   plane angle   solid angle   acceleration   activity (of a radioactive source)   angular acceleration   angular velocity   area   density   electric capacitance   electric conductance   electric field strength   electric inductance   electric potential difference   electric resistance   electromotive force   energy   entropy   force   frequency   illuminance   luminance   luminous flux   magnetic field strength   magnetic flux   magnetic flux density   mangetomotive force   power   pressure   quantity of electricity   quantity of heat Unit Formula Base Units metre (m) kilogram (kg) second (s) ampere (A) kelvin (K) mole (mol) candela (cd) Supplementary Units radian (rad) steradian (sr) Derived Units metre per second squared disintegration per second radian per second squared radian per second square metre kilogram per cubic metre farad (F) stemens (S) volt per metre henry (H) volt (V) ohm (Ω) volt (V) joule (J) joule per Kelvin newton (N) hertz (Hz) lux (lx) candela per square metre lumen (lm) ampere per metre weber (Wb) tesla (T) ampere (A) watt (W) pascal (Pa) coulomb (C) joule (J)

m/s2 (disintegration)/s rad/s2 rad/s m2 kg/m3 A•s/V A/V V/m V•s/A W/A V/A W/A N•m j/K kg•m/s2 (cycle)/s lm/m2 cd/m2 cd•sr A/m V•s Wb/m2 J/s N/m2 A•s N•m

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miscellaneous information
 Quantity   radiant intensity   specific heat   stress   thermal conductivity   velocity   viscosity, dynamic   viscosity, kinematic   voltage   volume   wavenumber   work   Unit Formula watt per steradian joule per kilogram-kelvin pascal (Pa) watt per metre-kelvin metre per second pascal-second square metre per second volt (V) cubic metre reciprocal metre joule (J) Prefix tera giga mega kilo hecto* deka* deci* centi* milli micro nano pico femto atto W/sr J/kg•K N/m2 W/m•K m/s Pa•s m2/s W/A m3 (wave)/m N•m SI Symbol T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a

Multiplication Factors 1 000 000 000 000 = 1012 1 000 000 000 = 109 1 000 000 = 106 1 000 = 103 100 = 102 10 = 101 0,1 = 10-1 0,01 = 10-2 0,001 = 10-3 0,000 001 = 10-6 0,000 000 001 = 10-9 0,000 000 000 001 = 10-12 0,000 000 000 000 001 = 10-15 0,000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10-18

* To be avoided where possible.

THE PHONETIC ALPHABET
A
Alpha

B
Bravo

C
Charlie

D
Delta

E
Echo

F
Foxtrot

G
Golf

H
Hotel

I
India

J
Juliet

K
Kilo

L
Lima

M
Mike

N
November

O
Oscar

P
Papa

Q
Quebec

R
Romeo

S
Sierra

T
Tango

U
Uniform

V
Victor

W
Whiskey

X
X-ray

Y
Yankee

Z
Zulu

THE GREEK ALPHABET

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miscellaneous information
General conversion factors
Unit Linear Measure mil (0,001 inch) inch foot yard mile nautical mile Square Measure square inch square inch square foot square yard acre acre square mile square mile Volume cubic inch cubic foot cubic foot cubic foot cubic yard ounce (U.S., liq.) quart (U.S., liq.) gallon (U.S.) gallon (U.S.) barrel (U.S.Petroleum) barrel (U.S.Petroleum) Mass grain ounce (oz) pound (lbs) short ton long ton Pressure or Stress pound force per inch2 (psi) kip per inch2 (ksi) pound force per inch2 (psi) kip per inch2 atmosphere atmosphere Conversion to Multiply by Reciprocal

millimetre      0,0254 39,37 millimetre     25,4   0,03937 metre      0,3048   3,281 metre      0,9144   1,0936 kilometre      1,6093   0,6214 kilometre      1,8532   0,5396 square millimeter    645,2   0,00155 square centimeter      6,452   0,155 square metre      0,0929 10,764 square metre      0,8361   1,196 square metre   4047,   0,0002471 square foot 43560,   0,00002296 acre    640,   0,001562 square kilometer      2,590   0,3863 cubic centimeter     16,387   0,06102 cubic metre      0,02832 35,31 gallon (U.S.)      7,48   0,1337 litre     28,32   0,03531 cubic metre      0,7646   1,3079 cubic centimeter     29,57   0,03382 litre      0,9464   1,0566 gallon (Imperial)      0,8327   1,2009 litre      3,785   0,2642 gallon (U.S.)     42,   0,0238 litre    158,98   0,00629 milligram     64,8   0,01 543 gram     28,35   0,03527 kilogram      0,4536   2,205 metric ton      0,9072   1,1023 metric ton      1,0161   0,9842 pascal   6895,   0,0001450 megapascal      6,895   0,145 bar      0,06895 14,50 kilogram per millimetre2      0,7031   1,4223 mm Hg    760,   0,001316 pound force per inch2     14,696   0,06805

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356    0.0002778 kilowatt     0.004019 pound force per inch2     0. 7375 joule     4.0009479 joule     1.252 kilogram metre   107. 7 is always VII.    0.451    0.341 gram per litre   119.    0.8    0.00 joule 1055.000.) atmosphere atmosphere torr (mm Hg) inch of water foot of water dyne per centimetre2 Work.1000   10.) per minute pound-force kilopond (Kp) Conversion to Multiply by Reciprocal bar     1.miscellaneous information Unit Pressure or Stress (Cont.56    0.    0.00 533 .00835 cubic foot (STP)   359.187    0.00279 litre (STP)    22.448    0.    0.S. Heat and Energy British thermal unit (Btu) foot pound-force calorie Btu kilocalorie Btu Btu per hour watthour horse power Miscellaneous pound per gallon (U.7 milliampere per metre2    10.102 Roman Numerals Basic numerals: I 1 V X 5 10 L 50 C 100 D 500 M 1000 Combination rules: – A smaller numeral in front of a larger is subtracted from the larger – A smaller numeral after a larger is added to the larger – Equal numerals after each other are added together – II and III are never placed in front of a larger numeral.76    0.7457    1.872 pascal   133.0446 cubic metre     0.2389 foot pound-force   778.1835 newton     4.S.) pound mole (gas) gram mole (gas) board foot milliampere per foot2 gallons (U.32    0.968    0.00236 423.81    0.g.414 joule 3600. 6.001285 Btu     3.1013    9.009297 watt     0.2248 newton (N)     9.8    0.013    0.2929    3. 007501 pascal   248.0929 metre3 per day     5. e. A horizontal line above together with a vertical line on each side of the numeral multiplies the numeral with 100.307 pascal     0.4    0.4335    2.9872 megapascal     0. never IIIX A horizontal line above a numeral multiplies this numeral with 1000.

2402 20.3185 10.406 0.2245 22.4934 13.422 0.0183 23.484 0.49 16 1.656 0.2089 24.969 0.8120 24.734 0.703 0.08   4 21.828 0.156 0.609 0.3655 4.4778 15.9530 6.453 0.519 10   5.9373 8.0966 13.9686 4.15 3/0   85.438 0.469 0.6841 15.750 0.2715 16.141 0.7780 3.8590 18.984 1.0809 15.5718 3.578 0.172 0.1122 11.1436 7.3029 12.063 0.62 4/0 107.313 0.375 0.547 0.000 mm 13.516 0.3812 2.688 0.6214 23.938 0.078 0.2559 18.672 0.500 mm 0.109 0.1749 3.3995 Wire cross sections AWG mm2 AWG mm2 AWG mm2 20   0.594 0.9060 12.250 0.7154 11.5091 11.2 6.9216 10.4465 19.3498 6.4151 23.1279 9.531 0.891 0.3968 0.922 0.641 0.7310 9.906 0.43 14 2.719 0.30 2/0   67.0026 25.7624 5.5248 9.797 0.219 0.391 0.1592 5.953 0.6527 19.41 18   0.823   8    8.5876 1.0339 21.367 1/0   53.6057 25.8433 20.1906 1.0496 19.344 0.4308 21.125 0.0653 17.9843 2.6371 21.26   1   42.094 0.00 534 .813 0.281 0.6997 inches 33/64 17/32 35/64 9/16 37/64 19/32 39/64 5/8 41/64 21/32 43/64 11/16 45/64 23/32 47/64 3/4 49/64 25/32 51/64 13/16 53/64 27/32 55/64 7/8 57/64 29/32 59/64 15/16 61/64 31/32 63/64 1/1 0.875 0.8277 22.359 0.01 12 3.31   6 13.047 0.781 0.7467 7.015 0.844 0.328 0.miscellaneous information Metric and Decimal Equivalents of Fractions of an Inch Inches 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64 1/4 17/64 9/32 19/64 5/16 21/64 11/32 13/64 3/8 25/64 13/32 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 31/64 1/2 0.031 0.859 0.563 0.8903 14.203 0.3342 8.5561 5.188 0.297 0.31   2 33.234 0.6684 17.625 0.7937 1.2872 14.266 0.4621 17.5404 7.8747 16.766 0.

8 11.35 6.56 0.00 535 .59 3.81 0.47 4.2 9.76 3.63 1.54 3.36 0.56 5.81 0.50 2.83 1.25 2.03 2.78 3.25 4.79 0.89 0.31 2.52 1.51 Zinc AZG 7/0 6/0 5/0 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 7.91 0.71 0.86 0.22 1.87 0.34 6.03 1.S.51 0.8 8.07 0.71 0.64 0.83 1.40 6.01 6.46 3.62 7.0 10.miscellaneous information Common Gauge series used for Sheet thickness and Wire American Wire Gauge Birmingham Wire Gauge Brown and Sharp      (identical to AWG)   Galvanized Iron         Name Abbreviation AWG BWG B&S GSG Name Abbreviation SWG MSG Standard Wire Gauge (British) Manufacturer’s Standard (U.66 3.61 0.46 0.61 0.71 0. AI(U.76 4.69 0.94 0.29 2.61 0.11 0.91 0.93 4.37 4.40 3.17 3.69 5.71 0.64 2.64 0.53 7.56 3.55 5.40 3.11 1.97 3.79 0.14 6.55 4.88 4.) Steel Sheet Strip GSG SWG MSG USG BWG 12.18 6.95 5.11 3.2 7.41 0.58 0. Stainless Steel Iron Al(U.19 3.4 8.77 2.40 1.63 1.42 1.17 1.38 5.75 6.S.22 1.64 0.27 1.30 0.32 1.34 2.82 5.41 2.71 0.20 0.) U.45 1.06 3.29 1.02 0.18 2.91 1.57 4.59 1.47 1.89 5.90 1.03 1.06 1.95 2.91 0.K.89 2.42 1.78 2.70 1.79 2.02 0.51 4.84 0.35 5.57 3.81 0.16 4.37 1.64 0.24 1.81 0.38 1.65 1.S.05 2.14 1.71 0.52 1.7 11.76 0.) Copper Brass B&S AWG Galv.51 0.05 2.30 1.07 0.18 2.79 1.47 1.27 1.67 2.15 0.41 2.14 1.90 3.98 1.02 0.56 0.63 1.25 0.78 2.07 5.27 2.31 4.66 3.62 4. Standard Plate Zinc (American Zinc Gauge) AZG USC Thickness in mm Gauge No.18 4.83 1.95 0.02 1.80 1.

32 1063   Hafnium Hf 3300   Helium He     0.2   Hydrogen H     0.90 1455 Nb    8.25 3550 Cl     1.37 1773 K    0.177*    –272.53   186   Magnesium Mg   1.85 1280 Bi   9.35     327.68   630 A     1.12      –7.3 Rh 12.14     419.56** –103 Cr 7.429*   –218.3 2300 Br   3.82      44.4   Lithium Li   0.55 2500 N     1.4 1857 6.96 1710 Zn    7.65   321 Ca   1.6 2996 Sn    7.5 S    2.92 1083   Fluorine F    1.42 1420 Ag   10.87 1535   Lead Pb 11.4 P    1.87      62.2 2620 Ni    8.3 1800 3370   Copper Cu   8.00 536 .80   271 B 2.5 Na    0.9 Ti   4.93     113.2 1890 Co 8.5 W 19.2 1260 Hg   13.9 1495 Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Platinum Potassium Rhodium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Sulphur Tantalum Tin Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Zinc Zirconium Mn   7.2   Iodine l   4.9 Mo 10.2 As   5.55    –38.55   842 C   2.31     231.784*    –189.2 Cd   8.5 1966 Se   4.9 0      1.50     960.73   814 Ba 3.090*    –259.5   Iron Fe   7.1 Pt   21. at boiling point -37°C V    5.miscellaneous information Physical properties of some elements Symbol   Aluminum   Antimony   Argon   Arsenic   Barium   Beryllium   Bismuth   Boron   Bromine   Cadmium   Calcium   Carbon   Chlorine   Chromium   Colbalt Density g/cm3 20°C Melting Point °C Symbol Density Melting g/cm3 20°C Point °C Al   2.25*   –209.69* –223   Gold Au 19.07   119 Ta 16.70   660 Sb   6.74   651 * kg/Nm3 ** Liquid.5   725 Be   1.97      97.5 Zr   6.8   220 Si   2.

5 46.4 43.0 38.2 21.8 45.6* 97.7 66.0 37.4* 82.0 38.6 25.4* 86.7 63.2* 83.8* 93.5 68.4 26.4 59.0* 19.4 57.7 33.0* 74.1 53.3 65.8 24.8* 96.3 60.3 49.9 39.8 40.2 41.miscellaneous information Hardness comparison table Brinell HB Vickers HV (>5 kpl) Rockwell (*HRB) HRC 36.4* 69.0 23.0* 95.2 26.8* 85.6* 90.4 56.3 47.2* 474* 52.9 27.2* 89.0* 63.0* 56.2 22.9 67.0 29.0 65.5 32.8* 88.8 34.4* 42.2 44.3 31.6 Tensile Brinell strength HB N/mm2 275 300 295 310 315 320 325 330 345 340 365 350 380 359 390 368 410 376 420 385 440 392 460 400 470 408 490 415 500 423 520 430 540 436 550 443 570 451 590 459 610 467 620 481 640 495 660 508 670 521 685 535 715 548 705 561 735 574 755 588 765 602 785 615 805 627 825 639 835 650 855 661 875 672 885 682 900 692 920 701 940 711 950 970 990 Vickers Rockwell Tensile HV strength (>5 kpl) HRC N/mm2 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 30.00 537 .4 55.3 54.4* 72.4* 66.4* 78.5 64.2 20.9 36.1 61.4* 60.1 23.3 29.0 47.0 1010 1040 1070 1100 1140 1170 1205 1235 1265 1295 1325 1355 1385 1400 1430 1460 1490 1520 1540 1570 1600 1660 1765 1825 1715 1875 1930 1980 2030 2080 2130 2170 2215 2255   80   80   85   85   90   90   95   95 100 100 105 105 110 110 115 115 120 120 125 125 130 130 135 135 140 140 145 145 150 150 155 155 160 160 165 165 170 170 175 175 180 180 185 185 190 190 195 195 200 200 205 205 210 210 215 215 220 220 225 225 230 230 235 235 240 240 245 245 250 250 255 255 260 260 265 265 270 270 275 275 280 280 285 285 290 290 295 295 6.6* 98.0 44.5 42.3 66.9 52.4 58.8* 91.9 62.4* 76.2 61.0* 95.6 50.2* 99.4* 80.6 28.0* 94.7 48.

0 Compatible –  Deterioration of either material is normally    within tolerable limits. L  – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is large compared with that of the metal with which it is coupled. E  – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is approximately equal to that of the metal with which it is coupled. 6. S  – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is small compared with the area of the metal with which it is coupled. depending on circumstances. X Uncertain –  Direction and/or magnitude of effect on normal    behavior may vary.miscellaneous information Corrosion of Galvanic couples in Sea water at 4–27 °c No marking Unfavorable –  Normal Deterioration of either material may be    increased moderately or severely. Note: These numbers correspond with the numbers and alloy designations listed in the left column.00 538 .

miscellaneous information 6.00 539 .

67 °R 373. degrees Fahrenheit 0 °C = 273.miscellaneous information Temperature Scales t (°C) = temperature.67 = 9/4(tre +32) = t +273.15 100 °C = = t = t = t = t = tf tf tf T T T TR TR TR = 9/5t+32 = TR –459.15 = 5/9 tf + 255. degrees Celsius T (K) = temperature. degrees (°Re) Rèaumur tf (F°) = temperature.67 = 9/5t+491.67 °R 5/9 (tf –32) 5/4 tre T–273. degrees Kelvin tre = temperature.67 = 9/5 T 6.00 540 .15 K = 80 °Re 212 °F = 671.15 5/9TR –273.15 K= 0 °Re = 32 °F = 491.37 = 5/9 TR = tf + 459.

200 bar at 15°C max.00 541 .miscellaneous information Pressure variations related to Temperature bar max. 15 (Ac) 150 (Ox) bar at 15°C 6.

ARC BLOW Deflection of intended arc pattern by magnetic fields. AC Alternating current AlR CARBON Removal of material from electrically conductive metals ARC GOUGING by means of an electric arc between carbon electrode and workpiece combined with an air pressure jet adjacent to the electrode. Issues regulations relating to planning and construction of welded installations. AMPERAGE Strength of an electrical current measured in amperes. in addition to carbon. volatile. contains certain alloy elements to provide special characteristics. ARGON Inert gas – used as shielding gas in wire welding and TIG welding. water-soluble.miscellaneous information Abbreviations and Welding Terminologi ABS Abbreviation for American Bureau of Shipping (classification institute). ANSI Abbreviation for American National Standard Institute. ASM Abbreviation for American Society for Metals.00 542 . ALLOYED STEEL Steel which. AMMETER Instrument for measuring electrical current measured in amperes. ASTM Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials. Contains at least 11 % chromium with varying amounts of nickel. «A»-MEASUREMENT Measurement denoting depth of fillet welds. AlSl Abbreviation for American Iron and Steel Institute. ALUMINIUM Aluminium alloys with high copper content. AUSTENITE Nonmagnetic stainless steel that cannot be hardened by heat treatment. flammable liquid. This type of steel is characterized by its unique grain structure. ASME Abbreviation for American Society of Mechanical Engineering. 6. ACETYLENE Colourless gas with high carbon content. ASPHYXIATION Loss of consciousness due to lack of oxygen. See section BRONZE on Metals and Alloys. ANNEAL Removal of internal stresses in metal by heating and slow cooling. ACETONE Colourless. C2H2. lighter than air.

BACKUP BAR Tool or fixture attached to the root of weld joint. Max. denoting load in kp from a hard steel ball divided by the spherical area of indentation in mm2.miscellaneous information AWS Abbreviation for American Welding Society. BASIC COATING BERYLLIUM Hard. fluorspar. 500–700°C. Electrode coating consisting of calcite. resulting in a ho!e and excessive penetration. gap for capillary brazing is 0. The composition and dimension of the base materials are the deciding factors for the welding process and filler material to be used. light metallic element used in copper for better fatigue endurance. This type of steel may be unalloyed. approx. tube or hollow object. ferromanganese and ferrosilicium. The method where surface bonding between the base material and filler metal is achieved.1 mm. 6. Expressed in kp mm2. BOILER STEEL Better known as heat resistant construction steel. BACKUP GAS Shielding gas which protects the root of the weld from the atmosphere. CAPILLARY BRAZING Method of brazing using the capillary forces to draw the filler metal into narrow gaps. CADMIUM White ductile metallic element used for plating material to prevent corrosion. BS Abbreviation for British Standard. Tool may or may not control the shape of the penetrating metal. BORE BRAZING BRIGHT METAL Inside diameter of hole. BASE MATERIAL The material in components to be joined by welding.00 543 . low alloyed or stainless. Material preparation where the surface has been ground or machined to a bright surface to remove scale or oxides. BRINELL HARDNESS Abbreviated HB. BV Abbreviation for Bureau Veritas (French classification institute). BURNTHROUGH Weld which has melted through. Weldable and corrosion resistant steel with satisfactory resistance under high thermic conditions. BEVEL Angular type of edge preparation.

DEEP WELDING Electrodes with acid or rutile organic coatings which ELECTRODES increase the arc effect and generation of heat in the melting-in process. CAST IRON ELECTRODES Welding electrode specially suitable for welding and repair of cast iron. Direct current.00 544 . COLD LAPS Area of weld that has not fused with the base metal. CRATER CRACKS Cracking that occurs in the crater. CONTAMINATION Indicates a dirty part. CONCAVE WELD CROWN Weld crown that is curved inward. CSA Equipment with CSA-Test mark fulfils the requirements made in the relevant standards for Canada and the USA. CONVEX WELD CROWN Weld crown that is curved outward. The electrode has a core of nickel or nickel alloy and a slag forming and arc stabilizing coating. CLADDING Layer of material applied to a surface for the purpose of improved corrosion resistance. DEMURRAGE Monetary charge applied to the user of gas cylinders beyond agreed rental period. CRATER Depression at the end of a weld that has insufficient cross section. See section on Metals and Alloys. impure shielding gas or impure filler metal. CORROSION Eating away of material by a corrosive medium. CONTOUR Shape of the weld bead or pass. DEOXIDIZED FILLER Filler materials which contains deoxidizers such as MATERIALS aluminium. CE Equipment with CE-markings fulfils the the basic requirements of the Low Voltage and Electromagnetic Compatibility Guideline. CUNIFER DC Alloy of copper and nickel. zirconium and titanium for welding steels.miscellaneous information CARBIDES Compound of carbon with one or more metal elements. Cu. 6. COPPER Metal element with melting point at 1083 °C. Seawater resistant. CONSTRUCTION General expression denoting weldable steel in strength STEEL classification 37–60 kp/mm2.

Euronorm E. Measurements is usually based on 5 x D or 10 x D. Specially constructed tank similar to a vacuum bottle for the storage of Iiquified gases. or to exhibit plasticity without breaking while under tension. DIN Abbreviating for Deutsche lnstitut für Normung.miscellaneous information DESTRUCTIVE TESTING DEWARS DT – series of tests by destruction to determine the quality of a weld. I. See Direct Current Electrode Positive. During the remaining time the machine will be at rest while electrodes are changed. DIRECT CURRENT DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE NEGATIVE (DCEN) DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE POSITIVE (DCEP) DIRECT CURRENT REVERSE POLARITY (DCRP) Direct current flowing from electrode to the work.N. DNV DUCTILITY Abbreviation for Det Norske Veritas (Norwegian classification institute). either to the workpiece or to the electrode. Flow of current (electrons) in only one direction. Property of material causing it to deform permanently. Direct current from work to the electrode. where «D» is the diameter of the test rod. slag removed etc. EN The European Community for standardization has developed a nomenclature in welding. Expressed in % of the time the welding machine can work at a certain amperage in this period. 6. ELECTRIC STEEL Steel produced in an electro-furnace. a 30% intermittence the arc can be in operation 3 min.e.00 545 . DIRECT CURRENT STRAIGHT POLARITY (DCRP) See Direct Current Electrode Negative. Amount of extension is usually indicated by percentages of original gauge length. of the period. ELONGATION Permanent elastic extension which metal undergoes during tensile testing. DUTY CYCLE Arc/time factor – the relationship between the time the arc is in operation and the total working time measured over a period of 10 minutes.

00 546 . min. – «l/min. The gas may be of inert type or Carbon Dioxide or a mixture of these gases together with Hydrogen or Oxygen. depending on welding position and metal thickness. GAS SHIELDED Welding processes where the arc and molten pool are ARC WELDING surrounded by a protective – shielding – gas. 6. GREY CAST IRON Cast iron in which most of the carbon is in the form of graphite flakes. The shielding gas will here always be of INERT type. See Capillary brazing. FILLET WELD Weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles and a lap joint. (Not chemically fused with the iron). Normal groove angle for electric arc welding is 50–60°. FLOW METER Mechanical device used for measuring shielding gas rate of flow. HARD BRAZING A common name of brazing methods where capillary forces are used.» or in cubic feet per hour – «CFH». FLUX Material in the form of powder or paste. GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Steel containing more than 5% of one or more alloy elements. FERRUM Latin name for chemically pure iron (Fe). GROOVE ANGLE The angle of a V-groove expressed in degrees. Same welding method as TIG welding. Usually measurements are liter per. IMPACT RESISTANCE The energy. GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding.miscellaneous information FCAW Flux Cored Arc Welding FERROUS METALS Group of metals containing substantial amounts of iron. Fluxes may be corrosive. expressed in kp. HARD SURFACING HIGH ALLOY STEEL Hard material applied to surface of softer material for protection from abrasion and wear. GRAPHITE Carbon flakes in cast iron. «T» joint or corner joint.m or Joule. FILLET WELD LEG Leg Iength of largest isosceles right triangle which can be inscribed within fillet weld cross section. used in gas welding and brazing to prevent or facilitate removal of oxide and other contaminating substances from the surface of the base material. absorbed by a test rod of predetermined shape at a certain temperature.

MAGNETIC ARC BLOW See Arc Blow. KILLED STEEL Steel which contains fairly large quantities of ferrosilicium or aluminium. NON-RETURN VALVE An appliance fitted on the outlet of the regulator of a gas cylinder which prevent any flame from a backfire in the welding torch from returning to the gas cylinder. LOW ALLOY STEEL Steel containing 1–5% alloy elements. LR Lloyds Register of Shipping (British classification institute). Also referred to as nobel gas. MANGANESE An important alloy in steel. (see also GMAW). See also Gas Shielded Arc Welding and GMAW.25%. 6. This type of steel is suitable for welded connections. ISO Abbreviation for International Standardization Organisation. supersonic testing. INTERPASS In multiple pass weld. INVERTER Welding power source were the normal frequency is set to a very high value thereby reducing the need for a heavy iron core in order to reduce the voltage. testing and investigation materials or components without destroying these. Involves use of radiography. melting point 1245 °C.miscellaneous information INERT GAS Gas that does not normally combine chemically with the base metal or filler material. i. Chemical symbol Mn. MAG-WELDING Metal Active Gas-welding. MIG-WELDING Metal Inert Gas-welding. magnetic powder. MILD STEEL Unalloyed steel. MARTENSITE Structure obtained when steel is heated and cooled to achieve its maximum hardness. maximum carbon content 0. minimum and maximum TEMPERATURE temperature specified for the deposited metal before next weld pass is started.e. penetrating fluids etc.00 547 . MPa Mega Pascal NDT-TESTS Abbreviation for Non-Destructive Testing. INTERMITTANCE See duty cycle.

PRIMARY CABLE The cable which carries current from the mains supply to the primary side of a welding machine. NSFI Abbreviation for the Norwegian Research Institute for Ships. OUT-OF POSITION Welding that is performed in a non-standard way such WELDING as vertical or overhead.miscellaneous information NS Abbreviation for the Norwegian Standards Association. 6. OXIDE FILM Film formed on base material as a result of exposure to oxidizing agents.00 548 . cellulose. chemicals or heat.e. atmosphere. chemical formula 3 RECTIFIER A welding power-source which gives DC welding current. heavier than air. Current moving from the electrode to the workpiece is DCEN or DCSP. OXYGEN Colourless gas without odour or taste. POLYMER Chemical reaction between resin (Base) and a hardener (Activator) producing an extensive interlocking polymer network. PROPANE Colourless. POSTHEAT Heat which is applied at the end of the weld cycle to slow down cooling rate to prevent cracking and to relieve stress. Adjustment is by means of additional cable or through the welding cable. Current flow from the workpiece to the electrode is DCEP or DCRP. REMOTE CONTROL Control of welding current from the welding area. POLARITY Direction of current. Equipped with pressure gauges indicating cylinder pressure and working pressure. Oxygen is not flammable itself. Chemical symbol 02. but feeds flames and is used together with Acetylene for welding and cutting. REGULATOR An appliance for the reduction of gas pressure from a gas cylinder to a suitable pressure for welding or cutting. ORGANIC Electrodes having consumable organic components in ELECTRODES the coating i. PPM-VALUE Parts per million. Small slag deposits. Part of a power-source which converts AC to DC. POROSITY Pores within a weld caused by gas entrapment during solidification of weld metal. flammable gas.

THERMOCROME Temperature indicating crayons.g. torium or zirconium. TUNGSTEN An electrode of pure tungsten or tungsten alloyed with ELECTRODE rare earths. THERMIC SPRAYING A method of bulling up a workpiece by spraying on finely powdered metal alloys.00 549 . Belongs to the group «Resistance Welding». side-to-side motion. This test determines how much tension a weld can withstand before the weld gives. boilers) must be identified by the «S» (for «Safety») mark. Tungsten is also known as Wolfram. TIG WELDING Tungsten inert gas welding. SPATTER Small pieces of metal which have been ejected from molten pool and attached to base material outside the weld. STRINGER BEAD SURFACING Applying material to the surface of another material for protection from chemipals. wear. Used to control CRAYONS temperature levels. Weld bead made without oscillation. cerium. SECONDARY CABLE The cable which carries current from the secondary side of a welding machine to the workpiece and electrode holder. TACK WELD Weld made to hold parts of weldment in alignment until final weld is made. lanthanum. Can also be used for spraying zinc and plastic powders for surface protection. rust etc. 6. TiO2. heat. TENSILE STRENGTH Indicates the breaking strength of a material. in the coating. S Power source for use in spaces with increased electrical danger (e. High melting point – 3410 °C. TENSILE TEST A destructive test where a weld is pulled apart. STAINLESS STEEL Common term for two main groups: chrome alloy (ferritic) and chrome-nickel alloy (austenitic) steel. Used for TIG welding. RUTILE ELECTRODES Coated electrodes containing ilmenite. SPOT WELD Controlled weld cycle to procedure sheet metal weld with spesific characteristics. Austenitic steel is non-magnetic. expressed in N/mm2.miscellaneous information ROOT PASS The first welding pass in a groove.

6. YORCALBRO Seawater resistant alloy of aluminium and brass. YIELD POINT The stress level at which a steel material starts to become plastic and shows signs of cross-contraction and permanent deformity.00 550 . WHISKERS Pieces of weld wire which have penetrated through the weld joint and melted. WIG Wolfram Inert Gas. WELDING TRANSFORMER Welding power-source giving AC welding current.miscellaneous information UNALLOYED STEEL Steel containing up to 1 % alloy elements. WROUGHT MATERIAL Material made by processes other than casting. WASH BEAD Weld beads made with an oscillation – side-to-side technique to widen the weld bead. Expressed in N/mm2. WELDING DIRECTION An expression used in welding and brazing indicating the direction of the welding process in relation to the welder. The wire extends beyond the penetration on the root side of the weld. Same welding method as TIG welding.

marine products Marine Chemicals safety maritime logistics ships agency The Welding Handbook Welding done better Id no. This book and any advice is provided by Wilhelmsen Ships Service accordingly on terms that no liability (including liability for negligence) will attach to the Company or its servants or agents arising out of or in connection with or in relation to this brochure or any such advice. The Company’s policy of continuous product development renders specifications liable to modification.info@wilhelmsen. All recommendations and suggestions on the use of Unitor products are made without guarantee since the conditions of use are beyond the control of the Company. Information provided in this book is therefore subject to change without prior notification.com/shipsservice Part of Wilhelmsen Maritime Services. copies of which are available on request. Fossum. 03.wilhelmsen.13. 804012. Country of origin NO.com www. It is the customer’s responsibility to ensure that each product is fit for its intended purpose and that the actual conditions of use are suitable. Printer: Brdr. 8K. Price: USD 35. All reasonable care has been taken in compiling the information in this document.00 Wilhelmsen Ships Service Postal address PO Box 33 N-1324 Lysaker Norway T (+47) 67584550 F (+47) 67584570 E wss. a Wilh. Wilhelmsen group company OPTIMISING PERFORMANCE . Any goods supplied by the Company will be supplied solely upon its standard conditions of sale.