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OPTIMISING PERFORMANCE

The Welding Handbook
Welding done better

Maritime Welding Handbook
Welding and Related Processes for Repair and Maintenance Onboard 12th edition Revision 0

Notice: All welding is carried out on the welder’s own risk and account. Welding should be executed by a qualified and experienced welder and adequate safety measures should always be adhered to. The information and guidelines in this Welding Handbook are based on general information and knowledge at hand and are believed to be accurate and reliable, but the information and guidelines are not to be taken as a guarantee or warranty for a special purpose. The information and guidelines are provided to the welder solely for his own consideration, and Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS assumes no legal responsibility or liability for eventual damages and/or losses should the information and/or guidelines turn out to be incorrect or un-suitable. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS is not liable for any loss or damages whatsoever and howsoever arising which is due to force majeure, other events beyond the reasonable control of Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS or events that could not reasonably be foreseen by Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS when this Welding Handbook was made. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS is in no event liable for indirect, incidental or consequential damages or losses, including damages for loss of profits, resulting from lack of conformity, including but not limited to loss resulting from goods or software not working when connected to other goods/software or for any related cause thereto. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS’s liability shall in any event not exceed the total purchase price of theWilhelmsen Ships Service AS goods used during the welding operations. These conditions are automatically accepted by anybody using the information and guidelines in this Welding Handbook.

INTRODUCTION
A ship at sea depends upon the knowledge, skills and self-reliance of the crew to carry out necessary maintenance and repair work. One of the important skills required is a good command of modern welding techniques. The purpose of the Welding Handbook for maritime welders is to provide guidance in modern welding and related processes and to provide the welder with a source of practical information on the right solution to specific onboard welding problems. Experience gained from user contact and welding training of crewmembers showed that documentation aimed specifically at on board welding solutions was needed. This led to the development of the first welding handbook for on-board repair and maintenance welding already the 1950es. This edition of the UNITOR Welding Handbook builds upon all the earlier editions and on Wilhelmsen Ships Service’s business activity. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS enjoys close co-operation with its customers and would like to thank the many who have taken the effort to contribute with examples of successful solutions to real life maintenance situations.

Unitor’s business activity traces back to 1905 and the company NAG with Acetylene production as a basic activity. The first maritime deliveries from this period were supply of Acetylene as fuel gas for the guiding light beams from numerous lighthouses along the long and weatherbeaten coast of Norway. The focus changed towards gas and arc welding techniques when these were developed to useful production and repair methods through the 1930es. A main objective became to develop and maintain a range of welding equipment that is suitable for onboard welding, backed by a worldwide service network, training and documentation. In 1943 the company name was changed to UNITOR. Mergers and increasing activity in the department for sales to ships led to the establishment of this department as a separate company; Unitor Ships Service AS in 1968. In 2005 the company was bought by Wilh.Wilhelmsen ASA and the brand Unitor is now incorporated in Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS, a part of Wilhelmsen Maritime Services AS, a company in the Wilh. Wilhelmsen Group 

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
1 Safety in Welding 2 Solutions
9

1.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 5.01 5.02 6.00 

2.01 Introduction & quick guides to processes 35
2.02 Filler material consumption 47 2.03 Metal identification 50 2.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel 55 2.05 Problem steels 62 2.06 Stainless steels 65 2.07 Cast iron 78 2.08 Copper and copper alloys 104 2.09 Aluminium 112 2.10 Evaluation of welds 114

3 consumables

3.01 Coated Electrodes 125 3.02 TIG Welding Rods & Fluxes 199 3.03 Wires for Wire Welding 217 3.04 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes 241 3.05 Brazing Rods & Fluces 251 3.06 Cold Repair Compounds 277

4 arc welding and cutting Process & equipment

4.01 Electrode welding & gouging 333 4.02 TIG Welding 381 4.03 Wire Welding 403 4.04 Plasma Cutting 441

5 gas welding and cutting process & equipment

4.05 Current Distribution System 455 5.01 Ac/ox cutting, welding, brazing 459 5.02 Gas Supplies and gas distribution system 511

529 6 miscellaneous information

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
1 SAFETY IN WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to use the handbook . . . . . . . . . . . Welding instructions and training . . . . Personal protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.04.01 Arc welding face shields . . . . . 1.04.02 Protective goggles . . . . . . . . . . 1.04.03 Welder's protective clothing . . Work site protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05.01 Welding curtain . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05.02 Welding blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.05.03 Fire extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . . Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.06.01 Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.06.02 Fume extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety check list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07.01 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07.02 Work place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.07.03 Hot work procedure . . . . . . . . . 1.07.04 Operator protection . . . . . . . . . . 9 10 11 12 13 14 18 20 22 22 22 23 24 26 28 30 30 31 32 32 2.06.02 Austenitic Stainless Steel . . . . 2.06.03 Ferritic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . 2.06.04 Martensitic Stainless Steel . . . 2.06.05 Duplex Stainless Steel . . . . . . . 2.06.06 Clad Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06.07 Stainless Steel corrosion types 2.06.08 Storing and handling of Stainless Steel onboard . . . . . . 2.06.09 Grinding/cutting consumables  for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07 Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.02 Grey cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.03 White cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.04 Malleable cast iron . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.05 Ductile cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.06 High alloy cast iron . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.07 Identification of cast iron . . . . . 2.07.08 Preparation of the work piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.07.09 Arc welding of cast iron . . . . . . 2.07.10 Braze welding of cast iron . . . . 2.07.11 Cold repair on cast iron . . . . . . 2.08 Copper and copper alloys . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.02 Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.03 Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro) . . 2.08.04 Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.08.05 Nickel bronses (Cunifer) . . . . . . 2.09 Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 Evaluation of welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10.01 Typical welding faults . . . . . . . . 2.10.02 Inspection of welded joints . . . 2.10.03 Crack detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 68 69 70 71 72 74 75 78 78 79 80 80 81 82 83 84 87 95 97 104 104 104 105 106 107 112 114 114 118 123

2 SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.01.01 Quick reference for cutting . . . 2.01.02 Quick reference for joining . . . 2.01.03 Quick reference for rebuilding, hardfacing and coating . . . . . . 2.01.04 Quick reference to cold repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.02 Filler material consumption . . . . . . . . . 2.03 Metal identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . 2.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.02 Unalloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.03 Low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.04 Heat resistant steel . . . . . . . . . . 2.04.05 Low temperature steel . . . . . . . 2.04.06 Weathering steel . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.05 Problem steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06 Stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.06.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 39 40 43 45 47 50 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 62 65 65

3 CONSUMABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 3.01 Coated Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.02 Types of electrodes . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.03 Storing and re-drying . . . . . . . . 3.01.04 Classification and approvals . . 3.01.05 Welding positions . . . . . . . . . . . 126 127 128 134 140 148 

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
3.01.06 GPO-302 N General Purpose Electrode For Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.07 GPR-300H High Recovery Electrode for Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.08 SPECIAL-303 N Double Coated Electrode for Mild and Ship Quality Steel . . . 3.01.09 LH-314 N Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.10 LHH-314 H High Recovery Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel 3.01.11 LHV-316 N Vertical Down Welding Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.12 LHT-318 N Electrode for High Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.13 LHL-319 N Electrode for Low Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.14 LHR-320 N Electrode for Weathering Steel 3.01.15 TENSILE-328 N Electrode for Difficult-toWeld Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.16 IMPACT-329 S Electrode for Heat Resistant Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.17 WEARMAX-327 Electrode for Joining & Wear Resistant Overlays . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.18 ABRATECH-330 Electrode for abrasive wear . . 3.01.19 18/8-321 N Electrode for Stainless Steel . . 3.01.20 23/14-322 N Electrode for Stainless Steel . . 3.01.21 DUPLEX-325 N Electrode for Duplex Steel . . . . 3.01.22 PICKLING GEL Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel 3.01.23 NIFE-334 N Nickel Iron Electrode for Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.01.24 NICKEL-333 N Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron 3.01.25 TINBRO-341 Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . 3.01.26 ALBRONZE-344 Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . 3.01.27 ALUMIN-351 N Electrode for Aluminum . . . . . . 3.01.28 CH-2-382 Electrode for Chamfering . . . . . 3.01.29 ACA-384 Electrode for Air Carbon Arc Gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02 TIG welding rods and fluxes . . . . . . . . . 3.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.02 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.03 IMS-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.04 ICROMO-216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.05 18/8 Mo-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.06 IDUPLEX-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.07 ICUNI-30-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.08 IALBRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.02.09 I-FLUX-238 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

150

184 186 188 190 192 194 196 199 200 201 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 217 218 219 221 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238

152

154

156

158

160

162

164 166

168

170

172 174 176 178 180 182

3.03 Wires for Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.02 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.03 Storage and handling for Flux Cored wires . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.04 GPS-W-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.05 HST-SF-203 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.06 HST-SF-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.07 S 316 M-GF-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.08 S 309 M-GF-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.09 Icuni-W-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.10 Ialbro-W-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.11 Alumag-W-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.03.12 Abratech-W-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.04 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . 241 3.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
3.05 3.06 3.04.02 MS-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 3.04.03 Alumag-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 3.04.04 Aluflux-234 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Brazing Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.02 Bronze-264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.03 FC-Bronze-261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.04 FC-Wearbro-262 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.05 FC-Cast Iron-268 S . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.06 AG-45-253 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.07 AG-60-252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.08 Tin-241 AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.09 Fluxes for Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.10 Bronze Flux-261 PF . . . . . . . . . . 3.05.11 Wearbro Flux-262 PF . . . . . . . . . 3.05.12 AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF . . . . . . . . . 3.05.13 Albro Flux-263 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . Cold Repair Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.02 Typical application areas . . . . . 3.06.03 How do Polymers work? . . . . . 3.06.04 How to prepare the surface . . 3.06.05 How to apply the product . . . . . 3.06.06 Polymer Kit-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.07 Product overview . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.08 Leak Stop - Pipe repair . . . . . . 3.06.09 Metalgrade Ready-Stick . . . . . 3.06.10 Metalgrade Express . . . . . . . . . 3.06.11 Metalgrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.12 Metalgrade Hi-Temp . . . . . . . . . 3.06.13 Aquagrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.14 Ceramigrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . 3.06.15 Ceramigrade Liner . . . . . . . . . . . 3.06.16 Ceramigrade Abrashield . . . . . 3.06.17 Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild . . . . . . . 3.06.18 Rubbergrade 6 Remould . . . . . . 251 252 256 258 260 262 264 266 268 270 271 272 273 274 277 278 278 280 281 282 284 286 288 292 296 298 304 308 312 316 320 324 328 4.01.03 Power source characteristics . 4.01.04 Selecting power source . . . . . . 4.01.05 UWI-150 Autoline . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.06 UWI-203 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.07 UWR-320 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.08 UWI-400 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.09 UWR-852 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.10 Primary extension cables . . . . . 4.01.11 Secondary cables . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.12 Electrode holders, cable connectors & return clamp assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.13 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.14 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . 4.01.15 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.16 Electrodes for electrode welding & gouging . . . . . . . . . . 4.01.17 Air Carbon arc gouging . . . . . . 4.02 TIG Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.03 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.04 Tungsten electrodes . . . . . . . . . 4.02.05 TIG torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.06 Regulator & accessories . . . . . 4.02.07 Preparing the torch . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.08 Welding parameters . . . . . . . . . 4.02.09 Welding technique . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.10 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.02.11 Rods and Flux for TIG welding 4.03 Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.03 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.04 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.05 UWW-161 TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.06 SC 12 RC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.07 Regulator & accessories . . . . . 4.03.08 Application areas . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.09 Preparation for welding . . . . . . 4.03.10 Welding technique . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.11 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.03.12 Wires for wire welding . . . . . . . 340 342 344 348 350 352 358 359 360 363 370 371 373 374 377 381 382 383 384 386 388 391 393 394 395 396 400 403 404 405 411 412 414 420 426 428 429 431 434 438

4 ARC WELDING AND CUTTNG PROCESS & EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 4.01 Electrode welding & gouging . . . . . . . . 335 4.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 4.01.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
4.04 Plasma Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.02 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.03 Plasma cutting equipment . . . . 4.04.04 UPC-1041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.05 Cutting technique . . . . . . . . . . . 4.04.06 Maintenance and trouble shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.05 Current Distribution System . . . . . . . . . 441 443 445 446 447 450 452 455 5.01.24 Soldering and brazing techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 5.01.25 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 5.01.26 Consumables and parameters for brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 5.02 Gas supplies and gas distribution system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.02 Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.03 Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture 5.02.04 Carbon-Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.05 Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.06 Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.07 Rules & Safety precautions for handling and use of Gas cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.02.08 Gas Distribution System for Acetylene and Oxygen . . . . . . . 511 512 513 514 515 516 518 522 524

5 GAS WELDING AND CUTTING PROCESS & EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 5.01 Ac/Ox cutting, welding, brazing . . . . . 461 5.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 5.01.02 The Combination Torch UCT-500 464 5.01.03 UCT-500 Components and spares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 5.01.04 The Unitor Workshop Cabinet . 468 5.01.05 Welding and grinding goggles 470 5.01.06 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 5.01.07 Portable gas equipment . . . . . . 472 5.01.08 Gas hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 5.01.09 Hose connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 5.01.10 Gas regulators for cylinders . . 480 5.01.11 Flashback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 5.01.12 Flashback arrestors . . . . . . . . . 483 5.01.13 The acetylene/oxygen flame . . 484 5.01.14 Operating instructions for UCT-500 cutting torch . . . . . . . . 486 5.01.15 Cutting procedure . . . . . . . . . . . 488 5.01.16 Common cutting faults . . . . . . . 490 5.01.17 Operating instructions for UCT-500 brazing, welding & heating torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 5.01.18 Maintenance of blowpipes . . . 494 5.01.19 Heating techniques . . . . . . . . . . 496 5.01.20 Flame straightening techniques 497 5.01.21 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . 499 5.01.22 Butt joints for gas welding of steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 5.01.23 Consumables and parameters for gas welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

6 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . 529 5.04 International system of units . . . . . . . . . 5.05 The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.06 General conversion factors . . . . . . . . . . 5.07 Roman numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.08 Metric and decimal equivalents of fractions of an inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.09 Wire cross section AWG/mm2 . . . . . . . 5.10 Common gauge series for sheet thickness and wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11 Physical properties of some elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.12 Hardness comparison table . . . . . . . . . 5.13 Corrosion of galvanic couples in sea water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.14 Temperature scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15 Pressure variations related to temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.16 Abbreviations and welding terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 531 532 533 534 534 535 536 537 538 540 541 542 

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES
1.00 

SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    10 How to use the handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    11 Welding instructions and training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    12 Personal protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    13 Work site protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22 Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   24 Safety check list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   30 

SAFETY IN WELDING
1.00

Introduction
Welding and related thermal processes utilize compressed gas and/or electric current to provide a concentrated heat source which melts or burns away steel and other metals. Proper safety precautions are required to avoid accidents related to the gas and power supplies, to the sparks, heat, fumes, and visible and invisible rays from the heat source. Authorities in most countries have laid down regulations and guidelines related to welding and other hot work processes, their application onboard ships, the equipment to be used and the protection of the operator. These regulations must be available onboard, and be known and adhered to when hot work is to be done. A welded component that fails may represent a safety hazard to crew, ship and cargo. Classification societies and other authorities have consequently issued regulations and welding procedures for a number of applications onboard. These should be known and followed wherever applicable, and welding should be performed by qualified personnel under proper supervision. In this chapter as well as in other parts of the handbook, you will find guidelines on safe handling of equipment, how to protect yourself, and safety precautions that should be observed when welding and related thermal processes are used on board a ship. You will also find extensive information on how and where to use filler materials, and some guidelines as to identifying metals. This handbook, however, cannot be considered to be a complete manual for each of these areas, dealing in detail with all the aspects of the various items. Additional information should be sought in other publications from Wilhelmsen Ships Service, from authorities and others and by attending training courses. Approved Unitor welding courses will deal in detail not only with the technique required for a successful weld, but also with the safety aspects around welding onboard.

SAFETY DEPENDS ON YOU Do not install, operate or repair equipment for welding or related thermal processes unless you are thoroughly ­familiar with: – The Instruction Manual for the equipment to be used. – Rules and regulations relating to the handling and installation of the equipment. – Rules and regulations relating to hot work onboard. – Proper use of protective equipment and accessories related to the hot work, like fire extinguishers, fume extraction equipment, etc. – Proper use of the filler material and fluxes for the job.

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start with the chapters at the back of the book and follow the processes from gas to flame. and a number of examples on welding applications. from primary power to arc and then through consumables to solutions. Use the consumables correctly When a solution is found you should check the specifics of the consumables you are going to use. and follow the advice given here whenever you weld.00 11 . starting with the chapter on solutions. and that the cables are of correct size.SAFETY IN WELDING How to use the Handbook Read this first Familiarize yourself with the chapter you are now reading. Power and gas supply Safe operation and successful results depend on you being familiar with these chapters. The process Before commencing work. Cold repair components require no outside energy. You should also read through the special instruction manuals for the process and equipment you are going to use. but also advise if special procedures should be followed for the particular product at hand. If. The remaining questions Reading through the handbook you will come across terminology and abbreviations you may not be familiar with. you have a basic understanding of welding. The energy is built into the products and is released when the base and activator is mixed together. as well as information on how to identify metals. joining. the temperature must be above +5°C. on the other hand. rebuilding and coating. Here you will find quick guides to cutting. The descriptions given in the chapter on consumables will not only give you technical information on the consumables. If you know little about welding and your objective is to become familiar with the welding processes on a self-study basis. Ensure that the gas supply is in proper order and correctly maintained. You will also find tables for calculating filler material consumption. In order for the chemical reaction to take place. When facing a problem Consult the solutions chapter. that the welding machine is suited for the process at hand. take the time to check the details of the equipment and the technique you should use from the section on processes. read the book from the beginning. In this chapter you will also find a number of useful tables and comparisons. 1. and also the instruction manual on the specific power source you have onboard. des­c­rip­tions of the most common metals. These are explained in an extensive “Abbreviations and welding terminology” section in the “Miscellaneous Information” chapter.

The Wilhelmsen Ships Service approved academies offer both practical and theoretical training as to how to select the correct welding methods and filler materials.wilhelmsen.ph Consolidated Training Systems Inc – Manila.com.ph Phone: +632 8120 742 Internet site: www.org Norwegian Training Centre – Manila. India Contact: imtc. and safety related issues are always a top priority for running the vessel. and can therefore arrange courses throughout the year.ph Phone: + 632 5240 572 Internet site: www. which teaches skills that are otherwise difficult to obtain. The courses offer training in the following processes: • Stick electrode welding • TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding • MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding • MAG (Metal Active Gas) welding • Plasma cutting • Gas welding.wilhelmsen.norway@wilhelmsen.cs@wilhelmsen. Wilhelmsen Ships Service has designed and certified a number of well recognised welding academies around the world. in awkward positions. and with the numerous kinds of metals onboard. Norway Contact: weldingschool. Therefore.com Phone: + 30 210 4239 100 Internet site: www. These are all elements the crew must take into consideration in order to work effectively.imtcmumbai. the vessel’s crew will be certified and trained to perform quality welding repairs onboard.com.mumbai@wilhelmsen. In order to meet world fleets logistical time challenges and requirements.com Phone: +91 22 2570 5570 Internet site: www. Working in the ship’s operating environment. By attending the our approved training academies. The pupils can be enrolled and trained at short notice. soldering and cutting • Cold repairs using cold repair components Materials: • Steel • Stainless Steel • Copper and copper alloys • Cast iron • Cast steel • Aluminium Throughout the years thousands of seafarers have completed our courses. Greece Contact: wss. To sign up or to obtain more information please contact your local Wilhelmsen Ships service office or the below academies. Welding and related processes are complex and require hands-on training.ph People Soft Inc. – Antipolo. ensuring that good quality workmanships is carried out onboard the world’s fleet. These courses aim to help shipboard welders overcome the daily maintenance challenges onboard.com. health and safety issues are an essential and an important part of the welding training offered. It is crucial that pressurised gases and arc welding equipment are handled in a safe and secure way. we endeavour to offer flexible solutions. Over the years.greece. ensuring that high quality workmanship is carried out onboard the world’s fleets.SAFETY IN WELDING 1.00 Welding instruction and training As the world’s leading welding supplier to the marine industry.ntcm. Unitor Welding Centre – Oslo. the Phillippines Contact: dbjaurigue@sourceasia.com Phone: + 47 67 58 45 50 Internet site: www. These ­academies offer tailor made solutions for maintenance and repair welding onboard vessels. can be very challenging.com/shipsservice Unitor Welding Centre – Piraeus.com/shipsservice International Maritime Training Centre – Mumbai. The Philippines Contact: marketing@ctsi.com. thousands of seafarers have completed our courses. the Philippines Contact: training.biz Phone: + 632 4210994 & 421-0998 12 . and courses may be tailor-made to fit the pupil’s individual needs.manager@ntcm. The consequences of not adhering to correct safety procedures can be both hazardous for the crew and damaging to the vessel. brazing.compass.

A welder must always use complete personal protection equipment – but it is also important that he uses the correct type of equipment for the job. when handling polymer products. – Indirect accidents caused by falls from scaffolding and platforms. Nevertheless we always recommend that one does the mixing and application in a ventilated area and always wear the gloves supplied with the set. which will offer him protection against accidents beyond his control. welding curtains and/or blankets should be used. Protection against flying chips When using a chipping hammer to remove slag from the weld. He must therefore always wear a safety helmet. 13 . Work site protection In order to protect the surrunding area from sparks and spatter. who supply a full range of welding equipment all over the world. Protection against chemicals Most of the products in the Unitor Cold Repair Component range are to be considered harmless. safety shoes etc. molten metal.00 Protection against burns Burns may be caused by hot work pieces. can offer correct and complete protection equipment which will provide maximum safety for the welder in all situations. General body protection A welder at work is isolated from his surroundings. Wilhelmsen Ships Service. Protection against ultraviolet and infrared light Many welders have experienced the discomfort of arc-eye or “sunburnt” skin on unprotected parts of the body. usually due to insufficient or incorrect protective equipment.SAFETY IN WELDING Personal protection Why do you need protective equipment? Protection against electric shocks Electric shocks can be the cause of two types of accidents: – Direct accidents caused by the shock itself can be anything from minor burns to heart failure. red-hot electrodes etc. there is always a risk of flying chips which are a potential danger. The chips are sharp and can cause serious damage to the eyes. ultra violet and infrared light. 1. He must concentrate on the welding operation and cannot see what may be happening in the surrounding area. sparks.

The kit is CE approved and conforms to EN 12941-TH2P. Unitor face shields for welding are made from a lightweight. robust plastic material which is unaffected by heat. and prevents inhalation of welding fumes. It gives the user clean. The flip-up front frame is fitted with a filter shade glass with shade selected according to 14 . ultra-violet rays and bits of welding slag in the eye.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. The AutoVision Plus Welding face shield The basis is a lightweight well designed shield which allows good air flow for the welder. The shield is equipped with a light powered quick automatic darkening glass that switches from low shade (4) to selected shade within to selected dark state within 0.0004 sec)The low shade state allows for good vision while chipping slag.00 Arc welding face shields and glasses A welder should bear in mind that proper protection is absolutely necessary to guard himself against the danger of electric shocks. headband and sweatband for the headband is available as spares. grinding and repositioning for next arc striking. burns. Fresh air kit for face shield The fan battery recharges in 2-4 hours and will provide up to 220 liters per minute for at least 8 hours.4 milliseconds (0. from shade 9 to 13 which is from the lowest TIG welding settings (5-10A) to extreme processes at + 400A arc current. The Flip-Vision Welding face shield This is the AutoVision face shield with headband where the AutoVision cassette is replaced with a flip-up front frame. and a head band that allows unique possibilities for adjustment: • Distance to face • Angle in relation to face • Height on head • Head diameter • Stay-up friction The AutoVision Welding face shield Replaceable inside and outside protective lenses. The airflow will keep the user fresh and let him concentrate on the work. filtered air inside the helmet. The Autovision Plus Fresh Air Welding Shield This Shield is the AutoVision Plus with respiratory unit.Dark mode is adjusted with a knob at the side of the shield. cold or moisture. and both glasses and shields conform to relevant EN standards. A clear safety glass is placed in the fixed frame under the flip-up frame protecting the eyes when chipping slag.

It is designed to also protect the hand holding it from radiation. Face Shield with handle The face shield with handle is also supplied with shade 11 dark glass and clear protection glass as standard. The filter shade glass is protected against spatter by a clear protection glass fitted in front of it.00 The Flip-Vision Welding face shield Safety helmet w/face shield Face shield w/handle Face shields Description Autovision Plus FreshAir Weldshield with respiratory unit AutoVision Plus Welding Face Shield with Adjustable Shade 9 To 13 FlipVision shield with flip-up frame. 1. 196 767000 196 767001 196 709485 196 619114 196 619098 196 766997 196 766998 196 766999 196 767002 196 767003 196 709469 196 709477 196 709493 196 709501 15 . The glasses have dimension 60 x 110 mm.SAFETY IN WELDING welding current used. flip-up front frame and shade 11 glass Face shield with handle and filter shade 11 glass Spares for AutoVision Plus Autovision Plus Outside Cover Lens10 pcs and 2 frames Autovision Plus Headband complete with nuts and bolts Autovision Plus FreshAir Headgear without hose and fan Autovision Plus FreshAir Face seal with attachment screws Autovision Plus FreshAir Filter Spares and accessories for Autovision (old model) Autovision Outside Cover Lens 10 pcs 112 X 93mm Autovision Inside Cover Lens 10 pcs 97 X 47mm Headband Complete For Autovision Sweat Band For Autovision Product no. Shade 11 glass is supplied as standard with the shield. head band and shade 11 glass Safety helmet with face shield. Safety helmet with face shield The Flip-Vision face shield is also available with safety helmet instead of headband.

Safety glass (Polycarbonate) The glass should be placed nearest to the eyes to protect against slag or other particles while chipping/grinding. and reduces visible light to a level which is sufficient to see the welding process without straining the welder’s eyes. the safety glass shall be placed in the fixed frame. Items to be mounted into Unitor face shield in the following manner: A B C A. Guide to arc welding glasses Amperage Filter Quantity Shade in Unit < 20 A 8–9 5 sets 20–40 A 9–10 5 sets 40–80 A 10 5 sets 80–175 A 11 5 sets 175–300 A 12 5 sets 300–500 A 13 5 sets Safety Glass 10 pcs Protection Glass 10 pcs Product number unit 196-633230 196-633248 196-633255 196-633263 196-633271 196-633289 196-633222 196-633214 16 . Filter Shade Glass should be selected after consulting the welding process and amperage (see table). Protection glass Is placed in front of the filter shade glass to protect against spatter. The protection glass should be replaced at regular intervals. When using a shield with a flip-up front frame. When ordering face shields. 5 protection glasses and 5 filter shade glasses. B. The filter glasses are supplied in sets consisting of 5 safety glasses. The glasses are marked Protane Shade SO 1 DIN 0196 CE C. filter shade glass of correct shade should be ordered in addition to the filter shade 11 glasses which is included.00 Glasses for Arc Welding The glasses have dimension 60 x 110 mm and are manufactured in accordance with DIN standard and are CE approved.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. Filter shade glass Filters out harmful infra-red and ultra-violet rays from the welding arc.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 1.00 17 .

For use when doing brazing and light duty gas welding and cutting work. Safety grinding goggles Half mask goggle of clear soft synthetic none-mist material. 1 Product no. Not for use when doing arc welding. Fitted with Shade 4 lens. The lens is made of scratch-resistant anti glare material. Welding/Grinding 1 Goggles w/flip-up-frame Product no. The temple arm length and angle is adjustable. One more protection glass must be placed in the fixed frame. Safety spectales Shade 4 for brazing and welding Same modern lightweight design and features as the Clear version. at the same time ensuring sufficient air circulation to prevent dampness and fogging of the glasses. Product Safety Spectacles – Shade 4 Pcs. The ventilation slots are designed to prevent entry of sparks and spatter. 176-653410 18 . 176-175273 Product Safety grinding goggles non mist Pcs. 1 Product no. 176-632943 Welding and grinding goggles Lightweight goggles with soft and comfortable surfaces against the face. A protection glass must be placed in front of the filter shade glass in order to protect against spatter.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. For use during daily maintenance work in workshop and on site for protection against flying objects.00 Safety spectales clear for eye protection Comfortable protective spectacles with integrated side guards. 176-632950 Product Safety Spectacles – Clear Pcs. The filter shade glass are mounted in a flip-up front frame. 1 Product no. Product Pcs. For grinding only.

The protection glass should be replaced at regular intervals. the protection glass should be placed in the fixed frame. Protection glass When using goggles with a flip-up front frame. Filter shade glass In order to filter out the strong glare of the flame.SAFETY IN WELDING Glasses for gas welding and cutting The Unitor gas welding glasses have a diameter of 50 mm and fit the goggles. Protection glass One protection glass must be placed in front of the filter shade glass in the flip-up front frame in order to protect against spatter. A.00 A. They are available in different grades of shade for various types of work. All glasses come in sets of 10 pcs. B. Guide to gas welding glasses Application Filter Pcs/ Shade set Glass Silver 3 10 Brazing Gas Welding 5 10 & Cutting – General 6 10 Gas Welding & Cutting – 7 10 Thick material Protection Glass 10 Product number 176-633305 176-633313 176-633321 176-633354 176-633297 19 . Items to be mounted into Unitor face shield in the following manner: A B A 1.

Product these protective clothes are heat and A Welders gloves for electric arc welding wear resistant. 6 pairs.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. especially when Working gloves the welder has to work close to the C Leather jacket. Large for welding workpiece or where movement is C Leather jacket. They provide protec B TIG and gas welding gloves tion during welding. When dry the leather acts as an electric insulator. the task of the protective leather clothing is also to protect against electric shock. 196-632786 196-632794 196-633057 196-510438 196-510446 196-633016 196-175935 196-184184 196-510420 196-510453 196-633040 176-233148 6 pairs. Extra large for welding restricted. 12 pairs pcs pcs pcs pair pair pcs pair Electrode quiver for max 2 kg electrodes pcs Heat resistant mitten pcs . 20 I Pcs/set Product no. Pos. H Leather spats In addition to protection against sparks and molten metal. Therefore always wear dry protective clothing when doing arc welding. It is specially important D Leather trousers with belt that the welding jacket is worn when E Leather cuffs welding overhead. to protect the body F Arm protector and arms against falling sparks and G Leather apron slag.00 F C E A B I D G H Protective clothing Welder’s protective clothing Made from specially treated leather.

These must be of leather.SAFETY IN WELDING Electric arc welding gloves Gloves must always be worn when arc welding. Gloves for Arc and TIG welding confirm to NEN-EN 12477. and further insulation against heat in the inner layers. It is designed to make it possible to close an acetylene cylinder valve even if the escaping gas is on fire. and should always be kept by acetylene cylinders as a safety precaution. just for handling of equipment and consumables. Working gloves This type of glove is not designed for hot work.00 21 . Special softskin gloves are available for this purpose. but will give less protection than the thicker welding gloves when touching hot metal. Heat resistant mitten This is a special mitten with a heat and fire resistant woven kevlar outer layer. Long lined welding gloves are recommended for welding with coated electrodes. It is also suitable for handling hot work pieces. They will protect fully from sparks and the radiation from an arc. Special welding gloves with long gauntlets are necessary. 1. TIG and Gas welding gloves Thick welding gloves will hamper the control of the torch or rod.

Nom. Size: 2 m high and 1. It is possible to join two or more curtains together by the use of snap on buttons along the side. The curtain with hooks is supplied in a plastic bag. but still enables one to see trough the curtain. Available in a roll 1m x 10m. Product no. Max operating temperature 550 °C.82mm.3 m wide. or hooked up on an existing pipe or wire. Product Pcs. The curtains are in accordance with EN 1598. With the hooks the curtain can be put in a frame.00 Work site protection Welding Curtain The purpose of the Welding Curtain is to avoid other personnel being harmed by the welding work taking place. In order for the curtain to be drawn freely the pipe should be less than 30 mm. The curtain blocks out all hazardous ultraviolet and infrared light from the welding arc.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. 196-646067 Welding spatter blanket 1 22 . Product no. 196-633065 Welding curtain w/ 1 hooks. orange 1. It is made of self-extinguishing material. Maximum pipe diameter the hooks will fit on is 41 mm.4 x 2 m Welding spatter blanket Non-asbestos woven glass fabric with a fire retardent weavelock. for protecting combustible materials and delicate machinery from spatter and spark during welding and cutting. The welding blanket is supplied in a carton box. but is not heat resistant to direct exposure to hot slag/iron spatter from the arc. Product Pcs. The top of the curtain has 7 holes and the curtain comes complete with 7 heavy-duty hooks. Thickness 0.

preventing it from re-igniting. When sprayed. the device is pressurised by pressing on the striking handle. Extinction Mechanism The multi-purpose ABC powder acts: -on the flames. it acts in the same conditions as the BC powder and is ideally suited for Industrial hazards. which coats the fire. Instructions for use Temperature limits: -20 °C to +60 °C Product Pcs. 23 1. and is of the hightest performance in its category. Product no. The flow rate is controlled by the tap on the final control valve. which are sometimes not recommended for use with electrical currents. It complies with European AENOR . by cooling and forming a layer of heat insulating and fireproof “varnish”. For solid material fires (class A). liquefiable solid and gas fires. Easy to use 0peration Once the safety pin has been removed. it replaces the conventional water products. the ABC powder forms an insulating screen. B or C The multi-purpose nature of the ABC powder extinguisher ensures that it is effective against these three types of fire.EN 3 standard. Technical Properties This device was designed using highly reliable materials and the latest corrosion-resisting protection technologies In order to be ideally suited to the requirements of the maritime environment. The fact that it is so simple to use means that risks of incorrect use are greatly reduced. The PP3P is a lightweight ABC dry powder fire extinguisher. 291-667394 PP3P 1 .7 kg. by negative catalysis. For liquid.00 Weight: 4. which protects the user from heat radiation.SAFETY IN WELDING Fire extinguisher Always keep a fire extinguisher ready when welding outside workshop. Efficiency Classes A. -on the embers.

may comprise several different components depending on the type of electrode. 2. The composition of the smoke will therefore vary depending on the type of electrode. When correctly positioned. it is essential 24 . which indicates the degree of smoke pollution. When welding or cutting any type of material that has been plated or surface coated. nickel lead or mercury. When welding or cutting old steel plating. or the use of a face shield with fresh air connection. See the Coated Electrodes section on smoke classes. Risks The fumes given off when welding unalloyed or low-alloyed steel which has not been surface treated. the smoke may contain substances which could constitute a health risk. zinc. gives off fumes which contain zinc oxide.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. Welding temperature tends to vaporise these items. or smoke consists of a mixture of gases and dust particles. Inhalation of these fumes can result in zinc poisoning with very unpleasant effects. lead. Different welding methods and different metals. are not considered to be particularly dangerous as long as inhalation of these fumes is kept at a reasonable level. leaded tin bronze and brass) contains items such as tin. Electrodes are divided into smoke classes 1 to 7. the welder can minimize the risk of fume inhalation by positioning himself so that the smoke rises some distance from his nose and mouth or by using a welding face shield with fresh air supply. Welding or cutting cadmium-plated material can produce fumes which contain cadmium oxide. The composition of the fumes depends on: 1. ­cadmium. If it is not possible to use a smoke extraction unit. means that the fumes given off may contain numerous components which can be dangerous if inhaled. The filler material and method of welding. The best protection is the use of a smoke extraction unit. remember that the surface coating may contain lead or mercury. Welding of stainless or acid-resistant steel produces smoke containing nickel and chrome. precautions must be taken against dangerous fumes before welding commences. It should be avoided by the use of a good extraction unit. Lung damage can result from the inhalation of this substance. Cadmium plating is sometimes used instead of zinc plating. When the base metal has been surface-treated. etc. Inhaling these substances can seriously affect the respiratory system.00 Welding fumes Welding fumes. For on board use a self contained unit with filter is a safe and flexible solution. When weIding these types of steel or materials plated or coated with substances containing chrome. Copper alloys (tin bronze. Welding of galvanized materials or materials surface treated with substances containing zinc. Fumes from these substances can result in serious health damage if inhaled. this unit will protect the welder against fume inhalation and also prevent the smoke spreading in the surrounding area and contaminating the area for others. Electric arc welding with coated electrodes. The base material. leaded gun metal.

tanks. Use fume extraction. can be formed in confined spaces. Proper ventilation must be arranged. painted or oily. Carbon monoxide may be given off due to incomplete combustion of the gases or if the material being welded or cut is plastic surfaced. If this is not possible. High concentrations. the welder must be equipped with. so precautions can be taken to protect against health risks which may. The result of this research work may bring new important factors to light and all those involved in welding should keep themselves informed of the development in this area. Use Fresh Air supply. the welder must not leave the torch alight when he is not actually using it. Of the gases given off. as yet. The use of large size torches in confined spaces can quickly produce dangerous concentrations. 1. There are special books on the subject. and welding smoke is also undergoing continuous research. 25 . be unknown.SAFETY IN WELDING that a smoke extractor unit is used. Inhalation of large quantities of carbon monoxide can lead to suffocation. varnished. nose or throat. and when working in confined spaces.00 Avoid direct inhalation of welding fumes. Welding. No warning is given of the presence of these gases in the form of irritation of the muceous mem­brane in eyes. The amount of nitrous gases in the smoke depends on several conditions. This section points out some of the more usual risks connected with welding smoke. and must use a face shield with fresh air connection. it is primarily the nitrous gases (NO2 + NO) that are a health hazard. cutting and brazing with a gas torch can produce smoke which may contain several toxic substances. which constitute a health risk. pipes etc.

Fume Class 1: Ensure sufficient ventilation when welding in confined spaces. Other protective measures are normally not needed in larger well ventilated spaces. Larger spaces shall be well ventilated. Spot extraction is recommended when welding indoors.00 Welding fumes All Unitor Electrodes are issued a fume Class number according to Danish standard. Fume Class 2: Fume Class 3: Fume Class 4–7: Spot extraction shall be used when welding indoors. Spot extraction is always recommended when welding in confined spaces.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. Special protective measures are normally not needed outdoors if there is enough wind or draught to keep fumes and gases from the welders breathing zone. It is important to understand that NHL* is a theoretical value and should not be used for calculating ventilation capacities: Fresh air needed to dilute the fumes Fume Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NHL* (m3/h) 0 3000 7500 15000 35000 60000 >100000 – – – – – – <3000 < 7500 < 15000 < 35000 < 60000 < 100000 * NHL = Nominelt hygenisk luftbehov i m3/t Nominal hygene air supply in m3/h 26 . For outdoor welding see Fume Class 3. The standards state the connection between Fume Class and NHL* that is a theoretical value to describe the amount of fresh air needed to dilute the fumes to "safe" concentrations. These are the recommended precautions .

It is compact and lightweight and can be used anywhere a welder can work. Four-stage filtration system When the welding fumes enter the unit they first pass a metal pre-separator. The large area of the main filter provides a long life and a constant high efficiency since filter cleaning does not have to take place very frequently. in which situation both motors operate at half speed. 1. The last stage is a High Efficiency Particle Arrestor HEPA 12 which guarantees a filtration efficiency of 99. It is also possible to add hoses on the exhaust side to completely remove the filtered air from the area if required. then the fumes flow through a aluminium pre-filter and into the main filter which has a total area of 12m2.SAFETY IN WELDING FumeClean 230 welding fume extractor With this unit a welder is easily protected against inhaling welding fumes that might have harmful effects. Two powerful motors The two motors guarantee an adequate extraction capacity under all conditions.9% under all circumstances. Active carbon filter If required an optional activated carbon filter can be placed on top of the main filter to remove smell.00 27 . thus providing a lower noise level and reduced maintenance. Automatic start When the welding cable is placed in a slit on top of the unit the automatic start/stop function can be used and the unit will automatically switch on when welding starts and off when welding stops. At low welding fume concentrations. the extraction capacity can be halved.

9% 5°C 40°C 80 % 50 16 kg Dimmensions 196 740399 196 740381 196 740431 196 740415 196 740423 196 740373 196 740449 196 740456 196 740407 .5 M. relative humidity IP class Net weight Ordering information Description Product no. Ø 45 mm Connection Piece For Two Hoses Ø 45 mm Carbon Brushes 2 Sets W. HEPA filter Min.5 m 196 735878 hose and nozzle with magnet foot Optionals Bulkhead Bracket Hose Connection Outlet Side Active Carbon Filter Spare parts Disposable Cartridge Filter High Efficiency Particle Filter H12 Funnel Nozzle With Magnetic Foot Extract/Exhaust Hose 2.00 Technical Data Number of motors Motor power consumption Power supply 1phase Noise level High vacuum suction Extraction volume speed setting ‘low’ Extraction volume speed setting ‘high’ Filter surface main filter Filter surface HEPA filter Filter efficiency incl. Seals 230V 28 2 2x1kW 230V 50/60Hz 70dB 22 000 Pa 140 m3/h 230m3/h 12 m2 0. operating temperature Max.4 m2 99.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. FumeClean 230 complete with 2. operating temperature Max.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 1.00 29 .

✓ Cables shall be of oil resistant type with undamaged insulation and properly mounted cable connectors. ✓ Hoses shall be in good condition. in upright position.00 Safety check list for welding and related processes Preparation for hot-work onboard should include. Acetylene and oxygen regulators shall be fitted with flashback arrestors.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. Protect cylinders against heat and mechanical damage. Use safety cable connectors where both halves are protected to prevent contact with deck when disconnected. black for shielding gases and filt­ ered air). without being limited to the points below: Equipment ✓ Check that the power source functions correctly. and with correct colour coding for the gas. Keep your welding equipment well maintained. and that you are familiar with its operation. and a heat resistant mitten shall be available. Pieces of pipe and twisted wire must never be used. (Red for acetylene. blue for oxygen. without leaks or damage. and fitted with correct and properly functioning regulators for the gas. ✓ The valve opening of the acetylene cylinder shall point away from other compressed gas cylinders. Use correct hose conn­ ectors and hose clamps. is correctly connected to mains. Never use oil or grease in connection with welding gases and never use copper in connection with acetylene. Never use defective welding cables. ­ ✓ Ensure that gas cylinders are properly secured. 30 .

including torch valves. and insulation (TIG. and the return clamp should be fastened with good electrical contact directly on the work piece.g. ✓ Check all gas connectors for leaks. 31 . ✓ Shield the work place to protect others from sparks and radiation from the arc. ✓ Both welding and return clamp cables should be stretched to the work place. GMAW. This is especially important when working on galvanized or coated surfaces which may produce harmful fumes when heated. Flame Spray. Keep cables and hoses clear of passage ways. liquids and gases from workplace and adjacent spaces including spaces above/below decks. Cover any openings through which sparks may be led to other areas onboard which have not been prepared for hot work. know where the return current goes. TIG. Even Argon may be a safety risk if it replaces air in a confined area due to excessive leaks. electrodes (TIG. Replace defective gaskets with original gaskets only. and that personnel familiar with its use is present. Plasma. ✓ Ensure that sufficient and correct fire fighting equipment is available at the workplace. if necessary with special fume extraction equipment. hot metal and mechnical damage e. in doorways. Plasma). Work place Tidy up the work place and remove any flammable materials. 1. and post a warning sign that welding is in progress. Ensure that the work place is properly ventilated. nozzles (AC/OX. hatches. MMAW). Place return clamp (return clamp) directly on the work piece. Plasma).00 ✓ Keep hoses and cables clear of passage ways and protected from sparks. etc. behind bulkheads and inside pipes or containers.SAFETY IN WELDING ✓ Check that torches and electrode holders are in good working order. including check of blowpipes (AC/ OX).

matches. 32 . certificates and permits for hot work have been issued. Ensure proper ventilation.00 Cover openings! Sparks may travel far! Hot work procedure ✓ Ensure that all relevant check lists. Do not wear clothes of highly combustible materials or wet clothes. (Gas quick couplings and an unlocked safety cable connector may act as emergency cut-offs). within view of the welder and with possibility to cut off gas and power supply. wear safety shoes and a proper boiler suit with long sleeves. ✓ Use head and face protection (helmet. and when necessary also use additional leather clothing for protection against sparks. ✓ If work has been done inside a confined space the assistant should be placed outside. and do not carry combustible material. shield. an assistant protected in the same manner as the welder should accompany him. goggles). oily rags.g.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. e. ✓ Welding gloves should always be used. lighters. Operator / assistant protection ✓ When working. Ensure that filter glasses are unbroken and have the correct shade. ✓ If work is being done outside the ship’s workshop. heat and electric shock.

including nylon. cylinder valve. • Safety boots with steel toes.00 For light duty work (200 Amps or lower) • Working overall w/long sleves (flame retardent material). When hot work is completed the work place shall be inspected at regular interval to ensure that no risk of fire remains. No. ✓ Do not leave the workplace unattended. Available wall chart: ID No. • Face shield w/handle or face shield w/ head band • Welders gloves For work in vertical and overhead position • Working overall • Safety boots with steel toes. especially when arc welding. ✓ Never use acetylene or oxygen to blow away dust from yourself or the workplace. 33 For heavy duty work (above 200 Amps) • Working overall • Safety boots with steel toes • Face shield w/head band • Welders gloves • Leather jacket • Leather trousers . Always keep dry and keep the workplace dry. rayon and polyester. Only when this has been assured should fire fighting equipment be retumed to its normal storing place. When work is paused or completed ✓ Always remove coated electrodes from the electrode holder and switch/close off gas and current at the source (welding machine. For same reason avoid zips. 02 A3 Wall Chart “Safety Checklist for Welding and Related Thermal Processes”. Avoid synthetic materials. 811053 Rev. Preferably without too many pockets that easily catch sparks.SAFETY IN WELDING 1. gas outlet) also during short breaks for meals etc. • Face shield w/head band • Welders gloves • Arm protector • Leather spats ✓ Where necessary use a fresh air unit or breathing apparatus to avoid inhaling fumes and dust from the welding process.

ADDITIONAL WELDING LITERATURE AVAILABLE: 1.wilhelmsen. please refer to our online product catalogue at http:// wssproducts.com 34 . user instructions and further technical details.00 Cylinder safety ID no 811049 Protect your gas cylinders and Safety checklist for welding equipment and related thermal processes ID no 806123 ID no 811053 Welding Consumables Selector ID no 804006 The solutions guide Unitor cold polymer repair ID no 804004 The solutions guide Unitor maintenance and repair welding ID no 804005 For latest product updates. approvals.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hardfacing and coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    74 •  Grinding/cutting consumables for Stainless Steel . . . . .   114 •  Typical welding faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   118 •  Crack detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    65 •  Austenitic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    50 Unalloyed/low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 Filler material consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    70 •  Clad Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   106 •  Nickel bronzes (Cunifer) . . . . . .    55 Problem steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    78 Copper and copper alloys . . . . . . . . . . . .    68 •  Martensitic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    66 •  Ferritic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   112 Evaluation of weelds . . . . .    45 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    75 Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    36 •  Quick reference for cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   123 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    47 Metal identification . . . . . . . . . . . . .    69 •  Duplex Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   105 •  Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    40 •  Quick reference for rebuilding. . . . . . . . . . . .    62 Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    39 •  Quick reference for joining . . .    43 •  Quick reference for cold repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   104 •  Aluminium brass (Yorc albro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   114 •  Inspection of welded joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   107 Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    71 •  Stainless Steel corrosion types . . . . . . . . .    72 •  Storing and handling of Stainless Steel onboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SOLUTIONS Introduction . . .

A successful solution is dependent not only on choosing the right filler material. Capillary Brazing Rods Braze Welding Rods Gas welding Rods TIG Solid Wire Flux Cored Wire Coated Electrodes (Stick Electrodes) Coated Gouging Electrodes Copper Coated Carbon Electrodes Cold Repair Compound Power Supplies Gas Supplies 36 . but also on the electric power and gas supply of correct quality and sufficient quantity but also that the equipment used is the right one for the job. All solutions are linked to one of the symbols below which relates the solution to filler material type.SOLUTIONS Introduction 2. indicating the process and filler material which should be used.01 This chapter is intended to be a quick reference for finding alternative solutions to specific problems. process and gas/power supplies. The overview on power/gas supply. SYMBOL FILLER MATERIAL PROCESS AC/OX Cutting AC/OX Heating AC/OX Brazing AC/OX Brazing AC/OX Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding Flux Cored Arc Welding Manual Metal Arc Welding Manual Metal Arc Gouging Air Carbon Arc Gouging Plasma Cutting Cold Repairs All arc processes All processes except coated electrodes and self-shielding flux cored wire. equipment and processes show these relations.

for DC) = Three phase mains connection = One phase mains connection 16A 230V 50/60Hz = Welding current distribution with outlet point.01 P 0 W E R S U P P L Y E Q U I P M E N T A N D P R O C E S S E S G A S S U P P L Y E Q U I P M E N T A N D P R O C E S S E S 37 .SOLUTIONS UWR UWI UPC UWF UWW = Unitor Welding Rectifiers (DC) = Unitor Welding Inverter (DC. portable) = Unitor Plasma Cutter (portable) = Unitor Wire Feeder (portable. for DC) = Unitor Wire Welder (portable. 2. = Gas distribution with outlet point.

01 38 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

Comments A0: Best solution. Thickness limitation aprox. A2: Good solution. 30mm for portable equipment. and also for large scale groove /crack preparation. 39 . thickness limitation 100 mm or 500 mm with optional nozzles. Thickness limitation aprox. C: Best method for fast. especially in cracks in combination with MMA weldlng. MMA processes. See AC/OX See coated electrodes and process. A1: Best. 30mm for portable equipment. also for thicker materials.01 A A 1 1 B B B B B B C C C C C C A A A A A A 2 2 High alloy/ stainless steels Cast iron Copper with alloys Aluminium with alloys Consumable parts 0 0 0 0 Cutting CH-2 ACA  gouging electrode electrode nozzles. Torch electrode and nozzle. B: Good solution for groove preparation. efficient removal of old welds and weld residues. See Plasma process. most flexible solution.SOLUTIONS Quick reference for cutting PROCESS AC/OX MMA ACA Plasma ALLOY Mild steel Low alloy/ cast steels 2.

  box 5 Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . .01 The table on the next pages will suggest some solutions for joining metals. . . . . . . The possibilities of joining one metal to another are found on the horizontal/vertical line connecting the metal through the diagram. . . . . . .   box 6 Stainless steel .   box 9 Full scale table overleaf Bronze Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Icuni (W) *) Cunifer Nickel Alloys 40 . . . . and under each of the filler materials. . .   box 4 Copper . . . . . . . . . welding Cunifer Nickel Alloys Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) outside corners in sheet metal constructions. . . . . . and further information will be found in this chapter under the metal in question.   box 1 Bronze: . . .   box 3 Brass . . . . . . . .SOLUTIONS Quick reference for joining 2.   box 7 “Problem” steels . Each possibility has its advantages and limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The corner box (box 7 in the example below) will always show the alternatives for joining the metal to itself. . . . How to use the table: The metals are found both in the top horizontal row and in the left vertical column. . . .   box 2 Yorcalbro . . . . . . . . . . . You should also note that with the TIG (GTAW) arc or the gas flame it is fully possible to join metals without additional filler material when the material thickness is small and the joint is suited for it. . . . . . . . . . . . . joining stainless steel to: Cunifer/nickel alloys . . . Unalloyed/ Lowalloyed/ Cast Steels LH (E) LHV (E) LHT (E) LHL (E) *) **) ***) METAL Unalloyed/ Lowalloyed/ Cast Steels “Problem” Steels Bronze Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) AG-60 AG-45 yorcalbro Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) AG-60 AG-45 Brass Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) AG-60 AG-45 Copper Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) AG-60 AG-45 Cast Iron Nife (E) Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Tensile (E) Nickel (E) *) **) Stainless Steels 23/14 (E) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) “Problem” Steels Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) **) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) Stainless Steels Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) 23/14 (E) *) Tensile (E) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) *) 18/8Mo (W) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) Duplex (E) Iduplex (W) *) Cast Iron Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) *) **) *) **) *) **) Icuni (W) *) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) *) **) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Nife (E) Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) ****) Copper Brass Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) Ialbro (W) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) *) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) yorcalbro Example. . . . . . . . . . . . .   box 8 Low alloy steels . . . . . . . . . . .g. . . . . as shown for stainless steel below. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

***) For unalloyed steel MS wire. **) Also brazing with FC-bronze (Bronze) or FC-Wearbro for surfacing. and coated electrodes GPO. GPR. ****) Cast Iron components that may be heated evenly may be braze welded with FC-Cast iron.Quick reference for joining METAL Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) 18/8Mo (W) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) Duplex (E) Iduplex (W) *) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Tensile (E) Nickel (E) *) **) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) Tensile (E) Impact (E) *) Ialbro (W) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) Nife (E) 23/14 (E) Tensile (E) Nickel (E) Tensile (E) Impact (E) Tinbro (E) Impact (E) *) **) Albronze (E) *) *) **) LH (E) LHV (E) LHT (E) LHL (E) *) **) ***) Cunifer “Problem” Unalloyed/ Stainless Nickel Bronze Yorcalbro Brass Copper Cast Iron Low alloyed/ Steels Steels Alloys Cast Steels SOLUTIONS Unalloyed/ Icuni (W) Low alloyed/ Tinbro (E) Cast *) **) Steels Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) “Problem” Icuni (W) Steels Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Stainless Icuni (W) AG-60 AG-60 AG-60 AG-60 Tensile (E) Steels Tinbro (E) AG-45 AG-45 AG-45 AG-45 23/14 (E) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) *) *) Nife (E) Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) ****) Cast Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) Iron Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) *) **) *) **) *) **) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Tinbro (E) *) **) Albronze (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) E = Coated electrode W = Welding wire/rod Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Copper Icuni (W) *) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Brass Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) Tinbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) **) Yorcalbro Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Ialbro (W) Icuni (W) *) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) Bronze Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) *) **) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) *) **) *) Also capillary brazing with AG-60 and AG-45 (AG-60 only for Yorcalbro). SPECIAL and GPR are additional alternatives. Aluminium welding: Coated electrode: Alumin Welding Wire: Alumag 41 Cunifer Icuni (W) Nickel *) Alloys 2.01 .

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.01 42 .

2. and further information will be found under each of the filler materials.SOLUTIONS Quick reference for rebuilding. rope. hardfacing and coating The table shows all the possibilities within the Unitor range of filler materials for the applications listed.01 Examples of applications Wearmax (E) Tensile (E) Wearmax (E) Tensile (E) Abratech-330 (E) Chain. The various filler materials have specific advantages or limitations. wire drum FC-Wearbro (B) Spot welds on ladder steps Tensile (E) Impact (E) Cargo grab teeth Impact (E) Spark proof overlay on tools FC-Wearbro (B) Building up machine parts Tensile (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Rebuilding valve seats on exhaust valves Impact (E) Rebuilding edges on butterfly valve Rebuilding gear teeth Rebuilding valve closing surfaces 43 .

See the process and the description of the powder alloys Hardalloy.01 Property Rebuilding with approx. Unique surface properties against mechanical wear are obtainable. hardfacing and coating 2.SOLUTIONS Quick reference for rebuilding. Universalloy and Bronzalloy for full information. steels Cast iron Nife (E) Nife (E) Nickel (E) Nickel (E) Tinbro (E) FC-Cast iron (B) FC-Wearbro (B)* Stainless 18/8 Mo (W) steels Duplex (E) 23/14 (E) 18/8 (E) Copper Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Brass Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Tensile (E) Impact (E) * Wearmax-327 (E) Icuni (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Icuni (W) FC-Wearbro (B)* Yorcalbro Ialbro (W) Bronze Cunifer Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B) Icuni (W) Ialbro (W) Tinbro (E) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Nickel (E)* Aluminium Alumag (W) Alumin (E) 44 . base Base material material Unalloyed/ low alloyed cast steels “Problem” IMS (W) LHT (E) LHR (E) LHL (E) GPR (E) Tensile (E) Rebuilding with improved wear resistance properties Wearmax (E) Impact (E) Tensile (E) Abratech-330 (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Abratech-330 (E) Wearmax (E) Impact (E FC-Wearbro (B)* Rebuilding with improved corrosion resistance Wearmax (E) Tensile (E) 23/14 (E) Duplex (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Wearmax (E) Impact (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* Nickel (E) Zinc-coat (P) Albronze (E) FC-Wearbro (B)* W = Welding wire/rod E = Coated electrode B = Brazing alloy *) Flame spray powder alloys may be used on any base material except pure copper to rebuild for wear and corrosion resistance.

2. For cold repairs products see. Where specific properties are required. be injected through small diameter holes. 1. Where there is restricted space. Where you need non-metal repairs. a new part can be “casted” with the repair compound. if necessary. Certain casted metal alloys are not weldable due to their chemistry. chapter 3 consumables. 2. 3. Welding causes expansion and contraction. If the base material is so corroded that there is nothing to weld on. Cold repair systems offer solutions for rubber gasket repairs or moulding. Sometimes welding method /equipment / consumable or operator knowledge is not available. Large surfaces that are worn are also much faster overlaid with polymer compounds than with weld bead overlays. consider using polymer. There is no risk of heat ignition or sparks. 7. Polymer products can. Where there is a need for emergency repairs.01 45 . If one or more of the reasons below apply. Cold repair compounds require no rigging-up time. 5. The curing time is down to a few minutes for several of the products.SOLUTIONS Quick reference for Cold repairs When repairing a base material. 6. as well as solutions for repair or joining of plastics and composite materials. Where distortion of base material is unacceptable. leading up to distortion of the work piece. chemical resistance and wear resistant properties are improved. In many cases polymer compounds have better properties than weld overlays. 4. Cold repair systems are cold-curing processes. and no need for energy in the form of oxygen / acetylene or electricity The energy is built into the consumable (product) and is released when mixing base and activator. always start with considering welding or brazing techniques. Where the base material is not weldable. Where hot work like welding is not permitted due to fire / explosion hazard. Specifically.

01 46 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

5   9   81   94 10 100 114 11 121 138 12 144 162 13 169 190 14 196 224 15 225 248 → Deposit volume per m. –  The approximate deposit weight in kg for aluminium is found by multi­ plying the deposit volume by 0.5    8.32 0.33 0. The steel weight of deposit per meter is also given.5   9   40.5   6   36   42   7   49   57   8   64   73.10 0.98 2.5 1 1.13 0. –  For steel welding wires and rods the deposit weight given equals the weight of filler material required.02 Outside Corner   2      2    3.SOLUTIONS Filler material consumption Fillet Weld The tables give approximate weld deposit volume for various joint types.5   8   32   40. –  For coated electrodes the required number of electrodes (for steel) is found by dividing the deposit weight by the value “(number of electrodes per kg.05 0.25 0.03 0.0027.27 1. W kg/m 0. Square Butt Joint t < 4 mm t > 4 mm Plate Root thickness opening t s mm 1   1.18 a a meashure Section size a s mm mm 2 →   2      4    6   2.60 1.11 1.5   3      9   12. W kg/m 0.25 0.08 1. Note that spatter.08 0.45 0. may influence on the total consumption.58 0.05 0.5    7.20 0.02 0.g. welding positions and work routines.49 1. V cm3/m 2 3 4 7 22 25 32 42 Deposit weight per m.5   5   12. W kg/m 0.5   4      8   10.17 0.95 2.02 0. – The approximate deposit weight in kg of copper alloys is found by multi­ plying the deposit volume by 0. e.5   4   16   21   5   25   31.5   3    4.54   51 10   50   64 12   72   93 15 113 141 18 162 204 20 200 252 22 242 204 25 323 405 47 .5 2   3 4 5 6 7 mm 0 0.33 Plate Section thickness size t mm mm 2 Deposit volume per m. weld metal” found in the data table for each electrode in the filler material section.5   16   6   18   22   7   24.5 2 2.50 0.76 1.16 0.5    6.07 0.17 0.06 0.5 3 3 Deposit volume per m. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.73 1.89 1. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.74 0. throwing away long electrode stubbs.39 3.40 0.25 0.009.5   31.03 0.

33 1.5   5    1   16.5   5    1   26   6      1   36   7    1.09 0.26 0.44 0.51 3.5   9    1.5 10    2   104 11    2 124 12    2 145 14    2 193 15    2 219 16    2 247 18    2 308 20    2 376 25    2 577 48 .15 1. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.30 0.86 1.5   6      1   27   7    1.5   45   8    1.69 0.94 80° Vertical Plate Root thickness opening t s mm mm Deposit volume per m.60 1.38 0. W kg/m 0.55 1.5   60.57 0.5   57   9    1.5   6      1   23   7    1. W kg/m 0. W kg/m 0.31 0.34 1.55 0.97 1.17 0.5   49   9    1. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.SOLUTIONS Single V-joint Single V-joint 2.13 0. W kg/m 0.81 2.86 0.5   8    1.5   6      1   31   7    1.60 1.14 0.11 4.63 2.66 0.22 0.30 0.15 0.5   8    1.5   65. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.56 0.38 0.5   51.44 0.02 50° Flat Plate Root thickness opening t s mm mm Deposit volume per m.5   51 10    2   66.10 0.76   4      1   13   5    1   19.46 70° Vertical Plate Root thickness opening t s mm mm Deposit volume per m. V cm 3/m Deposit weight per m.04 1.62 4.5   33.23 1.20 0.94 2.37 0.49 0.23 1.17 2.59 0.02 2.19 0.75 2.5 10    2   77.5   39   8    1.5 11    2   92 12    2   107 14    2 141 15    2 160 16    2 180 18    2 223 20    2 271 25    2 411   4      1   17.47 0.00   4      1   11.02 1.13 0.5   81.5 12    2   91 14    2 120 15    2 135 16    2 151 18    2 189 20    2 227 25    2 341   4      1   15   5    1   22.02 1.5 11    2   78.29 0.65 0.77 1.76 0.89 1.05 1.5   42   9    1.5   70 10    2   90 11    2 107 12    2 125 14    2 165 15    2 188 16    2 211 18    2 263 20    2 320 25    2 488 Single V-joint Single V-joint 60° Flat Plate Root thickness opening t s mm mm Deposit volume per m.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.02 49 .

SOLUTIONS Metal identification 2. Heavy Other tests for identification. silvery crystalline surface. wrought iron. Matt grey if unpolished. smooth velvety surface. rather Dark grey. smooth. Some alloys are unfilable. From bronzered to Not necessary Yellow.03 Test Appearance of Appearance of Appearance of Comparative untreated metal surface after filling fracture surface weight of metal surface and relative toughness Metal Grey cast iron Dark grey or Light grey. Heavy File test. uneven granular Rough granular surface. smooth surface. see following pages for description Chiselling test. Very brittle. rough. Rather brittle. surface. can be smooth or low-alloy steel. White. depending carbon steel on field of application. Smooth surface. Heavy rusty. Magnet test. Chisel test Magnet test Various grades of Shiny coppered red-brown to green surface. White cast iron As above Normally too hard to file. Stainless steel Shiny silver-grey if polished. (verdigris). Not necessary Very heavy None 50 . Very tough to very brittle. Not necessary Heavy None Brass and bronze Various grades of yellow-brown or green-brown. Heavy None Aluminium and Very light grey aluminium alloys Very white and smooth surface. very smooth shiny surface. Shiny white when polished. Unalloyed steel. Shiny silver-grey. From tough to brittle. Very finegrained. Dark grey or rusty. Not necessary Very light Acid test Lead and white metal White to grey. Spark test. Copper Shiny grey. None Medium-grey Heavy colour. very smooth surface. Some are not filable. Fine-grained grey surface. depending on type.

High resistance. with forked ends. The metal does not give off shavings. Unalloyed steel (Cast steel). material chiselled away is in the form of brittle fragments. Cast iron. The metal can be High-carbon steel filed. but with difficulty. Cast iron Weak red sparks. but the pressure has to be increased. colour and length of the sparks. but the metal is almost as hard as the file. the file bites into the metal. Unalloyed and low alloyed steels are difficult to tell apart. Chisel test Unalloyed steel Manganese steel The sparks separate at the end into several small sparks (leaf shaped). with steel pointed ends. but when tested together it is comparatively easy to see the difference. quickly extinguished. Stainless Bright yellow sparks. Monel Weak red sparks. Hold a sample lightly against the grindstone and note the shape. Little resistance. Type of steel Unalloyed and Low alloyed steel Medium-carbon steel Brinell hardness 100 200 2. The sparks split up. The file leaves Tool steel marks. ending in many pronged yellow stars. High resistance.03 300 Medium resistance. 400 500 Spark test This test may be carried out in the ship’s workshop and is very useful for identifying the type of steel and determining its approximate carbon content. and end in stars.SOLUTIONS Filing test Restance to file No resitance. The file does High-alloy steel not bite into the metal and the pressure has to be increased. High speed steel Weak red sparks. Long (continuous) shavings are formed when chiselled. the file bites into the metal. Some sparks are short. 51 .

03 3. Non-magnetic This indicates an Austenitic stainless steel. If all the filings spark in the flame. the metal is magnesium and must not be welded. Wait 5 minutes and wash with clean water. stainless steel: good weldability. Flame test Another simple test to find out whether the component is of alumin­ ium. but remember: no pre-heating. If stainless steel: poor weldability. 52 . magnesium-alloyed aluminium or magnesium is as follows: Place the component on a piece of paper and file some shavings onto the paper. If the filings glow the metal is alumin­ ium. White: Pure aluminium. Drip onto it one or two drops of 20% caustic soda (NaOH) solution. Hold the paper over a flame and let the filings fall into the flame.SOLUTIONS Magnet test Aluminium/magnesium test 1. Magnetic Indicates a Ferritic normal steel. Black: Al + Cu Al + Ni Al + Zn Grey/brown: Al + Si (over 2%). Manganese steel. 2. Clean a small area of the metal. If some of the filings spark in the flame the aluminium is alloyed with magnesium (seawater resistant aluminium). 2. If unalloyed / low-alloyed steel: good weldability. Unchanged: Magnesium (Mg).

Aust. High alloy tool and die steels. Martensitic stainless steel. steel Work hardened Aust. stainless steel Red to yellow Copper Bronze Brass Low alloy high tensile Files soft Malleable & SG irons Grey cast iron Ferritic Stainless Nickel COLOUR CHECK Soft silvery Nickel Bright chrome Stainless (Ferritic) Files hard White cast iron. carb steel High carb.03 . Lead alloys will show boiling lead under oxy flame. High alloy tool & die steels Very easily cut. zinc alloys Aluminium alloys Magnesium & alloys Oxy cuts Won't oxy cut COLOUR SPARK TEST White RELATIVE WEIGHT Heavy Light Aluminium & alloys Magnesium & alloys OxY FLAME Dull grey Magnesium burns brightly Aluminium drosses Grey cast iron Fractured surface marks paper. bright red colour dulls to brown oxide. Chromium steels. will confirm spark test selection Easily separated by colour. stainless or hard ferrite stainless FILE TEST HACKSAW-FILE TEST Cuts easily Monel Very Slightly Magnetic SPARK TEST SOLUTIONS No Spark Sparks Won't oxy cut Cst irons. Ability to harden. Colour variation assists with usage check. bronzes. manganese steel Aust. common usage. Nickel Austenitic Manganese and Stainless Steel OxY CUT TEST Copper. chips smoothly & brittle Malleable or SG iron Chips tough & rough Lead. lead-tin. usage & fracture. chip. common usage. Higher zinc alloys fume. stee. Mang. Usage will assist final checks. Mild steel Med. tin & zinc alloys Lead cuts with penknife. brasses.METAL IDENTIfICATION MAGNETIC TEST Non Magnetic Strongly Magnetic OxY CUT TEST Hard Oxy cuts Low alloy & plain carbon steels OxY CUT TEST Oxy cuts Won't cut Work hardened Aust. 53 2. lead.

03 54 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

deck beams and bulkheads. see the section on identification of metals. mild steel or black steel. silicon (Si). alloyed with a certain percentage of molybdenum (Mo) and sometimes also chromium (Cr). flat iron and rod iron are usually in unalloyed steel. heat resistant steel. Heat resistant steel Heat resistant steel is a low alloy steel. low temperature . LHL. MS. A common composition of this type of steel is (%): C 0. Unalloyed steel Often referred to as carbon steel.02 Si 0.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Introduction Steel can be generally classified as an alloy of Ferrum (Fe). and tool steel. GPR.30 C 0. frames. chrome (Cr).40 S 0. IMS. A common composition of this type of steel is as follows (%): Fe Rest Si 0. – High alloy steel (containing more then 5% alloy elements). They should always be used for welding the following components (including components in unalloyed steel): –Lifting equipment subject to heavy loads. This type of steel is also termed mild steel. better known as iron. To differentiate between cast steel and cast iron. Use: SPECIAL. ship quality steel (sometimes referred to as high tensile steel).). Angle iron. etc. If there is doubt as to whether steel to be welded is unalloyed or low alloy. LH.18 S 0. cranes. TENSILE.03 Mn 0. – Welding cast steel (important). carbon steel and carbon manganese steel. Carbon is not an alloy element. Steel is classified in three grades: – Unalloyed steel (containing up to 1% alloy elements). and carbon (C). etc. Alloy elements are metals such as manganese (Mn). molybdenum (Mo).60 P 0. LHT.18 Al 0.057 Mn 1. GPS. Iron is the main component in most types of steel. – Parts which are subject to heavy vibration (pipes. On board a ship. – Low alloy steel (containing 1–5% alloy elements). ICROMO. deck plates. nickel (Ni).03 2. HSTSF.) – Welding deck equipment in position (winches. On board a ship we find this type of steel in hullplates. engine mountings. LH. LHV. unalloyed steel will usually be found in the superstructure. The addition of these alloying elements imparts heat resistant characteristics and the steel retains its strength at 55 Use the following Unitor filler materials for welding unalloyed steel: GPO. Lifting lugs and other parts subject to sudden loads. SPECIAL Low alloy steel Low alloy steel includes construction steel. LHV.04 Higher strength filler materials must be used for welding low alloy steel. higher strength filler materials should always be used.03 steel. weather steel.30 P 0. LHR.

009 0.05 0.4 0.5 1.35 0.06 0.6 – – – – 0.18 ca. manganese steel and hardwearing steel Steel quality St 37-C St 42-C St 42-D St 52-C St 52-D St 50-1 St 50-2 St 60-2 St 70-2 MN-steel CN 18 SCM 22 SE 3 MS 362–441 216 412–490 235 – – 510–608 314 – – 490–673 274 – – 588–706 333 686–834 363 ca. 2.08 0.18 22 – ca.50 C 0.5 0.009 0. 25 13 18 17 ca.06 0.22 0.05 0.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel high temperatures.3 – 0.3 0.06 0.06 0. Weathering steel Weathering steel can be exposed to the weather without being painted.25 800–950 600 600–750 400 590–740 330 Steel types Construction steel: St 37-42 High strength steel: St 52-70 Mangan steel: Mn-steel 56 Heat treated steel: CN 18.5 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.10 Cr 1. 200 240–290 180–230 350–500 1.05 0.04 For welding of heat resistant steel.2 0.5 0.90 S 0. 400 24 ca.5 0.05 – – – – – 0.2 0. Low temperature steel Low temperature steel containing nickel is today used more and more in processing equipment onboard ships carrying low temperature cargo. LHT and ICROMO are Standard construction steel.03 heat resistant filler materials in the Unitor range.6 – – – – 12.009 0. 140–150 – – – ca. boiler plates and high pressure pipes.18 0. Mo 0.06 – – – – Tensile Yield strength N/mm2 Nmm2 Elong- ation % Hardness HB % C % Si % Mn % P % S % Cr % Cu % N % Ni % Mo % Max.05 0.35 0.05 0.3 0.35 0. We also find this type of steel in Ice – class hull plates.009 0. 700 ca. 130 21 – 20 – 15 10 ca.6 – – 0. Selection of the correct electrode for the job will depend on the percentage of Mo and Cr in the alloy.4 0.04 0.009 0. 120 0.3 – – – – – 0.4 0. 150–160 0.04 0. SCM 22 Hard wearing steel: SE 3 MS .05 0. 180–190 – ca.8 – 0.009 0.05 0. On board you will find this steel in boiler tubes.009 – 0.03 Si 0.75 0.18 0. 0.009 – – – – – 1.00 Mn 0.8 1.2 – 0. filler material with heat resistant deposit only may be used. Use LHR electrode for welding.2 – 0.3 0.05 0.30 P 0.2 – – – 1.05 0. A common composition is as follows (%): Fe Main comp. This type of steel contains Copper and Nickel. high strength steel. Good corrosion resistance to seawater and flue gases.3 0. 210–220 – ca. The LHL electrode are a low temperature electrode for use on this type of steel.4 – – – – – – – – 0.

V-butt joint or a T-joint.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Description Joining of smaller diameter steel pipes (diameter less than 30 mm) where a capillary joint may be used. rounded edges on the joint.04 MS-200 IMS-210 GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N MS-200 FCBRONZE-261 BRONZE-264 Thin plate galvanized steel constructions like air ducts and air channels. Small diameter steel pipes (diameter up to 160 mm) with a wall thickness of up to 3 mm forming an I-butt joint or T-joint (flange to pipe). Larger size steel pipes (over160 mm) with a wall thickness more than 3 mm forming an I-butt joint. Joining galvanized steel pipes forming a V-butt joint. FC-BRONZE-261 BRONZE-264 57 . Solution AG-60-252 AG-45-253 Examples 2.

Solution GPO-302N/ SPECIAL-303N MS-200 IMS-210 Examples 2. GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N Welding of clamps and brackets. Larger size fabrication and repair jobs like welding of unalloyed steel bulkheads and deck in all positions. ladders and gangways in unalloyed steel. 58 .04 General purpose repair welding of unalloyed steel parts. GPO-302N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N Fabrication of smaller steel parts like shelves. and tack welding constructions before full welding.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Description Welding of thin sheet steel plate constructions as for example tanks and cover plates.

holds.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Description For a rapid and large size weld build up in the downhand position on unalloyed steel/low alloyed steel constructions. Solution GPR-300H LHH-314H Examples 2. bulkheads. beams. tanks. frames etc. deck. hatch covers. Seawater. SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LH-316N TENSILE-328N 59 . Deck and engine auxiliaries welded to deck or floor plates. strain and sudden loads. Steel that takes vibration. Welding repairs of low alloyed ship­ building steel used in the hull. stiffeners. steam and cargo pipes made of low alloyed steel.04 SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N Welding on cranes and lifting equipment.

LHL-319N 60 . SPECIAL-303N LH-314N LHV-316N TENSILE-328N Cast steel repairs.). LHR-320N Low temperature applications. Iceclass hull plates. etc.04 Welding subject to high loads (Lifting. LH-314N Weathering steel used for sea-water and flue gases. lugs.SOLUTIONS: Unalloyed/low alloyed steel Description Boiler plates and tubes of heat resistant chromium molybdeniujm alloyed steel. Solution LHT-318N ICROMO-216 Examples 2.

04 61 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

These include spring steel. in this case. Most types can be welded satisfactorily with Unitor Tensile having a tensile strength of 850 N/mm2. are marketed by the steel works. For cargo handling equipment and dredger applications the Unitor Abratech330 and Wearmax-327 should also be considered. Numerous types of special alloys not classified under existing standards. Machine parts. often not possible to preheat or to perform any postweld heat treatment. So. This electrode may be used both for joining and for building-up work. there is also a large group of special steels with complicated chemical composition. The example on solutions for “problem” steel that are given here are all based on using the electrode:         Unitor Tensile-328N 2. etc. TI steel. or heavily stressed machine parts.05 Cracks in bearing housings. There are so many types of low alloy steel on the market today that even specialists have difficulty in keeping track of the entire range. 62 . welding with austenitic stainless or nickel-based consumables is considered to be one of the best methods. high speed steel. In principle. vanadium steel. The risk of cracking is reduced by the higher solubility of hydrogen and the greater ductility of the weld metal. however. Including build-up work. All these steel types are difficult to weld. cracks. building up and restoring worn edges. it is. and welding can destroy the hardening. Grab shovels. tool steel. Joining machine parts in U.SOLUTIONS: Problem Steels Problem Steels (difficult to weld steels) Among the low alloy steels. all these steels can be welded with matching ferritic consumables with the aid of preheating and postweld heat treatment to avoid hydrogen cracking in the heat affected zone (HAZ). In the case of repair welding. In many cases the steel has been hardened by annealing.S.

05 Repair of tool steel and high speed steel. Spring steel. joining. Steel that is difficult to weld. Mechanical structures. rebuilding damaged and keyways. Welding pinion to shaft. cargo pipes. Rebuilding worn pinion teeth. Cracks in fuel pipes. Frame fractures. Cast steel. 63 . Pitting in hydraulic pistons. and steel subject to vibration and loads (engine foundations etc. Shafts. repair and maintenance. NB! The electrode LH may also be used. joining and repairing.SOLUTIONS: Problem Steels 2.). Sliding surfaces. NB! Flame spraying with hard­ alloy may also be a solution.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.05 64 .

The AISI classifies stainless steel by their metallurgical structures.04% it will cause chromium carbide formation (chrome carbide particles) between 430870°C. This system is useful because the structures (Austenitic. Higher coefficient of expansion (approx. The chrome carbide cannot combine with oxygen to create chrome oxide. (carbides – sigma phase – ferrite). This reduces the corrosion resistance in local areas leading to intergranular corrosion. 4. Greater sensitivity to cold working. 2. or crack formation along or through the crystals (stress corrosion). Sensitivity to certain corrosion phenomena. Occurence of structural changes following welding. Nickel (Ni) in excess of about 6% increases corrosion resistance slightly and greatly improves mechanical properties. By chemical composition or heat treatment. that is the content at which an effective layer is formed that seals the surface against any further atmospheric corrosion.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Introduction Stainless steel belongs to the high alloy steel group. Carbon increases strength. the stainless steel receives one of the following micro structures when manufactured: Austenitic. but in connection with stainless steel and in amounts above 0.5% chromium. 40% higher). Many stainless alloys contain larger amounts of chromium for further improving corrosion resistance and to increase resistance to oxidation at high temperatures. Ferritic. Poorer heat conductivity (approx. such as strong pitting. The chromium combines with oxygen and creates an invisible though impregnable chromium oxide on the surface. 40% less). 5. Chromium (Cr) is the element that makes stainless steel stainless or corrosion resistant.06 The following are some characteristic differences between stainless steel and normal steel: 1. ferritic or martensitic) indicates the general range of mechanical and physical properties and weldability. It must contain at least 11. Molybdenum also improves high temperature strength. Martensitic or Ferritic/Austenitic. 65 . or a combination. The carbon content in stainless steel materials and consumables are therefore kept at a very low level. 3. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) established a numbering system to classify the stainless steel alloys. Small amounts of Molybdenum (Mo) increase resistance to pitting type corrosion and general resistance to certain corrosive media. Stainless steel alloy with molybdenum is therefore referred to as acid resistant. 2.

0 330 0.0 Other 2.0 317 L 0.03 0.0 347 M 0.5 Si 1.0 23.0 – 19.0 – 10.0 – 3.0 with a few exceptions exceeds 7%.20 Co) 23/14-322N (E) S-309-M-GF-222 (W) * Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise stated Unless otherwise stated.0 12.60 Mo (opt) 0.0 – 13.0 347 0.0 – 20.0 – 3.0 – 19. May be welded with (E) Electrode (W) Wire Welding (T) Tig 18/8-321N (E) S-316-M-GF-221 (W) 18/8 Mo-221 (T) Nickel Ni 6.0 17.08 17. Most materials for chemical carriers are selected from this group of materials.0 Si – 2.0 .0 11. 66 .0 Mo Ti (5x%C min) 1.8.0 10.0 – 15.15 S (min) 0.15 0.0 – 19. other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of 2.0 – 26.0 % Si.08 0.0 – 10.0 18.0 – 20.045 P and 0. and AISI 316 L is the most commonly used. Autenitic stainless steel has the highest corrosion resistance of all the stainless steel.0 – 4.0 – 18.0 2.0 – 18.0 9.0 – 10.0 1.0 % Mn.0-3.0 18.0 10.0 –22.0 – 15.0 24.15 0. These are the chromium nickel steel of the AISI 200 and 300 series in which chromium usually exceeds 17% and nickel AISI Composition % * Type Carbon Chromium C Cr 0.0 – 12.03 0.0 12.0 – 3.0 8.25 24.0 9.0 16.04 P Cb + Ta (10x %C min) Cb 13 x Cmax 0.0 – 19.0 22.06 301 302 302 B 303 303 Se 304 304 L 305 308 309 309 S 23/14-322N (E) 0.0 8.0 – 12.5 – 3.08 17.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Austenitic Stainless Steel The highest tonnage of weldable stainless steel produced are of the austenitic grades.0 – 19.0 – 3. Austenitic grades are non-magnetic.0 – 19.15 0.12.0 – 14.0 19.0 329 0.0Mn 2.0 321 0.0 3.0 – 22.5 Si 0.0 10 – 14.0 – 19.08 16.08 0.10 25.08 16.65 Cb+Ta (10x%C min but 0.0 16.0 10 – 14. Balance Fe.0 – 21.0 – 20.0 – – S-309-M-GF-222 (W) IMPACT-329S (E) 18/8-321N (E) 310 310 S 314 316 316 L 316 N 0.12 0.0 – 19.10-0.0 – 20.0 – 20.0Si 2.20 P 0.0 Mo 3.0 Si 0.10 Ta max 0.0 8.0 17.03 19.0 Si 0.0 19.0 Mo 2.0 – 15.0 Mo 1.0 – 4.0 9.16Ni S-316-M-GF-221 (W) 18/8 Mo-221 (T) 317 0.0 – 2.0Mo 0.0 –22.0 10.0 – 13.0 – 18.0 – 13.0 – 24.0 – 37.0 .0 – 24.03 % S.15 0.0 – 10.0 – 12.0 17.0 – 26.0 19.0 – 30.0 8.08 17.75-1.20 0. 0.0 11.0 3. 1.15 Se (min) – – – – 2.0 – 6.0 19.08 17.0 348 0.0 8.15 0.03 18.08 0.0 17.5 Si 1.08 18.25 0.0 34.0 10.08 22.0 Mo 0.0 – 15.0 – 26.0 17.0 8.20 P 0.0 – 18.06 S (min) 0.

In general welds must not be located too close to one another. Flange ring welded on gives less stress set up in the material. 317 (for best corrosion resistance). • In crevices and shielded areas. 67 .SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Austenitic stainless steel has the following characteristics: • Non-magnetic. there might not be enough oxygen to maintain the passive oxide film and crevice corrosion might occur (Duplex are available in these situations). 316 (for better corrosion resistance). especially the chloride ion can also break down the passive surface film. but can be hardened by working. Crossed weld joints are undesirable. • Can easily be welded • Grade: 304 (most used). 2. 310 (for high temperature). S 31000. S 31700. • Cannot be hardened by heat treatment. • Unified Numbering system UNS: 30400. Some limitations: Austenitic stainless steel has some limitations: • The maximum temperature under oxidizing conditions is 925°C.06 Flange ring made by hammering back the pipe end (mechanical working) must be avoided. • They are suitable only for low concentrations of reducing acid. S 31600. • Very high levels of halide ions. Avoid welding mild steel to stainless steel.

• Grade: 409 (high temperature).15 S (min). • Unified numbering system UNS: S 40900.0 % Mn.0 Si 0.0 – 2.5 – 4. 0.60 P.2 Mo 0.0 1. They are non-hardening by heat treatment. 0.5 1.2 Si.0 1.75 Ni.15 Cu 0.0 1. 0.0 409 0.025.0 1.1 – 0. Ti 12 x C (1.3 * Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise noted.0 Si 0.06 25.0 17.0 0.75 – 1.15 Cu 0.20 16.2 Mo.60 Mo (opt) 0.025 S May be welded with: (E) Electrode (W) Wire Welding 23/14-322N (E) S-309-M-GF-222 (W) 26-1 0.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Ferritic Stainless Steel These are the grades AISI 400 series that contain from about 14 to 27% chromium and no nickel.0 Si – 0.0 – 18.25 430Fse 0.0 17.12 14.2 + 4 (%C+%N) 0.0 – 16. 0.0 Ni.5 Mo.035 N max (Cb+Ta) min 0. Balance is Fe Ferritic stainless steel has the following characteristics: • Magnetic. 2. 1. 430 (most used).0 Max 429 0. 6 x C.02 S 2.0 1.02Ni.0 – 18.025 0. (Cb+Ta) Min 5 x % C.0 1.75 18.0 – 23.06 405 0. Principal applications are products requiring resistance to corrosion and scaling at evlevated temperatures rather than high strength.15 Se (min) 0.2 Si. 0. 0.00 0.030 % S.060 S.25 434 436 439 442 444 446 0. 0. other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of 2.0 439 F 0.015 Ni. 0. 0.060 P.0 16.20 0.0 – 27.12 14.045 P 1.07 0.02 Ni. • Poor weldability.12 14.0 1. 0.5Ni.75 – 15 Mo 0. 0. 0.0 – 27.04 Ni.75 29-4 0.025P.0 – 18. 68 . They are magnetic in all conditions. 0.75 – 2.0 – 18.75 1.5 23.25 Mo.75 – 18.12 14.5 – 4.0 max) 1.25 Mo. 0. 3.12 0.15 AI.3 29-4-2 0. Unless otherwise noted. • Cannot be hardened by heat treatment.01 28 – 30. 0. 3. S 43000.75 Si 0.08 11.045 S. 0. 1.5 – 11.0 430 0. 0.2 Cu 0. o. 1.0 1.0 Si Max.045 % P and 0. 1. Ti min.3 AI 1.08 10.75 – 1.5 – 19.025 P.0 – 18.0 0. 0.2 – 10 Ti 0.01 28.0 1.0 – 30.5 – 14.25 N 0.0 1.5 Ni.5 AISI Composition % * Type Carbon Chromium C Cr Manganese Ni Other 0.0 % Si.12 0.6 Si – 0.

06 416 416Se 420 0. 0. 0.5 – 10.75 _ 1. 0. Chromium content is lower and carbon content higher than the ferritic group.5 – 13. + Unless otherwise noted.15 0. 0.0 Ni.0 S-309-M-GF-222 (W) Non-weldable * Single values denote maximum percentage unless otherwise noted.15 0.15 min.060P.60 – 0. Martensitic stainless steel. and 0. pump shafts etc. 69 .5 Other 0. 0.25 11.0 440A 0.75 Mo 0.20 16. These grades are magnetic in all conditions.060 P.040% P. other elements of all alloys listed include maximum contents of 1.5 11. • Unified numbering system UNS: S 41000.15 11.0% Si. (min. Balance is Fe. 0. 0.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Martensitic Stainless Steel This steel.5 Ni 1.75 Mo 0. Martensitic grades are used to resist abrasion in stream and gas turbine components and for such applications as bearings.60 Mo (opt) 1. 0.0 – 18.030% S. • Can be hardened by heat treatment.0 431 0.0 – 4. 12.25 Mn.0 23/14-322N (E) 422 0.0 – 13.0 12.0 – 14.25 Mo. • Poor welding characteristics.75 Si. S 44004.75 Mo May be welded with (E) Electrode (W) Wire Welding 2.0 – 18.15 0.0 440B 0.75 – 0. ball bearings.0 11.0 – 18.3 V.15 Se (min.5 – 13. 1.25 Mn.0 – 14. • Grade: 410 (most used). 0. 440C (for very high hardness).25 – 2.0 – 17.95 – 1.025 S 1.0 % Mn.25 W.0 Mn.15 – 0. is the iron chromium alloys capable of being heat treated to a wide range of hardness and strength levels.95 16.5 – 13.15 0. S 42000. 0.15 S. 0.025 P. 403 410 414 AISI Composition % * Type Carbon Chromium C Cr 0.75 – 1.0 12.20 15. also in the AISI 400 series. 0. 0.5 Si – 1. has the following characteristics: • Magnetic.75 16.2 – 0.25 – 2. They are not as corrosion resistant as the austenitic and ferritic types.0 440C 0.).) – 1.5 Ni 0.

• Increased resistance to chloride ion attack. decreasing the nickel to 4-8% and adding copper up to 2%. bars. • Unified numbering system UNS: S 31803.06 Duplex stainless steel has good weldability but great care must be taken to use the correct consumable and to follow the welding procedure. the main reason for the increased use of duplex is that the resistance against pitting corrosion is superb compared to austenitic stainless steel. Avesta SAF 2304 23 4 – 0. Compositions are modified to favour the high ferrite levels by increasing the chromium to 22-26%. They were developed to provide a higher strength.17 – – 35 Fabr. increasing molybdenum to 2-5%.5 3 0. ladder material. 2. forgings pipe DUPLEX-325N Electrode product forms depending on manufacturer IDUPLEX-222 TIG-rod Duplex Stainless steel has the following characteristics: • High resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Composition (%) Manufacturer Grade Cr Ni Mo N Cu Other PREN 23% Cr Mo-free Duplex Stainless steel Duplex stainless steel grades. These compositions provide excellent resistance to pitting.3 3 0. Weight savings can be up to 25%. Duplex stainless steel is used for applications such as tanks. UR 45N 22 5. • Very weldable.4462/PRE35 Krupp Falc 223 Mannesmann A F22(1. however. • Grade: 2205.1 – – 25 Creusot Ind. heating coils. cargo loading pipes. UR 35N 23 4 – 0.1 – – 25 22% Cr Duplex Stainless steel Avesta 2205 22 5. 1.16 – Mn 1. de Fer.5 3 0.4462) 22 5.12 – – 25 Sandvik SAF 2304 23 4 – 0.14 – – 34/35 Nippon Kokan NK Cr22 Sandvik SAF 2205 Sumitomo SM 22Cr TEW Remanit 4462 Valourec VS 22 Product forms May be welded with all product forms plate. corrosion resistant alternative to the 300 series austenitic stainless steel.5 Böhler A 903 Creusot Ind. Due to the high yield strength of duplex stainless steel the plate thickness can be reduced considerably in comparison to austenitic stainless steel. crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. 70 . • Have higher tensile and yield strength than austenitic or ferritic stainless steel.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Duplex Stainless Steel (Austenitic – Ferritic) The duplex stainless steel consist of a microstructure of about 50% ferrite and 50% austenite.

Stainless steel Backing steel 2. For welding of the backing steel use: Basic coated Low Hydrogen electrodes LH-314N or SPECIAL303N.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Clad steel Clad steel is also referred to as compound steel or sandwich steel. 71 . When the steel backing is one layer short of the stainless steel cladding. 2. Clad steel is composite materials. Alloy cladding • Low carbon nickel • Nickel • Monel • Inconel • Cupro Nickel Cladding Backing steel Alloy Cladding (AISI) Welding (E) Electrode (W) Wire Welding 405. The result is a composite with the strength of the backing steel and with corrosion resistance. nickel or nickel alloy. abrasion resistance of the clad face.06 Clad steel with a stainless cladding is found on board some chemical tankers. 321 L 309 316 S-309-M-GF-222 (W) 316 L 317 1. 410. or copper or copper alloy. an over alloyed consumable like 23/14-322 N must be used. made by mill rolling or exploding a thin sheet of a metal that has desired properties over a base ("backing") plate of carbon or alloy steel. It is fully weldable if the proper procedure is followed. 430 304 23/14-322N (E) 304 L 347. The cladding metal may be a stainless steel alloy.

resulting in holes in the metal. is a way of describing the relative influence of the mentioned elements.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N. the material will corrode. The Pitting Resistance Equivalent. If the protecting layer is destroyed in an aggressive environment. Pitting corrosion 2.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Stainless steel corrosion types A very thin layer of chromium oxide which is formed on the surface of the metal protects stainless steels against Corrosion. Some stainless steels can be made sensitive to intergranular corrosion by elevated temperatures (500 °C-900 °C) at which carbide precipitation occurs at the grain boundaries resulting in 72 . General corrosion This is a type of localized attack which is highly destructive.06 Different types of corrosion can occur and the choice of stainless steel is based on the requirements from the actual environment. PRE. The resistance against pitting is improved with increased Cr and Mo contents. This kind of attack is most commonly found in stainless steel in chloride containing environments. This is a corrosion attack that proceeds at the same rate over the entire surface. The maximum temperature at which a specimen in a special test solution shows no signs of pitting corrosion is called the Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT). The resistance against general corrosion is mainly improved by increasing the content of Cr and Mo in the steel. These regions then have a decreased corrosion resistance. It occurs almost exclusively in acidic or strongly alkaline solutions. The precipitation of chromium carbides can be prevented either by a low C content or by a stabilizing elements like Nb or Ti. One way of expressing PRE is: PRE = %Cr + 3. Intergranular corrosion A localized attack at and adjacent to the grain boundaries is called intergranular corrosion. Cr depleted regions. This passive layer can be damaged by mechanical or chemical action. Also N has a favourable influence.

During stress corrosion cracking the metal or alloy can remain virtually unattacked on most of its surface. A special form of crevice corrosion is called deposit corrosion. SCC is seldom found in 73 . The risk increases with increasing salt concentration. Stress corrosion cracking. The ferritic Cr steels totally without Ni are under normal conditions unsensitive for SCC as well as steels which are ferriticaustenitic. lap joints and under bolt and rivet heads. Steels with good resistance to pitting corrosion have also good resistance to crevice corrosion.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Crevice corrosion solutions with temperatures below 60 °C. Crevice corrosion is a kind of corrosion which occurs in narrow crevices filled with a liquid and where the oxygen level is very low e. while fine cracks progress through it. For austenitic stainless steels the risk for SCC is especially big in solutions containing chlorides or other halogens. on gasket surfaces. This is when the corrosion is found under non-metallic deposits or coatings on the metal surface.06 Corrosion attacks on a metal subjected to a tensile stress and exposed to a corrosive environment are called stress corrosion cracking (SCC). tensile stress and also increased temperature. The resistance of the austenitic stainless steels is improved by increased Ni content.g. SCC 2.

• Store in wood protected frames away from grit blasting and grinding. footwear do not get in direct contact with the stainless surface. dust.06 • Pipe end should be covered (plugged) in order to prevent impurities from entering inside. Product no: 196-632984 • Stainless steel chipping hammer made out of hardened Martensitic stainless steel. 2 litre. • Cover tank bottom so that equipment. forklift forks to be protected with wood. • Handling equipment. Use only tools made out of stainless steel. salt or iron particles that can trigger corrosion. electrode ends and coating to be removed after welding. Product no: 095-661778 Stainless steel wire brush Stainless steel martensitic chipping hammer Pickling gel for stainless steel 74 . 2 rows. Product no: 196-632992 • Pickling Gel to remove oxides and discoloration after welding. • Using ordinary unalloyed steel shipping hammers or wire brushes on stainless steel will deposit iron and iron oxides triggering rusting. textiles or plastic in order to prevent direct contact with iron surfaces.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Storing and handling of stainless steel onboard • Stainless steel must be stored under deck and protected against moisture. • Stainless steel should be kept separated from ordinary steel. Special tools for welding of stainless steel • Stainless steel wire brush. tools. 2. • Slag. 6 pcs. hooks. straps.

Flexible grinding tools enable better control of heat development (e.06 75 . structural peaks etc. Working tools should be adapted to this (e. (e. the aim must be to keep a smooth/polished surface without structural peaks. Provides better corrosion resistance Structural peaks acting as attack points for corrosion damage the properties of the steel.g.g. Free iron on the the steel surface. one should avoid polluting the steel surface with free iron. fibre discs / mop discs). To keep the stainless steel corrosion resistance at its best.g. Avoid excessive heat to build up during grinding on steels.This may change the metal structure and Smooth surface. will act as starting points for corrosion. 2. chrome) This oxide layer can be drastically reduced around sharp edges. grinding consumables).SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Grinding/cutting consumables for stainless steel Generally: When working on stainless steels. The corrosion resistance in stainless steels is created by oxide layers from one or several of the alloy components. Stainless steels are normally softer than regular steels (Typical for AISI 304 & 316 ). Never switch a grinding disc between stainless steels and normal steels! This will immediately pollute the stainless steel with free iron.

10 % content of iron. chlorine and sulphur compounds.06 INOX depressed wheels SS Grit: Aluminium oxide Grit size: #24 Bonding: Resin. soft Applications: Grinding and cutting in stainless steels. disc with soft grit bonding for cutting and grinding on soft metals. bronze and copper Size 4" / 100mm 5" / 125mm 7" / 180mm 9" / 230mm Cutting wheels Packs of 25 pcs 751016 633595 633611 633627 Grinding wheels Packs of 10 pcs 750992 633603 633619 633635 76 . 2.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel INOX. Iron free (inox) grinding discs is to have less than 0. Contains no free iron and the aluminium oxide grit used contains very small amounts of bonded iron. aluminium.

Provides very smooth surfaces due to the flexibility of the disc. plastics etc. hardened and alloy steel. Applicable on stainless steels. Very suitable for stainless steel grinding and polishing.SOLUTIONS: Stainless Steel Fibre discs (sanding paper) Should be used in connection with plastic backing pads. Size Fibre discs packs of 25 pcs Grit size #24 #36 #50 4" / 100mm 692574 633643 633667 5" / 125mm 692582 633651 633675 7" / 180mm 692590 633659 633683 Plastic backing plate 755900 755918 755926 Fibre discs 2. hardened and alloy steel. paint. The abrasive flaps contain alumina zirconia with resin bonding. iron free Resin Grinding on almost any metal. aluminium. wood. Disadvantage: frequent change of fibre discs. incl. Fibre discs (sanding paper) for SS Grit: Aluminium oxide Bonding: Resin Applications: Grinding on most steels. The fan pattern improves cooling during operation. Fibre discs contain Aluminium oxide grit with resin bonding.06 Plastic backing plate Mop discs Sanding paper flaps mounted on backing plate. Mop discs for SS Grit: Bonding: Applications: Size Grit size 4" / 100mm 5" / 125mm 7" / 180mm Mop disk Aluminium zirconia. Mop discs packs of 10 pcs #36 #60 #80 633691 633699 633707 633715 633723 633731 633739 633747 633755 77 . incl. Contains no free iron. stainless steel.

There are five common types of cast iron: Grey White Malleable Ductile High alloy 2. Thus the percentage of free graphite is a function of the cooling rate. But the carbon is also source of problems.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Introduction To approach welding of cast iron. the high carbon content of cast iron lowers the melting point to 1100–1300°C (depending on type). On boars ships cast iron has found wide uses as for instant engine blocks. white or ductile irons. low These different cast irons cannot be identified by chemical analysis alone. However. liners. Although up to 6% of carbon can be dissolved in iron when molten. heads. Because of this it cracks easily when subjected to local heating and cooling. and the techniques for joining it together followed. cast iron repairs has been a feared operation to welders. that separate out when the cast iron solidifies are the length of time it takes to solidify and the amount of silicon that is present. shrinkage. transmissions. high alloy cast iron. actually less than 1. In the following we shall take a look at the characteristics of the various types.4% up to 4.75% can remain in solution when the metal solidifies. the special properties of this material must be understood. Cast iron is essentially an alloy of ferrum (iron). It is the form of the excess carbon that determines the kind of iron that the melt becomes. Due to its high content the cast iron is brittle and has very little elongation when subjected to strain. Silicon tends to drive out any carbon in solution as graphite if it is given enough time and temperature. cargo lines.5%. Thus the welding properties of cast iron differ from those of steel. While steel melts at approximately 1450°C. which influence the amount of carbon. this is obtained by adding quantities of alloying elements to gray. The carbon content ranges from 2.07 Hence. With regard to the fifth type. carbon and silicon. as is the case when welding. This excess carbon is the reason for many of the desirable properties of cast iron. which means that it is present in excess of the amount that can be contained in solid solution. water jackets. making it easier to melt and allowing it to run freely into a mold to assume the shape intended for the casting. pipe fittings. Two of the factors. etc. 78 . high damping capacity on vibrations and ready machinability. Welders who attempt to repair cast iron based upon their experience from welding steel. and on the assumption that " iron is iron" often end up with a poor result without understanding why. such as high fluidity. manifolds. pump and valve housings. many grades of cast iron can indeed be welded successfully. The excess carbon separates out during solidification and remains present and dispersed throughout the cast iron in the form of free carbon (graphite).

Less brittle than white cast iron. useful damping properties and resistance to wear. The presence of the graphite flakes promotes ready machinability. but larger flakes. neither in cold nor in red-hot condition. When using casting molds of sand the molten metal gets a slow rate of cooling. from 137 MPa to more than 390 MPa. plus manufacturing economy. However. which will cool off first. Characteristics: Soft.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Grey cast iron Grey cast iron is the least expensive and most commonly used of all cast metals.25% Silicon 2. Graphite flakes 2. cast iron scrap. In large-dimension castings the material near the surface will contain comparatively small graphite flakes. High machinability.07 General analysis of gray cast iron: Carbon 3. (illustration).6–0. The raw materials – pig iron. 79 .2% maximum Phosphorous 0. In the middle the material will cool slower and contain fewer.2% maximum Manganese 0.0–2. The wide range of strengths in gray irons. We estimate that approximately 90% of all cast iron is in the form of gray iron. which gives the alloy its name. limestone and coke – are all relatively inexpensive. steel scrap.0–3. the flakes also serve as crack-indicators.7% Ferrum Rest. and gray cast iron cannot be bent or forged to shape. as this is the part of the casting. This gives most of the carbon time to collect as graphite flakes between the iron crystal borders. In small or thin-walled parts the graphite is evenly dispersed throughout the material. Good weldability (Unitor NICKEL-333N or NIFE-334N).4% Sulphur 0. explains the extensive use of these irons where high resistance to dynamic stress is not a governing factor. Due to the presence of free graphite a fracture will have a gray appearance.

which does not permit the carbon to move to the crystal borders. Characteristics: Hard Brittle Abrasion-resistant Non-weldable Malleable cast iron Malleable cast iron starts life as an ordinary white cast iron. During a period from 1 to 6 days. It is then annealed (heat treated) in a furnace at a temperature above 870°C. very hard and brittle. 2. malleable cast iron is limited in application to relatively small parts.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron White cast iron White cast iron has a similar chemistry to gray iron. which is very brittle and hard. from which it is derived. In a fracture the iron carbide will give the surface a silvery white appearance. The strength of malleable cast iron varies from 340 MPa to 520 MPa. When strength goes above 410 MPa welding becomes difficult. but become trapped inside the crystals. This results in a martensitic structure. the carbon actually moves through the solid iron to collect in little gobs or nodules of graphite. it is easily machinable. White cast irons are useful for wear resistant service but due to their crack sensitivity they are very difficult to weld and may be considered unweldable.07 Iron Carbides Etched white iron Ferrite Malleable iron with temper carbon aggregates 80 . This is achieved by keeping the silicon content low and by rapid cooling. hence the name white cast iron. and is malleable. Instead of being hard and brittle. at which point the silicon can break down the iron carbides into iron and carbon. Characteristics: Will absorb mild to medium torsion forces. Iron with this microstructure is called malleable and its properties are opposite to those of white iron. Due to the cost of manufacturing it. Fair to good weldability. but is different in that the carbon is present in the form of iron carbide (Fe3C) instead of as free carbon (graphite).

or compacted aggregates as in malleable iron.1% 1. yet retains the advantages of superior castability and machinability. toughness. It meets the demands for increased size of equipment. This graphitic form dispersed thorough the casting contributes remarkable ductility to the casting. Ferrite 2. spheroidal graphite iron. instead of flakes as in gray iron.8% Up to 0.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Ductile cast iron Ductile cast iron (also known as nodular graphite iron.1% max. It's tensile strength ranges from about 340 MPa to 1030 MPa as cast.07 Graphite Nodules In addition magnesium not in excess of 0. the surface tension mechanism is altered and when the graphite precipitates it forms nodules or spheroids.03% max. higher operating speeds and lower production costs by having high strength.08%. It has yield strength from 275 MPa to 830 MPa with an elongation in 2 inches from 2% to 25%.8–2. and creates strengths equaling many good grade steels. Ductile iron has mechanical properties approaching steel. or cerium in quantity of a few thosandths of 1% is included. 81 . By adding trace amounts of magnesium or cerium to the molten metal. 0.2–4.8% 0. and SG iron) bridges the gap between gray iron and steel. Ductile iron may be welded very satisfactorily with Unitor NIFE-334N General analysis of nodular irons: Carbon Silicon Manganese Phosphorous Sulphur 3. and a resistance to shock loading.

General analysis of Ni-Resist irons: Carbon Silicon Manganese Nickel Chromium Copper Molybdenum Characteristics: High resistance to corrosive acids and atmospheric corrosion.0% 0.0% maximum 2.07 82 . Excellent weldability. and ductile irons.0–6. The most common alloying elements are nickel. Strength 137 MPa . In general high alloy cast iron is weldable.6% 5. chromium and molybdenum.8–2. copper and silicon.5% 10.0% 13.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron High alloy cast irons High alloy cast iron is a general classification that applies to gray iron.8–5. They are considered high alloy when the alloy contents exceeds 3%. There are many types of Meehanite.4–1.0–32.0% maximum 1. Characteristics: High density Very high strength Fair weldability Ni-Resist irons In this series of cast iron alloys the corrosion resistance of gray cast iron is enhanced by the addition of appreciable amounts of nickel. Meehanite The name Meehanite refers to a group of cast ferrous materials manufactured under rigid metallurgical control so that their properties meet established engineering specifications. The addition of alloys to that extent radically changes the microstructure and the properties of the castings to which they are added. white irons. ranging from soft types with exceptional machinability to stronger types whose strength properties approximate or exceed that of many cast steels.313 Mpa 1.0% 1.

and most often they will have a visible casting line where the two halves of the mold they were cast in met. while the cast iron forms no chip but comes away in small fragments: A spark test will also give ready identification between the types of ferrous metals.07 Shaving Mild steel The leaf is smaller and gives rise to a number of sparks. Unalloyed steel (Cast steel). Cast steel when chiseled will from a continuous chip. To help us establish which metal a casting is made from we have a couple of easy tests. always be in the form of casting. Cast iron Faint red streaks terminating in complex bushy sparks yellow in colour. Chips Volume of Stream Relative Length Colour at Wheel Colour at end GREY CAST MALLEABLE IRON CAST IRON Small 0.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron How to identify cast iron Cast iron will. 83 . as the name implies. One can easily identify a copper alloy or an aluminum alloy casting by their color. iron. 2. repeating sprigs. to distinguish between cast steel and cast iron by appearance alone is not easy. Some streaks are shorter. Castings have one thing in common. The perhaps simplest method to distinguish cast iron from cast steel is to use a hammer and chisel on a place of the casting where a little chiseling will do no harm.6 m Red Straw Moderate 0. Description of Many small Longer shaft spark stream repeating than grey (compare with sprigs.75 m Straw Straw Cast iron. small known samples). However. they will have no welded joints.

This is necessary to prevent excessive melting of the base material in these . rust and paint from the surface.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Preparation of the work piece First clean off all oil. using a brush or by chemical means. Suitable groove profiles for various material thicknesses can be as follows: 2. grease. using either a grinding machine or by gouging electrodes. Then remove casting skin to a width of 20 mm on both sides of the edges to be welded.07 If the damage is in the form of a crack in the material. cracks. fatigue areas and porosities down to sound metal. and at a distance of 3 mm. 84 Sharp corners and edges should be rounded of wherever possible. the sides of the fracture should be ground to a 45° bevel. When this has been established. If the part has broken into two or more pieces. ends. thickness above 40 mm Groove preparation by grinding Grind a 90° V-groove as indicated in the sketches. A grinding machine may be used for this work. particularly on surfaces to be machined or filed later. Remove imperfections in the weld area. such as blowholes. it may be difficult to determine where the crack actually Preventing crack propagation Material thickness up to 20 mm Material thickness 20–40 mm Material thickness above 40 mm Alternative shape. The use of a crack detector set to find the complete extent of the crack is absolutely recommended (see "Inspection of welds"). This will prevent the crack from opening further during the repair. Cracks should be "V-ed" or "U-ed" out. drill a 3 mm hole at the end of the crack.

Use a lager blowpipe and move the inner cone of the flame forward over both sides of the welding groove. Searing The more carbon you can remover from the weld area. Unitor cast iron electrodes are so made that they can take up 1% graphite without causing the formation of iron carbide. Searing must not be confused with preheating. Use a steel brush to remove loos material. Regardless of what we do to remove surface graphite.07 File after grinding To avoid this. To further remove excess carbon embedded in the surface the workpiece can be seared. In preparing the casting by grinding. You will know immediately when the free carbon is removed. to put too much heat into the material when executing it. This gives a cleaner surface. a certain amount of carbon (graphite) is removed from the metal and smeared over the surface to be welded by the grinding wheel. 85 . As the carbon burns it looks like a bright red particle or "star". Take care not Move torch rapidly along each side of the groove. as it will otherwise become part of the weld pool and combine with the iron to form a superhard zone of iron carbide in the weld. using an oxy-acetylene torch with an oxidising (excess oxygen) flame.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron areas during the welding process. hard spots will be evident in the weld deposit. the less chance there will be for hard spots in the weld. Iron sparks Grinding wheel Graphite flakes in cast iron Graphite smear 2. and is only intended to remove surface carbon. always remove a thin layer of the surface by a file after completing grinding. Before any welding can be done this carbon must be removed. If edge rounding is omitted. Use a wire brush over the surface from time to time. some graphite will nevertheless be melted up and become part of the weld.

The oily deposits in the welding area have evaporated. but increase in time and labor will be compensated for in tool savings. After gouging with Unitor CH-2 382. deposit and the base metal makes this necessary. The filler metal will have better flow characteristics and improved welds will be evident. By removing the chill from the metal welding will be easier. of necessity. requires more preparation and welding. This method. The carbon flakes in the metal are saturated with oil. the final drilling and tapping can be performed entirely in the deposited weld metal without penetrating the base metal. Another advantage is using CH-2 382 to prepare the metal for welding is the small amount of heat imparted to the casting prior to welding. In addition it gives the advantage that if the part to be welded is oil-impregnated (as a number of cast iron parts are bound to be). Repairs of areas requiring drilling and tapping Before welding areas which will subsequently require drilling and tapping. The variance in density in the weld 86 2. This method of groove preparation requires no other equipment than that used for ordinary arc welding and gives a very attractive U-shaped groove that is clean. . see the data sheet under “Technical Data for Consumables”. For correct application of gouging electrode CH-2 382. it is essential that the following procedure be followed: Always remove enough metal initially so that. the heat generated by the process will cause the oil to evaporate from the graphite flakes in the welding zone. bright and makes an ideal base for welding. Drill and tap breakage will result if this procedure is not adhered to. after filling.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Groove preparation by electrode gouging The most efficient method of removing unwanted metal and preparing surfaces for welding is to use gouging and chamfering electrode Unitor CH-2 382.07 A crack in cast iron.

which has greater tensile strength. Use 100 Amps and the correct polarity. Use a hammer and chisel to remove the beads. Too quick heating can cause tension cracks.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Arc welding of cast iron Below is a short description of the cast iron electrodes Unitor NICKEL333N and Unitor NIFE-334N to help you select the correct electrode for the work. it means that only smaller parts. see under heading "Poor Welds". 2. Especially if the casting to be welded has any appreciable material thickness it is important that the preheating proceeds slowly. Remember that cold welding of cast iron can only be done by electric arc welding.07 87 . It has greater tensile strength than NICKEL-333N. vibrations and sudden loads. Complete data on these electrodes are found in the section “Technical Data for Consumables”. and demands care in preheating. Electrode binding test Grind off a small area of the material close to the welding zone. As the means for preheating on board will normally be limited to the welding torch. NIFE-334N is used for multi-bead welding on heavy gauge material. Unitor NIFE-334N To be used on cast iron that takes strain. Cast iron has a low coefficient of thermal conductivity. For information on porosity. Select a 3. Use this electrode to “butter” the sides of oily cast iron to seal the surface. and which can be dismantled and brought into the workshop can be hot welded on board. and deposit a 4-5 cm bead with each of them without weaving. copper alloys and stainless steel. it's causes and correction.2 mm electrode of NICKEL-333N and NIFE-334N. Unitor NICKEL-333N For use on old. Also to be used for joining cast iron to steel. Do not deposit more than maximum two layers for NICKEL-333N. oil-impregnated cast iron and on thin material dimensions. The temperature must be maintained throughout the welding operation. Then finish the filling-up to join the parts together with Unitor NIFE-334N. The bead which exhibits the least porosity on the Hot welding In hot arc welding the part must first be evenly heated to approximately 500°C. When hot welding cast iron the temperature of the workpiece must be contact surface indicates the most suitable electrode for the binding layer for this particular base metal.

and large cast iron parts. the carbon will have no time to segregate as graphite in the crystal border areas. or parts which are difficult or time-consuming to dismantle should be cold welded. one can also point the electrode 10° in the direction of travel. The finished welded part must then be allowed the slowest possible cooling down to room temperature. Large.07 Smaller parts. NB: Allow to cool off slowly! Cold welding If the necessary equipment for preheating or for achieving the required slow cooling rate is not available. free to expand. which may drastically reduce its strength. as this may result in structural changes in the base material. hard and brittle. with resulting hard zones when the weld cools off. This will cause the molten pool to blow forward and act as a cushion. Burying the piece in kieselguhr. If the deposit has a high bead contour. The method is so called because of the low heat input to the base material when correctly executed.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron monitored by means of temperature indicator crayons or by an electronic thermometer. Do not overdo low amperage setting. The molten pool must be clear of slag. the setting is too 88 . This structural state will be very similar to that of white cast iron. sand or cinders will help to give it a slow cooling rate. This graphite will give rise to iron carbide. and easy to control. Deep fusion will also put lots of unwanted heat into the base material with increased risk of cracking. Opposed to cold welding. may be hot welded. On board cold arc welding is by far the most commonly used method. Amperage setting When cold welding cast iron a low ampere setting should be used. Thereby deep fusion between the filler material and the base material is avoided. and to reduce the heat input. In order to avoid digging into the base material. The reason why slow cooling is important is that if the rate of cooling is high. 2. It should be remembered that deep fusion will dig up and bring into the weld pool more graphite than need be. the alternative is "cold" arc welding. hot welding can proceed continuously. We will instead have the carbon bound to the iron in the form of iron carbide. It is important that the temperature does not exceed 600°C. complicated parts should be cold welded.

It is recommended practice to select a setting halfway between the figures and make a trial weld. If there is excessive spatter and undercutting.0 mm 85-160 Amp. The above settings are approximate.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron low. NICKEL-333N has high ohmic resistance.4. If ampere setting is too high the electrode may become red hot. type of machine. . the choice of correct polarity will influence very much on the result of the work. However.2.5 mm 55-110 Amp. 10% lower than those used with conventional cast iron electrodes. The operator must be aware of the effects of the different polarities. and good wash at the edges of the deposit. To ensure good electric conductivity the return cable clamp should be Choice of polarity If the current source for the welding is a welding rectifier (DC-machine). Furthermore. Reduce the amperage range by 5-10% for overhead welding. line load.2 mm 80-140 Amp. flat bead contour. consistent with easy control. Desired Bead Contour. Straight polarity (Cathode) 2. attached to the workpiece itself if possible. the amperage is set too high.07 Reverse polarity (Anode) 89 . some years ago the general low quality of cast iron electrodes made it necessary to use negative polarity to achieve binding between base material and weld deposit. . and about 5% for vertical welding. the quality of Unitor cast iron electrode is very high. etc. In general. Some electrode manufacturers make cast iron electrodes that can only be used with negative polarity.3. Setting will vary with the size of the job. Recommended amperages are as follows: Unitor NICKEL-333N . For Unitor NICKEL-333N and Unitor NIFE-334N amperages should be set approx.2 mm 75-100 Amp. The amperages listed are for flat or downhand welding positions. as the heat input and the melting of the base material varies considerably according to the polarity selected. Unitor NIFE-334N . and the electrodes can be used with both polarities without difficulty.3. the welding current should be as low as possible.

The way to achieve this is to avoid putting down long.5 mm electrode. a small diameter electrode. low amperage setting and high welding speed should be used for this run to reduce heat input. The high heat input will also cause the formation of iron carbides. when welding it is crucial to the success of the operation that the heat input to the base material is kept at a minimum to avoid cracking. The low heat input till reduce the formation of iron carbides.0 mm electrode deposits four times as much weld metal at only two times as much amperage compared to a 2. a 4. oxygen. carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Length of arc To reduce the voltage across the arc. with hard zones in the weld and the heat affected area.07 .SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron If the electrode is connected to the minus pole of the machine (straight polarity) we get high. Using a large size diameter means that you reduce the heat input in relation to the amount of filler metal deposited. The more impurities contained in the base material the lower the quality of the weld. straight stringer 2. The welding Remember that cast iron is very brittle. cast iron contains quantities of the gassed nitrogen. straight polarity may be tried in the first run in order to use the higher heat input and melting to achieve bonding between the base material and the weld deposit. reverse polarity to the electrode should be the first choice. if the first bead shows porosity. continuous beads (as when welding mild steel). This will cause excessive melting and digging into the material. This would be 90 in cases where the composition of the base material makes good bonding more difficult. In addition to contaminants such as phosphorous and sulphur. phosphorous. However. and the firs bead has to be "painted" on to it. F. Should the shrink forces exceed the tensile strength of the cast iron it will crack. and to help minimize heat input into the base material. shallow weld zone with minimal amounts of graphite. However. concentrated heat input to the base material. When welding with DC. By experience it may be found that the first pass should in some cases be done with a somewhat longer arc than the following runs. Correct size electrode Always use the largest size diameter electrode that the groove can accept (but not at the expense of not getting down into the groove!). If we connect the electrode to the plus pole (reverse polarity) we get a wide. sulphur and gasses. Hence. with only 1–2 % elongation. inst. Excessive melting will bring unwanted quantities of these impurities into the weld. the shortest practicable arc should be maintained. in cases where the cast iron is heavily contaminated and has poor weldability. and instead to weld short.

Too heavy blows may cause cracks. Peening offsets contraction forces. fill the crater and withdraw the electrode a little backward on the bead before breaking the arc. as vibrations will reduce the effect: R = 3 mm Rounded edge Recommended shape of head. Use rapid moderate blows. When each bead of 20–30 mm has been deposited. 2. Take your time. while to light peening will have little or no effect in relieving stresses.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron beads of maximum length 20–30 mm (1") at a time. Weaving should be avoided or kept to the minimum required to "wash out" the deposit and to catch the sides of the groves. it is too hot to go on with the welding. While the bead is still hot. just hard enough to leave a slight indent on the weld deposit is usually sufficient. If you burn yourself. 91 . Always peen from the crater back to the starting point. Do not wave in excess of one-half electrode diameter to each side of the direction of the weld. On thin dimensions the peening should not be vertical on the bead. Peening the bead immediately after depositing will stretch it to accommodate some dimensional change in the weld area. the next bead should not be put down until the bare hand can be laid alongside the first bead with comfort. Since the casting is quite rigid. do not spoil your work by trying to rush it.07 Weld contraction may cause cracks. the filler metal must be ductile. peen it with a round-nosed peen hammer. Wrong Correct After the initial bead has been deposited and peened. and will provide some stress relief.

Then proceed to fill up the groove. using chamfering electrode Unitor CH-2 382. Parts subject to high stresses To strengthen the transition zone transverse grooves may be cut in the sides of the welding groove. but only when the length to be welded is considerable. First fill up these grooves with the electrode selected for the first layer.07 Start welding at tied end. using the backstep technique. without peening. . Repairing crack with tied ends Put the two first beads (2 . then cover the entire surface before proceeding to build up and join.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Sometimes more than one short run can be done at a time. then backstep towards free end. and the beads can be spaced well away from each other to prevent heat build-up. Then weld alternatively from each end of the crack. Repair of separated parts Starting from one edge. Remember the build-up should always be done with Unitor NIFE-334N 92 Cut transverse grooves in the sides. and then cover the entire surface of the groove with a deposit of the same electrode. Fill them first.3 cm each) starting from the hole drilled at each end of the crack. use the backstep technique across the part to the opposite edge. This technique is called skip-welding and speeds up the work considerably: Repairing crack with free end 2.

Using a piece of cardboard cut a template to obtain the correct shape for the steel patch. Grind the edges of the casting at an angel of 45° halfway down its wall thickness. Grind the edge of the patch 45°. "Stack" the beads stepwise as shown in the sketch.07 Stacking Steel insert technique It is sometimes desirable to insert a steel patch in the centre section of a large housing or motor block. Use a Crack Detection kit to make sure there are no hidden 93 . Remember to file the ground area to remove surface graphite. As this will prevent the patch from expanding to heat. using the backstep technique as indicated in the sketch. The patch should be "doomed" slightly by striking with a ball-peen hammer until a bulge is formed.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron A way to reduse shrinkage stress In order to reduce the shrinkage stresses. Casting steel-patch 2.3 cm cool off before proceeding with the next bead. Place the patch in the hole and secure it in position but do not tackweld it. A frozen block may have suffered the same damage. do not put down a complete root bead first. This is done as follows: Remove all damage material on the casting. Clean off dirt. Select a piece of low carbon steel. Bevel edges to 45°.3 mm. Be careful to let each bead of 2 . round off wherever possible. Hammering cracks. Now weld the patch to the casting. one half the thickness of the casting's wall. Avoid leaving sharp corners. Seal in the contaminants. Use Unitor NIFE-334N for the build-up. A small pneumatic hammer is suitable for this kind of hammering. The least expensive method or repairs is to fit a steel patch into the hole.3 cm forward at a time. Take care to keep the heat down (hand warm before proceeding each new bead!) and hammer each bead while still hot. A gear may have shattered and pushed out an area in the housing. Usually the pushed-out section has been broken in so many pieces that it is not practical to try to join the pieces. paint. Using the template as a guide cut the patch out of the piece of steel. before proceeding to build up. advancing each bead (starting always with the root bead) 2 . oil and grease from the area where the repairs is to take place. It should fit the hole with a clearance of 2 . using Unitor NICKEL-334N.

If the area is large enough to accept more than one groove. Built up section. Then "paint" on weld metal by using a long arc and fast zigzag movements. Such action will create stress cracks. In explaining the salvage process a broken-off cog on a wheel is taken as an example. which is fully machinable. it will be necessary to rebuild parts where sections have been worn down or broken off. such as bosses. there should be a minimum of 6 mm (1/4") between the groves. When repairing defects in raised areas.07 Filling holes that penetrate clear through the casting Begin to weld at one side and run straight stringer beads side by side until the hole is closed. it is unwise merely to chip out the defects and fill the defective areas. using Unitor CH2 382. 94 . Peen each weld pass lightly to reduce shrinkage stresses. Cut stress-relieving grooves in the area to be built up. which must be machined after welding. Do not alternate sides or weld around the edges. All machining will then be done on the solid weld metal deposit. Do not use a grinder for cutting stress relieving grooves. Alternatively the parts may be rebuilt by braze welding. use stringer beads. The groves will not be geometrically correct for the dispersion of stresses from the casting surface.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Build up of missing section Occasionally. Apply thin deposits (1. Do not quench. Remove slag. Weld from one side only. Then build up the surface 2 mm (1/16") above the required dimension to allow for machining. It is better to prepare the area for repair by machining to a dept slightly below the desired final surface. Fill in the grooves. using Unitor FCCastiron 268 S or Unitor FC-Wearbro 262.5 mm) to seal in all contaminants. 2.

In practice this limits braze welding to smaller parts and thinner dimensions. Groove preparation Prepare a 70°–90° groove. These are avoided partly due to the lower heat required. 2. Drill 3 mm holes at each end of the crack.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Braze welding of cast iron General The name braze welding comes from the relatively slow-flowing nature of the filler material. The tendency for high heat to form unwanted white cast iron. and braze welding is thus a form of mechanical bonding. and that the lager the surface of a joint the better the bonding. paint and rust from the surface. In braze welding the cast iron is heated to bonding temperature. a form of martensitic cast iron that is very brittle and hard due to the presence of iron carbide. is called "tinning" (also called "wetting out" or "bonding"). The phenomenon. which then occurs. as opposed to gas welding. II. While there is several processes for braze welding. Grind off casting skin to a width of 20 mm on each side of the edges to be welded. If the damage is in the form of a crack in the material. which gives the joining process much in common with ordinary gas welding. Preparation of the workpiece Remove oil. bevel each side of the fracture to 45°. These are: I. In braze welding the cast iron is not melted.07 95 . By braze welding cast iron one is to a certain degree independent of the quality of the base material. at a distance of about 3 mm from the ends to prevent the crack from opening further during brazing. The use of braze welding on cast iron has the decided advantages of low heat and ductility. both of which reduce and/or eliminate the two serious problems traditionally associated with welding cast iron. The problem of contraction during cooling. where the parent metal is melted and forms a chemical bonding with the filler metal. and round off edges and sharp corners. If the part has been broken into two or more pieces. it refers to the almost microscopically thin layer in which the alloys of both the cast iron and the molten filler metal intermix. This is the minimum temperature to which it must be heated to form a bound (surface alloy) between the filler metal and the cast iron. The low heat used in braze welding greatly reduces the possibility of this formation. and partly because the brazing filler alloy has a great capacity to yield and accommodate any cooling stresses. Remember that braze welding is a surface bonding. the use of an oxy-acetylene torch to provide the necessary heat will be the method employed on board. Use a file to remove surface graphite from the groove. A condition for using braze welding on cast iron is that it must be possible to preheat an area on each side of the weld zone to 300–400°C. it is recommended to use the crack detector set to find the complete extent of the crack. Actually. For larger components "cold" electric arc welding is recommended.

Then melt off a drop from the rod into the groove and spread it out by continually moving the torch. Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 has a low bonding temperature. The base material shall not melt. Remember that cast iron is one of the more brittle and crack-sensitive base metals. where a hardwearing surface is required.400 °C with a wide spread of heat to each side. 96 . Technical details on the rods are found in the section "Consumables". This process. the part should be allowed to cool slowly in kieselgur or dry sand. and approximately 1 cm above the groove. Thus care should be exercised in the preheating to ensure that it is even and uniform. most. Heat the starting point to a dark red heat. Typical uses are brazing of cracked parts and building up worn surfaces such as gear and gear wheel teeth. melt off a new drop and repeat the procedure. which is called "searing" should be practiced as a matter of course before attempting to braze weld cast iron. Surplus flux must be removed by hot water and brushing. which should be held flat at an angle of about 15 . This filler metal is extremely easy to work with. Brazed connections are compact and machinable.30° to the workpiece. However. Joining is done with the filler metal Unitor FC-Castiron 268S. has high tensile strength and the structure and color of cast iron. of this graphite can be burnt away. preheat the part(s) to 300 . the joining can be done with the filler rod Unitor FC-Wearbro 262. Do not stir the weld pool with the rod. The rod is flux coated and the use of additional flux is not necessary.SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron Searing Even after filling there will still be graphite present in the surfaces to be joined. Alternatively. Graphite is a refractory material. if not all. and melt off a little of the flux coating. 2. Touch the rod to the surface Braze leftward When the brazing work is completed. Braze welding When braze welding cast iron the flame should be adjusted to have a slight surplus of oxygen (oxidising flame). applying the same technique as described for FCCastiron 268S. The filler also fuses to oil impregnated cast iron. the strength and machinability is lower than for FC-Castiron 268S.07 Preheating After the searing is completed. which can inhibit "tinning". By playing the inner cone of an oxidising flame from the welding torch over the surfaces off the groove. When the filler has flowed freely into the seam.

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Cold repair of cast iron General Where there are limitations to hot work, cold repair materials are an alternative. Polymer materials are essentially epoxy or polyurethane products with additions of metal or ceramic filler. They are cold curing materials consisting of a base and activator that are mixed together. During solidification and curing it does not develop any heat. Polymer materials form a surface bonding and it is absolutely essential that the base materials surface be cleaned in order to give good addition. Therefore: 1) Surfaces must be cleaned and ruffed up in order to give a good bonding. 2) Measure out base and activator according to instructions 3) Mix base and activator thoroughly together. Any unmixed material will not solidify. 4) At first only apply a small amount of product and make sure to press it hard into the prepared surface securing good bonding. Afterwards add more product and build up to required height. If needed, a reinforcement bandage can be added to the product in order to increase strength. NB. In order for curing to take place the ambient temperature for polymers must at least be + 5°C. Polymer products are organic material that will start to carbonise at 150°C.This will make a natural limitation to polymer when it comes to high temperature application and in cases where there are specific demand for fire retardant properties. One must also check that the polymer product to be used is resistant to the cargo the part is handling. Recommended products: Metalgrade Express Metalgrade Rebuild Leak Stop Pipe repair I, II or III

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97

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 1. In some repair situations the cast iron is so corroded and oxidized that welding is cannot be done In this kind of situations cold repairs might be the solution. Clean surface to remove grease and accumulated dirt. Remove as much of the loose metal and oxides as possible. Thoroughly abrade the edge and the surrounding surface of the hole. If the hole is large, a metal mesh formed to the shape of the hole should be made. Measure up and mix a small quantity of Metalgrade Express and apply it along the edge of the hole. Remember to squeeze the product hard into the surface to secure good bonding. The first thin covering acts as a "wetting layer" to improve adhesion. Place the pre cut mesh down in the hole so that it makes contact with the polymer along the edge. If needed secure it with additional polymer. Allow drying for 6 minutes (at 20°C). With the mesh securely fastened measure up and mix a sufficient quantity of Metalgrade Rebuild. Apply the product on to the mesh spreading it out evenly. Apply the product to totally encapsulate the mesh and blend it in with the Metalgrade Express already on the cast-iron edge. If the mesh size is too big, and the polymer falls trough, apply reinforcement bandage on the mesh to prevent it happening. If necessary, support the mesh by placing steel wires across the hole. The wires can be fastened to the edge by a small tack weld or by drilling a hole with slightly bigger diameter.
98

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SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 2. After welding has successfully been employed to weld a crack, it sometimes turns out that there is liquid penetrating through porosity in the weld or heat affected zone.

The porosity is often caused by residue oil in the cast iron structure. Instead of risking cracking by further welding, polymer can be used to seal the surface area. The surface must be thoroughly degreased and abraded. In some cases grind or drill out the porosity to half it’s depth. Remember that grinding has a tendency to polish the surface and require abrading afterwards.

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If you are repairing small areas, simply measure, mix and apply the Metalgrade Express. Use the Metalgrade Rebuild if larger areas are to be covered. It is very important to squeeze the product hard into the surface in order to secure good bonding and sealing.

99

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 3. Another area of application where polymer can be useful is on pipes, conduit and ducting made of cast iron. Holes, cracks and splits in piping may be tackled from the outside of the pipe without complete disassembly of the system. Using polymer also avoids welding cast iron in position, something that can be difficult. Thoroughly degrease the area to be repaired. Remove all paint, rust and scale. Make sure the surface is abraded. internal surface of the backing plate. Press the plate firmly over the area. The plate should now be held in place until the product has set, this could be done using wire, plastic strapping or cable ties.

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Once the patch has set the ties can be removed. Measure out, mix and apply more products over the patch to totally encapsulate it. If a highpressure repair, the product must be applied to the patch and the complete circumference of the pipe.

The repair may require the use of a metal backing plate to strengthen the repair. Select a piece of steel plate of equal thickness to the damaged pipe and shape it to the outside dimensions of the damaged area. The plate should extend 5 cm beyond each side of the damaged area.

Thoroughly abrade the inside and outside of the plate to achieve a coarse profile. Measure up, mix and apply Metalgrade Rebuild or Express to the prepared pipe surface and to the

Wrap reinforcement tape around the pipe and patch totally encapsulating it. Make sure the product is impregnating the tape so that the final surface consists of product that can be smoothed out and blending in with the pipe surface.

100

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron
Repair case 4. Polymer cold repair can also be used with good results on cast iron that requires large surface area repairs. Welding will in most cases crack the cast iron because of high heat input, wile polymer being a cold curing process has none of these problems. Flange repairs are a typical application area and so are cast iron pump housings where cavitational wear gouges out the metal. When fluid flow environment is creating wear, the correct product to use is Ceramigrade Rebuild and/ or Liner (information on this products to be found in the Unitor Welding Handbook).

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101

SOLUTIONS: Cast Iron

Description Large cast iron components ex­posed to vibration, strain and sudden loads, and where several layers of weld metal may be needed, e.g. cargo pipes, valve bodies, machine bases, pump housings, pump impellers, flywheels. Oil-impregnated cast iron, often found in motor blocks, gear boxes, cylinder heads, fuel pump cylinders, and frames in fuel oil purifiers.

Solution

Examples

NIFE-334N

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NICKEL333N

Smaller parts that can be preheated and allowed to cool slowly after welding, e.g. pump housings, levers, pillow blocks, exhaust manifolds, pulleys, and gear wheels with broken or worn teeth. Repair of holes in cast iron components by inserting a steel plate, welding cast iron to steel.

FCCAST IRON-268 NIFE-334N

NIFE-334N NICKEL333N

Rebuilding cast iron, for example valve seats in cylinder heads, or exhaust valve housings.

NIFE-334N NICKEL333N

102

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES

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103

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Introduction
The most common type of copper is electrolytically refined and treated to obtain different qualities. Pure copper has limited use on board except as copper piping. Cast parts are usually in brass or bronze alloy. Copper normally contains a small amount of oxygen. Oxygen combines with the copper forming copper oxide. The oxide is distributed in the metal in very small quantities and does not affect the mechanical characteristics of the metal. However, during welding the oxide can cause porosity in the weld. Copper which is heated up to approx. 900°C will become brittle and weak as the copper oxide diffuses to the crystal boundaries where it collects and weakens the strength of the metal, in hot and cold condition. In this way, welding will weaken the metal in a joint. The best method of joining copper piping is therefore brazing with FC-BRONZE or with AG 45 or AG 60.

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Brass Straight brasses

Copper alloys Bronze Special brasses Naval brass Brass Brass is usually an alloy of copper and zinc, but other alloy elements may also be present. The zinc content in brass may vary from 5–50% in the different types. The type of straight brasses used for mechanical purposes will usually contain between 63–75% copper, i.e.: –  Cu 70%, Zn 30% (70:30 brass) –  Cu 60%, Zn 40% (Muntz metal) Admiralty brass Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro)

Different types of special brasses are also available: e.g. Admiralty brass (Cu 70%, Zn 29%, Sn 1%) or Naval brass (Cu 58–64%, Sn 1%, Zn balance). Both these may be brazed the same way as straight brasses. Aluminium brass however should be treated in a special way.

Brazing: AG 45 or AG 60 with AG 60/45 FLUX
104

FC-BRONZE and BRONZE FLUX FC-WEARBRO and WEARBRO FLUX

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro) Copper sea water piping on board ships has increasingly been replaced by Yorcalbro pipes. Yorcalbro (aluminium brass) is an alloy with the following chemical composition and mechanical specification: Some years ago, numerous welding tests were carried out on Yorcalbro pipes using the TIG (GTAW) process. The results were very satisfactory. Both small and large size pipes were welded in these tests, and the conclusions were as follows:

Alloy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Cu 76%, Al 2%,     Zn 21,96%, As 0.04% Tensile strength: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .     Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . . Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   310–370 N/mm2 Hardness: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .     Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . .     Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elongation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Hard (untreated) . . . . . . . .     Heat treated . . . . . . . . . . .     Annealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific weight: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8.34 Outside coefficient per °C: . . . . . .   000013. The use of Yorcalbro piping allows a higher flow rate in the pipe than possible with copper piping. A flow rate up to 3.5m/s is permitted in Yorcalbro pipes compared to 1.52 m/s in copper pipes. Aluminium brass pipes are more durable than copper pipes. Aluminium brass pipes have a widespread use in cooling water installations, sanitary installations, oil coolers, heat exchangers, heat coils etc. In view of the widespread use of aluminium brass piping on ships, maintenance is inevitable. Common repairs include welding of leakages and replacement of pipe lengths subjected to corrosion. The most serious problems appear to arise in connection with the repair of leakages in large-dimension Yorcalbro pipes.

  580–700 N/mm2   360–470 N/mm2   165–194 HB   83–111 HB   63–78 HB   8–15%   55–65%   65–75%

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– Pipes with diameters less than 4'' where the repair can take the form of an overlapped joint should be silver brazed using Unitor AG 60 and Unitor ALBRO flux. – Pipes with diameters exceeding 4'' should be TIG welded using Unitor IALBRO-237MF and the special flux, IFLUX-238PF. Wire welding: IALBRO-W-237. – Pipes should be unstressed before welding takes place, and cold bended piping should be annealed at 400–500°C for approximately 20–30 min. Finished welds, and an area covering approx. 15 cm to either side of the bead should be annealed. Annealing temperature 300–400°C for 30–40 min.

105

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Bronze Bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin, which may also contain small quantities of other alloys. Phosphor bronze contains 0.05% to 0.1% phosphorus. Lead bronze is used in bearings. Sn 10%, Pb 5–25%, remainder copper. Gun metal, Cu 88%, Sn 10%, Zn 2%. Welding: TINBRO-341 Brazing: AG 45, AG 60 and AG 60/45 FLUX FC-BRONZE and BRONZE FLUX FC-WEARBRO and WEARBRO FLUX Aluminium bronze (Cu + Al) This type of bronze has good strength properties, may be machined, and is also suitable for casting. The main advantage of these bronzes is their excellent resistance to corrosion in seawater which makes them suitable for ships’ propellers, etc. These alloys contain up to 15% aluminium. Other alloy elements are Fe, Ni and Mn. Nickel aluminium bronze contains Cu 79%, Al 9.5%, Ni 5%, Fe 4.2%, Mn 2.3%. This alloy shall not be preheated before welding. Manganese aluminium bronze is used for ships’ propellers and consists of Al 9–10%, Mn 11%, Fe 2–3%, Ni 1–2% and the remainder copper. Welding: ALBRONZE-344 Brazing: AG 45, AG 60 and AG 60/45 FLUX FC-BRONZE and BRONZE FLUX FC-WEARBRO and WEARBRO FLUX

2.08

Bronze Tin bronze (Phosphor bronze) Lead bronze Gun metal Nickel bronzes Cunifer NiAl Aluminium bronzes MnAl

106

SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys
Nickel bronzes (Cunifer) “Cunifer 10” (copper nickel) and “Cunifer 30” (cupro nickel) are supplementary alloys to Yorcalbro. These alloys are corrosion resistant – the higher the nickel content, the higher the resistance. Strength and hardness also increase in relation to nickel content.
(Alloy)

port where the seawater is polluted by sulphides, the pipes may become coated with sulphide-containing sludge which can stimulate corrosion over a prolonged period even when the vessel moves to cleaner waters. In such cases the use of “Cunifer 10” or “Cunifer 30” piping is recom­

CUNIFER 10 (Copper nickel) Ni 10%, Fe 2% Cu 87%, Mn 1%

CUNIFER 30 (Cupro nickel) Ni 30%, Fe 0.7% Cu 68.5%, Mn 0.8%

Tensile strength N/mm2 – Hard (untreated) 530–580 630–700 – Heat treated 390–500 – Annealed 310–390 360–400 Elongation % – Hard (untreated)   10–  15    5–  10 – Heat treated   20–  35 – Annealed   40–  55   40–  55 – Hardness HB – Hard (untreated) 155–184 165–204 – Heat treated   97–126 – Annealed   78–  97   87–107 8.9 0.000016 8.9 0.000015

2.08

Specific weight – Outside coefficient per °CV

These alloys which have special properties and are widely used on vessels in river and canal traffic, on lakes, or on vessels which regularly call at ports where the water is heavily polluted or contains, sand or sludge. They have excellent resistance against wear by erosion, corrosion and abrasion. When it is envisaged that the piping in a cooling system will be exposed to sulphide polluted seawater, material with good resistance against water of this type should be chosen. Industrial discharge may contain sulphides, and even during a short stay in a

mended. The use of 70/30 piping was previously limited due to high cost. However, the recommendation for the use of these pipes over the entire dimension range is based on the fact that 70/30 pipes have a considerably higher resistance to pitting corrosion than 90/10 pipes. Thermal power plants all over the world use 70/30 pipes to handle polluted cooling water. The same recommendation applies to vessels which are regularly subjected to polluted water in cooling systems. Brazing: AG60 and AG60/45 FLUX. TIG welding: ICUNI 30-239. Wire welding: ICUNI-W-239.

107

TINBRO-341 Repair of cracks in large pump housings. Solution Examples AG-60-252 AG-45-253 2. or rebuilding wear. TINBRO-341 108 . FCBRONZE-261 BRONZE-264 FCWEARBRO-262 TINBRO-341 BRONZ-ALLOY Building up blade of pump impeller or walls in pump housing. building up wear edges that have worn down. Bronze pump impeller.08 Copper pipe of more than 30 mm diameter where I-joint is used for butt welding or T-junction for branching.SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys Description Copper tubes and fittings of diameters up to 30 mm with capillary joint.

for joining or for patching over pittings.SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys Description Filling holes in small valve housings where wear or corrosion has caused damage.08 Rebuilding worn sliding surfaces on bronze bearings. FC-BRONZE261 BRONZE-264 2. where a capillary joint can be made. for patching or for joining. Solution FC-BRONZE261 BRONZE-264 TINBRO-341 Examples Building up worn threads or surfaces in valve and pump components. FCWEARBRO-262 Yorcalbro-pipe diameter less than 100 mm. AG-60-252 IALBRO-237MF IALBRO-W-237 109 . Yolcalbro pipe diameter over 100 mm.

like heating coil boxes. like heat exchangers. ICUNI-30-239 ICUNI-W-239 Conductors and cables of copper. ICUNI-30-239 ICUNI-W-239 Large components in Cunifer. Solution Examples IALBRO-237MF IALBRO-W-237 2. for butt welding. AG-60-252 Cunifer pipes over 100 mm. where capillary joint can be prepared.08 Joining Cunifer pipes with diameter under 100 mm. SOLDERING TIN-241 AG 110 . for flanges and for Tjunctions.SOLUTIONS: Copper and Copper Alloys Description Repair of large components in Yorcalbro.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.08 111 .

a refractory skin of oxide quickly forms on the surface. Only a limited number of aluminium alloys are considered suitable for use on board ships. the difference in melting temperatures will make it difficult for the metal of the workpiece to bind with the filler. When aluminium and its alloys come into contact with air. 2. Other characteristic properties of aluminium are a high coefficient of expansion. As an alloy. Filler materials for Aluminium in the Unitor range are: Coated electrode: ALUMlN-351N Gas welding rod: ALUMAG-235 Wire welding: ALUMAG-W-235 For gas welding of aluminium it is required to use a flux that removes oxides. but strength can be compared to mild steel. aluminium retains the same appearance as pure aluminium and approximately the same low weight. 112 . The strength of aluminium can be considerably improved by the addition of small quantities of alloy elements.09 AIMg 3 and AIMg 1 are seawater resistant aluminium alloys. before a new oxide film has time to develop. It is characterized by low weight. Thorough cleaning and the use of flux is therefore essential when gas welding aluminium.000°C. considerably higher than that of aluminium. easily shaped metal with low strength. Welding should be done immediately after cleaning. and the absence of colour change when heated to melting point. good electrical and heat conductivity. Included oxides will also reduce the strength of the weld. excellent corrosion resistance and good electrical conductivity. When alloyed with copper and silicon.SOLUTIONS: Aluminium Metals and welding solutions: Aluminium Pure aluminium (Al) is a soft. aluminium can be used for the manufacture of cast components (silumin). Use Unitor ALUFLUX-234F. Unless this layer of oxide is effectively removed during the welding operation. The melting point of aluminium oxide is over 2. which melts at 660°C.

ALUMAGW-235 2. Cover plates and smaller parts. ALUMAGW-235 113 . seawater resistant aluminium and cast aluminium.SOLUTIONS: Aluminium Description Welding repairs of pure aluminium. ALUMAG-235 and ALUFLUX-234F ALUMIN-351N Plate and tube constructions in gang way. Solution Examples ALUMAG-235 and ALUFLUX-234F ALUMIN-351 Cracks in larger parts.09 Holes or fractures in smaller parts.

fusion faults may result. especially when welding with basic electrodes. 114 . A larger electrode diameter should be used. Bead edge defects Bead edge irregularities can occur if current output is too high. Pores Pores in the weld may be due to moisture content in the electrode coating. Pores in the weld may also arise if the base material to be welded is wet or damp. the electrode should be momentarily held still at each side of the bead to obtain good penetration and avoid edge defects. or the rate of travel too high.10 Root faults When laying the first bead along the root in a butt joint. Insufficient penetration may be due to the current setting being too low. and the base material preheated. A porous weld will have reduced strength properties. i. allowing air into the weld zone. Edge faults and undercut may act as fracture indicators in the welded connection. Fusion faults If the current is too low or rate of travel too high.e. Other reasons can be because of to long an arc. Bead edge faults may also occur at correct current output if the arc is too long or if electrode movement is incorrect. The electrode may also be too large for the groove to be welded. Fusion faults may also occur if a small electrode is used on a large area of cold base material. When current is excessive. insufficient melting and fusion between the filler and the base metal. penetration will be too high. When welding upwards on a vertical plane and using a weaving movement. penetration at the root may be irregular or insufficient.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Typical welding faults Unmelted edge Bead crown too high Undercut Crack Poor fusion Embedded slag Pores Root fault 2.

The higher the melting point. Tension across the weld can cause heat cracks even if the base material does not segregate in the weld.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Heat cracks Heat cracks may appear during or just after the cooling off period. the higher is the risk of hydrogen cracks. switch to basic electrodes. there is very little deformation property in a weld. Shrinkage cracks will usually appear across the weld direction and be caused by considerable lengthwise shrinkage. the material is not weldable. Basic electrodes are the best safeguard against shrinkage cracks. a heat crack will result. When combined with hard phases in the weld and sufficient stress it will form cracks. The most common reason for hydrogen cracks is that moist or damp electrodes is used during welding. At a narrow. In cases where heat cracks are caused by these substances. This type of crack can be avoided by clamping workpieces in special jigs which control shrinkage. Shrinkage cracks Hydrogen cracks (Cold cracks) Weld metal cracks are caused by hydrogen and may occur in any type of steel which has been hardened or which may become hardened during the welding process. If heat cracks appear when welding with basic electrodes. The water in the coating will change into hydrogen in the arc and end up as hydrogen porosity dissolved in the weld metal and the Hydrogen cracks heat affected zone (HAZ) immediately (cold cracks) adjacent to the molten zone. This layer prevents fusion of the crystals. There are two main causes: Impurities in the base material which have a tendency to segregate and may form a layer in the middle of the weld. normally martensite. Segregated substances are first and foremost carbon and sulphur. A heat crack will occur in the middle of the bead and will appear as a straight crack on the surface. Steel with a high yield point will contain a certain amount of hardened structure.10 115 . Heat cracks and if shrinking in the metal is greater than the stretch in the weld. just after coagulation of the bead. critical temperature range. Shrinkage cracks Shrinkage cracks occur when the deformation property (toughness) of the weld is less than the actual shrinkage movement. 2.

2. For the more highly alloyed steels and steels with thicker dimensions. If the Ec dimension of the plates and heat input are known.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds The cracks might occur long time after welding is completed and are therefor often referred to as cold cracks. The following formula describes this process in the case of standard carbon-manganese steel. Try to avoid burning cavities. Other hydrogen sources are rust. please consult BS 5135:1984 or SS 064025. Clean off mill scale and rust from the surfaces to be welded and make sure you choose the correct electrode for the welding position to be used.35 and below are usually weldable without any problems at normal steel thickness. are forced to dissolve in the weld metal and make it brittle. mostly carbon. The elevated temperature also allows the hydrogen to diffuse. paint or condensation along the welding groove. Note the following: Hard phases form when the weld is cooled rapidly from melting temperature to room rature. Preheating the groove to say 50 °C will help considerably in reducing the amount of hydrogen. Use a chipping hammer and wire brush for this purpose. All slag must be properly removed after finishing each weld bead. as steel expands when heated. Alloying elements. Ec = %C + %Mn + %(Cr+Mo+V) + %(Ni+Cu) 6 5 15 Tension cannot be avoided when welding. these standards will state whether heating is necessary and the level at which it should take place. an elevated working temperature is necessary in order to reduce the cooling rate.10 Steels with Ec = 0. Slag embedded in weld Slag consists of non-metallic particles originating from the coating of the electrode. as any slag deposited in such cavities will be difficult to remove. 116 . make sure there is sufficient gap to provide good fusion and easy slag removal. To determine elevated working temperatures. Slag embedded in the weld will seriously affect the strength of the weld. although correct planning and heat treatment can reduce tension considerably. When preparing the welding groove. Conclusion: Dry basic electrodes when there is risk of cold cracking. oil.

10 117 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

not only to meet the specifications. it can be a significant factor in weld quality. improperly cut or damaged pieces should be ordered for repair or rejected. despite its almost casual nature. paint. heavy scale – that should be detrimental to the weld shall be removed. type. it is usually desirable that someone is assigned the responsibility for quality checking each operation. size. prior to. The materials should be examined to see if they meet specifications for quality. flatness. as well as the appointed inspector. Ruler and Welders gauge – grease. The joint preparation must be correct before welding is started. Often little more than a passing glance is required as a preliminary inspection. In addition to good eyesight and proper light. Foreign matter 2. participate in visual inspection. Nevertheless. the tools for visual inspection are simple – a pocket rule. alignment. a magnifying glass. but also to give assurance of weld quality. A good joint design will provide access for the welder. and sometimes a straight edge and square for determining straightness. oxide film. Alignment and fixtures should be scrutinised. 118 . during and after welding. oil. and freedom from discontinuities. a weld-size gauge. everyone involved in the job. bent. Check Material Certificate Inspector’s tools: Magnifying glass. and perpendicularity. The pieces to be joined should be checked for straightness. cleanliness. This function may be the responsibility of the superintendent or other representative of the ship owner: Prior to welding Visual inspection should begin before the first arc is struck.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Inspection of welded joints Inspection indicates whether the prescribed standard of quality has been met. A conscientious worker does not knowingly pass on work in which he recognises discontinuities of his own making. Warped. and dimensions. In a sense.10 Visual inspection from start to finish Visual inspection is the best buy in Non Destructive Testing (NDT) but it must take place constantly. Torch. Joint preparation should be checked. adequate root opening to permit full fused penetration and correct groove angle to minimise volume of weld metal. but.

but it is important that they have been stored properly in unopened containers unharmed by moisture. Inspection prior to welding also includes verification of correct process and procedures are to be employed – that the electrode type and size and the equipment settings for voltage and amperage are as specified – and that provisions are made for required preheat or post heat. welding procedures and operator training. So are the welding consumable (filler metals). and each introduces problems affecting joint preparation. leaving slag at at the root. To ensure uniform results the welders procedures must be spelled out in detail and followed rigorously during welding. it will melt through 2. the weld will bridge the gap. If the root opening is too wide. Each welding process has its advantages and limitations. Only qualified people must be assigned to the job.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Remember: 50% of quality is edge preparation Faults to look for: Improperly cut edges Disalignment Groove angle and root opening If the gap is too narrow. In most inspection situations the welding process is decided beforehand.10 Check at regular intervals that the consumables used match specification 119 .

however. type of consumable etc. it may be desirable to inspect each layer before the next.10 Slag trapping may also be caused by a convex bead Check that welding parameters are according to procedure with regard to type of current. Check that the welding parameters match the parameters laid down in the approved welding procedure.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Excessive penetration Lack of penetration The root pass in multi pass grooves are especially susceptible to cracking Groove welds are prone to undercut along the edges. Examination of a weld bead and the end crater may to a competent inspector reveal quality deficiencies such as cracks. and gas and slag inclusions. increasing the risk of trapping slag when the next pass is made 2. On simple welds. During welding Assuming the preliminary requirements are met. The root pass in a multipass weld is the most critical one with regard to weld soundness. inadequate penetration. 120 . polarity. the productive inspection will take place while the weld is being done. inspection of a specimen at the beginning of the operation and periodically as the work progresses may be adequate. When more than one layer of filler metal is deposited. amperage.

he can read much from what he sees. Underwelding is a violation of specification and can not be tolerated. Shot blasting should not be used prior to examination. even if ultrasonic. leading to repairs or rejection of the work. surface flaws such as cracks.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds After welding Visual inspection after welding has been completed is also useful in evaluating quality. Subsequent tests will also give clues to faults in equipment or procedures. The extent and continuity of the weld. Welds must be cleaned from slag to make inspection for surface flaws possible. and unfilled craters can be detected. Thus. since the peening action may seal fine cracks and make them invisible. The objective of visual inspection at this stage is not only to detect non permissible faults. but also to give clues as to what may be wrong in the entire repair /fabrication process. and faults in appearance are detected visually at this stage. A 10x magnifying glass is helpful in detecting fine cracks and other faults. As welding progresses. Dimensional variations from tolerances. radiographic. 2. 121 . porosity. its size. It only makes the construction stiffer and heavier.10 A-measurement Leg length Leg length The designer has specified a weld size and this should be observed. For filled joints it is also important that the leg lengths are equal. Overwelding is costly and serves no useful purpose. but the information acquired through visual examination allows corrections to be made before results from more sophisticated methods become available. warping. the presence of excessive porosity and slag inclusions may be an indication of insufficient current even if the dial readings on the machine tell otherwise. If the inspector has a sound knowledge of welding. and the length of segments in intermittent welds can be readily measured or recorded. or other methods are to be employed. There is no point in submitting an obvious bad weld to sophisticated inspection methods.

Insufficient electrode angle. High impurity level in base material Slag inclusion Faulty technique. Wrong electrode size or off-spec welding parameters. Insufficient preheat. Underfill Too high welding speed Undercut High current. Speed of travel too fast. insufficient flux/gas coverage. Insufficient preheating. 122 . What to look for PRIOR TO WELDING: • Type/state of base material • Joint design • Welding process • Consumables • Welding procedure • Welder’s qualifications What to do DURING WELDING: • Compare welding parameters with procedure • Inspect each layer before the next What to look for AFTER WELDING: • The final weld result • Size of weld (measuring) Faults and causes: 2.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Summing up inspection of welded joints. wet electrodes or flux.10 Surface porosity Excessive speed. rusty or dirty plates. Cold cracks (Hydrogen cracks) Wet electrodes or flux. Hot cracks Excessively high current.

a dye penetrant that penetrates down in cracks and porosity. 2.SOLUTIONS: Evaluation of welds Crack Detection By using dye penetrant we can detect surface cracks not readily visible to the eye. inspection method. Step 1) Remove surface rust. Step 4) Spray developer evenly over the inspection area and wait a few minutes until the area dries white. scale. but they require specialised personnel and equipment. 123 . spray cleaner to degrease the inspection area. 3 pcs. 1 pcs. Leave to dry. There are also other non-destructive methods. Any surface defects will appear in red contrast. Cloth. paint by mechanical means. Set 096-653535 Set 096-653543 Set 096-653550 Set 096-653568 * Kit comes in convenient Shoulder carry case and consist of: 3 pcs. Dye Penetrant Inspection products Product description Magna Flux Crack detection kit* Cleaner SKC-S 10 pcs of 400 ml in a box Penetrant SKL-SP1 10 pcs of 400 ml in a box Developer SKD-S2 10 pcs of 400 ml in a box Unit Product no. 2 pcs. and a developer. Cleaner. For detection of internal porosity. It is a low cost and easy to use. The dye penetrant kits consist of a cleaner to clean the surface for grease and oil.10 Step 3) Remove all excess penetrant using a dry cloth and wipe dry. cracks and slag inclusions radiographic and ultrasonic methods must be used. Step 2) Spray penetrant over the area and allow to soak for about ten minutes. Penetrant. Developer.

10 124 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 2.

. . . . . . . . . . . .   126 Tig Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   251 Cold Repair Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   277 3.   199 Wires for Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   241 Brazing Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   217 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes .CONSUMABLES coated Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 148 GPO-302 N General Purpose Electrode For Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   152 SPECIAL-303 N Double Coated Electrode for Mild and Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COATED ELECTRODES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .   154 LH-314 N Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . .   182 NIFE-334 N NICKEL-333 N TINBRO-341 ALBRONZE-344 ALUMIN-351 N CH-2-382 ACA-384 Nickel Iron Electrode for Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   140 Welding positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   184 Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . .   192 Electrode for Chamfering . . . . . . . . . . .   156 LHH-314 H High Recovery Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   168 IMPACT-329 S Electrode for Heat Resistant Overlays .   186 Electrode for Copper Alloys . .   166 TENSILE-328 N Electrode for Difficult-to-Weld Steel . . . . . . . .   170 WEARMAX-327 Electrode for Joining & Wear Resistant Overlays   172 ABRATECH-330 Electrode for abrasive wear . . . . . . . . . . . .   178 DUPLEX-325 N Electrode for Duplex Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   174 18/8-321 N Electrode for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   196 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   160 LHT-318 N Electrode for High Temperature Steel . . .   188 Electrode for Copper Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . .   190 Electrode for Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   162 LHL-319 N Electrode for Low Temperature Steel . . . . . . . . . .   158 LHV-316 N Vertical Down Welding Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   176 23/14-322 N Electrode for Stainless Steel . . . . .   134 Classification and approvals .   128 Storing and re-drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   150 GPR-300H High Recovery Electrode for Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Types of electrodes . . . .   164 LHR-320 N Electrode for Weathering Steel . . . .   194 Electrode for Air Carbon Arc Gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   180 PICKLING GEL Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel . .

and if applicable. the Unitor electrodes for structural work have been given Low Moisture Absorption properties when manufactured. cap and box are made out of the same recycled material and does not need to be separated when recycling. yet to be as compact as possible. AWS number. Welding on board is often required in awkward positions. contamination and physical damage. the moisture turns into hydrogen in the arc that again ends up as hydrogen porosity in the weld deposit. When welding.COATED ELECTRODES Introduction The Unitor standard electrode range contains electrodes for: • Mild and low alloy steels • Cast steel • Heat resistant steel • Low temperature steel • Weathering steel • Stainless and acid-resistant steels • Tool. Easily welded electrodes are necessary to achieve good results without too stringent demands on the welder’s skill. LMA Properties All electrode coatings are hygroscopic ( they absorb moisture from the atmosphere ). All Unitor electrodes have an imprint with name. 3. Each electrode therefore covers a wide range of applications. whenever possible the electrode’s welding properties are equally good also in the vertical and over-head positions. It is composed to cover all normally occurring applications on board. This greatly reduces the electrodes moisture absorption rate.01 127 . The Unitor standard range has been composed with this in mind. Packed for Maritime Conditions The electrode box is made of high density polyethylene making it the right place for storing and protecting electrodes from moisture pickup. With the Best Welding Properties Special care has been taken to select electrodes with the best all-round welding properties. The information label that is placed on the box gives all relevant information to how the electrodes are to be used.and machine-part steels • Cast iron • Aluminium and aluminium alloys • Copper and copper alloys • Air-carbon-arc gouging • Gouging with standard equipment A Product Range Selected for Maritime Use High quality coupled with versatility is a basic factor for the selection of arc welding electrodes in the Unitor standard range. Electrodes with LMA properties are marked "LMA electrodes". Label. In order to extend the electrodes usable lifetime and safeguard against cold cracking. Combined with other undesirable effects this can turn into hydrogen cracking also known as cold cracking in the weld. This reduces the number of electrode types needed on board.

and overhead welding is thereby made possible. To strike an arc the electrode must first touch the workpiece. and the resulting crater in the end of the electrode aids directional stability of the weld.01 The Arc A Weld deposit B Penetration C Heat affected zone (HAZ) Metal globule Gas shield Slag Core rod Coating A B C Weld pool 128 . The actual transfer of metal from the electrode to the workpiece is in the form of molten globules of different sizes depending on the type of electrode used.COATED ELECTRODES Types of electrodes What happens when the arc is struck? The electrode is part of an electronic circuit. High speed films have been taken of the process in the arc from a coated electrode. floats up and forms a coating on top of the weld. Mains electricity supply Electrode holder Welding cable Return cable Return clamp Welding machine Workpiece 3. Arc Electrode The arc will immediately melt some of the coating and core wire of the electrode tip. 7000 °C) the gas will be ionized. At the temperatures found in the arc (approx. At this point the slag separates from the metal. This drop is then carried through the arc to the molten pool. and the gas shield shown in the figure is formed. providing good electrical conductivity in the arc. The core rod in the electrode melts faster than the coating. These films indicate that the globules actually explode. This so-called pinch force is stronger than the force of gravity. This action causes a shortcircuit. In these cases it is of special importance that the welding power source has a fast dynamic response so that extreme currents and spatter are avoided. the arc is formed. As soon as the globule leaves the electrode. the extremely high temperature behind it causes an explosion-like expansion effect and the metal is drawn towards the molten pool. it is covered by slag material from the electrode coating. When a drop leaves the electrode. and when the electrode is withdrawn slightly. Some electrodes produce globules that are so large that they actually shortcircuit the arc for a moment.

When molten. which acts as protection against the atmosphere during welding.2. 4. and when it is melted together with the coating material. As a rule. Electrode size (2. it provides the filler which is necessary to obtain a welded joint. the alloy in the rod will be similar to the material to be welded.COATED ELECTRODES Types of electrodes Electrodes for manual arc welding (sometimes referred to as stick welding) consist of a rod and a coating material. which increase the metal depositing properties of the electrode during welding.01 The coated electrode Rod core grip end Coating Electrode size Rod core 129 . The coating may also contain substances (i. 3. Control of Recovery By adding metal powder into the coating we can regulate the electrodes recovery (Deposition rate). iron powder). the coating also provides a gas shield around the molten pool. The coating elements form a slag when cool which further protects the weld during the cooling down process.5.0 mm etc. The object of the electrode coating is to provide easy striking and a stable arc.e. The coating material also contains elements which affect the transport of metal across the arc and provide good mechanical and chemical properties to the alloy formed between the base material and the rod core in the electrode. 3.) indicates the diameter of the rod core. The rod forms part of the welding circuit.

AIR AIR 3. Gas Shield The shielding ingredients in the coating is to provide a dense smoke shield preventing Oxygen and Nitrogen from reaching the pool / arc area Slag Formation Slag forming elements are part of the electrode coating and they are there in order to: 1) Protect crater and globules against oxygen during the droplet transfer.COATED ELECTRODES Types of electrodes The function of the core rod is to provide electricity to the arc and to melt and become weld deposit. 3) Give the weld a slow cooling rate. Many of the elements might evaporate and will have to be compensated for by putting alloying elements into the coating. By adding ionising elements that evaporates during welding we create a plasma cloud where the current can travel.01 Crater Formation Elements in coating that makes the melting boundary of the coating to be behind that of the core rod. 4) Form the weld: Welding is a small scale casting operation and requires a mould. 130 . minerals and organic substances have several functions: Ionisation Air is a non conductor. The slag is the mould. For AC welding this function is essential in order to perform welding. The arc is in this way concentrated to one spot directly under the electrode tip. Metal Transfer The transfer of metal globules from the electrode tip to the molten pool is made possible by a combination of elements in the coating "exploding" the droplets over and the current that performs a "pinch" effect. Alloying Elements In the arc the temperature reaches 7000 °C. The coating consisting of metals. 2) Clean the weld pool by combining itself with impurities and bring them to the surface before solidification.

The reason for this is that basic electrodes can be deposited at a higher current in the vertical position than other types of electrode. The Basic type (Low Hydrogen) Organic electrodes contain large quantities of organic substances such as cellulose.and hard surfacing because of its shallow penetrations and high weld buildup. The organic-rutile electrode is usually the cold welding type. which is an advantage when welding in different positions. the metallurgical character which is an acid. The rutile type of electrode has especially good welding properties both with AC and DC. the amount of weld metal deposited per electrode is greater than that of 3. The coating contains oxides of the low pH value hence the term acid.01 131 . the first rule is to select one which produces a weld metal quality equal to or better than that of the base material and. The rate of welding is not particularly high. Rutile electrodes contain large quantities of the mineral rutile (up to 50 %) or components derived from Titanium Oxide. The Rutile type 3. This type of electrode is when alloyed well suited for re. Rutile electrodes can also contain cellulose. The Acid type 4. In addition. The Organic type (Cellulose) 2. Rutile electrodes are relatively insensitive to moisture. but the deposit is of good quality and slag is easily removed. Alloyed acid electrodes are suitable for welding steel with a nominal tensile strength of up to 440 Mpa. Welding position and type of joint are other factors. Unalloyed basic electrodes give moderate welding speed in the flat position but are faster than other types when welding vertically upwards. Unalloyed rutile electrodes are not normally recommended for welding steel with nominal tensile strength exceeding 440 Mpa. a high rate of welding and are equally suitable for AC and DC. The most common types of electrodes are: 1. Acid electrodes provide good fusion. After special heat treatment the coating has a very low hydrogen content. even if it is the first bead in a Vgroove weld. is approved for the material in question. The arc is stable and slag is easily removable. as different electrodes have different properties in different welding positions and types of joint.COATED ELECTRODES Types of electrodes When selecting an electrode. Basic electrodes with low moisture absorption (LMA) have a lower initial moisture content and the speed of remoisturing is much lower than of normal basic electrodes. characterized by a spray arc globular transfer. Big opening between plates can easily be bridged using this type of electrode. when necessary. Acid electrodes produce an Iron Oxide / Manganese Oxide / Silica type of slag. The impact values are low because of oxygen level in the weld metal. which influence the choice of electrode. hence the name. The metal transfer is referred to as explosion arc and the electrodes are well suited for vertical down welding. Basic electrodes Basic electrodes are often referred to as Low Hydrogen electrodes.

it can be classed as easily detachable. The risk of slag inclusions during normal production welding is therefore unusually small when basic electrodes are used. even if the slag is not completely removed between beads during multi-run welding. but. The slag is normally not quite as easy to remove as the slag from acid or rutile electrodes. The higher the hardenability of the steel to be welded.01 Core rod Basic coating Rutile coating 132 . The superiority of basic electrodes from this point of view appears when welding manganese-alloyed structural steels. The weld metal from basic electrodes has a low hydrogen content and usually has good toughness even at low temperatures.COATED ELECTRODES other electrodes. 3. the greater the necessity to use basic electrodes and the greater the need for low moisture content in the coating. Basic electrodes are less likely to produce either hot cracks or cold cracks compared with other types of electrode. This results in a smaller number of electrode changes. in spite of this. In this way the electrode gets the fine droplet transfer of rutile electrodes and the deposit strength of the basic electrode. The slag from basic electrodes has a lower melting point than that from rutile or acid electrodes. pressure-vessel steels and ship’s plate with a nominal tensile strength of 490-530 MPa. The normal result is therefore a higher fusion rate and higher arc-time factor when welding vertically upwards with basic electrodes compared with other types. which can be used in this position. Double coated electrodes These electrodes consist of a thin layer of rutile coating extruded onto the core rod followed by a thicker basic layer.

low moisture pick-up.e. (Cold cracks/Hydrogen cracks) If you weld high tensile steels or very thick plates of medium strength. An LMA. you will gain extra security with LMA electrodes. The electrode can be exposed longer and will still give you a porosity free weld metal.COATED ELECTRODES Unitor LMA electrodes Electrodes with special coating properties. The LMA. LMA will decrease the risk for HAZ cracking. LMA gives you less problem with porosity. LMA stands for Low Moisture Absorption.electrode is drier than ordinary electrodes from the very beginning. The risk for hydrogen cracking in the heat-affected zone will decrease. i. You will still get • the same good weldability • the same mechanical properties • the same low fume formation • the same price Unitor LMA electrodes: SPECIAL-303 N LH-314 N LHH-314 H LHV-316 N LHT-318 N LHL-319 N LHR-320 N 18/8-321 N 24/14-322 N DUPLEX-325 N Electrodes with LMA properties are marked 3. All other properties are unchanged.01 Electrode LMA 133 . The pick-up of the surrounding air humidity during the day is very low.coating does not affect other properties.

oil. Redrying Rutile electrodes showing signs of damage by moisture can be redried at a temperature of 90–110 °C for 0. 134 . As a guideline we recommend the following temperatures in the storage room: Temperatures °C (°F) 5–15 15–25 Above 25 (41–59) (59–77) (77) Max. Redrying should be restricted to 1 cycle. Basic electrodes are normally redried at a temperature of around 350 °C for 2 hours. The most important factors which influence the risk of hydrogen cracking are: •  Chemical composition of the steel •  Cooling rate •  Hydrogen content of the weld metal Hydrogen is always present in small quantities during welding and is a prerequisite for the occurrence of cold cracking. the moisture level in electrode coatings can be minimised. To achieve extreme low hydrogen levels. General background When welding carbon-manganese and low alloyed steels cold cracking (often referred to as hydrogen cracking) can occur. transported and used electrodes will form weld deposits with low hydrogen content. sufficiently low relative humidity can be maintained by air de-humidification. hydrogen porosity can lead to hydrogen cracking (cold cracking) if the component welded is under strain. and procedures for handling and redrying . The purpose is to avoid hydrogen absorption to the extent possible. paint or   pri­mer in the welding joint area. it is possible to maintain low relative humidity by keeping the temperature in the storeroom at least 10 °C (18 °F) above the outdoor temperature.0 ml/100 g. <4. By following the recommended storage. along with the associated risk of cold cracking. heataffected zone (HAZ) of the base plate. < 5 and < 3 ml/100 g Storage and handling Welding consumables should be stored in their original packing. Hydrogen levels are measured as ml H2 /100 g weld deposit and typical levels for different electrode coating types are as follows: Rutile and Acid >15 ml/100 g Basic < 10. These cracks generally form in the coarse-grained.5–1 hour.COATED ELECTRODES Storing and re-drying If properly stored. Redrying should be restricted to a maximum of 3 cycles. Scale C). to achieve a hydrogen level of 5–10 ml/100 g. (BS 5135. The most common sources of hydrogen are: •  Moisture in the electrode coating •  Moisture in the air •  Condensation. If not. During certain periods in the summer and in a tropical climate. vibration or load.01 During the winter. rust. Relative humidity in % 60 50 40 3. a redrying temperature of 42–400 °C is recommended for 1–2 hours.

Minidryer 300–350 °C Rutile electrodes normally no need for re-drying. Observe recommended re-drying temperatures and holding times for Unitor electrodes stated on box label Max exposure time for electrodes in the open is 8 hours. Worksite 135 . Welding electrodes should be stored in their original package. Redrying should be restricted to a maximum of 3 cycles.01 All basic electrodes and stainless steel electrodes should be re-dried before use. Preferably in a de-humidified area or in a heating cabinet. Unused electrodes should be re-dried before being returned to the heating cabinet. Stainless steel electrodes which have been stored outside of their electrode box and have become damaged by moisture pick-up can be redried at a temperature of 300–350 °C for 1–2 hours. Always do when there is application requirements. Heating Cabinet at 80 °C 3.COATED ELECTRODES Re-dried basic electrodes can be stored in a heated cabinet at 80 °C without further moisture pick-up.

Caution: Use gloves when handling warm electrodes from inside the Minidryer350. 50/60 Hz 400 1. the electrodes will protrude approximately 40 mm and are easily accessible.01 T Thermostat w/reg. There are two of this elements inside the Minidryer-350 (400W). This heating element can also be used for the old Unitor Minidryer. It has a thermostat for continuous selection of the temperature from 100 to 350 °C (212 °F to 662 °F). but always closes to prevent the intrusion of unwanted moist air. 3. With the cover in an open position. Product number: 094-637827. The dryer may be used with electrodes of both 350 and 450 mm length. Type Mains Voltage V Heater Output W Primary Operating Width x Depth x Height Current Temperature Inner Dimensions Outer Dimensions A °C mm mm Electrode Capacity kg 8 Net Weight kg 7 Minidryer350 230. When the dryer is tilted. the cover cannot stand open.8 100 to 350 Ø100 x 460 170 x 170 x 570 136 . The Minidryer-350 is equipped with 2 m primary cable and plug. The dryer is very robust in design and are all-over insulated with 40 mm mineral wool. This product should be used for drying electrodes only. Spare Parts: H Heating element. It can also stand permanently in a tilted position. Product number: 094-637843. knob for Minidryer-350. When the dryer is in a tilted position.COATED ELECTRODES Storing and re-drying Minidryer-350 The Minidryer-350 is designed to restore moist electrodes. Product number: 094-637835. The Minidryer-350 Ordering Information: Minidryer-350. or to pre-dry electrodes before welding when this is required. The heating element is rated 200W. a rim around the opening prevents rainwater from entering.

303 N LH. 120°C (248 °F) 1 hour 180°C (356 °F) 10 hours* Re-drying time is measured from the point at which the re-drying temperature has been reached. Recommended re-drying temperatures. Mild steel rutile and rutile / organic electrodes such as GPO-302 N normally need no re-drying Re-drying covered electrodes more than three times is not recommended. Failure to follow these recommendations may produce pores and weld failure. 3. the electrodes can be returned to a heating cabinet and kept at a minimum temperature of 70 °C (158 °F). Unitor Heating Cabinet-85 (094-637850) 85 °C (185 °F) can be used for this purpose. holding time two hours. This information is given on the box label for the individual electrodes. for Unitor electrodes: GPO-302 N GPR-300 H SPECIAL.314 N LHH-314 H LHV-316 N LHT-318 N LHL-319 N LHR-320 N TENSILE-328 N IMPACT-329 S WEARMAX-327 ABRATECH-330 18/8-321 N 23/14-322 N DUPLEX-325 N NIFE-334 N NICKEL-333 N TINBRO-341 ALBRONZE-344 ALUMIN-351 N CH-2-382 ACA-384 Normally no need for re-drying Normally no need for re-drying 300 °C (572 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350°C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 250 °C (482 °F) 250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour 250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour 250 °C (482 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 350 °C (662 °F) 200 °C (392 °F) 80 °C (176 °F) 200 °C (392 °F) 1 hour 250 °C (482 °F) 1 hour Not needed from sealed packing. After re-drying. * The copper coating will oxidize during the process.COATED ELECTRODES Re-drying of Electrodes Customers are recommended to redry low hydrogen electrodes before use whenever there are application requirements relating to weld metal hydrogen content and / or radiographic soundness. Unitor Minidryer-350 (094-637827) 100–350 °C (212–662 °F) can be used for this purpose. Open packing: redry at 80 °C (176 °F) 1 hour. butt this will not influence the performance of the product.01 137 .

Cabinet.COATED ELECTRODES Storing and re-drying The Heating Cabinet-85 This cabinet is specially designed as a ships’ store for repair and maintenance electrodes. Caution: Use gloves when handling warm electrodes from inside the heating cabinet. The cabinet contains five shelves and every shelf is removable. The Heating Cabinet . A thermostat allows for stepless setting of the temperature from 30 °C up to 85 °C (86 °F up to 185 °F). The Heating Cabinet -85 3.3 30-85 460 x 520 x 860 564 x 640 x 1095 350 138 . No chemical products are to be used within the heating cabinet. Ordering Information: Heating Cabinet-85 Product number: 094-637850 Spare Parts: H Heating element for Heating Cabinet-85 Product number: 094-637876 T Thermostat w/reg. The active parts in this oven are enclosed in a unit located in the bottom of the oven. and can be transported with a fork lift truck. knob for Heating Cabinet-85 Product number: 094-63 78 84 The whole cassette is available as product number 094-777853 Type Mains Voltage V Heater Output W Primary Operating Width x Depth x Height Current Temperature Inner Dimensions Outer Dimensions A °C mm mm Electrode Capacity kg Net Weight kg 70 Heating 230. The shelves are slanted to prevent the content from sliding out when the door is opened in rough seas.50/60 Hz 85 500 1.85 have 100 mm mineral wool in the bottoom and 50 mm in the top and side walls. This unit can be easily removed as one unit.01 The oven has a simple yet rugged construction.

horizontal.01 Dimensions: 600x600x300 mm free distance above cabinet 310 mm.2 mm 2 packages SPECIAL-303 N 4. stainless steels.2 mm 1 package 23/14-322 N 3. • Compact design with easy access to contents. cast iron.2 mm 1 package "Problem" steels: TENSILE-328 N 2. Product Description Electrode cabinet complete Electrode cabinet empty Arc Welding Cabinet Ship quality steel and cast steel: SPECIAL-303 N 2.2 mm 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1.2 mm GPO-302 N 4.5 mm Cast iron: NICKEL-333 N NICKEL-333 N Aluminium: ALUMIN-351 N 2.6 kg 2.7 kg 1.2 kg 5.1 kg 8. stainless to mild steel.COATED ELECTRODES Storing and re-drying Arc Welding Cabinet A complete‘mini-store’ for covered electrodes. and with zinc/yellow-chromate passivated shelves for optimal corrosion and scratch resistance. copper alloys and aluminium. Weight with electrodes 110. compound steel: 18/8-321 N 2.5 mm GPO-302 N 3. 094-670000 094-669994 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 1 package 4.0 mm 1 package 5.2 kg 5. all positions: GPO-302 N 2.5 kg Product no.2 kg 1.2 mm Low temperature steel: LHL-319 N 3.5 kg Contents and Applications Areas Instruction and information: Unitor Welding Handbook: Sheet metal and thin walled pipes: SPECIAL-303 N 2.7 kg 1.6 kg 1.8 kg 1 package 5. with final coating by powder spraying and baking.0 kg 1.8 kg 1.7 kg 2. ‘problem steels’. high recovery: LHH-314 H 5.7 kg Stainless steel.2 kg 2 packages 10.5 mm LHT-318 N 3. ship quality steel.2 mm 4.4 kg 1 package 5.3 kg 1.1 kg 1. horizontal.5 kg 5.0 mm 1. vertical down welding: LHV-316 N 3.0 mm 1 package General mild steel repairs.5 mm 1 package 18/8-321 N 3.6 kg 139 .2 mm Heat resistant steel: LHT-318 N 2.2 mm Hardfacing: WEARMAX-327 2.8 kg 3.2 mm 3.2 mm Weathering resistant steel: LHR-320 N 3.0 kg 2.2 mm General mild steel repairing. and separate room for the welding handbook.0 mm 1 package GPR-300 H 5. including 27 packages of electrodes selected to cover all normal welding applications on mild steels.0 mm 1 package Ship quality steel.5 mm 3. corrosion resistant construction from electrogalvanized steel plates.5 mm Cutting & gouging: CH-2-382 3. • Sturdy. high recovery: GPR-300 H 4.5 mm 1 package SPECIAL-303 N 3.8 kg 1.7 kg 1.2 kg Bronze & brass: ALBRONZE-344 3.0 mm 1 package Ship quality steel.

Because of this we will mostly refer to EN and AWS in the Nomenclature for Welding Consumables.01 Product Name GPO-302 N GPR-300 H SPECIAL-303 N LH-314 N LHH-314 H LHV-316 N LHT-318 N LHL-319 N LHR-320 N 18/8-321 N 23/14-322 N DUPLEX-325 N TENSILE-328 N IMPACT-329 WEARMAX-327 ABRATECH-330 NIFE-334N NICKEL-333N TINBRO-341 ALBRONZE-344 ALUMIN-351 N Classification and Approvals CLASSIFICATIONS AWS E 6013 E 7024 E 7016 E 7018 E 7028 E 8018-G E 8018-B2 E 8018-C1 E 8018-G E 316L-17 E 309MoL-17 E 2209-17 E 312-17 – E 307-26 E Ni Fe-C1 E Ni-C1 E Cu Sn C E Cu A1 A2 – EN DNV GL APPROVALS LR 2 2Y 3YH15 3YH5 3YH5 4Y40H10 – 5Y42H5 3YH15 316L SS/CMn – BV 2 2 3. In America one refers to AWS (American Welding Society) for classification of electrodes. This nomenclature replaces the current European standards like DIN. 3Y 3YH5 3YH5 3Y SR 3Y400H5 3YH5 E316L-17 SS/CMn DUPLEX E 38 0 RC 11 2 2 E 42 0 RR 73 2 2Y E 38 2B 32 H10 3YH10 3YH10 E 42 4 B 42 H5 3YH5 3YH5 E 42 4 B 73 H5 3YH5 3YH5 E 46 5 B 41 H5 3YH10 4YH10 E CrMo 1B 42 H5 – H10 – E 46 6 2Ni B 32 H5 5YH5 6Y46H5 E 46 5 Z B 32 3YH10 3YH15 E 19 12 3 L R 1 2 316L 4571 E 23 12 2 L R 3 2 309Mo 4459 E 22 9 3 N L R 3 2 DUPLEX 4462 E 29 9R32 – – – – – – AL SI 12 140 . Several new standards have come in force already and more changes can be expected within the near future. 3YH10 3YH5 3YH5 3YH10 UP 5Y40MH5 3YH10 316L 309Mo 2209 ABS 2 2 3H10.COATED ELECTRODES Classification and Approvals The European Community for Standardization has developed a new nomenclature in welding. EN 499 Covered electrodes for manual arc welding of non alloy and fine grain steel EN 757 Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of high strength steel EN 1600 Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of stainless and heat resisting steel EN 1599 Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of creep-resisting steel DIN 1913 BS 639 NEN 2560 DIN 8529 DIN 8556 BS 2926 NEN 3581 DIN 8575 BS 2493 NEN 3580 3. BS and NEN. Euronorm EN.

The full grading code consists of a digit and one or more letters. Approvals may be carried out by the following classifications societies: American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Bureau Veritas (BV) Det Norske Veritas (DNV) Germanisher Lloyd (GL) Lloyds Register of Shipping (LR) Lettering Code: Y = approved for higher tensile steels. H or H15 = hydrogen level in weld metal of <10 ml H2/100g (glycerine method) or <15 ml H2/100g (mercury method). The digit indicates the tensil and notch toughness grade (see table). Impact properties Elongation % 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 20 19 22 20 19 22 20 19 min. H5 = hydrogen level in weld metal of <5 ml H2/100g (mercury method).01 Note: ABS deviates slightly on yield and tensile strength limits for grades 2Y and 3Y and also on impact test values in all grades.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to Approvals This page shows the grading which the electrode has under its relevant classification society approvals. 47 J at °C +20 +/-0 -20 +/-0 -20 -40 +/-0 -20 -20 -20 -40 -40 -40 -60 -60 -60 Grade Tensile properties 1 2 3 2Y 3Y 4Y 2Y40 3Y40 3Y42 3Y46 4Y40 4Y42 4Y46 5Y40 5Y42 5Y46 Yield strength MPa (min) 305 305 305 375 375 375 400 400 420 460 400 420 460 400 420 460 Tensile strength MPa 400-560 400-560 400-560 460-660 460-660 460-660 510-690 510-690 520 550 510-690 520 550 510-690 520 550 3. 141 . HH or H10 = hydrogen level in weld metal of <5 ml H2/100g (glycerine method) or <10 ml H2/100g (mercury method). Letters indicate higher tensile steels.

6–1.8 Mn 1 Ni    >1. flat fillet weld. % 22 20 20 20 18 Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 Welding position All positions.05.4 –   1. Symbol Impact energy Charpy-V Temp °C for 47J min.4 0.2 1 NiMo 1.2. max.05. Cu <0.6   – MnMo    >1.0 0. flat fillet weld.2 Z Any other composition * If not specified Mo <0. Single values shown in the table mean maximum values.4 – >2.3–0.3–0.4 –   0.6   0. V <0.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to EN 499-1995 Symbol 35 38 42 46 50 Tensile Yield strength strength MPa MPa 440–570 470–600 500–640 530–680 560–720 355 380 420 460 500 Elongation min. Flat butt weld.8–2.6–1.6–3.6 3 Ni 1.4–2.6–1. 142 . Nb <0.4–2. H5   5 H10 10 H15 15 Chemical composition* Symbol Mn Mo Ni No symbol 2.4 0. Cr <0. Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Metal recovery % <105 <105 >105≤125 >105≤125 >125≤160 >125≤160 >160 >160 Type of current AC + DC DC AC + DC DC AC + DC DC AC + DC DC 3.01 E 46 6 2Ni B 3 2 H5 Covered electrode for manual metal-arc welding. Flat butt weld.3–0. Ni <0.3.6   – 1 Ni 1. except vertical down. horizontal-vertical fillet weld. All positions. Vertical down and positions according to symbol 3. Z No requirements A +20 0    0 2 –20 3 –30 4 –40 5 –50 6 –60 Symbol Coating type A Acid B Basic C    Cellulosic R Rutile RR Rutile (thick coated) RC Rutile-Cellulosic RA Rutile-Acid RB Rutile-Basic Hydrogen ml/100 g Symbol deposited weld metal.0 –   – Mo 1.0 –   0.2.2 2 Ni 1.3.

8-2.2 - 0.6 1.6 - 0.01 Covered electrode/ manual metal arc welding. % Type of current 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ≤105 ≤105 >105 ≤ 125 >105 ≤ 125 >125 ≤ 160 >125 ≤ 160 >160 >160 AC+DC DC AC+DC DC AC+DC DC AC+DC DC Indicates mechanical properties after stress relief treatment. Cu<0.5 Ni Mo 2 Ni Mo Mn 1 Ni Mo Mn 2 Ni Cr Mo Mn 2 Ni Mo Mn 2 Ni Cr Mo Z * If not specified C 0.0 0.0 0. Single values shown in the table are maximum values.4 1.6-1.6 - 0.4-2.3.3-0.6-1.6 Any other agreed composition Mn Mo Mn 1Ni 1 Ni Mo 1.3-0. Z A 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 No requirements +20 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 Symbol Chemical composition of all-weld metal. except vertical down Flat butt weld. Ni<0.3-0.3-0.8-2.0 - - 0. %* Mn Ni Cr Mo 1.6 1.020. MPa MPa min. Symbol Metal recovery.4-2.8 - 0. Flat butt weld.6 0.4-2.4-2.0 0.10. V<0.6 1. S<0. Only basic electrode covering.03-0.6 1.0 1. P<0.025.6 0.3-0. Cr<0.2 - 1.3-0.3-0. Symbol Hydrogen content.8-2.6 0. E  62 7 MnNI B 3 4 H5 T 3. 143 . ml/100 g deposited weld metal.8-2.0 1. max H5 H10 5 10 Symbol Impact Energy Charpy-V Temp °C for 47J min.3-0. horizontal-vertical fillet weld. flat fillet weld.2. flat fillet weld.2 - 0.4-2.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to EN 757-1997 Symbol Yield strength Tensile strength Elongation min.3-0.4-2.6 1. Vertical down and positions according to symbol 3.2-1.6-1.4 1.6 1.2.6-1.6 1.0 1. % 55 62 69 79 89 550 620 690 790 890 610-780 690-890 760-960 880-1080 980-1180 18 18 17 16 15 Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 Welding positions All positions All positions. Nb<0. Mo<0.05.3.4 0.05.

0-21.025 0.10-0.12 0.030 0.025 0.0 2. flat fillet weld.04 0.0-22.0 7.0 22.030 0.0-27.0 1.5-3.0-4.25 N 0.0 2.5-4.5 2.04 1.0-14.5 2.5 - - - - - - Nb Nb N 0.5 2.2 1.04 Si 1.030 0.5 2.08 0.025 0.06-0.5 1.0 4.025 0.5 P 0.025 0.2 1.0-20.2 27 31 4 Cu L 0.06 0.20 0.08 0. horizontal-vertical fillet weld.030 0.5-2.5 8.025 0.5 2.030 0.0-20.04 1.0-20.2 25 9 3 Cu N L 0.2 1.0 9.0-37.5-10.04 0. 144 .04 1.0 24.2 18 16 5 N L 0.025 0.0 11.08-0.0 2.5-3.025 0.025 0.030 0.0 18.5-7.0-6.035 0.0-10.0 18.030 0.2 1.0-14.025 0.5 3.0-12.0-11.2 1.0 2.0 24.04 1.20 25 20 H 0.0-3.0-23.030 0.025 Cr 11.04-0.2 1.2 25 22 2 N L 0.030 0.0-27.035 0. Cu 1.0 2.030 0.0 27.15 25 20 0.025 0.0 22.0 5.5 2.0 9.5 N 0.5 2.0-22.0-25.04 1.0-13.030 0.0 18.5 9.2 1.0 2.5 2.0 11.0-25. Vertical down and positions according to symbol 3.030 0.025 0.0 1.0 23.0-4.5 - 0.0-25.5-16.0-33.0 19.5 Nb Other elements Martensitic/ferritic 13 13 4 17 3.0 1.0-22.0-13.2 20 16 3 Mn N L 0.0 7.0-21.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-5.025 0.5 3.0 3.0 17.0 2. % Type of current 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ≤105 ≤105 >105 ≤ 125 >105 ≤ 125 >125 ≤ 160 >125 ≤ 160 >160 >160 AC+DC DC AC+DC DC AC+DC DC AC+DC DC E 23  12  2L R 3 2 Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 Alloy Symbol Welding positions All positions All positions.0 18.04 1.6-1.0-8.0-21.025 0.0 4.0-3.5 2.0 9.2 1.0-23.0 17. except vertical down Flat butt weld.0 15.030 0.0-14.10 0.2 25 9 4 N L 0.030 S 0.0-29.20 N 0.0 N 0.0-11.0 9. High corrosion resistance 18 15 3 L 0.025 0.5 4.030 0.2 1.0 17.035 0.030 0.0. flat fillet weld.035 0.0-11.030 0.0 22.025 0.5 1.0 2.025 0.025 0.025 0.2 Heat resisting types 16 8 2 0.0-14.5-4.2 1.0 - 9.5-19. Flat butt weld.030 0.15 1.030 0.0-27.0-5. High corrosion resistance 22 9 3 N L 0.0 24.2 Fully austenitic.04 0.0-11.0-3.030 0.0 11.0-27.0-21.0 7.30.0-5.2 1.025 0.025 0.025 0.20 Cu 0.2 1. N 0.025 0.0-18.5-3.0-20.35-0.5 1.030 0.030 0.0-14.0-7.0-4.5 2.035 0.5 18.5-4.0-13.030 0.5 14.0-5.2 1.0 2.0 18.0 16.0 1.0 1.0 2.0-24.0 14.20 Cu 1.0-31.5 1.04 1.0-28.12 0.0 24.5-10.2 1.20 N 0.0 17.0-12.2 1. Cu 1.025 0.0-3.2 Special types 18 8 Mn 18 9 Mn Mo 20 10 3 23 12 L 23 12 Nb 23 12 2 L 29 9 0.15 22 12 0.025 0.5.0-27.0-4.04 1.0 14.04 0.025 0.0-21.0 15.0 2.5 2. Chemical composition of all-weld metal.5 2.5-9.025 0.0 10.2 20 25 5 Cu N L 0.0 - 1.0-4.0-18.0 30.4-1.0-5.01 Austenitic 19 9 19 9L 19 9 Nb 19 12 2 19 12 3 L 19 12 3 Nb 19 13 4 N L Austenitic-ferritic.025 0.5-3.5 18.030 0.0 1.0 - - - - 2.0 2.0-21.0-17.20 N 0.0 2.0 10.2 Mn 1.20 N 0.5 6.0 1.5 16.20-0.0 Mo - 0.2 1.08 0.0-20.0 2.0 10.5-1.025 0.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to EN 1600-1977 Covered electrode/ manual metal arc welding.5 1.0 Ni - 3.0 7.0-11.0-13.0 11.0 21.08 0.2 1.5 2.0-20.0 23.08 19 9 H 0.0-5.0 18.2 1.0 26. Type of electrode covering: R= rutile covering B= basic covering Symbol Metal recovery.0-18.25 * Single values shown in the table are maximum values.04 1.2 25 7 2 N L 0.04-0.030 0.0 17.5 2.025 0.14 0.035 0.5-19.0 10.0-27.10 0.0 3.5-3.0-21.08 25 4 0.025 0.5 17.0-10.45 18 36 0.030 0.030 0.0 8.0 18.0 33.0 24.25.5 - - 2.0 20.0 2.0-15. %* C 0.025 0.0 1.0 20.0-8.04 1.025 0.5-3. W 1.030 0.0-27.0 24.0 12.

All positions but in the vertical. Not spec. Basic. asreceived or redried. Energy Position min % Charp-V J/°C ksi MPa ksi MPa 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 70 70 70 70 70 70 a) 70 70 70 70 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 48 331 22 48 331 22 48 331 17 48 331 17 48 331 22 48 331 22 Not spec. high reco. 77 ksi (ksi (531 MPa). iron pow. Designates that the electrode meets the requirements of the moisture pick-up test (optional for all basic electrodes except E 7018 M. where “z” is 4. iron pow. Code Welding position All positions except vertical-down Flat and H-V fillets. Greater tough­ness. Impact Elongation Welding Type of coating Strength min.4 mm the limit is max. Not spec. For ∅ 2. Rutile. 27 / –18 Not spec. iron pow. R Designates that the electrode (E 7016.9 MPa). low moisture level and pick-up. high reco. b) Limits are 53–72 ksi (365–496 MPa). In addition there are requirements on: • Chemical composition of the weld metal • Radiographic test.1-1991 Covered electrode for manual metalarc welding Designates an electrode (E7018M) for military require­ ments. E 7018. 27 / –29 Not spec. Basic.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to AWS A5. coating type and current type. Designated min. iron pow.01 AWS Classifi- cation E 6010 E 6011 E 6012 E 6013 E 6019 E 6020 E 6022 E 6027 E 7014 E 7015 E 7016 E 7016-1 E 7018 E 7018-1 E 7018M E 7024 E 7027 E 7028 E 7048 Tensile Yield strength min. iron pow. V-down only. with an average value not exceeding “z” ml. Type of Current AC – x x x x x x x x – x x x x – x x x x DC + pol + pol – pol + / – pol + / – pol c) + / – pol – pol c) + / – pol + / – pol + pol + pol + pol + pol + pol + pol + / – pol c) + / – pol + pol + pol a) Nominal value 70 ksi (482 MPa). Rutile.8 or 16). tensile strength in ksi. 27 / –29 27 / –29 27 / –29 10 11 12 13 19 20 22 27 14 15 16 16 18 18 18 24 27 28 48 Cellulosic Cellulosic Rutile Rutile Rutile/Acid Acid Acid Acid. of H2/100 g deposited metal. Not spec. (1 ksi = 1000 psi ~ 6. Not spec. Acid. high reco. for which the test is mandatory. Basic. Basic. E 7024) meets the require­ ments for improved tough­ ness and ducility (E 7024). Basic Basic Basic Basic. 48 331 22 58 399 17 58 399 22 58 399 22 58 399 22 58 399 22 58 399 22 b) b) 24 58 399 17 58 399 22 58 399 22 58 399 22 27 / –29 27 / –29 Not spec. 27 / –29 27 / –29 27 / –46 27 / –29 27 / –46 67 / –29 Not spec. c) H–V fillets: – pol. 3. Designates that the electrode meets the requirements of the hydogen test (optional for basic electrodes. 1 2 4 145 . and mandatory hydrogen limits for weld metal. E E 70 70 18 16 M –1 HZ Designates welding position. high reco.

tensile strength in ksi.5 Ni ~2.5 All other alloy steel electrodes * C max.5/0.5/0.3/0.05%.05 Ni/Mo ~1.5 Mn/Mo ~1.5 Cr/Mo ~2.5 Cr/Mo ~1.3 Mn/Mo ~1./MPa 480 550 550 620 620 690 690 760 760 830 830 830 390 460 470–550 530 540–620 600 610–690 670 680–760 740 745–830 745–830 Code 1 2 Welding position All positions except vertical-down Flat and H-V fillets 3.8/0.5 Ni/Cr/Mo/V ~1.5-1996 Covered electrode for manual metal-arc welding Designates welding position.5 Ni ~3.5/0.05 Ni ~2.01 AWS classification E 8018-NM E 8016-C3 E 8018-C3 E 8016-D3 E 8018-D3 E 9015-D1 E 9018-D1 E 10015-D2 E 10016-D2 E 10018-D2 E 9018-M E 10018-M E 11018-M E 12018-M E 12018-M1 E 7018-W E 8018-W E 8016-C1 E 8018-C1 E 7015-C1L E 7016-C1L E 7018-C1L E 8016-C2 E 8018-C2 E 7015-C2L E 7016-C2L E 7018-C2L All other Impact energy min. AWS Welding Type of coating Classification Position E xx 10 E xx 11 E xx 12 E xx 13 E xx 15 E xx 16 E xx 18 E xx 20 E xx 27 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Cellulosic Cellulosic Rutile Rutile Basic Basic Basic. Designated chemical composition of weld metal. J 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 68 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 Not required °C –40 –40 –40 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –51 –18 –18 –18 –59 –59 –73 –73 –73 –73 –73 –101 –101 –101 Suffix –A1 –B1 –B2 –B2L* –B3 –B3L* –B4L* –B5 –C1 –C1L* –C2 –C2L* –C3 –NM –D1 –D2 –D3 –G/–M/–W Alloying system Nominal values Wt% C/Mo ~0.9 MPa).5 Ni ~3. AWS classification E 70 xx-x E 80 xx-x E 80 xx-C3 E 90 xx-x E 90 xx-M E 100 xx-x E 100 xx-M E 110 xx-x E 110 xx-M E 120 xx-x E 120 xx-M E 120 xx-M1 Tensile strength Yield strength min.5 Cr/Mo ~0.0/0.3 Mn/Mo ~1.0 Cr/Mo ~2.3/0. iron powder Acid Acid. coating type and current type.5/1.0 Cr/Mo ~2. 146 .5 Cr/Mo ~1.0/0.3/1.3/1.1/0.5 Cr/Mo/V ~0.0/0.1/0./MPa min.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to AWS A5. high recovery Type of current AC DC – x x x – x x x x + pol + pol – pol +/– pol + pol + pol + pol c) +/– pol c) +/– pol E 80 18 C1 Designated min.0/0. (1 ksi = 1000 psi ~ 6.3/0. 0.

03 0.5–2.0 18.75 0.75 0.75 0.04 0.0 1.12 0.0 8. For use with DC+ and AC.03 – 0.75 0.0–16.75 0.0 11.90 0.08 0.03 – 0.0 9.0 21.04 0.5 20.0 2.75 0.0 2.5 15.75 0.0 ≥8xC≤0.30 0.03 0.0–12.0 22.0 3.90 0.5–2.90 0.60 0.03 – 0.08 0.015 – 3.0 8.0 0.5 18. All positions.0 P S N Cu classification E 209 -xx E 219-xx E 240-xx E 307-xxx E 308-xx E 308 H-xx E 308 L-xx E 308 Mo-xx E 308 MoL-xx E 309-xx E 309 L-xx E 309 Cb-xx E 309 Mo-xx E 309 MoL-xx E 310-xx E 310 H-xx E 310 Cb-xx E 310 Mo-xx E 312-xx E 316-xx E 316 H-xx E 316 L-xx E 317-xx E 317 L-xx E 318-xx E 320-xx E 320 LR-xx E 330-xx E 330 H-xx E 347-xx E 349-xx E 383-xx E 385-xx E 410-xx E 410 NiMo-xx E 430-xx E 502-xx E 505-xx E 630-xx E 16-8-2-xx E 7 Cr-xx E 2209-xx E 2553-xx 9.0–3.5–7.0 5.5 Si 0.75 0.0 20.0–28.75 0.0 17.0–18.75 0.0 0. –25 –26 AWS C 0.90 0.0 3.0–11.0 9.03 – 0.90 0.07 0.5 0.45–0.03 – 0. but higher silica content in coating gives following: – More of a spray arc and finer rippled bead surface in H-V fillets.0 19.10–0.90 0.90 0.25–0.5 0.5 16.0–14.0–11.5–13.0 12.0 28.0–11.04 0.75 0.0 0.12 0.04 0.40–0.0–3.00 0.2–2.75 0.03 – 0.7 9.90 0.0–21.0 18.5–2.90 0.0–13.0–21.30–4.75 0.04 0.04 0.0–3.0 9.4 0.5 0.0–10.5–10.75 0.0–14.0–3.04 0.03 – 0.75 0.0–2.0 18.0–21.0–2.0 12.04 0.06 0.COATED ELECTRODES Guide to AWS A5.75 0. Same coating and type as for –16 but with a mild steel core wire.15–0.75 0.0 8.03 – 0.75 0.0 17.90 0.02 – 1.5 1.75 0.03 – 0.10–0.10 0.0 ≥8xC≤1.0–11.0 17.03 – 0.5–2.12 0.0 2.2–4.9–3.90 0.15 0.0–21.04 0.20 0.03 0.20 0.5–2.03 – 0.25 1.5 0.5 20.5 1.04 0.0–2.5–2.60 0.0 26.0–32.5–2.04 0.75 0.04 0.5–2.08 0.7 4.20 0.0–21.5 2.0–4.45 0.04 0.0 19.35–0.0 8.5–2.04 0.5 0.0 1.03 – 0.04 0.0–21.0–3.04 0.10–0.0 4.03 – 0.5 0.0–17.03 – 0.90 0.90 0.5–2.5–23.04 0.5–2.04 0. – Slower freezing slag permits improved handling with a drag technique.03 – 0.0 12.5–2.30 0.75 0.75 0.0–28. Suffix –15 –16 –17 Coating type and usability characteristics For use with DC+ only.06 0.0–19.0–6.0 32.4-1992 Covered electrode for manual metalarc welding.5 0.0–12.30 0.0 22.75–1.5–2.0–36.0–37.0 9.5 0.5 6.03 – 0.00 – – – – 0.5 0.75 0.03 – 0.0–3.75 0.5–2.75 0.0 22.0–20.03 0.0–3. Usually basic coating.04–0.04 0.04 0.30 – – – – Mn 4.0–22.0–21.75 0.0–2.0–3.35–0.03 – 0.06 0.5 0.03 0.13 0.04 0.25 0.5–29.75 2.04 0.75 0.0–10.75 0.5–16.5–2.75 0.0 25.45 0.45–0.01 147 .03 – 0.0–14.5 1.5 1.0 12.5–2.75 0.04 0.0 19.0–21.20 – – – – – – – 0.5–2.06 0.03 0.0 10.03 0.0 18.08 0.90 0.5 0.75 2.0–25.0–4.0–36.03 – 0.04 0.0 33.90 0.5 17.5 0.75 0.75 0.5 11.75 0.0 19.0–2.03 0.0 33.0–26.03 0.75 0.04 0.12 0.75 0.04 0.75 0.0 9.0 25.90 1.03 – 0.0–4.5 0.03 – 3.90 0.0 1.0–7.03 – 0.03 – 0.5–2.5 1.90 0.2–5.0 18.90 0.14 0.0 0.5 0.0–6.0–4.03 – 0.04 0.0–17.9 Nb + Ta – – – – – – – – – – – 0.0 14.0 11.04 0.0–14.5–2.0 20.0–21.65 2.0 4.0–14.90 0.0 0.03 – 0.5 0.04 0.0–2.0–3.0–10.90 0.0 18.5 11.0 0.0–20.0–25.0 0.0–2.5–2.5 0.75 0.5–2.0 Ni Chemical composition of undiluted weld metal Mo 1.03 – 0.5 6.04 0.5 0.75 0.0–14.0 12.03 0.18–0.6–1.08 0.5–1. Flat and horizontal positions only.04 0.5–3.90 0.75 0.04–0.0–25.90 0.0 22.4 8.0 2.40 – – ≥8xC≤1.0 0.2 4.03 – 3.0 1.03 – 0.08–0.03 – 0.0 0.0 0.75 1.0–33.5–21.03 – 0.75 0.5 0.0 0.0–3.5–3.0 18.75 0.0–21.0 2.5–2. Flat and horizontal positions only.0 2.90 0.75 0.05 0.5 25.0 12.0 9.75 0. All positions.0 24.0 14.25–4.03 0.75 0.75 0.75 2.90 0.0 17.08 0.0 11.75 0.04 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.15 0.04 0.0 0.75 0.90 0.90 0.10 0.0–22. E 312 –17 Indicates compositional type.04 0.06 Cr 20.90 0.0–28.04 0.90 1.5–12.0 7.5 3.75 0.0–21.0 18.5 1.5 1.0 1.08 0.0–25.75 0.0–21.0–10.03 – 0.0–22.02 – 0.0–21.75 0.75 0.0 18.04–0.03 0.5 3.0–14.10 0.04 0.0 25.03 0.75 0.5 1.10 0.0–10.5–5.10–0.0–8.0 25.03 – 0.08 0.4 4.0–27.0 0.03 – 0.0 0.5–2.0–37.75 0.03 – 0.65 3.5–9.10 0.5 0.0–12.5–24.5 11.0–14.0–5.5 0.0 32.04 0.75 14.5–8.70–1.12 0.75 0.85–1.02 0.0–25.5 1.5–2. Same coating and types as for –15 but with a mild steel core wire.5–2.0–14.0–14.0–20.0–22.30 0.5 0.5 1. – Mitre to slight concave H-V fillets.0–14.75 0.03 0.90 0.70 0.5–1.0 30.0–20.70–1.04 0.0–2.0 0.0 0.75 2.0 12.0 22.04 0.0–28.65 0.04 0.04 0.0–3. Rutile coating.2 0.04 0.08–0.75 0.75 0.0 2. – When making vertical-up fillets the slower freezing slag requires slight weave to produce flat profile.02 0. As for –16.35–0.90 0.5 0.75 0.00 – – – – – – – ≥6xC≤1.

NEN-EN 287 Welding positions according to EN 26947 AWS: 1G EN: PA AWS: 1F EN: PA AWS: 1G EN: PA AWS: 2F EN: PB PA PB AWS: 2G EN: PC AWS: 2F EN: PB AWS: 2G EN: PC AWS: 2F EN: PB PC PB 3.01 AWS: 3G EN: PG (down) PF (up) AWS: 3F AWS: 5G AWS: 5F EN: PG (down) EN: PG (down) EN: PG (down) PF (up) PF (up) PF (up) PF PG AWS: 4G EN: PE AWS: 4F EN: PD AWS: 6G EN: H-L045 AWS: 4F EN: PD PE PD 148 .COATED ELECTRODES Welding positions AWS according to ASME section IX EN according to ISO 6947.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.01 149 .

2.0 Current range. St44.7.3 1. kg per box 5.5 3. 43A-C Ship plates   Grade A. StE240.4 5. StE290.2 5. B. 360/400.1 E 6013 DNV 2 GL 2 EN-ISO 2560-A E 38 O RC 11 LR 2 BV 2 ABS 2   AC   DC+/PA PB PC PF PG PE.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 StE255 to StE315 NF A36-203 E275D 3.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. A48 (CP) NF A36-207 A510AP.0/4. A530AP.7. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.05 . 50 57 65 0.7 API 5 LX X42.6 86 53 39 1 2 2 * SDS available on request. 2.2 4.15 .8 1. PD General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. E24-2 (–4).65 Si 0. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.0.360 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St35.10 . 150 .GPO-302 N General Purpose Electrode for Mild Steel Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Materials to be welded Imprint Unitor GPO-302 N/ 6013 SFA/AWS A 5. E28-2 (–3) E30-2 (–3) BS 4360 Gr.8. per box 095-699165 095-699173 095-699181 Boxes per carton 3 3 3 Re-drying temperature: Normally no need.0. HII. 17Mn4 vessel steel NF A 36-205 A37 (CP).12 Mn 0.2 4. St45. A550AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr.01 All weld metal composition C 0.0 Length mm. 350 350 350 Electrodes per box 295 190 120 Net weight. C. StE320. A 60–100 80–150 100–200 400 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. A34-2.7. 164-Gr. A42 (CP). ** 90% of max. sec. 40A-C.5 3.0. StE360. D Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.7. X46 DIN 1626-1630 St37.50 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 29 At 0°C = 70 Typical mech. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 510 Diameter mm.2 Product No. St37-2 to St44-3 NF A35-501 A33.

and the electrode’s ability to easily bridge large gaps makes it an excellent general purpose repair electrode on board. GPO-302 N bridges wide gap. Application areas range from tack welding of plate and tube constructions to complete welding jobs of medium strength. etc. This. It is a versatile electrode for all mild steel constructions on board. together with SPECIAL-303 N 2. except the higher grade steels that require basic coated electrodes (hull plates. With its good welding characteristics GPO-302 N 2. if necessary without changing the welding current setting.GPO-302 N Unitor GPO-302 N is a general purpose electrode with a medium thick organic rutile coating which produces a fast-freezing slag. 3. 151 .5 mm is. Suitable for tack welding and welding on clamp fitments. a good solution for thin sheetplate welding. beams. GPO-302 N may be used in all positions including vertical down. The excellent restriking properties makes the electrode well suited for tack welding.) GPO-302 N strikes and restrikes easily and is the electrode least affected by rust and paint residues on the workpiece.01 Suitable for welding in the vertical-down position.0 mm.

0. StE240. AP).7. E390D. AM1.8 5. kg per box 5. AP).2 4.25 . St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210. E344D. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. GS45. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr.0 5. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D. E. St44.8.0 5.5 21.7 API 5 LX X42. properties of weld metal Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. per box 095-699231 095-699249 095-699256 095-699260 Boxes per carton 3 3 3 3 Re-drying temperature: Normally no need.5 9.5 3.0 6.0/4. A52 (CP.95 Elongation % 26 Si 0. sec. ** 90% of max. 152 . 0.1 E 7024 DNV 2 GL 2Y EN-ISO 2560-A E 42 0 RR 73 LR 2Y BV 2 ABS 2 Approvals AC DC+/PA PB General structural steel DIN 17100 St33.5 5.0. E430D. AH.0/4. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP.8 7. 69 69 68 72 2.1 6. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. 50D Ship plates Grade A. 3. A42 (CP.0 Length mm.8 5. AP).12 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 555 Diameter mm. DH.45 .E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D. StE360.3 Product No.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP. St. GS52 BS3100 A1. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37.0 13. A530 AP.2 4.7. 3. A2. A48 (CP. ST52.65 Impact value ISO-V (J) At -20°C = 50 Recovery % 180 Typical mech. HII.E255 to St. StE320. X52.7.6 2 2 3 4 * SDS available on request.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI.0 6.GPR-300 H High Recovery Electrode for Mild Steel Identification: Classifications Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor GPR-300 H / 7024 SFA/AWS A 5. A34-2.35. X46. 360/400/430.01 All weld metal composition C max. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. A 130–170 180–230 250–340 300–430 480 Mn 0.0 Current range. AM2. 17Mn4. 164-Gr. A3.7. StE290. 450 450 450 450 Electrodes per box 85 51 35 23 Net weight.6 5.45. E455D Materials to be welded 3. D. C. B.

The electrode is suitable for welding materials which have zinc and iron oxide rust protective primer coatings. The high welding speed. 3. It is specially suitable for horizontal-vertical and horizontal fillet welding. The A measurement should be 7/10 of material thickness. Consult the chapter on welding fumes. when A-measurement (throath thickness) is 3. When horizontal/vertical fillet welding on heavier material. a large electrode diameter e.g. Preferably use DCpolarity. GPR-300 H has a recovery value of approx. good welding properties. the coating containing approx. 5 mm. and high deposition rate reduce the risk of heat deformation and stress. 180%.01 153 . The bead has a smooth surface and the slag is self-releasing. the electrode should be pulled along the groove allowing the coating to be in contact with the base material.5 to 6 mm. in relation to A-measurement can be used. GPR-300 H is a typical electrode where large sections of steel are to be replaced but it is also useful for general repair work. 60% iron powder. This electrode is recommended for welding flanges to tubes in the horizontal position. observe all necessary safety precautions concerning the fumes from the primer. However.GPR-300 H Unitor GPR-300 H is a high recovery electrode of rutile type for welding in the flat and horizontal-vertical position. During welding. The electrode can be used at a welding speed of up to 50 cm/min. Welding with this electrode ensures low spatter.

0 Diameter mm. AM1. ** 90% of max.35.1 E 7016 DNV 3YH10 EN-ISO 2560-A E 38 2B 32 H10 GL 3YH10 LR 3YH15 BV 3.7 API 5 LX X42.0/4.5 3. D. AM2. E390D.E255 to St. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33. A42 (CP. StE320.01 All weld metal composition C max.9 Net weight.7. 154 . 164-Gr. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St. E344D. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr. StE360.0/4. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210. A2.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. 3Y Elect LMA rode   AC   DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.0 2. B. 50D Ship plates Grade A. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D.45.70 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 28 At –20°C = 120 Typical mech. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 530 Diameter mm. 350 350 350 450 420 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. per box 095-699199 095-699207 095-699215 095-699223 2 2 2 3 Boxes per carton 6 3 3 3 * SDS available on request. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. HII.5 3.4 1. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. C. 360/400/430. DH. AH.7.1 5. AP). StE290. 0. A3.7 4. A48 (CP. St44.1.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D. GS45. AP). amperage Packaging data Re-drying temperature: 300 °C (572 °F) for two hours. A52 (CP. 17Mn4. St.2 143 77 46 24 Product No.20 Si 0. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP. A530 AP.SPECIAL-303 N Double Coated Electrode for Mild and Ship Quality Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor SPECIAL-303 N / 7016 SFA/AWS A 5.9 1.1 4. kg per box 1. 2. PD General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. A 40-80 50–90 90–150 120–190 Length mm.70 .2 4. 3YH10 ABS 3H10.7.0.7. A34-2. GS52 BS3100 A1.0 2. X46. E430D. sec. StE240. 75 54 57 79 Electrodes per box 115 200 120 75 0.10 Mn 0.0 Current range.8.30 .6 0. AP). E.2 4. 2. E455D Materials to be welded 3. ST52. X52.

01 Sheet metal plates Roots runs on plate and pipes. Excellent in difficult position welding Welding mild and ship quality steel 155 . Ideal electrode for high quality jobs performed by non-welders. Unitor SPECIAL-303 N welds on AC as on DC+ with minimal spatter level. vertical welding should be conducted in the upward direction. Very good positional welding properties. Root edge Controlled burn through Molten pool Core rod Basic coating Rutile coating 3.SPECIAL-303 N Unitor SPECIAL-303 N is a double coated basic electrode with special coating components combining the excellent running characteristics of a rutile electrode with the very good mechanical properties of a basic electrode. The 2 mm size is ideal for use on sheet metal plates and thin walled pipes.

X52.25 Si 0.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI.0/4. A 75–105 95–155 125–210 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. A530 AP. amperage Diameter mm. GS52 BS3100 A1. St.5 3. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP.1 62.E255 to St.0 5. C.10 Mn 0. E430D. kg per box 4. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.5 31. ST52.2 4 Length mm. GS45. A42 (CP. 360/400/430. PD General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. A34-2.5 2 3 3 * SDS available on request. StE360. St44.7.2 4 Current range.7. 2. AP). StE240. A2. HII.7 API 5 LX X42. AH. per box 095-699264 095-699272 095-699280 Boxes per carton 3 3 3 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP. 350 450 450 Electrodes per box 161 95 78 Net weight. AP). StE290. StE320.30 .1 E 7018 DNV 3YH5 GL 3YH5 EN-ISO 2560-A E 42 4 B 42 H5 LR 3YH5 BV 3YH5 ABS 3YH5 Elect LMA rode DC+/PA PB PC PF PE. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D. E390D.7. 58 80 85 1.5 2. 156 .8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St. 2.35.02 . properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 540 445 29 At –20°C = 140 At –40°C =   70 Welding data Packaging data Diameter mm.LH-314 N Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor LH-314 N / 7018 SFA/AWS A 5. AM2. E455D Materials to be welded 3. D.70 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) Typical mech. DH. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr. sec.0/4.0 5. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. E344D. X46.6 Product No. 164-Gr. ** 90% of max.7.8.0.0 1. A3.1. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D.45. AP). X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37.01 All weld metal composition C 0. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St. 50D Ship plates Grade A. A52 (CP.5 3.3 20. A48 (CP.75 . 17Mn4. B.0. AM1. E.

It should not be used for cast iron. thus reducing the risk of cold cracks. LH-314 N has a recovery value of approx. Hydrogen content is low. To determine whether you have cast iron or cast steel.01 Motor base plates. 3. hull plates and frames. See the section on after-drying of basic electrodes. 20% iron powder. the coating containing approx. The electrode must be protected against humidity and welding with damp electrodes should not be attempted. motor base plates and similar heavily stressed parts. use a hammer and chisel on the material and consult the chisel test under the section on metal identification. If you are uncertain as to wether the steel is unalloyed or low alloyed. Slag is easily removed. Unitor LH-314 N is commonly used for welding ordinary cast steel in high pressure valves and other machine parts. 157 . Welding cast steel.LH-314 N Unitor LH-314 N is a heavily coated electrode of basic type for welding unalloyed. For vertical-down welding electrode LHV-316 N is recommended. Lifting lugs. low alloyed and yield point controlled steel in all positions. Vertical welding should be carried out upwards. Unitor LH-314 N produces a weld of good mechanical properties and is therefore well suited for heavily loaded components such as lifting lugs. All basic electrodes should be used with a short arc. Basic electrodes produce a higher quality deposit than rutile and acid types. Yield point controlled steel refers in this case to ships’ steel normally used for deckplates. A short arc. The electrode will operate with DC positive or negative polarity. less than 5 ml/100g weldmetal. you cannot go wrong when using a basic electrode. 120%. Well suited for X-ray examination. Joining deck and hull plates.

7 Net weight. GS52 BS3100 A1. A 170–240 225–355 Length mm. X52.8. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33. D. AM1. E455D Materials to be welded 3.0/4. DH.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. ST52. StE320. HII. AH.7 5. A48 (CP. B.LHH-314 H High Recovery Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor LHH-314 H/ 7028 SFA/AWS A 5.10 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Mn 0.01 All weld metal composition C 0.0/4. 17Mn4.E255 to St. E390D. E430D. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St.65 Impact value ISO-V (J) At -20°C = 110 At -40 °C = 65 Recovery % 165 Typical mech. amperage Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours. kg per box 5. 4.5 14.0.7.1.0 Diameter mm. AM2. 4.1 E 7028 DNV 3YH5 GL 3YH5 EN-ISO 2560-A E 42 4 B 73 H5 LR 3YH5 BV 3YH5 ABS 3YH5 Elect LMA rode   AC   DC+ PA PB General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. 70 72 Electrodes per box 54 36 3. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210. St44. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D.7.0 Current range. StE360.5 5. sec. 164-Gr. StE290. StE240. per box 095-699298 095-699306 4 4 Boxes per carton 3 3 * SDS available on request. E.0 5. AP). X46. 50D Ship plates Grade A.07 .6 Product No.45. properties of weld metal 540 430 26 Welding data Packaging data Diameter mm. A52 (CP. E344D. A2. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38.7. A530 AP. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP. ** 90% of max. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr.35. 450 450 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. C.7. A3. AP). GS45. AP). Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.25 Elongation % Si 0. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37.0 5.25 .8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St. A34-2.85 . 360/400/430.7 API 5 LX X42.0. St. 158 . 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D. A42 (CP.4 9.

During welding. The high welding speed. 5. 3. and high deposition rate reduce the risk of heat deformation and stress. 165%. LHH-314 H is a typical electrode where large sections of steel are to be replaced but it is also useful for general repair work. the electrode should be pulled along the groove allowing the coating to be in contact with the base material. when A-measurement (throath thickness) is 3.g. Consult the chapter on welding fumes. The electrode can be used at a welding speed of up to 50 cm/min. LHH-314 H has a recovery value of approx. a large electrode diameter e. 65% iron powder. the coating containing approx.LHH-314 H Unitor LHH-314 H is a high recovery electrode of zirconium-basic type for welding in the flat and horizontal-vertical position. in relation to A-measurement can be used. good welding properties. However.0 mm. 159 . It is specially suitable for horizontal-vertical and horizontal fillet welding. When vertical fillet welding on heavier material.5 to 6 mm.01 The A measurement should be 7/10 of material thickness. This electrode is recommended for welding flanges to tubes in the horizontal position. observe all necessary safety precautions concerning the fumes from the primer. The electrode is suitable for welding materials which have zinc and iron oxide rust protective primer coatings.

0 Product No. AP).45. St44. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37.7 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) Typical mech.0/4. C.0. A3.LHV-316 N Vertical Down Welding Low Hydrogen Electrode for Ship Quality Steel Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor LHV-316 N / 8018-G SFA/AWS A 5. GS52 BS3100 A1.1.5 E 8018-G DNV 3YH10 EN-ISO 2560-A E 46 4 B 41 H5 GL 4YH10 LR 4Y40H10 BV 3YH10 ABS 3Y Elect LMA rode DC+ PA PB PC PG PE. X46. 164-Gr. A 110–150 180–220 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. AM2. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210. StE290.6 2. A52 (CP.40 Si 0.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 St. kg per box 4. 360/400/430. A530 AP. 350 350 Electrodes per box 137 99 Net weight. PD General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. AP). StE320. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A36-205 A37 (CP. 360/400 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St.8 5.0. A42 (CP.7 API 5 LX X42. per box 095-699314 095-699322 Boxes per carton 3 3 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours. X52. StE360. AM1.2 4.7. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 570 470 27 At –20°C = 130 At –40°C = 100 Welding data Diameter mm. A2.09 Mn 1. A34-2. GS45. St.8 43. 3. A550 AP BS 1501 151/154/161-Gr. StE240.35.06 . ** 90% of max. sec. DH. E24-2 (–4) to E36-2 (–4) BS 4360 Grade 43D. E455D Materials to be welded 3. E.7.3 .8.01 All weld metal composition C 0. AP).0 2 2 * SDS available on request.E420 NF A 36-203 E275 D. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38. B. E355D. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. A48 (CP. D.0/4. HII. 160 . 50D Ship plates Grade A.7. 3.7 27.0 Current range. E430D. ST52.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. 17Mn4. AP) NF A36-207 A510 AP. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33.0 Length mm.2 4. 53 50 1. E390D.E255 to St.7.00 . AH. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.

g. The electrode should be held at an angle of 40–85°C to the direction of welding. LHV-316 N will weld any normal joint. This makes it possible to weld up to three times faster than normal. The electrode must be protected against humidity and no attempt should be made to weld with damp electrodes.LHV-316 N Unitor LHV-316 N is a heavily coated basic electrode for welding unalloyed. There is little heat transfer to the base material when welding with LHV-316N and deformation and stress is therefore kept to a minimum. The electrode can also be used for welding in the flat position and for overhead welding. It can be used in all positions. Its range of application covers hull plates. The slag from this electrode is very easily removed. LHV-316 N is specially developed for welding in the vertical-down position. Unitor LHV-316 N produces a deposit with very good mechanical strength and high crack resistance. and stressed or loaded parts such as frames. See the section on afterdrying of basic electrodes. When welding in this position the electrode should travel in a straight line and be kept in light contact with both sides of the groove. deckplates. e. It is often used for welding a root bead where LH-314 N is used for the subsequent build-up. weld a bead on either side of the root bead as shown 161 . This is an economical electrode. V-grooves and fillets. lifting lugs and electric motor baseplates.01 When a large weld cross-section is required. low alloy and some types of yield point controlled steel. even from narrow grooves. Joining deck and hull plates A short arc 3. maximum welding current can be used also in vertical welding.

0%/10. 350 350 Electrodes per box 75 48 Net weight. 162 .01 Elevated temperature steel Case hardening steel Q & T steel DIN 17155 DIN 17200 NF A36-206 DIN 17210 NF A35-551 NF A35-552 Creep data: Test temperature °C 400 450 500 550 600 (80) (50) (35) MPa 460 440 Yield strength RP0.0.: 700 °C. ** 90% of max.50 P max. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. 16MC5. D4.015 S max. sec.05.50 .45 Mo 0.05 .LHT-318 N Electrode for High Temperature Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor LHT-318 N / 8018-B2 SFA/AWS A 5.65 0.1.80 Si 0. properties * of weld metal Welding data Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 620 530 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 20 At -20°C = 38 * Stress relived temp.2 Current range.8 1.5 3.20 .000 MPa 430 140 300 110 240   80 All weld metal composition C Mn 0.0.2% Creep strength Rm /1000 MPa Creep strength Rm /10. 2. 2.7 1.7 Product No.000 MPa 350 250 170 Creep resistance RP/1.10 Typical mech.05 16MnCr5 18CD4. A 70–105 95–150 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.5 E 8018-B2 DNV H 10 EN 1599 E CrMo 1B 42 H5 GL – LR – BV UP ABS SR Elect LMA rode DC+/PA PB PC 13CrMo44 25CrMo4 15CD2.25 .2 Length mm.0. 0.30 . 0. 60 65 0. 1 hour Diameter mm. per box 095-699330 095-699348 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.0. 20MC5 25CD4. 15C. 30CD4 PF PE.1 73 49 3 3 * SDS available on request. kg per box 1.5 3. PD Materials to be welded 3.020 Cr 1. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.

pre-heating of the welding area to 200–250°C is recommended. TIG welding with Icromo-216 may be an advantage.LHT-318 N Unitor LHT-318 N is a heavily coated basic electrode for welding low alloy steel and cast steel with up to approx. Vertical welding should be carried out upwards.g.5–1 mm. The electrodes may be used in all positions. boiler plate and boiler tubes 3. For best results on Chromium alloyed materials thicker than 8–10 mm. 1% Chromium and 0. V-groove with 60° angle is recommended for butt welding of ship plates up to 12 mm thickness. Root opening should be 1–2 mm. Note that for root passes. they should be protected against humidity. with DC positive or negative polarity. the temperature should be between 620°C and 720°C. Boiler tubes welded to boiler tube plate Electrode for heat resistant steels.01 V-groove for plates up to 12 mm thickness: 60° 0. The basic coating is of extra moisture resistant type. plates or pipes. and nose thickness should be 0. e. See section on afterdrying of basic electrodes. In cases where stress relieving is demanded. but as for all basic electrodes. As a general rule the temperature should be maintained for 1 hour per inch plate thickness (30 minutes for 1/2" plate) to ensure full effect. For root pass in open joints DC negative polarity is preferable. used for working temperatures up to 550°C. Such type of steel is normally found in boilers. As for all basic electrodes the arc should be kept short.5–1 mm t < 12 mm 1–2 mm For t >12 mm welding from both sides is recommended 163 . For filling the joint use DC+ polarity.5% Molybdenum.

14NiMn6. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 610 520 26 At –60°C = 105 Welding data Diameter mm.2. applic.65 .5Ni 285/355 (15N6). 13MnNi63. A42FP. 0.01 Can also be used for welding CorTen steel and Mayari R steels.5Ni 285/355 (10N9) NF A36-204 E420T.2 Current range. 350 350 Electrodes per box 78 48 Net weight.) Fine grained steel Low temperature steel High strength steel API 5 LX X52.0. E460T Materials to be welded 3. X60 NF A36-205 A37FP.5 E 8018-C1 DNV EN-ISO 2560-A E 46 6 2 Ni B 32 H5 GL LR BV 5Y40MH5 ABS 3Y400H5 Elect LMA rode Approvals 5YH5 6Y46H5 5Y42H5 Type of current Welding positions AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.02 . E390D. 282 DIN 17102 StE315 to StE460 NF A36-203 E355D. 10Ni14 NF A36-208 1. 2.15 Si 0.4 70 42 2 3 * SDS available on request.020 Ni 2. A 70–110 105–150 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.2 Length mm.LHL-319 N Electrode for Low Temperature Steel Identification: Classifications Imprint Unitor LHL-319 N / 8018-C1 SFA/AWS A 5.55 P max.8 1. A550FP BS 1501 224-Gr. ** 90% of max.10 Mn 0. 490 to LT 60.15 .9 1. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. A530FP. A52FP NF A36-207 A510FP. X56.0. All weld metal composition C 0. PD Pipe material Boiler & pressure vessel steel (for low temp. 55 63 0. sec.5 3.5 3. 2. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.1.020 S max. A48FP. 2.65 Typical mech. E445D DIN 17280 11MnNi53. 164 .8 Product No. per box 095-683631 095-683649 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours. 0. E430D. kg per box 1.15 .

Interpass temperature max.LHL-319 N LHL-319 N is an all position basic electrode with 2. Low temperature steel containing Nickel is used more and more in processing equipment onboard ships carrying low temperature cargo.01 165 . 100°C (210°F). We also find this type of steel in Ice-Class hull plates. High strength fine grained structural steel with thickness above 15 mm should be preheated to approx. The electrode is specially suited for low temperature applications. 3.5 times core wire diameter. with short arc. 150°C (300°F). weaving 2.6% Nickel giving 115–120% recovery. Guide the electrode at a slight angle. High notch values are obtained with max. Store dry. Excellent impact toughness at –60°C.

14NiMn6.3 66 40 2 2 * SDS available on request.0.5Ni 285/355 (10N9) NF A36-204 E420T.9 1.) Fine grained steel Low temperature steel High strength steel Weathering steel API 5 LX X52. sec. S max. A 80–115 100–150 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.5 3. A52FP NF A36-207 A510FP.5 3. 2. E445D DIN 17280 11MnNi53. X60 NF A36-205 A37FP. A530FP.10 Mn 0.75 . A48FP.0.020 Ni 0.0. 13MnNi63.25 Si 0.50 . applic.7 1. 2. 10Ni14 NF A36-208 1. E460T Commercial names Patinax. E430D.90 Cu 0.0.8 Product No.5Ni 285/355 (15N6). amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.50 Typical mech. 2. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 590 500 27 At –20°C = 160 At –50°C = 70 Welding data Diameter mm.55 P.01 All weld metal composition C 0. per box 095-683656 095-699389 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.2 Length mm. 490 to LT 60. 350 350 Electrodes per box 88 48 Net weight. 166 . 59 70 0. E390D. 282 DIN 17102 StE315 to StE460 NF A36-203 E355D.2 Current range. Cor-ten A.30 .5 E 8018-G DNV GL EN-ISO 2560-A E 46 5 Z B 32 LR BV 3YH10 ABS 3YH5 Elect LMA rode 3YH10 3YH15 3YH15 Type of current Welding positions AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. A550FP BS 1501 224-Gr. Mayari R steels Materials to be welded 3.15 . A42FP.02 . X56. PD Pipe material Boiler & pressure vessel steel (for low temp. ** 90% of max. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.LHR-320 N Electrode for Weathering Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Imprint Unitor LHR-320 N / 8018-G SFA/AWS A 5. kg per box 1.1. 0.

Weathering steels are low-alloy steels that can be exposed to the weather without being painted. which work under conditions where the protective paint coating wears off.000 psi). These steels have a minimum yield strength of 350 Mpa (50.01 Flue gases corrosion 167 . Sea water corrosion 3. and two to three times that of many of the low-alloy structural steels. Cor-Ten A steel. for welding of weathering steel (Patinax steel. The weld metal has excellent mechanical properties. The corrosion resistance of weathering steels is four to six times that of normal structural carbon steels.LHR-320 N LHR-320 N is a NiCu-alloyed electrode. Mayari R steel) and for ship hull construction steel. The weathering steels are covered by the ASTM specification A242. To maintain the weather resistance characteristic of the steel. It is particularly suitable for welding the shell plating of ice breakers and other ships. it is important to use an electrode with same chemical composition.which deposits a weld metal with good corrosion resistance to sea-water and flue gases.000 psi) with an ultimate tensile strength of 490 Mpa (70. This tight oxide coating reduces continuing corrosion. The steel protects itself by means of a dense oxide coating (patina) which forms naturally on the steel when it is exposed to the weather.

50 . ** 90% of max. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 790 Diameter mm.TENSILE-328 N Electrode for Difficult-to-Weld Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals N.1. Imprint Unitor TENSILE-328 N / 312-17 SFA/AWS A 5.01 All weld metal composition Various steel grades such as: –  Armour plate –  Hardenable steel including steels difficult to weld –  Non-magnetic austenitic manganese steel –  Work hardening austenitic manganese steel –  Dissimilar steel grades (CMn-steel to stainless steel) C 0. A 50–85 80–125 610 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.15 Mn 0.6 2. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. per box 096-699470 096-699488 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.50 .2 Length mm. 2.90 Cr 28.A.0 .0 Ni 9.5 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 22 At +20°C = 30 Typical mech.0. 2.5 3.0.0 .08 . Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. sec. PD Materials to be welded 3.00 Si 0. 168 .9 1.0 Product No.4 E 312-17 EN-ISO 3581-A E 29 9 R 12 EN 14 700 E Fe 11 Type of current Welding positions AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. kg per box 1.5 3.30.2 Current range.3 78 42 6 7 * SDS available on request. 300 350 Electrodes per box 79 50 Net weight. 48 65 0.10.

carbon steel. When welding machine parts it is advisable to keep heat transference as low as possible. Preheating is not usually necessary. This can be done by interrupting the welding operation to allow the workpiece to cool down before continuing. chrome-nickel. Unitor TENSILE-328 N has excellent weldability and produces a deposit free from pores. 3.TENSILE-328 N Unitor TENSILE-328 N is a rutileacid high alloy electrode specially designed for use on steel types which are difficult to weld. The slag is self-releasing. These types of steel are commonly used in main engine rocker arms and push rods. the welding area must be grinded and cleaned down to bare metal. It can also be used to form a primary buffer layer when building up a specially hard surface. Hardness as welded 200–300 HB. Power supply may be AC or DC positive polarity. etc. This electrode can be used for joining as well as building up. Use a short arc and hold the electrode almost at right angles to the workpiece. tool steel and manganese steel.01 169 . pump shafts. can workharden to approximately 450 HB. and may be polished to a high gloss finish. vanadium steel. e. spring steel. Machined or threaded surfaces adjacent to the welding area must be protected from spatter and oxidation. gear wheels.g. Before starting to weld. highspeed steel. The deposit may be filed.

01 All weld metal composition Co Rest Cr 20 W 15 Elongation % 25–30 Current range.4 1. PD Main applications: Rebuilding worn exhaust valves in combustion engines. where following properties are required even at high working temperatures. kg per box 1. 66 100 1. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std.0 Hardness after work hardening HB 440 Si 0. properties of weld metal Tensile strength MPa 850 Diameter mm. sec.2 4 Welding data Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. 350 350 Electrodes per box 39 27 Net weight.36 1.IMPACT-329 S Electrode for Heat Resistant Overlays Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.4 Product No. Imprint Unitor IMPACT-329 S DIN 8555 E 20-UM-250-CRTZ AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. up to 900°C: Application examples: –  High “general” wear resistance –  High corrosion resistance –  High impact and pressure resistance –  High resistance against abrasion by metal to metal friction or caviation –  Rocker arms –  Valve parts –  Pump parts –  Flapper gates –  Extrusion screws –  Stream through valves 3. alloy steels and stainless steels.33 40 27 7 7 * SDS available on request. Packaging data DDiameter mm.1 Ni Fe 10 Hardness as welded HB 250 2.A. A 70–120 90–150 C 0. 3. Materials to be welded General applications: Wear resistant non-magnetic surface layers on most weldable steel surfaces. including cast steel. 3.2 4 Length mm. 170 . per box 096-606460 096-606461 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour.0 Mn 1.8 Typical mech.

3. in order to obtain a smooth transition between beads. Put the first bead towards the outer side of the groove Second layer or top layer First layer or buffer layer Note: Each layer can consist of several beads Welding with IMPACT-329 S does not require any other electrode. In order to minimise heat effects. 4. holding the spindle in a tilted position allowing it to be rotated. pure base material Make room for at least two layers of weld metal. Preheating Preheat the valve head evenly to 50–200 °C and maintain during welding. For large diameter spindles the bead should be done in four parts. out in the horizontal position. Machine preparation Align the spindle in a lathe and turn a suitably wide and deep groove in the hardened face to remove all stellite down to clean. use toolbit quality H1 or K10 with negative 4° cutting angle. Then start at the oppsosite side and do the second bead so it finishes where the first one started. the spindle should be immersed in insulating material or dry sand in order to ensure slow cooling. the welding should be done in stages. Place the first bead towards the outer side of the groove. Large diameters Small diameters Welding bead sequence Grind the starting and stopping point of each bead. Finally do the third. Also grind the bead itself to remove possible slag and spatter. 3. starting where the first one finished.01 5. A suitable jig should be prepared. Final machining After cooling. Welding Electrodes should be dried at 250 °C for 1 hour prior to use. 171 . machine to correct tolerances. The Unitor miniheater electrode quiver may be used for this. Keep the arc short and hold the electrode as near as possible to 90°C to the work piece. Preheating temperature depending on type of alloy in valve. 6. Ensure slow cooling. 2. low turning speed and fine feeding.IMPACT-329 S 1. Weld preparation Suggested jig for holding Welding should as far as possible be carried spindles. Control the temperature adjacent to the welding zones and do not start the next bead until the base metal has regained the correct temperature. and do about one third of the circumference. Cooling When the top layer is completed.

5 3. Diameter mm.4 ~ E 307-26 Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.5mm only) PE.3–2. properties of weld metal Welding data Packaging data Rest Cr 16–20 Ni 7–10 Mo 1. 172 . 2.2 4 480-530 Current range. PD Materials to be welded Repair of: Worn winch wheels and anchor windlass wheels on anchoring systems. 3. T1-steel. AC DC+ PA PB PC PF (2. Trawler equipment subject to metal to earth wear and metal to metal wear. Suitable for both joining and making wear resistant overlays.9 1. 350 350 350 Electrodes per box 49 68 42 Net weight. 2. Cargo handling equipment and dredger equipment. Manganese steel. per box 095-606454 095-606455 095-606456 Boxes per carton 6 3 3 Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour. sec. kg per box 1. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std. Shear blades. N-A-Xtra steel.2 4 Length mm.WEARMAX-327 Electrode for Joining & Wear Resistant Overlays Identification: Classifications Imprint Unitor WEARMAX-327 AWS A5. Fine grain steel. 80 103 105 0. A 75–140 90–170 120–240 30–40 190 Recovery % 150 Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.A.4 Product No.01 All weld metal composition Fe Typical mech. OXAR steel.6 3.5 3.5 3.8 48 31 21 6 6 7 * SDS available on request.2 1.3 Mn 5–7 Hardness after work hardening HB 415 Si 1 (Max) Tensile Yield Elengation Hardness as strength strength % welded HB MPa MPa 650-700 Diameter mm. Cr Mo steel.

N-A-Xtra steel. The electrode is also designed to achieve high tensile strength and yield properties.WEARMAX-327 Unitor WEARMAX-327 is an electrode which produces a stainless deposit with excellent resistance against wear. does not cause wear on matching parts. sprocket wheels. which despite being tough. Special publication ID. When subjected to grinding. Manganese steel. making it an excellent electrode for joining dissimilar metals. the surface will harden to more than 400 HB providing a smooth hard and crack resistant layer with low coefficient of friction. OXAR steel. Areas of application: Anchor winch wheels and guides. cranes and track wheels. fine grain steel and shear blades. HARDOX 400.No. machining or wear. T1-steel. windlasses drums and rollers.01 173 . This produces a surface. 11051 WEARMAX 327 Available Winch wheel Chain 3. The initial weld deposit is comparatively soft with high elongation. Also used for joining Cr Mo steel. like chain wires etc.

properties of weld metal Welding data Diameter mm.01 Typical mech. 174 . sec. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std.5 3. kg per box 3.2 Si 1.34 28. per box 095-725275 Boxes per carton 3 3.3 Recovery % 170 C 3.2 Current range.5 Product No. AC DC+ PA PB PC Materials to be welded All weld metal composition Hardsurfacing of: Austenitic manganese steel with 12–14% Mn Harden able or self harden able steel Fe Rest Cr 31 Hardness HRC 57-62 Mn 0. A 100-150 Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.2 350 68 Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for two hours.3 6 * SDS available on request. Packaging data Diameter mm. 3.A. Length mm. 95 1. Electrodes per box Net weight.ABRATECH-330 Electrode for Wear Resistant Overlays Identification: Classifications Imprint Unitor ABRATECH-330 DIN 8555 E 10-UM-60-G Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.

2 mm = 100–120 A The electrode should be re-dried to 250° C for two hours before use Remove old welds using gouging electrode CH-2-382 ­ Ce 0. Weld using DC+ polarity and keep electrode angle close to 90°and with a short arc.8 Pre-heat to 200–300°C Austenitic Manganese steel must not be pre-heated.2 No need for pre-heating Max 250 °C Max interpass temperature when welding Austenitic manganese steel should be 250 °C ← Abratech-330 ← Wearmax-327 Alternative B Smaller items with less volume and where interpass temperature is critical Ø 3. When welding Austenitic Manganese steel with 12–14% Mn it is an advantage to make a buffer layer with Wearmax-327.4-0.2-0.4 Pre-heat to 100–200°C Ce 0. The interpass temperature of object not to exceed 250°C.2 mm = 130–150 A The effect of dilution with base material is decreased when the welding seams are placed as above 3. Normally the required hardness is obtained in one layer.ABRATECH-330 General Information Unitor Abratech-330 is a hard surfacing electrode with excellent resistance to abrasive wear under moderate impact and pressure.01 Buffer layer on Austenitic manganese steel is done using Wearmax-327 ← Abratech-330 ← Tensile-328N Buffer layer on harden able or self harden able steels is done using Tensile-328 N 175 . When welding on harden able or self harden able steels it is an advantage to make a buffer layer with Tensile328 N. Edge preparation: Left over of previous welds should be removed using the gouging electrode CH-2. The electrode deposit carbides in an austenitic matrix. A small weaving motion from side to side might be employed.382 Pre-heating: Depends on steels carbon equivalent ( Ce) and the shape and size of part to be welded. We recommend as follows: Ce <0. Alternative welding: Alternative A Large massive work pieces Ø 3.

1 1.4435 X2CrNiMoN17122 1. 1554 3.13 á l’N Medium 316S31 X5CrNiMo17122 1.03% 316S13 X2CrNiMo18143 1.4550 Z6CNNb17.2 Length mm. 26 35 46 0. sec.4571 Z6CNDT17.6 2.5 3.0 Ni 11.2 Si max. 176 .4 230 97 56 3 4 4 * SDS available on request.4404 Z2CND17. kg per box 1.Nr.030 Typical mech.4436 Z6CND17. 0.10 CF-8C.5 . A351 UNS S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 J92900 J92900 S32100/ S31635 S34700/S34709 S34700/S34709 J92710 PE.12 C (P) F-8M 316S33 G-X10CrNiMo189 1.4429 Z2CND17. 300 300 350 Electrodes per box 213 89 54 Net weight.12 (TP) 316L 2353 carbon CF-3M C<0.12 316Ti (2344) stabilized 347S31 Z6CNNb17. amperage Diameter mm.5 .12 (TP) 347 2338 347S31 G-X5CrNiNb189 1.0 Mo FN 2.4408 Z6CND17.4410 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo1810 1. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 570 460 40 At +20°C = 60 At –20°C = 55 Welding data Packaging data Diameter mm.2 Current range.7 1.0 . CPF-8C All weld metal composition C Mn 0.4552 Z6CNNb18. A 30–45 45–90 60–135 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.4401 Z6CND17.1. 0. PD Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440/17445 W.4406 Z2CND17.12 C (P) F-8M Ti-Nb 320S31 G-X6CrNiMoTi17122 1. 1.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN X2CrNiMoN17133 1. ** 90% of max. A312.18/8-321 N Electrode for Stainless Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Imprint Unitor 18/8-321 N / 316L-17 SFA/AWS A5.7 Product No. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.5 3.0 3–10 max.9 Cr 17.12 (TP) 347 2338 347S31 X6CrNiNb1810 1.13.6 1.4437 Z6CND17. per box 095-699397 095-699405 095-699413 Boxes per carton 6 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.11 316 (TP) 316 (2347) carbon 316S33 X5CrNiMo17133 1.6 2.3.01 Extra low 316S11 X2CrNiMo17132 1. 1.4 E 316L-17 DNV EN-ISO 3581-A E 19 12 3 LR 12 GL LR BV 316L ABS E 316L 17 Elect LMA rode Type of current Welding positions Materials to be welded 316L 4571 316L AC DC+ PA PB PC AFNOR NF A35- 573/574/576/582 PF ASTM/ACI SIS A240.0 .12 2343 C>0.7 1.03% 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo1812 1.19.

When terminating the weld. The formation of a pore containing high melt point slag in the middle of the crater is thereby avoided. The electrode should be held almost at right angles to the work piece. If an ordinary wire brush is used. Use a short arc. 2. A long arc will increase arc tension. it must be remembered that the final bead must be laid on the side exposed to corrosion.01 4. Best result is obtained using Unitor Pickling Gel to remove discolouration and oxides after welding. 177 . The dark oxide deposit formed on either side of the bead should also be removed. The electrode will operate on AC or DC polarity. Welding: 1. to prevent intercrystalline corrosion. A stainless steel electrode should have the same alloy composition as the base material. 3. The electrode must be protected against humidity and welding with damp electrodes should not be attempted. An electrode of high alloy content may be used for welding material which has a slightly lower alloy content than the electrode. as this can lead to corrosion. resulting in lower current output and poor fusion. Use a brush with stainless steel wire bristles when cleaning up the weld. the elec­ trode should be move in a circle over the molten pool and finally moved quickly backwards in the groove for a distance of approx. 10–14% nickel and 2–3% molybdenum. It is suitable for all welding positions.18/8-321 N Unitor 18/8-321 N is a rutile basic type electrode for welding stainless and acid resistant steel containing 16–18% chromium. but there are certain exceptions. It is always preferable to use DC positive when welding stainless or acid-resistant steel. 3. use Unitor electrode 23/14-322 N. When welding tanks containing corrosive elements. For welding stainless/ acid-resitant steel to low alloy steel. 2nd run 1st run Welding piping and flanges. iron oxides will be deposited in scratches left by the brush.10 mm.

amperage Diameter mm.12 316Ti (2344) X10CrNiMoTi1812 1. 178 .0 2. thickness of 12 mm.0 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 610 Current range.5 3.1.030 Typical mech.5 3.4571 Z6CNDT17.13 á l’N 316S31 X5CrNiMo17122 1. A 50–90 90–120 85–180 510 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 32 At +20°C = 50 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.12 316Ti X6CrNiMoNb17122 1.24.0 .12 C (P) F-8M X10CrNiMoNb1812 1.4429 Z2CND17.14.4573 Z6CNDT 17. per box 095-699421 095-699439 095-699447 Boxes per carton 6 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours.0 Ni 12.4580 Z6CND17.11 316 (TP) 316 (H) (2347) 316S33 X5CrNiMo17133 1.0 Mo FN 2. 2. 300 350 350 Electrodes per box 84 50 35 Net weight.Nr.0 12–22 max.2 1. sec.0 Product No.5 .4435 X2CrNiMoN17122 1. –  Build up stainless overlays on mild or low alloyed steel. 0.2 4.7 2. properties of weld metal Welding data Packaging data Diameter mm.12 2343 320S31 X6CrNiMo17122 1. AFNOR PC PF ASTM/ACI SIS UNS S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 S31635/S32100 S31635 S31640 S31640 PE.4401 Z6CND17. ** 90% of max.01 First layer in 316S11 X2CrNiMo17132 1.12 (TP) 316L 2353 CrNiMo- CF-3M claddings 316S13 X2CrNiMo18143 1.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN X2CrNiMoN17133 1.3.4583 Z6CNDNb17. 36 53 56 1.50 . kg per box 1.90 Cr 22.0 .4 E 309MoL-17 DNV EN-ISO 3581-A E 23 12 2 LR 32 GL LR BV 309Mo ABS SS/CMn Elect LMA rode 309Mo 4459 SS/CMn Type of current Welding positions AC DC+ PA PB W.4436 Z6CND17.5 81 43 28 4 5 6 * SDS available on request. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. 2. All weld metal composition C Mn 0.50 .13 316Cb –  Welding dissimilar metals: mild steel or low alloyed steel to stainless CrNiMo-steel up to max.2 4. PD Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440 Materials to be welded 3.0 Length mm.4404 Z2CND17.0.20 Si 0.7 2.4406 Z2CND17.23/14-322 N Electrode for Stainless Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Imprint Unitor 23/14-322 N / 309MoL-17 SFA/AWS A5.

The same rules as for 18/8-321 N apply with regard to cleaning up the weld. followed by 23/14-322 N on the stainless side. This combination should preferably be avoided. 23/14-322 N provides a weld with good mechanical properties and high crack-resistance. but providing an over-alloyed electrode is used the weld will remain stainless. and as will be seen from the sketch. For this reason. Best result is obtained using Unitor Pickling Gel to remove discolouration and oxides after welding. 23/14-322 N Unalloyed steel Stainless steel Procedure to be followed when welding compound steel. A certain amount of mixing with the unalloyed steel is unavoidable and the electrode is therefore over-alloyed to ensure that the weld will remain stainless. Mild steel electrode 4. 5 4 1 3 2 Mild steel 3. Mild steel electrode (LH-314 N) 2. The electrode may also be used for building up a stainless steel surface on ordinary steel. 179 . It is specially designed for welding stainless compound steel. Stainless steel overlay on ordinary steel.23/14-322 N Unitor 23/14-322 N is a rutile-basic high alloyed electrode for welding stainless and acid-resistant steel. the unalloyed steel side is welded first using an unalloyed steel electrode. 23/14-322 N 5. 23/14-322 N can also be used for welding unalloyed steel to stainless steel.01 Stainless steel pipe Welding mild steel to stainless steel. Mild steel electrode 3. It is suitable for all welding positions and can be used with AC or DC positive polarity. 1.

** 90% of max.50 . PD Duplex – stainless steel EN 10088-11-2 X2CrNiMoN 22 53 X3CrNiMoN 27 52 X2CrNiN 23 4 W. Materials to be welded 3. 38 55 1.40 max.DUPLEX-325 N Electrode for Duplex Steel Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions Imprint Unitor DUPLEX-325 N / 2209-17 SFA/AWS A5. 2. 1.4460 1. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.7 2.5 3.5 .4 91 47 4 5 * SDS available on request.01 All weld metal composition C Mn 0.4362 AFNOR Z2 CN 22.5 .3. per box 095-699454 095-699462 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 350 °C (662 °F) for two hours. 180 . Nr.2 Current range. 2.5 Mo FN 2. sec.0 Product No. A 50–90 80–120 Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. 0.90 Cr 21.4417 1.10.23.7 . Stainless steel to Duplex steels.5 á l’N ASTM/ACI 2205 SIS S 2377 UNS S 31803 S 31500 S 31200 S 32304 Can also be used for welding dissimilar materials: Unalloyed and low alloyed steels to Duplex stainless steel.50 .0 1.20 Si 0. kg per box 1.030 Typical mech.0 Ni 8. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 820 660 25 At +20°C = 50 Welding data Diameter mm.4 E 2209-17 DNV DUPLEX EN-ISO 3581-A E 22 9 3 N L R 32 GL 4462 LR – BV 2209 ABS DUPLEX Elect LMA rode AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.5 3. 300 350 Electrodes per box 91 55 Net weight.3 25 .2 Length mm. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.4462 1.0.1.

resulting in lower current output and poor fusion. austenite and ferrite. Stainless steel. Mild to Duplex. It has high resistance to general corrosion and pitting corrosion. Hull. Bulkhead panel to tanktop + corrugated bulkhead panel to tanktop. Best result is obtained using Unitor Pickling Gel to remove discolouration and oxides after welding.   b. results in a very high yield and tensile strength as well as an excellent protection against chloride-induced stress. Duplex stainless steel consists of two phases. 3. Mild steel. Bulkhead panel. DUPLEX-325 N can also be used for joining Duplex steel to mild steel. 3. (Section weld). Duplex stainless steel. Duplex stainless steel. Mild steel. The combination of these two in one structure. Bulkhead to corrugated bulkhead panel. Applic­ able up to service temperatures of 250°C. cargo loading pipes. 8. Use a short arc. Material Mild steel. Duplex stainless steel. Stiffeners to hull. 7. heating coils and ladders. Duplex stainless steel. Stiffeners to bulkhead panel. Tanktop. 6a. Hull (Section weld). 5. A long arc will increase arc tension. corrosion and pitting.DUPLEX-325 N Unitor DUPLEX-325 N is a rutile basic type electrode for welding of Duplex stainless steel used in tanks. Duplex stainless to mild steel. 2. 181 .01 Name 1. Duplex to stainless and stainless to mild steel. 4. Tanktop. both about 50%.

contains acids and heavy metals. % Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 0.40°C.5-10. pH 6. protective gloves. Rinse off the reminding gel using fresh water. Chemical composition Vol. Caution: Storage temperatures higher than 45°C must be avoided since they accelerate the ageing process and destroy the product. The waste water treatment should adjust the pH value of the clear water. Application data 3.5–5 Nitric Acid HNO3 8–20 Binder Rest pH: 0 Flamable: No Do not contain chloride containing agents such as hydrochloric acid (HCL) Packaging data Container Content 2 litre Net Weight per container 2. SDS available on request. Allow the gel to remain for 50-90 minutes. per container 095-661778 Containers per carton including 4 brushes Protective clothing Users should wear rubber boots. The storage area should be clearly defined and beyond the access of unauthorised persons. The waste water. after rinsing. 182 . Pickling chemicals give best result when they are fresh. Pickling chemicals are sensitive to high temperatures.PICKLING GEL Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel Identification: Packaging type White HD-polyethylene plastic container (approval according to UN. and must hence be treated according to local wastewater requirements before discharge. Do not pickle in direct sunlight. Spread a thick layer on to the work surface using the brush supplied. NB. They should be kept in an upright position with the lids tightly closed. Container should be stored indoors at 20°C.recommendation) Classifications Shelf life Storage Product consistency and colour White gel ASTM A-380 A1 BS CP-312 13 months when stored in unopened original containers at 20°C. This can be done with neutralising agent or slaked lime.01 Stir the gel to a smooth consistency.5 kg Product No. Recommended temperature limits for application: 10°C . and precipitate heavy metals into a sludge which should be sent for waste disposal. rubber apron and face visor.

Organic contaminants such as grease. Pretreat oxides. preferably when the welds are still warm and the weld oxides less hard. Storing temperature 20°C. Unitor Pickling Gel is used to remove this oxides and the underlying chromium depleted layer. If this is not removed.: Material Safety Data Sheet. with Neutralising Agent. Pickling restores completely the materials corrosion resistance. Stir the gel to a smooth consistency and spread a thick layer on to the work piece using the brush supplied. local water pollution control regulations should be consulted 9.PICKLING GEL During welding of stainless steel the weld and the adjacent area to the weld will become exposed to the air at elevated temperature. The result will be oxidation ranging from light tinting to a blue and black scale. For the deposit of heavy metals.e. Application 8. Storage temperature higher than 45°C must be avoided since this accelerate the ageing process. although the air temperature must not be below + 5°C (41°F). If necessary the gel may be allowed to remain on the work piece over night as there is no risk for corrosion. The pickling area should be ventilated. 6. 4. oil and paint have to be removed. Pickling residuals and rinse water should be neutralised to pH-7 i. If necessary brush the weld with a stainless steel wire brush. The gel should be allowed to remain for at least 50 minutes. 2. Stir the gel before use 3. Ref. 1. 5. Weld Discoloration/oxidation of surface Chromium depletion Pickling products are hazardous substances that must be handled with care. For Mo-alloyed steels this time should be extended. and then rinsed with water. slag and weld defects mechanically. The work piece should be cold when the gel is applied. Give the area to be pickled time to cool down to below 40°C after welding. A corresponding chromium depletion in the metal below the oxide also occurs. Do not pickle in direct sunlight. rinse off the reminding gel using fresh water. The bottles must be stored in an upright position with the lid tightly closed. It also removes surface micro slag particles and other contaminates which may cause local corrosion. corrosion will be the result. 3. 7.01 Apply with the brush Leave the paste to work Remove with water 183 . After appropriate time. Users should wear protective gloves and face visor.

properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 375 Diameter mm.2 4.0 . kg per box 2.2 4.A. sec. PD For welding and repair DIN 1691 G G 10 G G 15 G G 20 G G 25 G G 30 G G 35 Materials to be welded 3.4 . amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.0 .01 All weld metal composition Ni Fe 47.15 E NiFe-CL-A EN-ISO 1071 E NiFe-CL-A1 AC DC+/PA PB DIN 1692 GTS-35-10 GTS-45-06 GTS-55-4 GTW-35-04 GTW-40-05 GTW-45-07 GTW-S 38-12 PC DIN 1693 G GG-40 G GG-50 G GG-60 PF PG PE.4 Product No. A 75–100 85–160 300 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.0 Current range.2 2. 184 . 3. Imprint Unitor NIFE-334 N / NiFe-C1 SFA/AWS A5. 3. per box 096-699512 096-699520 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 200 °C (392 °F) for two hours. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std.48.8 45 30 2 3 * SDS available on request. 350 350 Electrodes per box 68 51 Net weight.0 Length mm.NIFE-334 N Nickel Iron Electrode for Cast Iron Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.0 C 1.9 1.2.56.0 Elongation % 12 Hardness HB 180 Typical mech. 90 70 0. ** 90% of max.0 42.

it will have a tendency to surface during welding and form pores in the deposit.e. Unitor electrode CH-2-382 should be used to prepare the grooves. the heat transfer to the base material is kept to a minimum by welding only very short beads (2–3 cm) at a time. When welding oily cast iron. may be hot welded. The carbon flakes in the metal are saturated with oil. After gouging with Unitor CH-2. 500°C and continuously welded. the bead being peened and allowed to cool before welding the next bead. preheated to approx. As well as forming a suitable welding groove. malleable cast iron and grey cast iron. – Drill a hole at the end of the crack. If the oil is not burnt off. The oily deposits in the welding area have evaporated. Large complicated parts should be cold welded. which are present in all types of cast iron. The weld metal is easily machineable. using a 3 mm drill. In the cold welding process. Prepare the damage area in the following manner: – Use crack detector to find the end of the crack fracture. This is a special electrode for gouging without the use of oxygen. Smaller parts may be hot welded i.NIFE-334 N The Unitor NIFE-334 N electrode has been specially developed for cold welding of different types of cast iron especially nodular cast iron. 185 . complicated cast iron parts where the use of heat would involve considerable risk of transverse fractures. this process also burns out the oil contained in the carbon flakes. The cold welding process is normally used on large.01 A crack in cast iron. The same welding procedure applies as for Nickel-333 N. Smaller parts. 3. NB: Allow to cool off slowly. to prevent further fracturing during welding. free to expand.

0 . properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 300 Diameter mm.0 C 0. 300 350 Electrodes per box 121 68 Net weight.0 3.5 3.15 E Ni-CL EN-ISO 1071 E Ni-CL3 AC DC+/PA PB DIN 1692 GTS-35-10 GTS-45-06 GTS-55-4 GTW-35-04 GTW-40-05 GTW-45-07 GTW-S 38-12 PC DIN 1693 G GG-40 G GG-50 G GG-60 PF PG PE.NICKEL-333 N Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. 2. per box 096-699496 096-699504 Boxes per carton 6 6 Re-drying temperature: 80 °C (176 °F) for two hours. 2.2 Length mm. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm. ** 90% of max.95.6 Elongation % 12 Hardness HB 150 Typical mech.8 .01 All weld metal composition Ni Fe 92.A. 50 65 0. sec.8 1.5 3.2 Product No.5. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. Imprint Unitor NICKEL-333 N / Ni-C1 SFA/AWS A5.2 Current range.2 90 45 2 2 * SDS available on request.0 2. A 55–110 80–140 100 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.1. PD For welding and repair DIN 1691 G G 10 G G 15 G G 20 G G 25 G G 30 G G 35 Materials to be welded 3.0 . 186 . kg per box 2.

Start from the crater and work backwards to the starting point. 187 . 2–3 cm Drill a 3 mm hole at the end of the crack. When repairing a crack which has not split the workpiece into two separate parts. The thickness of the material is the deciding factor in choosing between NICKEL-333 N or NIFE-334 N. to be followed by beads welded with NIFE-334 N. always weld from the outer ends of the crack and inwards. Use a fairly short arc. Allow the weld to cool before continuing. 3. Prepare the damaged area in the following manner: Use a crack detector to determine the actual length of the crack or fracture. NICKEL333 N is for use on thinner materials. to prevent further fracturing during welding. When a bead is completed. using a 3 mm drill. Weld in short beads. A general rule is that the welding area should be hand warm before welding the next bead of 2–3 cm (cold welding). After welding. it must be peened to counteract shrinkage. AC or DC negative or positive polarity may be used. NIFE-334 N is used for multibead welding on heavy gauge materials.NICKEL-333 N Unitor NICKEL-333 N is a special electrode for cold welding of oily cast iron.01 Start welding at the end of the crack and work inwards. or as a first bead on oily cast iron. Drill a hole at the end of the crack. Peening the bead counteracts the shrinkage forces. the bead’s tendency to shrink can cause cracking. Hold the electrode almost at a right angle to the work and weld in short beads of 2–3 cm at a time.

kg per box 1. 3. 350 Electrodes per box 42 Net weight. 3.5 Elongation % 15–25 Hardness HB 100–150 Mn 1 Recovery % 103 Typical mech. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 350–400 Diameter mm.e. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std. per box 096-606458 Boxes per carton 6 Re-drying temperature: 200 °C (392 °F) for one hour. 63 1.33 43 6 * SDS available on request. PD Materials to be welded Copper and copper alloys i.TINBRO-341 Electrode for Copper Alloys Identification: Classifications Imprint Unitor TINBRO-341 AWS A5.01 All weld metal composition Cu Rest Sn 7. Packaging data Diameter mm.2 Length mm.6 ~ E Cu SnC DIN 8555 E 30-UM-150-C Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. A 70–90 Welding data Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.A.4 Product No. sec.5–9.2 220-260 Current range. DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. 188 .: Brass Bronze Tin-Bronze Leaded Gun-metal Steel Castiron Seawater resistant deposit 3.

01 189 . TINBRO-341 is not recommended for welding Yorcalbro (aluminium-brass) or Cunifer (copper-nickel. oxidation. When material thickness is more that 4 mm. Parts not be overheated. positive polarity. cupro-nickel). the following processes should be used: Yorcalbro For dimensions up to approx. When making joints. weave the electrode from side to side. 4".TINBRO-341 Unitor TINBRO-341 is a tin-bronze elec­­ Cunifer trode for DC welding. Small parts should be brazed with AGAreas of application include joining of 60 and AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF. and welding current can be reduced. Larger dimensions should be TIG welded brass and tin-bronze as well as joinwith Icuni 30 329. etc. The electrodes must be stored in a dry place and must be handled carefully to avoid damage of the coating. ing these to steel and cast iron. a 3 mm gap should be used. covering an area of up to three times the electrode diameter. On parts requiring thin surfacing. welding should be carried out at 80–110 Amps. Machine or grind off fatigued material. For larger dimensions. This will facilitate welding. or where mini­mum fusion with the base material is required. make an 80° welding groove with V or X profile. Use a short arc and hold the electrode almost at right angles to the work. Clean the welding area thoroughly to remove any oily deposits. 3. use TIG welding with Ialbro 237 MF. For welding these materials. It is recommended that larger copper alloy parts should be pre-heated to 300–500°C. braze with AG-60 and Albro Flux 263 PF.

3.2 Hardness HB 140–170 2. A 80–160 Welding data Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. sec.01 All weld metal composition Cu Rest Al 7 Elongation % 10 Mn Fe 1. per box 096-606457 Boxes per carton 6 Re-drying temperature: 250 °C (482 °F) for one hour.: Bronze Aluminium bronze Steel Cast iron Seawater resistant deposit Materials to be welded 3.2 350 Current range.6 ~ E Cu Al A2 DIN 8555 E 31-UM-150-C AC DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.8 Recovery % 103 Typical mech.A. 350 Electrodes per box 46 Net weight.ALBRONZE-344 Electrode for Copper Alloys Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.e. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 550 Diameter mm. Imprint Unitor ALBRONZE-344 AWS A5. 190 . kg per box 1. PD Copper and copper alloys i. 3.92 48 6 * SDS available on request. Packaging data Diameter mm.2 Length mm.3 Product No. 81 0.

The length of each stroke should not exceed three times the electrode dia­ meter. Machine or grind off fatigued metal. It is also used for welding gliding surface overlays on steel. When surfacing steel parts. Unitor ALBRONZE-344 is not recommended for welding Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes. condensers. Make a suitable welding groove using a 60–90° angle. The workpiece must then be allowed to cool down slowly to below 500°C to ensure that the metal does not lose any of its properties. Use a short arc. Cast cupro-aluminium parts and similar materials must be annealed after welding by heating the welding area to 650°C. The groove can be formed by grinding. Remove the slag from the bead with chipping hammer and wire brush before starting on the next bead. The temperature must not exceed 200°C during welding. AC or DC positive polarity may be used. 3. The pre-heating requirement will depend on the size and type of the base material. Hold the electrode almost at right angles to the workpiece and use a weaving movement.01 191 . pump parts. pumps. Applications include ships’ propellers. bearing shells. Pre-heating is normally not required but it may be necessary to pre-heat large workpieces up to 150°C.ALBRONZE-344 Unitor ALBRONZE-344 is a bronze electrode made specially for joining and cladding of bronze alloys as well as for joining these metals to steel and cast iron. The deposit has low coefficient of friction and excellent weldability. valves and turbine blades. The welded deposit has high strength properties and good resistance against cavitational wear and corrosion in seawater. Clean the welding area thoroughly and remove all oxidation.

2341) G-Al Si 10 Mg (3.0 Product No. properties of weld metal Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 160 Diameter mm.8 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 13 Typical mech.0 . 32 0.89. 3.0 .2583) G-Al Si 11 G-Al Si   9 Mg G-Al Si   9 Cu 3 G-Al Si   7 Mg G-Al Si   6 Cu 4 Also applicable as surfacing electrode. ** 90% of max. Al 86.2381) G-Al Si 10 Mg (Cu) (3. amperage Packaging data Diameter mm.5 max.7 164 3 * SDS available on request.2381) G-Al Si 12 (3.2581) G-Al Si 12 (Cu) (3.2 Length mm.A.0 Si Fe 11. Re-drying temperature: In vacuum packing and therefore no need for re-drying. Opened packages: 80 °C for 1 hour.2 Current range. 3.ALUMIN-351 N Electrode for Aluminium Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.01 All weld metal composition For welding forged and cast aluminium alloy containing more than 7% Si as main alloying element. Imprint Unitor ALUMIN-351 N EN-ISO 18273 EL-AlSi12 DC+ PA PB PC PF Materials to be welded 3. sec. per box 096-699538* Boxes per carton 6 * This box is placed inside a vacuum metal pouch.13. 192 . kg per box 1. 350 Electrodes per box 71 Net weight. G-Al Si   5 Mg (3. 0. Kg/h kg weld metal** Danish Std. A 70–110 Welding data Arc time **/ Deposition rate** Electrodes per Fume class* electrode.

All slag must be cleaned off the finished weld with brush and water. remove the slag and overlap the end of the bead by about 1 cm when re-striking. Cover plate ears welded back on 3. a 60° V-groove and an air gap of 1–3 mm should be used. Aluminium electrodes absorb moisture very easily and must be stored in a dry. etc. the material is magnesium. the tip at a slight angle to the weld direction. Grooves and the surrounding area must be thoroughly cleaned. castings (covers). When welding with Aluminium electrodes: Arrange suitable ventilation or use Fresh Air kit mounted in face shield. Use the following test to determine whether a part is aluminium or magnesium: File a few shavings onto a small piece of paper. or at a slight angle to the weld direction Note: Use the shortest possible arc. If there are only a few sparks here and there. Aluminium or magnesium? It may be difficult to determine whether a part is aluminium or magnesium. Hold the electrode almost vertically the workpiece. NB. Hold the paper over a flame. tubes. If welding is interrupted. pistons. It is preferable to weld in the flat position.01 Joining a cast aluminium cover. Hold the electrode almost at right angles to the workpiece. and may be welded. and most of the fillings just glow. Use DC.ALUMIN-351 N Unitor ALUMIN-351 N is used for joining and building up aluminium parts with a thickness of more than 2 mm sheets. 300°C if possible 193 . Use as short arc as possible and weld rapidly. Such parts should be pre-heated to approx. preferably moisture-controlled. positive polarity setting. Magnesium parts must not be welded (magnesium bomb!). If the fillings spark or seem to explode in the flame. the material is alumi­nium alloyed with magnesium. gangways. When welding materials more than 3 mm thick. Thin parts should be backed up before welding. sections. place. Large parts or castings should be pre-heated to approx. When first received the electrode box is placed inside a vacuum metal pouch. 300°C.

Imprint Unitor CH-2-382 AC DC+/PA PB PC PG PE. 3. Materials to be chamfered All weld metal composition Typical mech.A. sec.4 Product No. per box 096-606459 Boxes per carton 6 Re-drying temperature: 120 °C (248 °F) for one hour. Packaging data Diameter mm. properties of weld metal 3.A. 194 .A.A. 350 Electrodes per box 36 Net weight. 3.2 Length mm. N. Kg/h kg weld metal Danish Std.01 Welding data Diameter mm. 57 – – 7 * SDS available on request. N. PD Steel/Cast steel Stainless steel/Cast stainless steel Cast iron Copper/Copper alloys Aluminium/Aluminium alloys N.2 Current range. A 160–280 Arc time / Deposition rate Electrodes per Fume class* electrode. kg per box 1.CH-2-382 Electrode for Chamfering Identification: Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N.

2. Hold the electrode at an angle of 15–20° to the workpiece. 1 2 3 3. 6. move the electrode back and lower to correct angle. 5. 4.CH-2-382 Gouging Technique 1. The arc will strike after a few seconds. If a deeper groove is required. proceed as in this sketch. otherwise as shown in figures 1–3. 3. Should this happen inadvertently. Hold the electrode vertically and press lightly against the workpiece. Warning! Do not cut down into the workpiece.01 4 5 6 195 . Direction of travel. Work downwards when cutting into a vertical surface.

At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi) At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi) At electrode holder 6–9 (80 psi) 7 7 7 * SDS available on request. but this will not influence the performance of the product. Diameter mm. Note: The copper coating will oxidize during the process.ACA-384 Electrode for Air Carbon Arc Gouging Identification: Copper coating over black carbon Classifications Approvals Type of current Welding positions N. 305 305 305 Electrodes per box 50 50 50 Net weight. 6. gouge. Can be used to groove.0 15 x 5 Current range. 200–350 200–450 400–600 Approx. per box 096-758474 096-758466 096-758458 Boxes per carton 5 5 5 Re-drying temperature: 180 °C (356 °F) for 10 hours.A.1 Product No.A.27 0. Packaging data Diameter mm. 196 .3 8. kg per box 0.0 15 x 5 Diameter mm. kg/electrode 0.3 2. 6.3 8. PD Materials to be gouged All weld metal composition Metal removal capasity Gouging and cutting of all electrically conductive materials. N. 6.0 15 x 5 Length mm. bevel or pierce any material.37 0.A.8 1.3 8. DC+ PA PB PC PG PE.01 Welding data Air pressure (bar) Fume class* (Consumption 400–900 l/min) Danish Std.61 3. N. Amps. cut.

When air-arc gouging with 8 mm electrodes and using 100 m cable. Adjust the speed of travel to obtain an even. deep groove. smooth groove surface. Most of those who have had some welding or cutting experience should be able to master the gouging technique by practising 2 or 3 times a day for about a week. A combination of wide electrode angle and slow speed of travel will produce a narrow. every electrode has an ideal current level which is slightly below its maximum. The fumes from air-carbon-arc electrodes are dangerous and must not be inhaled. the welder will notice a considerable increase in electrode consumption. The depth and contour of the groove is controlled by the electrode angle and speed of travel. The width of the groove will usually be about 3 mm wider than the electrode diameter.ACA-384 Unitor ACA-384 is a DC electrode for gouging by the air-arc method. If the ideal level is exceeded. WARNING! Wet or damp air-carbon-arc electrodes will give off splinters and are dangerous in use. 35° will provide a normal groove depth and highest speed of travel. An electrode angle of approx. However. A typical application of the air-arc method is the removal of sections which have been welded to the deck for securing deck cargo (flushing). Arrange for suitable ventilation or use an air mask. the arc is used to melt the metal. 3. An electrode angle of 45­–70° is used to obtain the deepest groove. This method has several advantages – it can be used for cutting stainless steel and other materials which are difficult to cut with an oxyacetylene torch. In this process. It is possible to cut grooves with a depth of up to 25 mm. 35°) The position of the electrode when gouging in the overhead position 197 . The amount of metal which can be removed increases with increasing current. and the molten metal is then blown away by a jet of compressed air. hissing sound and clean.01 The electrode held at a narrow angle to the groove (approx. the cable size should be minimum 95 mm2. Hold the electrode holder so that the electrode slopes back from the direction of travel. The air blast is directed along the rear of the electrode towards the arc. Damp electrodes must be dried out in a drying oven at 180 °C (356 °F) for 10 hours before use. Use approved ear protectors when working with air-arc electrodes and protect your body and head against molten metal spray.

01 198 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 I-FLUX-238 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 ICROMO-216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 3. . . . . . 204 18/8 Mo-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 ICUNI-30-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 IDUPLEX-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . .TIG WELDING RODS AND FLUXES Introduction . . .02 199 . . . . . . 201 IMS-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 IALBRO-237 MF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The label on each container fully identifies the contents. and also gives rod data and basic information on application areas and use. TIG Welding torch Rods for TIG welding Unitor rods for TIG Welding are supplied in sealed plastic containers.tig welding rods AND FLUXES Introduction Regulator w/flow meter In Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG). 3. All rods are supplied in 500 mm lengths for convenient use. An inert gas flow (Argon) protects Gas hose the electrode and pool from the surrounding air. The process has cable a similar welding technique as gas welding but use Welding electricity as cable energy source.02 Gas shielding Rod Work piece 200 . The electrodes Power source Argon do not melt. The filler metal is cylinder inserted into the molten pool in the form of a separate Return rod. an arc is struck between a Tungsten electrode and the workpiece.

5 ~2.8/ 0. 0. wt% ~1.2% proof) ER 80 S-B2 ER 80 S-B2L ER 90 S-B3 ER 90 S-B3L ER 80 S-Ni1 ER 80 S-Ni2 ER 80 S-Ni3 ER 80 S-D2 ER 100 S-1 ER 100 S-2 ER 110 S-1 ER 120 S-1 ER XX S-G 550 550 620 620 550 550 550 550 690 690 760 830 Not required 470 470 540 540 470 470 470 470 610-700 610-700 660-740 730-840 Not required 19 19 17 17 24 24 24 17 16 16 15 14 Not required *1) *1) *2) *2) As-welded *1) *1) As-welded As-welded As-welded As-welded As-welded As-welded 3.5/ 1.28-1979 Mechanical properties of weld metal Impact Energy Charpy-V J/°C Not required Not required Not required Not required 27/-46 27/-62 27/-73 27/-29 68/-51 68/-51 68/-51 68/-51 Not required Condition AWS Tensile Yield Elongation Classifications strength strength min.02 *1) PWHT 620 +/-15°C Heat in furnace to given temperature. hold for 1 hour.1 ~2.4 ~3.5 * C max. % min. Suffix -B2 -B2L* -B3 -B3L* -Ni1 -Ni2 -Ni3 -D2 Alloying system Cr/ Mo Cr/ Mo Cr/ Mo Cr/ Mo Ni Ni Ni Mn/ Mo Nominal value.05% 201 . *2) PWHT 690 +/-15°C Heat in furnace to given temperature. MPa min.5 ~1.0 ~2. cool in furnace to 316°C and then in still air. MPa (0.3/ 0.4 ~1.tig welding rods AND FLUXES Classification Guide to AWS A5.1 ~1. cool in furnace to 316°C and then in still air. hold for 1 hour.5/ 1.3/ 0.

0 Length mm. FP). E355D. AP.5% Mo-types. casting and forgings 15Mo3. 2.5 Product No. 15Mo3 A42 (CP. AP) 15D3. Also recommended for welding of high tensile steels. AP. per package 097-604850 202 . plate.05 0. A48 (CP.5 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation Impact value MPa MPa % ISO-V (J) ≥570 ≥480 ≥23 At +20°C = ≥180 At –45°C = ≥47 Packaging data Diameter mm.5% Mo steels and fine grained steels suitable for working temperatures from –45°C up to 550°C. A52 (CP. 15Mo3 StE285 to StE400 E275D. FP).28 ER 80 SG EN 12070 W MoSi DIN 8575 SG Mo Werkstoff No. 500 Rods per package 150 Net weight per package kg 1.6 Mo Fe 0. 1. 15Mo5 St45.8.IMS 210 Description: TIG welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloy creep resistant 0. 19Mn5. 18MD4. E390D.1 Mn 1 Si 0. Boiler & pressure vessel steel DIN 17155 NF A36-205 NF A36-206 BS 1501-261 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 Pipe material for elevated temperatures Fine grained steel DIN 17102 NF A36-203 ARGON 6–9 l/min 3. Identification: Copper coated.02 17Mn4.5424     DCNo flux required. Imprint 1.5424 / WMoSi Classification Type of current Welding positions Flux Materials to be welded AWS A5. E430D Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0.

It is also recommended for welding of high tensile steel. In general.02 203 . TIG welding rods on the other hand.IMS 210 Unitor IMS-210 is a copper coated TIG welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed creep-resistant Momolybdenium (up to 0. IMS-210 can also be used to advantage when making root runs on large thicknesses where the subsequent filler and capping runs are done by arc welding with coated electrodes. A TIG welding rod used for Gas welding will become too fluid and give a porous weld It is therefore important not to use gas welding rods for TIG and vice versa. 3. TIG welding of steel is suitable for thin sheets and pipes of small diameters where the wall thickness of pipes does not exceed 6 mm. Gas welding rods for mild steel welding (including MS-200) have a low silicium content. Thoroughly clean the welding area before commencing welding. have a high silicium content to keep the molten pool fluid.5%) steel and fine grained steel suitable for working temperatures from –45°C up to 550°C.

500 ≥460 >440 Rods per package 56 Net weight per package kg 1 Packaging data 204 . 16MC5. 20MC5 Quenched & Tempered steel NF A35-552 25CD4.2 Mo Fe 0.7339 ER 80 SG * * Nearest ER 80-B2 Type of current Welding positions Flux Materials to be welded     DCNo flux required. Also recommended for welding of high tensile steels. Identification: Copper coated. 2. Classification AWS SFA 5.5 Tensile Yield strength MPa strength MPa ≥560 >520 Length mm. 30CD4 3. 1.1 Si 0. per package 097-305532 Mechanical properties as welded Temperature AW SR 680/2h Diameter mm.05 ARGON 6–9 l/min Case hardening steel DIN 17210 16MnCr5 NF A35-551 18CD4.05 15CD 4.28 EN 12070 WCr Mo1 Si BS 2901 A 32 DIN 8575 SG Cr Mo 1 Werkstoff No.02 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0. Suitable for working temperatures up to 550°C. Elevated temperature steel DIN 17155 13CrMo4 4 DIN 17200 25CrMo4 NF A36-206 15CD 2.ICROMO 216 Description: TIG welding rod for welding of low alloy creep and hydrogen resistant Cr-Mo steels.5 Elongation % ≥22 ≥22 Rest Impact value ISO-V(J) +20°C ≥100 +20°C ≥130 Product No.6 Mn 1 Cr 1.

The workpiece is welded with the Leftward welding technique. 3.02 205 . like boiler tubes. Direct current is used. It is suitable for working temperatures up to 550°C.ICROMO 216 Unitor ICROMO-216 is a ChromeMolybdenum alloyed rod for TIG welding of heat resistant steel. with pointed wolfram electrode. On heavy wall thicknesses it can be used for making the root run while filler and capping runs can be done by arc welding with coated electrodes. negative to electrode.

5 Product No.4401 Z6CND 17.4406 Z2CND 17.4571 Z6CNDT 17.02 Mn 1.8 Ni 12.4435 X2CrNiMoN 17 2 2 1.12ál’N (TP) 316LN Med carbon 316S31 X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1. low carb.4408 Z6CND 17.0 Length mm. Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440/1744.12 (TP) 316L 2353 C<0.12 316Ti (2344) S32100/S31635 1. ASTM/ACI SIS UNS J92800 S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 J92900 3.4436 Z6CND 17. per package 097-602979 206 .Nb- stabilized 316S33 G-X10CrNiMo18 9 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 10 320S31 X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 347S31 X6CrNiNb 18 10 1.4450 Z6CNNb17.18/8 Mo 221 Description: TIG welding rod with extra low carbon for welding stainless CrNiMo-steels.11 316 (TP) 316 (2347) C>0. AFNOR NF A35.03% CF-3M 316S13 X2CrNiMo 18 14 3 1.12 C(P)F-8M Ti.12 (T) 347 2338 34700/S34709 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C <0. Identification: Stainless surface appearance.12 C(P)F-8M J92900 1.4410 1. Imprint: ER 316LSi / RW 1.5 Mo Fe 2.7 Si 0.4430 Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5. 2. 1.8 Cr 18.Nr.4404 Z2CND 17.8 Elongation % Rest Impact value ISO-V(J) At +  20°C = ≥80 At –120°C = ≥35 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile Yield strength MPa strength MPa ≥550 ≥320 ≥35 Packaging data Diameter mm. 500 Rods per package 42 Net weight per package kg 0.4437 Z6CND 17.02 1554 573/574/576/582 A240/A312/A351 CF-3M Ext.12 2343 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 12 1.5 ARGON 6–9 l/min Flux Materials to be welded W.4430     DCNo flux required.9 ER 316 LSi EN 12072 W 19 12 3 LSi DIN 8556 Mo 1912 Werkstoff No. 316S11 X2CrNiMo 17 13 2 1.03% 316S33 X5CrNiMo17 13 3 1.

a suitable grooved back-up sheet underneath the weld will prevent oxidization.02 . . . TIG welding thin sheets and pipes­­ . Application areas are similar to those for the coated electrode 18/8 321 N.18/8 Mo 221 Unitor 18/8 Mo 221 is a rod for welding stainless and acid resistant steel. Remember there is considerably more shrinkage in stainless steel than in mild steel and the the tacks should therefore be placed as closely as possible. . Burn-through is difficult to avoid when using coated electrodes on thin sheets. This filler rod may also be used as a root bead when welding thicker sheets with prepared V-grooves. combined with a pointed tungsten electrode alloyed with rare earth metals. Note: The hot surface of the back of the weld will be attacked by air unless it is shielded. As 18/8 Mo may be used on both stainless and acid resistant sheet and pipes. or used as root bead in V-grooves. When welding thin sheets and pipes (less than 2 mm) it is always an advantage to use TIG. The groove can subsequently be filled. 3. For TIG welding DC negative polarity welding current is used. it is a very useful filler rod on board chemical tankers. When welding sheets. . ­­ 207 . but with the advantages TIG can offer. The Leftward welding technique is used. using coated electrodes. In piping this can be done by introducing argon gas and blocking the pipe ends. Argon hose Small hole to let the gas escape Backing gas used to prevent oxidization inside pipes.

02 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Dissimilar joints as welding unalloyed and low-alloyed steel to duplex stainless steel.4362 ARGON 6–9 l/min Flux Materials to be welded 3. Imprint: RW 2293 NL/ ER 2209. EN 10088 Duplex stainless steel X2 CrNiMoN 22-5-3 X3 CrNiMoN 27-5-2 X2 CrNiN 23-4 W.0 Ni 9.0 Mo 3. 500 >480 Rods per package 42 Elongation % >22 Net weight per package kg 0. Welding 316 LN stainless steel to duplex stainless steel C 0.4462     DCNo flux required. per package 097-725309 Packaging data 208 .IDUPLEX-222 TIG welding rod for welding of Duplex stainless steel Identification: Stainless surface appearance.5 Cr 23. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.0 Length mm.4460 1. 2.5 Impact value ISO-V (J) At +20°C=>50 Product No.14 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa > 680 Diameter mm.6 Si 0. No.025 Mn 1.9 ER 2209 EN 12072 W 22 9 3 L DIN 8556 SG X2CrNiMo N 2293 Werkstoff No.4462 1.4417 1.0 N Fe 0. 1. 1.

1. In piping this can be done by blocking the pipe ends and introducing Argon gas. When welding thin sheets and pipes (less than 2 mm) it is always an advantage to use TIG. The deposit offers elevated mechanical strength and toughness resistance to stress corrosion cracking. but with the advantages TIG can offer. ­ Rapid cooling of weld deposit should be avoided as the material structure may suffer 3. Interpas temperature should not exceed 250°C during welding.02 Remember to only use stainless steel wire brushes and chipping hammers when working with stainless steel 209 . Note: The back of the weld will oxidize (oxygen will attack the hot surface) unless it is shielded. Burn-through is difficult to avoid when using coated electrodes on thin sheets. After welding. Remember there is considerably more shrinkage in duplex stainless steel than in mild steel and the tacks should therefore be placed as closely as possible Included angle Root Gap When welding V and U butt welds the included angle and root gap is slightly bigger than for AISI 316 stainless steel. A pointed Tungsten electrode alloyed with rare earth metals (Turquoise colour code) must be used. remove discoloration by using Unitor Pickling Paste. The rod can also be used for welding duplex to mild steel and duplex to stainless steel (AISI 304. Application areas are similar to those for coated electrode Duplex-325 N. using coated electrodes. The groove can subsequently be filled.4462.IDUPLEX-222 Unitor Iduplex-222 is a TIG rod for welding duplex stainless steel grades like WNr. This filler rod may also be used as a root bead when welding thicker sheets with prepared U or V-grooves. Shielding gas must be Argon. UNS 31803. AISI 316 LN). For TIG welding connect the torch to DC negative polarity.

0835 Ni 31.0 Ti 0.4 Cu Rest Hardness HB ±115 Product No.02 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Copper-nickel cast alloys Grade G-Cu Ni 10 Grade G-Cu Ni 30 Werkstoff No. 2. 2. 2.0837     DCNo flux required. 2. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5. Identification: Copper-nickel colour surface appearance.0872 Werkstoff No.7 ER Cu Ni BS 2901 C 18 DIN 1733 WSG-Cu Ni 30 Fe Werkstoff No.0815 Werkstoff No.0 Mn Fe 1.5 Length mm. 2.0883 ARGON 7–9 l/min Flux Materials to be welded 3.5 Elongation % ≥30 Net weight per package kg 2.0 0. Copper-nickel wrought alloys Grade Cu Ni 20 Fe (DIN 17664) Grade Cu Ni 30 Mn 1 Fe (DIN 17664) Grade Cu Ni 30 Fe 2 Mn 2 (DIN 17664) Werkstoff No. 2. 500 ≥200 Rods per package 92 Packaging data 210 . 2. cupronickel pipes) containing up to 31% Ni.ICUNI 30 239 Description: TIG welding rod for welding of copper-nickel alloys (cunifer. per package 097-335547 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥420 Diameter mm.0875 Werkstoff No.

use backing gas. Small diameter Cunifer pipes can be joined by means of overlap joints (capil­lary action) using Unitor AG-60 silver solder combined with AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF. patching leaking pipes. Horizontal axis. Joint surfaces and adjacent areas must be thoroughly cleaned with a stainless steel brush or emery paper before welding begins. Larger pipe diameters are usually TIG welded with Unitor ICUNI 30. Thoroughly clean the welding and adjacent area with a stainless steel brush or emery paper before commencing welding. for example. Vertical axis. If practically possible. Whenever possible. If practically possible use backing gas inside pipe to further improve the result. like. No flux is used in this process. welding should take place in the workshop so that. beads can be laid in the horizontal position. etc. Pure argon must be used as shielding gas. For TIG welding DC negative polarity is used in combination with a thorium alloyed electrode.02 Permanently installed pipe. pipe joints. as far as possible. Cunifer pipes.ICUNI 30 239 Unitor ICUNI 30 329 is a TIG welding rod for welding of copper nickel alloys. 211 . Typical applications are welding flanges on pipes. Permanently installed pipe. Typical applications 3.

Identification: Serrations w/greyish flux. 96%.IALBRO 237 MF Description: Flux-coated TIG welding rod for welding of aluminium-brass pipes also known as Yorcalbro pipes.0920 Cast copper aluminium alloys: –  Grade G-Cu AL 8 Mn (DIN 1714) –  Werkstoff No.0 0. As 0.5 Mechanical properties as welded Packaging data Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 500–600 Diameter mm. 2. Zn21. 250 gram container.4 Elongation % 25 Product No.0918 –  Werkstoff No. 2. 500 250–300 Rods per package 81 Net weight per package kg 1. 097-603092.04%) Chemical composition as welded (W%) AL Mn Ni Cu Rest Hardness HB 115 8.02 Trade name types: –  Yorcalbro (Cu 76%. 2.5 1. Al 2%. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5. Wrought copper aluminium alloys: –  Grade Cu AL 5A (DIN 17665) –  Grade Cu AL 8 (DIN 17665) –  Werkstoff No.7 ER Cu A1-A2 DIN 1733 SG-CuAI8Ni2     DC- ARGON 7–9 l/min Flux Materials to be welded I-FLUX 238 PF.0962 3.4 Length mm. 2. per package 097-519736 212 . order No.

–  Cold bent piping should be annealed at 400–500°C for approx. Horizontal axis. Flux deposits must be washed off with water. When the arc is extinguished the groove must be cleaned before the bead is continued.5 mm aperture. In TIG welding of joints it is strongly recommended that I-Flux 238 PF is applied to both sides of the joint and on the inside. pipes with a thickness up to and including 1. Annealing temperature 300–400°C for 30–40 min. Permanently installed pipe. a 70° V-groove with 1.02 213 .IALBRO 237 MF Unitor IALBRO 237 MF is a flux-coated filler rod for TIG welding of aluminumbrass pipes also known as Yorcalbro pipe. 15 cm on either side of the bead should be annealed. In cases where this is not possible. –  Weld in long continuous beads as quickly as possible. 20–30 min.5 mm may be butt welded with a 1. For thicknesses exceeding 1. Typical applications Also use I-flux 238 PF inside pipe joints 3. –  Completed welds. welding should take place in the workshop. Welding procedure: –  Piping must be unstressed before welding. Whenever possible. as well as the area covering approx.5mm. in the horizontal position. –  Thoroughly clean the welding area with a steel brush or emery paper. Vertical axis. no V-groove being necessary. This improves welding penetration considerably. –  As a general rule. position welding may be used with Leftward welding technique. –  Strike the arc on a separate piece of metal placed close to the weld zone. –  Use a contact thermometer when annealing Yorcalbro pipes. Larger pipes should be TIG welded using Unitor IALBRO 237 MF. This alloy is widely used in seawater resistant piping.5 mm root gap is recommended. –  Base material temperature during welding should never exceed 150°C Permanently installed pipe. Yorcalbro pipes with diameter less than 4" can be joined by means of overlap joint (capillary action) and silver brazed using Unitor AG-60 combined with Albro Flux 263 PF.

HARMFUL R22 R36/37/38 R48/20/22 R52/53 S2 S22 S26 S36/39 S46 S56 Harmful if swallowed Irritating to eyes. especially on the inside of pipes.02 Packaging data Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. respiratory system and skin Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed Harmful to aquatic organisms. Identification: White/Grey flux in paste form inside container. Use as additional flux on both sides of the joint. 214 . rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection If swallowed.I-FLUX 238PF Description: Flux for TIG welding rod IALBRO-237 MF for use on Yorkalbro. 097-603092 *SDS available on request. The flux is corrosive. Working area should be adequately ventilated. may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment Keep out of the reach of children Do not breathe dust In case of contact with eyes. Application Apply with brush. seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point 3.

02 215 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

02 216 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

. . . .    218 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    238 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    230 Icuni-W-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    236 Abratech-W-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 217 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    219 Storage and handling for Flux Cored wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    221 GPS-W-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    234 Alumag-W-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    228 S 309 M-GF-222 . . . . . .    226 S 316 M-GF-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    222 MS-W-201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    224 HST-SF-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    232 Ialbro-W-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

An inert gas. active Gas hose gas or a mixture of the two protects the pool from the surrounding air. shaft Diameter 50 mm. The spools are packed in individually sealed plastic bags and cardboard cartons and labelled with information fully identifying the wire with technical data and classifications. In some cases the flux Spool cored wire is self shielded Return and does not require cable any additional Wire welding shielding gas.WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Introduction Regulator w/flow meter In Wire welding an arc is struck between a continuosly fed wire and the workpiece. 51 mm width. Gas shielding Wire Work piece 218 .03 Wires for wire welding (GMAW and FCAW): Description Unitor standard range of welding wires for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) is supplied on 200mm Diameter spools. Wire feeder The wire used can be solid or flux Power source cored. The labels also provide basic information on use. torch Cylinder Argon CO2 Argon + CO2 3.

30-0.00-1.15 - Mn 0.07-0. MPa min.18-1993 Chemical composition of wire or rod C <0.70 0.035 <0.025 <0.035 <0.00 - Si 0.40 0.50 <0.035 <0.40 1.07-0.07-0.50 <0.50-0.035 <0.03 219 . MPa (0.50 <0.15 0.70 0.85 0.65-0.40-0.50-2.2% proof) ER 70 S-2 ER 70 S-3 ER 70 S-4 ER 70 S-5 ER 70 S-6 ER 70 S-7 ER 70 S-G 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 or Ar/Co2 3.025 <0. % min.50 Classifications ER 70 S-2 ER 70 S-3 ER 70 S-4 ER 70 S-5 ER 70 S-6 ER 70 S-7 ER 70 S-G Mechanical properties of weld metal Impact Energy Charpy-V J/°C 27/-29 27/-18 Not required Not required 27/-29 27/-29 Not required Shielding gas AWS Tensile Yield Elongation Classifications strength strength min.035 <0.15 0.19 0.035 <0.025 <0.45-0.90-1.40-1.80 - P <0.85 1.06-0.50 <0.50 <0.025 S <0.035 Cu <0.80-1.15 0.WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Classification AWS Guide to AWS A5.90-1.07-0.025 <0.50 <0.90-1.025 <0.025 <0.07 0.60 0.15 0.40 1.50 0.

% Impact Energy Charpy-V J/ºC 27/-18 No requirements 27/-29 27/-29 No requirements 27-29 No requirements No requirements No requirements 27/-18 No requirements No requirements No requirements 27/-29 27/-29 No requirements 27/-29 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 428 345 22 No requirements No requirements No requirements 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 497 414 No requirements No requirements 414 414 414 414 414 No requirements 414 414 No requirements 22 No requirements No requirements 22 22 22 22 22 No requirements 22 22 No requirements 3. 0= flat and horizontal 1= all positions Indicates a cored wire Shielding gas= Ar/CO2 E 7 1 T -1 Indicates usability and Performance capabilities. (10 ksi= 10 000 psi = 69 MPa. tensile strength in 10 ksi units.WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Classification Guide to AWS A5.03 Suffix Shielding gas Multiple-pass Single-pass Flux type Rutile Rutile Rutile Basic-Rutile Basic Rutile Basic-Rutile Basic-Rutile Rutile Rutile - - Current type DC+pol DC+pol DC+pol DC+pol DC+/-pol DC+pol DC-pol DC-pol DC-pol DC-pol - -1 x x x -2 x x -3 x -4 x x -5 x x x -6 x x -7 x x -8 x x -10 x -11 x x -G x x -GS x x 220 .) AWS Classifications E 6xT-1 E 6xT-4 E 6xT-5 E 6xT-6 E 6xT-7 E 6xT-8 E 6xT-11 E 6xT-G E 6xT-GS E 7xT-1 E 7xT-2 E 7xT-3 E 7xT-4 E 7xT-5 E 7xT-6 E 7xT-7 E 7xT-8 E 7xT-10 E 7xT-11 E 7xT-G E 7xT-GS Tensile strength Yield strength MPa min. MPa Elongation min. M Indicates min.20-1995 Designates an electrode Indicates primary welding positions.

or moisture contamination.WIRES FOR WIRE WELDING Storage and handling recommendation for Flux-cored Wires used in Gas-shielded Flux-cored Arc Welding and Self Shielded Flux-cored Arc Welding Scope Tubular cored wires on coil or spool for Flux-cored Arc Welding and Selfshielded Flux-cored Arc Welding. have suffered from serious water. Cored wire. requires controlled storing conditions to prevent excessive moisture contamination. Recommended storing conditions include: – temperature 15–250 °C. unbaked version: Coils and spool taken out of protective packaging may be exposed to normal on-board workshop conditions for maximum 2 weeks. 3. even when packed in the original undamaged cartons. During work stops exceeding more than 8 hours. Only products on steel coil can be stored in a holding oven at 40–1OO °C for a maximum of 30 days. 60%. Applicable for all types: Packaged in plastic bag and outer carton. relative humidity max. In all cases the products shall be protected against contamination of moisture. Storage Tubular cored wire.03 221 . the wire coils shall be stored under the conditions mentioned above in a plastic bag. can be stored for up to three years. dirt and dust. Handling Self shield range. – temperature 25–350 °C. Deteriorated products Cored wire products that are rusty. relative humidity max. Gas shield range Coils taken out of protective packaging may be exposed to normal on board workshop conditions for maximum of 48 hours. properly stored to prevent moisture contamination. or have been exposed to atmospheric moisture contamination over long periods of time cannot be restored to their original condition and shall be discarded. 40%.

St44. A550AP DIN 17175 St35. AH. HII.GPS W 200 Description: Solid wire for GMA welding of structural steels. 43D Ship plates   Grade A.08 Mn 1. St52. E445D Materials to be welded 3.0/4. St45. A43-2. 17Mn4. E. E390D.7.0/4. X52. 19Mn5 vessel steel NF A 36-205 A37 (CP.0/4 Boiler & pressure DIN 17155 HI. AP) BS 3059 Part 1 HPS 33 Elevated temperature steel NF A36-207 A510AP. EH Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0.68 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1. Wire identification: Solid copper coated steel wire on a spool. AP). 1. PD ARGON +20% CO2 or pure CO2 10–15 l/min. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37.5125     DC+ PA PB PC PF PG PE. E355D. StE290. C. X46.025 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation Impact value MPa MPa % ISO-V (J) At +20°C = >120 ≥ 510 ≥ 430 ≥ 22 At –20°C = ≥70 Wire speed Volt Stick out 7.05 Product No. 18 ER 70 S-6 EN 440 G422CG3Si1 DIN 8559 SG 2 Werkstoff No. E430D. E24-2 (–4 to E36 –2 (–4) BS 4360 50D. General structural steel DIN 17100 St33.7. StE240. A48 (CP. A530AP.8 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Deposition rate kg/h 0.5 m/min 22 V 10–20 mm Diameter mm 0. Classification Type of current Welding positions Shielding gas AWS A 5. B.67–2. per spool 090-590117 1 Welding data Packaging data Net weight per spool kg 5 222 . AP). D.8.7.03 P Fe ≤0. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 StE255 to StE420 NF A36-203 E275D. AP).4 Si 0. StE320.85 S ≤0. A42 (CP. DH.7 API 5 LX X42. StE360.7. A52 (CP.

Stable arc and little spatter. scale and old paint from the area. Use 80/20% Ar/CO2 or pure CO2 shielding gas. It can be used for welding sheets in thin as well as larger thicknesses. Clean all rust.GPS W 200 GPS-W-200 is a copper coated welding wire for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed structural steel. 3.03 223 .

7 Si 0.7 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1. Classification AWS A 5. StE290. PD No shielding gas required.0/4. StE360.4 P 0.5 mm Diameter mm 0. . General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. B.7.5 224 . X46 DIN 1626-1630 St37. D Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210. E28-2 (–3) E30-2 (–3) BS 4360 Gr.MS-W-201 SELFSHIELD Description: General Purpose Self-Shielded Electrode wire for the welding of mild steel and ships steel.23 Mn 0.3 Product No.8 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Packaging data Net weight per spool kg 4. StE240.0/4 Materials to be welded 3.20 Type of current Welding positions Shielding gas E 71 T-GS EN –     DCPA PB PC PF PG PE.7. All position welding.01 Al Fe 2 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength MPa 615 Deposition rate kg/h 0. St37-2 to St44-3 NF A35-501 A33.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0. 40A-C. Wire identification: Tubular Flux Cored Wire on a spool. StE320. 20 V 9. 43A-C Ship plates   Grade A. C. including vertical down. per spool 090-160100 7 Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 12 m/min. A34-2.007 S 0.7. St44.7. E24-2 (–4).7 API 5 LX X42.4–0.

including hull plate and stiffener welding on ships. Lifting lugs Motor base plates 3. Typical applications General plate welding.MS-W-201 SELFSHIELD Unitor MS-W-201 Selfshield is a selfshielded electrode wire designed for the welding of mild steel where superior weld metal mechanical properties are required. It will make root beads in groove welds without backing bars. including the 3G vertical up and vertical down positions. It has all-position welding capabilities. Slag removal is very good with minimal slag sticking. Unitor MS-W-201 Selfshield has good arc action and low spatter for excellent operator appeal.03 Joining deck and hull plates Mild steel welding in thin sheet metal 225 .

004 Al 0.7. C.7 API 5 LX X42.65 Si 0.0/4 Boiler & pressure vessel steel DIN 17155 HI.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C 0.33 Product No. E445D Low temperature steel SEW 680-70 TTSt35. HII. General structural steel DIN 17100 St33. Wire identification: Tubular Flux Cored Wire on a coil. E. A48 (CP. 18–24 V 12–25 mm Packaging data Diameter mm 1. St37-2 to St52-3 NF A35-501 A33.20 EN BS 7084 DIN NEN-ISO NFA 81-350 T SS 51. GS45. GS52 BS100 A1. A42 (CP.7. X46. AP). 360 to 223/224/225-Gr. per spool On Request 7 Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 10 m/min. St52.12 226 .7. AP). D. TTSt45 Materials to be welded 3. A530AP. StE290.7. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.HST-SF 232 SELFSHIELD Description: General Purpose Self-Shielded Electrode wire for the welding of mild steel and ships steel. EH Cast steel DIN 1681 GS38.7 Coil size mm 245 x 75 Net weight per spool kg 6. E24-2 (-4) to E36-2 (-4) BS 4360 Grade 43D. DH. A43-2. StE360.1 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 27 At –29°C = 45 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1. 19Mn5 NF A 36-205 A37 (CP. E430D. AP) NF A36-207 A510AP. X60 DIN 1626-1630 St37.009 S 0.2. A3. E355D. E390D. PD Shielding gas No shielding gas required. AP). TTSt41.28 P 0.0/4. A52 (CP. AM1. B. AH. 17Mn4. 490 Elevated temperature steel DIN 17175 St35. St45.0/4. BH E 71 T-8 T 532 NWH     DCPA PB PC PF PE.8. StE240.7–5. AW1 Pipe material DIN 17172 StE210. A550AP BS 1501 151/154/161/164-Gr.17 Mn 0. 50D Ship plates   Grade A.75 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa 635 550 Deposition rate kg/h 1.8 Fine grained steel DIN 17102 StE255 to StE420 NF A36-203 E275D. A2. StE320.2. X52. St44. AM2.

03 227 . 1. This feature results in fast joint speeds for economical welding in the flat position. paint or primer. Typical applications: General plate welding. The superior arc action and handling of Self Shield-232 make it a high operation appeal electrode. rust. It has excellent low temperature impact toughness. rebuilding pitting corrosion in cargo and ballast tanks. Self Shield-232 generates a fast freezing slag which supports high deposit rates. Size diam. out of position.7 is recomm­ ended for welds where it is necessary to produce wider passes (weave technique) and for welding plate with contaminations such as oil. including hull plate and stiffener welding on ships. Ideal for fillet welding. 3. The Self Shield-232 also has excellent slag removal. On many applications the slag is self peeling.HST-SF 232 SELFSHIELD Unitor HST-SF 232 is designed for the Self Shielded Wire welding of 5 mm and thicker steel. Deposit rate up to 3 kg/h. Recommended for single and multipass welds.

A312. ASTM/ACI SIS UNS S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 J92900 Materials to be welded 1554 573/574/576/582 A240.4429 Z2CND 17.2 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1.4437 Z6CND 17.11 316 (TP) 316 (2347) C>0.4435 X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1.4410 1.0 Ni 12.13 á l’N Med.22 E 316 LT 1–4/–1 EN 12073 T 19123 LPM (C) 1 Werkstoff No.4436 Z6CND 17.12 2343 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 12 1.12 (TP) 347 2338 34700/S34709 3.4571 Z6CNDT 17.2–3.5 228 .4450 Z6CNNb17. carbon 316S31 X5CrNiMo 17 12 2 1.S 316 M-GF 221 Description: Flux cored wire for welding of stainless steel: 19% Cr/12% Ni/3% Mo types.9 Coil size mm 200 x 55 Deposition rate kg/h 1.0 Mo Fe 2.6 Mn 1.03 Si 0.8 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation Impact value MPa MPa % ISO-V (J)  ≥510 ≥350 ≥30 At +20°C = ≥47 -120°C = ≥32 Wire speed Volt Stick out 11 m/min 22 V 15–25 mm Diameter mm 0.4401 Z6CND 17. 1. AFNOR NF A35. A351 Ext.4406 Z2CND 17.Nr. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5. low carb.10 Product No. per spool 090-597518 7 Welding data Packaging data Net weight per spool kg 2.12 C(P)F-8M Ti-Nb stabilized 316S33 G-X10CrNiMo18 9 316S33 G-X6CrNiMo 18 10 320S31 X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 347S31 X6CrNiNb 18 10 1.12 316Ti (2344) S32100/S31635 1.03% CF-3M 316S13 X2CrNiMo 18 14 3 1.03% 316S33 X5CrNiMo17 13 3 1.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) C ≤0.4408 Z6CND 17.12 (TP) 316L 2353 C<0. Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440/1745 W. 316S11 X2CrNiMo 17 13 2 1. For posistion welding preferred Ar + CO2 Mix. Wire identification: Tubular stainless steel wire on a spool.12 C(P)F-8M J92900 1.4430     DC+ PA PB PC PF PG Shielding gas ARGON +20% CO2 or pure CO2 22–25 l/min.4404 Z2CND 17.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN X2CrNiMoN 17 13 3 1.5 Cr 19.

The wire operates with a very stable. If there is an overlap joint (capillary joint) silver brazing should also be considered. When welding very thin sheet and pipes (less than 2 mm). It is also suitable for related stabilised steel grades if service temperature is below 400 °C.S 316 M-GF 221 Unitor S 316 M-GF is a rutile flux cored wire designed for welding 19% Cr. spatter free arc producing a bright. Pure CO2 can also be used. As shielding gas use preferably 80% Ar 20% CO2. smooth weld bead surface. 3.03 229 . The slag is self-releasing. 12% Ni. TIG welding should be considered. 3% Mo types of stainless steel. For position welding Ar/CO2 is preferred.

8 Rest Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength Elongation Impact value MPa MPa % ISO-V (J) ≥550 ≥450 ≥25 At +20°C = >47 –60°C = ≥32 Wire speed Volt Stick out 13 m/min 24 V 15–25 mm Diameter mm 0.7 Cr 22.2 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1.Nr. per spool 090-606041 7 Welding data Packaging data Net weight per spool kg 2.13 316Cb S31640 X10CrNiMoNb 18 12 1.5 230 .4 Si 0. thickness of 12 mm.12 2343 320S31 G-X6CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 1. 1. –  Build up stainless overlays on mild or low alloyed steel.4436 Z6CND 17.4406 Z2CND 17. Steel grades BS 970 DIN 17440 W.12 316Ti S31635 X6CrNiMoNb 17 12 2 1.4429 Z2CND 17.7 Ni 12. C ≤0.13 316Cb S31640 –  Welding dissimilar metals: mild steel or low alloyed steel to stainless CrNiMo-steel up to max.11 316 (TP) 316 (H) (2347) 316S33 X5CrNiMo 17 13 3 1.4571 Z6CNDT 17.9 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Deposition rate kg/h 1.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) X10CrNiMoTi18 12 1.4580 Z6CNDNb 17.4459     DC+ PA PB PC PF PG Shielding gas ARGON +20% CO2 or pure CO2 22–25 l/min.12 316Ti (2344) 3.03 Mn 1.4401 Z6CND 17. For posistion welding preferred Ar + CO2 Mix.4573 Z6CNDT 17.12 á l’N (TP) 316LN X2CrNiMoN 17 13 3 1.10 Product No.2–3.4583 Z6CNDNb 17. Also welding of clad steel.5 Mo Fe 2.22 E 309 Mo LT 0-4 EN 12073 T 23 12 2 LPM1 DIN 8556-86 E 23132 Werkstoff No.12 (TP) 316L 2353 CrNiMo- CF-3M claddings 316S13 X2CrNiMo 18 14 3 1.S 309 M-GF 222 Description: Flux cored wire for welding of stainless steel and welding mild steel to stainless steel.4404 Z2CND 17. AFNOR ASTM/ACI SIS UNS S31603 J92800 S31653 S31600/ S30409 S31635/ Materials to be welded First layer in 316S11 X2CrNiMo 17 13 2 1. Wire identification: Tubular stainless steel wire on a spool. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.4435 X2CrNiMoN 17 12 2 1.13 á l’N 316S31 X5CrNiMo 17 12 2 1.

and 2.03 Mild steel stiffener to stainless steel 231 . Pure CO2 can also be used. mild steel and corrosion resistant overlays on mild steel. Use 80%/20% Ar/CO2 preferably as shielding gas. For position welding use Ar/CO2.S 309 M-GF 222 Unitor S 309 M-GF is a rutile flux cored wire designed for welding of clad steel (compound steel). 3. It can also be used for welding of stainless steel with chemical composition of up to 23% Cr.3% Mo. 13% Ni. no oxidation below 800 °C working temperature. stainless steel. No granulation of crystals up to 350 °C.

0837     DC+ PA PB PC PF PE.0883 W.0882 CuNi30FeMn2 DIN 17658 G-CuNi 10 G-CuNi 30 W.No.80 Packaging data Diameter mm 0. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.5 m/min 22 V 8–10 mm Deposition rate kg/h 1.0835 UNS C 70600 C 71500 C 71600 Materials to be welded 3. Wire identification: Solid copper-nickel wire on a spool.0882 2.0815 2.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Mn 0. 2.2–2.0872 2.0878 2.6 Elongation % ≥30 Ti <0.ICUNI W 239 Description: Solid wire for GMA welding of copper-nickel alloys containing 10–30% Ni. per spool 090-590109 232 .05 1 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥360 >200 Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 7.80 Ni Fe 30 0. PD Shielding gas ARGON 15–20 l/min. Copper-nickel wrought alloys Copper-nickel cast alloys DIN 17664 CuNi10Fe1Mn CuN20Fe CuNi30Mn1Fe 2. 2.7 ER Cu Ni DIN 1733 SG-Cu Ni 30Fe Werkstoff No.No.5 Cu Rest Hardness HB 120 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1. 2.8 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Net weight per spool kg 2 Product No.

ICUNI W 239 Unitor ICUNI-W is a wire for welding copper-nickel alloys (cunifer) in wrought or cast form. If practically possible. Thoroughly clean the welding and adjacent area with a stainless steel brush or emery paper before commencing welding. containing up to 30% Nickel. If there is an overlap joint (capillary joint) silver brazing should be considered. Use pure Argon as shielding gas. cast iron. It may also be used to provide corrosion resistant overlays on cast iron and mild steel. Cunifer pipes with a small diameter and thin walls should be welded using TIG welding.03 233 . bronze or brass. and for joining these to steel. stainless steel. use backing gas inside pipe to further improve the result. 3.

2. Wire identification: Solid copper-aluminium wire on a spool.0920 W.04%) 3.0921     DC+ PA PB PC PF PE. 2. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.IALBRO W 237 Description: Solid wire for GMA welding of copper-aluminium alloys e.Yorcalbro.43–2.7 ER Cu Al-A1 DIN 1733 MSG-Cu Al 8 Werkstoff No. Copper-nickel wrought alloys Copper-aluminium cast alloys DIN 17665 CuA15As CuA18 DIN 1714 G-CuA18Mn W. Zn 21. High resistance to corrosion and wear.No.0962 Materials to be welded Trade name types: –  Yorcalbro (Cu 76%.96%. PD Shielding gas ARGON 15–20 l/min. As 0. A12%. 2.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Mn ≤1.No.5 m/min 22 V 8–10 mm Deposition rate kg/h 1.0 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥430 ≥180 AI 8 Elongation % ≥40 Hardness HB ± 120 Cu Rest Melting range °C 1030–1040 Mechanical properties as welded Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 7.g. per spool 090-777972 234 .05 1 Packaging data Diameter mm 0.8 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Net weight per spool kg 5 Product No.63 Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1.0918 2.

Yorcalbro pipes with a small diameter and thin walls should be welded using TIG welding. It is also suited for rebuilding or joining materials to steel or cast iron. and for wear or corrosion resistant overlays on steel and cast iron.03 235 . Thoroughly clean the welding area with a stainless steel brush or emery paper before commencing welding. 3. including aluminum bronzes like Yorcalbro. If there is an overlap joint (capillary joint) silver brazing should be considered.IALBRO W 237 Unitor IALBRO-W is suited for welding most bronze/brass alloys. in wrought as well as cast forms. Use pure Argon as shielding gas.

10 ER 5356 DIN 1732 MSG-AlMg5 Werkstoff Nr.3556     DC+ PA PB PC PF Shielding gas ARGON 15–20 l/min. per spool 090-590083 236 . Wire identification: Solid aluminium wire on a spool.57 Welding data Wire speed Volt Stick out 12 m/min 23 V 8–10 mm Kg wire/kg Fume class* weldmetal SS-062802 1. AlMg3 AlMg2Mn0.69–1. G-AlMg5Si (generally all cast alloys containing magnesium as main alloying element) AlMg5.05 1 Packaging data Diameter mm 1 Spool size mm 200 x 55 Net weight per spool kg 2 Product No.7Mn. Classification Type of current Welding positions AWS A5.15 Mg 5. AlMg4.4 Ti <0.15 Al Rest Elongation % ≥17 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥240 ≥110 Deposition rate kg/h 0. G-AlMg3 8 (Cu) G-AlMg5.8.5. Aluminium wrought alloys: DIN 1725/Part 1: Aluminium cast alloys: DIN 1725/Part 2: G-AlMg3. AlMg4Mn Materials to be welded 3. G-AlMg3Si.ALUMAG W 235 Description: Solid wire for GMA welding of aluminium alloys with maximum 5% Mg.0 Cr ≤0.03 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Mn 0. 3. AlMg2.

torch cables of more than 3 m length should be avoided. Clean the joints and adjacent surfaces thoroughly. Longer cables may cause uneven or interrupted wire feed. Cast alloys that have been preheated must be allowed to cool slowly after being welded. AlMgSi and AlMg(Cu) alloys.g. As the aluminium wire is quite soft. not an ordinary steel brush which will rub iron oxides into the aluminium and contaminate the weld pool. Use a stainless steel brush. e. AlMgMn. AlMg. Cast aluminium should be preheated to approximately 300 °C before welding is commenced. so that they do not sag when temperature rises.03 237 . 3.ALUMAG W 235 Unitor Alumag-W is a magnesium alloyed wire for welding all common wrought and cast aluminium alloys. It is specially suited for welds which must be resistant to seawater and high tension. and also where high ductility is required. Use pure Argon as shielding gas. Make sure that cast components that have to be pre-heated are well supported.

A.5m/min SC 12speed/Voltage RC mm out Kg/h weldmetal Wire Stick Deposition rate Kg wire/kg SC 8.4 0. 090-230230 per spool Product No.6 300 X 100 15 mm mm size per spool kg Diameter Spool Net weight mm mm per spool kg 1. Mn Austenitic manganese steel with 12. ABRATECH-W-230 ABRATECH-W-230 ABRATECH-W-230 AC DC+/AC AC DC+/DC+/- PA PA PB PB PC PC PC No shielding PA gas PB required No shielding gas required No shielding gas Hard surfacing of: required Low/medium carbon steels.5 Austenitic manganese steel with 12.4 B B 0.3 8. N.4 3.3 Diameter Net weight6.6 300 X 100 15 Kg wire/kg Fume SS-062802 class* weldmetal SS-062802 Fume class * 7 Product7No.7 mm mm per spool kg Diameter Spool size Net weight 1.5 0.5 Cr B 0.6 300 X 100 15 1.14 % Low/medium carbon steels. N.5m/min / 32 V 10 5.3 8. per spool 090-230230 090-230230 Fume class * 7 SS-062802 Fume class * 6.A.7 6. per spool Product No.Classifications Classifications Classifications Approvals Approvals Type Approvals of current Type of current Welding positions Type of current Welding positions Welding positions Shielding gas Shielding gas Shielding gas Materials to be welded Materials to be welded Materials to be welded Chemical composition as welded (W %) Chemical composition Chemical as welded (W %) composition Mechanical as welded (W %) properties as welded Mechanical properties as Mechanical welded properties as welded Welding data Welding data Welding data Packaging data Packaging data Packaging data Description: Self –Shielded Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing Description: Self –Shielded Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing Description: Wire identification: Self –Shielded Flux Cored Wire for Hard Surfacing Tubular Flux Cored Wire on spool Wire identification: Wire identification: Tubular Flux Cored Wire on spool DIN 8555 Tubular Flux Cored Wire on spool MF 10-60 DIN 8555 DIN10-60 8555 MF MF 10-60 N.5 1 26 HRC Hardness 60 HRC Hardness HRC 60 Wire speed/Voltage Stick out Deposition Kg wire/kg 60 rate SC 12 RC Deposition mm Kg/h weldmetal Wire speed Volt Stick out rate Wire speed/Voltage Stick out Deposition rate Kg kg/h wire/kg / 32 V 10 5.7 6.3 SS-062802 7 238 .03 1 26 Si Cr Si Cr 1 26 Hardness 4.7 12 RC mm Kg/h weldmetal 8. Hard surfacing of: Hard surfacing of: C 4.5 m/min 32 V 10 mm 5.5 C C 4.A.5m/min / 32 V 10 Spool size 5. Austenitic manganese steel with 12.14 % Mn Low/medium carbon steels.14 % Mn Mn Si 0.5 Mn Mn 0.

2-0. The required hardness is obtained in one layer.200˚C Pre-heat to 200 .2 Ce 0. Specifically meant for dredgers and cement carriers facing heavy abrasion combined with medium and light impact. There is no need for shielding gas because the wire is a shelf shielded flux cored wire producing its own gas protection. There is no slag to be removed after welding. The interpass temperature of the object not to exceed 250˚C Connect the torch to + polarity.300˚C Feeder screws Austenitic Manganese steel must not be pre-heated.ABRATECH-W-230 ABRATECH-W-230 General information Unitor Abratech-W-230 is a hard surfacing self shielded flux cored wire with excellent resistance to abrasive wear under moderate impact and pressure. Wear plates Dredger Buckets 3. We recommend as follows: Ce <0. Edge preparation: Left over of previous welds should be removed using gouging electrode CH-2-382. The wire deposit chromium carbides in an austenitic matrix.03 239 . Weld using a small weaving motion from side to side. Pre-heating: Depends on steels carbon equivalent (Ce) and the shape and size of part to be welded.8 No need for pre-heating Pre-heat to 100 . The deposit will crack because of its hardness at regular intervals without this cracks progressing into the base material Areas of application: Protection of surfaces subject to extreme wear and abrasion caused by solids or slurry.4 Ce 04-0.

03 240 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   244 Alumag-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04 241 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES Introduction .   246 Aluflux-234 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   242 MS-200 . . . .   248 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The label on each container fully identifies the contents.2 mm (1/8 in) use Rightward welding. and also gives rod data and basic information on application areas and use. The weld is an alloy consisting of the parent material and the filler rod. Cylinder Welding Filler rod attachment Regulator Flashback arrestors Hoses Shank Non return valves/ Flashback arrestors Welding attachment Weld Filler rod A consumable in the form of a filler rod is added to the pool. 242 . Rods for gas welding Unitor rods for Gas welding are supplied in sealed plastic containers.GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES Top valve Introduction Gas welding utilizes the high flame temperature in the oxy-acetylene flame (3100 °C) to melt the base material. We distinguish between two different welding techniques: Leftward welding and Rightward welding. 3. Leftward welding.2 mm (1/8 in) use Leftward welding. Rightward welding.04 For material thickness up to 3. For material thickness above 3. All rods are supplied in 500 mm length for convenient use.

with a shorter. Reducing the Oxygen flow slightly again will give a carburizing flame with a small secondary flame zone.04 Carburizing flame. and for brazing. and a neutral flame is obtained just as the secondary zone disappears. and for soft soldering. obtaining a strongly carburizing flame. This zone is less bright and more white in colour than the inner cone. Oxidizing flame. The oxidising flame By increasing the Oxygen flow slightly beyond the point where the secondary zone disappears one will obtain an oxidising flame (with excess oxygen). approximately twice as long as the inner cone.GAS WELDING RODS AND FLUXES The neutral flame Two distinct zones may be seen in the neutral flame. but is considerably brighter than the flame envelope. cutting and for most steel welding work. The flame will be shorter and sharper than the neutral flame. 3. The inner cone of the flame has a bright blue light and extends only a short distance from the tip. Around this inner cone is the flame envelope which is darker and less intensely blue. and is recognised by a secondary flame zone between the inner cone and the flame envelope. By adding Oxygen (and if necessary reducing the Acetylene flow) the secondary zone will be reduced. This flame is neutral. and is used for heating. This soft flame (also called a reducing flame) is used for welding of aluminum and aluminum alloys. This flame is slightly hotter than the neutral flame. The carburizing flame The carburizing flame has excess of acetylene. 243 . When igniting an Ac/Ox torch one normally opens fully for Acetylene and only slightly for Oxygen. Hottest spot in flame 3100°C x Neutral flame. brass. more pointed inner cone. and is used for welding cast iron. bronze and zinc alloys.

0 Length mm. R St 37. U St 37.15 1. 500 500 ≥300 Rods per package 280 125 Net weight per package kg 3. St 37.2.3 St 44.030 Rest 0. St 44. St 44.MS 200 Description Gas welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed structural steel with a carbon content of less than 0.0 P235GH-P265 GH. HII Chemical composition as welded (W%) C Si Mn S ≤0.1 0. Classification Flame setting AWS / A 5.5 3.2.5 Elongation Impact value % ISO-V (J) 20 +20°C = ≥50 Product No. U St 37.0. Identification Copper coated steel rod.04 Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥390–440 Diameter mm. 2.2.030 P Fe ≤0.0 Mechanical properties as welded Packaging data 3. HI. per package 092-539551 092-539569 244 .0 3.2%.0.3 St 37.2 R 60 EN 12536 OII BS 1453 A 2 DIN 8554 61121 Neutral Flux Materials to be welded No flux required.

Workpieces less than 4 mm thick should be welded with the Leftward technique. gas welding of unalloyed steel is suitable for thin sheets and pipes of small diameters. Do not overheat the workpiece. It can be used for welding thin as well as heavier sheets. In general. 45° 45° Leftward welding 45° 45° Rightward welding 3.MS 200 Unitor MS 200 is a Gas welding rod for welding of unalloyed and low alloyed structural steel. It is therefore important that Gas welding rods are not used for TIG welding and vice versa. Maximum temperature of the workpiece should be 350°C. For TIG welding use IMS-210. TIG welding rods have a high silicium content making the molten pool fluid. scale and old paint from the area. Select the blowpipe according to the thickness of the workpiece. where the wall thickness does not exceed 6 mm. The MS rod is specially suited for gas welding. thicker workpieces should be welded Rightwards.04 20° 45° Vertical Rightward welding 245 . The flame should be neutral. having a viscosity that makes in-position gas welding easy. Gas welding rods including our MS 200 for mild steel have a low silicium contents in order to perform satisfactorily when gas welded. For larger dimensions it may be advantageous to use electric arc welding with coated electrodes. Clean all rust. Select the diameter of the wire according to the thickness of the workpiece.

G-AlMg5Si. Identification Imprint 5356 ALMG 5 Classification AWS A5. Shielding gas: Argon.15 Mg 5.5 Cr ≤0. Order no. AlMg4Mn Aluminium cast alloys: DIN 1725/Part 2: G-AlMg3. 6–9 l/min. 500 ≥110 Rods per package 47 Packaging data Alumag-235 may be used for TIG-welding if High Frequency stabilized AC current is available. AlMg2Mn0. AlMg3. Generally it can be used for all cast alloys containing magnesium as the main alloying element.04 Chemical composition as welded (W%) Mn 0.5.10 ER 5356 DIN 1732 WSG-Al Mg5 Werkstoff No.7Mn. Flux Materials to be welded 3.4 Ti <0. 092-603043. per package 092-514265 Mechanical properties as welded Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥240 Diameter mm. G-AlMg9 (generally all cast alloys containing magnesium as main alloying element). G-AlMg3(Cu) G-AlMg5.3556 Flame setting Slight acetylene surplus Aluflux 234 F. Aluminium wrought alloys: DIN 1725/Part 1: AlMg5. 3 Length mm.15 Al Rest Melting range °C 562–633 Product No.ALUMAG 235 Description Gas welding rod for wrought and cast aluminium alloys containing up to 5% Mg. 246 . 3.8. G-AlMg3Si. 250 gram container. AlMg2.0 Elongation % ≥17 Net weight per package kg 0. AlMg4.

so that they do not sag when the temperature rises. Repair of aluminium cover plate. seawaterresistant aluminum and cast aluminium.04 Remember that fluxes can be contaminated. Make sure that pre heated cast components are well supported. Cast aluminum should be preheated to approximately 300°C. always replace the lid after use. TIG (GTAW) welding For TIG welding of aluminium it is necessary to use a special alternating current (AC) power source with high frequency or impulse generator to stabilise the arc. 3. AC is required to break the oxide layer on the aluminium surface. together with ALUFLUX 234 F. Carburising flame. The flux is highly corrosive on aluminum and should be removed immediately after welding. it is also recommended to use flux at the back of the joint. Clean the joints and adjacent surfaces thoroughly. by scrubbing with hot water. If the work pieces are thick. a flux which re­duces oxides and counteracts oxidation in the welding zone. Therefore. Use a stainless steel brush. 247 . Cast alloys that have been pre-heated must be allowed to cool slowly after being welded. Slight surplus of acetylene. not an ordinary steel brush which will rub iron oxides into the aluminum and contaminate the weld pool.ALUMAG 235 Unitor ALUMAG 235 is used for welding pure aluminium. Gas welding In gas welding a flame with a slight excess of acetylene is used. This flux which is in powder form can be mixed with clean water into a paste that is painted onto the welding area and the welding rod.

Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. drink and animal feedingstuffs Do not breathe dust Do not empty into drains This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste HARMFUL Packaging data Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. R22 R48/20/22 R52/53 S9 S13 S22 S29 S60 Harmful if swallowed Harmful : danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed Harmful to aquatic organisms.ALUFLUX 234 F Description Flux for gas welding rod Alumag-235 on aluminium.. 092-603043 * SDS available on request. The flux is corrosive. Identification White flux in powder form inside container. 3.04 248 . may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment Keep container in a well-ventilated place Keep away from food. Application Mix to a paste with distilled water and apply with brush on rod and joint edges.

04 249 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

04 250 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   256 FC-Bronze-261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   273 Albro Flux-263 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   252 Bronze-264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   268 Fluxes for Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   264 AG-60-252 . . . . .   270 Bronze Flux-261 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   260 FC-Cast Iron-268 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   258 FC-Wearbro-262 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   266 Tin-241 AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05 251 . . . . . . . . . . . .   274 3. . .   262 AG-45-253 . .   271 Wearbro Flux-262 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   272 AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

a film will prevent the brazing alloy from bonding A clean surface with sufficient flux allows the brazing alloy to flow out and bind to the surface Brazing rod with flux Blowpipe Brazing alloy Base material When brazing. but brought to the bonding temperature. Because brazing is a surface alloy the surface must be cleaned. the parent material is not melted. This film acts as isolation that prevents bonding.BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES Introduction When brazing.05 252 . This is the minimum temperature to which the parent metal must be heated to form an alloy of the filler metal and the parent material. detach them from the the parent metal and the rod. The function of the flux is to dissolve oxides. the parent metal is heated to bonding temperature. 100°C before bonding temperature. Brazing is a mechanical bonding. The flux should liquify approx. In most cases an oxide-film covers the surface of the parent metal and the rod before and during brazing. 3. When adding the brazing rod and flux we obtain a surface alloying. Each brazing alloy has its own bonding temperature which is independent of the parent material. Without the flux to suspend water vapour. and keep them in suspension. grease and oxides. The composition of the flux must be matched to type of brazing rod. Welding is a chemical bonding which involves structural changes in the base material.

Brazing can further be divided into Capillary brazing/Silver brazing and Braze welding. 253 . In Capillary Brazing the alloys are thin flowing in consistency (Silver brazing) and they are ideal for use in capillary joints. 3.05 Typical Capillary/Silver brazing joints. Note that they all utilise capillary action.BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES If the bonding temperature is below 400°C the method is termed Soldering. If the bonding temperature is above 400°C the method is called Brazing. Brazing Methods Soldering 400°C Brazing Capillary Brazing Brazing “Welding” Paralell surfaces with minimal space between. Space between surfaces similar to that used in gas welding. In Braze welding the alloys are mostly thick floating in consistency and the joint preparation like in welding.

are dangerous or prohibited in applications frequently needed on board. Unitor brazing alloys are all Cadmium free. The label on each container fully identifies the contents. Each alloy has been selected to cover a wide range of applications. or with the un-fluxed rods. either as addition to the flux coating on the rod. which is supplied on a spool. Many brazing alloys contain Cadmium or Phosphorous. They are designed specially for use with the Unitor alloys.BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES Unitor soldering and brazing alloys have been selected with versatility and ease of use in mind. In the industry there is a wide range of brazing alloys available for special applications. The soldering tin contains flux in ducts inside the solder. Where practical flux-coated rods have been selected to ensure the best soldering/brazing properties. 3. and may be dangerous if used incorrectly.05 254 . Even though special care has been taken to ensure flexibility in the coating. and only the cast-iron brazing rod contains phosphorous. and also gives basic information on application areas. This reduces the number of alloys needed to be kept in stock and gives the operator an easier choice. excessive bending should be avoided to ensure that the coating remains undamaged. however. These elements offer certain advantages with regard to price. because the silver content can be reduced without reduction of the capillary effect. Apart from the soldering tin. It is good economy to braze the remaining part of a rod to the next instead of discarding the stump Both rods and fluxes are supplied in sealed plastic containers for protection against humidity. but a number of these are developed for special applications. Phosphorous is prohibited (by Norwegian regulations) on brass pipes and red bronze. In addition a range of fluxes is supplied. Unitor brazing rods may therefore safely be used as true general purpose filler material onboard. Both elements. Cadmium is extremely poisonous and must not be used on any piping or equipment carrying drinking water or food. all alloys are supplied in 500 mm lengths. which is a suitable length if unnecessary bending of the rod shall be avoided.

05 255 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

05 Mechanical properties Tensile strength Yield strength MPa MPa ≥490 Diameter mm.8 RB CuZn A EN 1044 CU 304 BS 1453/1845 C2/CZ 6AC DIN 8513 L-Cu Zn 39 Sn Werkstoff.7 3 256 . universal brazing bronze (brass) rod for the brazing of steel. 2. Working temperature °C 900 Melting range °C 870–900 Flame setting Flux Chemical composition approx. per package 500 500 54 36 Net weight per package kg 1.01 Zn Rest Melting range °C 870–900 Product No. (%) Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. Cu 60 Mn 0. Mn and Sn guarantees a strong and high-quality deposit.0531 Type of joint Classification Flame setting Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. 3 5 – ≥35 Packaging data Length Quantity mm.6 Si 0. cast iron.35 Elongation % Al ≤0. nickel and nickel alloys. The addition of Si. 093-603076.4 Sn 0. per package 093-174326 093-514240 3. No. It gives a very smooth and attractive surface. Classification AWS A5. copper and copper alloys.BRONZE 264 Description An easy-flowing.005 Hardness HB 100 Ni ≤0. Identification Bare bronze coloured rod.

e. Repeat this process to form a continuous bead. Melt of a drop. cast iron. Graphite should be removed with a sharp tool or by means of chemicals. 257 . so any surplus after brazing should be cleaned off with hot water. copper and brass with high copper content (red bronze) and also for welding brass and bronze. Check the temperature by melting off a drop from the rod on the joint surface and move the torch in a circle around the drop until it melts and flows outwards. The flame should be adjusted with a slight excess of oxygen (oxidising). Cast iron joint surfaces must be clean and bright (i. Remove inside burr. Clean off burr.05 Bronze Flux 261 PF. 3. round off sharp edges. Bronze brazing requires thorough cleaning of the joint surfaces. Apply Unitor Bronze Flux 261 PF paste to the rod and joint edges. Brazing provides a tough. cleaned off with grinder). The use of bronze rod for joint brazing has become widespread as brazing is easier than ordinary welding and requires less heat. Flux is corrosive. Use silver solder AG 60-252 for Yorcalbro and Cunifer. good mating of the parts and correct working temperature. Braze with Leftward technique. or you may overheat the joint. Choice of blowpipe will depend on the thickness and size of the workpiece.BRONZE 264 Unitor Bronze 264 is used to braze welding steel. Move the torch in a circle until the drop melts and flows outwards. strong joint. Do not use too large a blowpipe. malleable cast iron.

2 3 Length Quantity mm.1 Ag 1 Hardness HB 125 Product No.3 Elongation % 30 Net weight per package kg 1 1 Sn 0. per package 093-233551 093-233569 Zn Rest 3. cast iron and steel. Yellow flux. Classification NF A 81-362 59 C 1 ISO 3677 B Cu 59 ZnAgSi 870-890 Type of joint Flame setting Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. per package 500 500 69 32 Mn 0. brass. Cu 60 Tensile strength MPa 450–550 Diameter mm. (%) Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no.05 Mechanical properties Packaging data 258 . Working temperature °C 890 Solidus-Liquidus °C 870–890 Working range Flux Chemical composition approx.FC BRONZE 261 Description A flux-coated brazing rod for joining and surfacing copper. Identification Flux coated rod. aluminium bronze. May be used for brazing galvanized steel without destroying the galvanized surface. bronze. 093-603076.

Round off the edges and clean thoroughly. cast iron. otherwise a neutral flame. Hold the torch at an angle of 35–40°C and the flame tip about 10 mm from the metal. aluminiumbronze. solid parts must be thoroughly pre-heated with a good spread. Leftward brazing. steel and galvanized steel. A typical application. Wash off surplus flux with water after brazing. Braze with Leftward technique. Brass may be brazed without melting the base metal. FC-Bronze 261 is not recommended for use on Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes. brass. 3. use silver solder AG-60 252 instead. Unitor FC-Bronze 261 is specially suitable for position welding. use an oxidising flame (with surplus of oxygen). Joint preparation for brazing galvanized pipes.FC BRONZE 261 Description and uses Unitor FC-Bronze 261 is a flux-coated special brazing bronze with a low melting point for joining and surfacing copper.05 10 mm 259 . Galvanized piping can be brazed without destroying the galvanized surface to any significant degree. For brazing brass and galvanized steel. Paint Unitor Bronze flux 261 PF on the joint surfaces. Bulky. Workpieces up to 5 mm thick may be brazed without grooving. bronze. Heat the starting point to dark red glow. Lift away the rod and spread out the filler before applying the rod again. Place the filler rod in the groove and melt off a drop. due to the low melting point of the filler.

Working temperature °C 910 Solidus-Liquidus °C 890–920 Working range Flux Chemical composition approx. Cu 49 Tensile strength MPa 400–600 Diameter mm. (%) Wearbro flux-262 PF (250 g container) product no.1 Zn Rest Hardness HB 175 Product No.05 Mechanical properties Packaging data 260 . copper. steel. per package 500 500 33 13 Net weight per package kg 1 1. 3 5 Ni 10 Elongation % 15–20 Length Quantity mm. per package 093-233577 093-233585 3. 093-603068. Also used for braze welding cast iron. Identification Flux coated rod. Classification ISO 3677 B-Cu 48ZnNi Si 890-920 Type of joint Flame setting Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. brass. cast iron and malleable cast iron. Blue flux.FC WEARBRO 262 Description A flux-coated wear-resistant bronze rod used for applying a hard-wearing surface to bronze.

gear wheels. Building up worn teeth on a gear wheel. Building up worn shaft journals.FC WEARBRO 262 Description and uses Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 is a fluxcoated wear-resistant bronze for surfacing bronze. It has a low coefficient of friction and is seawater resistant. Avoid over­heating. Unitor FC-Wearbro 262 is specially suitable for building up damaged machine parts which have been subjected to impact. wear or bending strain. cast iron and malleable iron. In the case of cast iron. Spread the filler out with the flame before melting off the next drop. non-porous and easily machineable. Powder residue must be removed after brazing. then continue the process. the surfaces must be filed down with a coarse file to remove surface graphite. 3. high strength and toughness. The surface must be cleaned down to bare metal and rough edges rounded off. Adjust the flame with a slight surplus of oxygen (oxidising) and heat the area where work is to commence to a dark red heat. Braze with Leftward technique. cams of all types. bearing surfaces and shaft journals. Due to its low bonding temperature. valve seats. The finished surface is easily machined. copper. it is also suitable for braze welding cast iron. brass. Apply the end of the rod to the surface and melt off a drop. Apply Wearbro Flux 262 PF to the area to be surfaced. The metal is tough. steel. wear-resistant.g.05 261 . e.

7 Si 3. (%) Additional flux not necessary. 4 Length Quantity mm. Working range Working temperature °C 1170 Solidus-Liquidus °C 1150–1190 Flux Chemical composition approx.5 Mn 0.8 Tensile strength MPa 250–320 Diameter mm. Oil impregnated cast iron may also be brazed with FC-Castiron 268 S. Flame setting Slight oxygen surplus. C 3.A.FC CAST IRON 268 S Description Flux coated rod for joining and surfacing cast iron and brazing cast iron to steel.5 Ni Fe 0. Classification Type of joint N. per package 093-682310 Rest Mechanical properties 3.05 Packaging data 262 . Pink colored flux. per package 450 14 Net weight per package kg 0. Identification Flux coated rod.5 Hardness HB 185 Product No.

Cracks must be surface ground or prepared with a 90° V-groove along the crack. Typical uses are brazing of cracked parts and building up worn surfaces such as gears and sprockets. has high tensile strength and the structure and colour of cast iron. The filler also fuses to oil contaminated cast iron. more complicated parts. Braze with Leftward technique. malleable iron and cast iron/steel joints. Adjust the flame to give a slight surplus of oxygen (oxidising). Heat the starting point to a dark red heat.05 Braze Leftward. The choice of method – brazing or arc welding – for repairs to cast iron depends on the size. brazing is used for small machine parts and arc welding (cold welding) on larger. to 300–400°C.FC CAST IRON 268 S Description and uses Unitor FC-Cast iron is a flux coated filler metal for brazing welding cast iron. Melt off a drop from the flux-coated rod into the groove and spread out by continually moving the torch. Preheat the parts with a good spread of heat on either side. The filler metal is extremely easy to work with. After brazing. Brazed connections are compact and machinable. The area to be brazed must be properly cleaned and any casting skin removed. Surplus flux must be removed. which should be kept at an angle of 15–30° to the workpiece. melt off a new globule and repeat the procedure. Round off any sharp edges or corners. Note that the weld pool must not be stirred with the filler rod 263 . Do not stir the weld pool with the filler rod. When the filler has flowed freely into the seam. shape and thickness of the workpiece. allow the part to cool slowly in diatomite or dry sand. Brazing a cast iron manifold Building up worn parts such as gear wheels 90° Preparation of joint 3. As a general rule. It is usual to drill a hole at the end of the crack.

This brazing rod gives a very good joint and can be used for brazing nipples. (%) AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250 g container) product no. per package 500 28 Ag 44 Elongation % 20 Net weight per package kg 0.4 Zn Rest Hardness HB 130 Product No.05 Mechanical properties Packaging data 264 . nickel and nickel alloys. 2. copper alloys. cast iron and hard metals. 093-778461. Cu 30 Tensile strength MPa 400–480 Diameter mm. stainless steel. copper. Working range Working temperature °C 730 Solidus-Liquidus °C 680–740 Flux Chemical composition approx. per package 093-519744 3. sleeves and unions to copper pipes. Classification ISO 3677 B AG 44 CuZn 675-735 DIN 8513 L-AG 44 Type of joint Flame setting Neutral. Identification Bare silver coloured rod.AG 45 253 Description Bare cadmium free silver rod for joining of all types of steel.0 Length Quantity mm.

malleable iron. Hard metal bit. It is essential to coat the surfaces with paste in order to «moisten» the metal and ensure correct capillary action. The alloy is cadmium-free and may therefore be used for brazing equipment carrying drinking water or food. which is in paste form. for joining all types of steel. (Norwegian regulations prohibit the use of filler metal with phosphorous content for brazing brass pipes or red bronze (sleeve bends)).AG 45 253 Description and uses Unitor AG-45 is a very fluid silver brazing alloy with high capillary action.1 mm. cast steel. nickel alloys. AG-45 is Phosphorous free. silver brazed to a lathe tool 3. to the filler rod and the surfaces.05 Brazing brass bends to copper pipes.1 mm. Flux residue after brazing must be removed with hot water and a steel wire brush. Apply flux AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF. For brazing of salt water-resistant Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes. When silver brazing brass fittings to copper pipe. Maximum capillary gap is 0. copper alloys. and the flame must be kept in continuous motion until the flux has melted. Coat joint surfaces with flux 265 . Too much heat may give unsatisfactory results. AG-45 utilises capillary action and good mating of joint faces is essential to obtain the required. Use a neutral flame. stainless steel. The joint faces must be cleaned properly. Melt off and spread a drop of the rod while moving the flame continuously. Unitor AG 60 252 is recommended. SG iron and hard metal. Maximum capillary gap between joint surfaces 0. The area to be brazed should be heated evenly to 600–650°C. the filler metal must have 45% silver content in order to obtain a proper joint.

05 Chemical composition approx.0 Cu 21 Tensile strength MPa 430 Length Quantity mm. stainless steel. Working range Working temperature °C 650 Solidus-Liquidus °C 630–660 Flux AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250 g container) product no. nickel alloys. per package 093-233601 266 . nickel.5 Sn 2. cast iron. Classification ISO 3677 B AG 55 ZnCuSn 620–660 DIN 8513 L-AG 55 Sn Type of joint Flame setting Neutral. seawater resistant.5 Zn Rest Hardness HB 130 Product No. Identification Flux coated rod. Pink flux. (%) Mechanical properties Packaging data Diameter mm. Yorcalbro pipes (aluminiumbrass). per package 500 24 Ag 55 Elongation % 25 Net weight per package kg 0.AG 60 252 Description A flux coated cadmium free. 2. copper. high strenth silver rod for joining all types of steel. 3. 093-604371. cunifer pipes type 90/10 and 70/30. On Yorc Albro: ALBRO FLUX 263 PF (250 g container) product no. copper alloys. 093-778461.

preferably with emery paper. etc. Proper mating of the joint surfaces is essential. use ALBRO Flux 263 PF. Ideally. otherwise it may be difficult to obtain sufficient heat beneath the patch. a filler containing at least 50% silver is required for providing the joint with the same degree of corrosion resistance as the metal in the pipe. On other metals use AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF. Coat the joint surfaces with flux. patching pipes. It is specially suitable for joints requiring high corrosion resistance and strength. Use a neutral or reducing flame. with slight surplus of acetylene. when brazing pipe nipples. Preheat thoroughly with a good spread. Brazing a patch on a pitted pipe. drinking water. Flux residue should be cleaned off with hot water and a steel wire brush. the more heat must be applied to the outside of it in order to build up the correct brazing temperature at the centre of the patch. Large patches should be TIG welded. The correct temperature is reached when the flux melts. unions. 55% silver. Melt off a drop of AG60 and spread evenly with the flame. The patch should not be larger than necessary. e. Typical uses and types of joint on Yorcalbro and Cunifer pipes 3. the joint surfaces must also be coated with flux. On aluminum bronze and Yorcalbro.05 Use additional flux AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF For Yorkalbro use Albro flux 263 PF 267 . Clean the contact surfaces thoroughly. In addition to the flux coating on the rod. This can result in overheating of the pipe. Clean off any burrs. Cut out the patch and make sure it mates well with the pipe surface.1mm. AG-60 is Cadmium-free and may therefore be used for brazing workpieces which will be in contact with foodstuff. For capillary brazing of saltwater pipes.g. the capillary gap between joint surfaces should not exceed 0. In order to obtain a good capillary joint. The larger the patch. etc. AG-60 is a capillary filler.AG 60 252 Description and uses Unitor AG-60 is an easy flowing flux-coated brazing alloy containing approx.

05 Mechanical properties Packaging data Net weight per package kg 0. per package 093-777973 Cu 0. radios. etc. per package – – Product No.5 Ag 3.7 Type of joint Flame setting Preferably use soldering iron. (%) Additional flux not necessary. electrical instruments.TIN 241 AG Description Flux cored lead free silver alloyed soft solder wire on spool for tinning and joining of electric conductors. Sn 95. refrigeration plants. electrical connections. If welding torch: Soft reducing flame.5 Length Quantity mm.5 268 .8 Tensile strength MPa 90 (Ms 58) Diameter mm. batteries. Classification DIN EN 61190 Sn96 Ag04 Cu0. Working temperature °C 230 Melting range °C 217 Working range Flux Chemical composition approx.7 3. 1. Identification Flux cored tin wire on spool.

3.TIN 241 AG Description and uses Unitor SOLDERING TIN 241 AG is a soft soldering wire on a spool. A soldering iron is recommended. etc. Heat may be applied with a welding torch or a soldering iron. but if a welding torch is used. the wire has ducts filled with high quality flux. adjust to a reducing flame and avoid direct contact between flame and solder.05 269 . oxides. The use of flux-filled ducts ensures that the flux melts before the solder. The surfaces must be clean and free from oily deposits. Apply the heat indirectly so that it travels through the metal to the soldering point. A soldering iron is preferred. Heat indirectly when using a welding torch. It is not normally necessary to apply any additional flux except in the case of materials having an oxide surface coating of high melting point (use liquid flux or hydrochloric acid).

Good ventilation is necessary wherever welding or brazing takes place. Flux powder may be mixed with distilled water or methylated spirits if a paste is required. without burning. 3. Surplus flux remaining on the workpiece after brazing should be removed by rinsing in clean water and brushing. When handling flux. Always wash your hands afterwards. Always replace the cap on the flux tin after use to prevent drying out and contamination. 270 . but may also be supplied as powders. In this way the flux medium acts as a temperature indicator and shows when the correct bonding temperature has been reached.05 The different types of fluxes are formulated to melt at a temperature just below the bonding temperature of the filler metal.BRAZING RODS AND FLUXES Fluxes for Brazing A flux must possess the following properties: • It must dissolve oxides • It must prevent the formation of new oxide skin • It must reduce the surface tension of the filler metal • It must act as a heat indicator • It must remain active for a time at melting temperature. Unitor fluxes are normally in paste form. Fluxes for welding are dealt with in the chapter on welding rods. especially if you have scratches or open cuts. avoid direct contact with the skin.

dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point In case of accident or if you feel unwell.05 271 . 093-603076 3. Application Apply with brush. seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) Packaging data Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. With FC Bronze-261: As additional flux on joint edges. The flux is corrosive. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. With Bronze-264: On rod and joint edges.BRONZE FLUX 261 PF Description Flux for brazing rod Bronze-264 and FC-Bronze-261. Identification Yellow flux in paste form inside container. Toxicity Harmful R60 R61 S53 S1/2 S29/56 S45 May impair fertility May cause harm to the unborn child Avoid exposure .obtain special instructions before use Keep locked up and out of the reach of children Do not empty into drains.

dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point In case of accident or if you feel unwell.05 272 . The flux is corrosive.obtain special instructions before use Keep locked up and out of the reach of children Do not empty into drains. seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. R60 R61 S53 S1/2 S29/56 S45 May impair fertility May cause harm to the unborn child Avoid exposure . Use as additional flux for surface that are to be overlayed.WEARBRO FLUX 262 PF Description Flux for brazing rod FC-Wearbro 262. Identification Blue flux in paste form inside container. 093-603068 Toxicity Harmful Packaging data 3. Application Apply with brush. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing.

093-778461 3.AG 60/45 FLUX 252 PF Description Flux for silver brazing rods AG-60-252 and AG-45-253. With AG60-252: As additional flux for joint edges. gloves and ece/face protection In case of accident or if you feel unwell. With AG 45-253: On rod and joint edges. Flux is corrosive. seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point Toxicity Packaging data Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice Wear suitable protective clothing. Application Apply with brush. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. Identification Pink flux in paste form inside container.05 273 . R60 R61 R25 R34 S1/2 S26 S36/37/39 S45 S56 May impair fertility May cause harm to the unborn child Also toxic if swallowed Causes burns Keep locked up and out of the reach of children In case of contact with eyes.

093-604371 Packaging data 3. Remove with brush and hot water after brazing. may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment S2 Keep out of the reach of children S23 Do not breathe vapour S26 In case of contact with eyes. zinc chloride. Application Contents Toxicity Apply with brush as additional flux for joint edges. Identification White flux in paste form inside container. Potassium bifluoride. respiratory system and skin R48/20/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed R51/53 Toxic to aquatic organisms. DANGEROUS TO ENVIRONMENT R36/37/38 Irritating to eyes.ALBRO FLUX 263 PF Description Flux for silver brazing rod AG-60-252 on Yorcalbro. other components and water. HARMFUL. Flux is corrosive.05 274 . seek medical advice immediatly and show this container or label Gross weight in grams 250 Product No. dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point S36 Wear suitable protective clothing S46 If swallowed. rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice S29/56 Do not empty into drains.

05 275 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.05 276 .

. . . . . . . .cold repair compounds Introduction . .   281 How to apply the product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   282 Cold Repair Kit-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   286 Leak Stop – Pipe repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   278 How do Cold Repairs work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   280 How to prepare the surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   304 Aquagrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   308 Ceramigrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06 277 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   328 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   292 Metalgrade Express . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   324 Rubbergrade 6 Remould . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   320 Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild . . . . . . . . .   312 Ceramigrade Liner . . . . . . . . .   316 Ceramigrade Abrashield . .   288 Metalgrade Ready-Stick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   296 Metalgrade Rebuild . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   278 Typical application areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   300 Metalgrade Hi-Temp .   284 Product overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and no need for energy in the form of oxygen / acetylene or electricity The energy is built into the consumable (product) and is released when mixing the base and activator. oils and a very wide range of chemical solutions. The curing time is down to a few minutes for several of the products. The basic range of products is selected in order to provide a versatile program for on-board applications. The products are compatible with all ferrous and non-ferrous metals as well as most plastics. They have excellent chemical resistance and are suitable for permanent immersion in many environments including seawater.06 Where there is a need for emergency repairs. Certain casted metal alloys are not weldable due to their chemistry. Cold repair compounds require no rigging-up time. Where hot work like welding is not permitted due to fire / explosion hazard. The application areas complement and extend the various welding and related thermal processes already in use. Cold repair systems are cold-curing processes. providing an even more complete repair system than previously. There is no risk of heat ignition or sparks. Unitor Rubbergrade products are cold-vulcanising elastomeric repair materials for use on rubber as well as metal components. Where the base material is not weldable. hydrocarbons. Typical application areas: 3. and have in many cases proved themselves as permanent repairs. Sometimes welding method / equipment / consumable or operator Activator + base 278 .cold repair COMPOUNDS Introduction Unitor Metalgrade and Ceramigrade products are a range of cold curing metal repair and rebuilding materials based on the latest polymer resin technology which is the result of many years of development.

Cold repair systems offer solutions for rubber gasket repairs or moulding.cold repair COMPOUNDS knowledge is not available. resulting in distortion of the work piece. Large surfaces that are worn are also much faster overlaid with polymer compounds than with weld bead overlays. as well as solutions for repair or joining of plastics and composite materials. be injected through small diameter holes. Where distortion of base material is unacceptable. Where specific properties are required. If the base material is so corroded that there is nothing to weld on. Where there is restricted space. 3. chemical resistance and wear resistant properties are improved. Specifically. Polymer products can. a new part can be “casted” with the repair compound. Welding causes expansion and contraction.06 279 . In many cases polymer compounds have better properties than weld overlays. Where you need non-metal repairs. if necessary.

i. The adhesion to the base material (substrate) is partly mechanical (approx. The type of base material is thus of no concern. 280 . extremely long. It is a cold curing repair method that needs no specialised application equipment or outside energy. 3. As the chemical reaction or “cure” progresses. 75%) and partly chemical hydrogen bonding (approx.06 In the uncombined state .e. 25%). the size of the polymer chain increases until ultimately the material becomes a solid. the chemical reaction can proceed in a progressive. Since it is mostly a mechanical bonding. chain building fashion to yield long molecules made up for regular. it does not influence the base material by diluting it .the reactive components are generally liquids on account of their relatively small size or low “molecular weight”.cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS How do Cold Repairs work? Cold repair compounds are basically chemical reactions between resin (Base) and hardener (Activator) producing an extensive interlocking polymer network. repeating units. chain-like molecules resulting from the chemical reaction between a large number of much smaller molecules. Provided that these small molecules contain at least two reactive “groups” of “sites” per molecule. All these repair materials are essentially polymers.

Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. Abrading tool for rubber. Parts which should not adhere to the products must be coated with a release agent. A die grinder. Use release agent on the threads of a bolt. needle scaler or angle grinder may also be used. Profile 75-125 microns. If grinding. Carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner before applying product.06 281 . pump repairs) should be abrasive blasted to a minimum standard SA 2 1/2. 3. Roughening increases the surface area and gives a better ”key” Most castings have an open structure that contaminants can penetrate into. abrasive paper or saw blade. rasp. CRITICAL applications (eg. make sure the surface is roughened. Roughen surface with a coarse file. Rubber surfaces must be roughened using the special abrading tool. Remove contamination using a cleaner then re-blast the surface. Create if possible a cross scoring pattern. The blasting medium should be angular grit.cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS How to prepare the surface Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. Parts which have been salt or chemically impregnated should be heated to 80°C by hot air overnight to sweat out the contamination. not polished.

add the Reinforcement Bandage. squeezing out any impurities like oil and water. Wrap the bandage to required thickness and cover it with product. Mix Base and Activator until streak free. use mixing ratio by weight. Do not heap product when applying Press on a thin layer 282 . When applying the product on the surface to be repaired. Do not apply product when relative humidity exceeds 85% nor when surface is less than 3 °C above the dew point.06 After securing the surface. Paste materials should be mixed on a clean flat surface. Incomplete Do not heap the product when mixing Spread out evenly 3.cold REPAIR COMPOUNDS How to apply the product Application should be carried out as soon as possible after surface preparation is completed. add more product. Always measure out Base/Activator quantities accurately in line with the instructions on the data sheet. If a critical application. Fluid grade materials can be mixed together in the base container. do not heap the product on. This will lead to bad bonding and entrapment of impurities. building up to the required height. working it down in cracks and openings. NB: The work site temperature must be above 5°C (40°F) in order for the polymer chemical reaction to take place. In order to add further strength to the repair. otherwise oxidation can take place. A good bonding is secured by pressing a thin layer of product onto the surface. This will also remove any entrapped air present in the mix. Spreading the mixed product out thinly on a board will assist in dissipating the heat and slow down the curing reaction.

06 283 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

and the individual products may be refilled as needed. Aquagrade and Ceramigrade products are a range of cold-curing metal repair and rebuilding materials based on the latest polymer resin technology which is the result of many years of development. The kits consists of: 1 set Leak-Stop II 1 set Metalgrade Ready-stick 1 set Metalgrade Express 1 set Metalgrade Rebuild 1 set Metalgrade Hi-Temp 1 set Aquagrade Rebuild 1 set Ceramigrade Rebuild 1 set Ceramigrade Liner 1 set Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild 1 set Rubbergrade 6 Remould 3. Unitor Rubbergrade products are cold-vulcanising elastomeric repair materials for use on rubber as well as metal components. including non-weldable materials. They have excellent chemical resistance and are suitable for permanent immersion in many environments including sea water. The basic range of products is selected in order to provide a versatile program for onboard applications. The products are compatible with all ferrous and non-ferrous metals as well as most plastics. and have proved themselves as permanent repairs. The complete basic package is available in a handy kit. hydrocarbons. 106-659300 The Unitor Cold Repair system covers emergency repairs as well as permanent repairs on pipes.06 284 .POLYMER COLD REPAIR KIT-A Unitor Cold Repair System for High Performance Repairs Cold repair System KIT-A Total weight of kit 12. all types of mechanical equipment and machine components onboard. The application areas complement and extend the various welding and related thermal processes already in use. Each product has its specified place in the kit. oils and a very wide range of chemical solutions. Unitor Metalgrade.5 kg Product no. providing an even more complete repair system than previously available.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 285 .

33 kg 100-630384 100-606006 100-630392 0. Base & Activator giving: 0.95 kg 104-659250 286 .5 l Engineering Repair Compound. defects. It is used to seal joints.42 kg 101-663427 0. A two component engineering repair compound. Base & Activator giving: 0. Set weight kg Product no. Base & Activator giving: 0. tanks. The Metalgrade Ready Stick be used to plug the actual hole before putting on the tape. Ideal for repairs to leaking pipes.13 l Repair Compound. steel and stainless steel 10 pouches giving: 0. Preferably mix above water. Used wherever there is an emergency and urgent need to get equipment back into action. Set of 3 pairs of sticks giving: 0.50 mm) 1 tape 2" x 12' (50 mm x 3600 mm) For pipes ø > 2" (50 mm) 1 tape 4" x 12' (100 mm x 3600 mm) Base and activator in two separate sticks. Can be used together with Leak Stop to plug the hole before wrapping the tape.86 kg 101-659227 0. 0.23 kg 0. ducts etc. Name Description Leak Stop Pipe repair Sets Leak Stop I Set Leak Stop II Set Leak Stop III Set Metalgrade Ready Stick Set Metalgrade Express Set A special bandage impregnated with a resin system which is activated by immersion in water. cracks and voids in cast iron. Use for sealing of leaks in pipes.50 l Engineering Repair Compound. A ceramic and stainless-filled one part water based paste.16 kg 0. For pipes ø< 1" (25 mm) 1 tape 2" x 4' (50 mm x 1200 mm) For pipes ø 1-2" (25 mm . simply immerse in water then wrap around the leak.06 Metalgrade Rebuild Set Metalgrade Hi Temp Set Aquagrade Rebuild Set 1. It is temperature resistant up to 1093 °C (2000 °F).58 kg 101-659235 3. A two component normal cold-curing engineering repair compound.10 kg 101-659243 0.25 l Rapid Repair Compound.72 kg Repair Compound A two component extremely fast cold-curing metal repair compound supplied in Base and Activator containers. The product can be mixed applied and will cure under water. A good machineable product with high mechanical properties and good heat resistance. Cut off the needed length and knead the two parts together till streak free.PRODUCT OVERVIEW Repair Set Each set comes complete with all necessary application equipment technical data sheets and Health & Safety Data sheets.

impellers. 1.4 kg 102-725291 0.06 287 . Base & Activator giving: 0. For repairs of hoses. A two component ceramic cold curing compound with excellent resistance against heavy abrasion.00kg 102-659268 0.143 l Engineering Repair Fluid.59 kg 103-659284 0. Base & Activator giving: 0.PRODUCT OVERVIEW Name Description Ceramigrade Rebuild Set Ceramigrade Liner Set Ceramigrade Abrashield Set Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild Set Rubbergrade 6 Remould Set A two component ceramic cold-curing compound with excellent resistance to cavitation and erosion found in fluid flow environments.5 l Engineering Repair Compound. electric cables etc. A two component cold-curing vulcanising repair compound.143 l Engineering Repair Compound A two component cold-curing vulcanising repair fluid that can be moulded or painted on to rubber or metallic surfaces. Set of 3 x 0. A two component ceramic cold curing fluid that is used as a liner in order to prevent cavitation and erosion found in fluid flow environments. Set 3 x 0. Provides a strong long term repair on rubber items or on metallic surfaces.92 kg 102-659276 5. valves etc. Used for rebuilding heavy wear on pumps. Set weight kg Product no. gaskets.5 l Engineering Repair Fluid.59 kg 103-659292 3. Specifically ment for Dredgers and Cement carriers.

e Kit consists of: 1 pc.LEAK STOP Product specification sheet – Leak Stop Product Description Identification Application data Product name/ Product No. 4"x12' (100 mm x 3. . 2"x12' (50 mm x 3. 1 pc.6 m) black repair tape in a pouch Application For use on pipe diameter 0–1" (0 mm–25 mm) For use on pipe diameter 1"–2" (25 mm–50 mm) For use on pipe diameter 2"–4" (50 mm–100 mm) With all kits comes 1 x pair of Gloves.e Leak Stop III 100-630392 / 325 g. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. Safety Data Sheet Grey knitted fibreglass tape Mixing ratio Ready for use as supplied only requires wetting with water before use Pot life (mins) (working life) 2–3 minutes Recommended Temperature Limits For Application 5 °C to 30 °C/40 °F–100 °F Curing time Technical data Curing times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial setting Full mechanical strength 18 Gauge knitted fibreglass Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C (68 °F) Bond Strength Tensile Strength Flexural Strength Hardness (Shore D) Dry heat + 260 °C/500 °F ASTM D2095-72 ASTM D638-111 ASTM D790-1-B ASTM D2240 16 kg/cm2 275 kg/cm2 159 kg/cm2 230 psi 3920 psi 2260 psi 20 °C (68 °F) 5 30 3.29 °C/.2 m) black repair tape in a pouch 1 pc.6 m) black repair tape in a pouch 1 pc. As long as good practise is observed Leak Stop can be safely used. 288 . Working data sheet. 1 pc. 2"x4' (50 mm x 1. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.06 Phys / Mec properties 82 type (d) Minimum temp.e Leak Stop II 100-606006 / 232 g./Kit weight Leak Stop I 100-630384 / 158 g.20 °F Service temperatures Chemical resistance Health and Safety Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.

Leak Stop works best on a rough surface. remove the loose scale.06 Position over leak site NOTE: Water activates the resins. for about five seconds. the external mould release must be removed. Open pouch at the notch. WORKING TIME is three to five minutes. sealant tape and paint from repair area. Rough score surface Water activate Leak Stop 3. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. Leak Stop Repair Tape is a specially treated and knitted fibreglass impregnated with a polyurethane resin which is activated by immersion in water. Abrade surfaces with a coarse grit sandpaper. Surface preparation Remove all pressure from the pipe. 2. If the pipe surface is pitted by rust. For plastic pipe. as with copper or stainless. So BE PREPARED TO WORK SWIFTLY. 1. you must roughen the area with a coarse file. including gravity fed drip. For active leaks when pressure cannot be removed: Holes should be stopped using a pipe repair clamp. A saw blade must also be used to create a cross hatch pattern. Remove oil. remove Leak Stop Repair Tape.LEAK STOP Instructions for use Before proceeding. grease. 289 . rasp or saw blade. Rough score a four inch (10 cm) path 360° around the pipe centring leak site. Mixing During mixing and application gloves should be worn at all times to protect the hands. submerge the roll in water and squeeze two or three times. loose rust scale. If the surface is smooth. This is particularly useful on polypropylene and PVDF piping. so apply entire roll as any amount remaining cannot be saved. Areas of application: Repairs to leaking pipes.

smooth out Wrap while pulling firmly A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. The information provided in this instruction for use sheet is intended as a general guide only. KEEP HANDS MOVING QUICKLY AND WET GLOVES FREQUENTLY TO AVOID STICKING Continue rapid hand movement pressing and polishing resin in motions around and parallel to the pipe. Continue process until resins are no longer tacky. 3.LEAK STOP 3. 4. wrap from bottom of roll. 5. Wet gloves in water. Continue until entire roll is applied. smooth and firmly press the wet resin back into the wrap. Cleaning After application dispose of gloves. Application Remove roll from water and wrap quickly and tightly as follows: Centre tape over leak site. Firmly press and smooth end of roll into wrap in the direction of application. building to a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12 mm) and use a second roll if necessary. The repair should now have a smooth hard surface and an enamel-like appearance with no fibreglass substance showing throught the resins.06 NOTE: If thicker application is needed spend a little less time finishing the first roll and immediately begin the application of the next. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed Leak Stop can be safely used. Users should determine the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. pulling firmly throughout application. you will observe resin foam coming through the tape which is desirable and aided by pulling tightly. 290 . After 5–7 plies. Finish the final roll as if a single roll application. Wet gloves.

4" x 12' (100 mm x 3.6 m) black repair tape in a pouch. Leak Stop I 100-630384 1 pc. 2" x 12' (50 mm x 3.6 m) black repair tape in a pouch.06 * Leak Stop III should be used in multiple roll applications 291 .5 bar 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2* 2* 2* 3* 4* 4* 5* 5* 1" (25 mm) 1 1/2" (38 mm) 2" (50 mm) 2 1/2" (63 mm) 3" (75 mm) 3 1/2" (88 mm) 4" (10 mm) 5" (125 mm) 6" (150 mm) 8" (200 mm) 10" (250 mm) 12" (300 mm) 14" (350 mm) 16" (400 mm) 18" (450 mm) Number of Leak Stop I rolls 150 psi/10. 1 pc.5 bar 1 1 1 1 2 1/2" (13 mm) 3/4" (19 mm) 1" (25 mm) 1 1/4" (21 mm) 1 1/2" (38 mm) Number of Leak Stop I rolls 150 psi/10. If used outside this diameter area: Nominal Pipe Size 50 psi/3. For use on pipe diameter 1"–2" (25–50 mm). The product is recommended for pressures up to 400 psi (28 bar).LEAK STOP The Leak Stop products are available in three sizes. For use on pipe diameter 2"–4" (50–100 mm). If used outside this diameter area: Leak Stop II 100-606006 Leak Stop III 100-630392 Nominal Pipe Size 50 psi/3.2 m) black repair tape in a pouch. 2" x 4' (50 mm x 1.5 bar 1 1 1 1 2* 2* 2* 2* 2* 3* 4* 5* 6* 7* 8* 400 psi/28 bar 1 1 1 2* 2* 2* 2* 3* 4* 5* 6* 8* 8* 9* 9* 3. For use on pipe diameter 0–1" (0–25 mm).5 bar 1 1 1 2 2 400 psi/28 bar 1 1 2 3 3 1 pc.

Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.75 Kg Engineering Repair Compound Gross Weight: 0.20 °C / .METALGRADE READY-STICK Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Ready-Stick Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO Product No 101-659227 Metalgrade Ready-Stick 0.95 1. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practise is observed MetalGrade Ready-Stick can be safely used.96 5 °C 80 180 10 °C 60 120 15 °C 45 90 20 °C 35 70 25 °C 30 60 30 °C 28 60 35 °C 26 55 40 °C 20 45 8 days 7 days 6 days 4 days 3 days 2 days 2 days 1 day 9 days 8 days 7 days 5 days 5 days 4 days 4 days 3 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D412 ASTM D4060 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D256 Wet heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 500 70 MPa 8 MPa - > 5000 hours 80 > 5 kJ/m2 Minimum temp .86 kg KIT CONSISTS OF 3 x 120 g Putty Base 3 x 120 g Putty Activator 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Spatula 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Appearance Putty Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 5 °C 30 10 °C 25 15°C 20 20 °C 15 25 °C 15 30 °C 12 35 °C 10 40 °C 5 Colour Black Metalgrade Ready-Stick Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all necessary equipment all in one carton box set Activator Component Appearance Putty Identification Colour Beige / Brown Mixing Ratio Weight 1 1 Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 1 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.06 Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 90 °C / 195 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.96 1. Health and Safety 292 .4 °F Slump Resistance 15 mm thickness Excellent 10200 psi 1200 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.

Mixing Only sufficient product which can be applied within the usable life should be mixed. C) Roughen the surface. Cut off equal length of Base & Activator sticks 2. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a Cleaner. preferably with abrasive blasting. especially in fluid flow repairs. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. the cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. The two components should then be thoroughly mixed by hand kneading until completely streak free and in a uniform black colour. D) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. 3. ducts etc. Mix Base and Activator in the ratio of 1 : 1. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. fast curing. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. Areas of application Sealing of leaks in pipes. synthetic metal repair compound. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. Cut off equal size pieces from both the Base and Activator sticks. Where possible. tanks. E) Parts (for example. needle scalar or angle grinder may be used. A) Remove all contamination (oil. MetalGrade Ready-Stick is a two component. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to MetalGrade Ready-Stick must be coated with a release agent. Re-close the plastic wrapper sleeve immediately after use. radiators. 1. not polished. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings.06 Thoroughly mix by hand kneading until streak free 293 . Alternatively a die grinder.METALGRADE READY-STICK Instructions for use Before proceeding. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. solvent free. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. This should be broken off or cut from both sticks in the ratio of 1 : 1.

When MetalGrade Ready-Stick is used to repair leaking pipes. 4. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed MetalGrade ReadyStick can be safely used. Machining Once the MetalGrade Ready-Stick has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. working the material into any cracks or surface defects. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner.The information provided in this Instruction for use sheet is intended as a general guide only. The mixed material should be pressed firmly onto the prepared area. 3. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the MetalGrade Ready-Stick is set. Hole in small diameter pipe Pipe Joints 5. 6.METALGRADE READY-STICK 3. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Application Prepared Surfaces should be dry.06 Valve taps 294 . can be carried out using standard engineering practices. grinding and machining etc. sanding.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 295 .

20 °C / .5 40 °C 1 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.8 1.86 kg Supplied complete with all necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 8 10 °C 5 15°C 4 0.6 1. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.5 MPa 48 MPa 78 100 30 volts/mil 1 x 109 Ohm/cm Minimum temp .4 °F Slump Resistance 15 mm thickness Excellent 7000 psi 2700 psi 6600 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Flexural Strength Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Hardness (Rockwell R) Dielectric Strength Surface Resistivity Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.25 ltr Engineering Compound Gross Weight: 0. Health and Safety 296 .7 5 °C 9 90 300 10 °C 8 45 150 15 °C 7 35 120 20 °C 6 25 90 25 °C 5 20 80 30 °C 3 15 70 35 °C 2 15 60 40 °C 2 10 40 1 day 7 days 5 days 4 days 3 days 2 days 2 days 1 day Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D695 ASTM D1002 ASTM D790 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D785 ASTM D149 ASTM D257 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 585 47 MPa 18. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.METALGRADE EXPRESS Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Express PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 435 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Roll reinforcement bandage 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Product Description Metalgrade Express Product No 101-659235 Engineering Repair Compound Metalgrade Express 0. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade Express can be safely used.9 1 Colour Beige Paste Identification Appearance Colour Metallic Grey Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 1 Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 3 1/2 25 °C 3 30 °C 2 35 °C 1.06 5000 hours Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.

Mix Base and Activator from the respective jars onto a clean mixing surface in the ratio indicated. ducts etc. 3. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. a cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. synthetic metal repair compound. fast curing. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. E) Parts (for example. Mixing Only sufficient product which can be applied within the usable life should be mixed. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to MetalGrade Express must be coated with a release agent. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. C) Roughen the surface. radiators. Application Prepared Surfaces should be dry. solvent free. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. A) Remove all contamination (oil. needle scalar or angle grinder may be used. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. especially in fluid flow repairs. Using the Spatula provided the mixed material should be pressed firmly 3. The two components should then be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free. D) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner. MetalGrade Express is a two component. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. 2.06 Scored hydraulic or pneumatic rams Worn bearing housing 297 . not polished. Alternatively a die grinder. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings.METALGRADE EXPRESS Instructions for use Before proceeding. tanks. preferably with abrasive blasting. 1. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. using the spatula provided. Areas of application Sealing of leaks in pipes. Where possible.

sanding. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. 5. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Machining Once the MetalGrade Express has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. 4. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair.The information provided in this Instruction for use sheet is intended as a general guide only. Once the MetalGrade Express has reached initial set the material can be separated from surfaces treated with release agent. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed MetalGrade Express can be safely used. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the MetalGrade Express is set. If Reinforcement Bandage is used to strengthen the repair. 3.METALGRADE EXPRESS onto the prepared area. Repairing stripped threads 6. grinding and machining etc. When MetalGrade Express is being used to repair leaking pipes. the bandage should be impregnated with MetalGrade Express. Additional MetalGrade Express should then be applied over the surface. working the material into any cracks and surface defect. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable.06 Small pump housing repair 298 . Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a Cleaner. or the bandage should be laid over the surface of the MetalGrade Express and pressed into the surface.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 299 .

Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade Rebuild can be safely used. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.9 1.5 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Gross Weight: 1.85 5 °C 50 100 10 °C 45 70 15 °C 40 60 20 °C 35 55 25 °C 30 50 30 °C 25 45 35 °C 20 35 48h 40 °C 15 25 24h 8 days 6 days 5 days 4 days 3 days 3 days 14 days 10 days 9 days 7 days 5 days 4 days 3 days 2 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D695 ASTM D1002 ASTM D790 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D785 BS 4247 Part 1 Wet heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 540 55 MPa 19 MPa 38 MPa 80 100 Excellent Minimum temp .06 5000 hours Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 90 °C / 195 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. Health and Safety 300 .5 Colour Beige Paste Identification Appearance Colour Metallic Grey Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 2 Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 13 25 °C 12 30 °C 10 35 °C 9 40 °C 6 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.7 1.08 kg Supplied complete with all necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 20 10 °C 18 15°C 15 1 2.4 °F Slump Resistance 15 mm thickness Excellent 8000 psi 2800 psi 5600 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Flexural Strength Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Hardness (Rockwell R) Nuclear Decontamination Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.METALGRADE REBUILD Product specification sheet – Metalgrade Rebuild PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 933 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Roll reinforcement bandage 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Product Description Metalgrade Rebuild Product No 101-659243 Engineering Repair Compound Metalgrade Rebuild 0.20 °C / .

distorted flange faces. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. 1. MetalGrade Rebuild is a dual component. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. cracked casings. synthetic metal repair compound. especially in fluid flow repairs. C) Roughen the surface. using the spatula provided.METALGRADE REBUILD Instructions for use Before proceeding. a cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings. E) Parts (for example. D) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner. needle scalar or angle grinder may be used. oversized bearing housing. Where possible. scored hydraulic rams etc. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. cracked engine blocks. sloppy keyways. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. preferably with abrasive blasting. solvent free. A) Remove all contamination (oil. Areas of application : Worn or damaged shafts. not polished. grease and dirt) with a cleaner.06 Hole in metal casing Worn spline 301 . Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. 2. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to MetalGrade Rebuild must be coated with a release agent. The two components should then be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free. 3. Alternatively a die grinder. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. Mixing Mix Base and Activator from the respective jars into the mixing container provided in the ratio indicated. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. Lids should be replaced immediately after use.

When MetalGrade Rebuild is being used to repair leaking pipes. the mixed material should be pressed firmly onto the prepared area. Once the MetalGrade Rebuild has reached initial set the material can be separated from surfaces treated with release agent. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set.06 Once the MetalGrade Rebuild has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. grinding and machining etc. Failure to follow this Flange rebuilt Worn impeller shaft 302 . Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Using the Spatula provided.METALGRADE REBUILD 3. working the material into any cracks and surface defect. 4. Application Prepared surfaces should be dry. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the MetalGrade Rebuild is set. If Reinforcement Bandage is used to strengthen the repair. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed MetalGrade Rebuild can be safely used. sanding. or the bandage should be laid over the surface of the MetalGrade Rebuild and pressed into the surface. Machining procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. the bandage should be impregnated with MetalGrade Rebuild. 3. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Additional MetalGrade Rebuild should then be applied over the surface. The information provided in this Instruction for use sheet is intended as a general guide only. 6. 5. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 303 .

METALGRADE HI-TEMP Product specification sheet – Hi-Temp PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF Tin with repair compound. Water blisters may appear if transition through 100 °C (210 °F) is too rapid. 5 pair of gloves.40 °F This product is resistant to a wide range of acids. although sub-surface phase will not dry fully for 16–24 hours Best applied when the ambient temperature is: 7 °C to 35 °C/45 °F–95 °F Curing time Option 1) Air dry for 16–24 hours then gradually raise temperature to operating conditions. 1 pc. 24 hours at room temp. + 1093 °C/2000 °F Minimum temp. Health and Safety 304 . one working data sheet APPLICATION For use on hight temperature applications Product Description Metal Grade HI-TEMP Product No 101-663427 Kit weight 420 g. + ASTM D 1002   1 hour at 200 °C / 400 °F Service temperatures Chemical resistance 24 hours at room temp. 0. + Maximum temp. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use. As long as good practice is observed MetalGrade HiTemp can be safely used. immersion service is not recommended due to it's slightly porous structure.40 °C/. 1 pc.06 Shear Strength   6 hours at room temp. Option 2) Air dry for 5–7 hours then cure at 100 °C (210 °F) for 2–4 hours prior to operation. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. Working data sheet.56 g/cm3 Coefficient of thermal expansion ASTM E-831-93. . Safety Data Sheet Pouch with metallic grey paste Mixing ratio Ready for use as supplied only stir Pot life (mins) (working life) 15* Identification Application data * Paste will begin to dry and "skin" immediately when the pouch is opened. °C-1 8x10-6   6 hours at room temp.9 MPa 2. Technical data Phys / Mec properties Specific Gravity 1.e With all kits comes 5 x pair of Gloves.7 MPa 280 psi 390 psi 3. However.6 MPa    90 psi 1. bases and solvents.

a die grinder. defects. needle scalar or angle grinder may be used. 305 . working the material into any cracks and surface defects. Hi-Temp should not be used on aluminium or aluminium alloys. C) Roughen the surface. E) Parts (for example. A) Remove all contamination (oil. cracks and voids in cast iron. 3. Prior to applying the product. 1. heat exchangers and turbines.  3. preferably with abrasive blasting. Metal Grade Hi-Temp repair compound is a ceramic and stainlessfilled one-part water based paste. manifolds. low pressure systems including incinerators. Use a spatula or putty knife and press the material onto the prepared area. Application Prepared surfaces should be dry. make sure the surface is roughened. the surface should be cross-scored to improve adhesion. not polished. cracks and warped surfaces on high temperature. It is formulated using the most advanced inorganic resin technology and is temperature resistant up to 1093 °C (2000 °F).06 Repairs pin holes. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.METALGRADE HI-TEMP Instructions for use Before proceeding. single part paste. stacks. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading of contamination. Alternatively. D) To ensure that all contamination is removed. NB. Hi-Temp can be used for applications ut to 9 mm (3/8") thick. Abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings. carry out a final degreasing vith a cleaner. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. 2. Mixing Hi-Temp is a ready to use. If embedded oils are present in porous castings. steel and stainless steel. Use a small spatula and apply required amount of product onto a clean working surface. Hi-Temp is used to seal joints. the cleaner should be worked into the surface with a brush and washed off using excess cleaner. If grinding. they should be burned out at high temperature. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease should be removed using a cleaner. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to Hi-Temp must be coated with a release agent. Let the product air dry for five to seven hours at room temperature. make sure content is mixed thoroughly by stiring. Where grinding or needle gunning is used.

grinding and machining etc. repairs should be made using a metal screen. Continue this procedure until the groove is filled. 4. then form and place the screen inside the hole and then apply secondt coating of Hi-Temp to cover the screen. It is also recommended that the paste be heat cured at 90 °C (200 °F) between applications. The reason for 9 mm (3/8") maximum thickness per layer for the Hi-Temp product is that it is a single component system in an aqueous solution. Health and safety Hi-Temp can be safely used as long as normal good practices are observed. oils and solvents. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. 5. The water in sections above 9 mm (3/8") would not dry out. For repairing holes. Machining First step Work procedure for heavy build up Second step Cure for 16–24 hours before applying second layer ­ 6. 3. and upon exposure to high temperatures would effervesce and bubble. Let the product fully cure (16–24 hours) before adding another 9 mm (3/8") in a second step. First apply Hi-Temp. fuels. Cleaning In uncured state Hi-Temp is cleaned up with soap and water. sanding. 306 . A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the kit.06 When the material is fully cured for a minimun of 24 hours at 20 °C (68 °F).METALGRADE HI-TEMP When used on heavy sections and where build-up will exceed 9 mm (3/8") use the following technique: Fill section up to 9 mm (3/8") in one step. The water must have the possibility to dry out. Hi-Temp exhibit high thermal conductivity as well as excellent resistance to abrasives. Let the product cure again. The information provided in this Instructions for Use sheet is intended as a general guide only. Users should determine the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 307 .

For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.4 °F Slump Resistance 15 mm thickness Good 5100 psi 2600 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.20 °C / .7 1. Health and Safety 308 .5 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 0.55 1.06 Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.6 5 °C 360 480 10 °C 240 360 15 °C 120 300 20 °C 80 240 25 °C 90 180 30 °C 80 180 35 °C 70 150 40 °C 60 120 14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 16 days 12 days 10 days 8 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 6 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D412 ASTM D4060 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D256 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 625 34 MPa 18 MPa > 5000 hours 85 4 kJ/m2 Minimum temp .95 kg necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Mixing Ratio Weight 1 1 Colour Beige Identification Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 1 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.AquaGRADE REBUILD Product specification sheet – Aquagrade Rebuild Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 805 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Appearance Paste Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 5 °C 45 10 °C 40 15°C 35 20 °C 25 25 °C 25 30 °C 20 35 °C 20 40 °C 15 Colour White Aquagrade Rebuild Product No 104-659250 Engineering Repair Compound Aquagrade Rebuild 0. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed AquaGrade Rebuild can be safely used.

Where grinding or needle gunning is used. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. The two components should be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free and a uniform colour is achieved. working the material into any cracks and surface Leaking pipes underwater 3. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. especially in fluid flow repairs. Mixing Transfer the contents of Base and Activator containers from the respective jars into the mixing container provided. wet surface and underwater repair compound. AquaGrade Rebuild is a two component. not polished. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. Mix in the raio indicated. needle scaler or angle grinder may be used.AQUAGRADE REBUILD Instructions for use Before proceeding. solvent free.g pipes. 1.06 Pipes leaking water 309 . 2. Alternatively a die grinder. Areas of application : bonding. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. AquaGrade Rebuild is designed to be mixed. C) Roughen the surface. Where possible. pumps. 3. using the spatula provided. valves. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. A) Remove all contamination (oil. fastening and filling in underwater applications e. Application Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly onto the prepared area. preferably with abrasive blasting to SA2. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. applied and set on wet surfaces or underwater in both fresh and salt water. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. tanks etc. Lids should be replaced immediately after use.

AquaGRADE REBUILD defect. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only. 5. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed AquaGrade Rebuild can be safely used. sanding and grinding can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Apply on wet surfaces or underwater in the same manner as above water. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. Leaking tanks 3. Machining Once the AquaGrade Rebuild has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet.06 310 . 6. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. 4.

06 311 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

08 cc / 100 cycles > 5000 hours 80 3 kJ/m2 Minimum temp . Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed CeramiGrade Rebuild can be safely used.8 1.04 kg necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Mixing Ratio Weight 1 2.8 1.06 0. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.20 °C / .5 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 1. Health and Safety 312 .5 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.4 °F Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.CERAMIGRADE REBUILD Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Rebuild Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 895 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Plastic Spatula 1 Plastic Applicator 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Appearance Paste Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 5 °C 18 10 °C 15 15°C 12 20 °C 10 25 °C 10 30 °C 8 35 °C 6 40 °C 5 Colour Light Blue Ceramigrade Rebuild Product No 102-659268 Engineering Repair Compound Ceramigrade Rebuild 0.8 5 °C 90 240 10 °C 80 180 15 °C 60 120 20 °C 40 90 25 °C 30 90 30 °C 20 60 35 °C 15 60 40 °C 10 50 7 days 6 days 6 days 5 days 5 days 3 days 2 days 2 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 4 days 4 days 3 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D412 ASTM D4060 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D256 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 555 84 MPa 24 MPa Slump Resistance 10 mm thickness Good 12400 psi 3500 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.5 Colour Off White Identification Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 2.

not polished. then the surface re-blasted. A) Remove all contamination (oil. C) Roughen the surface. CeramiGrade Rebuild is a two component. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. a cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. turbine blades. fast curing. Repeat this process until all salt contamination is eliminated. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. D) Equipment which has been saltimpregnated should be heated to sweat out the salt contamination. the bandage should be impregnated with CeramiGrade Rebuild. Where possible. Alternatively a die grinder. preferably with abrasive blasting to SA2. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened.06 Cavitation in housing Rebuilding end covers 313 . valves etc.CERAMIGRADE REBUILD Instructions for use Before proceeding. If Reinforcement Bandage is used to strengthen the repair. especially in fluid flow repairs. 1. F) Parts (for example. propellers. grease and dirt) with a cleaner. 3. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to CeramiGrade Rebuild must be coated with a release agent. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. needle scaler or angle grinder may be used. impellers. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings. or the bandage should be laid over the surface of the CeramiGrade Rebuild and pressed into the surface. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. Areas of application: Re-building pumps. solvent free. synthetic repair compound. Additional CeramiGrade Rebuild should then be applied over the surface. E) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner.

Machining Once the CeramiGrade Rebuild has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the CeramiGrade Rebuild is set. 3. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. Mixing Transfer the contents of Base and Activator containers from the respective jars into the mixing container provided. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair. 6. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. working the material into any cracks and surface defect. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed CeramiGrade Rebuild can be safely used. this should be done as soon as the first coat has set. Application Prepared Surfaces should be dry. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. When a second coat is required. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly onto the prepared area. (within 4 hours) 4. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Once the CeramiGrade Rebuild has reached initial set the material can be separated from surfaces treated with release agent. sanding. 3. Mix in the raio indicated. When CeramiGrade Rebuild is being used to repair leaking pipes. Eroded impellers 5. using the spatula provided. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only.06 Corroded tube plates 314 .CERAMIGRADE REBUILD 2. grinding and machining etc. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. The two components should be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free and a uniform colour is achieved.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 315 .

06 0. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed CeramiGrade Liner can be safely used.CERAMIGRADE LINER Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Liner Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 775 g Base + Activator 1 Mixing Container 1 Pair of Gloves 1 Plastic Spatula 1 Technical Data Sheet 2 Safety Data Sheets Base Component Ceramigrade Liner Product No 102-659276 Engineering Repair Fluid Ceramigrade Liner 0. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.4 °F Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.5 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 0.20 °C / .0 1.09 cc / 100 cycles 5000 hours 80 5 kJ/m2 Minimum temp . Health and Safety 316 .55 5 °C 300 360 10 °C 240 300 15 °C 210 270 20 °C 180 240 25 °C 180 240 30 °C 150 210 35 °C 130 190 40 °C 120 180 10 days 9 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 5 days 3 days 2 days 20 days 15 days 15 days 14 days 14 days 10 days 7 days 3 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D412 ASTM D4060 ASTM B117 ASTM D2246 ASTM D256 Wet heat + 60 °C / 140 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 645 70 MPa 16 MPa Slump Resistance 2 mm thickness n/a 10200 psi 2300 psi Activator Base Mixed Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.92 kg necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Liquid Colour Clear/Amber Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 45 10 °C 35 15°C 30 1 5 Liquid Identification Appearance Colour Blue Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 1 4 Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 25 25 °C 20 30 °C 15 35 °C 13 40 °C 10 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1.67 1. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.

impellers. Areas of application : Re-building pumps. 2. preferably with abrasive blasting to SA2. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. grease and dirt) with a Cleaner. E) To ensure that all contamination is removed carry out a final degreasing with a cleaner. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings. turbine blades. F) Parts (for example. fast curing. synthetic repair fluid. not polished. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. Cloths should be frequently changed to avoid spreading contamination. propellers. Mixing Transfer the contents of Base and Activator containers from the respective jars into the mixing 3. needle scaler or angle grinder may be used. a cleaner should be worked into the surface by brush and washed off using excess cleaner. Alternatively a die grinder. On deeply pitted surfaces of porous castings.CERAMIGRADE LINER Instructions for use Before proceeding. CeramiGrade Liner is a two component. the surface should be cross scored to improve adhesion. threads or bearing surfaces) which must remain in position during application but which should not adhere to CeramiGrade Liner must be coated with a release agent. valves etc. especially in fluid flow repairs. solvent free. C) Roughen the surface. 1. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.06 Impeller resurfacing 317 . A) Remove all contamination (oil. Repeat this process until all salt contamination is eliminated. Where possible. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. Where grinding or needle gunning is used. D) Equipment which has been saltimpregnated should be heated to sweat out the salt contamination. then the surface re-blasted.

Application Prepared Surfaces should be dry. grinding and machining etc. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. 6. When CeramiGrade Liner is used to repair leaking pipes. using the spatula provided. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed CeramiGrade Liner can be safely used. 3.06 4. sanding. The two components should be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free and a uniform colour is achieved. working the material into any cracks and surface defect. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Using the brush provided the mixed material should be painted evenly onto the prepared area. procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. 3. Any leaking fluid must be wiped from the prepared surface before undertaking the repair. The mixture is initially fluid. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Mix in the ratio indicated. 5. Machining Once the CeramiGrade Liner has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. but becomes thicker as it sets. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only. Once the CeramiGrade Liner has reached initial set the material can be separated from surfaces treated with release agent.CERAMIGRADE LINER container provided. this should be done as soon as the first coat has set ( within 4 hours ). When a second coat is required. the flow through the pipe should be discontinued until the repair is made and the CeramiGrade Liner is set. Failure to follow this General wear on butterfly valve surface 318 .

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 319 .

Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed Ceramigrade Abrashield can be safely used. The product will become brittle. Chemical resistance Health and Safety 320 .91 1. Resistant to solvents. tests are recommended.5 DIN 53454 DIN 53455 SABS 1449–1996 ASTM B117 DIN 53505 DIN 53453 DIN 53452 ISO 4587 Wet heat Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 526 80–85 MPa > 20 MPa Slump Resistance 10 mm thickness Good 00000 psi 0000 psi Activator Base Mixed Activator 1.86 1.4 °F Below .5 kJ/m2 70–75 MPa 5.20 °C / . grease. Excellent against water. diluted acids and alkaline. Against esters.84 kg necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Paste Colour Identification Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume 38 100 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C to 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm 3 5 °C 120 380 10 °C 100 350 15 °C 60 320 20 °C 40 300 25 °C 30 240 30 °C 25 220 35 °C 20 200 40 °C 10 180 72 hours 7 days Volume Solids % Base 31.20 °C impact resistance will be considerably reduced. ketones and chlorinated hydrocarbons.4 kg Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 5. detergents.CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD Product specification sheet – Ceramigrade Abrashield Product Description PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 5400 g Base + Activator (3600 g Base in a 2 liter tin) (1800 g Activator in a 1 liter tin) 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Technical Data Sheet Base Component Appearance Paste Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 5 °C 50 10 °C 45 15°C 35 20 °C 25 25 °C 15 30 °C 11 35 °C 8 40 °C 5 Colour White Red Mixing Ratio Weight 33 100 Ceramigrade Abrashield Product No 102-725291 Engineering Repair Compound Ceramigrade Abrashield 5. oil.9 30 Compressive Strength Tensile Shear Adhesion Abrasion Resistance Corrosion Resistance Hardness (Shore D) Impact Resistance Flexural Strength Lap Shear Strength Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 90–95 mm3 > 5000 hours 78–81 2. aliphatic alcohols and aromatics.06 Service Temperatures Dry heat + 85–90 °C / 000 °F + 80–85 °C / 000 °F .5 MPa Minimum temp 3. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.

Areas of application: Protection of surfaces subject to extreme wear and abrasion caused by solids or slurry. can be carried out using standard engineering practices. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood.Surface preparation A) Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. the surface should be cross-scored to improve adhesion. 4. Alternatively a die grinder.CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD Instructions for use Before proceeding. It consists of large ceramic particles in an epoxy matrix. Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly onto the prepared area. not polished. abrasive blasting is the preferred surface preparation. Specifically meant for Dredgers and Cement carriers facing heavy abrasion combined with medium and light impact. D) Surfaces subject to abrasive wear is often gouged out and highly polished and must be cross-scored to secure bonding. Failure to follow this 321 3. 5. Where possible. Guide to coverage rate: 1. Preferably the mixing ratio should be by weight. synthetic repair compound. Mix in the ratio indicated. Application Prepared surfaces should be dry. “Anchoring “ the product in this way will give a better key. Lids should be replaced immediately after use. fast curing. using the spatula provided. Afterwards add more product. sanding. B) Remove all loose rust and surface coatings C) Roughen the surface preferably with abrasive blasting to SA2. First pressing and squeezing a thin layer of product hard onto the surface secure a good bonding. Where grinding or needle gunning is used.06 . solvent free. Machining Ones the Ceramigrade Abrashield has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. If grinding make sure the surface is roughened. 1. Mixing Transfer the content of Base and Activator containers from the respective jars onto a clean mixing plate. working the material into groves and surface defects. 2. bonding can be secured and improved by welding small angle irons to the surface to be coated. E) Where deep abrasive wear and/or a high build up is required. needle scaler or angle grinder may be used. The two components should be thoroughly mixed until completely streak free and a uniform colour is achieved.8 Kg per 1m2 on 1 mm thick application. building up to the required height. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. 3. Ceramigrade Abrashield is a two component. grinding and machining etc.

The welding runs give the polymer side support and stability. Large surfaces filled in with Ceramigrade Abrashield 3.06 Improve addition by “Anchoring” the product by welding small angle irons to the surface to be coated. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Ceramigrade Abrashield can also be used in combination with the hard surfacing electrode Abratech-330 to fill in between runs. Users should determine the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. Wear plates and conveyer line pan Bearing plates for clinker chutes Grading and vibrating screens.CERAMIGRADE ABRASHIELD procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only. 322 . 6. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed Ceramigrade Abrashield can be safely used. Edges are welded with Abratech-330.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 323 .

06 Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild can be safely used.RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD Product specification sheet – Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 3 x 150 g packs Base + Activator 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Pair of gloves 1 Technical Data Sheet 2 Safety Data Sheets Base Component Product Description Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild Product No 103-659284 Engineering Repair Compound Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild 0.04 5 °C 60 480 10 °C 50 240 15 °C 35 180 20 °C 25 180 25 °C 25 150 30 °C 20 150 35 °C 15 150 40 °C 15 120 14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 18 days 15 days 14 days 12 days 12 days 8 days 7 days 7 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D624 ASTM D790 ASTM D2240 ASTM D149 ASTM D257 ASTM D257 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 962 4 MPa 4. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.20 °C / . For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.98 1. Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.5 MPa 260 % 65 Minimum temp .43 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 590 g necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Liquid Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 15 10 °C 10 15°C 10 - - Colour Brown Paste Identification Appearance Colour Black Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume - - Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 8 25 °C 8 30 °C 7 35 °C 6 40 °C 5 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1. Health and Safety 324 .2 0.4 °F Slump Resistance 12 1/2 mm thickness Excellent 600 psi 650 psi Activator Base Mixed Tensile Strength Tear Strength Elongation Hardness (Shore A) Dielectric Strength Surface Resistivity Volume Resistivity Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3.

All loose dust particles must be removed and the surface wiped with a cleaner. valves etc. working the material into any cracks and surface 3. If there is. Rubber surfaces are best roughened using a stiff-bristled or stiff-wire brush. On certain repairs such as gaskets and castings where one surface is not required to bond to RubberGrade 6 Rebuild. synthetic rubber repair compound. Cut any corner and squeeze out the RubberGrade 6 Rebuild onto the repair surface/s. 2. Mixing Remove the twin pack from the aluminium outer foil by cutting along the lines indicated. ease them out of the corners using the white plastic clip.06 Hose repairs 325 . gaskets. Application Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly onto the prepared area. rubber rollers. Areas of application: hoses. The contents are now ready to be mixed. these surfaces should be treated with a release agent. 3. Mix the two components by kneading and squashing them together for 4 -5 minutes. Remove the divider strip ( black rubber ) and take off the plastic divider clip. All surfaces MUST be dry. The pack will warm up as it is being mixed. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner. Edges of repair areas should be rebuilt.RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD Instructions for use Before proceeding. RubberGrade 6 Rebuild is a two component. Any areas of frayed or fragmented rubber should be cut away to provide a sound repair area. ducting. solvent free. impellers. Take care not to puncture the pack. 1. Electrical insulation repairs Ensure there is no unmixed material caught in the corners of the pack.

6. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed RubberGrade 6 Rebuild can be safely used.06 Electrical insulation repairs 326 . 4. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only. 5. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. Take care not to trap air bubbles in deep cavities. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. sanding and grinding can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Machining Once the RubberGrade 6 Rebuild has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet. Gaskets and seals repairs 3. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable.RUBBERGRADE 6 REBUILD defects.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.06 327 .

Prior to using this product please consult the Safety Data Sheet provided with each packaged product.2 0. Health and Safety 328 .06 Service Temperatures Chemical resistance Dry heat + 80 °C / 176 °F Suitable for permanent immersion at 20 °C (68 °F) in a limited range of chemicals.5 MPa 250 % 65 Minimum temp .43 ltr Engineering Repair Compound Supplied complete with all Gross Weight: 590 g necessary equipment all in one Activator Component Appearance Liquid Mixing Ratio Weight 5 °C 15 10 °C 10 15°C 10 - - Colour Brown Liquid Identification Appearance Colour Black Application Data Mixing Ratio Volume - - Pot Life (mins) (Working Life) 20 °C 8 25 °C 8 30 °C 7 35 °C 6 40 °C 5 Activator Base Activator Base Recommended Temperature Limits For Application: 5 °C TO 40 °C Curing Time Curing Times in minutes at ambient temperature Initial Setting / Light Loading Machining Full Mechanical Strength Full Chemical Resistance Technical Data Phys/Mec Properties Density g/cm3 1. Wearing of rubber gloves is advisable during use.4 °F Slump Resistance 12 1/2 mm thickness 1015 psi 650 psi Activator Base Mixed Tensile Strength Tear Strength Elongation Hardness (Shore A) Dielectric Strength Surface Resistivity Volume Resistivity Values are determined after 48 hours at 20 °C 3. For a more detailed description refer to the Chemical Resistance Chart.20 °C / .04 5 °C 60 480 10 °C 50 240 15 °C 35 180 20 °C 25 180 25 °C 25 150 30 °C 20 150 35 °C 15 150 40 °C 15 120 14 days 10 days 8 days 7 days 7 days 7 days 6 days 5 days 18 days 15 days 14 days 12 days 12 days 8 days 7 days 7 days Volume Solids % 100 ASTM D412 ASTM D624 ASTM D790 ASTM D2240 ASTM D149 ASTM D257 ASTM D257 Wet heat + 70 °C / 158 °F Volume Capacity cc/1000gm 962 7 MPa 4. Manufactured under a quality program certified to ISO 9002 As long as good practice is observed Rubbergrade 6 Remould can be safely used.98 1.RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD Product specification sheet – Rubbergrade 6 Remould PRODUCT NAME PRODUCT NO KIT CONSISTS OF 3 x 150 g packs Base + Activator 1 Spatula 1 Applicator 1 Pair of gloves 1 Technical Data Sheet 2 Safety Data Sheets Base Component Product Description Rubbergrade 6 Remould Product No 103-659292 Engineering Repair Fluid Rubbergrade 6 Remould 0.

The contents are now ready to be mixed. Mix the two components by kneading and squashing them together for 4 -5 minutes. Cut any corner and pour out the RubberGrade 6 ReMould onto the repair surface/s. 1. Take care not to puncture the pack. Surface preparation Heavy contamination due to oil or grease must be removed using a cleaner.06 Making a new O-ring 329 . On certain repairs such as gaskets and castings where one surface is not required to bond to RubberGrade 6 ReMould. ducting. Edges of repair areas should be rebuilt. If there is. Rubber surfaces are best roughened using a stiff-bristled or stiff-wire brush. Remove the divider strip ( black rubber ) and take off the plastic divider clip. solvent free. 3. All loose dust particles must be removed and the surface wiped with a cleaner. Castings of shock absorbers Ensure there is no unmixed material caught in the corners of the pack. gaskets. synthetic rubber repair compound. RubberGrade 6 ReMould is a two component. these surfaces should be treated with release agent. valves etc. The pack will warm up as it is being mixed. Mixing Remove the twin pack from the aluminium outer foil by cutting along the lines indicated. Any areas of frayed or fragmented rubber should be cut away to provide a sound repair area. rubber rollers.RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD Instructions for use Before proceeding. 2. All surfaces MUST be dry. please read the following information application carefully to ensure that proper procedures are fully understood. impellers. Areas of application : hoses. ease them out of the corners using the white plastic clip.

Application Using the spatula provided the mixed material should be spread evenly over the prepared area. Take care not to trap air bubbles in deep cavities.RUBBERGRADE 6 REMOULD 3.06 330 . Flanges and mating repairs Hatch cover seals 3. Health and safety As long as normal good practices are observed RubberGrade 6 ReMould can be safely used. sanding and grinding can be carried out using standard engineering practices. Failure to follow this procedure will result in application equipment becoming unusable. The information provided in this Instruction sheet is intended as a general guide only. Cleaning All equipment should be cleaned IMMEDIATELY after each use with a cleaner. 5. A fully detailed Material Safety Data Sheet is included with the set. 4. working the material into any cracks and surface defects. Users should determined the suitability of the product for their own particular purposes by their own tests. 6. Machining Once the RubberGrade 6 ReMould has cured for the minimum time indicated in the Curing Properties Section of the product specification sheet.

06 331 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

06 332 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   335 TIG welding . . . . . . . . .ARC PROCESSES & EQUIPMENT electric Welding Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   335 Electrode welding & gouging .   455 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   381 Wire welding . . . . . .01 333 . .   403 Plasma cutting & gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   441 Current distribution system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.01 334 .

. . . .ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   342 UWI-150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   358 Primary extension cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   339 Power source characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   370 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   371 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . .01 335 . . . . . . . . cable connectors & return clamp assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . .   350 UWI-400 . . . . .   344 UWI-203TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   336 Basic principles .   352 UWR-852 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   359 Secondary cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   373 Electrodes for electrode welding & gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   340 Selecting power source . . . . . . . . . . .   374 Air Carbon arc gouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   377 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   348 UWR-320TP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   363 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   360 Electrode holders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

however. In this chapter the following will be described: • Normal welding/gouging with coated electrodes • Air-Carbon-Arc gouging with copper coated carbon electrodes Each of these areas require their special electrode holder. By selecting the correct electrode. In 1938. The first coated electrode was patented by the Swedish engineer Oskar Kjellsberg in 1905. based on the electric circuit. most metallic material may be arc welded in any position and in any thickness down to approximately 2 mm. and to melt the tip of the coated electrode. 4.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Introduction The principle of Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) commonly called “stick electrode” welding is. thereby introducing MMA welding as a production process for the maritime market. The popularity of the Manual Metal Arc Welding process is to a large degree based on its versatility in addition to its modest requirements for equipment. a process that was first introduced in 1888 in Russia. Initially manual metal arc welding was done with bare metal electrodes without any coating.01 Arc processes require a complete electric circuit. Always remember proper connection of the return clamp. The electric arc formed between electrode and workpiece has two objectives. at least for the less demanding electrodes. The electrode is consumed and acts as a filler material mixing with the melted base material to fill up the joint. but it took some years of refining coatings and testing the reliability of welded joints before the process was accepted in the fabrication of steel constructions. Even quite unsophisticated welding machines like a step-down transformer may be used as power supply. as for all arc welding processes. to melt the edges of the joint forming a melt pool on the workpiece. 336 . Different electrode holders are required depending on the type of welding work. the world’s first wholly welded oceangoing ship was launched in Malmø. and the only welding equipment required in addition to the power supply is a suitable electrode holder.

The welding current flows through the entire system and back to the power source. welding cable. an electric circuit is required. as shown in the diagram. return clamp and return cable. AC is achieved when the power supply switches positive and negative polarity at a frequency which normally is 50 or 60 times per second (50 or 60 Hz). arc. Basically there are two different types of electric current. at a poor return cable connection. electrode. electrode holder or torch depending on the process.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING To establish an arc for welding and cutting. 337 . will have a temperature between approximately 6000°C in the arc from a coated electrode and up to 28000°C (8 times the surface temperature of the sun) in the plasma arc used for cutting. The arc. The electrons will then no longer flow in a steady stream but flow back and forth in the cable. DC is a stream of negatively charged electrons flowing through the cable. Properly connected return cable is therefore always required to ensure good welding conditions and avoid accidents by unintended welding arcs being established e. and 100 or 120 times a second the current will actually be zero. consisting of the power source. being the heat source for the welding or cutting process. Practical setup Welding machine Welding cable Return cable Electrode holder Electrode Return clamp Arc Workpiece 4. alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). moving from the negative pole (-) to the positive pole (+).g. Note that the workpiece must be a part of the electric circuit in all arc welding processes. workpiece.01 Welding current The arc properties are dependent on the current supplied to it.

still delivering AC to the welding arc. These requirements should be observed when installing welding equipment on board. as the back and forth flowing electrons serve the purpose of tearing up the unmelted oxide layer that forms on top of an aluminium melt pool. 4. several countries have issued regulations on how smooth the DC current shall be in order to be accepted as DC without requirements for open circuit voltage reducing devices. The only welding application that requires AC as welding current is TIG welding of aluminium. The pulsating effect of AC has proven to be especially dangerous to an operator in case of electric shock. and is done with DC. As the AC actually is zero each time it changes direction only electrodes specially developed for AC will be usable with welding transformers. in onboard repair and maintenance welding the Wire Welding Process Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process is an alternative for aluminium welding which offers several advantages. Where burns are the main danger from an electric shock from DC. However. DC as welding current DC is by far the best suited and most commonly used current for welding processes. AC current cycling from one direction through zero to the opposite direction. constant towards the positive (+) pole. and the simplest form of welding power sources are transformers that reduce the mains voltage and provide means for adjusting the amperage (welding current). 338 .ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING AC as welding current Mains power will normally be AC. the AC pulses may in addition cause cramps and heart failure as the pulses affect the nervous system. Authorities in several countries have therefore issued special regulations and demands for open circuit voltage reducing equipment for welding power sources with AC output.01 DC current. It is normally obtained through a welding power source (inverter or rectifier) that rectifies the AC from the mains supply to a DC of correct amperage and voltage for welding. To avoid the dangers the current pulses represent in cases of electric shock. 50 or 60 complete cycles per second.

This type of current runs in one direction (from – to +) so we can manipulate by connecting the electrode to either . Transformer power sources produce alternating current (AC). Most root runs are done with DC.01 – electrons + 30 % + 70 % electrons 50 % electrons +– AC Alternating current 50 % 70 % DC- – DC+ 30 % Direct current moving from – to + 339 . Rectifier and inverters produces direct current (DC) which is regarded as a safe type of current to use on board. The principal task of all power sources is to take alternating current from the mains and bring the high voltage down to a suitable working voltage. If we want deep penetration we can connect the electrode to – polarity and thereby bombard the base material with electrons that make 70% of the heat accumulating in the base material.or + polarity. Connecting the electrode to + polarity gives the opposite reaction with a high burn-off rate on the electrode.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Basic principles There are three different types of current used for Welding: DC-. DC+ and AC. This type of current changes direction 50 or 60 times per second (50-60 Hz). high weld build up and shallow penetration. Manual Metal Arc welding Transformers: Alternating Current Inverters & Rectifiers: Direct Current + or – Welding machine Return cable Welding cable Electrode holder Arc Return clamp Coating Core rod Shielding smoke Base metal Molten weld Travel Metal transfer 4. Rectifiers and inverters also convert the AC current into DC current. There are restrictions on alternating current used on board ships because this type of current goes deep into the body and can harm vital organs if the body becomes part of the electric circuit. while filler passes and capping runs are done with DC+ polarity.polarity to get the necessary penetration.

and may increase the possibility of welding faults. This characteristic is required for gas metal arc welding in the short arc range. as shown in the figure below. The power source will attempt to keep a constant arc voltage by increasing / decreasing the amperage as the arc length shortens / increases. When the short circuit is broken a voltage peak will occur. with variations within a narrow range when the arc length. When welding with electrodes with large droplet transfer. The two basic types of static characteristics are constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV). Constant voltage characteristic (CV) This characteristic is used only for the Wire Welding process when a wire feeder with constant feed speed is used. Excessive height or duration of these peaks will give an unstable arc and spatter from the weld pool. and will also offer advantages in the spray arc range. For TIG welding a steep characteristic 340 Dynamic characteristics of a short circuit with very little current variation is best.01 . For Air Carbon Arc gouging a flatter characteristic. 4. The relation between amperage and voltage supplied from a welding power source is called the static characteristic of the machine. and the characteristic curve will therefore be practically flat. with more current variation and high short circuit current. is preferred. Some welding power sources will have adjustable characteristics to enable the welder to choose exactly the characteristic suited for the job at hand. These dynamic properties of the welding power source are expressed in the dynamic characteristic of the machine. small short circuits will constantly occur in the arc. increases or decreases. A quick response to changes in the arc characterizes a well designed welding power source and is a prerequisite for good welding properties. Constant current characteristic (CC) Machines with constant current characteristic are designed to keep the welding current approximately constant. The optimal current variation range is different for different processes.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Power source characteristics A welding power source shall not only supply current of a set amperage and voltage. and thereby the arc voltage. a current peak will occur before the machine adjusts to the short circuit condition. it shall also automatically adjust these values as conditions in the welding arc changes. Welding with coated electrodes needs characteristics between these two. As the short circuit starts.

thereby reducing the meltoff and allowing the welding wire to be fed closer to the melt pool again.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Constant Current characteristic (TIG) A step constant current characteristic is best for TIG. the melt-off will increase.05 * I (IEC 974) 341 Constant Voltage characteristic (CV) 4. If the arc gets too short the current will increase. It will reduce the current if arc gets too long. and normal arc length will automatically be established again. providing a higher current (within limits) when the arc length shortens.01 U I .04 * I (IEC 974) U I For Wire Welding the ideal characteristic is constant voltage.04 * I (IEC 974) I U Constant Current characteristic (ACA) A flatter constant current characteristic is optimal for Manual Metal Arc Welding (stick). strictly limiting the amperage variations when arc length (and voltage) varies. U = 14 + 0. U = 20 + 0. U = 10 + 0.

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Selecting power source The four most important considerations when choosing a welding machine for use on board are: 1.01 UWR-852 UWI-400 342 . The choice will depend on how well prepared you wish to be to cope with unexpected repair on board. Machines must be suitable for the special environment on board a ship and must be able to handle the special and varying voltages provided by the vessels’ power supply. A welding machine must be able to supply sufficient power. operation should be simple and should provide ease of welding so that continual practice should not be necessary to achieve good results. 3. 2. 4. the efficiency and quality required in general repair work and also the welding processes to be handled by the power source. and be able to handle all the necessary welding jobs that are needed on board. By choosing a welding inverter or rectifier (DC arc welding) from the Unitor range. UWI-150 Autoline UWI-203TP UWI-320TP 4. As welding is only one of many skills which must be mastered by a ship’s mechanic. and the remaining question is the size and capacity of the machine. Construction and operation must meet all requirements with regard to operator safety. including special requirements to current type (AC/DC) and open circuit voltage that exists for welding machines used on board. the first three points on our check list will normally be fulfilled.

4 mm Tungsten electrodes x x x x Wire welding* with optional wire feeder. see page 414.2 12. cutting. including comprehensive Plating work using all dimensions of coated electrodes Preparing grooves with gouging electrodes x Air-Carbon-Arc gouging.25 mm Repair welding. pipe welding and light plating work Using coated electrodes.0 mm UWI UWI UWR UWI UWR 150 203TP 320TP 400 852 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 34. TIG. consult the section dealing with welding cables. max.01 Connection to mains: 1 phase 115-230 Volt 50/60 Hz x x x x x 3 phase 380-440 Volt 50/60 Hz (x) = Limited capacity for the most current demanding electrodes. 343 . power sources: Unitor welding machine range Light welding repairs and tack welding with coated Electrodes. lighter work with 1.6 – 2.2 18 Properties: Choice of welding characteristic to suit all types of work (Electrode. weld-removal or surface “flushing” of steel plates TIG welding. Wire welding) Stepless full-range welding current adjustment during welding x x x x x x x x x x Remote control of welding current by cable during welding Possible to parallel connect two machines 4. 3.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Selection guide. For information on the capacity of the individual models when welding with long welding cables. all types of work including large dimensioned pipes TIG welding.5 229 x x x x x x x All types of repair welding. hole piercing. *Also available for wire welding: UWW-161TP. max 4. 6. Portable or Stationary: Weight kg.

V Max. Electrode A Welding current range. • Lift-Arc start in TIG mode provides easy and soft TIG arc starting.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-150 AutoLine Stick / TIG Dual Process Welding Inverter • Connects to any primary voltage between 110 and 240V with AutoLine technology which require no action from the operator. frequency Hz Mains voltage V Recommended fuses (slow) A Protection class - Approval marks - Weight Kg Height x Width x Length cm Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT: CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN Technical Data 4. • Wind tunnel design for the internal cooling air flow protects electrical components and PC boards from dirt. primary cable. • Automatic Hot Start for stick arc starts makes arc striking easy and prevents electrode sticking. touchable sensing voltage V Duty cycle at max. carrying strap. A built-in circuit that reduces the open-circuit voltage to below 16 volts when the welding power source is not in use. dust. • Safe in use. debris. TIG A Open circuit voltage. max. CE 6. • Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source constant regardless of fluctuation in input power from 10% below lowest to above highest rated input voltage. current % Mains phases - Mains phase. greatly improving reliability.01 Property 20-150 5-150 69 16 30 1 50/60 115/230 32/16 IP23 S. • Fan on demand to eliminate unnecessary internal contamination. electrode holder and return clamp. An optional TIG remote control will in addition provide current adjustment and downslope on the torch.2 23x14x34 344 . • Supplied with instruction manual. • Step-less adjustment of welding current through whole current range: 20-150 A (for stick welding) 5-150 (for TIG welding). Description Unit Welding current range. • Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. • Casing of high grade aluminium and industrial plastic to eliminate corrosion damage.

5 set Filter glass set shade 11 for up to 175 A. 5 set Long lined welding gloves. head band and filter shade 11 glass Filter glass set shade 9 for up to 40 A. 6 pairs Wire brush. 2 pcs Chipping hammer stainless steel Welding gauge type J Product no. steel. 5 set Filter glass set shade 10 for up to 80 A.01 345 . 191-709659 UWI-150 Autoline Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding UWI-150 Autoline as a manual electrode welding unit 3m Welding cable with quick connectors and electrode holder and 3m return cable with quick connector and return clamp are included with the UWI-150 Autoline Optional Equipment UWI-150 Autoline Description Unit Face shield with handle and filter shade 11 glass Flip-Vision shield with flip-up frame. stainless steel. mounted on the welding machine – 3 m welding cable with quick ­connector and electrode holder (627877) – 3 m return cable with quick ­connector and return clamp (633164) – Instruction manual Description UWI-150 AutoLine with basic accessories Unit pcs Product no. 6 pcs Chipping hammer steel.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Ordering Information: The order numbers include: – UWI-150 Autoline welding machine – 1 pce carrying strap – 2 m primary cable. 6 pcs Wire brush. 2 rows. 2 rows. 196 619098 196 709485 196 633248 196 633255 196 633263 196 632786 196 632976 196 632984 196 633008 196 632992 196 516161 4.

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Application set-up for TIG welding TIG welding Accessories for UWI-150 AutoLine Description Units Specially thin and soft TIG gloves. 6 pairs TIG-torch T-150 with gas valve and DIX 25 for UWI-150 Accessories kit for TIG-torch Remote control for UWI-150 AutoLine TIG-welding Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for gas flow adjustment Product no.01 346 . 197 632794 197 150000 197 607810 191 719575 197 510010 197 597328 197 597310 Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50) 4.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.01 347 .

Open Circuit Voltage below the 70V limit set by the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen. • Automatic Hot Start for stick arc starts makes arc striking easy and prevents electrode sticking. max V 65 Duty cycle at max. • Adjustable Arc Force for stick electrode welding allows the arc characteristics to be -changed for specific applications and electrodes: Low Arc Force setting for smooth running electrodes like LH and SPECIAL. carrying strap.01 460 Ordering Information: Description Product no. debris. mounted on the welding machine – 3 m welding cable with quick connector and electrode holder – 3 m return cable with quick connector and return clamp – Instruction manual 348 . DC A 5-200 Open circuit voltage.2 Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT: CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN Technical Data 325 230 4. dust. • Total Protection (TP) function close the machine down in case one phase in the power supply falls out. more penetrating electrodes like E6010 types. • Supplied with instruction manual. The order numbers include: UWI-203 TP with basic accessories 191-203203 – UWI-203 welding machine – 1 pce carrying strap – 4 m primary cable. • Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source constant regardless of fluctuation in input power from 10% below lowest to above highest rated input voltage.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-203 TP Stick / TIG Dual Process Welding Inverter • Connects to any primary voltage between 380 and 440V without need for any action from the operator. • Safe in use. • Casing of high grade aluminium and industrial plastic to eliminate corrosion damage also contributes to low-weight which together with compact outer dimensions provides good portability. • Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. greatly improving reliability. frequency 50/60 Hz Mains voltage V 380-440 Recommended fuses (slow) A 10 Protection class IP 23S Approval marks CE Height mm 325 Length mm 460 Width mm 230 Weight kg 12. Increased setting provides optimal characteristics for stiffer. current % 40 Mains phases 3 Mains phase. chamfering electrodes like CH2 and electrodes for ACA gouging. • Step-less adjustment of welding current through whole current range: 5 –200A. primary cable. • Lift-Start in TIG mode provides easy and soft TIG arc starting. electrode holder and return clamp Description Unit Property Welding current range. • Wind tunnel design for the internal cooling air flow protects electrical components and PC boards from dirt.

196 619098 196 709485 196 633248 196 633255 196 633263 196 632786 196 632976 196 632984 196 633008 196 632992 196 516161 Application set-up for TIG welding TIG welding Accessories for UWI-203 TP Description Units Specially thin and soft TIG gloves.01 Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50) 349 . 197 632794 197 200000 197 607810 197 510010 197 597328 197 597310 4. steel. 5 set Filter glass set shade 10 for up to 80 A.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-203 TP Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding UWI-203 TP as a manual electrode welding unit 3m Welding cable with quick connectors and electrode holder and 3m return cable with quick connector and return clamp are included with the UWI-203 TP. Optional Equipment UWI-203 TP Description Unit Face shield with handle and filter shade 11 glass Flip-Vision shield with flip-up frame. 6 pcs Chipping hammer steel. head band and filter shade 11 glass Filter glass set shade 9 for up to 40 A. 6 pairs TIG-torch T-200 with gas valve and DIX 70 connector Accessories kit for TIG-torch Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for gas flow adjustment Product no. 5 set Filter glass set shade 11 for up to 175 A. 2 rows. 2 pcs Chipping hammer stainless steel Welding gauge type J Product no. 6 pcs Wire brush. stainless steel. 5 set Long lined welding gloves. 2 rows. 6 pairs Wire brush.

• Step-less adjustment of welding current through whole current range: 5 –320A. • Safe in use. DC A 10-320 Open circuit voltage. frequency 50/60 Hz Mains voltage V 380-440 Recommended fuses (slow) A 16 325 Protection class IP 23S Approval marks CE Height mm 325 Length mm 460 230 Width mm 230 Weight kg 18 Open circuit voltage below 70V provides conformance with the British DOT: CODE OF SAFE WORKING PRACTICE FOR MERCHANT SEAMEN Technical Data 4. dust. more penetrating electrodes like E6010 types. carrying strap. • Line Voltage compensation keeps output of the power source constant regardless of fluctuation in input power from 10% below lowest to above highest rated input voltage. • Thermal overload protection with indicator lights helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. current % 30 Mains phases 3 Mains phase. well below the 70V limit set by the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen. • Lift-Start in TIG mode provides easy and soft TIG arc starting. chamfering electrodes like CH2 and electrodes for ACA gouging. • Adjustable Arc Force for stick electrode welding allows the arc characteristics to be -changed for specific applications and electrodes: Low Arc Force setting for smooth running electrodes like LH and SPECIAL. electrode holder and return clamp Description Unit Property Welding current range. Open Circuit Voltage only 8V. greatly improving reliability. max V 8 Duty cycle at max. mounted on the welding machine Instruction manual Description UWI-320 TP Unit pcs Product no. debris. 191-320320 350 . • Supplied with instruction manual. • Total Protection (TP) function close the machine down in case one phase in the power supply falls out. • Wind tunnel design for the internal cooling air flow protects electrical components and PC boards from dirt. • Automatic Hot Start for stick arc starts makes arc striking easy and prevents electrode sticking. Increased setting provides optimal characteristics for stiffer. • Casing of high grade aluminium and industrial plastic to eliminate corrosion damage also contributes to low-weight which together with compact outer dimensions provides good portability.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-320 TP Stick / TIG Dual Process Welding Inverter • Connects to any primary voltage between 380 and 440V without need for any action from the operator.01 460 Ordering Information: The order numbers include: UWI-320 TP welding machine 1 pce carrying strap 4 m primary cable. primary cable.

191-670406 195-594317 196-594325 191-670414 196-709485 ID no.01 351 . 3 m cable 50 mm2 Remote amp. 197 632794 197 200000 197 607810 197 510010 197 597328 197 597310 4. head band and filter shade 11 glass Chipping hammer steel Wire brush steel. 400 A Dix 70.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-320 TP Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding Basic accessories kit for UWI-320 TP Description Basic accessories kit for UWI-320 TP Consisting of: Return clamp assembly. control 8 m Welding gloves Face shield with flip-up front frame. 3 m cable 50 mm2 Electrode holder assembly. 811002 Application set-up for TIG welding TIG welding Accessories for UWI-320 TP Description Units Specially thin and soft TIG gloves. 400 A Dix 70. 6 pairs TIG-torch T-200 with gas valve and DIX 70 connector Accessories kit for TIG-torch Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for gas flow adjustment Argon for TIG shielding is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50) Product no. two rows Unitor Welding Handbook Unit set pcs pcs pcs par pcs pcs pcs pcs Product no.

V Duty cycle at max. current % Mains phases Mains phase. • Remote on/off and remote amperage control.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-400 Multi purpose welding inverter • Multi function welding machine for Stick electrode. fluctuations outside ± 10% of rated voltage range.01 Description Unit Type UWI-400 Welding current range. Instruction manual. Description UWI-400 Unit pcs Product no. • Fan on “demand” tunnel cooling. arc force control and anti-stick functions. • Hot start. TIG and Wire welding. Technical Data 320 400 492 4. frequency Hz Mains voltage V Recommended fuses (slow) A Efficiency % Insulation class Protection class Approval marks Height mm Length mm Width mm Weight kg Property 5-400 70 30 3 50/60 380-440 20 85 H IP 23 CE 400 492 320 34. max. frequency 50-60 Hz. • Parallel connection for extra power (2xUWI-400). • Can be connected to any 3 phase primary voltage between 380 V and 440 V. • Conforms to code of safe working practices for Merchant Seamen. • Automatic shut down function against input voltage. • Display information to operator on display stating reason for shut down. 191-670398 352 .5 Ordering Information: The order numbers include: UWI-400 3 m primary cable. DC A Open circuit voltage. • Step-less current control from 5-400 A.

3 m cable 50 mm2 Remote amp.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-400 Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding UWI-400 as a manual electrode welding unit with a remote control unit and welding cables. 811002 191-670422 Miscellaneous Remote control cable extension. 400 A Dix 70.01 353 . 400 A Dix 70. Stick Electrode accessories Description Basic accessories kit for UWI-400 Consisting of: Return clamp assembly. 25 m 4. head band and filter shade 11 glass Chipping hammer steel Wire brush steel. two rows Unitor Welding Handbook Unit set pcs pcs pcs par pcs pcs pcs pcs Product no. 191-670406 195-594317 196-594325 191-670414 196-709485 ID no. 3 m cable 50 mm2 Electrode holder assembly. control 8 m Welding gloves Face shield with flip-up front frame.

TIG welding accessories (Based on having Stick electrode accessories) Description TIG torch T-200 complete with DIX 70 for UWI-400 Remote amp. Specially thin and soft TIG gloves. pcs. TIG torch set and return cable. Clip 8-14 mm for hose.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-400 Application set-up for TIG welding UWI-400 as TIG welding unit with a remote control unit. 10 pcs. Unit pcs pcs pcs pcs pcs pcs mtr pcs pck 6 pairs Product no. control 8 m must be used for TIG welding Accessories kit for TIG torch Argon / C02 regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min. 197-200000 191-670414 197-607810 197-510010 197-597328 197-597310 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 197-632794 Argon for TIG shielding gas is available in 10 l cylinders (E-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50).01 354 . 4. mtr. Flow control meter for use on torch nozzle Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment Gas hose 1/4” black for shielding gases. Hose joint for 1/4” hose.

193-657106 193-607451 197-510010 197-510012 197-597328 197-597310 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 197-632794 Argon or Argon CO2 for Wire Welding shielding gas available in 10 l cylinders (E-10/M-10) and 50 l cylinders (E-50(M-50) 4.01 355 . Torch pcs Wire torch T-400MP w/3 m cable pcs Argon/CO2 regulator w / flow adjustment 0-32 l/min. pcs CO2 regulator with flow adjustment pcs Flow control meter for use on torch nozzle pcs Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment pcs Gas hose 1/4” black for shielding gases mtr Hose joint for 1/4” hose pcs Clip 8-14 mm for hose.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING UWI-400 Application set-up for Wire welding UWI-400 as wire welding unit with a SC 12 RC wire feeder. 10 pcs pck Specially thin and soft gloves 6 pairs Product no. wire welding torch and return cable. Wire welding accessories (Based on having Stick electrode accessories) Description Unit Wire feeder SC 12 RC ex.

2 pcs Conversion assembly safety Dix-70 male.01 Air supply 7 3 4 1 356 .ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Application set-up for Air Carbon Arc Gouging or Stick Electrode welding using 2 x UWI-400 in parallel Electrode/return clamp assembly 2 x UWI-400 max output 700 Amps Pos. in necessary length 2 195-594317 pcs 5 6 7 5 196-594325 195-175851 pcs m Torch f/air carbon arc gouging with safety connector and air connector 196-528703 pcs 4. 195-632894 195-632901 195-634121 Unit pcs pcs pcs Cable connector Dix-70 male/female complete Triple connection Dix-70 male/male/female. Description 1 2 3 4 1 6 1 2 1 6 Product no. 2 pcs Return clamp assembly 400 A with Safety connector w/3 m cable 50 mm2 Electrode holder assembly 400 A with safety connector w/3 m flexible cable 50 mm2 Welding cable 70 mm .

357 . 1 Pos. 191-670422 4.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Remote control assembly Important: If parallel connection of two UWI-400 machines. control 8 m Product no. NB. both machines must be switched on. 191-676973 191-670414 2 NB In this location the remote control extension cables can be mounted Remote control cable extension 25 m Product No.01 Length depends on distance from welding machine to work site and desired work radius. If only one machine is switched on the current in the parallel cable may damage the other machine. The extension cable can be connected into longer lengths if necessary. Description 1 Remote control parallel connection cable 2 Remote amp. NB.

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
UWR-852 Superior power for heavy duty Air Carbon Arc Gouging. Excellent arc welding performance with Stick and TIG welding
Built-in arc control: lets you get in tight without sticking the electrode. An electrode compensation circuit ensures consistent arc control performance regardless of the electrode size. Hot Start: makes it easier to start difficult-to-start Stick electrodes such as E-6010 and E-7018. Simple control panel: features single range amperage adjustment and provides easy, efficient operation. Line voltage compensation: ensures consistent weld performance by keeping output power constant even if primary input power varies by ±10%. 14-pin receptacle: provides quick, direct connection to remote controls and switches. Enclosed circuit boards: provide additional protection from contaminants resulting in longer service life. PC board protection: prevents the wire feeder power or other stray voltages (less than 115 VAC) from harming the power source PC board. Thermal overload protection: helps prevent machine damage if the duty cycle is exceeded or airflow is blocked. A warning light indicates power shutdown. Fan-On-Demand: The fan operates only when needed, reducing noise, power consumption and the amount of airborne contaminants pulled through the machine. 115 V receptacle: provides15 amps of auxiliary power. Power cord strain relief provided for convenience at installation.

Technical Data

Ordering Information:

4.01

The order numbers include: UWR-852 with instruction manual. NOTE: Primary cable is not included. Fixed installation is recommended on the primary side. Description UWR-852 Remote Control with 8 m cable Remote Control extension cable 25 m Unit pcs pcs pcs Product no. 191-735860 191-670414 191-670422

Description Unit Type UWR-852 Welding current range, DC A Welding current at 60% duty cycle A Open circuit voltage, max. V Duty cycle at max. current % Mains phases Mains phase, frequency Hz Mains voltage V Recommended fuses (slow) A Recommended primary cable mm2 Efficiency % Insulation class Protection class Approval marks Height incl. lifting eye mm Length mm Width mm Weight kg

Property 50-850 650 70 30 3 50/60 380/440 90/80 3x10+PE 85 H IP 23 CE 762 966 585 229

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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Primary extension cables
The Unitor power sources are delivered with a 2 or 3 meter primary cable. If a longer primary cable is needed this is our recommendation for length and dimension. Note that dimensioning of the cable does not only depend on cable length but also the voltage on the mains.
Size 3 x 2,5 mm2 + G 3 x 4,0 mm2 + G 3 x 10 mm2 + G Product no. per m. 195-526335 195-526343 195-526350

UWI-150 Autoline Conductor size 2.5 mm
2

230 V # 45 m # 60 m

380 V – –

440 V – – 2+G

4.0 mm2

UWI-203TP Conductor size 1.5 mm
2 2

230 V – – –

380 V # 30 m # 50 m # 80 m

440 V # 200 m # 300 m # 500 m 3+G

2.5 mm 4.0 mm2

UWI-320TP Conductor size 2.5 mm
2

230 V # 60 m # 100 m

380 V # 150 m # 250 m

440 V # 200 m # 350 m 3+G

4.0 mm2

4.01
UWI-400 Conductor size 4.0 mm
2

230 V – – –

380 V # 50 m # 100 m # 150 m

440 V # 50 m # 100 m # 150 m 3+G

6.0 mm2 10.0 mm2

UWR-852 Fixed installation 3+G
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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Secondary cables (welding and return cables)
The cross-section dimension of a welding cable must be compatible with both the welding current which will be used and the total length of welding and return cable which will be used in the welding circuit. The first requirement is the maximum load the cable can carry without overheating. The following maximum load ratings apply to neoprene insulated welding cable at 25°C ambient temperature. Cable Cross- Section 35 mm2 50 mm
2

Maximum welding current at varying duty cycles 100% 60% 30% 225A 285A 335A 430A 290A 365A 460A 560A 410A 520A 650A 790A

Weight kg per m. 0,42 0,56 0,78 1,03

70 mm2 95 mm
2

As guideline, it should be noted that normal hand welding using coated stick electrodes and TIG welding is carried out at a duty cycle (effective welding time) of 30-40%, while wire welding and air carbon arc gouging may have a duty cycle of up to 60%. The maximum current values are based on the capacity of the cables alone. However, the voltage drop in the cables will often be the decisive factor when choosing the right cable size. The theoretical voltage drop in 100 meters copper cable of four different cross sections is shown for increasing currents in the following diagram:

4.01

360

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
It will be seen that the voltage drop in 100 meters 70 mm2 cable is 6 V at 250 A DC. When using longer lengths of cable, the voltage drop will increase proportionately, i.e. on a 200 meter length of 70 mm2 cable, the voltage drop will be 12 V at the same amper­ age. It should be noted that for AC current, the voltage drop can be more than double the value for DC current due to inductive resistance, especially when the welding cables lie across a steel deck. When the voltage drop is excessive, welding characteristics suffer accordingly. How large a voltage drop that can be tolerated will depend on the type of welding machine and type of electrode. The following table shows the theoretical cable lengths relevant to the different cable cross-sections and the different types of welding machines based on the following calculation: Maximum allowed voltage drop for a welding machine is – the maximum output voltage at the corresponding current – minus the conventional load voltage (IEC 60974-1). The maximum length of welding cable (total length from return cable and electrode holder cable) for this voltage drop is calculated as followed: Length < voltage drop/current · conductivity of copper (58) · cable cross section

Current 150 A 200 A 300 A 400 A

Cable cross- Section UWI-400 35 mm2 50 mm2 70 mm2 50 mm2 70 mm2 95 mm2 50 mm2 70 mm2 95 mm2 70 mm2 95 mm2 460 m 657 m 920 m 391 m 548 m 740 m

Welding machine type UWI-320 TP 298 m 425 m 595 m UWI-203 TP UWI-150 176 m   64 m 251 m   91 m 352 m 128 m

255 m   97 m 357 m 136 m

174 m   77 m 243 m 108 m 330 m x) x)

4.01

x) Bring machine to work site and use short electrode/ground cables only

Note: By connecting two cables in parallel, the voltage drop can be halved and the distance from machine to welding area thereby doubled.

361

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Unitor Welding Cable
Welding cables used on board, on deck or in an engine room, are exposed to both rough weather, oil and mechanical wear. The welding_ cable supplied by Unitor has wear, flame and oil-resistant insulation on a polychloroprene rubber basis. It is recognized by its marking at regular intervals with the text “Unitor oil resistant welding cable”, size of cable, and the standard for welding cable H01N2-D. H01N2-D means that the cable is produced to an international harmonized standard. The conductor is built up from 0.2 mm diameter tinned copper strands to ensure flexibility. The cable is available in cross section areas 35 mm2, 50 mm2 and 70 mm2, and may be supplied in standard lengths of 10 m, 20 m or 50 m, fitted with Unitor Safety cable connectors. Cable size comparison   AWG
  3   2   1   1/0 mm2 26.7 33.6 42.4 53.5 AWG 2/0 3/0 4/0 mm2 67.4 85.0 107.2

It may also be ordered in other lengths, without connectors mounted. Cable drum The cable drum with crank and floor stand is used for storage of up to 100 m cable. The crank may be disengaged to avoid accidents when unwinding cable. Note that welding cables should always be stretched out when used, and excessive lengths should not be used. A coiled up cable, whether on a drum or in a coil on deck will act as an electromagnet when welding current is flowing. This will cause increased resistance in the welding circuit which may have negative influence on the welding result. The electromagnetic field created may also influence vulnerable equipment in the vicinity of the coil.

4.01
Ordering information
Cross section area mm2 35 50 70 95 Max Amp at 60 % D/C 290 365 460 560 Product no. Weight kg/m Pr. meter 0,42 0,56 0,78 1,03 10m incl. 20 m incl. 50 m incl. connectors connectors connectors

195-175836 195-175794 195-175786 195-175778 195-175844 195-175828 195-175810 195-175802 195-175851 195-320002 195-320010 195-183665 195-655266 195-175729

   Cable drum for up to 100 m cable, order no.

362

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holders, Cable connectors and return clamp assemblies Cable connectors and return clamps are important – but often neglected – parts of the welding current circuit. The voltage drop in a poor or a wrongly positioned return clamp can be considerable, equal to many meters of additional cable, and the welding arc will suffer accordingly (see section on voltage drop in welding cable). The Electrode holders Unitor’s fully insulated electrode holders are of the lever screw type and feature an especially robust and safe clamping arrangement for the electrodes. The holders are of strong and simple construction. There are three types of electrode holder available, the 200A, 400A and 600 A. All Unitor electrode holders also come complete with 3 m cable and connector. The return connection The return connector must be sufficiently dimensioned to provide good contact for the welding current load to be used. The positioning of the return clamp determines how large a part of the vessel or of the work piece is to be utilized as part of the welding current circuit. The return clamp should always be placed as close as possible to the welding area, or on the work piece itself if this is not an integral part of the hull. The thickness of material between welding point and return clamp must be sufficient to carry the current load that is to be used. Think carefully before fixing the return clamp so that sensitive machine parts such as ball bearings etc. are not used as a bridge for welding current. There are three types of return clamps available, the 200A, 400A and 600A. All Unitor return clamps also come with 3 m cable and connector. The Cable connectors Cable connectors must be insulated in such a way that the danger of handling or short-circuiting through the deck is reduced to a minimum. This applies both to connected and unconnected parts. There should be no possibility of short-circuiting in connected plugs and sockets attached to cables, even if they should come into occasional contact with salt water. There must be good contact and little resistance at the contact areas and at the welding cable connections to the connectors. Unitor Safety cable connectors meet these requirements, more than 1400 mm2 contact area ensuring good contact between plug and socket, and when carefully assembled, the connectors are as good as watertight against spray and when decks are sporadically washed. The connectors may be used on cable dimensions from 35 mm2 up to 95 mm2 and are designed to accept up to 750 A welding current. Dix quick-action connectors are used for front panel connections on the welding machines. These provide easy polarity changes, but are not fully insulated and are therefore not recommended as cable connectors. Adapters for connection to Unitor Safety connectors are available.

4.01

363

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holder assemblies
Electrode holder assembly 200 A with Dix 25 connector w/3 m cable 25 mm2 Product no. 196-627877 For use on UWI-150 and UWW 161TP

Electrode holder assembly 200 A with Dix 70 connector w/3 m cable 35 mm2 Product no. 196-627885 For use on UWI-200, -201, -202, -203 TP

Electrode holder assembly 400 A with Dix 70 connector w/3 m cable 50 mm2 Product no. 196-594325

4.01

For use on UWR-303, UWI-320 TP and UWI-400

Electrode holder assembly 400 A with Safety connector w/3 m Super flexible cable 50 mm2 Product no. 196-522680 For use with extension cables where Safety connectors are used
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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Return Clamp Assemblies
Return clamp assembly 200 A with Dix 25 connector w/3 m cable 25 mm2 Product no. 195-633164 For use on UWI-150 and UWW-161TP

Return clamp assembly 200 A with Dix 70 connector w/3 m cable 35 mm2 Product no. 195-633172 For use on UWI-200, -201, -202, -203TP

Return clamp assembly 400 A with Dix 70 connector w/3 m cable 50 mm2 Product no. 195-594317 For use on UWR-303, UWI-320TP and UWI-400

4.01

Return clamp assembly 400 A with Safety connector w/3 m cable 50 mm2 Product no. 195-633180 For use with extension cables where Safety connectors are used

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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Electrode holders
Electrode holder Twisty 200 Amps. For electrode dia. 1.6–3.2 mm. Product no. 196-552497

Electrode holder Twisty 400 Amps. For electrode dia. 1.6–5.0 mm Product no. 196-513051

Electrode holder 600 Amps. For electrode dia. 1.6–8.0 mm. Product no. 196-511006

4.01

Electrode holders confirm to EN 60974-11

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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Return clamps
Return clamp 200 Amps. Jaw opening 70 mm. Product no. 195-653881 Return clamp 400 Amps. Jaw opening 70 mm. Product no. 195-653899 Return clamp 600 Amps. Jaw opening 70 mm. Product no. 195-653907 Return clamp 800 Amps. Jaw opening 60 mm. Product no. 195-175745
Return clamp 200 A/400 A/600 A. Grind off rust and paint before connecting return clamp in order to ensure optimal contact with the workpiece

4.01

Place return clamp in direct contact with work piece. Use of the ships hull as return conductor is against regulations. Make sure to grind the connection surface free from paint and rust before connecting the return clamp.

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ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING
Cable Connectors
Cable connector Dix 25 male/female complete 230 A / 60 % Duty Cycle. Cable size 10–25 mm2 Product no. 195-632885 Cable connector Dix 70 male/female complete 460 A / 60 % Duty Cycle. Cable size 35–70 mm2 Product no. 195-632893 Cable connector Dix 120 male/female complete 650 A / 60 % Duty Cycle. Cable size 90–120 mm2 Product no. 195-736744 Cable connector Safety male/female complete 460 A / 60 % Duty Cycle. Cable size 35–70 mm2 Product no. 195-513044 Cable shoe for 35 mm2 cable 10 pcs Product no. 195-632919 Cable shoe for 50 mm2 cable 10 pcs Product no. 195-632927 Cable shoe for 70 mm2 cable 10 pcs Product no. 195-632935 Cable shoe for 95 mm2 cable 10 pcs Product no. 195-738633
368

4.01

ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Conversion assembly Safety Dix 70 male. 195-633073 This is how the Adapter Plug works: PROBLEM: DIX 25 female DIX 70 male SOLUTION: Adapter plug DIX 70/25 4. 2 pcs 70 mm2 cable 0. female70 – male 25. 195-632901 For parallel connecting 2xUWI-400 welding machines For stick welding or air carbon arc gouging Adapter plug Dix 70/25. Product no. 2 pcs Product no. 195-634121 Triple connection Dix 70 male/male/female.3 m long.01 Female 70 Male 25 369 . 2 pcs Product no.

removal of slag. Wire brush. 196-632976 196-632984 196-633008 196-632992 196-516161 370 . Unit 6 pcs 6 pcs 2 pcs pcs pcs Product no. 70°. 80° and 90° groove angles. 4. The brush is available with steel or stainless steel bristles. steel. 2 rows. steel.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Accessories Chipping hammer The chipping hammer is used for the removal of slag after arc welding. rust etc. Wire brush A wire brush is used for cleaning the welding surfaces. Welding gauge Correct groove preparation and sufficient weld deposit is required for a successful welded joint. Available in mild steel and stainless steel. The hammer is of robust construction and well balanced. When working on stainless steel.01 Description: Wire brush. for measuring throat thickness (a-measure) up to 20 mm and reinforcement up to 10 mm. Chipping hammer. stainless steel. stainless steel. Welding gauge type J. The welding gauge type “J” provides the possibility to measure 60°. Chipping hammer. a brush with stainless steel bristles and a chipping hammer made of stainless steel must always be used. 2 rows.

If the current output is insufficient.The length of the arc . The values given are only valid for unalloyed and low-alloy electrodes and for the stated electrode lengths. the amperage is set near to the upper limit. It is a good rule to use slightly more current than required rather than risk using too little.The angle of the electrode . When current. The guiding rule is that the arc gap should be equal to the diameter of the wire core of the electrode. the molten pool of the weld will proceed smoothly and slag will form behind the pool. vertical-up and overhead welding the welder should use the lower limit. and other faults are likely to occur. In order to obtain a good weld we must ensure that the following points are correct: .0 450 6. fusing with the base material will be unsatisfactory. A short arc prevents the formation of molten slag ahead of the molten pool. and this is where most mistakes are made.01 Current value too low. For root-welding. For fillet-welding in horizontal and flat positions and also for vertical-down welding.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Welding Techniques Having examined the necessary equipment and studied the safety precautions which must be carefully followed. even. as well as rules of thumb for calculating them. Slag may become embedded in the weld. 4. it is important that the arc be kept as short as possible in order to avoid the formation of pores and to prevent slag becoming embedded in the weld. Settings The table gives the ampere limits for the most important electrode diameters. we shall now look at the actual welding operation.25 4.0 450 350 350/450 350/450 50-100 90-150 120-200 180-270 220-360 Length of arc When arc welding with electrodes. and are also shown on the electrode package labels.0 250/300 40-80 2. 371 . This is of particular importance when welding with basic electrodes. but coarsely beaded surface. electrode travel and angle are correct.Electrode travel Current Current output is the most important factor in arc welding. Current output too high. Welding surface appearance at different current values: Surface welded at correct current value.0 5. uneven surface.5 3.   Diameter   Length   Amperage 2.The current . Approximate current values are given in the descriptions of the different types of electrodes.

80° 90° Arc gap equal to electrode diameter RATE OF TRAVEL TOO HIGH Edge faults Convex Poor fusion RATE OF TRAVEL TOO SLOW Incorrect profile Overlap Slag 4. Correct rate of travel is important to achieve a good weld. the electrode should be held at an angle of 60° and weaved gently from side to side as the weld advances so that the height of the deposited filler is about 1/3 of the width of each bead. The illustration shows the angles to be used when welding in the horizontal welding position. Correct Incorrect 372 . Electrode travel Move the electrode at an even rate of travel in the welding direction.01 When building up a flat surface. In this way an even surface can be built up without high spots or craters. with or without weaving. the tip of the electrode should overlap the previous bead by about 1/3 of the bead width.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Electrode angle The electrode must be held at the correct angle during the welding operation. The illustration shows the faults that can occur if the electrode is moved too quickly or too slowly in a fillet weld. When starting the next parallel buildup run.

01 373 .ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Edge preparation 4.

pumps and valves Stainless steel AISI 309.5 095-683656 3. steel Ice Class hull plates. piping.0 5. Large welds in flat position Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.0 095-699199 2. steel Boiler plates and pipes up to 550 dgr.5% Mo Low temp.2 4. 0.7% Ni Weather resistant steel Corrosion resistant to sea-water and flue gases Stainless steel AISI 304/316 L.5 095-699421 3. Up to 1% Cr.2 095-699439 4.2 095-699389 18/8-321 N 1. Application onboard Unalloyed steel General applications Easy to weld.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING The complete Unitor range of maintenance electrodes for shipboard use Product name Diameter Product no.C. Compound steel. Tanks.0 095-699322 LHT-318 N 2.0 095-699447 374 .5 095-699207 3.0 5. Specially suitable for vertical down welding High temp. Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel. 095-699165 GPO-302 N 2.0 4.2 095-699173 4.0 6.5 3.2 095-699348 4.01 LHL-319 N 2. General applications Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.0 095-699181 GPR-300 H 3. Joining stainless to steel.2 095-699314 4.0 095-699264 095-699272 095-699280 095-699298 095-699306 LHV-316 N 3.5 095-699330 3.2 4.2 095-683631 095-683649 LHR-320 N 2. Thin plate material General applications Double coated electrode.6 2.2 095-699397 095-699405 095-699413 23/14-322 N 2.5 3. all positions including vertical down Unalloyed steel Large welds in flat position Unalloyed & Low alloyed Steel.5 3.0 095-699231 095-699249 095-699256 095-699260 SPECIAL-303 N 2. easy to weld. Up to 2.5 3. Stainless steel overlays.0 095-699223 LH-314 N LHH-314 H 2.2 095-699215 4.

Difficult to weld steel Spring steel.5 096-699470 3. TENSILE-328 N 2.0 095-606454 095-606455 095-606456 ABRATECH-330 3.3 096-758474 8. Joining copper alloys to steel. high carbon steel.2 4. Chamfering/Gauging Air carbon arc gouging.wear resistant overlays. Joining copper alloys to steel.2 096-699496 096-699504 TINBRO-341 3.0 096-699520 NICKEL-333 N 2. drawn and castings Hard surfacing Wear resistant overlays Winchwheel pockets. wear resistant overlay against gauging abrasion.5 3.2 096-606459 ACA-384 6.0 096-758466 15x5 096-758458 4. cable drums. vanadium steel. Many layers.2 096-606457 ALUMIN-351 N 3. pressure and impact.0 096-606461 CH-2-382 3. Tolerant to high Carbon content. Oily cast iron. Exhaust valves.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Product name DUPLEX -325 N Diameter 2. Copper alloys Bronze and brass. Joining of duplex to stainless and steel. Chamfering/Gauging Using standard equipment.5 3.5 3. Hard surfacing High temp. Hard surfacing. tool steel. 095-699454 095-699462 Application onboard Duplex steel.2 096-606460 4.2 Product no.2 096-699488 NIFE-334 N 3. Application include welding work onboard dredgers and cement carriers. Joining cast iron to steel. 375 .2 096-606458 ALBRONZE-344 3. Gouing and weld removal using compressed air.2 096-699512 4.2 096-699538 WEARMAX -327 2.2 095-725275 IMPACT-329 S 3. Bronze and brass. Aluminium Rolled.01 Tech sheets for all products under section Consumables. Cast Iron High strength.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.01 376 .

model UWR-303 may be used as power source. copper coated carbon graphite electrodes. a compressed air source (5-7 bar). which is subsequently blown away by a jet of compressed air. – Removal of defective welds. The air carbon arc process leaves a clean surface. The method is therefore also useful for cutting stainless steel and other materials. The cables from the positive terminals are then lead to the worksite and connected at the electrode holder. – Removing defects on cast iron and removing excess metal. General uses include: – Forming welding grooves. a special electrode holder with air ducts.01 377 . – Cutting and perforating. The equipment consists of a welding power source suitable for air carbon arc gouging.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Air-Carbon-Arc Gouging The air-carbon-arc process utilizes the arc effect to melt the metal. free from slag. 4. cable and air hose. The power source In the Unitor range. which are difficult to cut by the oxyacetylene method. and further surface preparation is usually not necessary. See the description of UWI-400 for details on this. – Removing welding beads and burrs from plating. model UWI400 is a suitable power source for air-arc cutting having the special characteristic required for this process. Two welding machines may also be connected together in parallel by connecting the negative terminal from both machines to ground at the worksite. For smaller jobs using small size carbon electrodes.

– When the equipment is in regular use. – When the electrode is moved from right to left. which direct jets of compressed air parallel with the electrode to the molten pool. 4. – Check that the air supply is switched on and the air-valve on the holder is in the open position before striking the arc. make sure that molten metal does not fall directly on to the electrode holder. – Clean the electrode jaws occasionally with a steel brush to ensure good contact. – Keep the arc short. The jaws are fitted with nozzles. – Check connections for correct polarity. The holder will accept round and flat electrodes. but avoid touching the workpiece with the electrode once gouging has commenced. – Fit the electrode in the holder so that it protrudes approx. – Set the air pressure at 5 to 7 bar. – When gouging in the overhead position. – Check the current and remember that the high arc voltage will usually require a higher than usual setting on the amperage scale. 5–7 bar. 150 mm from the holder. Compressed air supply 400–900 l/min at a pressure of approx. Lubricate the 0-rings with special valve grease. cable connectors and a quick connector 30UPH for compressed air. gouging will be unsatisfactory. dismantle and clean the valve at least once a month and make sure that the air passage is not obstructed.01 Electrode holder for air carbon arc gouging 378 . If amperage is too low. Blow out the air line before connecting to the holder to remove any condensation. It is supplied complete with integrated compressed air hose/welding cable. General rules for air-carbon-arc gouging – Check that all screw connections are properly tightened to minimize any loss of effect.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING The electrode holder A special jaw-type electrode holder is used for air carbon arc gouging. the air outlets in the electrode jaws must be positioned on the right side of the electrode so that the main stream of the compressed air jet is lead beneath the electrode. The holder is also equipped with a cut-off valve for compressed air.

70mm2 Product no 196 528703 196 740969 Description Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging 600A with safety cable connector and air connector Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging 1600A with DIX-120 cable connector and air connector Max. Gouging torch Welding cable with Cable connector.5 m.01 379 . Electrode size 10 mm 19 mm 4. Length: 30 cm. Length 2.ELECTRODE WELDING AND GOUGING Torch for Air Carbon Arc Gouging with safety cable connector and air connector Air hose Length: 30 cm Dia: 3/8” Connector : 30UPH Monocable with swivel connection.

01 380 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .   388 Regulator & accessories . . . . . . .   395 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   400 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   393 Welding parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   386 TIG torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   383 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   384 Tungsten electrodes . . . . . . . . . .TIG WELDING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   398 Rods and Flux for TIG welding . . . . . .01 381 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   394 Welding techniques . . . .   382 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   391 Preparing the torch . . . . . . . . . . .

UWI-400 with TIG torch T-210 and 10 l Argon cylinder. and stainless. TIG torch and an accessories kit. with little need for finishing (no slag). smooth welds of high quality. 4. Apart from the welding machine. The TIG Equipment Unitor TIG equipment is easy and uncomplicated to use. heat resistant or acid resistant steels.TIG WELDING Introduction The TIG welding process is in many cases the only practical solution to several necessary repair jobs on board. The most frequently used applications are welding of aluminium-brass (Yorcalbro). intense and well directed heat supply which ensures deep penetration and small heat affected zones. • A stable. or with UWIinverters with lift-start. a complete TIG-equipment consists of a supply of argon gas with flow-meter. • Clean. but the process may be used with good results on all weldable materials. Cunifer. Among the unique advantages of using the argon gas protected TIG arc as heat source for welding are • An easy-to-learn method which may be used in all positions.02 382 . It may be used with UWR-rectifiers and scratch-start of the welding arc.

A welding rod is added to the pool to produce a weld build-up.TIG WELDING Basic principle Onboard applications normally require welding current up to max 150 ampere direct current (DC). The electrode tip is grinded to a point to constrict the arc to a single spot on the metal surface. The TIG welding. it will be necessary to regrind the electrode to a point. Remote control for welding current should be used.02 383 . basic principle. The Unitor Welding Rectifiers and inverters are well suited for TIG welding. but it will be gradually be consumed during ignition and to some extent during actual work. The arc and the electrode are shielded by an inert gas (usually Argon) that also surrounds the weld pool and prevents oxidation. – Torch connected to negative polarity of DC power source. In time. The Tungsten electrode will not melt despite very high temperatures. Cunifer and York Albro. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding (also called Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GTAW) is a process that is primarily used for high quality metals such as stainless steel. It is also used on thin walled plates and pipes up to 3 mm. Tungsten electrode Gas shield Filler rod All Unitor welding machines are supplied with characteristics especially suited for TlG. Equipment set-up: – Gas cylinder with supply to torch. The welding rod is normally made of a metal similar to the metal being welded. – Return clamp and return cable from workpiece to positive polarity 4. as it is a definite advantage to adjust current during welding. This is referred to as the burn-off rate. Heat is produced by an electric arc that is struck between a Tungsten electrode and the work piece.

heavier than air. A separate gas supply (cylinder. R510 regulator with flow meter in order to adjust gas flow in l/min.TIG WELDING Shielding gas Shielding gas is necessary for the TIG process. Argon is supplied in 10 or 50 litres 200 bar gas cylinders.02 Onboard a ship it is necessary to have a flow-meter that functions correctly also when positioned out of vertical. has several functions in the TIG process: –  To provide the atmosphere needed for ionization. It is necessary to adjust the gas flow and a regulator with flow-meter is therefore needed. –  To protect the hot tungsten electrode against the oxidizing effect of the air. It is a colourless and odourless inert gas. It is obtained from air which contains approximately 1% argon. For the TIG process. ensuring a stable arc and suitable heat transfer. The Unitor R510 gas flow regulator for argon is specially designed for this purpose and has a capacity of 0–32 l/min. 4. 384 . –  To protect the molten pool against contamination and oxidation from the air.95% is commonly used. –  To protect the hot end of the filler metal rod from oxidation. a purity of 99. –  To protect melt pool and electrode during cooling after the arc is broken. Argon has proven to be the most suitable gas for this purpose. regulator and hoses) should be used for this purpose. The gas which must be chemically inactive (inert). non-toxic and nonflammable. Note that when welding stainless steel it may also be necessary to use backing gas to protect the backside of the weld from the oxidizing effect of the air.

32mm x1/14” W24.5 psi 1 M3=35. Gross weight kg appr.3ft3 1kg = 2. Argon is an inert gas used as a shielding gas for TIG and MIG welding. odourless gas. Overall length mm appr. It is nontoxic and non-combustible.6 18 2.2 11 200 200 18 81 22 99 1000 1690 140 230 W24. 1kg =0. inlet filter and positive pressure cartridge 1 bar = 14. Outside diameter mm Valve outlet connection Valve type 1 nM3 = 1. Cylinder data Cylinder type: Product No: Application Colour Water capacity I Gas capacity kg Gas capacity nM3 Filling pressure bar Empty weight kg appr.TIG WELDING Shielding gas ARGON Ar Argon is a colourless.02 385 .611 nM3 E-10 E-50 For use on: Steel Stainless steel Aluminium Yorcalbro Cunifer 715-905565 715-905174 Welding Welding Grey Grey 10 50 3. slightly heavier than air.2 lbs 4.637 kg. primarily to protect the molten pool against contaminants in the atmosphere.32mm x1/14” Forged brass with bursting disc.

Tungsten electrodes 2. JlS Z3233) 4. EN 26848. AWS A5.” but when enclosed in a tungsten matrix. Unit 10 pcs 10 pcs Product no. especially as an environmentally friendly and technically better solution is already available. Unitor tungsten electrodes is alloyed with Lanthanum (colour code gold) and is sold in sturdy boxes of 10 pcs.12. Thorium is a so-called “a-emitter.TIG WELDING Tungsten electrodes Thoriated TIG welding electrodes with 2 % thorium oxide (colour code red) are currently the most widely used electrodes worldwide.02 Description Tungsten electrodes 1.6 mm. stored and disposed of without legal restrictions • Suitable for welding all materials • Better ignition performance than thorium alloyed type electrodes • Low burn off rate. Thorium is however a radioactive element and as such represents a potential danger to health and environment. the “a” radiation emitted externally is negligible. The new electrodes offer: • Environmentally friendly-no radioactive constituents • Can be transported. longer service life Standardised in national and international norms (ISO 6848. use and disposal of thoriated electrodes are expected.4 mm. It is expected that TlG-welding electrodes containing thorium will disappear from the market in the foreseeable future. In the near future. 197-674710 197-674736 386 . more stringent legal regulations regarding production. This problem can occur during welding (vapours) as well as when grinding the electrode tip (grinding dust). The danger to the welder arises when thorium oxide gets into the respiratory canals.

70-0.20 Th02 Rare earths COLOUR CODE Black Gold Blue Grey Green White Yellow Red Purple Orange Turquoise REMARKS Lanthanum AC and DC Cerium DC low current Pure Tungsten AC only Zirconium AC only Thorium DC only   WP AC and DC low current Correct Grinding of Tungsten electrodes for DC welding The angle of grinding depends on the welding current. If the electrode has too long a point compared to the welding current.20 Th02 3. Too short a point. give an unstable arc and insufficient heat consentration.80-2. Grinding must be done length wise.5 La203 1.80-2.TIG WELDING Overview of Tungsten electrodes   CODE   WL10   WL15   WL20   WC20   WZ8   WT10   WT20   WT30   WT40   WS OXIDE ADDITIVES Wt.20 La203 1.80-2.90-1.02 387 Wrong grinding 15–20° xx x Correct grinding orrect Out of Too short Too long C point centre a point a point .% 0.20 La203 1.20 Ce02 0. x 4. straight towards the point.80-3.20 Th02 2.20 Th02 1.90 Zr02 0.80-4. the point will melt and contaminate the weld with tungsten deposit. Wrong grinding will result in an unstable arc and that bits of tungsten will brake off and fall into the weld deposit during welding.90-1.

02 388 . the total length of the head. Note that TIG gas nozzles are brittle and may break if dropped or treated carelessly. high-temperature non-conductive silicone coating. A remote amperage control can be fixed on the TIG torch by velcro straps in order to adjust amperage during welding. ceramic cups. A screw type gas valve opens fully at only 3/4 turn. Separate welding cable and gas hose (8) ensure that extensions may be easily connected. To ensure full electrical insulation. Unitor is supplying nozzles of aluminium oxide (AL203). The torches are rated at 150A and 200A at 60% duty cycle. but the accessories kit is recommended as it contains necessary spares. The torches are supplied with 4 m cable/hose package. Used with the short back cap (1). ensuring accessibility in narrow spaces. The replaceable heat-shield (3) in front of the torch head is made from teflon and has the combined function of forming a gas tight seal for the alumina nozzle (6) and of deflecting heat from the torch head.TIG WELDING TIG TORCH General description The Unitor TIG torches are lightweight torches well adapted to general applications onboard. These nozzles will stand for higher temperatures than the ordinary Accessories The torches are supplied complete for use. The handle ensures a secure grip and reduces heat transfer to the welder’s hand. Cable and gas hose are protected by a heat and spatter resistant sheeting to ensure long working life. As standard. is less than 10 cm. which are recognized by a light brown color. Being gas cooled. including nozzle. 4. the head of the torch is produced with a resilient. The gas connection fits directly onto the Unitor argon regulator or to the standard right hand threaded screw couplings for gas hoses. recognizable by the pink colour. switches the gas on and off. the torches have low weight and are easy to operate for repair and maintenance work in all positions.

including short back cap. collets. for UWI-200.4mm    3 pcs Collet body 1. Product no Unit – 197-150000 pcs – 197-160010 pcs – 197-200000 pcs – 197-607810 pcs Spares 1 197-551192 pcs 2 197-551200 pcs 197-613767 pcs 3 4 197-551168 pcs 4 197-551150 pcs 5 197-551184 pcs 5 197-551176 pcs 6 197-551135 pcs 6 197-551127 pcs 7 197-674710 pck 7 197-674736 pck Description TIG-torch T-150 complete with DIX 25 incI. -201.TIG WELDING Parts list and order numbers 2 1 4 3 5 8 6 7 Pos. 389 . TIG-torch T-161 with 4 m cable.4mm    1 pcs Alumina nozzle 6    2 pcs Alumina nozzle 7    2 pcs Tungsten electrodes 1. collet bodies. euro-connector and torch mounted trigger for UWW-161MP TIG-torch T-200 complete with DIX 70. -202. Short back-cap Long back-cap Heat shield Collet 1.6mm    3 pcs CoIlet 2.02 Accessories kit consists of: Short back cap    1 pcs Heat-shield    1 pcs ColIet 1. no. -320 and -400 Accessories kit for Unitor TIG-torches. spare heatshield. electrode and nozzle.6 mm alloyed for DC welding Tungsten electrode (10 pcs) 2.6mm Collet 2.6 mm CoIlet body 2.4 mm Alumina nozzle 6 Alumina nozzle 7 Tungsten electrode (10 pcs) 1. incI. for UWI-150.4 mm alloyed for DC welding 4.6 mm    1 pcs Collet body 2.4mm Collet body 1. electrode and nozzle.6 mm alloyed for DC TIG welding    3 pcs Accessories kit for TIG-torches. nozzles and electrodes. -203.

Remote amp control 8 m Remote amp control cable extension 25 m 191-670414 191-670422 This remote set up might also be used for stick electric welding Remote amp set up for TIG-torch T-200 complete with DIX 70 used on UWR-303 1 2 4.TIG WELDING Remote amp set up for TIG torch T-200 complete with DIX 70 (197-200000) when used on UWI-400 1 1. 390 . 2.02 1. Remote control unit Remote control cable 10 m Remote amp control cable extension 25 m 191-676916 191-676924 191-645408 This remote set up might also be used for stick electrode welding.

Combined with the Flowcontrol needle valve used at the gas inlet of the machine or the wire feeder full flow adjustment is available at the work place regardless of distance to the gas cylinder/gas outlet. Also recommended are soft-skin TIG welding gloves. 10 pcs Spare parts for regulator: Flow meter gauge for Argon 0-32 L/min Contents gauge for regulator Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for use with machine/ wire feeder TIG Gloves for TIG and Gas welding Unit pcs mtr pcs pck pcs pcs pcs pcs 6 pairs Product no 197-510010 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 171-550210 171-550178 197-597328 197-597310 197-632795 4. They give good protection of the hands while they ensure easy control of the torch and eventual welding rod. 3/8" RH threads Clip 8-14 mm for hose. Product description Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min Gas hose 1/4" black. The flow rate in l/min is adjusted on the regulator Actual gas flow at the TIG or wire torch may deviate from what is set on the gas outlet station or on the cylinder regulator.02 391 . The Flowcontrol meter measures actual flow at the torch nozzle and is a useful tool for the operator. In addition standard protective equipment for arc welding should be used.TIG WELDING Regulator & Accessories The R510 regulator with flow meter supply a steadly stream of shielding gas to the torch. for shielding gases Hose joint for 1/4" hose. especially if long gas hoses are used.

Gas hose Hose Joint Hose Clip. Pcs. Pr. KIT Ar. Pcs. needle valve pcs. Control Pr. .A. Flow contr. 6 pairs TIG WELDING   UWI-150 A 197-150000 191-719575 197-607810 197-510010 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 196-632794 197-597310 197-597328   UWW-161 TP 197-160010 N. Pr. Pcs.02 392 Flow contr.4. m Pr. TIG   Machine Pr. pck of 10 gloves Pr. Pcs. TIG Equipment & Accessories for Unitor Welding Machine Range   Welding TIG Torch Remote Acces. UWI-320 TP 197-200000 197-670414   UWI-400 197-200000 191-670414   Remote control for UWI-400 must be added if UWI-400 is to function in TIG mode. Pcs. Pr.A. Pr. Regl. meter at Nozzle pcs.   UWI-203 TP 197-200000 N. Pcs. Pcs.

and back cap are properly tightened. Check if the work at hand makes it necessary to use the short back cap.6 mm (1/16”) electrode. open torch valve 3/4 turn and adjust the regulator to a flow of 9-10 I/mm. nozzle. Let the gas flow a few minutes so that the whole gas system is thoroughly purged. For welding above 100A it is recommended to use the large nozzle 7 (ø 11mm) and 2. collet body. 6 3– mm Check electrode protrusion 4.02 Connection to Gas Supply Connect the gas hose to the argon regulator. with inert gas. heat shield. collet and collet body. together with the 1. the small nozzle 6 (ø 9mm) should be used. and the return cable shall be connected to the welding rectifier’s plus pole. collet and collet body. If additional gas supply for backing gas is needed. If the welding current is to be 100A or lower. it will be impossible to adjust to correct gas flow for the torch. Ensure that collet body. Open gas cylinder valve fully. Connection to Welding Machine Two-thirds of the total heat developed in the TIG arc is developed on the positive side of the arc. and the nozzle and torch head may be damaged.4 mm (3/32”) electrode. This will prevent contamination of the welds. which is bombarded by the electron flow. By taking backing gas from the same regulator that supplies the torch. Then set correct flow for the job at hand and close the torch valve. For current setting see table on welding parameters. Ensure that correct and unharmed nozzle. 393 . the tungsten electrode tip will melt.TIG WELDING Preparing the torch Always disconnect the torch from the power supply before changing nozzles or adjusting the electrode. The TIG torch must therefore always be connected to the negative pole of the welding machine (straight polarity). this should be taken from a separate gas supply. For flow setting see table on welding parameters. If available. The electrode shall protrude 3-6mm outside the gas nozzle. If connected wrong. and that the electrode is properly pointed. and make sure all connections are properly tightened. This is easily done. collet and electrode are used. connect the remote control to the welding machine and have the current regulator available at the work site. The return clamp should preferably be fastened directly to the work piece. by disconnecting the Dix Connector at the end of the torch cable.

4mm-3/32” no.6mm-1/16” 1.7 (11mm) 2.2.5mm 50-120A 7 l/min 45° 1.4mm-3/32” 4.02 394 . The material thicknesses given in the table below for the different current ranges are indicative.6mm-1/16” no. electrode-   Gas flow.6mm-1/16” no.6mm-1/16” 1.   Material thickness   Steels and Stainless steels   Material thickness   Copper alloys   Welding current.5mm 100-180A 8 l/min 60° 2.4mm-3/32” 2.5mm <1. nozzle and gas flow setting. Actual current needed to form a proper molten pool will also partly depend on the size of the workpiece.5 .6mm-1/16” 1.7 (11mm) 2. and the amount of preheating used.6 (9mm) 1.   DC.4mm-3/32” no.4mm-3/32” 2.   diameter of electrode   Collet body.5mm 150-250A 9 l/min 60° 2. size   diameter of opening   Nozzle number and   diameter of opening   Tungsten   electrode size <1.0-1.5-2.4mm 1.0mm 20-70A 6 l/min 35° 1.5mm 1.5 .TIG WELDING Welding Parameters It is necessary to decide approximate range of welding current needed for the job at hand to select correct electrode.4mm-3/32” >4mm >2. the type of joint.6 (9mm) 1.   pure argon   Electrode   point angle   Collet size.6mm-1/16” 2.

02 Raise the torch 395 . Gradualy tilt up. (3/4 turn from closed). If current remote control is available. Gradually tilt up the welding torch until the tungsten electrode tip touches the workpiece. Note: To be absolutely certain that contamination is avoided the arc may be started on a copper plate placed on the workpiece. adjust to low or minimum current. Adjust welding current to correct setting and hold the arc steady until a molten pool is formed. Ensure that the gas valve is fully open. Check electrode and electrode stick-out.the arc ignites and increase in intensity to the set amperage. Do not touch the electrode unless the DIX connector is disconnected. The lift arc function 2–3 mm Place nozzle on location. purge the gas system before setting correct gas flow on the regulator. Striking the Arc Check that the electrode is properly pointed and protrudes 3-6mm from the nozzle. This will trigger the lift arc function. Place the gas nozzle in a tilted angle on the ignition location so that there is a gap of 2-3 mm between the tungsten electrode tip and the workpiece. and that sufficient gas is available from the gas supply. Raise the torch and lift it into the normal position. and then moved to the beginning of the bead. check that the torch is connected to the negative (-) polarity of a DC constant current power source. If necessary. Open the argon cylinder valve and the torch valve. 4. Connect the equipment and purge the gas system.TIG WELDING Welding Techniques Before welding starts.

or additional filler material may be used. which will contaminate the weld. The hot end of the rod shall be kept close to the melt pool and protected by the argon gas to avoid oxidation. contrary to what happens in gas welding. Hold the torch at an angle of approximately 75° to the workpiece. Vertical welding upwards with the forehand technique.02 Remove the welding rod from the pool. The arc may be used just to melt the edges of the joint together.TIG WELDING Welding TIG welding can be carried out in all welding positions and the procedure is largely similar to the gas welding forehand welding technique. the heat input may be adjusted through the whole process by adjusting the current. but in such a way that it does not touch the electrode or enter the arc between electrode tip and workpiece. Vertical welding is normally done upwards. Hold the rod at an angle of approximately 30° to the workpiece. Finishing the bead. Filler material may be added continuously or in a slightly dipping motion. and keep it in place for 15 to 20 seconds with the gas flowing to protect the molten pool and the electrode during the cooling-off period. Adjust welding current to minimum and rapidly lift the torch so the arc is broken. If welding current remote control is used. 4. Use of Filler Material Introduce the rod to the molten pool. Note that a longer arc will increase the heat input and a shorter arc will reduce it. Finishing the Bead 30° Welding with the forehand technique. Lower the torch again to approximately 5mm distance from electrode tip to bead. 396 . Keep an arc length of approximately 3–6mm.

02 Strong draft may blow away the argon shield. The electrode must be reground to the correct point and replaced in the torch. – That the gas nozzle is not defective or polluted. or by the electrode being polluted. – That wind or draft does not blow away the shielding gas. – That welding groove and filler rod are clean. – That the correct size gas nozzle is being used. or if the gas is shut off before the electrode has cooled down to below red glowing temperature. If there is little contamination the electrode may be cleaned by striking an arc against a copper plate and letting it burn for a few seconds. by polluted argon.TIG WELDING Contaminated Tungsten Electrode The tungsten electrode may be contaminated through contact with the molten pool or the filler metal rod. – That air does not enter into the gas hose. Check the following: – That the gas hose has been properly purged. Clean the electrode by striking an arc against a copper plate. If the electrode is heavily contaminated the welding current supply must be disconnected. It will also be contaminated (by oxidation) if the shielding gas supply is not opened before the arc is struck. 4. resulting in contaminated weld deposit. 397 . – That the gas flow has been correctly set. by insufficient cleaning of the weld area or of the filler rod. Remember gas supply. Contaminated Weld Pool This can be caused by insufficient or excessive supply of argon to the torch. – That the electrode is held at the correct angle. the electrode removed and the contaminated part broken off. – That the argon supply is not contaminated (try changing to fresh cylinder).

4 2.4 2.4 2 3 4 4.6 2.6 1.4 1.6 1.TIG WELDING Edge preparation Stainless steel Material thickness mm 1 Type of joint Welding current A Horizontal 25–60 60 40 55 80–110 110 80 105 120–200 130 110 125 120–200 185 180 Vertical 23–55 55 37 51 75–100 100 75 98 110–185 120 100 115 110–185 170 165 Overhead 22–54 54 36 50 70–100 100 70 95 110–180 115 100 110 110–180 165 160 Tungsten electrode mm ø 1.6 1.6 1.4 2.4 2.6 1.02 398 .6 1.6 2.4 2.

as this is insufficient to oxidize stainless steel. Horizontal 90–100 100–115 100–115 115–130 170–200 190–220 190–220 Tungsten electrode mm ø 1.6 1. This restricted volume is then purged with a suitable inert gas.6 1. 2 3 In order to avoid surface oxidation. Yorcalbro) Material thickness mm 1 Type of joint Welding current. pipe Gas in Out trough free opening The most common gas to use is Argon or Formier gas (90% N2 and 10% H2) 399 . The usual way to achieve this is to seal off a small length of the pipe on each side of the weld groove.6 2. Backing gas tool for larger pipe dia.4 NB: When welding Stainless steel and Cunifer.TIG WELDING Edge preparation Copper alloys (Cunifer.6 1.02 Backing gas tool for small dia. sufficiently to remove all oxygen.4 2. pipes of stainless steel must be purged with inert gas sufficiently to remove all oxygen inside the pipe in the weld area.4 2. backing gas must be used inside piping. Gas in Gas out 4. The ideal concentration of oxygen is below 25 ppm.

No flux is used in this process. This will improve bonding and penetration. This type of alloy is widely used in seawater resistant piping.0 mm   ICUNI-30-239 097-335547   2. Joint surfaces and adjacent areas must be thoroughly cleaned before welding. Application areas are similar to the coated electrode 18/8-321 N in 1. especially on the inside of e.TIG WELDING Rods and Flux for TIG welding Welding rods     Product Product no. Can also be used for welding the root run in thick wall piping where the rest of the groove is filled up using the duplex electrode Duplex-325 N.7 mm.0 mm   ICROMO-216 097-305532   2.4 mm Flux     IFLUX-238 PF 097-603092 4.02 Unitor flux is supplied in paste form for use with the TIG rod Ialbro-237 MF for welding of Yorcalbro. 18/8 Mo is a wire for welding stainless and acid resistant steel.   IMS-210 097-604850   2. The silisium content of the wire ensures smooth transfer and good profile of the bead. Rods with diameter 2. pipes.0mm are most used for TIG welding. Gas or tensile strength 560 Mpa. The flux is complementary to the flux found in the serrations of the lalbro TIG rod. Yorcalbro pipes with a diameter less than 4” which can be joined by means of an overlap joint (capillary action) may be silver brazed using AG-60 combined with Albro Flux. it is strongly recommended to use additional IFLUX on both sides of the joint. IALBRO is a flux-coated filler rod for TIG welding of aluminiumbrass pipes (Yorcalbro). Description Unitor IMS is a welding rod for unalloyed and low alloyed steels. lcromo is a chromium-molybdenum alloyed welding rod for heat resistant steels types 10 Cr Mo-910 and 13 Mo-44 found in boiler tubes and other heat resistant components. Typical applications are welding flanges on pipes. pipe joints.g. In TIG welding of joints it is strongly recommended that I-Flux 238 be applied to both sides of the joint on the inside. A welding rod for TIG welding of copper nickel alloys. Iduplex-222 is at TIG rod for welding Duplex stainless steel. but with the advantages TIG can offer. The deposit offers elevated mechanical strength and toughness reistance to stress corrosion cracking. Flux residues must be washed off with water after welding. This is also an advantage for the root bead when welding thicker sheets with prepared V-grooves. Small diameter Cunifer pipes can be joined by means of overlap joints (capillary action) using AG-60 silver solder combined with AG-60 Flux. While the flux on the rod is sufficient for the actual welding zone. for example Cunifer pipes. 400 . When welding very thin sheets and pipes (less than 2mm) it is always an advantage to use the TIG process.0 mm   IDUPLEX-222 097-725309   2. It is an advantage to use TIG welding in thin sheets and pipe walls. patching leaking pipes etc. Duplex to Mild steel and Duplex to Stainless steel.5 mm   IALBRO-237 MF 097-519736   2.5 mm   18/8 Mo-221 097-602979   2. IFLUX is supplied in 250 gram tins. Tech sheets for all above products under section Consumables.

02 401 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

02 402 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .03 403 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   428 Preparation for welding .   434 Wires for wire welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   405 Shielding gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WIRE WELDING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   431 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   411 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   420 Regulator & accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   426 Application areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   412 UWW-161 TP . . . . . . . . . . . .   429 Welding technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   414 SC 12 RC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   438 4. . . . . .   404 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The shielding gas is necessary to prevent oxygen from the air oxidising the pool. The gas has the same function as the coating on an electrode producing a smoke shield. The advantages of wire welding are: • Increased deposition rate (Weight of weld deposited per hour). The wire melts and is transferred to the pool through the arc that is shielded by a gas.WIRE WELDING Introduction In Wire Welding a wire from a reel is fed through a welding torch passing a contact tip supplying the welding current.03 Return cable Gun and cable assembly Contact tip Weld Shielding gas 404 . Cylinder with shielding gas Spool. reel or coil wire Wire feed mechanism 4. • Increased operating factor (The time that the welder actually is welding).

Carbon Dioxide is suitable for arc shielding when welding low carbon and low-alloy steel. titanium. GMAW – Gas metal arc welding uses a solid wire. copper. Metal transfer with the GMAW process is by one of two methods: Spray Arc or Short Circuiting Arc Flux Tubular wire Flux tubular wire. In MIG welding we use inert gases like Argon. nickel alloys and highly alloyed steel. magnesium. Gas mixtures of inert gases and reactive gases (Argon + CO2) are regarded as MIG welding. Solid wire 4. Depending on shielding gas the process can further be divided into: MIG welding (Metal Inert Gas) and MAG welding (Metal Active Gas).03 405 .WIRE WELDING Basic principle The process can roughly be divided into two distinctive methods depending on the wire being fed. stainless steel. GMAW – Gas metal arc welding and FCAW – Flux cored arc welding. Pure inert gas shielding is essential for welding alloys of aluminium. In MAG welding we use a reactive gas like Carbon Dioxide (CO2) to shield the pool.

and also for bridging large gaps in poorly aligned joints. The metal transfer is in the form of a continuous spray of molten metal droplets from the wire tip through the arc to the surface of the melted pool. This current level depends on the shielding gas. the alloy and the size of the welding wire. This sequence repeats itself continuously approximately 100 times per second. The short-arc method is therefore excellently suited for sheet metal welding. heating wire tip and base material until the wire feed speed again pushes the wire into contact with the work piece.03 Short circuiting (short arc welding) 406 . Short Arc is also called short circuit transfer. As this drop is melted off the arc is re-established. but is instead Spray-arc welding transferred through rapid short circuits between wire and work piece. At currents below this level the steady spray will consist of gradually larger droplets until a spray no longer can be maintained. providing a concentrated arc with low heat input to the work piece and rapidly solidifying deposit. melting of a drop of filler material. To obtain a spray-arc it is necessary to have welding current above a certain minimum value. As a guideline a 0. The deposit rate is high.8 mm solid steel wire will provide a spray arc if the welding current is above approximately 150 Ampere.WIRE WELDING Spray-Arc The spray-Arc is recognized by a relatively intense arc between the welding wire and the work piece. and this arc type is recommended for material thickness above 3 mm. the transition current. and the short-arc is established. The wire touches the work piece and the welding current increases immediately. 4. The rapidly solidifying deposit also makes short-arc welding easy in any welding position. The arc is almost spatter free and provides deep penetration in the base material. (consisting of minimum 80% Argon or Helium). No metal is transferred through the arc with this technique.

In flux cored arc welding the heat is obtained from an arc between a continuous flux cored wire and the work.03 407 . The main problem with a continuous coated electrode is to find suitable means of making electrical contact with the core wire and coiling it without cracking the brittle coating. The self-shielded flux-cored arc welding process is a development from the shielded metal arc welding. The versatility and maneuverability of stick electrodes in manual welding stimulated efforts to mechanize the process allowing a continuous wire electrode to be used.WIRE WELDING Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Self-Shielded. The "inside-out" construction of the flux cored wire solved both problems. The need for a continuous arc welding electrode led to the development of the self shielding flux cored wire where the material needed for shielding is contained inside the core of a hollow wire. The outcome of these efforts was the development of the semiautomatic and full-automatic processes for welding with continuous flux-cored tubular "wires". The flux provides gas shielding for the arc and a slag covering of the weld deposit. A continuous electrode would eliminate the welding time lost in changing electrodes and would eliminate the material lost in electrode stubs. Continuous electrical contact can be made with the wires at any distance from the arc and they can be coiled and packaged on any of the standard spools used for filler wire. Such wires contain in their cores the ingredients for fluxing and deoxidizing molten metal and Power source wire spool/ reel return cable welding cable return clamp wire feeder wire liner welding gun the arc The arc: contact tip insulation nozzle cored wire shielding smoke base metal travel metal transfer molten weld metal solidified slag over weld metal 4.

semiautomatic welding with flux-cored wires is equivalent to manual shielded metal-arc welding with an electrode several feet long instead of one of a few inches. However. the self-shielded Knurled wire feeder rolls to be used flux-cored process does not depend on gas shielding. Wires for self-shielded flux cored arc welding are available in standard sizes from 1 mm to 4 mm in mild steel and in some low alloy steel. insulation nozzle instead of gas nozzle etc. but it is correspondingly light in weight and easy to maneuver. Extensions from 6 mm to 30 mm are used depending upon the application. rather than being surrounded by them. Also note that selfshielded flux cored arc welding takes place with welding torch connected to minus (-) polarity. as both are heated. In the flux-core arc welding process.03 408 . it can operate satisfactorily outdoors where strong air currents are encountered. as opposed to the gas-shielded flux cored process. which form a protective gas covering of the weld pool. the operator activates the mechanism that feeds the wire to the arc. When molten weld metal is transferred across the arc. 4. This means that some oxidation and nitrogen pickup may occur before the metal enters the weld pool. In essence. By the press of the trigger completing the welding circuit.WIRE WELDING for generating shielding gases and vapors and slag coverings. The only difference being the weld metal of the electrode surrounding the shielding and fluxing chemicals. partial shielding is provided by vaporization of ingredients of the flux. it may not be completely covered by molten flux since the metal surrounds the flux. Welding equipment for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) can in most cases also be used for Self Shielded Flux Cored Arc Welding with small modifications (wire feeder rolls should be knurled. The self-shielded flux cored process is characterized by long wire extension beyond the contact tip (stickout). He uses a welding gun instead of an electrode holder.).

Tubular electrode wire is used as in the self-shielded process. In this respect. The wire feeder and power source is similar to the equipment used with the self-shielded flux-cored wire process.WIRE WELDING Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Gasshielded. the process has similarities to the self-shielded flux-cored wire process. deoxidizing. It metal transfer gives high deposition rates. The guns and welding heads for semiautomatic and full-automatic welding with the gas-shielded processes are out of necessity more complex than those used in selfshielded flux-cored welding. rather than for the generation of protective vapours. and the tubular wires are classified by the AWS along with wires used in the self-shielded process. scavenging. The process is adaptable to a wide variety of joints and gives the capability for all-position welding. regulator w/flow meter shielding gas cylinder gas hose wire spool/reel return cable welding cable wire liner welding gun the arc power source wire feeder return clamp The arc: gas nozzle solidified metal contact tip shielding gas 4. high deposition efficiencies.5% Oxygen. Although CO2 is generally used as the shielding gas. The gas-shielded flux-cored process is used for welding mild steel.03 base metal 409 . On the other hand. but the ingredients in its core are for fluxing. may also be used. Radiographic quality welds are easily produced. The gas-shielded flux-cored process may be looked upon as a hybrid between self-shielded flux-cored arc welding and gas metal-arc welding. mixtures of 20% CO2 -80% Argon and 95% Argon . Space passages must be included for the flow of gases. and high operating factors. the process is similar to gas metal-arc welding in as much as a gas is separately applied to act as an arc shield. lowalloy steels and stainless steel. and the weld metal with mild and low-alloy steels has good ductility and toughness. and gas metal arc welding with only small modifications (wire feed rolls should be knurled). additional space is required. and sometimes alloying additions. Note that the welding gun should be connected to the positive terminal (+). If the gun is watercooled.

as the mechanical adjustment of feed speed will be to slow to maintain a proper short-arc. By adjusting the filler material feed speed to exactly the same speed as it melts. Constant voltage power source. but cannot be used constant current characteristic is for any other arc welding processes. Alternative 2 above is therefore not applicable. By adjusting the amperage to exactly the value needed to melt the quantity of filler material. 4. once the arc voltage and thereby the arc length has been selected.WIRE WELDING Maintaining the arc. The constant voltage Constant current power source characteristic is also suitable for If a traditional power source with spray-arc welding. and whatever filler material introduced into the melt pool. The basic principle of all arc welding is that an electric arc melts the surface of the work piece (joint). A wire feeder. which automatically adjusts the filler material feed speed (alternative 1 above) is therefore required. it will supply relatively constant current regardless of arc length. It is not. while the power source provides constant current. thereby source will automatically maintain the demanding less from the welder's skill arc length by adjusting the amperage but more from the equipment. possible to use such a combination if welding in the short-arc area is required. This can be obtained in two ways: 1. the arc length and thereby the arc voltage must be kept at a constant value to obtain a uniform weld. and especially when flux cored wires are used. The combination of such a wire feeder and a constant current power source is a fully acceptable solution when welding in the spray-arc area. The constant In GMAW welding both parameters voltage characteristic of the power are guided by the equipment. according to need. In processes where the arc is established between a filler material which is continuously fed into the arc. and the work piece. When welding with coated electrodes (SMAW) the welder's task is to feed the electrode according to alternative 1. used. To maintain a proper short-arc requires the combination of a constant voltage power source and a constant speed wire feeder. however.03 410 . 2.

C02 mixtures are used as shielding gas in MlG/ MAG welding processes. For use on: Aluminium Yorcalbro Cunifer Cylinder data Cylinder type: Product No: Application Colour Water capacity I Gas capacity kg Gas capacity nM3 Filling pressure bar Empty weight kg appr.598 nM3 M-10 M-50 715-905573 715-905581 Welding Welding Grey/Yellow Grey/Yellow 10 50 3.32mm x1/14” Forged brass with bursting disc.2 11 200 200 18 81 22 99 1000 1690 140 230 W24.32mm x1/14” Forged brass with bursting disc. 1kg =0. inlet filter and positive pressure cartridge 1 bar = 14.2 10. Gross weight kg appr. Overall length mm appr. Gross weight kg appr. Each cylinder is labelled with the correct contents identification label.WIRE WELDING Shielding gas ARGON Ar Argon is a colourless. gas mix tube and positive pressure Cartridge.32mm x1/14” W24.2 lbs 4. The 80 % Argon and 20 % C02 mixture is suitable for welding all un.3ft3 1kg = 2. slightly heavier than air.32mm x1/14” W24.5 psi 1 M3=35. primarily to protect the molten pool against contaminants in the atmosphere.03 411 .9 200 200 18 81 21 98 1000 1690 140 230 W24.6 18 2. 1kg =0. 1 bar = 14.637 kg.571 kg. odourless gas. Outside diameter mm Valve outlet connection Valve type 1 nM3 = 1. Argon is an inert gas used as a shielding gas for TIG and MIG welding.1 2.and low alloyed carbon steels and stainless steels.3ft3 1kg = 2. Overall length mm appr.611 nM3 E-10 E-50 715-905565 715-905174 Welding Welding Grey Grey 10 50 3. The mixture gives a very stable molten pool together with optimum energytransmission. Outside diameter mm Valve outlet connection Valve type 1 nM3 = 1.5 psi 1 M3=35. For use on: Stainless steel Steel Cylinder data Cylinder type: Product No: Application Colour Water capacity I Gas capacity kg Gas capacity nM3 Filling pressure bar Empty weight kg appr.2 lbs ARGON . It is nontoxic and non-combustible.4 17.CO2 MIXTURES Argon .

preventing further current supply. 10. feeding wire through the torch. first to avoid that the wire sticks in the weld deposit. As the practical length of the torch cable package with wire feed liner is limited to 3–4 m (especially when welding aluminium) these units are limited to applications close to the machine. In a welding sequence these elements function as follows when the welder points the torch towards the starting point of the weld and pushes the torch control switch: • Gas valve opens to supply gas.03 . due to the small wire spools. 412 • The gas valve closes. • Wire feed motor starts. Depending on the area of use the elements of the Wire Welding equipment are arranged in different ways. Wire feed motor with drive rolls. Wire feed control. SC 12 RC Wire feeder principle The most flexible system is to include elements 2 .   8. and the other elements either in a control box or in the power source. and the arc is extinguished. secondly to ensure gas shield of deposit and wire tip until sufficient cooling has been obtained. Gas valve (solenoid). more or less suited to onboard use. and control switch.   2. often even with the gas cylinder mounted on the assembly.   4. Power supply to wire feeder and gas valve. Wire spool. Torch with contact tip for supplying current to the nozzle. 4. • After a brief moment the contactor opens. preventing further gas supply. • Contactor closes to supply welding current from the power source to the torch contact tip and wire. When welding is to be stopped the welder releases the torch control switch and the following sequence of events take place: • Wire feed motor stops. gas hose.   9.9 except gas cylinder regulator in a compact portable wire feeder unit. Gas regulator with flow adjustment. but limits the selection of wires to mainly aluminium alloys. 11. Gas cylinder   5. Welding current switch (contactor). control circuit cables and wire feed tube (liner). The sequence of events and the time delay between them is essential for a successful termination of the weld. and welding proceeds.WIRE WELDING Equipment The basic elements in a complete equipment package for the Wire Welding process are:   1. Power source with amperage or voltage control.   3.   7. Torch cable package containing welding current cable.   6. This is a flexible system regarding distance from the power source. Another system is built around very small wire spools. Unitor Wire Feeder SC 12 RC is based on this principle and requires only welding current as power supply. incorporating elements 7–11 in the torch. which has the ability to utilize power sources with constant voltage characteristic. Most commonly used are constant voltage power sources where all elements 1-9 are assembled in one unit. • The arc starts as the wire touches the workpiece.

4. including short-arc welding if constant voltage power is available. 1 phase. 413 . The unit is therefore also able to use self-shielding flux cored wires.03 UWW-161TP principle.WIRE WELDING With a capacity of 500A at 100% duty cycle and selection possibility (DC+ or-to wire) this system covers the complete range of continuous wire welding applications for onboard repair and maintenance. UWW-161TP wire welder principle Short-arc welding does not normally require amperages above 100-150A. and covers all thin plate and light construction welding applications. which is obtainable in portable units. supply current from DC-power source. UWI-400 Wire feeder UWF-SC 12 RC SC 12 RC principle. 50/60 Hz. supply current 230 V. The Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161TP includes polarity selection possibility.

1 phase 230V 16A for use anywhere on board. only 12kg net weight. Accessories) 1 phase 230V 50-60Hz 16A slow fuses 10V 10-26V 2-13m/min 5-140A 0-3sec 460x230x325mm 12. step-less adjustment of both wire speed and welding voltage through whole adjustment range provide optimal settings for any wire Technical Data 4.2kg 230 460 414 . • Fully portable. • Automatic hot start and arc force control provides easy start and a stable arc in MMA modus • Protection against both overload and high input voltage. • Individual. • 2-step or 4-step trigger function for wire welding operator comfort • 2-step TIG-torch control with Liftarc start and adjustable gas postflow. with indicator light on the front panel.03 325 Primary voltage Recommended fuse size Maximum touchable open circuit voltage Voltage adjustment range for wire welding Wire speed adjustment range for wire welding Welding current range for MMA (Stick) electrode welding Postflow gas adjustment range Length x Width x Height Weight (ex. prevent machine damage from wrong primary voltage and overheating. 5 and 10. TIG and wire welding • Select between softer or crisper arc on the front panel to optimize the wire welding arc. Conforms with IEC/EN 60974-1. • Safe in use. • Polarity selection allows for wire welding with all wires including self-shielding wires without shielding gas.WIRE WELDING Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161 TP Multi Process Welding Inverter for Stick. • CE-marked. Voltage reduction function reduces touchable Open Circuit Voltage to10V.

fitted on the welding machine • Gas hose socket with nut and hose clamp for connection to gas inlet • Wire welding torch with 3 m cable and connector complete for 0.03 - + Connect the return cable to the other socket Connect the return clamp directly to the work piece 415 .cable connection sockets. Product no. 193 161161 Application set-up for Stick Electrode welding Select MMA (stick) welding: In this mode a constant current characteristic for MMA welding is set and the terminals are live (10V). Select polarity Disconnect the TIG/MIG polarity selection cable from the +/. An automatic hot-start enables easy arc start.5 m primary cable with plug.8 mm wire • Electrode holder for MMA (stick) electrode welding with 3 m cable and Dix 25 connector • 3 m return cable with Dix 25 connector and return clamp • Adjustable carrying strap • Instruction manual Unitor Wire Welder UWW-161 TP. An automatic anti-stick function will cut the power if the electrode should get stuck in the melt-pool so that it can be removed without damage.WIRE WELDING Ordering Information UWW-161 TP is supplied with: • 2. And an automatic arc-force maintains a smooth and stable arc by momentarily increasing the current if bigger droplets in the arc tends to produce short circuits. Connect the electrode holder to the correct polarity for the electrode to be used 4.

Lift the torch slowly. The supply of gas will continue for the selected post-gas time. one ear for ¼” hose. for shielding gas Hose clamps.6mm 416 . for Argon and Argon/CO2 Flow control meter for use at torch nozzle Flow control needle valve for gas flow adjustment at the gas inlet to the machine Gas hose ¼” black.03 TIG-Torch T-161 with 4 m cable. - + Release the button (step 2) in order to start the slope-down function that gradually reduces the welding current to zero.WIRE WELDING Application set-up for TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding Select TIG welding In this mode a constant current characteristic for TIG welding is set Select polarity Connect the TIG/MIG voltage selection cable to the negative (-) cable connection socket and the electrode holder to the Euro-contact. Shielding gas and very small “signal” current will start flowing. non-protruding stainless. the signal current will initialize an arc and an upslope function that increases the current to set value. euro-connector and torch-mounted trigger 197 160010 TIG accessories kit 197 607810 The kit contains: – short back cap – spare heat-shield – 6 collets – 2 collet bodies – 4 nozzles – 3 electrodes 1.6mm – 3 electrodes 1. Connect the return cable to the + socket and return clamp directly to the work piece Connect gas Set amperage TIG welding Touch the electrode to the work piece and press the torch button. bag of 10 pcs Pliers for ear clamps Argon 10 litres Argon CO2 mix TIG Accessories Product numbers 197 619247 197 597328 197 597310 176 576157 401 729442 401 768507 715 905565 715 905573 Product numbers 4. Gas Supply Accessories Gas regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min.

Select polarity Connect the TIG/MIG voltage selection cable to the correct polarity for the selected wire. 2 step wire welding (upper mode) Bring the torch close to the work-piece. check information on the label. white scale.03 - + 417 . Press (step 3) and release (step 4) the button to stop welding. Welding current is set with the VA knob on the front panel. The gas flow continues for the selected post-gas time 4 step wire welding (second mode) Bring the torch close to the work-piece. The wire advances until it contacts with the work-piece and the arc is lit. Press (step 1) and release (step 2) the torch button. Press (step 1) and hold the torch button. Release the button (step 2) to stop welding. Select Wire speed and Voltage Wire speed is set with the m/min knob on the front panel. The wire advances until it contacts with the work-piece and the arc is lit.WIRE WELDING Application set-up for Wire (MIG/MAG) welding Select Wire welding: In this mode a constant voltage characteristic for wire welding is set. The gas flow continues for the selected post-gas time 4.

Carefully detach the end of the wire from the spool. Too much drag may result in wire feeding problems. the brake should provide only enough drag to prevent overrun of the spool and excess slack in the wire. and into the outgoing guide tube. Thread the wire through the ingoing guide tube (8). a bolt inside the spindle (6). Smooth V-groove Knurled V-groove Smooth V-groove Wire Loading Release the spring loaded pressure arm (1) and swing the roll arm (2) up from the wire feed drive roll (3). The roll pressure on the wire is adjusted with the screw on the pressure arm nut above the spring.03 8 S 7 3 418 . Close the idle roll arm (2) and latch the spring loaded pressure arm (1) in place. Ensure that the groove size in the feeding position on the drive roll matches the wire type and size. cut the bent portion of wire off and straighten the first 10cm. It should be sufficient to ensure smooth feeding of the wire. Each drive roll has two grooves in different siz es. Make sure that the stud (5) engages in the corresponding hole in the wire spool Check the Friction Brake Adjustment. over the drive roll (3). Rotate the spool counterclockwise if required to take up extra slack in the wire. Replace the cap (7). see table.WIRE WELDING Drive rolls The drive rolls in the wire feed system must be selected according to wire size and type. When properly adjusted. 2 1 6 5 4 4. UWW-161 is delivered with the V-groove 160003. Place the wire spool in place on the wire spool spindle (4).

8 mm 10 tips 1.6–1.0–1.2 0.0 1.2 O – X X X X X X X X X – O X X X X X X X O – X X X – X X X X X – O X X – X X X X O X – X X – ** ** ** X OUTGOING WIRE GUIDE TUBE WIRE FED LINERS CONTACT TIPS GAS NOZZLES All wires requiring gas shielding X = Well suited O = May be used.8 0. but not the best solution – = Not recommended.6 0.8 0.8–1-0 1.6–1.6–1. do not use * = Non iron liner can be used for all welding wires.03 419 .2 Max. 2 0.2 0. but wears down quicker than steel liners ** = Steel liner is a more wear resistant alternative for black steel welding but should be avoided for stainless and non iron wires to avoid contamination of the weld Torch Neck Contact Tip Nozzle Aluminium wire Solid wire steel Wire size mm mm 4.0–1.9–1.2 mm GAS NOZZLE WIRE FEED DRIVE ROLLS 160003 160004 160005 161164 590075 613756 711986 711994 712000 712018 160001 0.WIRE WELDING Drive roll / Liner / Contact tip combinations Application area Cored wire stainless Solid wire stainless Solid wire non-iron X – – X X – X X X X Cored wire steel Product number Product description Drive Roll V-groove Drive roll U-groove Drive roll V-groove knurled Outgoing wire guide tube Non iron liner * Steel liner ** 10 tips 0.2 0.6–0.0 mm 10 tips 1.6 mm 10 tips 0.

Adjustable wire spool friction brake and roll pressure setting for the feed system provides smooth feeding of both self shielded wires.WIRE WELDING SC 12 RC Unitor Wire Feeder For use with UWI-400 For wire range 0.03 394 508 203 420 .3 to 17.6 kg (27 lb) Unit pcs Product No.8 mm solid wire.6 to 2 mm (023 to 5/64 in) 100 volts 500 amperes 100% Duty Cycle 23 Length: 508 mm.7 mm self shield wire which is supplied in coils. A self shield spool adapter is required for 1. fully protected. and gas shielded solid wires. Standard spools with 300 mm diameter are fitted vertically inside the wire feeder. Included with wire feeder is 3 m connection cables to welding machine and a drive roll kit for 0. Cable/hose extensions may be used between power source and wire feeder. Height: 394 mm 11.5 Amperes 50/60 HZ Constant Voltage CV/DC With 14 pin and contactor control 1.6 to 2 mm. Width 203 mm. gas shielded flux cored wires. Technical Data Type of input Power Welding Power Source Type Wire Feed Speed Range Wire Diameter Range Welding Circuit Rating IP Rating Overall Dimensions Weight Description Wire Feeder SC 12 RC.8 mpm 0. ex torch 24 Volts AC Single Phase 3. 193-657106 4.

030") drive roll kit   •  Compression spring for spools Product No.WIRE WELDING Regulator w/ flow meter Gas cylinder 380–440 V 3 Phase Power source UWI-400 Gas hose Power cable SC 12 RC Wire feeder Control cable Wire torch Return cable Return clamp The order no. Product No. 193-603118 193-602821 • Euro Connector 4.03 • Control cable 3 m • Gas hose 3 m • Power cable 3 m 421 . include the following items:   •  V-groove 0.8 mm (0.

8 mm Smooth V-groove 4.0 mm Smooth U-groove 422 .9 mm Abratech-W-230 1.8 mm Icuni-W-239 0.6 mm Knurled SMOOTH V-GROOVE For hard wire Unitor product: GPS-W-200 0.8 mm Ialbro-W-237 0.7 mm S 316M-GF-221 0.9 mm S 309 M-GF-222 0.WIRE WELDING SC 12 RC Drive rolls KNURLED For cored wire Unitor product: HST-SF-203 1.03 SMOOTH U-GROOVE For soft wire Unitor product: Alumag-W-235 1.0 mm HST-SF-232 1.

8 mm 193-603126*   (0.0 mm S-316M-GF-221 0.9 mm S-309M-GF-222 0.072 in)   U-Groove 0.045 in)   V-Groove 1.03 55 mm 423 .8 mm (0.9 mm 193-603142   (0.8 mm 0.0 mm   V-Groove Knurled 0.035 in)   U-Groove 1. 1) Install and secure wire guide. For Unitor Welding wire GSP-W-200 Ialbro-W-237 Icuni-W-239 0.8 mm   V-Groove 0.6 mm Alumag-W-235 1.2 mm (0. Ingoing guide tube Drive roll kit Drive rolls 200 mm Normal Unitor spool size 4.035 in)   V-Groove Knurled 1.068/0. 193-602839.WIRE WELDING Drive roll & Wire guide kits for Wire feeder SC 12 RC Drive roll kit Product no.9 mm HST-SF-232 1. 2) Install drive rolls and turn drive roll nut to click. * This wire comes in the form of coil with 245 mm dia x 75 mm (6.1 kg) and requires a spool adapter product no.8 mm 0.030 in) 193-603118**   V-Groove 1.9 mm (0.6 mm (1/16 in) 193-603340 193-603373 MS-W-201 1.6 mm (1/16 in) 196-603134 193-603498 ** Included in Wire feeder when first received.7 mm Abratech-W-230 1.

WIRE WELDING Accessories for Wire feeder SC 12 RC   Pos Description   1   2   3 Extension control cable 25 m Welding cable 50 mm2 Cable connector DIX 70 male/female complete Gas hose 1/4" black. 191-670422 195-175844 195-632893 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 UWI-400 Gas cylinder 1 3 2 SC 12 RC Standard cable/hose length 3 m 4. for shielding gas Hose joint for 1/4" hose Clip 8–14 mm for hose. 1 25 m 1 25 m 1 1 Unit pcs mtr pcs mtr pcs pck Product no.03 424 . 10 pcs Qty.

4 mm) Gas nozzle for torch Contact tips. Pos. Teflon for 0. 193-607451 193-613765 193-594622 193-594630 193-607455 193-607456 193-613766 193-613763 193-613764 193-594606 193-594614 193-607457 Wire torch T-400 MP for gas shielded wire w/3 m cable and connector w/1.4 mm 1.4. Steel for 3 m for 1.0-1.1. 1 2 3 Description Qty.2 mm wire.WIRE WELDING Torch T-400 MP. It is delivered with 3 m cable.2 mm contact tip and steel liner (1. The teflon liner allows for all wire types including aluminium. consumable parts and spares 1 7 6 5 4 2 3 Torch T-400 MP The torch has adjustable neck and is delivered complete with tools for neck adjustment and contact tip change.2 .8-1.8-1.2 mm 1.0 mm Nozzle insulator Gas diffusor for T-400 Neck insulation for T-400 10 10 10 10 5 5 5 4 5 6 4. complete with liner and contact tips for 0.2 mm wire (blue) 3.2.6-2. Unit pcs pcs set set set set set set set pcs pcs pcs Product no.0 m long Torch liner.03 7 Torch liner.8–1.8 mm 1. Steel for 0.2-1.0 m long 425 .2 mm wire 4.0 mm wire (red) 3.0.5 m long Torch liner.

The Flowcontrol meter measures actual flow at the torch nozzle and is a useful tool for the operator. especially if long gas hoses are used.03 426 . Also recommended are soft-skin TIG welding gloves. In addition standard protective equipment for arc welding should be used. They give good protection of the hands while they ensure easy control of the torch and eventual welding rod. Product description Argon regulator with flow adjustment 0-32 l/min CO2 regulator with flow adjustment Gas hose 1/4" black.WIRE WELDING Regulator & Accessories The R 300 + regulator with flow meter supply a steadly stream of shielding gas to the torch. 10 pcs Spare parts for regulator: Flow meter gauge for Argon 0-32 L/min Contents gauge for regulator Flowcontrol meter for use at torch nozzle Flowcontrol needle valve for use with machine/ wire feeder TIG Gloves for TIG and Gas welding Unit pcs pcs mtr pcs pck pcs pcs pcs pcs 6 pairs Product no 197-510010 197-510012 176-576157 176-175596 401-729442 171-550210 171-550178 197-597328 197-597310 197-632795 4. Combined with the Flowcontrol needle valve used at the gas inlet of the machine or the wire feeder full flow adjustment is available at the work place regardless of distance to the gas cylinder/gas outlet. for shielding gases Hose joint for 1/4" hose. 3/8" RH threads Clip 8-14 mm for hose. The flow rate in l/min is adjusted on the regulator Actual gas flow at the TIG or wire torch may deviate from what is set on the gas outlet station or on the cylinder regulator.

The spray is packed in an outer carton containing 6 X 400 ml canisters.03 427 . It has jaws for contact tip and nozzle removal and installation. and for cutting and pulling wire. 6 pcs of 400 ml in a box Unit pcs set Product no. a barrier is formed preventing the molten globules from burning on to the surface. The spatter can easily be wiped off with a brush after welding.WIRE WELDING Accessories The multipurpose pliers provides means for spatter removal from the nozzle inside. Time consuming chipping and grinding is prevented. tip and outside. 193-591990 193-633149 4. Product description Multipurpose pliers for torch Anti Spatter Spray. By spraying on a thin layer on each side of where the welding is to take place. The Anti spatter spray prevents the spatter from the welding arc from sticking to the metal surface being welded.

a mixture of 75-80% Argon and 20-25% Carbon Dioxide. • High deposition rate. • High quality welds. have been introduced to the market for ferrous materials. Based on one shielding gas. need special equipment and is only usable on materials of limited thickness. • 23/14 type flux cored wire. even though thicker materials may be welded with the SC 12 RC-system and short arc. and solid wire filler material of Alumag. 428 . Welding is easily done in all positions. and will further add to the usefulness of the GMAW/FCAW processes in onboard repair and maintenance. Disadvantages of the process have been among others heavy equipment and the need for using several different premixed shielding gases for different metals and alloys.WIRE WELDING Application areas GMAW and FCAW processes cover a wide range of applications known from MMAW (coated electrodes) and partly also the TIG process. and by carefully selecting wires with or without flux core according to application area. all steels weldable with GPO/GPR/SPECIAL /LH/LHV electrodes. Hydrogen. Oxygen. lcuni and lalbro type. 4. short-arc.and spray-arc mode will normally be in the material thickness range 3–6 mm. Overlap between short. Non-ferrous metals Unalloyed/Iow alloyed and stainless steels Numerous gas mixtures based on Argon. arc types etc. The last may be the most important advantage for repair and maintenance applications. all positions all stainless steels weldable with 18/8 electrodes or 18/8 Mo rods.and short-arc mode using argon as shielding gas. not necessary. • Unique advantages for sheet metal and aluminium welding. and with proper selection of filler material. all positions. Carbon Dioxide. TIG. Helium. Among the most distinct advantages of the processes are: • Welding technique is easy to learn.03 Aluminium and copper alloys are excellently weldable both in spray. all claiming their superiority for certain alloy types. and even traces of other gases. These are to a large degree being eliminated by design of equipment as described under the UWW-170 and SC 12 RC principle. the following applications are covered: • MS type solid wire. as especially aluminium welding with gas or coated electrode is difficult and requires considerable experience and skill from the welder. In onboard repair and maintenance a stock of several gas mixtures will be expensive and highly impractical. Flux cored wires with self-shielding properties requiring no shielding gas at all are being developed to cover an expanding range of applications. • No slag. or for FCAW very little slag. welding positions. all positions all stainless steels weldable with 23/14 electrodes. • 18/8 type flux cored wire. The only other alternative.

Ensure that the rolls and liner are of correct size and quality for the wire to be used. Poor return connection will influence on the equipment’s ability to provide the correct arc. Teflon liners are often an advantage for aluminium and stainless steel wires. 4. Preparing the equipment Before welding starts make sure that correct shielding gas in sufficient quantity is available. and that the contact tip is of correct size for the wire to be used. to allow for the heat expansion in aluminium. and negative pole (-) to torch for some flux cored wires. normally positive pole (+) to torch if solid wires are used. Check that the equipment is set for correct polarity according to the wire. When aluminium wire is used the contact tip should have a slightly larger inner diameter than with other alloys. • Check that the torch contact tip and nozzle are free from spatter. with good electrical contact. and if necessary clean the wire feed rolls and the wire liner in the torch cable. Worn contact tips or liners should be replaced. The guidelines given in the chapter on safety should always be followed. 429 .03 A worn contact tip will give insufficient electrical contact. Mounting the wire spool • Check. Ensure that the return clamp is properly fastened to the workpiece.WIRE WELDING Preparation for Welding As for other arc welding processes the GMAW and FCAW processes require that the welder and welder’s assistant use correct protective equipment and face shields with correct shade filter glass. Spatter must be removed to avoid disturbance in shielding gas flow. Use correct size contact tip. if shielding gas is to be used.

Then insert the wire in the torch cable liner. The sharp point will provide a better starting point for the arc than a flat wire tip surface. Checking the wire feed function • Check and if necessary adjust the wire spool resistance. To avoid damaging the liner or getting the wire stuck when feeding it through the liner. especially for larger wire diameters.WIRE WELDING • Insert the wire spool in the wire feeder and straigthen approximately 10-15cm of the wire end. the weld bead should therefore be shielded. When necessary. fasten the feeder rolls and feed the wire through until it protrudes from the torch. it maybe an advantage to round off the wire end with a file. This is checked by stopping the wire at the torch nozzle while keeping the feed button depressed. Even at the highest wire feed speed the spooi shall stop immediately when the torch micro-switch is released. • The feed roll pressure should be adjusted to a pressure where they slide on the wire if the wire is stopped at the torch. 4. without uncoiling excessive wire between spool and feed rolls. The roll pressure may be tested by cutting the wire level with the torch nozzle and using an electrically insulating material to hold the wire back.03 . A sharply pointed wire will improve arc start. • To provide best conditions for arc start the wire should be cut off at a sharp angle 10-15 mm away from the nozzle tip before welding starts. 430 Strong draft may disturb the gas shield. Welding fume extractors must be positioned with care to ensure they do not affect the shielding gas. Shielding the workplace Strong draft may disturb the shielding gas flow and cause welding faults. Do not touch the wire when testing this unless the equip­ ment has a cold feed switch. Round off wire tip before inserting wire in liner.

and the welding current will decrease with increasing stickout and vice versa. This may again cause turbulence in the gas flow. the welder may use the stick out to adjust the welding parameters while welding. This distance decides how long the current carrying part of the welding wire is to be. Too short stickout may overheat the contact tip and will also allow more spatter to reach the nozzle. This voltage drop is part of what the equipment measures as arc voltage. Travel speed and direction 4. and insufficient shielding. While welding the welder controls five variables. When doing this remember to keep the wire away from contact with deck or workpiece. Wire stickout The stick-out is the distance from the end of the contact tip to the baseplate. These parameters include (1) Gas flow rate (2) Wire feed speed (3) Amperage or voltage setting When setting the gas flow rate. Too long stickout may result in too cold arc and insufficient gas shield and must be avoided. While feeding in this way the wire will be electrically live and an arc will occur if contact is made. wire and shielding gas that are to be used. wire stickout (4). Increasing stick out will • decrease penetration • increase deposition rate • increase bead size • decrease bead width. If in doubt of the actual wire feed speed at a certain setting on the machine. multiply by 10 and you will have feed rate per minute. including the arc length. The electric resistance and voltage drop in the wire increases with increasing stickout. When Flux Cored Arc Welding Self Shielded is to be used.WIRE WELDING Welding technique Set the correct parameters given for the base material. a to short a stick out will give porosity. and depending on the characteristic of the power source. Within limits. allow the gas to flow for a while to ensure that the gas supply system is fully purged. this may be checked by pressing the torch micro-switch and initiate wire feed for exactly 6 seconds. travel speed and direction (5).03 431 . Measure the wire length that has been fed. torch angles (6) and weaving (7).

For horizontal welding an angle between 70°-80° is frequently used. Forehand technique Backhand technique 4. To avoid oxides in the deposit the forehand technique is always used for all welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys. and transverse angle .03 The longitudinal angle will affect the penetration and bead form. depending on welding position and alloy. Transverse angle will normally be Torch angles 432 .the angle between torch and workpiece sideways from the weld. and will also decide the heat input per distance to the base material. Forehand technique: When “Gas Metal Arc Welding” and “Flux Cored Arc Welding Gas Shielded” wires are used. often with preference for forehand welding with solid wire and backhand for fluxcored wire. Torch angles Torch angles may be defined as longitudinal angle . For steel and stainless steels both techniques are used. Generally the difference with the two methods are as follows: Backhand technique: When Flux Cored Arc Welding Self Shielded wire are used. Welding may be done with the forehand (push) or backhand (pull) technique.the angle between torch and workpiece along the weld.WIRE WELDING The speed with which the torch is passed along the bead will influence on bead size and width. Too small angle should be avoided as the shielding gas flow may drag air in between torch and workpiece. contaminating the weld.

Keep the torch in position over the weld until gas flow stops. When multiple passes are used.WIRE WELDING 90° on a flat workpiece. or the welder may increase the heat input. Reduced electrode stickout for the first 1-2 cm will further improve heat input. When finishing the weld the heat input should be reduced to reduce penetration depth and weld pool size. When this technique is used the side to side movement must be stopped shortly at each side to ensure sufficient deposit at the sides of the weld. Torch angles in vertical welding. the transverse angle is increased or decreased to place the deposit correctly in the joint. moving the arc quickly back to the actual starting point and continue welding over the slightly preheated area. backhand technique This may be done by increasing travel speed and/or stickout the last 3-5 cm of the weld.03 433 . the torch may be moved along the groove in a side to side movement (weaving). in order to protect the deposit until the metal has solidified. This may be done by starting the arc approximately 2-3 cm after the beginning of the weld. and 45° for fillet welds. Weaving To obtain a wider deposit than obtainable with a straight welding pattern. Weaving in a continuous movement may easily result in insufficient deposit and undercut. Arc starting and stopping When starting the arc on a cold workpiece. which will weaken the joint considerably. and releasing the torch switch immediately when the stop point is reached. To avoid a weakness in the joint the arc may either be started on a plate attached to the workpiece at the beginning of the joint. 4. penetration may be insufficient to provide sufficient binding for a short moment before the weld pool is properly established.

Position welding.5 125 130 120 120 150 330 145 150 300 22 22 20 20 21 32 21 21 30 3 4 4 6 50° 2 1.8 1. 20% Co2 Shielding gas Joint Welding Gas opening position consumption mm l/min.2 1.2 1. 80% Ar.8 0.WIRE WELDING Edge preparation Steel. Wire Welding parameters diameter Amp Volt Wire speed mm cm/min 55 65 80 85 95 105 16 17 17 17-18 18 18 290 340 420 440 500 550 Number of layers 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.2 Horizontal & 1.03 6 10 50° 1 1 10 H: Horizontal. VD: Vertical down.9 1. 80% Ar.6 2.8 0. 20% CO2 Shielding gas Material Type of Welding thickness joint position mm Gas consumption l/min. Position welding. 1 1-2 H & VD H & VD H & VD H & VD H & VD VD H H VU VU H 10-12 10-12 10-12 10-12 10-12 12-15 12-15 15-20 15-20 15-20 15-20 Wire Welding parameters Number diameter Amp Volt Wire speed of mm cm/min layers 0.6 6-10 0.2 1.8 0.2 95 19 430 510 480 500 460 460 330 1100 320 330 900 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 Material Type of thickness joint mm 2 3 110 19.2 1. VU: Vertical up 434 . 1.8 Vertical down.5 4.0 2.0 Steel.8 0.8 0.

18 18 20 20 20 20 Wire Welding parameters diameter Amp wire speed mm cm/min.5 Gas consumption l/min.9 85 85 90 90 105 125 15 15 15 15 17 17 460 460 480 480 580 720 Welding speed cm/min 45 50 35 30 38 40 Number of layers 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2.4 2.6 1.7 (1/2”) 90° 19 (3/4”) 90° 25. 20% CO2 Shielding gas Material Type of thickness joint mm 3 (1/8”) 60° 6. mm cm/min.5 1.4 3.6 1. 20% CO2 Shielding gas Material Type of Gas Wire Welding parameters thickness joint consumption diameter Amp Volt wire speed mm l/min. Horizontal welding.5 1.2 Stainless steel. 1.4 200-250 250-300 275-325 300-350 350-375 350-375 280-380 380-490 460-570 190-215 215-235 215-235 Number of layers 1 2 2 3-4 4. Position welding.6 2 8-12 0.4 2.5 (3/8”) 60° 12.5 1.5 (1/4”) 60° 9.6 1.5 1.4 (1”) 1.6 2. 80% Ar. 80% Ar.WIRE WELDING Edge preparation Stainless steel. 1.03 5-6 7-8 435 .

Argon Shielding gas Material Type of thickness joint mm 1 1. Horizontal welding.5 (3/8”) 9.3 1. Horizontal welding.WIRE WELDING Edge preparation Aluminium.03 436 .2 1.5 (1/4”) 6.0 1.5 (3/8”) 75° 9.5 (1/4”) 50° 9. 15 10 10 10 Wire Welding parameters diameter Amp Volt Wire speed mm cm/min 1.6 1.5 (3/8”) 60° 12.5 (1/4”) 6.0 40 50 60 90 15 15 15 15 600 700 810 1050 Welding speed cm/min 50 38 38 38 Aluminium.6 Welding parameters Amp Volt 180 250 220 280 260 270 310 300 24 26 24 27 26 26 27 27 Welding speed cm/min 38 40 60 60 45 55 45 45 Number of layers 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 4.7 (1/2”) With With With out With With out With out With With out Gas consumption l/min. Argon Shielding gas Material Type of Backing thickness joint plate mm 60° 6.2 1.6 2.4 Gas consumption l/min.0 1.6 1.6 1.7 (1/2”) 75° 12.0 1. 18 20 18 20 20 25 25 25 Wire diameter mm 1.6 1.2 1.

03 NB: When welding Cunifer backing gas must be used 437 .7 (1/2”) 75° 19 (3/4”) 75° 19 (3/4”) V: Vertical.5 (1/4”) 60° 6.7 (1/2”) 5 mm 5 mm Gas consumption l/min. Horizontal. Position welding.5 (1/4”) 60° 9. 20 20 20 23 23 25 25 25 Wire diameter mm 1.6 2. OH: Over head *4 mm (1/16”) 4 mm (1/16”) Copper alloys.6 Welding parameters Amp Volt 180 200 210 220 215 225 225 240 23 23-24 23 23-24 22-23 23-24 23-24 24 Welding speed cm/min 50 55 45 50 30 40 25 35 Number of layers 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 6 60° 6.6 1.6 1.4 2.5 (3/8”) 60° 12.6 1.7 (1/2”) 60° 12.2 or 1.4 310 460 500 540 27 26 27 27 500 345 380 420 4.6 1. Argon Shielding gas Material thickness mm Type of Welding joint position * V OH V OH V OH V OH Gas consumption l/min.2 or 1.6 1.6 1.5 (1/4”) 90° 9.5 (3/8”) 90° 12.4 2. Argon Shielding gas Material Type of thickness joint mm 3 (1/8”) 6.5 (3/8”) 60° 9. 15-20 15-20 15-20 15-20 Wire Welding parameters diameter Wire speed Amp Volt mm cm/min 1.WIRE WELDING Edge preparation Aluminium.6 1.2 or 1.

8 090-777972 Ar DC+ 9 40 7.WIRE WELDING Wires for Wire Welding Unitor Wire feeder/Wire welder SC 12 RC UWW-161 TP Unitor Size Order Shielding Current Wire Voltage Wire Voltage Wire mm no.6 090-230230 N.8 090-590109 Ar DC+ 10 40 7.8 090-590117 Ar/CO2 DC+ 10 50 7. values only Final adjustment to be set by welder depending on welding position and wall thickness I plate thickness of base material Argon. gas type speed (Knob) speed GPS-W-200 0.5 22 Icuni-W-239 0. ArgonlCO2 Mix: 20 I/mm.5 22 Alumag-W-235 1.03 438 . Tech sheets for all above products under section Consumables.5 50 12 20 HST-SF-232 1.A.9 090-597518 Ar/CO2 DC+ 11 50 11 22 S 309 M-GF-222 0.5 22 MS-W-201 1.7 090-603423 Non DC10 55 S 316 M-GF-221 0.0 090-160100 Non DC11.9 090-606041 Ar/CO2 DC+ 11 50 13 24 Ialbro-W-237 0. DC+ 8.5 32 Note: Approx.0 090-590083 Ar DC+ 11 40 12 23 Abratech-W-230 1. 4.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.03 439 .

03 440 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

  446 UPC-1041 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   445 Plasma cutting equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   447 Cutting technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   443 Basic principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   450 Maintenance and trouble shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   452 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04 441 . . . . . . . . . . . .

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.04 442 .

3) The heat produced by the combustion of the metal with oxygen must be sufficient to maintain the flame cutting operation. Steel melts at 1535°C (2795°F) but can be ignited at 884°C (1623°F). copper. Cast iron is not readily flame cut because the kindling temperature is above the melting point. 4) The thermal conductivity must be low enough so that the material can be brought to its kindling temperature. Base material So why cannot aluminum. at high pressure. Pure aluminum melts at 658°C (1216°F) but the aluminum oxides melts at 1926°C (3500°F) 443 4. Some metals have refractory oxides (sluggish heavy kind of oxides with high melting point). 5) The oxides formed in cutting should be fluid when molten so as not to interrupt the cutting operation. This process is referred to as a chemical process Cutting direction Cutting nozzle Pre-heating flame Stream of pure O2 Heating to kindling tempe­ ­ rature. to create a rapid oxidation of the steel (the steel catches fire and burns to become a slag). Iron and low carbon steels fit all the above requirements and are readily flame cut. It also has a refractory silicate oxide. Jet of pure oxygen leads to rapid oxidation and removal of slag.04 . 2) The oxides (rust) of the metal should melt at a lower temperature than the metal itself. also assists in removing the material from the cut. Aluminum and its alloys are not possible to flame cut because its oxides have a higher melting point than the metal itself. stainless steel and those other metals be cut by this process? In order for a metal to be flame cut the following conditions must apply: 1) The melting point of the metal must be above kindling point (ignition point). It melts before it can be ignited. The stream of oxygen.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Introduction In flame cutting. which produces a slag coating. the cutting torch with its high flame temperature of 3100 °C (5612°F) is used to heat the steel to its kindling temperature (ignition temperature) and then by introducing a stream of pure oxygen.

When this happens.04 Plasma. The process utilizes the electrically 4. This ionization process causes the gas to become electrically conductive. In addition they also have high thermal conductivity. This electrically conductive ionized gas is called plasma. the gas. The molecules are split in molecular and atomic ions and free electrons. Stainless steel cannot be flame cut with standard flame cutting equipment and technique because of the refractory chromium oxide formed on the surface. liquid. By adding even more energy to the steam the gas become ionized. a liquid. What is Plasma? One common description of plasma is that it is the fourth state of matter. If we add energy in the form of heat to ice.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Non-ferrous metals such as aluminum and copper also have refractory oxides coverings. (At a temperature of between 2000°C (3600°F) and 10000°C (18000°F) a process of ionization and dissociation of the gas molecules take place. water these three states are ice. is electrtrically conductive because free electrons are available to carry current). which has now become plasma. water and steam. the fourth state of matter 444 . We normally think of the three states of matter as solid. So how can we overcome these nature’s physical laws for a process to work on a given metal? Simply by changing process from chemical (Flame cutting) to an electric (Plasma cutting). it vaporizes to the gas we normally call steam. In Plasma cutting only one condition must apply in order to perform cutting: 1) The metal must be electrically conductive. If we add more energy to water. For most commonly known element. The significant difference between these states relate to the energy level. the ice melts and the result is water. and gas. which prohibit normal flame cutting.

Upon impact with the positive pole of the work piece the arc is transferred from electrode / tip to electrode work piece following the plasma gas.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Basic principles conductive gas to transfer energy from an electrical power source trough a plasma-cutting torch to the material being cut. consisting of heat.04 445 .polarity) and an anode (tip + polarity) As compressed air is introduced in the arc. and provide a narrow smooth cut. Due to the design of the torch tip this arc and the high velocity of flow of free electrons and ionized particles called the plasma jet is constricted to a very small cross section with high-energy concentration. The basic plasma cutting equipment consists of a constant current DC Pilot arc Transferred arc 4. plasma is produced and forced out trough the tip with high kinetic velocity. creating temperatures up to 28000°C (50000°F). Inside the plasma torch the arc is struck between the cathode (electrode . The high velocity air plasma jet will efficiently melt and blow away practically any electrically conductive material. In the impact zone the high inherent energy of the jet. ionization energy and dissociation energy is released. forming what is referred to as the pilot arc.

0 bar Primary side input: Compressed air 6-7 bar 440 V 3 phase min. for cutting materials under 16 mm (5/8”) thick. due to the fact that compressed air is readily available at most location and that it is cheap compared to single gases. Power source output: Max. an arc starting circuit (High frequency or air type) and a torch. positively charges the air stream.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Plasma cutting equipment power supply. 20A slow fuse 4. This is of great importance for shipboard use. Most of these hand held systems are rated at under 100 Amps. The process generally uses a single gas (usually air or nitrogen) Air is the most widely used plasma gas. This in turn. creating a plasma arc. The tip and electrode constrict and maintain the plasma jet. creating an electric arc. This method is referred to as “blowback“ technology. The output current (Amperage) of the power supply determines the speed and cut thickness capacity of the system. The arc starting circuit uses compressed air to force back the electrode from the tip. and provides cooling to these parts. The Unitor UPC-1041 uses NO HIGH FREQUENCY to initiate the plasma arc. current 100 A Working pressure: 5.04 Return cable Return clamp Plasma cutting system Cutting torch 446 . The main function of the power supply is to provide the correct energy to maintain the plasma arc after ionization. The consumable part life depends largely on air quality that must be oil and water free. Consumable parts life is acceptable (usually between 100 to 200 starts). The torch serves as the holder for the consumable tip and electrode.

4. The UPC-1041 uses NO HIGH FREQUENCY to ignite the plasma arc.04 447 . causing the unit to heat up. and automatic air post flow provides rapid cooling of the nozzle after cutting. which cannot be cut with the Acetylene/ Oxygen cutting process. Compact and Portable. aluminium and stainless steel. and the process is especially suitable for copper alloys. The unit will also automatically shut down if the air supply is insufficient. To protect the operator a micro switch built into the torch will cut the current to the torch if the nozzle is loosened. Air is utilised both for plasma gas and for cooling the torch. The output is steplessly adjustable for precision cutting at slower speeds.) Cutting capacity is ut to 40 mm steel. A special nozzle for gouging is available. the unit is built on the inverter principle which in addition to excellent cutting properties provides low weight and compact dimensions. This is of great importance for shipboard use. (Do not interfere with radio communication and other electronicaly controlled equipment. The plasma process is highly efficient for precision cutting and gouging of most electrically conductive materials. and typical cutting speed is 500 mm/ min on 12 mm steel plate. or if the duty cycle is exceeded. The plasma cutter may easily be passed through manholes and brought to any workplace on board. The air regulator includes both filter and water separator to protect the torch.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING UPC-1041 Plasma Cutter UPC-1041 is a high capacity air plasma cutter. Power will automatically be restored when the air supply is corrected or the unit has cooled.

PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Unitor Plasma Cutter UPC-1040 Technical Data Description Output data Current adjustment range Maximum current Duty cycle at max. min. complete with 6 m cable and connector • Insulated return clamp with cable • Built-in air regulator with filter and water separator • Accessories kit Description UPC-1041 plasma cutter complete with basic accessories & torch Unit pcs Product no. current Unit A A % Value 20-100 100 35 440 50-60 3 25 6-7 5.04 448 . slow blow A 195 Air / Nitrogen supply Supply pressure range to machine Setting on machine at free flow Air consumption bar bar L/min m3/h 410 575 Micellaneous Protection class IP Approval marks Weight kg Width mm Height mm Length mm UPC-1041 is supplied complete with • Torch. 192-404100 4.4 23 CE 15 195 410 575 Input data Supply voltage V Frequency Hz Phases Fuses.0 190 11.

5 (pos 9) Wheeled cutting guide with circle cutting attachment (optional accessory) Product no. excl. excl. 192-404100 192-404114 192-404115 On request On request On request On request On request 192-404005 – 192-404006 192-404007 192-404008 192-404009 192-404010 192-404111 192-404112 192-404013 4.2 (pos 8).PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Torch consumables and spares Pos. PTA 121 5 pcs Nozzle 1. torch head and handle Trigger button for UPC-1041 w. 1 gauging nozzle 2. PTA 121 2 pcs Spatter shield for UPC-1041 w.5 mm for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 2 pcs Consumables kit complete (included with machine) The kit includes: 3 electrodes (pos 5). PTA 121 5 pcs Nozzle gouging 2. PTA 121 Electrode for UPC-1041 w. 1 tool for electrodes (pos 5). 1 drag shield (pos 12).04 192-404016 449 .0 mm 20–40 Amps for UPC-1041 w. torch head and handle Hose assembly for PTA 121 torch 6 m. 3 nozzles 1. PTA 121 2 pcs Nozzle 1.no Description – – – 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 9 10 11 – 12 UPC-1041 Plasma cutter complete with 6m cable Torch PTA 121 with 6 m cable and drag shield for UPC-1041 (optional) Torch PTA 121 with 15 m cable and drag shield for UPC-1041 (optional) Hose assembly for PTA 121 torch 6 m. PTA 121 Handle for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 Torch head fir UPC-1041 w.25 mm 50–100 Amps for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 5 pcs Shield cup for UPC-1041 w. 1 spatter shield (pos 11). PTA 121 2 pcs Drag shield for UPC-1041 w. PTA 121 5 pcs Tool for electrode change Swirl ring for UPC-1041 w.

the trigger protection will close over the button. Air will flow for one second before the pilot arc strikes.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Cutting technique Place the torch in position for cutting or gouging. Reposition the torch to ensure that the pilot arc will reach the work-piece and make a new try. Air will continue to flow for about 30 seconds. It is placed directly on the work piece at the edge where cutting should start Lift the trigger protection and press the triggerswitch on the torch handle. For most cutting operations the contact cutting shield should be used. When removing the finger from the trigger. 450 .04 The plasma arc goes out immediately. 4. At correct speed the sparks goes straight through the metal with only a slight bending towards the beginning of the cut Pause briefly at the end of cut before releasing the trigger. If contact with the work piece is not obtained within this time. the pilot arc goes out. The pilot arc will burn for about 3 seconds. When the cutting arc is established. pull the torch slowly across the surface that is to be cut.

Tighten the allen screw on the outer ring with the wheels axis at 90° to the torch handle For cutting circles the allen screw in point 4 must be loosened to allow the torch to rotate in the wagon. 4. The circle cutting bar is screwed into the wheel centre.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING For piercing holes Rest the contact drag shield on the work piece at 45° angle Press the trigger-switch on the torch handle. Start moving torch across plate when observing that the arc penetrates.04 451 . slowly and in one smooth movement. Air will flow for one second before the pilot arc strikes. Tighten the allen screw on the inner ring. Pull off the drag shield 2. 1. Insert the torch to a position where the distance from nozzle tip to work piece is 3-4mm 3. Circle cutting guide The wheeled wagon in the circle cutting set should be used when cutting on uneven surfaces where it is difficult to use the drag shield. 4. After cutting arc starts. straighten torch back up until 90° angle to plate. and the centre tap is fastened at the correct radius.

empty the moisture trap on the filter regulator on the rear side of the machine. if necessary. Note: Electrode and nozzle must be changed at regular intervals. Inspect and. The trap is emptied by pressing the bottom sealing while compressed air is connected.04 Carefully inspect the hose assembly and torch body with regard to any leak or damage. Check gas/Air Pressure UPC-1040 require 6–7 bar supply pressure Air Supply Precaution Air supply precaution: Use only oil-free dry compressed air.PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING Maintenance and trouble shooting Disconnect power before maintenance Check torch Check tip Check electrode Check drag shield DAILY Inspect and. Normally the control air on board will have the best quality. Never use a damaged torch. Failure to replace worn nozzle or electrode in time will dramatically reduce the cutting capacity and eventually ruin the torch. or after 200 starts. If cleaning the trap is necessary. Always replace the electrode if the center has a pit more than 2 mm (1/16” deep). EVERY THREE TO SIX MONTHS Disconnect the machine from compressed air and electricity. if necessary. change the torch consumable parts. Remove the cover. Use only oil-free dry compressed air! 452 . clean and oil free compressed air. Replace the nozzle if the opening is deformed or clearly oversized. In especially dirty environments this procedure should be carried out more often. 4. Inspect cable connections and gas system. as a general guideline after 2 hours continues use. completely unscrew the glass cup after disconnecting compressed air. Clean the machine with dry.

PLASMA CUTTING AND GOUGING In order to ensure oil and water free air for plasma cutting. 401 671768 Oil free air can be taken from the centre block Quick coupling Socket 20SM (1/4" threads) 405 191726 Mount 2/teflon tape Quick coupling Plug 20 PH 405 191825 Black Hose 1/4" 176 576157 Hose Clips 176 72 9442 4. Coil of 40 mtr.04 453 . Unitor recommend the following set up: Air line unit w/Filter/Regulator/Lubricator 401 624585 Air with oil mist Quick coupling Socket 400SH 405 191700 Rubber air hose 1/2".

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.04 454 .

. . . . .CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Arc Welding Current Distribution System . . . . . . . . .05 455 . . .   456 4. . . . . . . . .

The hinged door is closed with a key. The welding machine will be connected to the inlet station in the distribution system by flying leads. Connection of welding cables in the inlet/outlet is done with cable shoes. • Fire and gas proof doors can be kept shut. A red diode 130 V AC is placed between the welding terminals to warn when outlet is live. and holes for cable glands have not been drilled / locked out in the housing. • Manhandling of long welding cables. • Accidental short circuiting somewhere along the often excessive lengths of live welding cables lying about is prevented. Installation. The remote control connection is done with a special connection cable and/or adaptor. This must be done by the installer. The system comes in two sizes. providing the following advantages: • Accidental falling/tripping due to loose cables along decks. • Outlets in possible gas danger areas may be disconnected when not in use. are avoided. The inlet/outlets are made in stainless steel quality. The socket is equipped with a screw cover.0 mm2 cable for remote control is recommended. Permanently installed welding and remote control cables lead to the welding outlets. • Correct welding parameters are easily obtainable as all the remote control possibilities of the welding machine is available at the outlet. The remote control 456 socket is a 10 pole amphenol type.05 . when welding outside the work shop. • The need for replacement of damaged lengths of welding cable is eliminated. The basic rule in this system is that the main welding power source(s) are located permanently in the workshop. is avoided. in ladders etc. with size and positions of cable glands will vary for different installations.CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Arc Welding Current Distribution System Unitor welding current distribution system may be tailor made to suit the specific needs of ship or offshore installations. • Permanently installed and correctly dimensioned cables ensure more efficient use of power from welding machine. The housing is mounted to the bulkhead by use of brackets that are included with the inlets / outlets. often more time consuming and strenuous than the actual welding job. There is a 10 position connection rail for connection of remote control cable. which are mounted on strategic places for immediate use by the welders on board. female for both inlet and outlet stations. Cable size must be chosen according to welding machine. Minimum 1. The 400A boxes uses standard Dix 70 contacts for welding 4. for 400A and 800A. see ordering information. therefore glands are not included.

The 800A boxes uses special heavy duty Dix 120 contacts for welding current. and standard Dix 70 cable connectors are used for connection. Product no. Pcs. For these contacts the special Dix 120 cable connectors must be used. Pcs. Pcs. Pcs. Pcs. Pcs.05 457 . 195-624320 195-624338 195-736728 195-736736 195-624577 195-608760 195-603993 195-604157 195-604306 195-632893 195-736744 Welding current inlet Welding current outlet Remote control adapter Remote control connection cable 4. Pcs. male on inlet station and female on the outlet. Pcs. Pcs. Pcs.CURRENT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM current. These connectors allows for up to 120mm2 welding cable Description Inlet station Stainless steel 400 A Outlet station stainless steel 400 A Inlet station Stainless steel 800 A Outlet station stainless steel 800 A Remote control connection cable cable for UWI-350 MP Remote control connection cable cable for UWI-320/400/UWR-852 Remote control connection cable cable for UWR-303 Remote control adapter for UWI-320/400/UWR-852 Remote control adapter for UWR-303 Cable connector Dix 70 male/female Cable connector Dix 120 male/female Unit Pcs. male on inlet station and female on the outlet.

05 458 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 4.

. . . . . . . brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   461 Ac/Ox cutting. . .PROCESS & EQUIPMENT Gas Welding Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   461 Gas supplies and gas distribution system . . . . . . . . . . . .   511 5. . . .01 459 . . . . . . . . . . . welding. . . . . .

01 460 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   466 The Unitor Workshop Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   484 Operating instructions for UCT-500 cutting torch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   496 Flame straightening techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   472 Gas hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   470 Accessories . . . . . . .   475 Hose connectors . . . . .   462 The Combination Torch UCT-500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   499 Butt joints for gas welding of steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   506 Consumables and parameters for brazing . . . . . . . . .   508 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   464 UCT-500 Components and spares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   471 Portable gas equipment . .   488 Common cutting faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   504 Edge preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   478 Gas regulators for cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 461 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   480 Flashback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   483 The acetylene/oxygen flame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   497 Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . welding & heating torch   492 Maintenance of blowpipes .   494 Heating techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   502 Consumables and parameters for gas welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   468 Welding and grinding goggles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   503 Soldering and brazing techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   490 Operating instructions for UCT-500 brazing. . . . . . . . . . . . .   482 Flashback arrestors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   486 Cutting procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

At temperatures around 3000 °C a relatively high degree of dissociation of hydrogen molecules takes place in the flame core.1) has a temperature of 3100 °C. 5. The molecules are split in free atoms. propane 2800 °C. This temperature difference. thereby storing energy. is one reason for the high efficiency of the acetylene flame.01 462 . Hydrogen molecules dissociate on the surface of the core flame and recombine on the surface of the workpiece. The energy (kJ/cm2• S) from the core flame of acetylene compared to propane at various mixing rates with oxygen. Acetylene is the fuel gas burning with the highest temperature. Even the neutral flame used for welding (mix ration 1:1. This stored energy is transfered through the flame and released immediately when the free atoms hit the workpiece and recombine to molecules.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Introduction The Acetylene/Oxygen flame is an efficient heat source which has been used for welding and related thermal processes since the early 1900’s. The total energy release from the acetylene/oxygen flame is therefore comparable to the energy from a theoretical flame with temperature 4500 °C. maximum approximately 3160 °C when mixed with oxygen (ratio 1 part acetylene to 1.5 parts oxygen).g. which in itself is not impressive. compared to e.

This is an important safety factor to consider when working onboard a ship. 5. Main application areas for the acetylene/oxygen flame in onboard repair and maintenance are cutting. It is also used to a certain degree for sheet metal welding and welding of small diameter pipes. Safety: Acetylene specific gravity is 0. Propane specific gravity is 1.01 463 .5 so it is heavyer than air. In the following the equipment and techniques used for these applications will be described. Combustion velocity of acetylene compared to propane. and thereby the possibility for heat distortion.9 so it is lighter than air. This ensures a concentrated flame which quickly heats up a limited spot to high temperature. heating and flame spraying (described in a separate section). Temperature variation through a neutral acetylene/oxygen flame. brazing. The concentrated heat reduces total heat input in a workpiece.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Another advantage of the acetylene/ oxygen flame is the high combustion velocity of the mixture.

brazing. Cleaning needles. heating. do not replace flashback arrestors in the gas supply system.01 The UCT-500 Master kit has been assembled to cover all ordinary welding. One of the advantages of a high-pressure torch is an especially stable flame and high resistance to persistent flashback. It is fitted to the blowpipe handle to prevent any return flow which could allow gases to mix in the hoses. light in weight compared to capacity. covering most brazing/welding applications. the three most commonly used welding attachments (80 ltr. The gas valves are symmetrically placed at the back of the handle and suit both left-and right-handed persons. well balanced and easy to handle. It is a high-pressure torch of the equalized pressure type. In addition to spanner. 5. The torch is simple to use. 230 ltr and 650 ltr) and the cutting attachment with nozzles for cutting up to 25 mm steel. Attachments are easily changed without the use of tools. also a roller guide for cutting edges from 90° to 45° angle of plate surface. Non-return valves. and may be turned in any desired angle to the handle/gas valves.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING The Combination Torch UCT-500 The Unitor Combination Torch UCT500 covers all normally occurring. 464 . The larger attachments also function as monoflame heating attachments. UCT-500 compact kit in heavy duty PVC case The compact kit contains the UCT-500 shank. welding and cutting applications for which the acetylene/oxygen flame may be used on board. towards the blowpipe. spanner and full instructions for use and maintenance are also included. The circular motion bar with centering pivot allows for cutting circular holes up to 960 mm diameter. however. The connection between torch handle and heating/welding/cutting attachments is based on 0-ring seals which ensures a gas-tight connection even if the connection nut should loosen. brazing and cutting work that may occur on board. Acetylene and Oxygen inlets are fitted with non-return valves as standard . The non-return valve is a spring-loaded valve which permits the gas to pass in one direction only. the UCT-500 case contains an instruction book giving complete information on the use and maintenance of the equipment. with the danger of hose explosions. cleaning needles and a spare parts kit with all the most commonly needed spares. Cutting nozzles covering cutting of steel up to 100 mm are included. UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty PVC case It includes a range of seven welding attachments.

Product number: 170-500001 5. Product number: 170-500000 UCT-500 Compact kit in heavy duty PVC case.01 465 .AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty PVC case.

AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING UCT-500 components and spares UCT-500 Master kit in heavy duty PVC case. 10% lower. 170-174565 170-174573 170-174581 170-174599 170-174607 170-174615 170-174623 Product No. 170-183780 170-183798 170-183806 Product No. 466 . 170-603415 170-603407 170-603399 Singleflame heating attachments   Size*   0-A 1800   0-A 2500   0-A 5000 Multiflame heating attachments   Size*   0-A1000   0-A2500   0-A5000 5. 170-174656 Flexible welding attachments These attachments can be bent to any desired shape. 170-174631 170-234864 170-183756 Product No. Acetylene consumption is approx. UCT-500 Compact kit in PVC case containing complete instructions and one each of all items marked 2) below.5-1. containing complete instructions and one each of all items marked 1) below.   Size*   0-A160   0-A315   0-A500 Material thickness mm 1-2 2-4 4-6 Product No.0 2-3 3-5 5-7 7-10 9-14 Product No.01 * The size indicates consumption of oxygen in nl/ h. Shank   1)2)   Shank complete w/ sockets and        non-return valves Welding attachments   Size*   1) 0-A 40   1)2) 0-A 80   1)2) 0-A 230   1) 0-A 400   1)2) 0-A 650   1) 0-A 1000   1) 0-A 1250 Material thickness mm <0. Material thickness refers to mild steel.5 0.

for UCT-500 shank Lubricant for O-rings SPARE PART KIT COMPLETE1) Containing 1 of each item below: Oxygen valve assembly (blue) Acetylene valve assembly (red) 0-ring set for welding/cutting attachments Coupling nut welding/cutting attachments Coupling screw for cutting nozzles Clamp sleeve for roller guide Sleeve for circular motion in roller guide 5. 165 mm length Nozzle length mm 153 140 Material Gas consumption thickness mm OX nl/h Ac nl/h 35-40 40-75 6000 7000 450 800 Product no. 9 mm Flashback arrestor set FR-20AC+OX.a Roller guide 0°–45° nozzle angle Circular motion bar complete. 5 Product no. 9 mm Socket/ Non-return valve for shank OX. 170-174730 Spares for UCT-500 Socket/ Non-return valve for shank AC. 170-174698 170-174706 170-174714 170-174722 Cutting nozzles for difficult access. 170-183863 170-183855 Gouging nozzle with stellite tip Furrow dimensions Width mm Depth mm 8-11 6-11 Cutting guides   1)   1) Tools   1)2)   1)2) Spanner for UCT-500 Cleaning needles for UCT-500 nozzles Product no.general use Nozzle type   1)2)   1)2)   1)   1) 302 No. 4 302 No.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Cutting attachments   1)2) Cutting attachments 75° Head Angle Cutting attachments 90° Head Angle Cutting attachments 0° Head Angle Material thickness Gas consumption mm OX nl/h Ac nl/h 3-10 10-25 25-50 50-100 1300 2150 5650 7800 460 520 690 810 Product no. 6 mm Socket/ Non-return valve for shank AC. 6 mm Socket/ Non-return valve for shank OX. 170-597336 170-597344 170-651265 170-651257 170-619270 170-234997 170-500100 170-174789 170-613762 170-535005 170-174771 170-174813 n. 3 302 No. 170-174649 176-175356 Product no. 84–960 mm holde diam.: 170-174664 170-234807 170-234815 Cutting nozzles. 2 302 No.a n. for use with roller guide Product no.01 467 . 170-174672 170-174680 Gas consumption OX nl/h Ac nl/h 11500 1750 Product no.

Contents: Torch components: UCT-500 shank with non-return valves. • New compact design with improved access to contents. Welder’s accessories: Gas goggles with lift front. Gas ignitor Triplex. 400. 23-and 24 mm for UCT-500. 80. Double row steel wire brush. Spare valve and complete 0-ring set for UCT-500. Softskin welding gloves for gas and TIG welding. w. 650. Dimensions: 600 x 600 x 300mm Free distance above cabinet 310 mm. • The door construction provides a stable work surface for torch assembly when open. 1000 and 1250 nl/h. centre and sleeve for 84-960 mm Diameters. hose sockets and hose clamps. with spare clamp sleeve and circular motion bar compl. with final coating by powder spraying and baking. Heating and Brazing. Torch maintenance equipment Spanner l5-. brazing and cutting operations normally occuring onboard. 230. 17-. 25–50 mm and 50–100 mm steel thickness. corrosion resistant construction from electro-galvanized steel plates. Roller guide for 0°-45° cutting angles. Welding. Welding attachments: 40. with hardplast protection surface for nozzles and blowpipes. 19-. • Shelves are zinc/ yellow-chromate passivated for optimal corrosion and scratch resistance.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING The Unitor workshop cabinet for Gas Cutting.01 468 . Cleaning needle set for UCT-500 welding attachments cutting nozzles. 5. 094 589861 094 589846 A complete workshop for all the gas welding. Cutting attachments 900 with spare nozzle screw and nozzles for 3–10 mm. 18-. • Sturdy. and ample room for additional spares and accessones. Weight complete 56 kg. Gas welding cabinet complete Gas welding cabinet empty Product no. 10–25 mm. and allows for mounting the cabinet in corners or narrow openings. Spare coupling nut for welding attachments.

MS 3.0 kg.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Silver brazing: AG-60 2.5 kg and one box Aluflux. AG-45 2. flux coated brazing rod.0mm 0. Cast iron joining and rebuilding: FC-Cast Iron.01 469 .0 mm 0. One box each of Bronzeflux and Wearbroflux.0mm 1. UCT-500 instruction manual.0 kg.0mm 1.5 kg. 5.0 kg.0mm 1.0mm 1. Aluminium joining: Alumag 3.5 kg and lcromo 2.5 kg. Tin soldering: Tin-241 AG soft solder on spool. 3. Bronze 3.0 kg.0 kg. One box each AG-60/45 flux for general use and Albroflux for use with AG-60 on Yorcalbro. 1.0 mm 3.4 kg. Mild steel/heat resistant steels: MS 2.0mm 0.6 mm/0.0mm 1. 5. Bronze brazing: FC Bronze 2. FC-Wearbro 3.0mm 4. Instructions and information: UNITOR Welding handbook.0 kg.0 mm 3.5 kg. 4.5 mm 2kg.

176-175273 Glasses for Gas Welding and Cutting The Unitor gas welding glasses have a diameter of 50mm and fit the goggles. One more protection glass must be placed in the fixed frame. Welding and grinding goggles w/flip-up front frame Product no.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Welding and Grinding Goggles Lightweight goggles with soft and comfortable surfaces against the face. The filter shade glass are mounted in a flip-up front frame.01 pcs pcs pcs 176-632943 176-632950 176-653410 470 . They are available in different grades of shade for various types of work. The ventilation slots are designed to prevent entry of sparks and spatter. 176-633305 176-633313 176-633321 176-633354 176-633297 Protection glass Safety Spectacles Safety spectacles clear Safety spectacles shade 4 Safety grinding goggles non mist 5. All glasses comes in sets of 10 pcs. Filter Shade Glass Application Silver brazing General gas welding and cutting Gas welding and cutting thick material Filter Shade 4 5 6 7 Pcs/set 10 10 10 10 10 Product no. A protection glass must be placed in front of the filter shade glass in order to protect against spatter. at the same time ensuring sufficient air circulation to prevent dampness and fogging of the glasses.

lt should always be kept by acetylene cylinders and outlets to make it possible to close the valve in case of fire.01 471 . 196-632968 196-633081 196-633156 5. with large sparks. Used for Gas and TIG welding. 176-633198 176-633206 Miscellaneous Welders chalk is used to mark out positions when gas and plasma cutting on metals. Triplex gas ignitor 2 pcs/pack Spare flint set 10 pcs/pack Product no.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Accessories Heat Resistant Mitten Special mitten with woven kevlar outer layer and ample insulation against heat in the inner layers. Heat resistant mitten Product no. Product no. Temperature sticks are a wax that melts at a preset temperature. 176-233148 Gas Welding Glows Special soft-skin gloves which protect without hindering feeling or move ability for handling torch valves or rod while welding. flat 5x13x127 144 pcs/pack Temperature indicator kit. 200/400/600/800°C Galvanizing spray Product no. Three flints mounted on head. The chalk is flat and can easily be kept in pocekts and tool boxes. May be used on either right or left hand. Also suitable for handling hot workpieces. When the stick mark goes from solid to liquid the temperature have been reached Welders chalk. Simply select a stick with the desired temperature and make a mark on the surface to be heated. Gas welding gloves 6 pairs/pack 176-632794 Triplex Gas Igniter Easyto use.

• Unitor Welding handbook. • Heat resistant mitten.and maintenance jobs by allowing cylinders and welding equipment to be brought to the worksite as a unit. or where mobility is necessary for other reasons. 176-176024 5. The table is excellent for use as a welding table in workshops on board. Dims. The necessary equipment required for a complete mobile workshop is built up from Unitor standard gas accessories.folded Weight Welding table 600 x 400 x 630mm 600 x 400 x 80mm 14 kg Product no. • Gas ignitor • Welding goggles. and a suitable transport device for cylinders. (WxDxH) Dims. • 10 m twin hose 1/4” with clips.01 472 . It includes a holding clamp for small workpieces. Standard Accessories Kit for Acetylene and Oxygen Cylinders The Unitor range offers a complete accessories kit comprising all necessary equipment for use with Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders. The kit includes: • Acetylene and Oxygen cylinder regulators. To ensure a stable work surface all four legs are adjustable in length. one of the two UCT-500 kits available. • Flashback arrestors. the gas cabinet and gas supply from the gas central can be supplemented by mobile welding and cutting equipment. Mobile equipment considerably simplifies repair. 176-526509 Portable Welding Table This sturdy work table is made of steel and fully galvanized for corrosion protection. Gas accessories kit Product no.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Portable Gas Equipment On board large ships. • Gas welding gloves. and in cases when it is needed outside the workshop it is easily transported as the legs may be detached and fastened under the table surface. The legs have pointed ends to ensure high friction and a good hull contact when used for arc welding.

The cylinder is firmly locked in place on the trolley. 176-176016 176-526509 170-500000 Cylinder Trolley Su-10 for One Cylinder Unitor has also developed a trolley for transport of a single 40 I or 50 I cylinder. The sturdy but lightweight construction of steel pipes is fully galvanized for corrosion protection. For a complete mobile gas welding workshop the following items should be ordered (in addition to gas cylinders and consumables): Description Trolley for A-40/0-40 cylinders Standard gas welding accessories UCT-500 Master kit in PVC case Product no.L. The trolley takes both 40 L and 50 L size cylinders. For transport by crane the trolley is fitted with a lifting bow. As safety in transportation and lifting of gas cylinders is a paramount demand. This trolley is specially designed for on board use. the trolleys are tested and certified according to the International Labour Office for the test and examination of lifting gear used in the loading and unloading of ships.01 Product no.) 200 kg. see under “Gas distribution”. plus a standard accessories kit for gas welding.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Gas Welding Transportable Equipment A-40/O-40 Cylinder Trolleys Trolley for Two 40 L or 50 L Cylinders for Mobile Gas Welding. 176-176008 473 . Weight of the trolley itself is 28 kg. This box is dimensioned to take the complete UCT-500 welding and cutting set in steel case. lockable accessories box. The trolleys are test loaded to 400 kg. and certified for Safe Working Load (S. Description Trolley SU-10 for one cylinder 5. For full information on trolley SU-10. which is also certified for lifting by crane. Being intended to function as a complete mobile gas welding workshop.W. which are firmly secured in the trolley by means of two clamps with wing screws. As the weight of two full gas cylinders is approximately 150 kilos. the trolley is fitted with a large. the trolley has been fitted with extra large rubber wheels for easy mobility.

Trolley and BackFrame The Unitor A-5/0-5 trolley is the basis for a small but efficient portable welding and cutting workshop. For a complete. It is specially designed by Unitor for on board use. and has a low center of gravity which will keep it standing upright even at 30° out of vertical with all equipment mounted. Unitor A-5/0-5 trolley 176-534982 Standard gas welding accessories 176-526509 UCT-500 compact kit in PVC case 170-500001 Also available for transport of 5 litre cylinders are the back-frame and the portable rack. portable welding workshop the following items should be ordered (in addition to 5 litre gas cylinders and the consumables required): Description Product no. 5. A double bracket with wing nut ensures safe and vibration-free fastening of 5 litre Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders. Two double brackets for Unitor rod containers give the possibility to include a selection of four different rod types when transporting. It is fitted with solid rubber wheels for easy transport.01 Description Product no. The UCT-500 compact kit may be fastened to the top of the trolley and the accessories box at the back will take all other necessary equipment for work. Handles at top and bottom ensure easy carrying and lifting.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Gas Welding Transportable Equipment A-5/0-5 Cylinder . Back-frame for 5 litre cylinders 176-176040 Portable rack for 5 litre cylinders 176-176032 474 . The strong lightweight steel construction is hot zinc coated for high corrosion resistance.

3 mm (1/4”) Oxygen/m 9. Do not use gas hoses for other purposes. The drum for gas hoses takes up to approximately 100 m. hose is adequate for the gas consumption for all blowpipes and cutting nozzles in the welding and cutting set UCT-500. for compressed air or propane. and do not use air hoses Product no. of twin hose and is fitted with brackets for bulkhead mounting. Avoid undue stretching and kinking of hoses. as far as possible. Hanging hoses must be supported at suitable intervals. 176-526434 176-624312 176-175554 176-175562 176-175539 176-175547 176-576157 for welding gases.3 mm (1/4”) Argon/m Product no. When gas hoses are not in use they must be coiled and hung up so as to avoid. the entry of damp or dirt. e. Do not use hoses that have been damaged by flashback or hose fires. and from slag and sparks from electric welding. Unitor’s product range comprises the following hose dimensions: NB: Gas hoses are measured on their internal diameter.01 475 .0 mm (3/8”) Oxygen/m 6. Faulty hoses Inspect hoses at regular intervals. black 6mm (1/4) AC + OX/m 9. If long hoses or equipment requiring greater gas flows than 8. gas welding or Oxygen cutting. Acetylene hoses are colour-coded red. blue/red Gas hose.3 mm (1/4”) Acetylene/m 6. Hoses must never be repaired by patching. blue/red Twin gas hoses. red Gas hose.g. Description Drum for gas hose 6 mm (1/4”). red Gas hose. blue Gas hose. Never use compressed air.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Gas Hoses UNITOR’s hoses for Acetylene and Oxygen are specially made for use with welding and cutting equipment. Check the hoses for leakage by dipping them in water while they are under normal pressure. Keep hoses away from strong heat and extreme cold. blue Gas hose. For medium and large gas consumption the supply pressure must be increased when longer hoses and/or smaller hose diameters are used.000 nI/h (normal liters per hour) are used. 195-175729 5. which may contain oil. The hoses comply with the International norm ISO 3821 specifications for welding hose: Requirements:   Maximum working pressure 20 bar   Test pressure 40 bar   Minimum bursting pressure 60 bar Oxygen hoses are colour-coded blue. Normal hose lengths are 5 or 10 meters.0 mm (3/8”) Acetylene/m 9. Description Twin gas hoses. chemicals. oil and grease. Blow new hoses clean internally before connecting to blowpipes. Hoses of doubtful quality or condition should be scrapped. 9 mm (3/8”) hoses are recommended. Check that the rubber is supple and without cracks (do this by bending the hose). Repair a leak immediately by cutting off the damaged part.0 mm (3/8”) AC + OX/m 6. Nitrogen or another inert gas should be preferred to blow through Acetylene and Oxygen hoses.

tidiness and reduced wear and tear The handling of hoses cluttering the workshop floor is awkward and a waste of time. improves access for carts and trolleys and allows for easier cleaning.01    Oxygen/    Acetylene 476 . A workshop floor free from hoses reduces tripping accidents. This saves time. The Unitor Self-Retaining hose reel are of robust construction. Kg 30 176-725260 5. makes the job easier and contributes to increased efficiency. Self-Retracting hose reels let you pull out the required length of hose and store the rest out of harms way. it is easy to installed. and have a well proven design that vouches for safe and maintenance free usage Single-layer retraction of the hose Open design for safety and easy service All steel construction 180 157 Ø13 (x4) 150 125 650 Ø620 220 Technical data Medium Max working pressure Mpa (psi) 2.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Self-retracting Hose Reel for Acetylene and Oxygen For safety.0 (290) Hose dimensions Hose size mm 2X6.3 Length m 20 Net weight Including hose Product no.

WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 5.01 477 .

or to join lengths of hose. right-hand threads Connecting nut. 9. The connecting nuts on the Oxygen couplings are right-hand threaded. The Acetylene couplings are left-hand threaded and the connecting nut has an indentation in the corners of the hexagon for easy identification.0 mm (3/8”) Oxygen hose Hose clamp for 1/4” hose.0 mm (3/8”) Hose nipple.0 mm (3/8”) Acetylene hose Hose joint for 9. and so designed that the interchange of Acetylene and Oxygen hose is impossible. Included is also a connection stub for using the set as a hose joint. 6. Always use the correct hose couplings to connect the welding Right-hand threads Left-hand threads Connecting nut. It is not necessary to use force. Screw-couplings for Gas Hoses The screw-couplings are supplied in sets.3 mm (1/4”) Acetylene hose Hose joint for 6. or outlet stations. 5. Screw the couplings together into a gastight joint (check with soapy water).01 478 .3 mm (1/4”) Oxygen hose Hose joint for 9. 176-175588 176-175596 176-175604 176-175612 401-729442 401-729443 401-768416 401-768432 401-768507 Hose joint for 6. Hose connectors are used where long lengths of hose are needed. left-hand threads Hose nipple. There are also snap-couplings for quick connection of hoses and regulators. and gives the operator extra protection by reducing the possibility of interchanging hoses. to fix hose to nipples. set of 10 pcs Ear clamp for 9 mm (3/8") hose.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Hose connectors Hose connectors have loose hose nipples for 9 mm (3/8”) and 6 mm (1/4”) welding hose. Such snapcouplings must be specially made for use with Oxygen and Acetylene. set of 10 pcs Hose clamp for 3/8” hose. set of 10 pcs Ear clamp for 6. Each set consists of two hose sockets with nuts for connection to gas regulator and torch.3 mm (1/4") hose. Description Product no. set of 10 pcs Pincher tool for ear clamps Use good hose clips. Nuts and connection stub for Acetylene are lefthand threaded and marked with a groove. not metal wire. Gentle tightening spares the sealing surfaces and should give a perfectly gastight connection.3 mm (1/4”) hoses – never use metal tubing. Material is high-grade brass. This is international practice.

01 479 .0 mm (3/8”) Acetylene hose Quick coupling S6-1878 for 9. In addition the connecting sleeves are colour-coded red and blue. By disconnecting the side towards the regulator automatically shuts off the gas flow. 176-320218 176-320192 176-320200 176-320184 Lubricants for gas fittings IMPORTANT: Oil. Accidental connection of wrong gas is prevented by the different design of the male/female connection for Acetylene and Oxygen.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Unitor Quick Connect Couplings. ensuring quick and gas-tight connection of the hoses without the use of tools. Explosion hazard! If needed. If these lubricants thicken after long storage they must be thinned only with the thinners specified on the label. The quick couplings are designed for use on the cylinder regulators/ flashback arrestor and on the outlet stations. use only special lubricants for use in pure Oxygen. grease or other organic lubricants must NEVER be used for the lubrication of fittings that come into contact with oxygen. oil or the like to thin lubricating paste.0 mm (3/8”) Oxygen hose Product no. Description Quick coupling SG-1666 for 6. Never use White Spirit.3 mm (1/4”) Acetylene hose Quick coupling S6-1676 for 6.3 mm (1/4”) Oxygen hose Quick coupling SG-16B8 for 9. 5.

The large adjustment knobs are colour coded red for Acetylene. capacity bar bar bar m3/h 15 0-2. e. Unitor gas regulators are designed for reliability and safety of use. Cylinder Regulator for Acetylene Oxygen Max. providing a constant flow of gas.0-7. hose connection for 6 mm (1/4”) and 9 mm (3/8”) gas hoses and full instructions for use. 6. All the cylinder regulators have safety valves that protect the gas hoses from excessive pressure. gasket Spare working gauge w. and fits all the regulators. the pressure in a gas cylinder. The connection to cylinder valves fit standard Unitor gas cylinder valves.g. gasket Cylinder connection washer (10pcs) Gauge guard for cylinder regulators 5.5 3 5 3/4”BSP Red 171-510001 171-550186 171-550202 171-550152 200 0-16 20 40 W21. regulator R-510 Spare contents gauge w. blue for Oxygen and black for Argon.01 480 .AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Gas Regulators for Cylinders The purpose of a pressure regulator is to reduce gas pressure.8x1/14” Blue 171-510000 171-619379 171-550178 171-550194 171-550160 Argon/CO2 w/flow meter 200 0-35I/min. for easy identification of gas type. inlet pressure Outlet pressure Safety valve opens at Max.32x 1/14” Black 197-510010 171-550178 171-550210 171-550160 Cylinder connection Colour coding Product number. All regulators are delivered with spare washers. to a suitable working pressure and to keep this as constant as possible. A sturdy one-piece manometer guard is available.8 2 24. and for sufficient capacity for all normally occuring purposes.

Before connecting up. blow the cylinder valve clean by opening it for a moment. 3. Screw the regulator to the cylinder valve. Then open the cylinder valve fully. Faulty. Check the inlet union gasket and replace it if it is damaged. 5. Use only the lubricants prescribed by the manufacturer. Before connecting the regulator to the gas cylinder. Shut the regulator by turning the regulating screw outwards until it runs freely on its threads. NOTE: Regulators and other equipment for Oxygen must never be lubricated with ordinary oil or grease. As a rule. close the cylinder valve. repairs should never be attempted on gas regulators. Do not stand in front of the outlet or hold your hand in front of it whilst blowing it clean. 4. or when finishing work. such leaks can be stopped by carefully tightening the screwed connection at the point in question. Set the desired working pressure by turning the regulating screw inwards until the correct working pressure can be read on the working pressure gauge. Apart from replacing damaged or faulty gauges. If not. 3. as this brings the risk of explosion. it must be replaced. or it has other defects. If a pressure gauge does not register zero when the pressure is released. which may be a source of danger. Operation 1. Relieve the pressures on the regulator until both gauges show zero. For correct pressure see the operating instructions for the torch you are using. Never use a regulator for gases or pressures for which it was not designed. Check all connections for leakage by covering with soapy water or the like.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Connection 1. Valves of cylinders containing flammable gases must never be blown clean if there is any risk of ignition of the gas. 5. 5. During interruptions. old or corroded regulators should be replaced. Never force a connection that does not fit. Use a thick spanner to avoid damaging the connection nut. 2. This also applies to flashback arrestors. and as a rule gas regulators should be replaced with maximum 5 years intervals. 4. Between an Acetylene or Oxygen regulator and the hoses in use a flashback arrestor should always be installed.01 481 . Make sure that the regulator is closed by turning the regulating screw so far out that it runs freely on its threads. Internal seals and membranes will deteriorate with time. 2. Open the cylinder valve slowly until the contents pressure gauge shows the cylinder pressure (the working pressure gauge should not move). make sure that the outlet union on the cylinder valve and the connector of the regulator fit each other. the seal or the complete part must be replaced. Make sure to use original gaskets and not home made ones.

A backfire (popping) can easily occur if the flamehole is dirty or damaged – see separate chapter on maintenance of blowpipes. for some reason or other. Before re-lighting after a sustained backfire the blowpipe must be cooled. and escaping combustion products can cause injuries. or it is reignited at the nozzle opening. i. then the Acetylene valve. often at the mixing point itself. Shut them as quickly as possible. 5. Flashback is mostly caused by reverse flow. 482 .01 Flashback can result in the hose exploding. e. the speed of combustion at one or more places in the flame hole becomes greater than the speed of gas flow. which lacks the necessary safety equipment a serious accident can occur. A sustained backfire is characterised by an initial bang (backfire) followed by a whistling or screeching sound from the continued combustion. Handling of blowpipes in the event of flashback: In the event of sustained backfire the oxygen valve of the blowpipe must be shut first. If the sustained backfire is not quickly interrupted.e. The hose will then explode. 3) Flashback implies that the flame burns back through the torch and into the gas supply system. To protect against a full flashback and the dangers this entails. bad maintenance of the blowpipe or by wrongly set working pressure. This mixture can then be ignited by a backfire. melting will occur in the torch. The degree of safety against flashback in a blowpipe depends on its design. the regulator may catch fire. Sustained backfire is the result of incorrect handling and/or poor maintenance of the blow pipe. flow of oxygen into the Acetylene hose. which occurs when the torch is lit. allowing the flame to burn back into the blowpipe. so that an explosive mixture is present in the hose. In extreme cases. Various types of flashback: 1) A Backfire implies that the flame burns back into the torch with a sharp bang. If a flashback reaches an Acetylene cylinder. Under no circumstances should welding or cutting be continued before both the equipment and the handling routines have been checked thoroughly. A full fashback occurs only from very faulty handling. but it can be a sign of some fault in the equipment or gas supply. 2) In a Sustained Backfire the flame bums back into the torch with continued burning in the mixer.g. Either the flame is extinguished. the welding equipment should be fitted with flashback arrestors and non-return valves.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Flashback Flashback is a phenomenon that may occur when. and/or catching fire. A backfire is fairly harmless in itself. the hoses and in the worst cases even the regulators.

Description Capacity At inlet (M3/hour) pressure (bar) Product no. The flashback arrestors supplied by Unitor are designed for use both with gas cylinders and gas outlet stations and incorporate several safety functions: • Non-return valve preventing reverse flow of gases. faulty handling. The lever is also used for resetting the flashback arrestor.5 10 1. and are only noticed as a popping sound in the torch.5 S55 f/Oxygen 50 5.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Flashback Arrestors Flashback Arrestors Type W-66S and S-55 Maritime authorities. 1. • Pressure activated cut-off to prevent further gas supply after a flashback (activated by the pressure shock in front of the flashback). maintenance or gas pressure setting may lead to a penetrating flashback. In some cases it may also pass the regulator and ultimately reach the cylinder. • Pressure relief valve to vent off excessive pressure in case of flashback or wrongly set working pressure (on W-66S only). require the installation of flashback arrestors for acetylene and oxygen. • Temperature activated cut-off to prevent further gas supply in case of fire (activated if the temperature rises to approx. thereby preventing a gas mixture from reaching pipelines or cylinders. as incorrect maintenance or use of gas welding equipment may cause flashbacks of various types. (W-66 only) • Indicator ring showing that the pressure activated cutt-off has been activated.5 10 171 183970 171 302976 171 708537 171 708545 W-66S f/Acetylene 19 W-66S f/Oxygen 110 S55 f/Acetylene 8. 100°C).01 483 .Normally these will stop in a well designed torch. Type W-66S Type S55 • Indicator lever showing that the pressure activated cut-off has been activated. • Flame filter to quench the flame front of a flashback or a burnback. The ring is also used for resetting the flashback arrestor (S55 only) Full instructions for use are supplied with the units. This means that the gas flame passes back through the hose(s). such as the Norwegian Maritime Directorate. However.

Too low gas pressures may give a gas flow which is slower than the flame velocity of the gas mixture. The inner cone of the flame has a bright blue light and extends only a short distance from the tip. In the flame envelope a secondary reaction takes place (2C0+H2+O2 → +2C02+H2 0+Heat). Therefore always ensure proper ventilation when working with the Acetylene/Oxygen flame. 5. In such cases the actual pressure at the torch connection should be checked. NOTE! The Acetylene/Oxygen flame uses the oxygen supplied from the nozzle for the primary reaction taking place in the inner cone (C2H2+O2 → 2C0+H2+Heat). The correct Acetylene/Oxygen flame shall be a quiet stable flame. cutting and for most steel welding work.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING The Acetylene/Oxygen Flame A correct Acetylene/oxygen flame from a cutting nozzle or blowpipe is dependent on correct gas pressure being supplied to the torch. This flame is metallurgically neutral. resulting in flashback. but well away from the point where flashbacks may occur. Around this inner cone is the flame envelope which is darker and less intensely blue. starting at the distance from the tip where the gas flow has slowed down to match the flame velocity. but the required Oxygen is taken from the surrounding air. Inaccurate regulators or long gas hoses may result in pressure deviations that gives wrong pressure to the torch. and is used for heating. Too high gas pressures may cause the flame to leave the nozzle tip. The neutral flame Two distinct zones may be seen in the neutral flame.01 484 . This reaction needs as much Oxygen as the primary reaction. If the gas pressure is too high it may be difficult or impossible to ignite a flame. This can cause the flame to burn backwards into the nozzle opening and accelerate through the gas channels. burning close to the nozzle tip.

This flame is slightly hotter than the neutral flame. approximately twice as long as the inner cone. and for brazing. but is considerably brighter than the flame envelope. more pointed inner cone. By adding Oxygen (and if necessary reducing the Acetylene flow) the secondary zone will be reduced. The flame will be shorter and sharper than the neutral flame. brass. bronze and zinc alloys. 5. This soft flame (also called a reducing flame) is used for welding of Aluminium and Aluminium alloys. and a neutral flame is obtained just as the secondary zone dissappears. Reducing the Oxygen flow slightly again will give a carburizing flame with a small secondary flame zone. The oxidizing flame By increasing the Oxygen flow slightly beyond the point where the secondary zone disappears one will obtain an oxidizing flame (with excess Oxygen). This zone is less bright and more white in colour than the inner cone.01 485 . and for soft soldering. obtaining a strongly carburizing flame. with a shorter. and is used for welding cast iron.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING The carburizing flame The carburizing flame has an excess of Acetylene. When igniting an Ac/Ox torch one normally opens fully for Acetylene and only slightly for Oxygen. and is recognized by a secondary flame zone between the inner cone and the flame envelope.

The required nozzle and working pressure for mild steel when using 6 mm (1/4”) hoses 10 m long are given in the cutting table. Press down the cutting Oxygen lever (8) and readjust to normal flame by means of the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). Finally. 2. which is recognized by a whistling or hissing sound. 5. deformation or wear. c. and adjust the working pressure by means of the Acetylene regulator setting screw (4). 6.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Operating instructions for Cutting Torch a. and all torch valves(5. Fully open the torch Acetylene needle valve (6). Replace them if they are defective. make sure that all torch valves are shut. Check the sealing rings at regular intervals for damage. Select the cutting nozzle (9) to suit the type and thickness of the workpiece. Then shut the torch Acetylene needle valve (6). When cutting. releasing the cutting Oxygen valve lever (8) at the same time. After finishing work. The torch is now ready for cutting. 486 . release the pressure in the hoses by closing the cylinder valves (1 and 2) and empty one hose at a time. Slowly open the cylinder valves for Oxygen (1) and Acetylene (2). f. Fully open the torch Oxygen needle valve (5) and the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). All valves are shut at the commencement of work: Cylinder valves (1 and 2) are shut. d. Finally. using the valve for preheating Oxygen (7).01 h. Important I. Release the cutting Oxygen valve lever (8) and shut the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). b. i. relieve the pressure in the hoses and close all valves. k. and unscrew the regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4) so far that they run freely on their threads. To facilitate changes of torch or cutter tips. The torch is normally extinguished by first closing the torch Acetylene needle valve (6) and then the valve for preheating Oxygen (7). 7 and 8) are closed. Light the torch and adjust to neutral flame. In the event of sustained backfire. Other materials and hoses may require other nozzles and working pressures than those given in the table. Then press the cutting Oxygen valve lever (8). NB. first close the valve for preheating Oxygen (7) as quickly as possible. e. and adjust the working pressure by means of the Oxygen regulator adjusting screw (3). j. Slightly open the preheating Oxygen valve (7) to provide a little extra Oxygen to prevent troublesome sooting when the torch is lit. the sealing rings and sealing surfaces in the torch connection head should be lightly smeared with a special lubricant. the regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4) are screwed so far out that they run freely on their threads. keeping the torch needle valve for the other gas shut. the torch Oxygen needle valve must be kept fully open. g. Oil or grease must never be used.

2 1. 174730) Dimensions of groove in mm Width 8-11 Depth 6-11 Working pressure Oxygen Acetylene 5.7 0.   Cutting nozzle.0 170-174714 A 311-4 6800 500 500-300 50-100 5 0.0 170-174722 A 311-5 7800-14100 700 380-180 Table for groove-cutter (Unitor Product No.   Gas consumption l/h Ox   Gas consumption l/h Ac   Cutting speed mm/min 3-10 2 0.5 170-174698 A 311-2 1600 300 950-430 10-25 3 0.0 170-174706 A 311-3 3600 400 580-350 25-50 5 0. mm   Distance to core tip   Acetylene pressure bar   Oxygen pressure bar   Product No.5 Gas consumption ltr.2 1.5-4./hr.2 1.8 3. type no.0-2.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Cutting table – UCT-500   Material thickness.01 487 . Oxygen 11500 Acetylene 1750 5.0-6.3-0.5-4.

Guide the torch steadily along the line to be cut. – after which oxygen is applied. Keep the nozzle at the distance from the plate indicated in the cutting table (2­–5 mm) and move the nozzle onto the plate. The workpiece is heated up to approximately 900 °C. it is important to move the cutting torch nozzle evenly. by starting the cut as far away from you as practicable. Keep the flame cores 2–3 mm above the steel plate and preheat until the steel is brightly red hot. This is most easily done. 5. Starting the cut from an edge 1. Direct the preheating flame against the starting point at the edge of the plate. Then bring the cutting torch towards you. which burns (cuts) mild steel. Open slowly but fully for the cutting Oxygen by depressing the cutting Oxygen lever. The angle iron can be used to guide the torch for both square and bevel cuts. When cutting. It is not a melting process. Move the torch tip slightly off the edge of the plate to ensure that the cutting Oxygen jet passes the edge of the plate. Methods for improving cuts A piece of angle iron can be clamped to the plate being cut.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Cutting Procedure Oxygen cutting is a process in which mild steel burns (oxidizes) in oxygen.01 488 . 3. Use a cutting speed within the limits given in the cutting table and ensure that the slag blows through completely resulting in a steady stream of sparks downwards from the bottom of the cut. 2.

if necessary by inclining the torch slightly so that the sparks fly sideways. Open slowly for the cutting oxygen.5 mm above the steel plate and preheat until the steel is red to white hot. By using the sleeve for free movement of the nozzle in the guide and attaching the circular motion bar with center tip complete circles with radius 42 to 480 mm may be cut. 3.01 Circular motion bar 489 . 2. With the cutting oxygen lever fully depressed lower the nozzle as the cutting jet pierces the plate. Lift the nozzle to approximately 12–20 mm above the surface. Direct the preheating flame against the starting point. Make sure that spatter of molten metal does not reach the nozzle tip. In this guide the torch may be used in any angle between 90° and 45° to the surface. Keep the flame cores 4 . Guide for UCT-500 cutting torch 5. Cutting guide In order to ensure smooth cutting in steel plate the guide for UCT-500 should be used. Keep the nozzle at correct distance from the plate (see cutting table) and proceed in the direction to be cut.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Starting a cut by piercing 1.

5. rounded top edge. or in some cases with pronounced drag lines. A correct cut shall give square corners and a smooth cut surface without pronounced cut gouges. G. B. contaminated with slag and melted steel. F.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Common cutting faults A. Too short distance between nozzle and plate will give melted. D. E. pronounced drag lines in the surface and a rounded lower edge. C.01 490 . Too strong preheating flame will give a melted and rounded upper edge and pronounced cutback down through the surface. Too high cutting speed will give an uneven top edge. Lower part will be smooth and bottom edge sharp. Too high oxygen cutting pressure or contaminated cutting oxygen hole in the nozzle will give slightly rounded upper edge and pronounced cutback in upper part of the surface. surface and the bottom edge will be acceptable. Too low cutting speed or too low cutting oxygen pressure will give a rounded top edge and uneven surface with gouges in the lower part of the cut. Too long distance between nozzle and plate will give a melted and rounded top edge and cutback in upper part of the surface.

01 491 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 5.

b. which is recognized by a whistling or hissing sound. e. Hold the torch so that the nozzle points away from flammable objects. g. then the Acetylene needle valve (6). After finishing work. the sealing rings and sealing surfaces in the torch connection head should be lightly smeared with a special lubricant.01 492 . The required blowpipe and working pressure for mild steel when using 6 mm (1/4”) hoses 10 m in length are given in the welding table. keeping the torch needle valve for the other gas shut. The working pressures relate to medium-strength flame. Fully open the torch Acetylene needle valve (6). the regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4) are screwed so far out that they run freely on their threads and both torch needle valves (5 and 6) are closed. release the pressure in the hoses by closing the cylinder valves (1 and 2) and empty one hose at a time. f. c. In the event of sustained backfire. d. h. and adjust the working pressure by means of the Acetylene regulator adjusting screw (4). Fully open the torch Oxygen needle valve (5) and adjust the working pressure by means of the Oxygen regulator adjusting screw (3). relieve the pressure in the hoses and close all valves. i. Slightly open the torch Oxygen needle valve (5) to provide a little extra Oxygen to prevent troublesome sooting when the torch lightening lit. Slowly open the cylinder valves for Oxygen (1) and Acetylene (2). and adjust to desired flame characteristic by means of the torch Oxygen needle valve (5). 5. 2. Welding and Heating Torch a All valves are shut at the commencement of work: Cylinder valves (1 and 2) are shut.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Operating Instructions For UCT-500 Brazing. Oil or grease must never be used. To facilitate changes of torch or cutter tips. deformation or wear. first close the torch Oxygen needle valve (5) as quickly as possible. make sure that all torch valves are shut. Select your blowpipe (10) to suit the type and thickness of workpiece. Finally. Light the torch. Replace them if they are defective. Check the sealing rings at regular intervals for damage. and unscrew the regulator adjusting screws (3 and 4) so far that they run freely on their threads. Finally. Important 1. Shut the torch Oxygen valve (5). The torch is normally extinguished by first closing the torch Acetylene needle valve (6) and then the torch Oxygen needle valve (5). The torch is now ready for use. j.

mm 1 3 5 7   Product No.3 0.3 400 364 650 0.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Select the correct blowpipe to suit the thickness and size of material to be welded.3 0.5 2 3 5   Material thickness.3 0.3 0.3 80 73 230 0. open the torch needle valve so that the gas can flow freely during adjustment.3 1800 1636 174565 174573 174581 174599 174607 174615 174623 174631 5.3 0.3 0.01 493 . Adjust the working pressure for one gas at a time.3 0. heating Working pressure and gas consumption for Unitor UCT-500 <0.3 1000 909 1250 0.3 40 39 80 0. To adjust the working pressure.3 230 209 400 0.5 0. Table for welding.3 1250 1136 1800 0.   Size of welding attachment   Acetylene pressure bar   Oxygen pressure   Gas consumption   litre per hour bar Ox Ac 40 0.3 650 591 Major welding and brazing jobs (heating torch) 1000 0. brazing.3 0.

by grinding the surface against fine emery paper placed on a flat surface. it can be repaired. Grinding blowpipes and cutting nozzles If the end of a welding or cutting nozzle has been damaged. Grinding down the nozzle end of a blowpipe 5. Thus a cylindrical part will always be left having a length at least equal to the diameter of the hole. to avoid backfire (popping). just stick them straight in and pull them out. Never use steel wire. It is very important that the small holes in the sealing end of the cutting nozzles should not be enlarged in any way. These should run freely in the holes. Torches and cutting nozzles may be carefully cleaned externally by means of a soft brass brush. It ought not to be shorter than this. Welding blowpipes are so made that the length of the nozzle holes can be shortened by grinding off up to 3 times the hole diameter without the flame becoming smaller than that of a new burner. Do not twist them.01 494 . reamers or spiral drills for cleaning. The correct flame and an even flow of cutting oxygen can be obtained only by keeping the edges of the holes sharp and at right angles to the axis of the passages.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Maintenance of Blowpipes Clean the flame and cutting oxygen holes with Unitor cleaning drills. A nozzle hole with an uneven edge or widened orifice will also increase the risk of backfire. On cutting nozzles up to approximately 4mm of material may be removed. These can ruin the smooth surfaces of the hole. Do not use a steel brush.

01 495 .WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES 5.

The work should be allowed to cool slowly. however. the heated part has a tendency to expand. 5. Also. straightening is largely performed with a welding flame. with the result that the end of the section moves upwards. you need a good knowledge of how the work reacts to heating and cooling. as this can cause deterioration. As longitudinal expansion is prevented by the surrounding cold metal.01 Section bars are normally straightenened with the help of heating wedges. When heat is applied as shown in the sketch. whether it is for preheating/postheating in combination with welding processes or for heating steel for bending or forming. No special techniques are required except the need to be careful not to overheat and weaken parts. the straightening of steel constructions. A normal welding flame or a normal flame from special multiflame heating attachments may be used. as shown above. On cooling. There is. the temperature should not exceed 550– 600 °C. However. Beside purely mechanical methods. a convexity is created in the heated part. normally demanding no other equipment than ordinary gas welding equipment. which often arise in welded steel constructions.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Heating Techniques The Acetylene/Oxygen flame is frequently used for heating workpieces onboard. and how the shrinkage forces should be exploited in straightening. On the next page we will give some guidelines on how to apply these heating wedges. especially in the case of high tensile steel. 496 . In flame straightening. The steadily growing use of welding calls for an economical method of dealing with the deformations. one area of heating that needs special know-how. This is a convenient method. the heated metal contracts. heat should not be applied to a spot that has been heated previously.

1 starting at the arrow head. Angle bars. 2. T-bars. straightening in web direction Heat both flanges. straightening in flange direction. 5. and then no.01 497 .AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Flame straightening techniques Angle bars. straightening in flange direction Only heat the horizontal flange and start at the arrow head 1. first no. Only heat the horizontal flange and start at arrow head 1.

T-bars. 2. 498 . and then no.1 starting at the arrow head. 2. 1 starting at the arrow head. starting from the arrow heads 1.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING T-bars. and then no. 1. straightening the web sideways 5. first no.01 First heat the web no. 2. straightening in flanges direction Heat both flanges at the same time. first no. straightening in web direction Heat both flanges. and then flange no. starting at the arrow head. U-girders. straightening the web sideways Heat both flanges. U-girders.

Leftward welding Rightward welding 5. adjust the flame until it has the characteristics required for the operation to be undertaken. In gas welding. NB. A normal flame is used for welding all types of steel. bronze and zinc alloys. A flame with an excess of Oxygen is used for welding cast iron. In either case. Rightward welding requires more expertise. It is important to adjust welding flame correctly for the material to be welded. the joined edges of the workpiece melt and fuse. Welding can be either leftward og rightward technique. which is the simpler method. make sure that the weld penetrates completely and evenly on the reverse side of the material with no imperfections. brass. A flame with a slight surplus of Acetylene is used for welding Aluminium.01 499 . Flame types are given under the descriptions of the various filler materials. and for brazing. with or without filler material.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Welding Techniques After lighting the torch. Correct alignment of the workpieces is essential to a good joint. and welders with limited experience are therefore recommended to use leftward welding. and copper. The direction of weld is selected according to the thickness of the material.

always weld leftward.5 mm 30° Material thickness 1. The metal on each side of the seam must melt before the filler rod is fed into the weld pool. and welding is in process. Leftward welding is used for sheet thicknesses up to 3–4 mm and for thinwalled pipes. Vertical leftward welding. When welding cast iron and non-ferrous metals.0 mm 30°–60° 500 . (The core of the flame should be 2-3 mm from the workpiece).5–3. Horizontal leftward welding Adjust the equipment for the correct flame. The welding flame points away from the finished weld. Move the torch with a slight rotational movement to melt both edges of the workpiece. Do not hold the torch too far away from the workpiece. Brazing should also be performed using this technique.5 mm thick can be welded by vertical leftward welding. this is called leftward welding. When the material begins to melt. feed the filler rod into the weld pool with small movements. Make sure to find the right speed.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Leftward welding When the filler rod is held in front of the torch in the welding direction.0–1. Weld in the same manner as for horizontal welding. such as aluminium and brass. filler rod angles: 5. Vertical leftward welding Sheet steel up to 2.01 Material thickness 1.

Rightward welding is recommended for the joining of sheet metal and plate of more than 3–4 mm in thickness and for pipe welding. 5. Vertical rightward welding and rightward overhead welding.01 501 . See also horizontal leftward welding. The principle is the same as for horizontal rightward welding. Vertical rightward welding This is used for material thicknesses from 4 mm and up. the risk of tensions in the workpiece is less than in the case of leftward welding.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Rightward welding In rightward welding. The filler rod follows the torch in the welding direction. The blowpipe must not be moved sideways. It is easier to handle the rod if it is bent as shown in the drawing. Move the torch in the direction of weld and feed the filler rod with small rotating movements. the filler rod follows the torch in the direction of the weld. Rightward welding Rightward welding is used for material thicknesses from 4 mm and up. With rightward welding. Horizontal rightward welding Start on the left-hand side of the workpiece and weld from left to right.

5 mm 1–2 mm Flange butt joint 2–3 mm Open square butt joint 60° Up to 2 mm 0–1 mm Close square butt joint 1–2 mm Single V-butt joint w/feather edge Over 3 mm 5.01 502 .5–2 mm Up to 1.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Butt Joints for Gas Welding of Steel (T = thickness of workpiece) 1.

Product no.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Consumables and parameters for Gas Welding MS-200 Description Gas welding rod for welding of unalloyed structural steel with a carbon content of less than 0. 5. 250 gram container. 092-603043 Slight acetylene surplus Detailed information on these consumables to be found under the section Consumables.5 3. per package per package kg per package 280 125 3.5 092-514265 Flux: Aluflux 234 F.01 503 . per package per package kg per package 47 0.2 % Packaging data: Diameter Mm 2.5 092-539551 092-539569 Flux: No flux required Neutral ALUMAG-235 Description Gas welding rod for wrought and cast aluminium alloys containing up to 5 % Mg. Generally it can be used for all cast alloys containing magnesium as the main alloying element.0 3. Packaging data: Diameter Mm 3 Length mm 500 Rods Net weight Product no.0 Length mm 500 500 Rods Net weight Product no.

When the filler solidifies it will stick firmly to the base material. A quick and cheap method of joining materials which does not involve expensive equipment. The filler material will always have a lower melting temperature than the material to be joined. The soldering/ brazing time should. 5. liquefy and with the help of the flux spread out and bind to the surfaces of the workpieces. Flux eliminates the oxide layer on the surface of the base material during the heating process. Fluxes serve three basic functions that are required to obtain a successful result. Fluxes In brazing and soldering processes it is most often required to use a flux suited for the filler material and base material. of the liquified alloy so that it can spread uniformly. mucous membranes. there is little deformation and change of structure in the workpiece. it will reach melting temperature range. Overheating may also destroy the properties of the flux. Due to the relatively low temperatures applied. 3. therefore not exceed 3 . and protects against further oxidation. only the filler material is melted in soldering and brazing processes. This bond is a result of the filler material’s ability to “wet” the workpiece. In this process there is a very faint alloying zone between the melted filler material and the base material. ensuring good wetting of the base material. skin and open wounds. but to all types. Make sure that there is proper ventilation whenever you braze or solder and avoid contact with eyes. but whereas both filler material and workpiece surfaces are melted in welding.5 minutes. The dissolving ability of the fluxes is limited and they cannot be heated for any period of time. Most metals and combinations of metals can be joined by brazing and soldering.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Soldering and Brazing Techniques Soldering and brazing are thermal fusion processes for joining metals. This applies not only to Unitor’s fluxes. When heated. 1. 2. Keep in mind that most fluxes have a toxic content. brazing produces a bond of hight tensile strength with good corrosion resistance. If the correct filler metal and flux is chosen. When the filler material is applied the flux reduces the surface tension 504 . 4.01 3. Advantages of brazing and soldering 1. 2. thereby indicating when filler material should be applied. Surplus flux remaining on the workpiece after brazing should be removed by rinsing in clean water and brushing. The flux is adapted to the filler material in such a way that it melts slightly before correct working temperature is reached. The processes are related to welding.

Correct mating of the surfaces to be joined. The filler alloy is normally basen on tin (Sn). Heat indirectly when using a welding torch for soldering. It is essential that the surfaces to be joined are clean. The solders alloyed with silver will normally have the best mechanical strength. Compared with brazing soldering gives a weaker joint. With correct joint preparation and brazing technique it is possible to obtain joints with high mechanical strength. Slight surplus of Acetylene. Correct preheating. Soft soldering The principal difference between soldering and brazing is the working temperature of the filler material used. AG-60. Soft soldering is commonly used in electrical connections. capillary brazing and what is often called braze welding. AC/OX soldering is done with a soft. Keep in mind that brazing and soldering are surface bonds. The workpiece must be preheated to a temperature equal to the melting point of the filler metal. 2. 4.01 505 . The parts must be heated evenly so that the entire soldering area reaches soldering temperature at the same time. In soldering the working temperature of the filler alloy is always below 400 °C. 5. Be careful not to overheat. Reducing flame. slightly carburizing (reducing) flame. Brazing The term brazing is used when the melting point of the filler material is above 400 °C and below the melting point of the material in the workpiece. 3. soldering or braze welding depends on the type of joint and strength required.g.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING A good brazed or soldered joint depends on: 1. This may destroy the bonding properties of the solder. Whether the joint is to be made by capillary brazing. and tensile strength of up to 490 Mpa is fully possible with a high quality general purpose brazing alloy like e. The general term brazing covers two different application methods. and no overheating. and in joints where a leak-tight connection is required. Correct flux.

Heating should be done with a neutral or slightly reducing flame. Keep the workpiece in position until it has cooled off and the filler has solidified. and if the material allows.05 . This effect is based on the surface tension of the liquid filler metal. Starting with the thicker part to ensure that both surfaces reach correct temperature quickly and simultaneously. The workpiece can then be released. within max. and the heat from the workpiece will melt off filler material. Heat the entire area of the joint uniformly.1 mm to obtain sufficient strength and capillary effect. Do not heat directly on the filler material. which will pull the filler in between the surfaces.0. 2-3 minutes to avoid damaging the flux. Joint types Maximum capillary gap between joint Surface 0. Where possible the surfaces should overlap 3–5 times the wall thickness of the thinner part. The opening between the surfaces should preferably be 0.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Edge preparation Capillary brazing Capillary brazing requires a filler material.1 mm. Coat joint surface with flux 5. When the joint has reached correct temperature the end of the brazing rod should be touched to the joint. cooled off in water. Allow sufficient time for the capillary action to take full effect. Heat evenly 506 . and a joint with parallel surfaces.01 Flux residues should be removed to avoid corrosion. which will give assistance to the flux in removing oxides from the surface. With proper joints this will happen very quickly. which melts to a thin flowing liquid with excellent wetting properties.

The brazing technique is. wetting the workpiece surface correct temperature has been reached. The joint should be preheated sufficiently before filler material is applied and melted off with the flame. V-joint 3-12 mm. however. Braze welding may be used to join a wide range of metals. similar to gas welding with the leftward method. X-joint Above 12 mm. Brazing applications on pipes. When the applied drop of filler flows outwards. and is also used for rebuilding wear surfaces. I-joint Below 3 mm. Use the leftward technique for braze welding.01 507 . and the joint types will be similar to gas welding except that the joint edges must be rounded off. 5. and brazing may proceed using the forehand technique described under gas welding. As with capillary brazing the surfaces must be cleaned and correct flux should be applied where required.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Edge preparation Braze welding Contrary to the term braze welding is not a welding process. as the base material is not melted.

5 093-777973 Preferably use soldering iron. 093-778461 On Yorcalbro: ALBRO FLUX 263 PF (250 g container) Product no. seawater resistant. refrigeration plants.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Consumables and parameters for Brazing TIN 241 AG Description: Flux cored soft solder wire on spool for tinning and joining of electric conductors. etc. Detailed information on these consumables can be found under the section Consumables. Packaging data Diameter mm 1. copper. electrical connections. nickel. 093-778461 AG-60-252 Description: Neutral.5 093-233601 5. A flux coated cadmium free. sleeves and unions to copper pipes. copper. stainless steel.0 Length mm 500 Quantity Net weight Product no per package per package kg per package 24 0. AG-45-253 Description: Bare cadmium free silver rod for joining of all types of steel. cast iron and hard match.5 Length mm - Quantity Net weight Product no per package per package kg per package - 0. electrical instruments. high strength silver rod for joining all types of steel. If welding torch: Soft reducing flame. Yorcalbro pipes (aluminiumbrass). Packaging data Flux Diameter mm 2.0 Length mm 500 Quantity Net weight Product no per package per package kg per package 28 0. copper alloys. 093-604371 Neutral. 508 . batteries. cunifer pipes type 90/10 and 70/30. Packaging data Diameter mm 2. nickel alloys. radios. stainless steel. This brazing rod gives a very good joint and can be used for brazing nipples. cast iron.01 AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250g container) Product no. nickel and nickel alloys. copper alloys.4 093-519744 Flux AG-60/45 Flux 252 PF (250g container) product no.

093-603076. bronze. It gives a very smooth and attractive surface. Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. cast iron and steel. 5. universal brazing bronze (brass) rod for the brazing of steel. FC-BRONZE-261 Description A flux-coated brazing rod for joining and surfacing copper. The addition of Si. nickel and nickel alloys. Neutral or slight oxygen surplus. 093-603076.01 Detailed information on these consumables can be found under the section Consumables. Packaging data: Diameter Mm 3 5 Length mm 500 500 Rods Net weight Product no.7 3 093-174326 093-514240 Flux: Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. per package per package kg per package 54 36 1. Mn and Sn guarantees a strong and high-quality deposit. brass. cast iron. May be used for brazing galvanized steel without destroying the galvanized surface. 509 . copper and copper alloys. per package per package kg per package 69 32 1 1 093-233551 093-233569 Flux: Bronze flux-261 PF (250 g container) product no. aluminium bronze. Packaging data: Diameter Mm 2 3 Length mm 500 500 Rods Net weight Product no.AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING Consumables and parameters for Brazing BRONZE-264 Description An easy-flowing.

AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING FC-WEARBRO-262 Description A flux-coated wear-resistant bronze rod used for applying a hard-wearing surface to bronze. Oil impregnated cast iron may also be brazed with FC-Castiron 268. copper. Packaging data Diameter Mm 3 5 Length mm 500 500 Rods Net weight Product no. steel. Packaging data Diameter Mm 4 Length mm 500 Rods Net weight Product no.7 096-682310 Flux: Additional flux not necessary. per package per package kg per package 33 13 1 1. Also used for braze welding cast iron. brass.1 093-233577 093-233585 Flux: Wearbroflux 262 PF (250g container) product no. FC-CASTIRON-268S Description Flux coated rod for joining and surfacing cast iron and brazing cast iron to steel. per package per package kg per package 12 0. Detailed information on these consumables can be found under the section Consumables. Slight oxygen surplus. cast iron and malleable cast iron.01 510 . 5. 603068 Neutral or slight oxygen surplus.

GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   512 Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   513 Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   514 Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   515 Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   516 Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   518 Rules & Safety precautions for handling and use of Gas cylinders   522 Gas Distribution System for Acetylene and Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   524

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Introduction
Where and how to obtain supplies of the gases needed or board ship can be a great problem. There are cylinders of many different types on the market, and an even greater variety of types of valve and threaded connectors. An extra difficulty is that most countries have their own rules for the filling and inspection of cylinders, and this often means that only cylinders of the country’s own types can be serviced in a reasonable time. A sure way to avoid difficulties is to join Wilhelmsen Ships Service's world-wide Unitor gas supply system. Through this system, ready-filled gas cylinders are available in more than 1600 ports throughout the world. In these ports we have obtained official permission to refill our own cylinders. In some places, even with this permission, the filling routines can take great deal of time. But this is no problem for our customers, as we make sure of always having enough full cylinders in stock, ready to meet each customer’s immediate needs. Our standardized gas cylinders are owned, inspected and maintained by Wilhelmsen Ships Service. The cylinders are delivered to our customers under deposit conditions and can be returned to Wilhelmsen Ships Service or other authorized agent when they are empty.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Argon
Product name Formula Hazard class

Argon
Appearance and colour

Ar Colourless, odourless

Nonflammable gas
IMDG code

2.2
Substance Identification

Specific gravity (Air=1)

1.38 (heavier than air)

UN-1006

Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey
Cylinder Outlet Size Connection E-10 E-50 W24.32mm x 1/14” W24.32mm x 1/14” Nominal Filled Pressure Nominal Approx. Approx. Contents (bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (cu. Metres) (max) (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 2.2 11 200 200 3.6 18 140 x 1000 230 x 1690 18 81

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders manufactured to older standards. Argon Argon is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. It is non-toxic and noncombustible. Together with Helium, Neon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon, it constitutes a special group of gases known as the “rare”, “inert” or “noble” gases. The terms inert and noble mean that the gases have an extremely weak tendency to react with other compounds or elements. Argon forms no known chemical compounds. Argon is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 0.934% at sea level. Air is the only known source for the production of pure argon. Argon is non-toxic, but it is included among the simple asphyxiant gases. Argon is used as a protective shielding gas in TIG and MIG welding. In this process argon serves as an inert covering round the point of the electrode/ wire and the molten pool in order to protect the welding zone from the harmful effect of the air.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
ARGON- CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURE
Product name Formula Hazard class

Unimix
Appearance and colour

Ar - CO2 (80%/20%)

Nonflammable gas
IMDG code

Colourless, odourless gas
Specific gravity (Air=1)

2.2
Substance Identification

1.40 (heavier than air)

UN-1956

Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey/Yellow
Cylinder Outlet Size Connection M-10 M-50 W24.32mm x 1/14” W24.32mm x 1/14” Nominal Filled Pressure Nominal Approx. Approx. Contents (bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (cu. Metres) (max) (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 2.2 10.9 200 200 3.4 17.1 140 x 1000 230 x 1690 18 81

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders manufactured to older standards. ARGON-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES ARGON-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURE (UNIMIX) is a mixture of 80% argon and 20% Carbon Dioxide, which is used as a shielding gas in the MIG/MAG welding process. The mixture is suitable for welding all un- and low alloyed carbon steels. The mixture gives a very stable molten pool together with optimum energy-transmission. The mixture is relative inert in its chemical properties and is non toxic. Because the gas mixture is heavier than air, it will collect in confined and low areas. The result will be that the Oxygen level is reduced which can be a potential hazard. More on the effect of exposure to Oxygen deficient atmospheres can found on the next pages describing Oxygen. In general it can be said that when working with compressed gases, you should work in a well ventilated area.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
CARbon dioxide
Product name Formula Hazard class

Carbon dioxide
Appearance and colour

CO2

Nonflammable gas
IMDG code

Colourless, odourless
Specific gravity (Air=1)

2.2
Substance Identification

1.53 (heavier than air)

UN-1013

Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Grey
Cylinder Outlet Nominal Size Connection Contents (cu. Metres) C-9 CgA320 CgA320 4.95 14.85 C-27 Nominal Approx. Approx. Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 9 27 203 x 560 230 x 1210 19 55

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder and valve. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. It is non-toxic and non-combustible. It is considered a inert gases. The terms inert mean that the gases have an extremely weak tendency to react with other compounds or elements. Carbon dioxide is present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 0.04% at sea level. It is produced by burning fossil fuels or chemical reactions. Carbon dioxide is non-toxic at low concentration but it is included among the simple asphyxiate gases. Concentrations above 5% are considered as dead threatening. Carbon dioxide is used as a protective shielding gas in MAG welding. In this process carbon dioxide serves as an active gas covering round the point of the electrode/ wire and the molten pool in order to protect the welding zone from the harmful effect of the air. It is additionally greatly used in the food and beverage industry either as a protective gas to conserve food products or carbonation of soft drinks and beers. A new application is water treatment to balance the acidity of potable water.

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Oxygen
Product name Formula Hazard class

Oxygen
Appearance and colour

O2

Nonflammable gas
IMDG code

Colourless, odourless, tasteless gas
Specific gravity (Air=1)

2.2 + 5.1
Substance Identification

1.11 (Slightly heavier than air)

UN-1072

Cylinder characteristics
Colour code: Body – Blue
Cylinder Outlet Size Connection 0-5 0-40 W21.80mm x 1/14” W21.80mm x 1/14” Nominal Filled Pressure Nominal Approx. Approx. Contents (bar) at 15ºC Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (cu. Metres) (max) (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 1 6.4 200 150 1.3 7.8 140 x 620 230 x 1360 12 52

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders manufactured to older standards. Oxygen
Oxygen (02) is a colourless, odourless gas, slightly heavier than air. Oxygen normally amounts to 21% by volume of the earth’s atmosphere at sea level. Oxygen is produced industrially by rectification (distillation) of liquid air, from which the Oxygen boils off at minus 183 °C, and can thus be separated from the other air gases, for compression in steel cylinders. Oxygen itself will not burn, but the gas sustains combustion in the normal sense of the word. In pure oxygen combustion proceeds much more rapidly than in air, and the higher the pressure, the more violent the combustion. Even materials that are normally not combustible, or are difficult to ignite, can catch fire spontaneously or be set alight in pure Oxygen. We make use of this phenomenon for the Oxygen-cutting of steel.

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Oxygen can lead to the explosive ignition of ordinary oil, grease or other organic substances. For this reason a welder must never wear working clothes or use equipment that is contaminated with oil or grease. Be particularly careful to prevent equipment or fittings for Oxygen to come in contact with oil or grease. Only special lubricants may be used for Oxygen equipment.

AC/OX CUTTING/WELDING/BRAZING
Rules relating to Oxygen – Oxygen that leaks out into the air increases the danger of combustible materials igniting, i.e. body hair, clothes etc. catching fire. This can occur even with a small increas in the Oxygen content of the air, and can cause serious burns and other injuries. – Never use Oxygen instead of air to start a diesel engine. Never use Oxygen to blow dust from working clothes. lf clothing has been accidentally exposed to an increase in Oxygen content it may take a long time to get rid of the excess Oxygen, often several hours. – Never use Oxygen to freshen the air Oxygen Content (% by Volume) 15-19% 12-14% 10-12% 8-10% 6-8% 4-6% when you are working in a confined space. – Fittings for Oxygen must be kept free of dust and metal particles because of the danger of spontaneous combustion. Oxygen-deficient atmospheres The normal Oxygen content of air is approximately 21%. Depletion of Oxygen content in air, either by combustion or displacement with inert gas, is a potentional hazard to personnel. A general indication of what can potentially occur relative to the percentage of Oxygen available is given in the table below.

Effects and Symptoms (At Atmospheric Pressure) Decreased ability to work strenuously. May impair coordination and may induce early symptoms in persons with coronary, pulmonary, or circulatory problems. Respiration increases in exertion, pulse up, impaired coordination, perception, and judgment. Respiration further increases in rate and depth, poor judgment, lips blue. Mental failure, fainting, unconsciousness, ashen face, blueness of lips, nausea, and vomiting. 8 minutes; 100% fatal, 6 minutes; 50% fatal, 4-5 minutes; recovery with treatment. Coma in 40 seconds, convulsions, respiration ceases, death.

Note: Exposure to atmospheres containing 12% or less Oxygen will bring about unconsciousness without warning and so quickly that the individual cannot help or protect himself. An asphyxia victim should be taken into the open air quickly and given Oxygen or artificial respiration. Medical attention should be obtained immediately. Inhalation of an Oxygen-rich atmosphere also requires medical attention.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
ACETYLENE
Product name Formula Hazard class

Acetylene
Appearance and odour

C2H2

Flammable gas
IMDG code

Pure acetylene is a colourless gas with an ethereal odour Commercial (carbide)acetylene has a distinctive garlic-like odour
Specific gravity (Air=1)

2.1
Substance Identification

0.906 (Lighter than air)
FLammable limits % by volume

UN-1001
Extinguishing media

LEL 2.2 UEL 80-85

CO2. Dry chemical

Unusual fire and explosion hazard Gaseous Acetylene is spontaneously combustible in air at pressure above 2,0 BAR. It requires a very low ignition energy so that fires which have been extinguished without stopping the flow of gas can easily reignite with possible explosive force. Acetylene has a density very similar to that of air so when leaking it does not readily dissipate. Pure Acetylene can ignite by decomposition above 2.0 BAR, therefore, the UEL is 100% if the ignition source is of sufficient intensity.

Cylinder characteristics
Acetylene (Dissolved in a solvent supported in a porous medium) Colour: Maroon.
Cylinder Outlet Size Connection A-5 G 3/4” BSP G 3/4” BSP A-40 Nominal Contents (cu. Metres) (See note 1.) 0.7 5.6 Nominal Approx. Approx. Wt. Of Gas Dimensions Cylinder Wt. (kg) (mm) (kg) (See note 1.) (See note 2.) (See note 3.) 0.8 6.2 140 x 620 230 x 1360 14 67

Note: 1. Actual contents and weight of gas in individual cylinders will vary about the nominal contents and weight of gas indicated. 2. The length includes an allowance of 70mm for a top outlet valve. 3. The approximate cylinder weight includes cylinder, valve and neck-ring. The approximate weight of a full cylinder is obtained by adding the nominal weight of contained gas to this figure. Greater weights may be found among cylinders manufactured to older standards.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Acetylene Acetylene is a colourless, flammable, and in the pure state odourless gas. It is can be manufactured by reacting Calcium Carbide with water in Acetylene generators. Ordinary commercial grades of Acetylene contain traces of impurities such as Phosphine, Arsine, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia, and have a garlic-like odour. The gas is slightly lighter than air. Acetylene alone burns in air with a very hot, bright and sooty flame. Mixed with air or Oxygen in the right proportion, Acetylene gives a concentrated, sootfree flame. When mixed with Oxygen the combustion is more intense than in air, and because of the Acetylene’s high carbon content (92.3% by weight) its maximum flame temperature is about 3100°C. Because of its high temperature, thermal value and speed of combustion (11.6 m/s), this is the most suitable gas flame both for welding and for cutting. Explosion and decomposition hazards Acetylene, is a highly flammable and explosive gas, and a mixture of Acetylene and air or Oxygen is explosive within wide limits. The explosive limits in air range from 2% to 82%, while if mixed with Oxygen the explosive range is from 2.5% to 93%. For this reason care must be taken to prevent an unnecessary or uncontrolled escape of Acetylene, and good ventilation must be assured in places where Acetylene is stored or used. Should escaping Acetylene from an open top valve or from the regulator, catch fire, put out the flame by closing the top valve. For this eventuality a fire-resistant mitten should always be kept handy. Should the flame make closing of the top valve difficult or impossible, it must first be put out by a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or dry powder extinguisher. Another property, which should be known and understood by personnel engaged in transporting or using Acetylene is that the gas can decompose into its constituents, Carbon and Hydrogen, if it is exposed to temperatures above 350°C (662°F) or if gaseous Acetylene at a pressure of more than 2 bar (200 kPa; 29 psig) is subjected to shock during storage or transportation. Decomposition proceeds rapidly and liberates a great deal of energy. Because of this property, Acetylene cannot be stored under pressure in the same way, for example, that Oxygen is stored. To avoid the decomposition characteristics of compressed, gaseous Acetylene the cylinders for storing the gas are filled with a porous mass, having minute cellular spaces. This eliminates the risk that any pocket of appreciable size remains, in which Acetylene in gaseous form may collect. The porous mass is saturated with Acetone, in which the Acetylene actually dissolves. The combination of these features - porous mass and solvent allows the Acetylene to be contained in cylinders at moderate pressure with greatly reduced danger of explosive decomposition occuring during normal handling and use. However, there still exists the chance that decomposition may be started by careless handling of the cylinder, such as hitting or dropping it, heating it, or by using incomplete or badly maintained welding equipment, thereby permitting a complete flash-

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
back of the welding flame into the cylinder. The signs of decomposition are: – The temperature of the cylinder shell rises, starting at the area within which the decomposition commenced. – The cylinder pressure increases (only evident when the cylinder is in use and a regulator with gauges is fitted on the top valve). – If, after a complete flash-back, the gas released from the top valve contains soot, and has an unusual smell. On suspicion that decomposition may have started in the cylinder, shut the top valve immediately, and remove regulator or other fittings attached to it. The cylinder must be checked for increase in temperature by repeatedly feeling the cylinder shell all over by hand. If temperature of the shell rises, but has not exceeded hand-heat (about 50°C) the cylinder must be taken to the railing immediately and thrown over board. The cylinder must be cooled by copius amounts of water while it is being moved. If the ship is in port, hang the cylinder by a rope into the sea and call the fire brigade. It is possible to stop a decomposition by keeping the top valve closed and cooling the cylinder with large quantities of cold water, but if this is to succeed it must be commenced at the latest five minutes after the decomposition has started, and must continue until the cylinder remains cold. However, out of consideration for the crew and the ship, do not try to save the cylinder but throw it over board as quickly as possible. longer be touched by the bare hand (more than about 50 °C), the danger of an explosion is imminent and the cylinder must not be moved. Start cooling the cylinder immediately with large amounts of cold water from a protected position. All personnel not taking part in this operation must be evacuated from the area. When the cylinder has been cooled until the water no longer steams from the shell, it can be moved to the railing and thrown over board. Remember that cooling must be continued without interruption throughout the removal operation. WARNING: The top valve of a cylinder containing decomposing Acetylene must be kept shut at all times! Fatal mistakes have been made in cases of this kind; even experienced welders have opened the cylinder valve fully, in the mistaken belief that this would release the pressure in the cylinder. In fact, the opposite happens. The Acetylene that evaporates out of the Acetone passes the decomposition zone on its way to the top valve, decomposition becomes explosive and the pressure in the cylinder increases much faster than it can be released, with the result that the cylinder may explode within seconds. Inhalation hazards Acetylene is a non-toxic but mildly anesthetic gas. Formerly pure Acetylene was combined with Oxygen and used as an anesthetic in hospitals. There is a risk of asphyxia when the Acetylene level in respiratory air reduces the Oxygen content to three-fourths or less of

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If decomposition has reached a point where the cylinder can no

GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
normal concentration. Hence it is important that Acetylene is handled only in well ventilated areas. Important safety reminders Under certain conditions Acetylene forms readily explosive compounds with copper, silver and mercury. For this reason contact between Acetylene and these metals, their salts, compounds and highconcentration alloys must be avoided. It is generally accepted that brass containing less than 65% copper in the alloys, and certain nickel alloys, are suitable for use in Acetylene service under normal conditions. Never use makeshift hose connectors made out of pieces of copper pipe - use a proper hose connector. Acetylene cylinders must be stored and used in an upright position. If the cylinders are used when lying on their sides or sloping, some of the Acetone will run out and into the reduction valve and hose. Drawing gas from Acetylene cylinders The Acetylene cylinders are filled with a porous mass, which is saturated with Acetone. An Acetylene cylinder with a volume of 40 litres normally contains 16 litres of Acetone. The Acetylene gas dissolves in (is absorbed by) the Acetone. At a Acetylene Cylinders A-40 1 2 3 4 5 pressure of 15 bar and a temperature of 15°C the cylinder will contain 6.000 n/l of dissolved Acetylene. To fill the cylinder with this quantity of Acetylene normally takes 8 hours. When you open the top valve to use the Acetylene, the pressure in the cylinder falls and the gas is released from the Acetone. If this process proceeds too quickly, ((boiling)) occurs in the cylinder, rather similar to the effect of opening a bottle of sodawater, and some of the Acetone will emerge with the gas. This is harmful both to the cylinder and to the weld. Admittedly, Acetone burns, but with very different characteristics from Acetylene. The rule is therefore that the cylinder should not be emptied more rapidly than by about one-eighth of the contents per hour. This corresponds to about 750 n/l per hour. However, for a short while (maximum 30 minutes) extraction from a full cylinder at about 15°C may be increased to about 2.500 n/l per hour. After that, the cylinder must be set aside for a period of rest. If gas consumption is greater than a single Acetylene cylinder can deliver, a sufficiently dimensioned gas central installation is normally used. The following gives the extraction rates for various combinations of interconnected A-40 Acetylene cylinders: Maximum extraction, nl/hr Continuous 700 1400 2100 2800 3500 Intermittent* 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500

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*FuIl cylinders at approx. 15 °C.

GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Rules and safety precautions for handling and use of Gas Cylinders
– Always make sure that the cylinder cap that protects the top valve is in place and screwed down before moving the cylinder. Cylinders, when not in active use, should have the cylinder cap in place and properly secured to prevent them from falling. – Never use slings, chains or magnets to lift gas cylinders. Use racks, baskets or cylinder trolleys specially designed for hoisting gas cylinders, and equipped with proper lifting lugs. – Cargo nets are not recommended for lifting gas cylinders. If a cargo net has to be used, it must be covered internally with a good tarpaulin to prevent the cylinders from sliding out through the mesh. – If a crane or winch is used to lift gas cylinders, and the crane driver is not in a position from which he can see the entire hoisting operation, a signalman must be stationed where he can see both the load and the crane driver. – Gas cylinders must never be hoisted or dragged by the cylinder cap or top valve. – Do not subject the cylinders to unnecessary impacts or jolts during transport. Do not allow the cylinders to fall, or knock against one another. – During transport, gas cylinders must always be handled as if they were full. Never be indifferent or careless because they are “empties”. Mistakes can be made, and full cylinders may be mixed with empty ones. Therefore, during transport treat all cylinders as if they were full.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
– If the cylinder valve cannot be opened by hand alone, put the cylinder aside and inform the supplier. Never use wrenches or other tools to open cylinder valves. On valves intended for valve keys, use only valve keys supplied by or approved by the gas manufacturer. Valves with handwheels must be operated by hand only, without tools. Never hammer the hand-wheel in order to get the valve open or shut. – It is important to make sure that the cylinder valve outlet union and the connector of the equipment to be used are a proper fit. Never force a connection that does not fit. Make sure that seals are in good condition and of the correct type. – Use only regulators, flashback arrestors, hoses, etc., designed for use with the gas in question. Improvising or substituting equipment can lead to serious accidents. – Never use gas cylinders as rollers or props for other cargo, or for any purpose whatever other than to contain a specific gas. – Take care to avoid using or storing gas cylinders in places where they could become part of an electrical circuit. Never touch a cylinder with a live electrode. – Check for gas leaks using soapy water. – Never use an open flame! – Never use flames to raise the pressure of a cylinder. Cylinders should not be subjected to temperatures above 45°C – As far as possible, avoid exposure of gas cylinders to moisture or salt water. Never expose cylinders to corrosive chemicals or gases. – The information that is cast or stamped on the cylinders must not be altered or removed. – Never try to repair or alter any feature of a gas cylinder or valve. WARNING It is extremely dangerous, and therefore forbidden, to attempt to transfer oxygen or acetylene from one cylinder to another on one’s own. Filling of gas cylinders shall be carried out only by qualified personnel at the filling factories. Failure to observe this rule has unfortunately led to the loss of several lives.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Gas Distribution System for acetylene and oxygen
Unitor’s gas distribution system for the storage and distribution of Acetylene and Oxygen was introduced in order to increase safety on board ship. The system was developed in close collaboration with the Norwegian maritime authorities, and is now included in the rules and regulations that apply to the handling and use of welding gases on board Norwegian ships. The authorities of several other countries have shown interest in the system, and have introduced it for use on board the ships of their own nations. The installation of Unitor’s central system on board ship reduces the risk of accidents to a far greater extent than before, because the gas cylinders remain stored in the cylinder store with the welding gases being fed to the point of use through permanently installed pipelines and fittings. Naturally, this does not entirely eliminate the need to take cylinders out of the store from time to time in order to carry out certain welding or cutting operations in various parts of the ship, but the practice of keeping gas cylinders in the engine room and transporting them from place to place, with the risk this entailed, has now practically ceased. Instead, one or two outlets for welding gases are provided in the workshop and engine room. The location of the cylinder central with direct access to the open deck (as provided in the Regulations) makes it easy to get rid of the cylinders in the event of an outbreak of fire, and everybody on board knows exactly where the cylinders are located. Efficiency and economy are improved by the fact that a sufficient supply of gas is assured, even for jobs needing large amounts of gas, e.g. for heating purposes. Acetylene can be drawn from two or more cylinders at the same time, which means less gas used per unit of time per cylinder, thus ensuring more efficient emptying of the cylinders.

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Extracts from regulations relating to central system A central system for Acetylene and Oxygen consists of a cylinder store with fittings, piping systems and one or more outlet stations. The various components of the central system are subject to rules laid down by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate or similar organisations, and fittings are required to be of approved types. We quote from the Regulations: – The gas cylinder store shall be a separate room on or above the upper continuous deck. The room shall have bulkheads, deck and deckhead of steel and have a gastight separation from adjacent rooms. – On drilling platforms and special purpose ships the gas cylinder store may be located on an open deck. – The gas cylinder store shall be insulated, ventilated and so arranged that the temperature does not normally exceed 40°C. – The ventilation system shall not be connected to any other ventilation system on board. – The room shall not be used for any other purpose than the storage of gas cylinders. – Electrical installations in a gas cylinder system shall be of explosionproof types. – Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders shall not be kept in the engine room. – Pipes (on the low-pressure side) shall be seamless, of material ST35 or equivalent, and of wall thickness not less than 2.0 mm. On drilling platforms and special-purpose ships the wall thickness of pipelines on open deck shall be not less than 2.5 mm. – Pipelines shall be laid with the fewest possible joints. Joints shall be made by butt welds, of good workmanship. – Connections such as unions, sleeves, flanges etc. are not accepted as alternatives to welding. – Normally, only two outlet stations are allowed for each pipe system from the cylinder store or cabinet. On drilling platforms and special-purpose ships a greater number of outlet stations may be permitted. Approval of the number of outlet stations must be obtained in each individual case. – When the central plant is not in use the gas cylinder valves and other valves shall be shut. The above points are only extracts from some of the rules relating to central plants in ships. The complete rules are to be found in “Regulations relating to welding equipment etc. for the welding gases Acetylene and Oxygen on board ships, mobile drilling platforms and special-purpose vessels in offshore operations”, issued by the Norwegian Maritime Directorate. A copy of these Regulations can be obtained from Unitor. Approval and certification of central plants Before a central plant is allowed to be brought into use it must be inspected, degreased, blown through and pressure-tested in compliance with the rules of the Norwegian Maritime Directorate or similar organisations. When the plant is found to be in order an installation certificate is issued, valid for 5 years. The original of the installation certificate is to be posted in the

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
central gas storage. If any important component of the system is damaged, changed or replaced, the system shall be inspected again and a new installation certificate issued. The layout of the central system The layout of the central system and various components are shown in the drawing on the next page. The central store where the cylinders are kept must be situated on or above the upper continuous deck, and it must have access to the open deck. The door to the central store must be marked with a notice warning of gas under pressure. Fastening arrangements (3) for the number of Acetylene and Oxygen cylinders to be kept on board are to be welded to the bulkhead. The design of the fastening clamps makes it very easy to release the cylinders in case of a fire. From the cylinders the gas is carried through high-pressure hoses (4) to T-valves (6). The connection nuts for the highpressure hoses are right-hand threaded for Oxygen and left-hand threaded for Acetylene, to eliminate the possibility of the hoses being wrongly connected. Non-return valves (5) are fitted to prevent gas from flowing back through the T-valve to the gas cylinders. By using several T-valves connected by expansion pipes (8) it is possible to connect in series any desired number of cylinders. The last T-valve in the series is closed with a blind plug and connecting nut (7). From the T-valves the gas is led to a shut-off valve (9) where the central regulator R520(10) is located. The regulator has an adjusting screw with a locknut for pressure regulation. When the correct pressure has been set on the regulator (8 bar for oxygen and 0.8 bar for acetylene), the setting is locked by tightening the locknut. This makes it unnecessary to reset the pressures every time the plant is used, the gas flow being controlled simply by opening and closing the shutoff valve (9). The desired working pressure is set by means of a regulating valve at the outlet station, as required for the individual welding and cuffing operations. The safety valve of the central regulator (11) must be connected to a pipe to carry any escaping gas out to the open deck. The end of this pipe must be located not less than 3 metres above deck, and the outlet must be marked with a regulation sign as follows: “Gas danger. Fire, open lights and smoking prohibited.” From the low-pressure side of the regulator the gas is fed through a low-pressure steel expansion pipe (12) and connected to the permanent piping system serving the outlet stations by means of an outlet union (16). The pipelines are colour-coded. Blue pipes are for Oxygen and red for Acetylene. Where a pipe passes through bulkheads or decks it must be led through bushings (18), and the pipes are to be fastened to bulkheads with pipe clamps (17) at intervals of about 2.5 metres. The outlet stations are to be installed at suitable locations which are well ventilated and where the outlet station is protected from mechanical damage. If necessary, the outlet may be placed in a protective cabinet (25).

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GAS SUPPLIES AND GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Outlet stations on open decks must always be enclosed in protective cabinets. Each outlet station is fitted with shut-off valves (20) which should be closed during short interruptions in work. NOTE: There is a filter in the threaded inlet union for the shut-off valve of the gas pipeline, to prevent particles passing into the outlet fittings. In time this filter can become clogged; it should be unscrewed for inspection from time to time. Also fitted at the outlet station are regulators to set the desired working pressure (21), flashback arrestors (22) for Acetylene and Oxygen, and gauges for working pressure (23). In addition to the flashback arrestors, the welding torch should be fitted with nonreturn valves to prevent reverse flows and the mixing of welding gases in the hoses. See separate chapter on nonreturn valves.

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WELDING HANDBOOK NOTES

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miscellaneous information
International system of units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   530 The Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   531 General conversion factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   532 Roman numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   533 Metric and decimal equivalents of fractions of an inch . . . . . . . . . . . .   534 Wire cross section AWG/mm2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   534 Common gauge series for sheet thickness and wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   535 Physical properties of some elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   536 Hardness comparison table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   537 Corrosion of galvanic couples in sea water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   538 Temperature scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   540 Pressure variations related to temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   541 Abbreviations and welding terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   542

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miscellaneous information
International System of Units (SI)
The International System of Units (SI for short) is built upon seven base units and two supplementary units. Derived units are related to base and supplementary units by formulas in the right hand column. Symbols for units with specific names are given in parentheses.
 Quantity   Length   mass   time   electric current   thermodynamic temperature   amount of substance   luminous intensity   plane angle   solid angle   acceleration   activity (of a radioactive source)   angular acceleration   angular velocity   area   density   electric capacitance   electric conductance   electric field strength   electric inductance   electric potential difference   electric resistance   electromotive force   energy   entropy   force   frequency   illuminance   luminance   luminous flux   magnetic field strength   magnetic flux   magnetic flux density   mangetomotive force   power   pressure   quantity of electricity   quantity of heat Unit Formula Base Units metre (m) kilogram (kg) second (s) ampere (A) kelvin (K) mole (mol) candela (cd) Supplementary Units radian (rad) steradian (sr) Derived Units metre per second squared disintegration per second radian per second squared radian per second square metre kilogram per cubic metre farad (F) stemens (S) volt per metre henry (H) volt (V) ohm (Ω) volt (V) joule (J) joule per Kelvin newton (N) hertz (Hz) lux (lx) candela per square metre lumen (lm) ampere per metre weber (Wb) tesla (T) ampere (A) watt (W) pascal (Pa) coulomb (C) joule (J)

m/s2 (disintegration)/s rad/s2 rad/s m2 kg/m3 A•s/V A/V V/m V•s/A W/A V/A W/A N•m j/K kg•m/s2 (cycle)/s lm/m2 cd/m2 cd•sr A/m V•s Wb/m2 J/s N/m2 A•s N•m

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miscellaneous information
 Quantity   radiant intensity   specific heat   stress   thermal conductivity   velocity   viscosity, dynamic   viscosity, kinematic   voltage   volume   wavenumber   work   Unit Formula watt per steradian joule per kilogram-kelvin pascal (Pa) watt per metre-kelvin metre per second pascal-second square metre per second volt (V) cubic metre reciprocal metre joule (J) Prefix tera giga mega kilo hecto* deka* deci* centi* milli micro nano pico femto atto W/sr J/kg•K N/m2 W/m•K m/s Pa•s m2/s W/A m3 (wave)/m N•m SI Symbol T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a

Multiplication Factors 1 000 000 000 000 = 1012 1 000 000 000 = 109 1 000 000 = 106 1 000 = 103 100 = 102 10 = 101 0,1 = 10-1 0,01 = 10-2 0,001 = 10-3 0,000 001 = 10-6 0,000 000 001 = 10-9 0,000 000 000 001 = 10-12 0,000 000 000 000 001 = 10-15 0,000 000 000 000 000 001 = 10-18

* To be avoided where possible.

THE PHONETIC ALPHABET
A
Alpha

B
Bravo

C
Charlie

D
Delta

E
Echo

F
Foxtrot

G
Golf

H
Hotel

I
India

J
Juliet

K
Kilo

L
Lima

M
Mike

N
November

O
Oscar

P
Papa

Q
Quebec

R
Romeo

S
Sierra

T
Tango

U
Uniform

V
Victor

W
Whiskey

X
X-ray

Y
Yankee

Z
Zulu

THE GREEK ALPHABET

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miscellaneous information
General conversion factors
Unit Linear Measure mil (0,001 inch) inch foot yard mile nautical mile Square Measure square inch square inch square foot square yard acre acre square mile square mile Volume cubic inch cubic foot cubic foot cubic foot cubic yard ounce (U.S., liq.) quart (U.S., liq.) gallon (U.S.) gallon (U.S.) barrel (U.S.Petroleum) barrel (U.S.Petroleum) Mass grain ounce (oz) pound (lbs) short ton long ton Pressure or Stress pound force per inch2 (psi) kip per inch2 (ksi) pound force per inch2 (psi) kip per inch2 atmosphere atmosphere Conversion to Multiply by Reciprocal

millimetre      0,0254 39,37 millimetre     25,4   0,03937 metre      0,3048   3,281 metre      0,9144   1,0936 kilometre      1,6093   0,6214 kilometre      1,8532   0,5396 square millimeter    645,2   0,00155 square centimeter      6,452   0,155 square metre      0,0929 10,764 square metre      0,8361   1,196 square metre   4047,   0,0002471 square foot 43560,   0,00002296 acre    640,   0,001562 square kilometer      2,590   0,3863 cubic centimeter     16,387   0,06102 cubic metre      0,02832 35,31 gallon (U.S.)      7,48   0,1337 litre     28,32   0,03531 cubic metre      0,7646   1,3079 cubic centimeter     29,57   0,03382 litre      0,9464   1,0566 gallon (Imperial)      0,8327   1,2009 litre      3,785   0,2642 gallon (U.S.)     42,   0,0238 litre    158,98   0,00629 milligram     64,8   0,01 543 gram     28,35   0,03527 kilogram      0,4536   2,205 metric ton      0,9072   1,1023 metric ton      1,0161   0,9842 pascal   6895,   0,0001450 megapascal      6,895   0,145 bar      0,06895 14,50 kilogram per millimetre2      0,7031   1,4223 mm Hg    760,   0,001316 pound force per inch2     14,696   0,06805

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S.001285 Btu     3.102 Roman Numerals Basic numerals: I 1 V X 5 10 L 50 C 100 D 500 M 1000 Combination rules: – A smaller numeral in front of a larger is subtracted from the larger – A smaller numeral after a larger is added to the larger – Equal numerals after each other are added together – II and III are never placed in front of a larger numeral.4    0.1000   10.8    0.356    0. 6.) per minute pound-force kilopond (Kp) Conversion to Multiply by Reciprocal bar     1.1013    9. A horizontal line above together with a vertical line on each side of the numeral multiplies the numeral with 100. 007501 pascal   248. 7375 joule     4.8    0.414 joule 3600.miscellaneous information Unit Pressure or Stress (Cont.009297 watt     0.) atmosphere atmosphere torr (mm Hg) inch of water foot of water dyne per centimetre2 Work.872 pascal   133.) pound mole (gas) gram mole (gas) board foot milliampere per foot2 gallons (U.32    0. Heat and Energy British thermal unit (Btu) foot pound-force calorie Btu kilocalorie Btu Btu per hour watthour horse power Miscellaneous pound per gallon (U.1835 newton     4.187    0.252 kilogram metre   107.    0.968    0.7 milliampere per metre2    10.00 joule 1055.76    0.00236 423.2248 newton (N)     9.013    0.4335    2.0002778 kilowatt     0.81    0.    0.000.56    0.448    0.    0.004019 pound force per inch2     0.2389 foot pound-force   778.    0.9872 megapascal     0.0446 cubic metre     0.0009479 joule     1.00 533 .307 pascal     0. never IIIX A horizontal line above a numeral multiplies this numeral with 1000.00279 litre (STP)    22.00835 cubic foot (STP)   359. e.451    0.S.2929    3. 7 is always VII.g.7457    1.0929 metre3 per day     5.341 gram per litre   119.

30 2/0   67.188 0.1749 3.3995 Wire cross sections AWG mm2 AWG mm2 AWG mm2 20   0.531 0.6841 15.484 0.miscellaneous information Metric and Decimal Equivalents of Fractions of an Inch Inches 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64 1/4 17/64 9/32 19/64 5/16 21/64 11/32 13/64 3/8 25/64 13/32 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 31/64 1/2 0.469 0.2089 24.7310 9.0966 13.2872 14.359 0.41 18   0.406 0.578 0.6684 17.938 0.266 0.7937 1.7624 5.5876 1.15 3/0   85.8277 22.766 0.6527 19.43 14 2.594 0.6997 inches 33/64 17/32 35/64 9/16 37/64 19/32 39/64 5/8 41/64 21/32 43/64 11/16 45/64 23/32 47/64 3/4 49/64 25/32 51/64 13/16 53/64 27/32 55/64 7/8 57/64 29/32 59/64 15/16 61/64 31/32 63/64 1/1 0.875 0.203 0.0339 21.7780 3.2245 22.3185 10.08   4 21.49 16 1.31   6 13.4778 15.922 0.797 0.8747 16.125 0.0809 15.141 0.9216 10.156 0.500 mm 0.8903 14.250 0.9686 4.367 1/0   53.3498 6.281 0.3029 12.625 0.547 0.015 0.3342 8.4465 19.375 0.4308 21.094 0.0183 23.00 534 .063 0.01 12 3.422 0.969 0.8590 18.609 0.078 0.5248 9.1592 5.5718 3.2559 18.953 0.5561 5.672 0.1436 7.734 0.719 0.26   1   42.4621 17.328 0.297 0.641 0.8120 24.828 0.519 10   5.6214 23.8433 20.703 0.172 0.656 0.234 0.391 0.62 4/0 107.0496 19.516 0.9060 12.4151 23.031 0.453 0.0026 25.1122 11.2402 20.688 0.781 0.823   8    8.31   2 33.3968 0.7154 11.6057 25.3655 4.984 1.906 0.438 0.3812 2.9843 2.5404 7.9530 6.7467 7.891 0.109 0.9373 8.313 0.5091 11.2 6.1906 1.344 0.6371 21.219 0.813 0.4934 13.000 mm 13.844 0.859 0.2715 16.1279 9.750 0.047 0.0653 17.563 0.

40 6.38 5.03 1.11 0.70 1.14 1.2 7.15 0.95 5.90 1.42 1.22 1.2 9.57 3.56 3.83 1.67 2.98 1.02 0.27 2.38 1.63 1.4 8.51 0.05 2.37 1.7 11.50 2.62 7.52 1.31 2.36 0.58 0.22 1.45 1.07 0.37 4.89 5. Standard Plate Zinc (American Zinc Gauge) AZG USC Thickness in mm Gauge No.18 2.) U.55 4.54 3.03 2.00 535 .17 3.69 0.82 5.64 0.06 3.14 6.27 1.56 5.11 1.59 1.29 1. Stainless Steel Iron Al(U.65 1.71 0.66 3.61 0.63 1.S.75 6.18 4.61 0.64 0.78 3.29 2.64 0.30 0.63 1.40 1.34 2.35 6.79 1.93 4.01 6.31 4.46 3.02 0.87 0.16 4.8 11.76 4.18 2.11 3.46 0.78 2.52 1.61 0.83 1.56 0.84 0.05 2.24 1.34 6.03 1.40 3.88 4.42 1.S.25 4.53 7.69 5.79 0.41 2.91 1.57 4.miscellaneous information Common Gauge series used for Sheet thickness and Wire American Wire Gauge Birmingham Wire Gauge Brown and Sharp      (identical to AWG)   Galvanized Iron         Name Abbreviation AWG BWG B&S GSG Name Abbreviation SWG MSG Standard Wire Gauge (British) Manufacturer’s Standard (U.76 3.19 3.51 4.94 0.47 1.83 1.64 2.55 5.) Copper Brass B&S AWG Galv.51 Zinc AZG 7/0 6/0 5/0 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 7.47 4.25 0.07 5.0 10.47 1.K.06 1.79 2.14 1.80 1.89 2.81 0.59 3.95 2.8 8.20 0.41 0.S.02 1. AI(U.77 2.41 2.62 4.64 0.86 0.81 0.18 6.07 0.17 1.81 0.76 0.81 0.02 0.71 0.51 0.95 0.79 0.40 3.90 3.30 1.91 0.56 0.66 3.71 0.35 5.71 0.32 1.91 0.78 2.89 0.) Steel Sheet Strip GSG SWG MSG USG BWG 12.97 3.25 2.27 1.71 0.71 0.91 0.

55 2500 N     1.5 S    2.9 Mo 10.53   186   Magnesium Mg   1.55    –38.2 As   5.3 Rh 12.80   271 B 2.3 2300 Br   3.1 Pt   21.92 1083   Fluorine F    1.31     231.87      62.82      44.784*    –189.9 0      1.4 P    1.5   Iron Fe   7.9 1495 Manganese Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Platinum Potassium Rhodium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Sulphur Tantalum Tin Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Zinc Zirconium Mn   7.5 W 19.96 1710 Zn    7.55   842 C   2.8   220 Si   2.2 2620 Ni    8.090*    –259.2 1260 Hg   13.90 1455 Nb    8.2   Iodine l   4.25*   –209.3 1800 3370   Copper Cu   8.2 Cd   8.6 2996 Sn    7.5 Na    0.2   Hydrogen H     0.25 3550 Cl     1.5   725 Be   1.429*   –218.50     960.00 536 .32 1063   Hafnium Hf 3300   Helium He     0.4 1857 6.9 Ti   4.37 1773 K    0.14     419.5 1966 Se   4.74   651 * kg/Nm3 ** Liquid.12      –7.65   321 Ca   1.2 1890 Co 8.07   119 Ta 16.35     327.56** –103 Cr 7.73   814 Ba 3.93     113.85 1280 Bi   9.4   Lithium Li   0.177*    –272. at boiling point -37°C V    5.69* –223   Gold Au 19.5 Zr   6.miscellaneous information Physical properties of some elements Symbol   Aluminum   Antimony   Argon   Arsenic   Barium   Beryllium   Bismuth   Boron   Bromine   Cadmium   Calcium   Carbon   Chlorine   Chromium   Colbalt Density g/cm3 20°C Melting Point °C Symbol Density Melting g/cm3 20°C Point °C Al   2.68   630 A     1.70   660 Sb   6.87 1535   Lead Pb 11.97      97.42 1420 Ag   10.

9 52.6* 98.3 60.0* 94.4 26.4 57.7 63.4 58.9 62.3 66.0 44.2* 474* 52.0 23.7 33.0* 95.4* 60.0 47.4* 76.6 28.4* 72.0 38.3 49.0 38.9 36.0* 63.0* 95.3 29.4 55.1 23.5 32.6* 90.4* 66.8 24.3 54.0 37.3 47.2 22.8* 93.8* 88.miscellaneous information Hardness comparison table Brinell HB Vickers HV (>5 kpl) Rockwell (*HRB) HRC 36.2* 83.3 65.8 40.5 42.4* 42.2* 99.3 31.8* 91.6 25.0* 19.7 48.2 44.4* 80.9 39.9 27.7 66.8* 96.6 Tensile Brinell strength HB N/mm2 275 300 295 310 315 320 325 330 345 340 365 350 380 359 390 368 410 376 420 385 440 392 460 400 470 408 490 415 500 423 520 430 540 436 550 443 570 451 590 459 610 467 620 481 640 495 660 508 670 521 685 535 715 548 705 561 735 574 755 588 765 602 785 615 805 627 825 639 835 650 855 661 875 672 885 682 900 692 920 701 940 711 950 970 990 Vickers Rockwell Tensile HV strength (>5 kpl) HRC N/mm2 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 30.5 46.4 56.2 61.5 64.2* 89.8 34.5 68.4* 78.0 65.2 20.4 43.6 50.8* 85.4* 86.8 45.00 537 .2 21.4 59.4* 69.1 53.0* 74.1 61.2 26.2 41.4* 82.0* 56.9 67.6* 97.0 1010 1040 1070 1100 1140 1170 1205 1235 1265 1295 1325 1355 1385 1400 1430 1460 1490 1520 1540 1570 1600 1660 1765 1825 1715 1875 1930 1980 2030 2080 2130 2170 2215 2255   80   80   85   85   90   90   95   95 100 100 105 105 110 110 115 115 120 120 125 125 130 130 135 135 140 140 145 145 150 150 155 155 160 160 165 165 170 170 175 175 180 180 185 185 190 190 195 195 200 200 205 205 210 210 215 215 220 220 225 225 230 230 235 235 240 240 245 245 250 250 255 255 260 260 265 265 270 270 275 275 280 280 285 285 290 290 295 295 6.0 29.

depending on circumstances. 0 Compatible –  Deterioration of either material is normally    within tolerable limits. E  – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is approximately equal to that of the metal with which it is coupled.00 538 . X Uncertain –  Direction and/or magnitude of effect on normal    behavior may vary. 6. Note: These numbers correspond with the numbers and alloy designations listed in the left column. L  – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is large compared with that of the metal with which it is coupled. S  – Exposed area of the metal under consideration is small compared with the area of the metal with which it is coupled.miscellaneous information Corrosion of Galvanic couples in Sea water at 4–27 °c No marking Unfavorable –  Normal Deterioration of either material may be    increased moderately or severely.

00 539 .miscellaneous information 6.

67 °R 5/9 (tf –32) 5/4 tre T–273.00 540 .67 = 9/5 T 6.15 100 °C = = t = t = t = t = tf tf tf T T T TR TR TR = 9/5t+32 = TR –459. degrees Celsius T (K) = temperature.67 °R 373. degrees (°Re) Rèaumur tf (F°) = temperature.67 = 9/5t+491.15 = 5/9 tf + 255. degrees Fahrenheit 0 °C = 273.15 K = 80 °Re 212 °F = 671.miscellaneous information Temperature Scales t (°C) = temperature.67 = 9/4(tre +32) = t +273. degrees Kelvin tre = temperature.37 = 5/9 TR = tf + 459.15 K= 0 °Re = 32 °F = 491.15 5/9TR –273.

15 (Ac) 150 (Ox) bar at 15°C 6.00 541 .200 bar at 15°C max.miscellaneous information Pressure variations related to Temperature bar max.

ACETONE Colourless. contains certain alloy elements to provide special characteristics. AUSTENITE Nonmagnetic stainless steel that cannot be hardened by heat treatment. volatile. ALLOYED STEEL Steel which. ASPHYXIATION Loss of consciousness due to lack of oxygen. water-soluble. AMMETER Instrument for measuring electrical current measured in amperes. «A»-MEASUREMENT Measurement denoting depth of fillet welds. lighter than air. See section BRONZE on Metals and Alloys. in addition to carbon. ANSI Abbreviation for American National Standard Institute. AC Alternating current AlR CARBON Removal of material from electrically conductive metals ARC GOUGING by means of an electric arc between carbon electrode and workpiece combined with an air pressure jet adjacent to the electrode.miscellaneous information Abbreviations and Welding Terminologi ABS Abbreviation for American Bureau of Shipping (classification institute). ACETYLENE Colourless gas with high carbon content. Contains at least 11 % chromium with varying amounts of nickel. ARGON Inert gas – used as shielding gas in wire welding and TIG welding. C2H2. AlSl Abbreviation for American Iron and Steel Institute. ARC BLOW Deflection of intended arc pattern by magnetic fields. ALUMINIUM Aluminium alloys with high copper content. ASM Abbreviation for American Society for Metals. 6. Issues regulations relating to planning and construction of welded installations. ASME Abbreviation for American Society of Mechanical Engineering. This type of steel is characterized by its unique grain structure. ANNEAL Removal of internal stresses in metal by heating and slow cooling. AMPERAGE Strength of an electrical current measured in amperes. flammable liquid.00 542 . ASTM Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials.

gap for capillary brazing is 0. 6.1 mm. CADMIUM White ductile metallic element used for plating material to prevent corrosion. Expressed in kp mm2. Weldable and corrosion resistant steel with satisfactory resistance under high thermic conditions. 500–700°C. The composition and dimension of the base materials are the deciding factors for the welding process and filler material to be used. Max. resulting in a ho!e and excessive penetration. The method where surface bonding between the base material and filler metal is achieved. Electrode coating consisting of calcite. BORE BRAZING BRIGHT METAL Inside diameter of hole. BRINELL HARDNESS Abbreviated HB. light metallic element used in copper for better fatigue endurance. BS Abbreviation for British Standard.00 543 . BV Abbreviation for Bureau Veritas (French classification institute). BURNTHROUGH Weld which has melted through. tube or hollow object. denoting load in kp from a hard steel ball divided by the spherical area of indentation in mm2. CAPILLARY BRAZING Method of brazing using the capillary forces to draw the filler metal into narrow gaps. BACKUP BAR Tool or fixture attached to the root of weld joint. BACKUP GAS Shielding gas which protects the root of the weld from the atmosphere. approx. BASIC COATING BERYLLIUM Hard. BEVEL Angular type of edge preparation. This type of steel may be unalloyed. BASE MATERIAL The material in components to be joined by welding. low alloyed or stainless. ferromanganese and ferrosilicium. fluorspar. Tool may or may not control the shape of the penetrating metal. BOILER STEEL Better known as heat resistant construction steel. Material preparation where the surface has been ground or machined to a bright surface to remove scale or oxides.miscellaneous information AWS Abbreviation for American Welding Society.

CAST IRON ELECTRODES Welding electrode specially suitable for welding and repair of cast iron. Cu. CUNIFER DC Alloy of copper and nickel. Direct current. zirconium and titanium for welding steels. DEOXIDIZED FILLER Filler materials which contains deoxidizers such as MATERIALS aluminium. CLADDING Layer of material applied to a surface for the purpose of improved corrosion resistance. CONVEX WELD CROWN Weld crown that is curved outward. See section on Metals and Alloys. CONSTRUCTION General expression denoting weldable steel in strength STEEL classification 37–60 kp/mm2. CORROSION Eating away of material by a corrosive medium. impure shielding gas or impure filler metal. The electrode has a core of nickel or nickel alloy and a slag forming and arc stabilizing coating.00 544 . CE Equipment with CE-markings fulfils the the basic requirements of the Low Voltage and Electromagnetic Compatibility Guideline. CRATER CRACKS Cracking that occurs in the crater. CONCAVE WELD CROWN Weld crown that is curved inward. CRATER Depression at the end of a weld that has insufficient cross section. DEMURRAGE Monetary charge applied to the user of gas cylinders beyond agreed rental period. DEEP WELDING Electrodes with acid or rutile organic coatings which ELECTRODES increase the arc effect and generation of heat in the melting-in process. CONTAMINATION Indicates a dirty part. COPPER Metal element with melting point at 1083 °C. Seawater resistant.miscellaneous information CARBIDES Compound of carbon with one or more metal elements. COLD LAPS Area of weld that has not fused with the base metal. CONTOUR Shape of the weld bead or pass. CSA Equipment with CSA-Test mark fulfils the requirements made in the relevant standards for Canada and the USA. 6.

DUTY CYCLE Arc/time factor – the relationship between the time the arc is in operation and the total working time measured over a period of 10 minutes. Property of material causing it to deform permanently. DNV DUCTILITY Abbreviation for Det Norske Veritas (Norwegian classification institute). 6.miscellaneous information DESTRUCTIVE TESTING DEWARS DT – series of tests by destruction to determine the quality of a weld. Direct current from work to the electrode. slag removed etc. I. a 30% intermittence the arc can be in operation 3 min.e. EN The European Community for standardization has developed a nomenclature in welding. Flow of current (electrons) in only one direction. See Direct Current Electrode Positive. Amount of extension is usually indicated by percentages of original gauge length. Euronorm E. Specially constructed tank similar to a vacuum bottle for the storage of Iiquified gases. During the remaining time the machine will be at rest while electrodes are changed. where «D» is the diameter of the test rod. Expressed in % of the time the welding machine can work at a certain amperage in this period. ELECTRIC STEEL Steel produced in an electro-furnace.N. DIRECT CURRENT DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE NEGATIVE (DCEN) DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODE POSITIVE (DCEP) DIRECT CURRENT REVERSE POLARITY (DCRP) Direct current flowing from electrode to the work. DIRECT CURRENT STRAIGHT POLARITY (DCRP) See Direct Current Electrode Negative. DIN Abbreviating for Deutsche lnstitut für Normung. of the period. ELONGATION Permanent elastic extension which metal undergoes during tensile testing.00 545 . or to exhibit plasticity without breaking while under tension. Measurements is usually based on 5 x D or 10 x D. either to the workpiece or to the electrode.

GAS SHIELDED Welding processes where the arc and molten pool are ARC WELDING surrounded by a protective – shielding – gas. – «l/min. FILLET WELD Weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles and a lap joint. Same welding method as TIG welding. HARD BRAZING A common name of brazing methods where capillary forces are used.» or in cubic feet per hour – «CFH». depending on welding position and metal thickness. Fluxes may be corrosive. «T» joint or corner joint.00 546 . FLOW METER Mechanical device used for measuring shielding gas rate of flow. Usually measurements are liter per. absorbed by a test rod of predetermined shape at a certain temperature. The shielding gas will here always be of INERT type. GRAPHITE Carbon flakes in cast iron. 6.miscellaneous information FCAW Flux Cored Arc Welding FERROUS METALS Group of metals containing substantial amounts of iron.m or Joule. (Not chemically fused with the iron). See Capillary brazing. IMPACT RESISTANCE The energy. Normal groove angle for electric arc welding is 50–60°. FLUX Material in the form of powder or paste. GROOVE ANGLE The angle of a V-groove expressed in degrees. Steel containing more than 5% of one or more alloy elements. used in gas welding and brazing to prevent or facilitate removal of oxide and other contaminating substances from the surface of the base material. expressed in kp. The gas may be of inert type or Carbon Dioxide or a mixture of these gases together with Hydrogen or Oxygen. min. GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. HARD SURFACING HIGH ALLOY STEEL Hard material applied to surface of softer material for protection from abrasion and wear. GREY CAST IRON Cast iron in which most of the carbon is in the form of graphite flakes. FILLET WELD LEG Leg Iength of largest isosceles right triangle which can be inscribed within fillet weld cross section. FERRUM Latin name for chemically pure iron (Fe). GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding.

miscellaneous information INERT GAS Gas that does not normally combine chemically with the base metal or filler material. melting point 1245 °C. INVERTER Welding power source were the normal frequency is set to a very high value thereby reducing the need for a heavy iron core in order to reduce the voltage. minimum and maximum TEMPERATURE temperature specified for the deposited metal before next weld pass is started. NON-RETURN VALVE An appliance fitted on the outlet of the regulator of a gas cylinder which prevent any flame from a backfire in the welding torch from returning to the gas cylinder. LOW ALLOY STEEL Steel containing 1–5% alloy elements.e. ISO Abbreviation for International Standardization Organisation. Chemical symbol Mn. penetrating fluids etc. Involves use of radiography. MARTENSITE Structure obtained when steel is heated and cooled to achieve its maximum hardness. MIG-WELDING Metal Inert Gas-welding. LR Lloyds Register of Shipping (British classification institute). 6. supersonic testing. i. testing and investigation materials or components without destroying these. Also referred to as nobel gas.25%. INTERMITTANCE See duty cycle. This type of steel is suitable for welded connections. MAGNETIC ARC BLOW See Arc Blow. MAG-WELDING Metal Active Gas-welding. See also Gas Shielded Arc Welding and GMAW.00 547 . INTERPASS In multiple pass weld. MANGANESE An important alloy in steel. (see also GMAW). KILLED STEEL Steel which contains fairly large quantities of ferrosilicium or aluminium. MILD STEEL Unalloyed steel. MPa Mega Pascal NDT-TESTS Abbreviation for Non-Destructive Testing. maximum carbon content 0. magnetic powder.

PRIMARY CABLE The cable which carries current from the mains supply to the primary side of a welding machine. Part of a power-source which converts AC to DC. OXIDE FILM Film formed on base material as a result of exposure to oxidizing agents. PROPANE Colourless. 6. heavier than air. but feeds flames and is used together with Acetylene for welding and cutting. PPM-VALUE Parts per million. POROSITY Pores within a weld caused by gas entrapment during solidification of weld metal. Current moving from the electrode to the workpiece is DCEN or DCSP. ORGANIC Electrodes having consumable organic components in ELECTRODES the coating i. chemicals or heat. Chemical symbol 02. POLYMER Chemical reaction between resin (Base) and a hardener (Activator) producing an extensive interlocking polymer network. OUT-OF POSITION Welding that is performed in a non-standard way such WELDING as vertical or overhead. POSTHEAT Heat which is applied at the end of the weld cycle to slow down cooling rate to prevent cracking and to relieve stress.miscellaneous information NS Abbreviation for the Norwegian Standards Association. POLARITY Direction of current. Adjustment is by means of additional cable or through the welding cable. Small slag deposits.e. OXYGEN Colourless gas without odour or taste. atmosphere. Equipped with pressure gauges indicating cylinder pressure and working pressure.00 548 . REGULATOR An appliance for the reduction of gas pressure from a gas cylinder to a suitable pressure for welding or cutting. REMOTE CONTROL Control of welding current from the welding area. NSFI Abbreviation for the Norwegian Research Institute for Ships. flammable gas. Oxygen is not flammable itself. Current flow from the workpiece to the electrode is DCEP or DCRP. chemical formula 3 RECTIFIER A welding power-source which gives DC welding current. cellulose.

rust etc. RUTILE ELECTRODES Coated electrodes containing ilmenite. wear. TiO2. STAINLESS STEEL Common term for two main groups: chrome alloy (ferritic) and chrome-nickel alloy (austenitic) steel. SPATTER Small pieces of metal which have been ejected from molten pool and attached to base material outside the weld. THERMIC SPRAYING A method of bulling up a workpiece by spraying on finely powdered metal alloys. TACK WELD Weld made to hold parts of weldment in alignment until final weld is made. 6. Weld bead made without oscillation. STRINGER BEAD SURFACING Applying material to the surface of another material for protection from chemipals. expressed in N/mm2.g. Austenitic steel is non-magnetic. TIG WELDING Tungsten inert gas welding. boilers) must be identified by the «S» (for «Safety») mark. Tungsten is also known as Wolfram. High melting point – 3410 °C. THERMOCROME Temperature indicating crayons. Used for TIG welding. Belongs to the group «Resistance Welding». torium or zirconium.miscellaneous information ROOT PASS The first welding pass in a groove. Can also be used for spraying zinc and plastic powders for surface protection. Used to control CRAYONS temperature levels. SPOT WELD Controlled weld cycle to procedure sheet metal weld with spesific characteristics. This test determines how much tension a weld can withstand before the weld gives. in the coating. heat. lanthanum. TENSILE TEST A destructive test where a weld is pulled apart. side-to-side motion. cerium. TUNGSTEN An electrode of pure tungsten or tungsten alloyed with ELECTRODE rare earths. SECONDARY CABLE The cable which carries current from the secondary side of a welding machine to the workpiece and electrode holder. TENSILE STRENGTH Indicates the breaking strength of a material.00 549 . S Power source for use in spaces with increased electrical danger (e.

The wire extends beyond the penetration on the root side of the weld. WIG Wolfram Inert Gas. Same welding method as TIG welding. WELDING DIRECTION An expression used in welding and brazing indicating the direction of the welding process in relation to the welder. WROUGHT MATERIAL Material made by processes other than casting. YIELD POINT The stress level at which a steel material starts to become plastic and shows signs of cross-contraction and permanent deformity. 6.miscellaneous information UNALLOYED STEEL Steel containing up to 1 % alloy elements. WASH BEAD Weld beads made with an oscillation – side-to-side technique to widen the weld bead. WELDING TRANSFORMER Welding power-source giving AC welding current. Expressed in N/mm2.00 550 . YORCALBRO Seawater resistant alloy of aluminium and brass. WHISKERS Pieces of weld wire which have penetrated through the weld joint and melted.

13. 8K.00 Wilhelmsen Ships Service Postal address PO Box 33 N-1324 Lysaker Norway T (+47) 67584550 F (+47) 67584570 E wss. a Wilh. Price: USD 35. All reasonable care has been taken in compiling the information in this document. Fossum.marine products Marine Chemicals safety maritime logistics ships agency The Welding Handbook Welding done better Id no. All recommendations and suggestions on the use of Unitor products are made without guarantee since the conditions of use are beyond the control of the Company.wilhelmsen.com www. Printer: Brdr. copies of which are available on request. This book and any advice is provided by Wilhelmsen Ships Service accordingly on terms that no liability (including liability for negligence) will attach to the Company or its servants or agents arising out of or in connection with or in relation to this brochure or any such advice. 804012. Any goods supplied by the Company will be supplied solely upon its standard conditions of sale. 03. The Company’s policy of continuous product development renders specifications liable to modification. It is the customer’s responsibility to ensure that each product is fit for its intended purpose and that the actual conditions of use are suitable.com/shipsservice Part of Wilhelmsen Maritime Services. Wilhelmsen group company OPTIMISING PERFORMANCE .info@wilhelmsen. Information provided in this book is therefore subject to change without prior notification. Country of origin NO.