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Lab 5.5.

2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol
Topology Diagram

Addressing Table
Device (Hostname) S1 S2 S3 PC1 PC2 PC3 Interface VLAN 99 VLAN 99 VLAN 99 NIC NIC NIC IP Address 172.17.99.11 172.17.99.12 172.17.99.13 172.17.10.21 172.17.20.22 172.17.30.23 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway N/A N/A N/A 172.17.10.12 172.17.20.12 172.17.30.12

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

Port Assignments – Switch 2
Ports Fa0/1 – 0/4 Fa0/5 – 0/10 Fa0/11 – 0/17 Fa0/18 – 0/24 Assignment 802.1q Trunks (Native VLAN 99) VLAN 30 – Guest (Default) VLAN 10 – Faculty/Staff VLAN 20 – Students Network 172.17.99.0 /24 172.17.30.0 /24 172.17.10.0 /24 172.17.20.0 /24

Learning Objectives
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to: • • • • • • • • • • Cable a network according to the topology diagram Erase the startup configuration and reload the default configuration, setting a switch to the default state Perform basic configuration tasks on a switch Configure VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) on all switches Observe and explain the default behavior of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, 802.1D) Modify the placement of the spanning tree root Observe the response to a change in the spanning tree topology Explain the limitations of 802.1D STP in supporting continuity of service Configure Rapid STP (802.1W) Observe and explain the improvements offered by Rapid STP

Task 1: Prepare the Network
Step 1: Cable a network that is similar to the one in the topology diagram. You can use any current switch in your lab as long as it has the required interfaces shown in the topology diagram. The output shown in this lab is based on Cisco 2960 switches. Other switch models may produce different output. Set up console connections to all three switches. Step 2: Clear any existing configurations on the switches. Clear NVRAM, delete the vlan.dat file, and reload the switches. Refer to Lab 2.5.1 for the procedure. After the reload is complete, use the show vlan privileged EXEC command to confirm that only default VLANs exist and that all ports are assigned to VLAN 1. Switch#show vlan VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ----------------------------1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3, Fa0/4 Fa0/5, Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8 Fa0/9, Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12 Fa0/13, Fa0/14, Fa0/15,Fa0/16 Fa0/17, Fa0/18, Fa0/19,Fa0/20 Fa0/21, Fa0/22, Fa0/23,Fa0/24

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

1002 1003 1004 1005

fddi-default token-ring-default fddinet-default trnet-default

active active active active

Gig1/1, Gig1/2

Step 3: Disable all ports by using the shutdown command. Ensure that the initial switch port states are inactive with the shutdown command. Use the interfacerange command to simplify this task. Repeat these commands on each switch. Switch(config)#interface range fa0/1-24 Switch(config-if-range)#shutdown Switch(config-if-range)#interface range gi0/1-2 Switch(config-if-range)#shutdown

Task 2: Perform Basic Switch Configurations
Configure the S1, S2, and S3 switches according to the following guidelines: • • • • • Configure the switch hostname. Disable DNS lookup. Configure an EXEC mode password of class. Configure a password of cisco for console connections. Configure a password of cisco for vty connections.

(Output for S1 shown) Switch>enable Switch#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Switch(config)#hostname S1 S1(config)#enable secret class S1(config)#no ip domain-lookup S1(config)#line console 0 S1(config-line)#password cisco S1(config-line)#login S1(config-line)#line vty 0 15 S1(config-line)#password cisco S1(config-line)#login S1(config-line)#end %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console S1#copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? Building configuration... [OK]

Task 3: Configure Host PCs
Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1, PC2, and PC3 with the IP address, subnet mask, and gateway indicated in the addressing table at the beginning of the lab.

Task 4: Configure VLANs
Step 1: Configure VTP.

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

Configure VTP on the three switches using the following table. Remember that VTP domain names and passwords are case-sensitive. The default operating mode is server. Switch Name S1 S2 S3 VTP Operating Mode Server Client Client VTP Domain Lab5 Lab5 Lab5 VTP Password cisco cisco cisco

S1(config)#vtp mode server Device mode already VTP SERVER. S1(config)#vtp domain Lab5 Changing VTP domain name from NULL to Lab5 S1(config)#vtp password cisco Setting device VLAN database password to cisco S1(config)#end S2(config)#vtp mode client Setting device to VTP CLIENT mode S2(config)#vtp domain Lab5 Changing VTP domain name from NULL to Lab5 S2(config)#vtp password cisco Setting device VLAN database password to cisco S2(config)#end S3(config)#vtp mode client Setting device to VTP CLIENT mode S3(config)#vtp domain Lab5 Changing VTP domain name from NULL to Lab5 S3(config)#vtp password cisco Setting device VLAN database password to cisco S3(config)#end Step 2: Configure Trunk Links and Native VLAN Configure trunking ports and native VLAN. For each switch, configure ports Fa0/1 through Fa0/4 as trunking ports. Designate VLAN 99 as the native VLAN for these trunks. Use the interface range command in global configuration mode to simplify this task. Remember that these ports were disabled in a previous step and must be re-enabled using the no shutdown command. S1(config)#interface range fa0/1-4 S1(config-if-range)#switchport mode trunk S1(config-if-range)#switchport trunk native vlan 99 S1(config-if-range)#no shutdown S1(config-if-range)#end S2(config)# interface range fa0/1-4 S2(config-if-range)#switchport mode trunk S2(config-if-range)#switchport trunk native vlan 99 S2(config-if-range)#no shutdown S2(config-if-range)#end S3(config)# interface range fa0/1-4 S3(config-if-range)#switchport mode trunk

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

S3(config-if-range)#switchport trunk native vlan 99 S3(config-if-range)#no shutdown S3(config-if-range)#end Step 3: Configure the VTP server with VLANs. VTP allows you to configure VLANs on the VTP server and have those VLANs populated to the VTP clients in the domain. This ensures consistency in the VLAN configuration across the network. Configure the following VLANS on the VTP server: VLAN VLAN 99 VLAN 10 VLAN 20 VLAN 30 S1(config)#vlan 99 S1(config-vlan)#name S1(config-vlan)#exit S1(config)#vlan 10 S1(config-vlan)#name S1(config-vlan)#exit S1(config)#vlan 20 S1(config-vlan)#name S1(config-vlan)#exit S1(config)#vlan 30 S1(config-vlan)#name S1(config-vlan)#exit Step 4: Verify the VLANs. Use the show vlan brief command on S2 and S3 to verify that all four VLANs have been distributed to the client switches. S2#show vlan brief VLAN Name Status Ports VLAN Name management faculty-staff students guest

management faculty-staff students guest

---- -------------------------------- --------- ----------------------------1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/4, Fa0/5 Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9 Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12,Fa0/13 Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16,Fa0/17 Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20,Fa0/21 Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24, Gi0/1 Gi0/2 10 faculty-staff active 20 students active 30 guest active 99 management active S3#show vlan brief

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ----------------------------1 default active Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/4, Fa0/5 Fa0/6, Fa0/7, Fa0/8, Fa0/9 Fa0/10, Fa0/11, Fa0/12,Fa0/13 Fa0/14, Fa0/15, Fa0/16,Fa0/17 Fa0/18, Fa0/19, Fa0/20,Fa0/21 Fa0/22, Fa0/23, Fa0/24, Gi0/1 Gi0/2 10 faculty-staff active 20 students active 30 guest active 99 management active Step 5: Configure the management interface address on all three switches. S1(config)#interface vlan99 S1(config-if)#ip address 172.17.99.11 255.255.255.0 S1(config-if)#no shutdown S2(config)#interface vlan99 S2(config-if)#ip address 172.17.99.12 255.255.255.0 S2(config-if)#no shutdown S3(config)#interface vlan99 S3(config-if)#ip address 172.17.99.13 255.255.255.0 S3(config-if)#no shutdown Verify that the switches are correctly configured by pinging between them. From S1, ping the management interface on S2 and S3. From S2, ping the management interface on S3. Were the pings successful? ___________________________________________ If not, troubleshoot the switch configurations and try again. Step 6: Assign switch ports to the VLANs. Assign ports to VLANs on S2. Refer to the port assignments table at the beginning of the lab. S2(config)#interface range fa0/5-10 S2(config-if-range)#switchport mode access S2(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 30 S2(config-if-range)#interface range fa0/11-17 S2(config-if-range)#switchport mode access S2(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 10 S2(config-if-range)#interface range fa0/18-24 S2(config-if-range)#switchport mode access S2(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 20 S2(config-if-range)#end S2#copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? [enter] Building configuration... [OK] S2# Step 7: Re-enable the user ports on S2. Refer to the topology diagram to determine which switch ports on S2 are activated for end-user device

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

access. These three ports will be enabled with the no shutdown command. S2(config)#interface range fa0/6, fa0/11, fa0/18 S2(config-if-range)#no shutdown

Task 5: Configure Spanning Tree
Step 1: Examine the default configuration of 802.1D STP. On each switch, display the spanning tree table with the show spanning-tree command. The output is shown for S1 only. Root selection varies depending on the BID of each switch in your lab. S1#show spanning-tree VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32769 Address 0019.068d.6980 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1) Address 0019.068d.6980 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.3 128.4 128.5 128.6 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32778 Address 0019.068d.6980 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 0019.068d.6980 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.3 128.4 128.5 128.6 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

VLAN0020 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32788 Address 0019.068d.6980

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 32788 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 20) Address 0019.068d.6980 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.3 128.4 128.5 128.6 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

VLAN0030 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32798 Address 0019.068d.6980 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 32798 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 30) Address 0019.068d.6980 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.3 128.4 128.5 128.6 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

VLAN0099 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32867 Address 0019.068d.6980 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 32867 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 99) Address 0019.068d.6980 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.3 128.4 128.5 128.6 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

Note that there are five instances of the spanning tree on each switch. The default STP configuration on Cisco switches is Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST+), which creates a separate spanning tree for each

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

VLAN (VLAN 1 and any user-configured VLANs). Examine the VLAN 99 spanning tree for all three switches: S1#show spanning-tree vlan 99 VLAN0099 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32867 Address 0019.068d.6980 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 32867 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 99) Address 0019.068d.6980 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.3 128.4 128.5 128.6 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

S2#show spanning-tree vlan 99 VLAN0099 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32867 Address 0019.068d.6980 This is the MAC address of the root switch (S1 in this case) Cost 19 Port 3 (FastEthernet0/3) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Bridge ID Priority 32867 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 99) Address 001b.0c68.2080 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 15 Role ---Desg Desg Root Altn Sts --FWD FWD FWD BLK Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.1 128.2 128.3 128.4 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

S3#show spanning-tree vlan 99 VLAN0099 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32867 Address 0019.068d.6980 This is the MAC address of the root switch (S1 in this case) Cost 19 Port 1 (FastEthernet0/1)

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

Hello Time Bridge ID

2 sec

Max Age 20 sec

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 32867 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 99) Address 001b.5303.1700 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Root Altn Altn Altn Sts --FWD BLK BLK BLK Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.1 128.2 128.3 128.4 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

Step 2: Examine the output. Answer the following questions based on the output. 1. What is the bridge ID priority for switches S1, S2, and S3 on VLAN 99? a. S1 _______ b. S2 _______ c. S3 _______ 2. What is the bridge ID priority for S1 on VLANs 10, 20, 30, and 99? a. VLAN 10 _____ b. VLAN 20______ c. VLAN 30______ d. VLAN 99______ 3. Which switch is the root for the VLAN 99 spanning tree? ________________ 4. On VLAN 99, which spanning tree ports are in the blocking state on the root switch? _________________ 5. On VLAN 99, which spanning tree ports are in the blocking state on the non-root switches? ________________________ 6. How does STP elect the root switch? _________________________ 7. Since the bridge priorities are all the same, what else does the switch use to determine the root? ________________________

Task 6: Optimizing STP
Because there is a separate instance of the spanning tree for every active VLAN, a separate root election is conducted for each instance. If the default switch priorities are used in root selection, the same root is elected for every spanning tree, as we have seen. This could lead to an inferior design. Some reasons to control the selection of the root switch include: • The root switch is responsible for generating BPDUs in STP 802.1D and is the focal point for spanning tree control traffic. The root switch must be capable of handling this additional processing load. The placement of the root defines the active switched paths in the network. Random placement is likely to lead to suboptimal paths. Ideally the root is in the distribution layer.

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

Consider the topology used in this lab. Of the six trunks configured, only two are carrying traffic. While this prevents loops, it is a waste of resources. Because the root can be defined on the basis of the VLAN, you can have some ports blocking for one VLAN and forwarding for another. This is demonstrated below.

In this example, it has been determined that the root selection using default values has led to underutilization of the available switch trunks. Therefore, it is necessary to force another switch to become the root switch for VLAN 99 to impose some load-sharing on the trunks. Selection of the root switch is accomplished by changing the spanning-tree priority for the VLAN. Because the default root switch may vary in your lab environment, we will configure S1 and S3 to be the root switches for specific VLANs. The default priority, as you have observed, is 32768 plus the VLAN ID. The lower number indicates a higher priority for root selection. Set the priority for VLAN 99 on S3 to 4096. S3(config)#spanning-tree vlan 99 ? forward-time Set the forward delay for the spanning tree hello-time Set the hello interval for the spanning tree max-age Set the max age interval for the spanning tree priority Set the bridge priority for the spanning tree root Configure switch as root <cr> S3(config)#spanning-tree vlan 99 priority ? <0-61440> bridge priority in increments of 4096 S3(config)#spanning-tree vlan 99 priority 4096 S3(config)#exit Set the priority for VLANs 1, 10, 20, and 30 on S1 to 4096. Once again, the lower number indicates a higher priority for root selection. S1(config)#spanning-tree S1(config)#spanning-tree S1(config)#spanning-tree S1(config)#spanning-tree S1(config)#exit vlan vlan vlan vlan 1 priority 4096 10 priority 4096 20 priority 4096 30 priority 4096

Give the switches a little time to recalculate the spanning tree and then check the tree for VLAN 99 on switch S1 and switch S3. S1#show spanning-tree vlan 99 VLAN0099 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 4195 Address 001b.5303.1700 This is now the MAC address of S3, (the new root switch) Cost 19 Port 3 (FastEthernet0/1) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Bridge ID Priority 32867 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 99) Address 0019.068d.6980 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

Role ---Root Altn Desg Desg

Sts --FWD BLK FWD FWD

Cost --------19 19 19 19

Prio.Nbr -------128.3 128.4 128.5 128.6

Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

S3#show spanning-tree vlan 99 VLAN0099 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 4195 Address 001b.5303.1700 This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 4195 (priority 4096 sys-id-ext 99) Address 001b.5303.1700 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Desg Desg Desg Desg Sts --FWD FWD FWD FWD Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.1 128.2 128.3 128.4 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

Which switch is the root for VLAN 99? _____________ On VLAN 99, which spanning tree ports are in the blocking state on the new root switch? ____________ On VLAN 99, which spanning tree ports are in the blocking state on the old root switch? ____________ Compare the S3 VLAN 99 spanning tree above with the S3 VLAN 10 spanning tree. S3#show spanning-tree vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 4106 Address 0019.068d.6980 Cost 19 Port 1 (FastEthernet0/1) Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Bridge ID

Forward Delay 15 sec

Priority 32778 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 10) Address 001b.5303.1700 Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 300 Role ---Root Altn Altn Altn Sts --FWD BLK BLK BLK Cost --------19 19 19 19 Prio.Nbr -------128.1 128.2 128.3 128.4 Type -------------------------------P2p P2p P2p P2p

Interface ---------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

Note that S3 can now use all four ports for VLAN 99 traffic as long as they are not blocked at the other end of the trunk. However, the original spanning tree topology, with three of four S3 ports in blocking mode, is still in place for the four other active VLANs. By configuring groups of VLANs to use different trunks as their primary forwarding path, we retain the redundancy of failover trunks, without having to leaves trunks totally unused.

Task 7: Observe the response to the topology change in 802.1D STP
To observe continuity across the LAN during a topology change, first reconfigure PC3, which is connected to port S2 Fa0/6, with IP address 172.17.99.23 255.255.255.0. Then reassign S2 port Fa0/6 to VLAN 99. This allows you to continuously ping across the LAN from the host. S2(config)# interface fa0/6 S2(config-if)#switchport access vlan 99 Verify that the switches can ping the host. S2#ping 172.17.99.23 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.17.99.23, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/202/1007 ms S1#ping 172.17.99.23 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.17.99.23, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/202/1007 ms Put S1 in spanning-tree event debug mode to monitor changes during the topology change. S1#debug spanning-tree events Spanning Tree event debugging is on Open a command window on PC3 and begin a continuous ping to the S1 management interface with the command ping –t 172.17.99.11. Now disconnect the trunks on S1 Fa0/1 and Fa0/3. Monitor the pings. They will begin to time out as connectivity across the LAN is interrupted. As soon as connectivity has been re-established, terminate the pings by pressing Ctrl-C. Below is a shortened version of the debug output you will see on S1 (several TCNs are omitted for brevity). S1#debug spanning-tree events Spanning Tree event debugging is on S1# 6d08h: STP: VLAN0099 new root port Fa0/2, cost 19 6d08h: STP: VLAN0099 Fa0/2 -> listening 6d08h: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1, changed state to down 6d08h: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/1, changed state to down 6d08h: STP: VLAN0099 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/2 6d08h: STP: VLAN0030 Topology Change rcvd on Fa0/2 6d08h: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/3, changed state to down 6d08h: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/3, changed state to down 6d08h: STP: VLAN0001 Topology Change rcvd on Fa0/4 6d08h: STP: VLAN0099 Fa0/2 -> learning

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

6d08h: STP: VLAN0099 sent Topology Change Notice on Fa0/2 6d08h: STP: VLAN0099 Fa0/2 -> forwarding 6d08h: STP: VLAN0001 Topology Change rcvd on Fa0/4 Recall that when the ports are in listening and learning mode, they are not forwarding frames, and the LAN is essentially down. The spanning tree recalculation can take up to 50 seconds to complete – a significant interruption in network services. The output of the continuous pings shows the actual interruption time. In this case, it was about 30 seconds. While 802.1D STP effectively prevents switching loops, this long restoration time is considered a serious drawback in the high availability LANs of today.

Figure 1. These pings show a 30-second lapse in connectivity while the spanning tree is recalculated.

Task 8: Configure PVST Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Cisco has developed several features to address the slow convergence times associated with standard STP. PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast are features that, when properly configured, can dramatically reduce the time required to restore connectivity. Incorporating these features requires manual configuration, and care must be taken to do it correctly. The longer term solution is Rapid STP (RSTP), 802.1w, which incorporates these features among others. RSTP-PVST is configured as follows: S1(config)#spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst Configure all three switches in this manner. Use the command show spanning-tree summary to verify that RSTP is enabled.

Task 9: Observe the convergence time of RSTP
Begin by restoring the trunks you disconnected in Task 7, if you have not already done so (ports Fa0/1 and Fa0/3 on S1). Then follow these steps in Task 7: - Set up host PC3 to continuously ping across the network. - Enable spanning-tree event debugging on switch S1. - Disconnect the cables connected to ports Fa0/1 and Fa0/3. - Observe the time required to re-establish a stable spanning tree. Below is the partial debug output: S1#debug spanning-tree events Spanning Tree event debugging is on

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

S1# 6d10h: RSTP(99): updt rolesroot port Fa0/3 is going down 6d10h: RSTP(99): Fa0/2 is now root port Connectivity has been restored; less than 1 second interruption 6d10h: RSTP(99): syncing port Fa0/1 6d10h: RSTP(99): syncing port Fa0/4 6d10h: RSTP(99): transmitting a proposal on Fa0/1 6d10h: RSTP(99): transmitting a proposal on Fa0/4 6d10h: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/3, changed state to down 6d10h: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1, changed state to down The restoration time with RSTP enabled was less than a second, and not a single ping was dropped.

Task 10: Clean Up
Erase the configurations and reload the default configurations for the switches. Disconnect and store the cabling. For PC hosts that are normally connected to other networks (such as the school LAN or to the Internet), reconnect the appropriate cabling and restore the TCP/IP settings.

Final Configurations
Switch S1 hostname S1 ! enable secret class ! no ip domain-lookup ! spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst spanning-tree extend system-id spanning-tree vlan 1 priority 4096 spanning-tree vlan 10 priority 4096 spanning-tree vlan 20 priority 4096 spanning-tree vlan 30 priority 4096 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport trunk native vlan 99 switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport trunk native vlan 99 switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/3 switchport trunk native vlan 99 switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport trunk native vlan 99 switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/5

All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/6 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/7 shutdown ! (remaining port configuration ommitted - all non-used ports are shutdown) ! ! interface Vlan1 no ip address no ip route-cache ! interface Vlan99 ip address 172.17.99.11 255.255.255.0 no ip route-cache ! line con 0 password cisco login line vty 0 4 password cisco login line vty 5 15 password cisco login ! end Switch S2 hostname S2 ! enable secret class ! no ip domain-lookup ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport trunk native vlan switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport trunk native vlan switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/3 switchport trunk native vlan switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport trunk native vlan switchport mode trunk !

99

99

99

99

All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

interface FastEthernet0/5 switchport access vlan 30 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/6 switchport access vlan 30 switchport mode access ! interface FastEthernet0/7 switchport access vlan 30 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/8 switchport access vlan 30 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/9 switchport access vlan 30 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/10 switchport access vlan 30 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/11 switchport access vlan 10 switchport mode access ! interface FastEthernet0/12 switchport access vlan 10 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/13 switchport access vlan 10 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/14 switchport access vlan 10 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/15 switchport access vlan 10 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/16 switchport access vlan 10 switchport mode access

All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/17 switchport access vlan 10 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/18 switchport access vlan 20 switchport mode access ! interface FastEthernet0/19 switchport access vlan 20 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/20 switchport access vlan 20 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/21 switchport access vlan 20 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/22 switchport access vlan 20 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/23 switchport access vlan 20 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/24 switchport access vlan 20 switchport mode access shutdown ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 shutdown ! interface GigabitEthernet0/2 shutdown ! interface Vlan1 no ip address no ip route-cache ! interface Vlan99 ip address 172.17.99.12 255.255.255.0 no ip route-cache ! line con 0

All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

Page 18 of 20

CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

line vty 0 4 password cisco login line vty 5 15 password cisco login ! end Switch S3 hostname S3 ! enable secret class ! no ip domain-lookup ! spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst spanning-tree extend system-id spanning-tree vlan 99 priority 4096 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 switchport trunk native vlan 99 switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/2 switchport trunk native vlan 99 switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/3 switchport trunk native vlan 99 switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/4 switchport trunk native vlan 99 switchport mode trunk ! interface FastEthernet0/5 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/6 shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/7 shutdown ! (remaining port configuration ommitted - all non-used ports are shutdown) ! interface Vlan1 no ip address no ip route-cache shutdown ! interface Vlan99 ip address 172.17.99.13 255.255.255.0

All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

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CCNA Exploration LAN Switching and Wireless: STP

Lab 5.5.2: Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol

no ip route-cache ! line con 0 password cisco login line vty 0 4 password cisco login line vty 5 15 password cisco login ! end

All contents are Copyright © 1992–2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.

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