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CCNP 642-901 QUESTION 01-10

QUESTION 1:

Certkiller uses EIGRP as the primary routing protocol in their network. How does EIGRP advertise subnet masks for each destination network?

A. EIGRP advertises a fixed length subnet mask for each destination network. B. EIGRP advertises only a classful subnet mask for each destination network. C. EIGRP, like IGRP and RIP, does not advertise a subnet mask for each destination network. D. EIGRP advertises a prefix length for each destination network. E. None of the above

Answer: D

Explanation: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco-proprietary routing protocol based on IGRP. Unlike IGRP, which is a classful routing protocol, EIGRP supports CIDR, allowing network designers to maximize address space by using CIDR and VLSM. Compared to IGRP, EIGRP boasts faster convergence times, improved scalability, and superior handling of routing loops. The prefix length field signifies the subnet mask to be associated with the network number specified in the destination field. Thus, if an EIGRP router is configured as follows: 1. ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 it will advertise 172.16.1.0 with a prefix length of 24. Likewise, if the router is configured as follows:

1. ip address 172.16.250.1 255.255.255.252 it will advertise 172.16.250.0 with a prefix length of 30.

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QUESTION 2:

The Certkiller network uses EIGRP. Identify three characteristics of EIGRP feasible successors? (Select three)

A. Traffic will be load balanced between feasible successors with the same advertised distance. B. If the advertised distance of the non-successor route is less than the feasible distance of best route, then that route is identified as a feasible successor. C. If the successor becomes unavailable, then the feasible successor can be used immediately without recalculating for a lost route. D. The feasible successor can be found in the routing table. E. A feasible successor is selected by comparing the advertised distance of a non-successor route to the feasible distance of the best route.

Answer: B, C, E Explanation: Once a neighbor relationship has been formed, called an Adjacency, the routers exchange routing update information and each router builds its own topology table. The Updates contain all the routes known by the sender. For each route, the receiving router calculates a distance for that route based on the distance that is conveyed and the cost to that neighbor that advertised the particular route. If the receiving router sees several routes to a particular network with different metrics, then the route with the lowest metric becomes the Feasible Distance (FD) to

that network. The Feasible Distance is the metric of a network advertised by the connected neighbor plus the cost of reaching that neighbor. This path with the best metric is entered into the routing table because this is the quickest way to get to that network. With the other possible routes to a particular network with larger metrics, the receiving router also receives the Reported Distance (RD) to this network via other routers. The Reported Distance being the total metric along a path to a destination network as advertised by an upstream neighbor. The Reported Distance for a particular route is compared with the Feasible Distance that it already has for that route. If the Reported Distance is larger than the Feasible Distance then this route is not entered into the Topology Table as a Feasible Successor. This prevents loops from occurring. If the Reported Distance is smaller than the Feasible Distance, then this path is considered to be a Feasible Successor and is entered into the Topology table. The Successor for a particular route is the neighbor/peer with the lowest metric/distance to that network. If the receiving router has a Feasible Distance to a particular network and it receives an update from a neighbor with a lower advertised distance (Reported Distance) to that network, then there is a Feasibility Condition. In this instance, the neighbor becomes a Feasible Successor for that route because it is one hop closer to the destination network. There may be a number of Feasible Successors in a meshed network environment, up to 6 of them are entered into the Topology table thereby giving a number of next hop choices for the local router should the neighbor with the lowest metric fail. What you should note here, is that the metric for a neighbor to reach a particular network (i.e. the Reported Distance) must always be less than the metric (Feasible Distance) for the local router to reach that same network. This way routing loops are avoided. This is why routes that have Reported Distances larger than the Feasible Distance are not entered into the Topology table, so that they can never be considered as successors, since the route is likely to loop back through that local router. Incorrect Answers:

D: The feasible successors are found in the topology table, but not the active routing table. E: With EIGRP, traffic is load balanced across equal cost links in the routing table, but not between feasible successors. Reference: http://www.rhyshaden.com/eigrp.htm

------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 3:

Two Certkiller EIGRP routers are attempting to establish themselves as neighbors. Which EIGRP multicast packet type is responsible for neighbor discovery?

A. Update B. Query C. Acknowledgment D. Reply E. Hello F. None of the above

Answer: E

Explanation: Remember that simple distance vector routers do not establish any relationship with their neighbors. RIP and IGRP routers merely broadcast or multicast updates on configured interfaces. In contrast, EIGRP routers actively establish relationships with their neighbors, much the same way that OSPF routers do. EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. Hellos are sent by default every five seconds. An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is

EIGRP routers do the following: 1. those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable. EIGRP uses an area hierarchy to increase network scalability. By forming adjacencies. E. Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network 2. Rediscover routers that had previously been unreachable --------------------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 4: Certkiller has chosen to use EIGRP for their network routing protocol. C. . D. Hellos are sent by default every five seconds. Which three statements are true regarding EIGRP? (Select three) A. EIGRP uses hellos to establish neighbor relationships. those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable. EIGRP performs auto-summarization across classful network boundaries. An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is receiving hello packets from known neighbors. Answer: B. EIGRP uses the Dijkstra algorithm to determine the best path to a destination network based on bandwidth and delay. By default. D Explanation: EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. C. By default. B. EIGRP attempts to maintain a successor and feasible successor path for each destination.receiving hello packets from known neighbors. Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable 3. To speed convergence.

To turn off auto-summarization.A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination. auto summarization is a good thing. or databases. EIGRP routers do the following: 1. Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained in the topology table. EIGRP keeps this information in several tables. * Successor . use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary --------------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 5: You need to configure EIGRP on all routers within the Certkiller network. * Feasible successor . Multiple successors for a destination can be retained in the routing table. These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified. Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. but are kept in the topology table. In most cases. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable 3. Rediscover routers that had previously been unreachable EIGRP routers keep route and topology information readily available in RAM so they can react quickly to changes. Like OSPF. Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network 2. Which two statements are characteristics of the routing protocol EIGRP? (Select two) .By forming adjacencies. EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary.A feasible successor is a backup route.

EIGRP routers do the following: 1. Metric values are represented in a 32-bit format for granularity.com . D. Updates are sent as broadcast. By forming adjacencies. Answer: B. LSAs are sent to adjacent neighbors. D Explanation: EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. C. Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable Actualtests. those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable.The Power ------------------------------------------------------------- . Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network 2. B. An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is receiving hello packets from known neighbors. Updates are sent as multicast. Hellos are sent by default every five seconds.A.

B. auto-summarization is automatically disabled by default. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary . C. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. D. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. To turn off auto-summarization. When manual summarization is configured. auto summarization is a good thing. Manual summaries can be configured with the classful mask only. Manual summarization is configured on a per interface basis. The summary address is entered into the routing table and is shown to be sourced from the Null0 interface. The summary address is assigned an administrative distance of 10 by default. E. Which two statements are true about EIGRP manual summarization? (Select two) A. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. Answer: A. E Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary.QUESTION 6: You have been tasked with setting up summarization in the Certkiller EIGRP network. In most cases.

EIGRP stub routing should be used on hub routers only.1. and not an actual interface. What are three key concepts that apply when configuring the EIGRP stub routing feature in a hub and spoke network? (Select three) A. . A hub router prevents routes from being advertised to the remote router. which has the following syntax: Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance D 2. D. A stub router should have only EIGRP hub routers as neighbors. Spoke routers connected to hub routers answer the route queries for the stub router. Null0 Notice that the summary route is sourced from Null0.0. Stub routers are not queried for routes. B. ------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 7: Router CK1 4 is configured as an EIGRP stub router. C. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis. 00:00:22.0/16 is a summary. E. Only remote routers are configured as stubs.EIGRP also enables manual configuration of a prefix to use as a summary address. The interface that will propagate the route summary must first be selected and then defined with the ip summary-address eigrp command. F.

and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios120/120newft/120limit/120s/120 s15/eigrpstb. . Generally. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. and simplifies stub router configuration. In a hub and spoke network. More on: http://www. redistributed static routes. connected routes. C. The router responds to queries for summaries. The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. and to configure only the remote router as a stub.Answer: A. external routes. In a hub and spoke topology. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers.cisco. the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. Often. F Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. reduces resource utilization.

Configuring route filters C. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. In most cases. auto summarization is a good thing. Which is the most effective technique to contain EIGRP queries? A. Establishing separate autonomous systems D. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme B. Route summarization E. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work . the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing.------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 8: You want to reduce the amount of EIGRP traffic across low speed links in the Certkiller network.

Hold time F. Delay C. K values B. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary EIGRP also enables manual configuration of a prefix to use as a summary address. Bandwidth Answer: A. The interface that will propagate the route summary must first be selected and then defined with the ip summary-address eigrp command. C .properly. Hello time E. To turn off auto-summarization. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis. which has the following syntax: Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance ------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 9: Routers CK1 and CK2 have formed an EIGRP neighbor relationship. In order for two routers to become EIGRP neighbors. which two values must match? (Select two) A. Autonomous system D.

EIGRP uses a different metric calculation and hop-count limitation. which is slightly less than the 255 limit for IGRP. Which three statements are true about EIGRP operation? (Select three) . By multiplying or dividing by 256. and IGRP uses a 24-bit metric. --------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 10: Certkiller uses EIGRP as their internal routing protocol. However.Explanation: Despite being compatible with IGRP. EIGRP scales the IGRP metric by a factor of 256. To become the neighbor K value should be matched and should belongs to same AS. this is more than enough to support most of the largest internetworks. EIGRP also imposes a maximum hop limit of 224. That is because EIGRP uses a metric that is 32-bits long. EIGRP can easily exchange information with IGRP.

E Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. the router will also create a route to null 0. Summarization is configured on a per-interface level. The maximum metric for the specific routes is used as the metric for the summary route. The summary route remains in the route table. C. When summarization is configured. D. Automatic summarization across major network boundaries is enabled by default. B. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis.A. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. Answer: B. In most cases. The interface that will propagate the route summary must first be selected and then defined with the ip summary-address eigrp command. To turn off auto-summarization. which has the following syntax: Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance . E. D. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. auto summarization is a good thing. even if there are no more specific routes to the network. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary EIGRP also enables manual configuration of a prefix to use as a summary address. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks.

CCNP 642-901 QUESTION 11-20 QUESTION 11: A link failure in the Certkiller network has caused the EIGRP routers to update their routing tables. ------------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 12: EIGRP performs automatic summarization at network boundaries. It examines the topology table for a next best path. What administrative distance is given to EIGRP summary routes? A. It transitions from passive to active state for that network and queries its neighbors. B. Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained in the topology table. Multiple successors for a destination can be retained in the routing table. but are kept in the topology table.A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination. It transitions from active to passive state for that network and queries its neighbors. 1 . These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified. E. C. What action does an EIGRP router take when it cannot find a feasible successor for a network? A. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: * Successor . D.A feasible successor is a backup route. It examines the routing and neighbor tables for the next best path. Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. * Feasible successor .

0 E. 95 D. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly.B. 255 H. In most cases. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary . 5 F. 170 G. None of the above Answer: E Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. To turn off auto-summarization. 90 C. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. auto summarization is a good thing. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks.

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QUESTION 13:

You need to alter the metrics of certain EIGRP routes in the Certkiller network. Which two parameters are used by default to compute the EIGRP metric? (Select two)

A. MTU B. bandwidth C. delay D. reliability E. load F. Interface up time

Answer: B, C

Explanation:

Metrics are the mathematics used to select a route. The higher the metric associated with a route, the less desirable it is. For EIGRP, the Bellman-Ford algorithm uses the following equation and creates the overall 24-bit metric assigned to a route: * metric = [(K1 bandwidth) + [(K2 bandwidth) ÷ (256 - load)] + (K3 delay)] [K5 ÷ (reliability + K4)] The elements in this equation are as follows: * By default, K1 = K3 = 1, K2 = K4 = K5 = 0. Therefore, by default, the metric formula reduces to: metric = (1 bandwidth) + (1 delay) metric = bandwidth + delay

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QUESTION 14:

The Certkiller network is using EIGRP as the network routing protocol. Which of the following statements correctly describe features and characteristics of routing using EIGRP? (Select three)

A. It sends periodic updates every 60 seconds. B. EIGRP uses DUAL to achieve rapid convergence. C. Adjacencies exist between master routers (MRs) in each domain. D. It uses multicast to discover other EIGRP routers on an internetwork. E. EIGRP provides support for multiple network layer protocols: IPX, AppleTalk, and IP.

Answer: B, D, E

Explanation: B: Enhanced IGRP uses the Diffusing Update based algorithm (DUAL).

D: EIGRP use hello multicast packets for neighbor discovery/recovery. E: EIGRP supports IPX, Appletalk, and IP. Separate EIGRP instances can be created for each routed protocol. Incorrect Answers: A: EIGRP use triggered updates, not periodic updates. C: Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. However, there is no concept of master routers in EIGRP. Reference: "Introduction to Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)" http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/459/7.html

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QUESTION 15:

While comparing the tables associated with EIGRP and OSPF, you notice some similarities. Which EIGRP table is similar to OSPF's Link State Adjacency table?

A. Neighbor table B. Routing table C. Topology table D. Successor table E. None of the above

Answer: A

Explanation: Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. This table is comparable to the neighbors (adjacency) database used by OSPF.

Incorrect Answers: B: The routing table of EIGRP would compare to the routing table of OSPF C: Both EIGRP and OSPF contain topology tables, which would compare to each other. D: EIGRP does not have a successor table. Successors are maintained in the routing and topology tables of EIGRP. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 250

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QUESTION 16:

DRAG DROP

lists adjacent routers Topology Table . Explanation: .backup route to the destination.best routes to a destination Feasible successor .Explanation: Neighbor table .route entries for all destinations.primary route used to reach a destination Routing table . Successor .

This table is comparable to the neighbors (adjacency) database used by OSPF.This is the primary route used to reach a destination. All learned routes to a destination are maintained in the topology table. but are kept in the topology table. * Successor . * Routing Table .This is a neighbor that is downstream with respect to the destination. Successors are kept in the routing table.* Neighbor Table .An EIGRP router maintains a topology table for each network protocol configured: IP. and AppleTalk. this is a backup route to the destination. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 250 ---------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 17: Different types of EIGRP transmissions are sent between neighboring routers.Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. but it is not the least-cost path and thus is not used for forwarding data.EIGRP choose the best routes to a destination from the topology table and places these routes in the routing table. Hello . * Feasible Successor . IPX. In other words. * Topology Table . These routes are selected at the same time as successors. Which three of the following terms are known as 'reliable packets' in EIGRP? (Select three) A. The router maintains one routing table for each network protocol.

updates are multicast. Update Answer: C. Both queries and replies are transmitted reliably. such as a link cost change. Updates are always transmitted reliably. They do not require acknowledgment. In this case. Replies are always sent in response to queries to indicate to the originator that it does not need to go into Active state because it has feasible successors. When a new neighbor is discovered. it is unicast back to the successor that originated the query.0 study guide. Reply D. B: Hellos are multicast for neighbor discovery/recovery. E Explanation: Updates are used to convey the reachability of destinations. Queries are always multicast unless they are sent in response to a received query.B. pages 6-18. Incorrect Answers: A. ACK C. EIGRP unreliable packets are: Hello and Ack. A hello with no data is also used as an acknowledgment (ack). In this case. update packets are sent so the neighbor can build up its topology table. In other cases. D. ---------------------------------------------------- . Queries and replies are sent when destinations go into Active state. Query and Reply. Query E. EIGRP reliable packets are: Update. Acks are always sent using a unicast address and contain a non-zero acknowledgment number. update packets are unicast. Replies are unicast to the originator of the query. Reference: Cisco BSCN version 1.

Answer: A Explanation: EIGRP advertises a prefix length to each destination network. -------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 19: EIGRP was designed specifically not to use excessive bandwidth for routing updates and . EIGRP advertises a prefix length for each destination network. C: This is incorrect because EIGRP is considered to be a classless protocol. EIGRP advertises only a classful subnet mask for each destination network. D: EIGRP is more sophisticated then IGRP and RIP and actually does advertise a subnet mask to each destination network. Incorrect Answers: B: This is incorrect because EIGRP supports Variable Length subnet masks. It supports VLSM which allows subnet masks to be automatically summarized at the network boundary.QUESTION 18: Which one of the following statements best describes the way EIGRP advertises subnet mask information to its destination networks? A. EIGRP. D. like IGRP and RIP. does not advertise a subnet mask for each destination network. and EIGRP can also be configured to summarize on any bit boundary at any interface. not classful. EIGRP advertises a fixed length subnet mask for each destination network. C. B.

Configuration Notes for the Enhanced Implementation of EIGRP.html -----------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 20: . what is the maximum percent of its bandwidth EIGRP would use.com/warp/public/103/12. Reference: Cisco.cisco. EIGRP will limit itself to using no more than 50% of the available bandwidth.functions across WAN links. http://www. by default? Answer: C Explanation: By default. The maximum bandwidth that can be used is a configurable parameter. If EIGRP is configured on an interface.

Where in an EIGRP network is it most appropriate to implement route summarization? A. Subnet mask information must be included in all routing updates for classless protocols. At area border routers B. It is a classful routing protocol C. In backbone area routers. It is done automatically by the DR router in each area D. . summarization is being configured on all routers. C Explanation: EIGRP includes the routing mask when it advertises routes. These two features enable EIGRP to support VLSM.EIGRP supports Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM). It advertises a routing mask B. EIGRP is a classless protocol. Manually at any interface of any EIGRP router within the network E. It does not advertise a routing mask. meaning that is does not solely rely on the network class in order to find the subnet mask. At autonomous system boundary routers C. Which two features of EGIRP are true regarding EIGRP support for VLSM? (Select two) A. Incorrect Answers B: Classful routing protocols do not support VLSM. -------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 21: In an effort to decrease the size of the routing tables in the Certkiller network. D: The subnet mask must be included in the route to support VLSM. It is a classless routing protocol D. Answer: A.

C. If the question calls for more than one answer then the best choice would be B and D. ASBRs (autonomous system boundary routers) are used at the major network boundaries. but not in EIGRP. In an EIGRP network. Dynamically at discontiguous interfaces. but this is not the preferred solution. Summarizing manually at each router can result in black hole routing. However. Automatic route summarization occurs at major network boundaries. -------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 22: The Certkiller network is using route summarization to decrease the size of the routing tables. E: Area Border Router and DR are used in OSPF. but not in EIGRP. Incorrect Answers A. B. Dynamically at major network boundaries. done properly this is an acceptable practice. At WAN interfaces. C. D. D: Manual summarization can be done in any interface at any router within network. Manually at major network boundaries. Answer: D Explanation: . which of the following describes the best method for implementing summarization? A.Answer: B Explanation: Enhanced IGRP performs route summarization at classful network boundaries by default. Backbone area routers are also concepts used in OSPF.

The hold time is typically three times the hello interval. 180 seconds E. and it is recommended to keep the defaults. 5 Seconds Answer: D Explanation: EIGRP sends hello packets every 5 seconds on high bandwidth links and every 60 seconds on low bandwidth multipoint links. 60 seconds C. making many networks unreachable. Note: Route summarization is the consolidation of advertised addresses. B: Route summarization is automatic in EIGRP. By default what would the hold time be for hello packets across these WAN links? A. C: Route summarization should only be applied at contiguous interfaces. 90 seconds D. Incorrect Answers: . Incorrect Answers A: Manually configuring summarization at WAN boundaries is not necessarily recommended in all situations. In this scenario. 30 seconds B. hold time will be 180 seconds. --------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 23: The Certkiller network is running EIGRP on the T1 links within their NBMA frame relay network. on slow NBMA media. If the routers belong to the same major network boundary then summarization should not be configured. Route summarization takes place automatically at major network boundaries (where network are supernetted). Choosing this option would most likely lead to black hole routing.EIGRP supports arbitrary route summarization.

A. B. unequal path-cost load balancing Answer: B. Update packets are sent so the neighbor can build up its. periodic update announcements E. discontiguous subnets C. variable length subnet masks D. E: This is the default for high bandwidth links. . D: EIGRP use periodic hello messages. not the Djikstra's algorithm. such as Ethernet networks. C: Although the hello timers can be manually configured for these values. C: EIGRP support variable length subnet masks (VLSM). not update announcements. however. EIGRP is considered to be a hybrid routing protocol. C Explanation: B: Discontiguous subnets are supported by EIGRP.cisco. EIGRP use update packets to convey reachability of destinations.html ------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 24: EIGRP is being used as the routing protocol within the Certkiller network. These are not periodic. Reference: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol http://www. they are not the default time. This is a classless routing protocol feature. This is a classless routing protocol feature. Which two of the following features allow EIGRP to support classless routing? (Select two) A. Djikstra's algorithm B.com/warp/public/103/eigrp1. When a new neighbor is discovered. Incorrect Answers A: EIGRP use the DUAL algorithm. The Djikstra algorithm is used by distance vector protocols.

E: IGRP and EIGRP support unequal cost path load balancing, which is known as variance. However, this is not a classless feature of EIGRP. Note: Classless routing protocols include the routing mask with the route advertisement. This enables discontiguous subnets and variable length subnet masks. Reference: Introduction to Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/1.html How Does Unequal Cost Path Load Balancing (Variance) Work in IGRP and EIGRP? http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/19.html

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QUESTION 25:

EIGRP is being used as the routing protocol on the Certkiller network. While troubleshooting some network connectivity issues, you notice a large number of EIGRP SIA (Stuck In Active) messages. What causes these SIA routes? (Select two)

A. The neighboring router stops receiving ACK packets from this router. B. The neighboring router starts receiving route updates from this router. C. The neighboring router is too busy to answer the query (generally caused by high CPU utilization). D. The neighboring router is having memory problems and cannot allocate the memory to process the query or build the reply packet.

Answer: C, D

Explanation: SIA routes are due to the fact that reply packets are not received. This could be caused by a router which is unable to send reply packets. The router could have reached the limit of its capacity, or it could be malfunctioning. Incorrect Answers

A: Missing replies, not missing ACKs, cause SIA. B: Routes updates do not cause SIA. Notes: If a router does not receive a reply to all outstanding queries within 3 minutes, the route goes to the stuck in active (SIA) state. The router then resets the neighbors that fail to reply by going active on all routes known through that neighbor, and it re-advertises all routes to that neighbor. Reference: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/eigrp3.html

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QUESTION 26:

EIGRP is being configured on the Certkiller network. After the initial configuration, the EIGRP routers form relationships with its peer routers. Which three of the following statements correctly describe these peer relationships? (Select three)

A. EIGRP will form neighbors if the routers are not adjacent B. EIGRP will not form neighbors if the metric K-values do not match. C. EIGRP will not form neighbors if the router AS numbers do not match. D. EIGRP will form neighbors over primary and secondary interface addressing. E. EIGRP will form neighbors even though hello and hold timers do not match on the peering interfaces.

Answer: B, C, E

Explanation: B: To become neighbors the routers metric must be comparable. C: EIGRP neighbors must have the same AS number. E: It is possible for two routers to become EIGRP neighbors even though the hello and hold timers don't match.

Incorrect Answers: A: Neighbor discovery/recovery is the process that routers use to dynamically learn of other routers on their directly attached networks. D: EIGRP doesn't build peer relationships over secondary addresses. Reference: Cisco White Paper, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/eigrp1.html

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QUESTION 27:

The Certkiller network is an EIGRP network consisting of four links (Link A, Link B, Link C, & Link D). The costs associated with each link is A=1, B=3, C=2, D=4. According to the variables below, which link is going to be the feasible successor?

A. Link A B. Link B C. Link C D. Link D

Answer: C

Explanation: Link A is the best link and it therefore the successor. Link C is the next best link, and it is therefore the feasible successor. Incorrect Answers A: Link A is the successor, not the feasible successor. B: Both Link A and Link C are better than Link B. D: The feasible successor must have Advertised Destination that is less than the Feasible Distance. Note: Feasible distance is the best metric along a path to a destination network, including the

metric to the neighbor advertising that path. Reported distance, or advertised distance, is the total metric along a path to a destination network as advertised by an upstream neighbor. A feasible successor is a path whose reported distance is less than the feasible distance. Reference: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/eigrp1.html

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QUESTION 28:

Part of the routing table of router CK1 is displayed below: S 62.99.153.0/24 [1/0] via 209.177.64.130 172.209.12.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets D EX 172.209.1 [170/2590720] via 209.179.2.114, 06:47:28, Serial0/0/0.1239 62.113.17.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks D EX 99.3.215.0/24 [170/27316] via 209.180.96.45, 09:52:10, FastEthernet11/0/0 [170/27316] via 209.180.96.44, 09:52:10, FastEthernet11/0/0 25.248.17.0/24 [90/1512111] via 209.179.66.25, 10:33:13, Serial0/0/0.1400001 [90/1512111] via 209.179.66.41, 10:33:13, Serial0/0/0.1402001 62.113.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 12 subnets, 2 masks D 62.113.1.227/32 [90/2611727] via 209.180.96.45, 10:33:13, FastEthernet1/0/0 [90/2611727] via 209.180.96.44, 10:33:13, FastEthernet1/0/0 S* 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 209.180.96.14 From analyzing the above command output, what is the administrative distance of the external EIGRP routes?

A. 24 B. 32 C. 90 D. 170 E. 27316

html -------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 29: . which is the default E: This is the EIGRP metric of the external EIGRP routes. The first value within the brackets display the AD. so with a value of [170/27316] the AD is 170 and the metric of the route is 27316. B: This is the subnet mask used for some of the routes in the table. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: By default an external EIGRP route has a value of 170. Incorrect Answers: A.cisco.F.com/warp/public/105/admin_distance. C: This is the AD of the internal EIGRP routes. By examining the exhibit we see that this default value of the external EIGRP routes (see D-EX in exhibit) indeed is set to 170. Reference: What Is Administrative Distance? http://www.

1.10.0 ! router eigrp 100 network 172. what will the CK1 loopback 0 be in the CK3 routing table? A.0 ! ip classless no ip http server CK3 # show run interface Ethernet1/0 ip address 172. Answer: B Explanation: Because router CK1 is configured with route redistribution. C: It will be external because of redistribution.19.0.0 media-type 10BaseT !! router eigrp 100 redistribute connected network 172.0 media-type 10BaseT ! router eigrp 100 network 172.3 255.29. EIGRP summarizes at network boundaries by default so the network will appear as the class A network of 10.19.0. and it will also be summarized since that is the default behavior of EIGRP.0.2.255.255. Because redistributed routes will show up as external EIGRP routes in the routing table.255.0 auto-summary no eigrp logneighgbor-changes ! ip classless no ip http server CK2 # show run interface Ethernet0 ip address 172.19.10. since it was redistributed into EIGRP.0. Incorrect Answers: A: The route will be external.0/8. it would be redistributed because it is a connected route./24.0.255. C. It will show up in the routing table as D 10.255. B. it will redistribute the connected loopback network into EIGRP.29.1 255.0.0.0/8 in the routing table of the other routers.0 ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 172. .1 255.0/8. D: Although it was not configured under the EIGRP network command.29. choice B is correct.2 255.19.0. Although the loopback interface is using a /24 subnet mask. D.2 255.255.255.255.255.0. It will show up in the routing table as D 10.2.29.0 network 172.CK1 # show run interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1. It will show up in the routing table as D EX 10.0 media-type 10BaseT ! interface Ethernet1 ip address 172.0 auto-summary no eigrp log-neighbor-changes ! ip classless ip http server With the topology found in the graphic.0.0.255. It will not show up in CK3 routing table because there is no network command on CK1 .

EIGRP routers maintain information regarding the successors and the feasible successors to each network destination. Should any of the neighbors fail. B. This information is useful in the convergence time whenever any of the links fail. C. EIGRP uses the Dijkstra algorithm to determine the best path to destination network based on bandwidth and delay. IS-IS and OSPF utilize hierarchical network topologies.--------------------------------------------- QUESTION 30: EIGRP has been configured as the routing protocol on the Certkiller network. EIGRP performs auto-summarization across classful network boundaries. EIGRP uses an area hierarchy to increase network scalability C. EIGRP neighbors periodically use hellos to establish the relationship. Incorrect Answers: B: EIGRP networks are inherently flat. E. Which statements are true regarding EIGRP? (Choose three) A. -------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 31: . E: The Dijkstra algorithm is used by link state routing protocols. triggered updates are sent to update the network regarding the topology change. To speed convergence. EIGRP is considered to be a hybrid routing protocol. By default. EIGRP attempts to maintain a successor and feasible successor path for each destination. Answer: A. D Explanation: The default behavior of EIGRP routers is to automatically summarize routes at the network boundary. as each router is perceived as a peer to every other EIGRP router. D. By default. EIGRP uses hellos to establish neighbor relationships.

5 D.Router Certkiller 1 is the headquarters router in a hub and spoke topology supporting 24 remote offices. 0 B. 128 kbps C. 90 . Point-to-multipoint Frame Relay EIGRP network is deployed between the headquarters and the remote offices. 1 C. 1. 1. In this case.544 Mbps D. --------------------------------------- QUESTION 32: What administrative distance is given to EIGRP summary routes? A. There is no bandwidth command configured under either the major serial interface or the subinterface on router Certkiller 1. What is the bandwidth of each Frame Relay connection perceived by the EIGRP process? A. 64 kbps B.536 Mbps Answer: A Explanation: By default in point-to-multipoint Frame Relay EIGRP network all subinterfaces share the bandwidth and each one receives (throughput of the channel)/(number of subinterfaces) throughput. the formula is 1544kbps/24 =64kbps.

The summary route remains in the route table. 170 Answer: C --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 33: Which of the following statements are true about EIGRP operation? (Choose three) A. When summarization is configured. 95 F. even if there are no more specific routes to the network. D. Automatic summarization across major network boundaries is enabled by default. the router will add a route to null 0 B. E. . Summarization is configured on a per-interface level. The maximum metric for the specific routes is used as the metric for the summary route.E. C.

this traffic will be sent to the null0 interface where it is dropped. If the default route learned from the neighbors is displaced by the summary default route. not the maximum (worst).Answer: A. C. the summary route will also be deleted. E Explanation: Using the ip summary-address eigrp summarization command will causes the creation of an EIGRP summary default route to the null0 interface with an administrative distance of 5. You can configure a summary aggregate address for a specified interface. By default. With EIGRP. Caution should be taken when using this as a default route. If there are any more specific routes in the routing table. D: The metric used in a summary route is the best metric from among the summarized routes. ---------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 34: What action does an EIGRP router take when it cannot find a feasible successor for a network? . EIGRP will advertise the summary address out the interface with a metric equal to the minimum of all more specific routes. Incorrect Answers: B: When all of the specific routes used within a summary route are deleted from the routing table. or if the summary route is the only default route present. instead. all traffic destined for the default route will not leave the router. Cisco routers will automatically summarize EIGRP routes across major network boundaries. The low administrative distance of this default route can cause this route to displace default routes learned from other neighbors from the routing table.

It examines the routing and neighbor tables for the next best path. When there are no feasible successors.A. Answer: B Explanation: With EIGRP. B. C. It examines the topology for a next best path. a router cannot change the next-hop neighbor it is using to forward packets. a route goes into Active state and a route recomputation occurs. A route is considered in the Passive state when a router is not performing a route recomputation. While in Active state. A topology table entry for a destination can have one of two states. If there are always feasible successors. D. It transitions from passive to active state for that network and queries its neighbors. --------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 35: The Certkiller EIGRP network is displayed in the following topology diagram: . The route is in Active state when a router is undergoing a route recomputation. Neighboring routers can either reply if they have feasible successors for the destination or optionally return a query indicating that they are performing a route recomputation. the destination can transition to Passive state and a new successor can be selected. Once all replies are received for a given query. A route recomputation commences with a router sending a query packet to all neighbors. It transitions from active to passive state for the next network and queries its neighbors. a route never has to go into Active state and avoids a route recomputation.

Study the exhibits carefully.Certkiller 4. and Certkiller 5Certkiller 4. not answer C. 10*3 = 30 meaning we can use all routes with a metric of 30 and under which is answer B(5-2-1 and 5-31). Answer: B Explanation: In this question the variance 3 command is used.Certkiller 2.You work as a network technician at Certkiller . D. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 3. ---------------------------------------------------- .Certkiller 1 B.Certkiller 1.Certkiller 3. Since the lowest metric is 10.Certkiller 2.Certkiller 2. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5. C.Certkiller 1.Certkiller 1. If the command "variance 3" was added to the EIGRP configuration of Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1.Certkiller 1. which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic from Certkiller 5 to network X? A.com. Certkiller 5. Certkiller 5. Certkiller 5.

redundant EIGRP networks can cause scalability problems. TheEIGRP Stub Router functionality in Cisco IOS Software Release 12. The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability. To increase scalability by limiting the EIGRP query range. To reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to also perform query requests to the EIGRP hub router. B. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. C. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. D. The distribution router can be .0(7)T can achieve this solution. The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub).QUESTION 36: What is the purpose of the "eigrp stub" configuration command? A. To reduce the size of the routing table by blocking the D EX (External EIGRP) routes in the EIGRP stub router. The best solution to this is to provide a means within the context of the EIGRP protocol itself to control traffic flows and limit query depth. Answer: A Explanation: Complex. To reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to propagate the EIGRP queries from the EIGRP hub router. In a hub and spoke network. and simplifies stub router configuration. reduces resource utilization. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router.

the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. Reference: http://www. to reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to propagate the EIGRP queries from the EIGRP hub router. and to configure only the remote router as a stub. so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. What is the purpose of the "EIGRP stub" configuration command? A. Often.html --------------------------------------------------QUESTION 37: The Certkiller network administrator has issued the "EIGRP stub" command on router CK8 . C. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087026. and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. external routes. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. to reduce the size of the routing table by blocking the D EX (External EIGRP) routes into the EIGRP stub router. The router responds to queries for summaries. connected routes. redistributed static routes. to increase scalability by limiting the EIGRP query range. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. B.cisco. In a hub and spoke topology." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers.connected to many more remote routers. Generally. . the remote router must forward all non local traffic to a distribution router. and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer.

Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router . The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. Answer: B Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability. and to configure only the remote router as a stub. and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). In a hub and spoke network. connected routes. The router responds to queries for summaries. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router. None of the above.D. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. Often. and simplifies stub router configuration." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. reduces resource utilization. Generally. external routes. so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. In a hub and spoke topology. redistributed static routes. the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. E. to reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to also perform query requests to the EIGRP hub router. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router.

The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers. Router(config-router)# eigrp stub [receive-only connected static summary] :Configures a remote router as an EIGRP stub router. such as PPP or HDLC. and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer. Router(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits The value. kilobits. If the link is slower. ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 56000 E. When configuring EIGRP to run across a 56 Kbps serial PPP link. or suboptimal path selection may result. what command do you need to put under the serial interface to ensure proper convergence of EIGRP routes? A. . routing updates might become lost. bandwidth 56 C. ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 56 D. -------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 38: Router CK1 is an EIGRP router terminating a low speed circuit. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: When configuring serial links using EIGRP it is important to configure the bandwidth setting on the interface. If the bandwidth setting is not changed for these interfaces EIGRP assumes the default bandwidth on the link instead of the true bandwidth. indicates the intended bandwidth in kilobits per second. the router may not be able to converge. For generic serial interfaces. bandwidth 56000 B.for any routes. set the bandwidth to the line speed.

reduces resource utilization. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. Stub C. Summary E. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN.0 eigrp stub Based on the information shown above. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. Static D. so it . Often.0. which two types of routes will be advertised? (Select two) A. Dynamic Answer: D. In a hub and spoke network. E Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability. Connected F.0.-------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 39: Router CK1 is configured as shown below: router eigrp 100 network 10. In a hub and spoke topology. and simplifies stub router configuration. Receive-only B. The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router.

Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes. Generally. external routes. --------------------------------------------------QUESTION 40: You need to configure EIGRP on a new Certkiller router. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. and to configure only the remote router as a stub." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. ip eigrp autonomous-system-number C. Which command should you issue first to configure EIGRP for IP? A. connected routes. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. redistributed static routes. Router(config-router)# eigrp stub [receive-only connected static summary] :Configures a remote router as an EIGRP stub router. and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers. ip eigrp routing D. and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. The router responds to queries for summaries. None of the above Answer: A . router eigrp process-id E. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. router eigrp autonomous-system-number B.becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table.

IPX. or AppleTalk. EIGRP configuration commands vary depending on the protocol that is to be routed. The administrator must disable automatic summarization with the command "no autosummary" C. The administrator must specify a default network with the command "ip defaultnetwork" D. EIGRP supports discontiguous networks by default. What must the administrator do to ensure all of the Certkiller routers have the correct routing information? A. The administrator must enable manual summarization with the command "ip summary- . Indicate which networks belong to the EIGRP autonomous system on the local router. This section covers configuration commands for each of these routed protocols. Perform the following steps to configure EIGRP for IP: 1. configuring EIGRP can be relatively simple.Explanation: Despite the complexity of DUAL. 2. E. Nothing. An example is IP. in addition to special controls for IPX SAP. ----------------------------------------------------QUESTION 41: A Certkiller network administrator is troubleshooting an EIGRP configuration across a discontiguous network. Router(config-router)#network network-number The network-number determines which interfaces of the router are participating in EIGRP and which networks are advertised by the router. This value must match all routers within the internetwork. It is used to indicate all routers that belong within the internetwork. Use the following to enable EIGRP and define the autonomous system. Router(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system-number The autonomous-system-number is the number that identifies the autonomous system. The administrator must enable classless routing with the command "ip classless" B.

In most cases. which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic to network X. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. To turn off auto-summarization.address" F. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary ------------------------------------------ QUESTION 42: The Certkiller EIGRP network is shown below: If the command "variance 3" were added to Certkiller 5. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. auto summarization is a good thing. which resides on the Certkiller 1 LAN? .

Certkiller 1 D.Certkiller 1 B. Which is the correct command format to configure EIGRP summary route? A.Certkiller 1 C. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128. which means equal cost load balancing. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs.Certkiller 2. ip summary-route eigrp as-number address mask B. Certkiller 5. Certkiller 5.A. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. In addition. proportionately. with respect to the metric. -------------------------------------------QUESTION 43: You need to configure route summarization on a Certkiller EIGRP router.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 4. ip auto-summary as-number address mask D.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5Certkiller 4. ip auto-summary eigrp as-number address mask .Certkiller 1 E. Use the variance n command in order to instruct the router to include routes with a metric of less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination.Certkiller 1. Certkiller 5. Certkiller 5. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 2. The default is 1. ip summary-address as-number address mask C.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 2. Certkiller 5.

In most cases. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. None of the above Answer: E Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. To turn off auto-summarization. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. The interface that will propagate the route summary must first be selected and then defined with the ip summary-address eigrp command. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis. auto summarization is a good thing. which has the following syntax: Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 44: . ip summary-address eigrp as-number address mask F. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary EIGRP also enables manual configuration of a prefix to use as a summary address.E.

Use the "passive interface" on the Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 interface that connects to the 10. auto summarization is a good thing. E.1. Use the "passive interface" command between the Certkiller 3 and Certkiller 1 connection and between the Certkiller 3 and Certkiller 2 connection. Use the EIGRP "no auto-summary" command on Certkiller 3 and Certkiller 4. D. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary .1. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. B.1. Answer: A Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing.0/24 subnet respectively. Use the "variance" command on Certkiller 3. In most cases. F. To turn off auto-summarization. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks.0/24 and 10. C.2.A. None of the above. Use the EIGRP "no auto-summary" command on Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2.

Certkiller 4. Only Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1 F. Only Certkiller 5. E.Certkiller 2.Certkiller 4. router Certkiller 5 is configured with the EIGRP "variance 2" command.Certkiller 1 B.CertK in1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 3.--------------------------------------- QUESTION 45: In this network. In addition.Certkiller 3. None of the above Answer: F Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. All available paths. Interior Gateway .Certkiller 1 G.Certkiller 2.Certkiller 1 D. Both Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 2. Both Certkiller 5. What path will Router Certkiller 5 take to reach Router Certkiller 1? A. Only Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1 C.

which means equal cost load balancing. Use the variance n command in order to instruct the router to include routes with a metric of less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. Metric F. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs. The default is 1.Routing Protocol (IGRP) and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. proportionately. Which configuration command is used to enable EIGRP unequal-cost path load balancing? A. The variable n can take a value between 1 . --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 46: You want to enable load sharing across the Certkiller WAN using EIGRP. Variance B. Use the variance n command in order to instruct the router to include routes with a metric of less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. with respect to the metric. Distance C. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. Default-metric E. In addition. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128. Maximum-paths D. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing.

proportionately. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs. You want to aggregate some of the routes. ip auto-summary eigrp as-number address mask D. ip summary-address as-number address mask C. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 47: You are a network administrator on a Cisco router that's running EIGRP. ip summary-address eigrp as-number address mask Answer: E Explanation: The ip summary-address eigrp command is used to configure a summary aggregate address for a specified interface. C. D: No such command exists using this syntax. Syntax: ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number address mask Incorrect Answers: A. Which of the following commands below would you enter to configure the summary route you need? A. ip summary-route eigrp as-number address mask E. with respect to the metric. B: We must specify the appropriate protocol with the eigrp keyword. ip auto-summary as-number address mask B.and 128. . which means equal cost load balancing. The default is 1.

it may be set to a particular value for policy reasons. the bandwidth configured on the interface is 56kbps. 128 kbps D. In this case. 112 kbps C. Since the bandwidth command is also used to set the routing protocol metric. 56 kbps B. how many kbps of bandwidth is allocated for EIGRP traffic? A. The default is 50 percent. Reference: . The bandwidth-percent command can have values greater than 100 if the bandwidth is configured artificially low due to such policy reasons. The configuration file of this interface is shown below: interface serial 0/0 bandwidth 56 ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 200 From the command output above.------------------------------------------ QUESTION 48: Router CK1 has a 256kbps serial interface link to another Certkiller location. In this specific case. so 200 percent of this value is 112 kbps. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: The bandwidth-percent command tells EIGRP what percentage of the configured bandwidth it may use. it is set to 56 kbps even though the actual link is 256 kbps. 256 kbps E.

http://www.cisco. Certkiller 1 will automatically route packets via Certkiller 4 to the Certkiller Main Office Network. B. Certkiller 1 will place the route via Certkiller 4 into the hold down state. how would Certkiller 1 react? A. D. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: . Certkiller 1 will go into the active state for all routers. Certkiller 1 will go into the active state for the route to Certkiller Main Office Network. C.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK2 07/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094063.shtml ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 49: routers Certkiller 2 and Certkiller 3 were to fail. E.

2. The re-route will happen only after Certkiller 1 transitions into the active state and learns about the route through Certkiller 4. and 3 C. 2. path 1. Certkiller 1 must go into the active state first before routing around the failure via Certkiller 4.First. 2. and 5 D. and 5 F. In this case. --------------------------------------------------QUESTION 50: You are the network engineer at Certkiller . The Certkiller network has five paths from Router CK1 to a given destination. Certkiller 1 it checks the topology table for an alternate route then it sends a query to neighboring routers for other routes to the destination. since both the optimal route and the feasible successor failed. 4. and 4 B. None of the above Answer: E . 2. Which paths would be included in Router CK1 's routing table? A. path 1. 2.Path 1: 1500 Path 2: 1500 Path 3: 2000 Path 4: 4000 Path 5: 4000 Variance 3 is configured on Router CK1 . path 1. path 1. 3. 4 and 5 E. path 1. The local EIGRP metric on Router CK1 for these paths are as follows: CK1 ----------------------------.

Explanation: If the variance number is higher than the default 1. ip eigrp routing B. Per the question this means: 1500*3=4500. router eigrp autonomous-system-number E. This step is optional. ip eigrp autonomous-system-number D. -------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 51: Which one of the following commands would configure EIGRP for IP on your Cisco router? A. routerCK(config-router)#network network-number Step 3 Define bandwidth of a link for the purposes of sending routing update traffic on the link. the EIGRP process multiples the best (lowest) cost or metric value for a path by the number stated as the variance multiplier. . routerCK(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system-number Step 2 Indicate which networks are part of the EIGRP autonomous system. routerCK(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits.485. All paths to the same destination that have metrics within this new range are now included in load balancing. All available options are within 1500-4500. router eigrp process-id C. Reference: Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam Certification Guide Third Edition P. Topic: Load Balancing in EIGRP. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Perform the following steps to configure EIGRP for IP: Step1 Enable EIGRP and define the autonomous system.

what is the function of the number variable? A. This limit is used for unequal load balancing. E. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. B. Reference: http://www. It defines the limit for how far the metrics can be separated.cisco.html . even though it defines a limit for the metrics. IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. It acts as a multiplier.com/warp/public/103/19. D. Incorrect Answers: B: Number does not directly define a limit. The variance number command instructs the router to include routes with a metric less than or equal to number times the minimum metric route for that destination. Thus number is used as multiplier. C. It indicates how many paths can be used for load balancing. It indicates how many paths can be used for unequal load balancing. C.--------------------------------------- QUESTION 52: The syntax for configuring variance on an EIGRP router is: variance number In the EIGRP command sequence above. D: Number does not directly indicate the number of paths that can be used. which is known as variance.

no feasible successor. and that route will be placed in the Routing table. D C. H D. It finds that H is the successor since the advertised distance for H (30) is less than the feasible distance for B (31). None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Router H will be the successor.------------------------------------QUESTION 53: A. However. The candidate route through D has . There is no feasible successor E. It checks the topology table for a successor. Router A detects the link failure between Router B and network 7. B B. there is no next best route .

----------------------------------------- QUESTION 54: You are the network engineer at Certkiller . You also want to ensure the proper convergence of EIGRP routes.an advertised distance (220) that is higher than the feasible distance of the successor route (40). You want to configure EIGRP to run across a 56 Kbps serial PPP link on the Certkiller network. It cannot be used as a feasible successor. None of the above Answer: A . These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified. ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 56 D. Incorrect Answers: A: The FDDI interface of B is down. but they are kept in a topology table. Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. What command should you issue on the serial interface? A. ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 56000 E. bandwidth 56000 C. A feasible successor is a backup route. C: Router H is the successor. B: The candidate route through D has an advertised distance (220) that is higher than the feasible distance of the successor route (40). Note: Successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination. bandwidth 56 B. not the feasible successor.

the ip bandwidth-percent eigrp command is available. this value defaults to a full T1. the bandwidth command does not reflect the true speed of the link. where the speed of the link will vary considerably. It is possible to set a bandwidth percent that is larger than the stated bandwidth. You would use this command primarily because in your network. The bandwidth command might have been altered to manipulate the routing metric and path selection of a routing protocol. Router (config) # interface S0 Router (config-if) # bandwidth speed-of-line The bandwidth command is always specified in kbps. so it my appear to be a better link than what is actually being used. This is with the understanding that. it is practical to configure the bandwidth command only on serial lines. Otherwise. The ip bandwidth-percent-eigrp command interacts with the bandwidth command on the interface. For serial interfaces. It does not affect the actual speed of the link. If you need to limit this percentage further. the link is in fact 256 kbps.Explanation: The bandwidth is a logical construct whose value can have wide-reaching implications on the function of your network. It might be better to use other methods of controlling the routing metric and return the bandwidth to a true value. The following shows the structure of the ip bandwidth-percent eigrp command: Router (config) #interface S0 Router (config-if) #ip bandwidth-percent eigrp autonomous-system-number percent . In fact. the upper limit that EIGRP uses can be stated as a percentage of the bandwidth command. This command is useful for routing protocols that use bandwidth as part of the metric. the interface defaults. such as IGRP or OSPF. EIGRP limits itself to 50 percent of the value specified in the bandwidth command. or if the bandwidth command is not set. although the bandwidth might be stated to be 56 kbps.

B.0/24 subnet respectively. you can turn this off per AS by using the following command in router configuration mode: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary .2. This is enabled by default.1.----------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 55: A. E. D.1. this summarizes subnets to the classful network boundary. Use the EIGRP no auto-summary command on CK1 and CK2 .0/24 and 10. F. Use the passive interface on the CK1 and CK2 interface that connects to the 10.1. Use the variance command on CK3 . Use the EIGRP no auto-summary command on CK3 and CK4 . None of the above Answer: A Explanation: A useful feature of EIGRP is automatic route summarization. C. Use the passive interface command between the CK3 and CK1 connection and between the CK3 and CK2 connection.

bandwidth 56 B. The Certkiller network is shown in the following graphic: Which command should you issue? A.In the example above.0.0/8 to router CK3 . ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 56: You are the network engineer at Certkiller . bandwidth 224 . making their networks unreachable. otherwise both CK1 and CK2 will advertise the summarized network 10. this is needed.0.

take the lowest CIR and simply multiply it by the number of circuits. remember that all neighbors . 490. especially for Frame Relay. Bandwidth of the main interface divided by the number of neighbors on that interface.bandwidth 224 Reference: Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam Certification Guide Third Edition P. Non of the above Answer: B Explanation: If the multipoint network has different speeds allocated to the VCs. D. In the case of the question 4*56=224 . Bandwidth command per neighbor. E. how is the bandwidth determined for each multipoint neighbor? A. -------------------------------------------QUESTION 57: The Certkiller multipoint frame relay network is using EIGRP for the routing protocol. The configured CIR divided by the number of neighbors on that interface. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: When configuring multipoint interfaces. In this network. The configured CIR per subinterface.C. C. This is applied to the physical interface. bandwidth 256 D. B. bandwidth 768 E.

which is 64kbps. 64 kbps B.544 Mbps) if not specified. 1.share the bandwidth equally. so the bandwidth used by the IOS is the full T1 divided by 24. regardless of the actual CIR of each individual PVC.544 Mbps. The bandwidth command was not manually entered on the frame relay main interface or the sub-interfaces.536 Mbps E. For multipoint frame relay interfaces. Since there are 24 remote offices. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The default bandwidth for all serial WAN interfaces is 1. the bandwidth used by the IOS is taken from the configured bandwidth of the main interface. 128 kbps C. What is the perceived bandwidth (as seen by the EIGRP process) of each Frame Relay connection? A. there are 24 configured frame relay neighbors. divided by the number of configured neighbors. . the perceived bandwidth used by the IOS is taken from the configured bandwidth.544 Mbps D. This includes sub-interfaces. 1. --------------------------------------------QUESTION 58: Your network consists of a router named R1 that's configured in a hub and spoke topology. supporting 24 remote office via a point-to-multipoint Frame Relay EIGRP network deployment. EIGRP by default assumes the bandwidth of a serial interface is a full T1 (1. For multipoint interfaces. divided by the total number or neighbors on that interface.

This parameter is automatically set on fixed-bandwidth interfaces (such as LANs). Incorrect Answers: A: The default speed is 1.544 Mbps. ----------------------------------------------QUESTION 60: You are in the midst of configuring an NBMA network with EIGRP as the routing protocol. It depends as it is set by the PVC D. 256 Kbps B. Which . C. how will the EIGRP process perceive this T1 link? A. On one of the serial T1 interfaces. but defaults to T1 (1544 Kbps) for all serial media. It is set by the DLCI E.544 Mbps C. the bandwidth statement was not specified. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: The default EIGRP link speed is 1. By default. 1.----------------------------------------QUESTION 59: EIGRP has been configured on the WAN links of router CK1 . not 256 Kbps. D: The default speed is not set by the PVC or the DLCI.544 Mbps for non-high speed WAN links Note: The enhanced code uses the "bandwidth" subcommand on interfaces and sub-interfaces in order to determine the rate at which to generate EIGRP packets.

of the options below would you use to configure the interface bandwidth for a point-to-point interface?

A. The DLCI assigns the bandwidth for the interface. B. The sliding window size determines interface bandwidth. C. You should use the default bandwidth assigned to the interface. D. You should manually configure bandwidth as the CIR of the PVC. E. None of the above.

Answer: D

Explanation: The bandwidth can be configured separately on each subinterface. Since this is NBMA we can assume that Frame Relay is used. For Frame Relay on point-to-point the bandwidth should be set it to the CIR of the PVC. Note 1: NBMA (Non-broadcast Multi-access) supports many (more than two) routers, but have no broadcast capability. Frame Relay and X.25 are example of NBMA. Note 2: The CIR (Committed Information Rate) is the committed rate (in bits per second) at which the ingress access interface trunk interfaces, and egress access interface of a Frame Relay network transfer information to the destination Frame Relay end system under normal conditions. Incorrect Answers: A: Does not apply. B: Sliding windows does not apply. C: The bandwidth can and should be configured separately on each subinterface. -------------------------------------------

QUESTION 61:

Router CK2 is configured for EIGRP as shown below: router eigrp 100 network 10.0.0.0 eigrp stub Based on this configuration, which types of routes will be advertised with the EIGRP configuration as shown? (Choose two)

A. Static B. Receive only C. Summary D. Stub E. Connected F. Dynamic

Answer: C, E

Explanation: A router that is configured as a stub with the eigrp stub command shares connected and summary routing information with all neighbor routers by default. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087026.html

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QUESTION 62:

The Certkiller EIGRP network is utilizing the EIGRP stub routing feature. Which of the following are key concepts that apply when configuring the EIGRP stub routing feature in a hub and spoke network? (Select three)

A. A hub router prevents routes from being advertised to the remote router. B. Only remote routers are configured as stubs. C. Stub routers are not queried for routes. D. Spoke routers connected to hub routers answer the route queries for the stub router. E. A stub router should have only EIGRP hub routers as neighbors. F. EIGRP stub routing should be used on hub routers only.

Answer: B, C, E

Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability, reduces resource utilization, and simplifies stub router configuration. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. In a hub and spoke network, one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. Often, the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. In a hub and spoke topology, the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router, so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. Generally, the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature, you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP, and to configure only the remote router as a stub. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. The router responds to queries for summaries, connected routes, redistributed static routes, external routes, and internal routes with the

message "inaccessible." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. This feature should only be used on stub routers. A stub router is defined as a router connected to the network core or distribution layer through which core transit traffic should not flow. A stub router should not have any EIGRP neighbors other than distribution routers. Ignoring this restriction will cause undesirable behavior. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087026.html

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QUESTION 63:

A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5 F. 6

The command structure follows: Router(config-router)#variance multiplier The multiplier argument is the metric value used for load balancing. The variance command allows the administrator to identify the metric scope for including additional paths by the use of a multiplier parameter. maximum-paths B. It is possible to configure EIGRP to load balance across unequal-cost paths using the variance command. variance E. It can be a value from 1 to 128. default-metric F. which means equal-cost load balancing. distance C. Whether the traffic is sent on a predestination or round-robin basis depends on the internal switching within the router.Answer: B Explanation: EIGRP automatically load balances across links of equal cost. metric D. The default is 1. None of the above . Reference: CCNP Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam certification guide p.485 ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 64: Which configuration command is used to enable EIGRP unequal-cost path load balancing? A.

The variance command allows the administrator to identify the metric scope for including additional paths by the use of a multiplier parameter. It can be a value from 1 to 128. The default is 1. The command structure follows: Router(config-router)#variance multiplier The multiplier argument is the metric value used for load balancing.Answer: D Explanation: EIGRP automatically load balances across links of equal cost. Reference: CCNP Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam certification guide p. Whether the traffic is sent on a predestination or round-robin basis depends on the internal switching within the router. It is possible to configure EIGRP to load balance across unequal-cost paths using the variance command. which means equal-cost load balancing.485 ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 65: .

Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs.A. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128. which means equal cost load balancing. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. with the default being 1.5 D. 6 G. In addition to that. 5 F. Since we can not use 2. 2 C. proportionately. 2. 3 E. IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 66: . 1 B. Use the variance command to instruct the router to include routes with a metric less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. where n is the number specified by the variance command. the worst route is 2.5 for the variance (the value must be an integer) we must specify a minimum value of 3. In this example.5 times worse than the best route. with respect to the metric.

variance 2.Certkiller 4.Certkiller 1 B.Certkiller 2. G.Certkiller 4.Certkiller 1 C.Certkiller 3. Both Certkiller 5. If the following command.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 1 D.Certkiller 1 F. Both Certkiller 5.com. which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic from Certkiller 5 to network X? A.Certkiller 2. Only Certkiller 5. All available paths. Study the exhibits carefully. were added to Certkiller 5.Certkiller 2.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.You work as a network technician at Certkiller .Certkiller 1 E.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5. Only Certkiller 5. Only Certkiller 5. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Variance is 2 so 2 *(10+10) = 40 ----------------------------------------------- .

80 Mbps H. which is equal to a full T1. 60 kbps C. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 68: . 40 kbps B. From the file shown in this example. 200 kbps E. 200 Mbps I. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: By default. 60 Mbps G. how much bandwidth will be used by the EIGRP updates? A. 40 Mbps F. serial 0 is configured as a 40kbps (the bandwidth statement is used in terms of kbps) and EIGRP is configured to use up to twice this amount (200 percent) so up to 80 kbps will be consumed via the EIGRP process.QUESTION 67: Part of the configuration for a Certkiller router is shown below: interface serial0 bandwidth 40 ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 200 In the configuration in the exhibit. a serial interface will assume a bandwidth value of 1544. 80 kbps D. This default value can be overridden via the bandwidth configuration statement as shown above.

Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 are summarizing the 10. Certkiller 4. Configure an ACL on the interface of Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2.0. D. D Explanation: A dual-homed remote will have two or more distribution (hub) routers. .0/8 network and advertising it to all routers. Configure Certkiller 3. However.0. Configure static routing on Certkiller 3.0/8 from being SIA on router Certkiller 1 or Certkiller 2? (Select two) A. Certkiller 4.0. C. Configure summary routes on Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 E. Configure Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 as EIGRP stub routers. and Certkiller 5 Answer: A. and Certkiller 5 as EIGRP stub routers. B.0. the principles of stub routing are the same as they are with a hub and spoke topology.Refer to the exhibit. Which two EIGRP configurations will prevent unnecessary EIGRP updates from being sent and possibly causing 10.

Routes learned by the remote router from distribution router 1 will not be advertised to distribution router 2.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087026. Reference: http://www. Attempting to use a remote router with a limited bandwidth connection as a transit path would generally produce excessive congestion to the remote router.1. The EIGRP Stub Routing feature can prevent this problem by preventing the remote router from advertising core routes back to distribution routers.html -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 69: . If the links are sized to handle the load.cisco. It is typically undesirable for traffic from a distribution router to use a remote router as a transit path.3. the distribution router will not use the remote router as a transit for traffic destined for the network core. most networks of this type have remote routers located at remote offices with relatively slow links. This problem can be prevented if proper summarization is configured on the distribution router and remote router. Since the remote router will not advertise core routes to distribution router 2. it would be acceptable to use one of the backup routes. However.0/24. A typical connection from a distribution router to a remote router would have much less bandwidth than a connection at the network core.It is not desirable for traffic from distribution router 2 to travel through any remote router in order to reach network 10.

internal-distance: 90 external-distance: 170 Reference: http://www.cisco. Router(config-if)# distance eigrp internal-distance external-distance B.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1828/products_command_reference_chapt er09186a00800 c -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 70: EIGRP is being used as the routing protocol within the Certkiller network. use the no form of this command. use the distance eigrp command in router configuration mode. Router(config-router)# distance eigrp internal-distance external-distance D.Which command is used to change the administrative distance for EIGRP? A. Which two . There is an issue with EIGRP in this network and you suspect the problem lies with the DUAL process. Router(config-if)# distance weight eigrp internal-distance external-distance C. To reset these values to their defaults. Router(config-router)# distance weight eigrp internal-distance external-distance Answer: C Explanation: To allow the use of two administrative distances-internal and external-that could be a better route to a node.

C. or routing algorithm will react to a set of input events. FSMs define a set of possible states that something can go through. DUAL tracks all the routes advertised by neighbors in addition to using the composite metric of each route to compare them. A feasible successor in the EIGRP topology table can become the successor only after all the query requests have been replied to. . An EIGRP route will go active if there are no successors or feasible successors in the EIGRP topology table. what events cause those states. computer program. and what events result from those states. The stuck in active state is caused when the wait for the query replies have timed out. B. DUAL also guarantees that each path is loop-free. An FSM is an abstract machine. The DUAL FSM contains all the logic used to calculate and compare routes in an EIGRP network. Lowest-cost paths are then inserted by DUAL into the routing table. D. E. This is the route-calculation engine of EIGRP.statements about the EIGRP DUAL process are correct? (Select two) A. DUAL will trigger an EIGRP query process while placing the flapping routes in the holddown state. F Explanation: The focal point of EIGRP is the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL). EIGRP queries are sent during the loading state in the EIGRP neighbor establishment process. An EIGRP route will go passive if there are no successors in the EIGRP topology table. F. The full name of this technology is DUAL finite-state machine (FSM). Designers use FSMs to describe how a device. not a mechanical device with moving parts. Answer: D.

0 is a redistributed route into EIGRP. The router is then promoted to the status of successor -------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 71: A.168. Feasible successor routes can be used in case the existing route fails.1.0 is a static route. E. Packets to the destination network are immediately forwarded to the feasible successor. None of the above Answer: A . 192. 192. This information is stored in a neighbor table and a topology table. C. 192.168. A successor is a neighboring router that is currently being used for packet forwarding.168.As noted earlier in the module. D. If a link goes down.1. These tables supply DUAL with comprehensive route information in case of network disruption. EIGRP keeps important route and topology information readily available. 192. DUAL selects alternate routes quickly by using the information in these tables. A successor also provides the least-cost route to the destination and is not part of a routing loop.0.16.1. DUAL looks for a feasible successor in its neighbor and topology tables.168. B.0 is equal path load balancing with 172.1.1. Feasible successors provide the next lowest-cost path without introducing routing loops.0 is a summarized route.

including the use of administrative distance.Explanation: To support multiple routing protocols within the same internetwork efficiently. there are several scenarios in which using multiple routing protocols solves more problems than it creates. Two-way routes are where both protocols receive routes from each other. This section examines route redistribution in detail. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 72: . This process of exchanging routing information between routing protocols is called route redistribution. especially in medium and large sized networks. routing information must be shared among the different routing protocols. Why would this be done in the first place? Actually. The syntax of the redistribute command is as follows: Router(config-router)#redistribute protocol [process-id] {level-1 level-1-2 level-2} [metric metric-value][metric-type type-value] [match {internal external 1 external 2}][tag tag-value] [route-map map-tag][weight weight] [subnets] Example: routerospf 1 redistribute eigrp 1 metric 66 metric-type 1 subnets When EIGRP learns the routing information from the different routing protocol it uses D EX symbol to indicate that this routing information has learned from other routing protocol. routes learned from a RIP process may need to be imported into an IGRP process. One-way routes are where one protocol receives the routes from another. guidelines for redistribution implementation. Using multiple routing protocols typically results in increased administrative complexity and overhead. For example. Such redistribution can be one-way or two-way. Routers that perform redistribution are called boundary routers because they border two or more autonomous systems or routing domains. and issues with redistribution configuration.

2. . Given the debug output on Certkiller 1 shown below. Certkiller 1 received a hello packet with mismatched autonomous system numbers.A network administrator is troubleshooting an EIGRP connection between router Certkiller 1 with IP address 10. K1 = K3 = 1.2.1. C.1 and Certkiller 2 with IP address 10. B. the Bellman-Ford algorithm uses the following equation and creates the overall 24-bit metric assigned to a route: * metric = [(K1 bandwidth) + [(K2 bandwidth) ÷ (256 . Certkiller 1 will not form an adjacency with Certkiller 2.1. the less desirable it is. For EIGRP. The higher the metric associated with a route.2. Answer: C. the metric formula reduces to: metric = (1 bandwidth) + (1 delay) metric = bandwidth + delay K Values should be same to become the EIGRP neighbors. F. Therefore. Certkiller 1 received a hello packet with mismatched hello timers. Certkiller 1 received a hello packet with mismatched authentication parameters. E. Certkiller 1 will form an adjacency with Certkiller 2. D. which two statements are true? A. F Explanation: Metrics are the mathematics used to select a route.load)] + (K3 delay)] [K5 ÷ (reliability + K4)] The elements in this equation are as follows: * By default. K2 = K4 = K5 = 0. by default. Certkiller 1 received a hello packet with mismatched metric-calculation mechanisms.

one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub).1.1.1. 10.0. 10. D.0/24 E. 10.2. E Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability.0.20.168. reduces resource utilization. which three route entries will EIGRP advertise to neighboring routers? (Select three) router eigrp 10 network 10. 192.0/24 D.1. and simplifies stub router configuration.------------------------------------------ QUESTION 73: If the configuration shown below is added to Certkiller 1. In a hub and spoke network.0/8 Answer: C. The remote router is adjacent only to .0/24 C.0 eigrp stub A.0.0. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology.0/24 B.3. 10.

the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router. In a hub and spoke topology. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. redistributed static routes. external routes. Router(config-router)# eigrp stub [receive-only connected static summary] :Configures a remote router as an EIGRP stub router. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. Often.one or more distribution routers. Generally. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers. and to configure only the remote router as a stub. ----------------------------------------------QUESTION 74: . The router responds to queries for summaries. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. connected routes. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes. and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer.

However.2. EIGRP cannot form neighbor relationship and exchange routing updates with a secondary address. EIGRP cannot exchange routing updates with a neighbor's router interface that is configured with two IP addresses.Study the exhibits carefully. D. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: Remember that simple distance vector routers do not establish any relationship with their neighbors. Interface E0 on router Certkiller 1 has not been configured with a secondary IP address of 10.1/24. Certkiller 1 does not show Certkiller 2 as a neighbor and does not accept routing updates from Certkiller 2. E. EIGRP routers actively establish relationships with their neighbors. What could be the cause of the problem? A. The "no auto-summary command" has not been issued under the EIGRP process on both routers. RIP and IGRP routers merely broadcast or multicast updates on configured interfaces. B. much the same . In contrast.1. C. EIGRP has been configured on routers Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2.

those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable.way that OSPF routers do. The neighboring router stops receiving ACK packets from this router. By forming adjacencies. A failure causes traffic on a link between two neighboring routers to flow in only one direction (unidirectional link). C Explanation: The SIA state means that an EIGRP router has not received a reply to a query from one or more . Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network 2. Rediscover routers that had previously been unreachable -------------------------------------- QUESTION 75: While troubleshooting an EIGRP routing problem you notice that one of the Certkiller routers have generated a large number of SIA messages. EIGRP routers do the following: 1. EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. Answer: A. Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable 3. D. B. Hellos are sent by default every five seconds. Some query or reply packets are lost between the routers. What are two possible causes for EIGRP Stuck-In-Active routes? (Select two) A. C. The neighboring router starts receiving route updates from this router. An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is receiving hello packets from known neighbors.

cisco. Certkiller 1 will place the route via Certkiller 4 into the hold down state. EIGRP clears the neighbors that did not send a reply and logs a DUAL-3-SIAerror message for the route that went active Details: http://www. E. None of the above . D. Certkiller 1 will automatically route packets via Certkiller 4 to the HQ network. Certkiller 1 will go into the active state for all routes. C.neighbors within the time allotted (approximately 3 minutes). which action will Certkiller 1 take with respect to the HQ network? A. When this happens. Certkiller 1 will go into the active state for the route to HQ network. If Certkiller 2 and Certkiller 3 fail.html#topic1 ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 76: All routers in the diagram are configured with EIGRP.com/warp/public/103/18. B.

queries. show ip eigrp topology D. show ip eigrp neighbors Answer: B Explanation: The show ip eigrp traffic command displays the number of Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) packets sent and received. Example: The following is sample output from the show ip eigrp traffic command: Router# show ip eigrp traffic IP-EIGRP Traffic Statistics for process 77 Hellos sent/received: 218/205 Updates sent/received: 7/23 Queries sent/received: 2/0 Replies sent/received: 0/2 . updates. show ip eigrp traffic C. debug eigrp packets B. replies. acknowledgements). which IOS command should you use? A.Answer: B --------------------------------------- QUESTION 77: EIGRP uses five generic packet types (hello. If you wished to view the statistics for these packets.

cisco. The AS numbers do not match. The K-values do not match. The hello times do not match. The hold times do not match. D Explanation: Peer relationships and adjacencies between routers will not be formed between EIGRP routers if the neighbor resides in a different autonomous system or if the metric-calculation mechanism (K values) is misaligned for that link. B. What is a likely cause of this problem between neighbors? (Select two) A. C.Acks sent/received: 21/14 Reference :http://www. Incorrect Answers: B. Answer: A. C: It is possible for two routers to become EIGRP neighbors even though the hello and hold .com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1828/products_command_reference_chap ter09186a0080 0 --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 78: While troubleshooting a routing problem on the Certkiller EIGRP network you discover that one of the routers is failing to establish adjacencies with its neighbor. D.

it takes a very long time for a query to be answered. Answer: A. or a router with insufficient memory. in fact. B.timers do not match. only Reply do. The most basic SIA routes occur when it simply takes too long for a query to reach the other end of the network and for a reply to travel back. The neighboring router starts receiving route updates from this router. you are seeing a high number of SIA (stuck in active) routes. Note: In some circumstances. The neighboring router stops receiving ACK packets from this router. So long. that the router that issued the query gives up and clears its connection to the router that isn't answering. C. D. A failure causes traffic on a link between two neighboring routers to flow in only one direction (unidirectional link). ------------------------------------- QUESTION 79: While troubleshooting an EIGRP routing issue. D Explanation: The acknowledgement does not reach the destination or they are too delayed. effectively restarting the neighbor session. This is known as a stuck in active (SIA) route. Incorrect Answers: B: Ack packets don't reply to Query. Which of the following are causes of a route becoming SIA? (Select two) A. This is normally due to too many routing topology changes. Some query or reply packets are lost between the routers. .

cisco. and that route will be placed in the Routing table. B B. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: Router H will be the successor. D and H E. This is the normal operation of EIGRP. D only C.C: Does not apply to SIA. Router A detects the link failure between Router B and network 7. It checks the topology table for a successor.com/warp/public/103/eigrp3. H only D.html ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 80: The Certkiller network is displayed in the diagram below: A. Reference:http://www. It finds that H is the successor since the advertised distance for H (30) is less .

Manually configure the bandwidth of the major interface to the lowest CIR x 24 C. How should you configure the network? A. each link should be set to the CIR. and the bandwidth command IS NOT configured on any of the interfaces or subinterfaces. A point-to-point Frame Relay WAN connects the regional offices to the main office. Incorrect Answers: A: This is not a Cisco recommended solution. The committed information rate (CIR) for each of the Frame Relay PVC's is different. and EIGRP is deployed as the routing protocol. However. You want to ensure that EIGRP routes everything properly. Manually configure the bandwidth of the major interface to the highest CIR x 24 D. Manually configure the bandwidth of each of these PVCs to equal to their respective Answer: D Explanation: Although this will require some administrative effort.than the feasible distance for B (31). The candidate route through D has an advertised distance (220) that is higher than the feasible distance of the successor route (40). the only way to ensure that EIGRP properly considers the actual bandwidth to use in the routing decision. ------------------------------------------QUESTION 81: The Certkiller network consists of a hub and spoke topology with a main router supporting about 20 regional offices. Convert each Frame Relay PVC to point-to-multipoint connection B. there is no next best route . .no feasible successor.

Answer: C. E Explanation: The steps of convergence in an EIGRP network are as follows: 1. E. It sends a query to neighboring routers for other routes to the failed link. . Router CK3 detects the link failure between CK1 and CK3 .B: This will force all PVC to run at a low speed. C. but it doesn't find a qualifying alternate route and enters in an active convergence state. C: This would give too high a bandwidth. ------------------------------------ QUESTION 82: A. It checks its topology table for an alternate route. It checks the topology table for a feasible successor. The neighboring routers acknowledge the query. It elects a new designated router. It sends a flash update with poison reverse. B. CK3 sends a Query out all interfaces for other routes to the failed link (E). It re-broadcasts its routing table to all other neighboring routers. (C) 2. D.

3. The reply from CK4 indicates no other route to the failed link. 4. CK2 's reply contains a route to the failed link, although it has a higher feasible distance. 5. Router CK3 accepts the new path and metric information, places it in the topology table, and creates an entry for the routing table. 6. CK3 sends an update about the new route out all interfaces.

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QUESTION 83:

The EIGRP topology table for router Certkiller 1 is displayed below:

Regarding the command output on Certkiller 1 in the exhibit, which statements are true? (Select three)

A. Certkiller 1 is in AS 200 B. Certkiller 1 will load balance between three paths to reach the 192.168.1.48/28 prefix, because all three paths have the same AD of 40512000. C. The best path for Certkiller 1 to reach the 192.168.1.48/28 prefix is via 192.168.1.66.

D. 40512000 is the advertised metric via 192.168.1.66 to reach the 192.168.1.48/28 prefix. E. All the routes are in the passive mode because these routes are in the hold-down state. F. All the routes are in the passive mode, because Certkiller 1 is in the query process for those routes.

Answer: A, C, D

Explanation: The Certkiller 1 router resides in AS 200, as displayed by the "IP EIGRP topology for process 200" output. Regarding the numbers specified in the parenthesis, the first number is the EIGRP metric that represents the cost to the destination. The second number is the EIGRP metric that this peer advertised. Based on this, the best path to the 192.168.1.48/28 destination is via 192.168.1.66, because the metric is less than the alternatives.

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QUESTION 84:

The following show command was issued on router CK1 :

Based on the exhibited command output, which two statements are true? (Choose two)

A. The EIGRP network is stable. B. The router at 10.1.1.3 has not replied to the CK1 query packet. C. The route to 172.19.0.0/16 is undergoing recomputation. D. The route to 172.19.0.0/16 is stuck-in-active. E. CK1 has sent a query packet to 10.1.1.2.

Answer: B, C

Explanation: The output shown above is a snapshot from an EIGRP router re-computing the route to d 172.19.0.0/16. As can be seen above, a query was originated by CK1 to the neighbor at 10.1.1.3, but the query has not yet been replied to by this router.

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QUESTION 85:

The Certkiller OSPF network has been segmented into numerous different areas. Which three choices below are advantages to creating multiple areas in OSPF? (Select three)

A. Fewer hello packets B. Fewer adjacencies needed C. Less frequent SPF calculations D. Smaller routing tables E. Reduced Link State Update (LSU) overhead

Answer: C, D, E

Explanation: Three issues can overwhelm an OSPF router in a heavily populated OSPF network: 1. high demand for router processing and memory resources 2. large routing tables 3. large topology tables In a very large internetwork, changes are inevitable. OSPF routers are likely to run SPF calculations frequently, which deprive the router of precious CPU cycles and memory resources. Not only is the routing table frequently recalculated in a large OSPF network, but it also risks being overstuffed with multiple paths and hundreds of routes. Full routing tables make routers less efficient. Finally, the link-state database, which must contain a complete topology of the

E. Smaller routing tables . it is not necessary to flood all link-state changes to all other areas. detailed route entries for specific networks within an area are kept inside the area. B. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 86: The Certkiller network administrator has enabled OSPF across an NBMA network and has issued the command "ip ospf network nonbroadcast" on router CK1 .LSUs can contain a variety of LSA types. the routes can be summarized into one or more summary routes. D.Because detailed route information is kept within each area.When using multiple areas.network. Rather than advertise these explicit routes outside the area. which two statements are true? (Select two) A. Interfaces will automatically detect and build adjacencies with neighbor routers. Reduced frequency of SPF calculations . The neighbor command is required to build adjacencies. DR and BDR elections will not occur. Advertising these summaries reduces the amount of LSAs propagated between areas but allows all networks to remain reachable. DR and BDR elections will occur. Rather than send an LSU about each network to every area. . including link-state information and summary information. advertise a single route or a few summarized routes between areas to reduce the overhead associated with LSUs that cross multiple areas. 1. 2. C. All routers must be configured in a fully meshed topology with all other routers. 3. Reduced link-state update (LSU) overhead . Therefore. only those routers affected by a change need to run the SPF calculation. will also threaten to consume resources and slow down the router. Given those facts.

OSPF knows exactly which neighbors need to participate and which neighbor is identified as the DR. For non-broadcast networks the default Hello interval is 30 seconds and the Dead interval is four times the Hello interval. NBMA networks follow rules at Layer 2 that prevent the delivery of broadcasts and multicasts. In order to set which router you want as the DR. can include more than two nodes. communication between neighbors is done via unicast instead of multicast. By manually configuring each neighbor.If you would like to set the priority of this router to become the DR. Nonbroadcast Multiaccess (NBMA). Also. you must set the priority in the neighbor statement to elect the neighbor as the DR. Another type of OSPF network. X. the following command must be entered in router configuration mode for the selected OSPF process: neighbor ip_addressip_address = the ip address of the neighbor. In contrast.25. This configuration also requires a full mesh and has the same weakness as the broadcast environment. NBMA will try to elect a DR and a BDR. and SMDS. 120 seconds. point-to-point OSPF networks do not elect a DR because they can never include more than two nodes. due to their multi-access nature. Non-broadcast multi-access networks do elect a DR and BDR. A non-broadcast environment requires that all OSPF neighbors be manually configured. This is the default setting for physical interfaces with Frame Relay encapsulation. In order to manually configure who your neighbors are. D Explanation: Even if there is only one router. as well as for their point-to-multipoint subinterfaces.Answer: C. broadcast multiaccess networks elect a DR and a BDR to serve as focal points for routing information. you will need to append the priority of the neighbor: neighbor ip_address priority value ----------------------------------------- . Therefore. Common NBMA implementations include Frame Relay.

F Explanation: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)is an open standards routing protocol.QUESTION 87: The Certkiller network has just completed migrating to the OSPF routing protocol. OSPF has become one of the most widely used routing protocols in existence today because of the ability to implement it across multi- . When a link changes state. the router that detected the change creates a link-state advertisement (LSA) and propagates it to all OSPF devices using the 224. This becomes important when interoperability is needed. each OSPF router independently calculates its best paths to all destinations in the network.6 multicast address. C. Answer: B. While doing so. OSPF sends triggered updates when a network change occurs. OSPF sends summaries of individual link-state entries every 30 minutes to ensure LSDB synchronization.0. OSPF sends updates every 10 seconds. Using the DUAL algorithm. Cisco has also added features to its version of OSPF that may not be found in other implementations of OSPF. B. This means that Cisco based its version of OSPF on the open standards. D. It is important to recognize that Cisco's implementation of OSPF is a standards-based version. E. each OSPF router independently calculates its best paths to all destinations in the network. Using the Bellman-Ford algorithm.0. Which two statements are true of the OSPF link-state routing protocol? (Select two) A. F.

The next section covers the terminology necessary to enable you to understand the many operations and procedures performed by the OSPF process. Within OSPF. the only routing protocols MPLS traffic engineering has extensions for are OSPF and IS-IS. you must learn many terms in order to understand the operation of OSPF. many vendors modify OSPF. which allows the user to implement more secure networks. Version 2 is the only version to make it to an operational status. OSPF utilizes Dijkstra's Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm. OSPF is a robust protocol. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path through the network. decreasing the use of network bandwidth for routing updates. * Full support of classless routing behavior. Two RFCs define OSPF: Version 1 is defined by RFC 1131. Automatic route summarization is not supported by OSPF. and Version 2 is defined by RFC 2328. which allows for faster network convergence. Some of the advantages of OSPF are as follows: * Support of hierarchical network design through the use of areas. * Utilization of multicast packets decreases the impact on routers not running OSPF and end stations. * Routing updates are sent only when the information is needed. John Moy heads up the working group of OSPF. However. links become synonymous with interfaces. * Support of authentication. OSPF is known as a link-state routing protocol. * The use of link-state databases reduces the chances of routing loops. and due to its robustness.vendor platforms. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 88: . The popularity of OSPF is continuing to grow with the advent of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). * Decreased size in routing tables through the use of manual route summarization. Currently.

Stub area -A stub area is an area that does not accept information about routes external to the autonomous system. 3. All other areas must connect to this area to exchange route information. they use a default route.Which of the three areas below are valid OSPF area types? (Select three) A. Backbone E. the OSPF internetwork. Remote D.0/0. In this case configure the routers to operate in an area that does not accept external routing information. A default route is noted as 0. E Explanation: OSPF Area Types: The characteristics that are assigned to an area control the type of route information that it can receive. Active C.0. The backbone area is always Area 0.A totally stubby area is an area that does not accept external . Backbone area (transit area) . Ordinary or standard Answer: A. Type 5 LSAs. D. Stub B.A standard area can accept link updates and route summaries. The OSPF backbone has all the properties of a standard OSPF area. the backbone area is the central entity to which all other areas connect. Totally stubby area . 4. For example. 2.When interconnecting multiple areas. Standard area . The following are several area types that are possible: 1. If routers need to reach networks outside the autonomous system.0. the size of routing tables may need to be minimized in an OSPF area. such as routes from non-OSPF sources.

It describes . if the router needs to send a packet to a network external to the area. Network summary link. Incorrect Answers A: Router link.0. Answer: C Explanation: The network summary link entry is a LSA type 3 that is originated by ABRs. type 8. AS external summary link. type 4. What kind of LSA is conceived by an Area Border Router (ABR) containing route summarization of area subnets? A. type 3. 5. LSA type 1 is generated by each router for each area it belongs to.autonomous system (AS) routes and summary routes from other areas internal to the autonomous system. type 1.An NSSA is an area that is similar to a stub area but allows for importing external routes as Type 7 LSAs and translation of specific Type 7 LSA routes into Type 5 LSAs. These entries are flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. B. Totally stubby areas are a Cisco proprietary feature. Instead. It describes the links between the ABR and the internal routers of a local area.0. C. Not-so-stubby area (NSSA) . ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 89: OSPF networks create Link State Advertisements (LSAs). D. Router link. Router link. it sends it using a 0.0/0 default route.

. D. B: Router LSA is type 1. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: An ABR (Area Border Router) shares an interface with at least one other OSPF area. ASBR C. External link LSA is type 5.the states of the router's link to the area. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 90: Router CK1 has an interface in one OSPF area and another interface in a different OSPF area. also known as Area 0. Internal router D. Incorrect Answers: B: An ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router) have at least one interface in a non-OSPF network. What kind of router is CK1 ? A. Backbone router E. ABR B. C: An internal router is only connected to routers in the internal area. D: A backbone router has at least one interface in the backbone.

Type 4 LSA E.information about the router and its directly connected links. flooded only w/in the area Summary LSA (type 3) .--------------------------------------- QUESTION 91: When an OSPF ASBR announces external networks. Type 5 LSA Answer: E Explanation: In OSPF. Type 1 LSA B.The Power of Knowing the area border routers (ABR) ASBR Summary LSA (type 4) .describe networks reachable outside the area.information about a LAN and the routers connected to it. ------------------------------------------ . originated by the ABRs External LSA (type 5) . originated by the ASBRs.information about destinations outside the OSPF domain.com . flooded only w/in the area Network LSA (type 2) . originated by Actualtests. Type 2 LSA C. Type 5 LSA is used to announce external networks.reachability information to the Autonomous System Border Routers outside the area. including NSSA area (type 7). Type 3 LSA D. The OSPF Router LSA types are described here: Router LSA (type 1) . originated by the DR. flooded throughout the whole network Other LSA type exist for multicast information (type 6) and other extensions. what kind of LSA type does it use? A.

1. Normal Areas: These areas can either be standard areas or transit (backbone) areas. however. the routers in the stub area use a default route which is injected into the area by the Area Border Router (ABR).QUESTION 92: A. Backbone area B. Totally stubby area E. Stub Areas: These areas do not accept routes belonging to external autonomous systems (AS). Stubby area D. these areas have inter-area and intra-area routes. Transit area C. Not-so-stubby area Answer: E Explanation: NSSA use type 7 LSAs. The different OSPF area types are described below. In order to reach the outside networks. . 2.

Assume that one of the routers in the stub area is connected to an external AS running a different routing protocol. E.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK4 80/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094a74.shtml ------------------------------------- QUESTION 93: What kind of information can you find in a type 3 OSPF network summary link LSA? A. inter-area and external routes. 4. Totally Stub Areas: These areas do not allow routes other than intra-area and the default routes to be propagated within the area. and hence the area can no more be called a stub area. .cisco. Backbone area is the central area to which all other areas in OSPF connect. it now becomes the ASBR. Summary of link states in an OSPF area. NSSA: This type of area allows the flexibility of importing a few external routes into the area while still trying to retain the stub characteristic. However. 5. if the area is configured as a NSSA. 3.Standard areas are defined as areas that can accept intra-area. The ABR injects a default route into the area and all the routers belonging to this area use the default route to send any traffic outside the area. Summary of metric coast from ABR to ASBR. then the ASBR generates a NSSA external link-state advertisement (LSA) (Type-7) which can be flooded throughout the NSSA area. B. D. C. Summary of routes in the AS. These Type-7 LSAs are converted into Type-5 LSAs at the NSSA ABR and flooded throughout the OSPF domain Reference: http://www. None of the above. Summary of IP subnets in an OSPF area.

cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1839/products_feature_guide_chapter091 86a0080145c56. prefix length instead of address.Answer: C Explanation: A type 3 area LSA is Inter-area prefix LSA for ABR It advertises internal networks to routers in other areas (interarea routes). Reference: http://www. mask. Only ABRs generate summary LSAs. addresses for these LSAs are expressed as prefix. h ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 94: DRAG DROP . Type 3 LSAs may represent a single network or a set of networks summarized into one advertisement. In OSPF for IPv6. The default route is expressed as a prefix with length 0.

however. Normal Areas: These areas can either be standard areas or transit (backbone) areas. Assume that one of the routers in the stub area is connected to an external AS running a different routing protocol. and hence the area can no more be called a stub area. The Backbone area is the central area to which all other areas in OSPF connect. 2. these areas have inter-area and intra-area routes. the routers in the stub area use a default route which is injected into the area by the Area Border Router (ABR). if the area is configured as a NSSA. The ABR injects a default route into the area and all the routers belonging to this area use the default route to send any traffic outside the area.shtml ---------------------------------------- . 4. it now becomes the ASBR.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK4 80/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094a74. then the ASBR generates a NSSA external link-state advertisement (LSA) (Type-7) which can be flooded throughout the NSSA area. Totally Stub Areas: These areas do not allow routes other than intra-area and the default routes to be propagated within the area. Standard areas are defined as areas that can accept intra-area. These Type-7 LSAs are converted into Type-5 LSAs at the NSSA ABR and flooded throughout the OSPF domain Reference: http://www. In order to reach the outside networks. However. Stub Areas: These areas do not accept routes belonging to external autonomous systems (AS). inter-area and external routes. NSSA: This type of area allows the flexibility of importing a few external routes into the area while still trying to retain the stub characteristic.1. 5. 3.cisco.

At which router are these LSA types produced? A. At the backbone DR.QUESTION 95: In a multi-area OSPF network inter-area summarization produces type's 3 & 4 Link State Advertisements (LSAs). They describe the links between the ABR and the internal routers of a local area. Answer: A Explanation: Network summary link entries. . are originated by ASBRs. At the ASBR. At the ABR. These link entries are not flooded through totally stubby areas. C. LSA type 5. B. Each internal router calculates and sends network updates. D. LSA type 1. They describe the states of the router's link to the area. Type-4 describes reachability to ASBRs. Note: Type-3 describes routes to networks within the local area and are sent to the backbone area. E. C: Backbone DRs does not generate these LSAs. Incorrect Answers: B: Autonomous system external link entries. These entries are flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. LSA type 3 or LSA type 4 are originated by ABRs. None of the above. D: Internal routers produce router link entries. They describe routes to destinations external to the autonomous system.

The hierarchical structure could be larger. this ID is used for all LAN segments. B.----------------------------------------- QUESTION 96: What does Cisco recommend for those who set up networks with multiple OSPF areas? (Select two) A. Answer: C. -------------------------------------- QUESTION 97: . D. C. A router can be a DR or BDR for more than one LAN. Area 0 must be larger than any subsequent OSPF area. There should not be more than three areas per route. Incorrect Answers: A: There is no such limit. D Explanation: C: A router can be a DR or BDR for more than one LAN. Since the loopback address is normally used as the router ID. B: There is no requirement that Area 0 must be the largest OSPF area. You should not run more than one instance of the OSPF process on an ABR. D: Running multiple OSPF processes on the same router is not recommended because it creates multiple database instances that add extra overhead.

a Designated Router (DR) floods LSAs to all the routers on the segment that it has a neighbor relationships with.When designing and implementing OSPF in multiple areas. Router link. which is area 0. Answer: A. The AS number is also called the OSPF process ID. D Explanation: In OSPF. It is also required that traffic from one area to another non-backbone area must traverse area 0. C: Remote areas are not required to be either stub or not so stubby areas. C. Each area must have a unique AS number. Remote areas must be configured as stub or NSSA areas. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 98: In OSPF. . Over what kind of link does this happen and what kind of LSA type is sent? A. Incorrect Answers B: OSPF routers within the same Autonomous System should be configured with the same AS number. D. Traffic between two areas must travel across the backbone area. Each area must connect to area 0. what should be taken in consideration? (Select two) A. type 1. B. since all areas must connect to area 0. all areas must be connected to a backbone area.

D: Network summary link entry. What are two reasons as to why this can help a network topology scale? (Select two) . neighbor relationships allow the topology of the network to scale. It describes the links between the ABR and the internal routers of a local area. type 5. Network summary link. E. They describe the set of routers attached to a particular network. It describes the states of the router's link to the area. Network link. External link. C: External link.B. Incorrect Answers: A: Router link. It is flooded throughout an OSPF autonomous system except for stub and totally stubby areas. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: A network Link LSA type 2 is generated by DRs in multi-access networks. Flooding occurs within the area that contains the network only. LSA type 5 is originated by the ASBR. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 99: In an OSPF network. D. It describes routes to destinations external to the autonomous system. type 3. These entries are flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. LSA type 3 is originated by ABRs. C. LSA type 1 is generated by each router for each area it belongs to. type 2.

9 . fewer routers are burdened with the responsibility of having to relearn the entire network. ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 100: In an OSPF network.5 B.6 C. Neighbor adjacencies control distribution of routing protocol updates.0.0.0. which IP address multicasts all OSPF Designated Routers and Backup Designated Routers? A. B. with full exchange occurring only every 30 minutes.A. 224. D.0. The hello protocol is also efficient because rather then focusing on knowing what all the routers know. Answer: A. The hello protocol is a more efficient means of sending routing updates than table exchanges used in RIPv1. Routing table information does not flood the network until holddown timers have expired.0.0. Topological database is maintained with incremental updates. C Explanation: When a network topology changes and becomes more sophisticated. the routers only focus on who is still around. therefore available for routing. 224. C. 224.

C: This address is used by RIP version 2 routers. Summary of routes in the AS. D.2 Answer: B Explanation: 224. 224. E: This multicast IP address is used by all routers on the subnet. 224. Summary of link states in an OSPF area. Answer: C Explanation: Type 3 LSAs are INTER-AREA advertisements and they are not used within the local area. Incorrect Answers: A: This is the multicast address used by all OSPF routers.D. Summary of metric costs from ABR to ASBR. B.0.0. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 114 -----------------------------------------QUESTION 101: What kind of OSPF Link State Advertisement (LSA) is found in a type 3 network summary link? A.06 is the IP address used by all OSPF DRs and BDRs.0.11 E.0. C. Summary of IP subnets in an OSPF area. D: This multicast address is used by mobile agents.0. The various LSA types used in OSPF are described below: .

C. Answer: C. Incorrect Answers: A: A DR and BDR for each area would still be required. Type 1 and 2 LSAs are confined to a single area.LS Type Link State ID _______________________________________________ 1 The originating router's Router ID. D: Topological database size would decrease and fewer CPU cycles would be required to calculate routes. What are two advantages of configuring multiple OSPF areas? (Select two) A. B: Security concerns would not be eliminated. 3 The destination network's IP address. requiring less CPU to derive routes. you can advertise a single or fewer summarized routes between areas to reduce the overhead associated with linkstate updates when they are crossing Note: All LSA types. D Explanation: C: Link State update (LSU) traffic is reduced. ---------------------------------- QUESTION 102: You are the administrator of the large Certkiller OSPF and are considering dividing it to multiple areas. . There are no security advantages in using more than one area in an OSPF network. D. Rather than send an LSU about each network within an area. 5 The destination network's IP address. reducing routing overhead. Area members have smaller topological databases than if the network was one large area. B. It eliminates security concerns by segregating portions of the network. 2 The IP interface address of the network's Designated Router. It eliminates the need for a DR or BDR in the OSPF network. are flooded throughout a single area only. 4 The Router ID of the described AS boundary router. except the AS-external-LSAs (LS type = 5).

None of the above Answer: A Explanation: Type 2 LSAs are generated by Designated Routers (DRs) in multi-access networks. which lies on a multi point network. D: Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBRs) generate Type 5 LSAs. ASBR E. should the DR fail. DR B. what type of router floods type 2 Link State Advertisements (LSAs) into an OSPF area? A. ABR C. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 104: . each router sends the link-state information to the DR and Backup Designated Router (BDR). C: BDRs are just used for backup. BDR D. Note: Instead of routers exchanging link-state information with every other router on the segment. They describe the set of routers attached to a particular network and are flooded within the area that contains the network only. On this multiaccess network.--------------------------------------- QUESTION 103: OSPF has been configured on router CK1 . This flooding process significantly reduces the router-related traffic on a segment. The DR sends each router's link-state information to all other routers in the network. Incorrect Answers: B: Area Border Routers generate Type 3 and Type 4 LSAs.

Another LSA. A stubby area C. it is translated into an LSA Type 5 at the NSSA ABR. A not-so stubby area B. This LSA can be originated and communicated throughout the area.You want router one of the OSPF areas on your network to be able to accept type 7 external routers. is created specifically for the NSSA. An on-demand area Answer: A Explanation: The NSSA external LSA -Identified as Type 7. which it will not propagate into the backbone area and thus the rest of the OSPF domain. but it will not be propagated into other areas. but it is converted into a Type 5 LSA by the ABR. these LSAs are created by the ASBR residing in a not so stubby area (NSSA). What kind of area should be configured to accomplish this? A. including Area 0. A backbone area E. An NSSA is an area that is seen as a stub area but can receive external routes. If the information is to be propagated throughout the AS. Type 7. A totally stubby area D. This LSA is similar to an autonomous system external LSA. except that this LSA is contained within the NSSA area and is not propagated into other areas. ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 105: DRAG DROP . but not type 5 external routes.

1.IS-IS level-1.255.252 is subnetted. O .BGP D .0 is directly connected.connected. M .EIGRP external.250. R . O IA C.IGRP.static.108. 00:31:27.OSPF external type 2.108. B . 1 subnets C 203.0.OSPF external type 1.candidate default Gateway of last resort is not set 203.mobile. Example routing table of a totally stubby router: CK1 #show ip route Codes: C . 1 subnets O 131.250.OSPF inter area E1 . IA .79. E . L2 IS-IS level-2. Serial0 .255. O B. L1 .0 255.15.OSPF.255.255. E2 . I .EGP i . O N2 D.EIGRP.250. S . E Explanation: The only routes that are seen in a totally stubby area are intra-area routes (O) and the default Intra area route (O*IA).240 is subnetted.0 255. * .15. Serial0 131. O* IA Answer: A. EX . O* N2 E.15.RIP.------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 106: Which of the following OSPF routes are supported by the Totally Stubby type? (Select two) A.208 [110/74] via 203.IS-IS.

----------------------------------------- QUESTION 108: . No configuration is needed on RTE in this case.1.250. require the neighbors to be explicitly specified. the command "ip ospf network-type point-to-multipoint" command can be used instead of specifying the neighbors individually. and the no-summary command does not affect the Hello packet at all as the stub command does.0 [110/74] via 203. The area is already stub. point-to-point D.O*IA 0. This is the case where the PVCs are configured on the physical interface using frame map commands.0.0. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 107: Which type of OSPF network requires manual configuration of OSPF neighbors? A. The cost of the default route is now 74 (64 for a T1 line + 10 advertised by RTC).0. broadcast multi-access B.15. Note: On the physical interface of an NBMA network. point-to-multipoint Answer: B Explanation: Non-broadcast multi-access networks.0.0. nonbroadcast multi-access C.0. the neighbor commands do not need to be configured. The external and inter-area routes have been blocked.0 0.0. When sub-interfaces are used. as found in frame-relay and ATM. Serial0 Note that the only routes that show up are the intra-area routes (O) and the default-route 0. 00:00:00.

candidate default Gateway of last resort is 203.0.1.0.IS-IS level-1.0.255.250. Serial0 131.0 [110/74] via 203. O IA C. E2 .0 is directly connected.250. 00:26:59. L1 .15.0. 00:26:59. B . E .0 255.255.15.250.15.252 is subnetted.0. O N2 D. it will learn about all routes.250.15. S .OSPF external type 1.connected.0 0. 1 subnets O IA 128. O* IA Answer: A. Serial0 O IA 203.EIGRP external.0.255.14.108.0.213.OSPF external type 2.63. 1 subnets O 131.250.IS-IS.1 to network 0.0 203.208 [110/74] via 203.250.static. EX . 1 subnets C 203. IA . B.240 is subnetted. Serial0 Note that all the routes show up except the external routes which were replaced by a default route of 0.15.1.EGP i . O B.79. R .1.IGRP.255. * . except for the external routes.0 255.0. Serial0 128.OSPF.0.0 [110/65] via 203. E Explanation: When an area is configured as a stub area.0 [110/84] via 203.213. 00:26:58. Example routing table of a stub router: CK2 #show ip route Codes: C .252 is subnetted.0 255.255.108.RIP. O* N2 E.0.250. M .15. I .250.mobile.BGP D . L2 IS-IS level-2.1. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 109: .EIGRP.Which of the following OSPF routes are supported by the Stub Area type? (Select three) A.OSPF inter area E1 .15.255.0. O . 00:26:59. Serial0 O*IA 0.

O IA C.OSPF external type 2 An OSPF NSSA will receive inter-area. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 110: .OSPF NSSA external type 1 N2 . C. O N2 D. D Explanation: The various route types used by OSPF are as follows: O .OSPF inter area N1 . and default external type 2 routes. O N1 B.OSPF external type 1 E2 .Which of the following OSPF routes are supported by the Not-So-Stubby-Area (NSSA) type? (Select three) A. O* IA Answer: B.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .OSPF IA . external type 2. O* N2 E.

it does not preempt the DR and BDR. a new BDR is elected. Assume that CK1 fails.243 ------------------------------------------- .In the Certkiller network shown above. If the DR is out of service. Reference:: CCNP Self-Study Second Edition P. and that CK2 takes the place of the DR while CK3 becomes the new BDR. and a new BDR is selected. The only time a DR and BDR changes is if one of them is out of service. router CK1 was elected the DR and CK2 was elected the BDR. CK1 will take the place of DR immediately upon establishing its adjacencies. In a multi-access network. CK1 will take the place of DR only if both CK2 and CK3 fail. What will happen when CK1 comes back online? A. the router that is powered on first will generally become the DR. the BDR becomes the DR. since the DR/BDR process is not pre-emptive. A new election will take place establishing an all new DR and BDR based on configured priority levels an MAC addresses. Answer: C Explanation: If a router with a higher priority value gets added to the network. If the BDR is out of service. B. C. D. CK1 will take the place of DR only if CK2 fails.

ABR also forwards Type 3 LSAs from other areas into its own area.QUESTION 111: Which of the following are features are characteristics of an OSPF ABR? (Choose three) A. D Explanation: ABR forwards summary LSAs. ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 112: The Certkiller OSPF network is shown in the diagram below: . has at least one physical interface in area 0. C. has at least one interface in an external internetwork. It forwards both Type 3 LSAs and Type 4 LSAs. it also forwards Type 1 and Type 2 LSAs in its capacity as an internal router. routes traffic to and from other areas C. and Type 4 LSAs are forwarded to the ASBRs. Answer: B. F. Type 3 LSAs are forwarded to the other ABRs. If the ABR has multiple links in the same area. maintains a separate link-state database for each area D. originates type 3 link-state advertisements which can be summarized E. maintains one link-state database for all areas B.

Which type of Link State Announcement will Certkiller E use to announce changes in network 22 to Area 1? A. This is identified as a Type 5 LSA. Each external advertisement describes a router to a destination in another autonomous system. Type 4 LSA E. ------------------------------------------ QUESTION 113: . Type 3 LSA D. Type 1 LSA B. Type 2 LSA C. Default routes for the AS can also be described by AS external advertisements. Type 5 LSA Answer: E Explanation: The external link LSA is originated by AS boundary routers and is flooded throughout the AS.

1 B. C Explanation: The various route types used by OSPF are as follows: O . O B.What is the OSPF cost for the 100 Mbps Ethernet media type? A.000/BW. 100 Answer: A Explanation: By default.000. 2 C. 6 D. --------------------------------------- QUESTION 114: Which of the following OSPF routes are supported by the Not-So-Stubby-Area (NSSA) type? (Select three) (801) A. O E2 Answer: A. O N2 C. B. O* N2 D.OSPF . the formula is 100M/100M = 1. or 100. For a 100M fast Ethernet connection. 10 E. OSPF uses the formula of 100. O E1 E.000.000 (100M) divided by bandwidth.

---------------------------------- . Smaller routing tables D. OSPF areas are logical subdivisions of OSPF autonomous systems whose internal topology is hidden to routers outside the area.OSPF NSSA external type 1 N2 .OSPF inter area N1 . When using areas. and the link state update overhead is reduced.IA . Fewer adjacencies needed Answer: A. Less frequent SPF calculations B. Reduced LSU overhead E.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . external type 2. These features make OSPF particularly scalable to large networks. C. and they can be used to aggregate routing information and mask the details of a network. OSPF routers need to maintain information only within their own area so less frequent SPF calculations are required. D Explanation: OSPF employs the concept of an area.OSPF external type 1 E2 . smaller routing tables occur with area summarizations. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 115: Which three are advantages to creating multiple areas in OSPF? (Select three) A. which is a grouping of contiguous OSPF networks and hosts.OSPF external type 2 An OSPF NSSA will receive inter-area. Areas allow an additional level of hierarchy different from that provided by IP network classes. Fewer hello packets C. OSPF routes.

OSPF area number 2. E. Area ID D. Hello/dead intervals C. Subnet and subnet mask 4. Authentication values/passwords ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 117: . Address of DR/BDR E. such as stub or NSSA flag 3. Stub area flag F. Neighbors B.QUESTION 116: Which of the following items must match in an OSPF hello packet in order for two routers to become OSPF neighbors? (Choose four) A. Authentication password Answer: B. F Explanation: The following hello parameters must match in order for two OSPF routers to become adjacent neighbors: 1. C. OSPF area type. OSPF HELLO and Dead timer values 5.

com. Miss Certkiller.com is a large international company with offices in USA. and Certkiller 3. You work at the Tokyo office. with the exception of the default route. has asked you to Area 1 as follows: * the S0/0 interface of Certkiller 1 should be in Area 1 * the S0/1 interface of Certkiller 2 should be in Area 1 * no other interfaces should be in Area 1 * no external routes or inter-area. and Japan. Your boss at the Certkiller . Certkiller . You are administering three routers Certkiller 1. As a final advice Certkiller tells you to make sure that you use the appropriate .com Tokyo office. * The S0/0 interface of Certkiller 2 is in Area 0. Certkiller 2. Certkiller 2 and Certkiller 3 have been configured for OSPF. * The loopback address of Certkiller 3 is in Area2. Europe. The current situation is such as Area 0 and Area 2 have been configured correctly as follows: * the S0/1 interface of Certkiller 3 is in Area 0. should be receive by Area 1.SIMULATION Refer to the following network topology exhibit: You work as a network technician at Certkiller .

To configure an area as a stub or totally stubby area. it sends it using a 0. Stub area -A stub area is an area that does not accept information about routes external to the autonomous system. they use a default route. 2. If routers need to reach networks outside the autonomous system. the OSPF internetwork.0.5.5. Totally stubby areas are a Cisco proprietary feature.0.OSPF mask.0.0.4 0.0/0 default route. if the router needs to send a packet to a network external to the area.0. use the following syntax on all router interfaces that are configured to belong to that area: Router(config-router)#area area-id stub The no-summary keyword creates a totally stubby area. Totally stubby area .0/0.168. The area stub command is configured .3 area 1 Certkiller 1(config-router)# area 1 stub Certkiller 1(config-router)# end Certkiller 1# copy run start Certkiller 2# conf t Certkiller 2(config)# router ospf 1 Certkiller 2(config-router)# network 192.0.A totally stubby area is an area that does not accept external autonomous system (AS) routes and summary routes from other areas internal to the autonomous system.0.3 area 1 Certkiller 2(config-router)# area 1 stub no-summary Certkiller 2(config-router)# end Certkiller 2# copy run start 1.168. Instead. A default route is noted as 0. Answer: Explanation: Certkiller 1# conf t Certkiller 1(config)# router ospf 1 Certkiller 1(config-router)# network 192. such as routes from non-OSPF sources.4 0.0.

the stub routers exchange Hello packets with the E bit set to 0. which is essential for the routers to become neighbors and exchange routing information. The E bit is in the Options field of the Hello packet. router ospf 1 area 1 nssa no-redistribution D. router ospf 1 area 1 nssa B. router ospf 1 area 1 nssa default-information originate metric-type 2 E. router ospf 1 area 1 nssa default-information originate F. what commands should be configured on the NSSA ABR? A. When this command is configured. The state of this bit must be agreed upon otherwise the routers will not become neighbors. To create an NSSA totally stubby area in Area 1.on each router in the stub location. None of the above Answer: B . router ospf 1 area 1 nssa no-summary C. --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 118: Router CK1 is an OSPF router connected to area 1. It indicates that the area is a stub area.

In effect. and only a default route for all other OSPF routes will be forwarded from Certkiller 5 to area 1. A. What should be configured on the routers in area 1 to ensure that all default summary routes and redistributed EIGRP routes will be forwarded from Certkiller 6 to area 1. Certkiller 5(config-router)# area 1 nssa no-summary Certkiller 6(config-router)# area 1 nssa . configure all OSPF router interfaces that belong to the area using the following command syntax: Router(config-router)#area area-id nssa [nosummary] Typically.Explanation: Not-so-stubby area (NSSA) . the no-summary keyword makes the NSSA totally stubby.An NSSA is an area that is similar to a stub area but allows for importing external routes as Type 7 LSAs and translation of specific Type 7 LSA routes into Type 5 LSAs To configure an OSPF area as a NSSA. use the optional keyword no-summary when configuring NSSA on an ABR. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 119: OSPF enabled. This prevents Type 3 and Type 4 summary routes from flooding the NSSA area and minimizes the routing tables within the area.

Certkiller 5(config-router)# area 1 stub no-summary Certkiller 6(config-router)# area 1 stub C. configure all OSPF router interfaces that belong to the area using the following command syntax: Router(config-router)#area area-id nssa [no-summary] Typically. which IOS command would you execute if your goal was to summarize the networks advertised out of the area? . In effect.An NSSA is an area that is similar to a stub area but allows for importing external routes as Type 7 LSAs and translation of specific Type 7 LSA routes into Type 5 LSAs To configure an OSPF area as a NSSA. use the optional keyword no-summary when configuring NSSA on an ABR. the no-summary keyword makes the NSSA totally stubby. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 120: Assuming that you are configuring an ABR in an OSPF area.B. Certkiller 5(config-router)# area 1 stub Certkiller 6(config-router)# area 1 stub Answer: A Explanation: Not-so-stubby area (NSSA) . Certkiller 5(config-router)# area 1 nssa Certkiller 6(config-router)# area 1 nssa D. This prevents Type 3 and Type 4 summary routes from flooding the NSSA area and minimizes the routing tables within the area.

This command is simply used to add a network to the OSPF routing process. Which interface belongs to which OSPF area . D: The network command cannot be used for this purpose. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 121: Which two of the following characteristics are defined by the network command? (Select two) A.A. area area-id range address mask C. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: The area area-id range address mask command consolidates IA (intra-area) routes on an ABR. summary-address address mask B. The OSPF area ID B. The OSPF process ID D. network network-number wildcard mask area area-id E. The OSPF router ID C. auto-summary address mask area area-id D. Incorrect Answers: A: The summary-address address mask command consolidates external routes (inter-area) on an ASBR C: Auto-summarization is not useful here. This command instructs the ABR to summarize routes for a specific area before injecting them into a different area.

255. E Explanation: An interface may belong to only one area.0. Syntax: network address wildcard-mask area area-id --------------------------------- QUESTION 122: Router CK1 is configured for OSPF as shown below: router ospf 76 network 172.0. Finally.255. This router connects area 1 to the backbone area. the router is considered as an area border router.0.22. Answer: B.0 0. C: The command router ospf 76 identifies the process ID as 76 and not the router ID nor the . D. E.0 255.23.18. The designated router priority is 76.0.22. D Explanation: The network command designates the OSPF area for an interface with the specified IP address.x.0.0.0 Which of the following statements are true regarding the above configuration? (Select three) A. The networks that follow the network command are connected to each other and Area O is always the backbone area. the command "network 172.0 0.0 area 1 range 172.255.0 area within area 0.18.255 area 0 area 0 range 172.255 area 0" identifies that all interfaces with IP address of 172. This is an area border router.0 255.0. The OSPF router ID is 76.18.255.255. C. If a router has multiple interfaces and if any of those interfaces belong to different areas.x are in area 0.23. D. B.Answer: A.18.18.0 area 1 network 172. Incorrect Answers: A.0 0.0. Any router interfaces with an address of 172.0.

area range command B. "Building Scalable Cisco Networks" (Cisco Press 2001). For OSPF. summary-address command E. C: There are no such commands for OSPF. It is used to consolidate or summarize routes for an area. B. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Using this command for OSPF causes an OSPF autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) to advertise one external route as an aggregate for all redistributed routes that are covered by the address. The result is that a single summary route is advertised to other areas by the ABR. pp 178-181. ospf summarize command C.router priority. Catherine Paquet and Daine Teare. aggregate-route command D. Reference: OSPF Commands -------------------------------------------- . what additional command is required by ASBR's that is not needed by ABR's? A. Incorrect Answers: A: The area range command is used only with area border routers (ABRs). this command summarizes only routes from other routing protocols that are being redistributed into OSPF. -------------------------------------- QUESTION 123: When configuring a multi-area OSPF network to summarize routes.

cisco.0. D Explanation: An extension to stub areas is what is called "totally stubby areas".255 area 0 area 7 stub no-summary area 7 default-cost 30 Which of the following statements are true regarding this configuration? (Select two) A.com/warp/public/104/3. Reference: OSPF Design Guide http://www. traffic can be routed through area 7.68. Area 7 non-ABR routers contain only intra-area routing information and a default route. Note: The area stub command is used to define an area as a stub area.0. If the backbone becomes discontiguous. D.0 0. Cisco indicates this by adding a "no-summary" keyword to the stub area configuration. B.0. A totally stubby area is one that blocks external routes and summary routes (inter-area routes) from going into the area.0 0. Answer: A. A virtual link to area 0. Area 7 is a totally stubby area. Syntax: area area-id stub [no-summary] The no-summary optional parameter prevents an ABR from sending summary link advertisements into the stub area.67. but not on an internal router? A. C. B.html ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 125: Which of the following is an OSPF configuration parameter that is used on an ABR.QUESTION 124: A Certkiller OSPF router is configured in the following manner: router ospf 200 network 203.0. . Redistribution of other routing protocols takes place at the area designated router.255 area 7 network 203.42.42. OSPF summarization command.

You wish to configure area 3 to summarize the IP address range 172.16.20.192 0.16.255.31 area 3 B. C: These commands are not specific to an ABR only. make sure to associate the correct network addresses with the desired area ID. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 126: Router CK1 is an OSPF ABR that connects area 3 to the network.16.16.20. C Explanation: A: When configuring multiple OSPF areas. Syntax: network address wildcard-mask area area-id.16. network 172. Which two of the following IOS commands would you execute to accomplish this? (Select two) A. no-summary extension to the area stub command.172. network 172. This option is used for creating a totally stubby area.192 255.192 255.20. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: The no-summary extension of the area stub command is used only for ABRs connected to totally stubby areas. default-cost extension to the area command.192 172.C.224 D. . It prevents an ABR from sending summary link advertisements into the stub area.255.20. Incorrect Answers: A: For a virtual link to work both ends need to be configured. B.192 .16.20.16. area 3 range 172.0.20. E.255.223.224 area 3 Answer: A.255. D.20.223 C.0. area 3 range 172.

It is used for summarizing routes into an area.255. Area range entries are used to aggregate network information before the advertisements are flooded into the backbone.We must use a wildcard mask (0. or to prevent the advertisement of networks. Syntax: [no] area area-id range address mask [do-not-advertise] Description: Address ranges are used to aggregate address ranges from within the area into one single advertisement sent into the adjacent areas. Each address range consists of an address and mask pair. What does this command provide? A.224) C: We must instruct the ABR to summarize routes for a specific area before injecting them into a different area.0. We should use a network mask to specify the address range. not a network mask with the network command.31) and not a network mask (255. B. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 128: . An OSPF area is defined as a list of address ranges. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 127: Router CK1 is an ABR that is part of the Certkiller OSPF network. It provides the range of areas in the OSPF internetwork. C. Syntax: area area-id range address mask Incorrect Answers: B: This is the wrong syntax. D: We should use a wildcard mask. It provides a summary of networks to be advertised outside the area. D.0.255. CK1 has been configured with the "area range" command. Answer: C Explanation: The area range command creates/deletes an area address range entry and optionally specifies whether to advertise the addresses. It provides a summary of networks outside the area and inside the AS. A single summary LSA is originated for each range. It provides the range of areas in which this ABR participates.

all networks will be advertised normally via the OSFP process. F Explanation: This is a bit of a trick question.0 and 172. since the statement "no passive interface default" command will effectively cancel out the previous command.0 network through OSPF update. Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 4 will hear about the 140. C. which will result in normal OSPF operation.24.A. The interfaces S0/1 and Fa0/0 are configured as passive interfaces. F. D. The S0/0 interface will not sending out routing updates. Due to this. Answer: E.10. B. E. Certkiller 3 will hear about the 171.0 networks through OSPF update. The interfaces S0/1 and Fa0/0 will not process any routing update that the router receives.232. The S0/0 interface will not process any routing update that it receives.0. ------------------------------------------ QUESTION 129: .101.69.

0 255.10.12.0 C. on all routers in area 15 in the OSPF config-router mode: area 15 range 10.255.8.10.10.10.252. It is used to consolidate or summarize routes for an area. The area range command is used only with Area Border Routers (ABRs).10.0 255.0 D.255.255.255. on the ABR in the OSPF config-router mode: summary-address 10.10.0 255.248. on the ABR in the OSPF config-router mode: area 15 range 10.0 Answer: C Explanation: To consolidate and summarize routes at an area boundary. The result is that a single summary route is advertised to other areas by the ABR.0 255.252. External to the area. use the area range command in router configuration mode.255.0 F. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 130: .A.8.248. on the ABR S0/0 interface: area 15 range 10.12.248. Routing information is condensed at area boundaries. a single route is advertised for each address range.255.0 255.0 B.12.0 E. Only Choice C specifies the correct syntax and route summarization network mask. on the ABR E0/0 interface: area 15 range 10.8.252. on the ABR S0/0 interface: summary-address 10.0 255.

a single route is advertised for each address range.0 255. ip summary-address area 0 192.168.255. Which command will Certkiller 2 use to summarize routes for the 192.16. Routing information is condensed at area boundaries. The result is that a single summary route is advertised to other areas by the ABR. External to the area. It is used to consolidate or summarize routes for an area.168. --------------------------------------- QUESTION 131: .252.255.0 255.0 Answer: A Explanation: The area range command is used only with Area Border Routers (ABRs) which is router Certkiller 2 in this example. summary-address 192. Only Choice A specifies the correct syntax and route summarization network mask.0 E.16.0 C.0 255.255.16.168.You work as a network technician at Certkiller .0 D.0 B.com.255.168. ip summary-address ospf 101.168.252.0 255.255.0/22 supernet before injecting them into Area 0? A.0 255.16.252. area 0 range 192.252.16.252.168. area 10 range 192.192.16. Study the exhibit above carefully.

1. frame-relay map ip 10. E.1 200 broadcast F.1. ip ospf network point-to-multipoint C.1.1. ip ospf network point-to-point B.1.3 300 E.1.1. F Explanation: The ip ospf network command. typed under the interface configuration mode. frame-relay map ip 10.3 300 broadcast Answer: B.1 200 D. frame-relay map ip 10.OSPF is being configured over the Certkiller frame relay network as displayed in the diagram below: Which three of the following commands would you enter on the Certkiller 1 serial 0 interface.1. frame-relay map ip 10. if you wanted to implement OSPF on this network? (Select three) A. is used to specify .

0 0. The OSPF hello timers need to be adjusted manually. C.the OSPF network configuration and sets the network mode to point-to-multipoint DLCI. DB/BDR elections do not take place. This keyword is needed on the frame relay mappings in order to transmit the OSPF information across the frame relay network. D. DB/BDR elections do not take place.0 encapsulation frame-relay ip ospf network point-tomultipoint router ospf 51 network 110. which two of the following statements are true? (Select two) A.0255 area 0 Based on the information above.1. Broadcast . Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 130 and 181 Point-to-Multipoint Network: . E.cisco.255. Reference: http://www.html ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 132: Router CK1 is configured as shown below: interface serial0 ip address 110.1.Datalink connection identifier (DLCI) number. B.1. The area 0 NBMA cloud is configured as more than one subnet.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1830/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087b42. The neighbor command became somewhat obsolete with the introduction of the capability to configure other network modes for the interface.0. Answer: A.1.255.1 255.Forwards broadcasts to the specified IP address. OSPF neighbor statements are not necessary. The router is restricted to a hub and spoke topology. regardless of the underlying physical topology. D Explanation: In an OSPF Point-to-Multipoint environment.

it accepts the extra overhead of having a full set of adjacencies for the sake of stability. The underlying network treats the network as a series of point-to-point circuits. -------------------------------------------- . Guidelines for Running OSPF over Frame Relay Network. It replicates LSA packets for each circuit. Point-to-point over sub-interfaces. Reference: RFC1586. the network is considered to be a series of point-to-point interfaces. Point-to-multipoint star configuration. with no need for the election of a DR or a BDR. D. There is no need to specify neighbors. Point-to-multipoint does not try to reduce adjacencies using a DR. Point-to-multipoint forms an adjacency automatically along any PVC.Point-to-multipoint is a single interface that connects to multiple destinations. Answer: A Explanation: Using point to point subinterfaces will eliminate the issues surrounding split horizons over NBMA networks. By default. which causes more overhead but is more resilient than NBMA. OSPF traffic is sent as multicast. This technology uses one IP subnet for all endpoints on the network. E. C. B. What kind of configuration structure would you use to accomplish this? A. Instead. Configuring the network in this way is the Cisco recommended solution. None of the above. and running OSPF across this network. because the neighbors will see each other and simply become adjacent. There is no DR or BDR election. Point-to-multipoint nonbroadcast using a single subnet. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 133: You have been assigned the task of connecting two office networks together via a frame relay network. Point-to-multipoint using a single subnet.

67.36.67. Network topology exhibit: .1 255. Note: Had subinterfaces been used.67. D. In addition.36. This is a point-to-point configuration over Frame Relay.QUESTION 134: A Certkiller router is configured as shown below: interface serial 0 ip address 164. With this setup you are required to specify neighbors so that a DR and BDR can be elected.255. C.67. all locations are part of the same IP subnet so the OSPF neighbors need to be explicitly assigned at the host location of an NBMA network. The DR and BDR need a static list of neighbors due to non-broadcast. -------------------------------------- QUESTION 135: Refer to the Certkiller network exhibits shown below.3 Based on this configuration. The network mode is nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA). There can be no DR or BDR in this configuration. the network would be seen as a series of logical point to point links.2 neighbor 164.0. D Explanation: The configuration printout shows an OSPF configuration across a frame relay network that is not configured for subinterfaces.36.36. Answer: C. B.0 0. so the OSPF neighbors would not need to be specified.0.224 encapsulation frame-relay ip ospf network non-broadcast ! router ospf 1 network 164.255. which of the following statements are true? (Select two) A.31 area 0 neighbor 164.

which state is Certkiller 3 in? A. None of the above Answer: F Explanation: Each OSPF interface (multi-access networks only) possesses a configurable router priority. If you don't want a router interface to participate in the DR/BDR election. set the router priority to 0 using the ip ospf priority command in interface configuration mode. All routers have simultaneously been reloaded. FULL/DR D. Let's go through the steps that occur in any given router when the DR and BDR are elected for a specific multi-access network of which it is a member: 1. 2WAY/BDR B. The eligible neighbors are those with which . FULL/DROTHER F. The Cisco default is 1. FULL/BDR G. Based on this information. 2WAY/DROTHER E. and the DR election has concluded as expected.Study the exhibits shown above carefully. 2WAY/DR C. The local router creates a list of eligible neighbors.

the router with the highest router ID becomes the BDR. based on the following criteria in order: * If one or more of the routers in the list have declared themselves the BDR. 8.the local router has entered at least a 2Way state. 7. 5. 3. * If the resulting list from step 6 is empty. If the local router's DR status has been altered by the preceding steps. From this list. or cease to be. 4. The local router adds itself to this list and to all lists that are formed from this list in subsequent steps. The local router will select the DR from the list in step 6. either causing it to become. the DR. 6. * If all router priorities are equal. This serves to make sure that the local router does not declare itself both the DR and the BDR. by making the list in step 4. The local router makes note of the current DR and BDR values for later comparison. 2. The local router will select the BDR from the list in step 4. These routers will be among the DROthers on this network. meaning that no router has declared itself the DR. A list of all routers claiming to be the DR (their own Hello packets list them as the DR) is compiled from the list resulting from step 2. Conversely. the router with the highest router ID is selected to be the DR. then it will repeat steps 4 through 7. for which it qualifies. then the router with the highest router priority is selected to be the BDR. A list of all routers not claiming to be the DR (their own Hello packets do not list them as the DR) is compiled from the list resulting from step 2. if dethroned as the DR. If selected to be the DR. then the one of these with the highest priority is selected to be the BDR. ---------------------------------------- . * If all routers have the same router priority. then the BDR that was selected in step 5 becomes the DR. the local router will definitely not make the BDR list the next time around in step 4. then the router with the highest router ID is selected to be the BDR. based on the following criteria in order: * The router with the highest router priority is selected to be the DR. the local router can become eligible to be the BDR the next time around. because both may be declared by default. * If all router priorities are equal. based on a comparison to the results of step 3. * If no router in the resulting list from step 4 has declared itself the BDR. all routers whose participating interfaces have a router priority of 0 are removed.

0.0. E. A default route is configured on the local router. OSPF router 5. Network 6. The default route is learned from an OSPF neighbor. B.QUESTION 136: Based on the output shown above. None of the above.0/8 was learned from an OSPF neighbor within the area.0. C. D.0.2 is an ABR. which of the following statements is true? A. Answer: D Explanation: ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 137: .

Let's go through the steps that occur in any given router when the DR and BDR are elected for a specific multi-access network of which it is a member: 9. The local router adds itself to this list and to all lists that are formed from this list in subsequent steps. 2WAY/DROTHER D. FULL/DR G. The eligible neighbors are those with which the local router has entered at least a 2Way state. The Cisco default is 1. If you don't want a router interface to participate in the DR/BDR election.A. set the router priority to 0 using the ip ospf priority command in interface configuration mode. The local router creates a list of eligible neighbors. FULL/BDR C. all routers whose participating interfaces have a router priority of 0 are . 2WAY/DR E. FULL/DROTHER F. for which it qualifies. 2WAY/BDR B. From this list. None of the above Answer: E Explanation: Each OSPF interface (multi-access networks only) possesses a configurable router priority. 10.

This serves to make sure that the local router does not declare itself both the DR and the BDR. A list of all routers claiming to be the DR (their own Hello packets list them as the DR) is compiled from the list resulting from step 2. The local router will select the BDR from the list in step 4. 15. The local router makes note of the current DR and BDR values for later comparison. Conversely. or cease to be. 11. ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 138: . * If all routers have the same router priority. the local router can become eligible to be the BDR the next time around.removed. * If all router priorities are equal. based on the following criteria in order: * The router with the highest router priority is selected to be the DR. then the one of these with the highest priority is selected to be the BDR. 12. 16. by making the list in step 4. A list of all routers not claiming to be the DR (their own Hello packets do not list them as the DR) is compiled from the list resulting from step 2. * If no router in the resulting list from step 4 has declared itself the BDR. If selected to be the DR. based on the following criteria in order: * If one or more of the routers in the list have declared themselves the BDR. based on a comparison to the results of step 3. If the local router's DR status has been altered by the preceding steps. * If the resulting list from step 6 is empty. then it will repeat steps 4 through 7. because both may be declared by default. the router with the highest router ID becomes the BDR. then the BDR that was selected in step 5 becomes the DR. * If all router priorities are equal. These routers will be among the DROthers on this network. the DR. either causing it to become. the local router will definitely not make the BDR list the next time around in step 4. 13. The local router will select the DR from the list in step 6. meaning that no router has declared itself the DR. then the router with the highest router ID is selected to be the BDR. if dethroned as the DR. 14. then the router with the highest router priority is selected to be the BDR. the router with the highest router ID is selected to be the DR.

cisco. Nonbroadcast B. with no subinterfaces. the physical serial 0 interface is used. the default interface type of NON_BROADCAST is assigned. Point-to-point E. Broadcast C.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/technologies_configuration_example09186a0080094054. Point-to-multipoint nonbroadcast Answer: A Explanation: Based on the information above. the default interface type of POINT_TO_POINT is assigned. When OSPF is configured on multipoint subinterfaces.A. When OSPF is configured on point-to-point subinterfaces. Reference: http://www. Point-to-multipoint D. When OSPF is configured on a physical interface (for example. the default network type of NON_BROADCAST is assigned.shtml --------------------------------------------- . interface S0) of a nonbroadcast multiaccess technology such as Frame Relay.

External routes are imported into a separate link state database. including the hello interval. Each router has an identical link state database. Note: the router ID used is not pre-emptive. Which three of the statements below are true regarding the OSPF link state database? (Select three) A. the interface with the highest address is the taken router ID. The highest IP address configured in the router. The name set by the hostname command.QUESTION 139: Router CK1 has been configured for OSPF on all of the interfaces. A logical loopback interface has not been created in CK1 . meaning that if a loopback address is configured or another interface is configured with a higher IP address. the router ID will not change until it is restarted. what will determine the OSPF router ID of router CK1 ? A. and shows the neighbor adjacencies. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 134 ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 140: While troubleshooting some connectivity issues. The priority number of the router set by the priority command. If no loopback address is specified. C. B. Answer: C Explanation: The show ip ospf interface command verifies that interfaces have been configured in the intended areas. E. D. The lowest IP address configured in the router. you issue the "show ip ospf database" in order to examine the link state database. . By default. It defaults to 255. It also gives the timer intervals. B.

C. ------------------------------------------QUESTION 141: When designing OSPF networks. B. The default refresh time is 30 minutes. Frequent routing table recalculation. and it is used for all OSPF routes. Only one link state database is maintained. Answer: A. link state databases are refreshed every 10 minutes in the absence of topology changes. D. E. LSA flooding occurs whenever there is a change in the OSPF topology. E. Frequent adjacencies table recalculation. ensuring that the databases are synchronized. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 178. Which two of the following statements describe the consequences of having too many routers in an area? (Select two) A. D. C. OSPF also uses the SPF algorithm to build the database B. Excessive LSA traffic. Unacceptable number of reachability errors. Synchronization of link state databases is maintained via flooding of LSAs. By default. . Information in the link state database is used to build a routing table by calculating a shortest-path tree. C. D Explanation: The Link state database is a collection of link state advertisement for all routers and networks. it is not recommended to have an excessive number of routers in any single area. Each router in the OSPF network maintains an identical database.

A higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. In OSPF the amount of overhead used increases exponentially with the number of routers in an area. D. 100 E. B Explanation: In OSPF. ------------------------------------ QUESTION 142: Router CK1 has OSPF configured on its fast Ethernet interface. What is the OSPF cost associated with this 100Mbps Ethernet connection? A. An excessive number of routers in any single area will not alone increase the number of errors within the network. 6 C. Incorrect Answers: C: The number of routers in an area has little or no impact with the number of neighbor adjacencies that must remain established for any given router. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The OSPF cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface. 1 B. 10 D. The formula used to calculate the . Too many routers can cause an overwhelming amount of LSA and OSPF database calculations. There is a higher cost and time delay involved in crossing a 56k serial line than crossing a 10M ethernet line. LSAs are flooded to all other routers within the area. because anytime a topology change in any single route occurs. if too many routers are in the same area they spend too much time communicating with each other.Answer: A.

000 bps we have: 10000 0000 / 10000 0000 = 1 Reference:http://www. 2WAY/BDR C. Since a 100M Ethernet link is 100.000. All routers have converged and neighbor relationships have been established. Which state is Certkiller 4 in? A. FULL/BDR F. FULL/DR Answer: F Explanation: .cisco. 2WAY/DROTHER B.000/bandwith in bps. 2WAY/DR D.cost is of any single OSPF network is: Cost= 100.com/warp/public/104/2.000.html ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 143: Refer to the exhibit. FULL/DROTHER E.

E. ------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 144: When designing OSPF networks. Incorrect Answers: B: OSPF does not use hold down timers. Convergence cannot happen until holddown timers expire. B. The same process is repeated for the BDR. The default for the interface OSPF priority is one. C: The topological database is not distributed. Summary link LSAs cannot be sent until all routers in the OSPF area have the same topological database. the router with the highest RID will win. D: Summary-link LSAs are not sent to all routers. Which of the following describes a reason for this? A. the router with the highest router ID will be the DR. so routing loops can occur.The router with the highest OSPF priority on a segment will become the DR for that segment. Summary-link LSAs originate from area border routers. the dead timer shows that the neighbor relationships have already been established. D. maintaining stability in an area is important. Instability causes more LSAs to be sent. Flooding the area topological database instances consumes excessive bandwidth. and CPU time would be required to recalculate the routes. . only link changes. and flood throughout the LSA's associated area. so the state will be Full for all neighbors. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: Instability of routes (links) would force sending of LSAs (Link State Advertisements). such as RIP. requiring more CPU to recalculate routes. Holddown timers are used by distance vector protocols. and since the OSPF priorities are all set to 1. Each summary-LSA describes a route to a destination outside the area but within the AS. Based on the output above. C. In case of a tie.

html --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 145: Router CK1 is an ABR in the Certkiller OSPF network. and you've just created a new area for an upcoming remote network.org/rfcs/rfc2328. Multiple OSPF areas B. A router that contains network/area statements for two or more different areas is an ABR. Ordinarily OSPF areas are be connected to the backbone. Answer: A Explanation: An ABR (Area Border Router) shares an interface with at least one other OSPF area. Multiple OSPF autonomous systems E. Multiple redistributed networks. OSPF and RIP networks C. circumstances dictate you to connect it to the existing area 2 at this .faqs.Reference:http://www. Multiple designated routers D. ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 146: You are a systems administrator of a large multi-area OSPF network. However. What does an ABR connect to? A. area 0.

E: This is not a requirement. Reference: OSPF Virtual Link http://www. Area 2 must attach directly to area 0. It cannot be a stub area. C: The area through which you configure the virtual link. D.cisco. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 147: A new location is being added to the Certkiller network and a new OSPF area is being created for . Answer: A. area 2. cannot be a stub area.time. Network summary link LSAs must be disabled. area 0. Which conditions have to be met in order to make this configuration work? (Select three) A.html Incorrect Answers: B: The transit area. D: The transit area. Area 2 cannot be a stub area. There must be a virtual link. D Explanation: A: There must be a virtual link from the new area to the backbone. known as a transit area (here area 2). B. Area 2 must be a stub area. C. area 2. The virtual link provides the disconnected area a logical path to the backbone. must attach directly to area 0.com/warp/public/104/ospfdb7. must have full routing information. E. C.

ABR B. D: Backbone routers sit on the perimeter of the backbone area. However. but not every ABR is configured as a stub. backbone routers do not necessarily connect to other areas. What kind of OSPF router would you use to connect this new OSPF area to the backbone area? A. They have at least one interface connected to area 0.it. Stub router C. An area is stub. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: ABRs are used to connect non-backbone areas to the backbone area (area 0). not a router and not stub routers are typically a type of ABR. C: Internal routers are only uses within an area. ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 148: . Internal router D. Backbone router E. Incorrect Answers: B: Stub routers do not apply.

Internal router C. Backbone router D. Incorrect Answers: . Designated router B.A. Autonomous system boundary router F. None of the above. All interfaces on internal routers are directly connected to networks within the area. We recommend that you configure an area as a collection of contiguous IP subnetted networks. Answer: B Explanation: An area is a set of networks and hosts within an AS that have been administratively grouped together. Area border router E. Routers that are wholly contained within an area are called internal routers.

None of the above Answer: C Explanation: The information displayed by the show ip protocols command is useful in debugging routing operations. this command will display the routed networks. --------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 149: Which command should you use to verify what networks are being routed by a given OSPF process? A. show ip route C. C: Backbone routers are routers that are contained within area 0. . E: Routers that exchange routing information with routers in other ASs are called AS boundary routers. show ip ospf database E. For OSPF routers. show ip protocol D.A: Designated routers are defined on multi-access networks. Information in the Routing Information Sources field of the show ip protocols output can help you identify a router suspected of delivering bad routing information. D: Routers that belong to more than one area are called area border routers. show ip ospf B. In a network consisting of point to point circuits. the DR/BDR election process does not take place.

42.200 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) route It is an area border and autonomous system boundary router Redistributing External Routes from.110.0 Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has simple password authentication SPF algorithm executed 6 times B: This will display the active routing table. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 150: You have a multi-area OSPF network and you're concerned because one of the sites is having connectivity problem to resources in a different area. B) has a path to its ASBR. and C) the SPF calculation is functional? .Incorrect Answers: A: To display general information about Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing processes. igrp 200 with metric mapped to 2.110. This command will display the areas assigned and other useful information. use the show ip ospf command in EXEC mode. includes subnets in redistribution rip with metric mapped to 2 igrp 2 with metric mapped to 100 igrp 32 with metric mapped to 1 Number of areas in this router is 3 Area 192. D: The OSPF database does not display the networks being routed. but not the networks being routed. but not the networks that are being routed. Which IOS privileged mode command would you enter to confirm that your network: A) has a path to its ABR.42. Example: CK1 # show ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 201" with ID 192.

89.1.51 20 ASBR INTER 0.3 3 Incorrect Answers: A: The show ip protocols command only displays routing protocol parameters and current timer values.89.0.1.0.3 3 160.53 10 ABR INTRA 0. .103. B: The show running-config command displays the currently used configuration mode.0.0.0. ASBR or SPF information. The SPF No in the output is the internal number of SPF calculation that installs this route.96. The required information will not be displayed.53 22 ASBR INTER 0. show ip ospf border-routers Answer: D Explanation: The show ip ospf border-routers command displays the internal OSPF routing table entries to an area border router (ABR) and autonomous system boundary router (ASBR).52 160.51 10 ABR INTRA 0.89.3 3 160.A.3 3 160.0.144.103.52 144.0.0.89. Example: Router Certkiller # show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 109 internal Routing Table Destination Next Hop Cost Type Rte Type Area SPF No 160. It does not include ABR.89.53 144.51 160.144. show ip protocols B. show running-config C. show ip ospf neighbor D.103.96. C: The show ip ospf neighbor command displays OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis.89.97.

show ip protocol B. B . maximum paths. Which of the IOS commands below should you use? A. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: The following table describes the output of the "show ip ospf" command and their meanings: -----------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 161: The routing table of router CK is shown below: CK#show ip routeCodes: C .IGRP.--------------------------------------------QUESTION 151: You have logged onto the console of a router running OSPF.connected. and other information for the entire router. metrics.RIP. default metric. network. S . show ip ospf interface D. and the number of areas configured. show ip ospf E. show ip protocol B. M . Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 133 ----------------------------------------------QUESTION 152: Which IOS command tells you how many times the OSPF shortest path first algorithm was executed? A. show ip ospf database E.static. Show ip routing Answer: A Explanation: The show ip protocols command.BGP D - . and for your analysis log you need information on: the filters. I . show ip ospf interface C. R .mobile. displays parameters about timers. show ip route C. filters. show ip ospf D.

The routing table is for an ABR Answer: A.IS-IS.0/8 is variably subnetted. EX .2.2. It also gives the timer intervals. not totally stubby. and shows the neighbor adjacencies.64.OSPF inter area E1 . B.0.0.64. O .OSPF. only internal and directly connected. ----------------------------------------QUESTION 162: While troubleshooting an OSPF routing issue you issue the "show ip ospf interface" command.0. L2 .0/16 [110/74] via 30. C Explanation: Incorrect Answers: A: This is a stub area.1. Network 30 is using VLSM D.0 30. * . The area is totally stubby.64. Neighbor adjacencies D.0. 9 subnets. Link-state update interval Answer: A.0/8 subnet is variably subnetted and the networks used are /16 and /24. If no loopback address is specified. 00:05:22.0. Serial1 Based on the output above. including the hello interval. E .2. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 134.0/16 [110/148] via 30.0.0. C: The exhibits states that the 30.candidate default Gateway of last resort is 30. Ethernet0C 30.EGP i .0.IS-IS level-1. 00:09:13. The area is a stub area. C.3.2 to network 0.0.EIGRP external. so VLSM is used Incorrect Answers: B: The area is stub. Summary link counts C. E2 OSPF external type 2. D: This is not an ABR (Area border router) since there are no external routes.EIGRP. 2 masksO IA 30. Which of the following parameters are provided from this? (Select two) A. Ethernet0C 30.IS-IS level-2.0. ----------------------------------------- . Router ID B. Serial0O IA 30. L1 .0/24 is directly connected. which of the following statements are true regarding the routing table? (Select two) A.2. C Explanation: The show ip ospf interface command verifies that interfaces have been configured in the intended areas.1.3. the interface with the highest address is the taken router ID.0/24 is directly connected.OSPF external type 1. IA .0.

Sample output: RouterCK# show ip interfaces IP Interface Summary: Circuit Name: VLAN2 State: active IP Address: 172.0. the link state.14 812 0x80000002 0x4AC8 Incorrect Answers: B: The show ip ospf neighbor is used to display OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis.14 Ethernet0 C: There is no such command.0.13 816 0x80000003 0xF953 1 192. it does not display LSAs. However.0. show ip ospf neighbors C.168.12) (Process ID 1) Router Link States (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count 192.12 816 0x80000003 0xFB54 1 192. broadcast address.0.10 817 0x80000003 0xFF56 1 192.1680.168.168. IP address.0.168.10 192.168. show ip ospf interfaces E. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The show ip ospf database command is used to display lists of information related to the OSPF topological.12 192.14 1 FULL/BDR 00:00:38 192.13 Ethernet0 192. redundancy. show ip ospf database B.11 192.13 1 2WAY/DROTHER 00:00:31 192. and the time when the last LSA was received? A.0.255 Redundancy: disabled ICMP Redirect: enabled ICMP Unreachable: enabled RIP: enabled .0. and RIP settings.168. It displays the circuit name and state.14 192.0.0 Broadcast Address: 172.1680.14 192.14 817 0x80000003 0xD990 1 Net Link States (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum 192.168.200 Network Mask: 255.0.255.16. network mask. which LSA's have been received.168. It does show the required information though.0. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) settings. show ip ospf protocols D. Sample output: Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 192.16. D: The show ip ospf interface command is used to display OSPF-related interface information.168.168.13 192. Sample output: R_ Certkiller #show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (192.0. database for a specific router.168.168.0.168.0.168.QUESTION 163: Which command should you use to obtain information on OSPF link state advertisements? In particular: which LSA's have been sent.168.11 817 0x80000003 0xFD55 1 192.0.255.0.0.1.

Both Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 3 are using the default OSPF router priority. which statement is true? A. From Certkiller 1 we can see that its neighbor ( Certkiller 3) is the BDR and has an OSPF priority of 1. Certkiller 3 is the DR because it has a lower OSPF router ID. B. Based on the show ip ospf neighbor output from the Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 3 routers. Answer: A Explanation: The output shown above displays information about the neighbors. and that Certkiller 1 is the DR. B. Certkiller 1 is the DR because it has a lower OSPF router ID. Certkiller 3 is the DR because it has a higher OSPF router priority. Certkiller 1 is the DR because it has a higher OSPF router priority. D. so from Certkiller 3 we see that the priority of Certkiller 1 is 2. F . ----------------------------------QUESTION 165: Which three types of OSPF route entries can be found in the routing table of an internal OSPF router within an OSPF not so stubby area? (Select three) Answer: A.------------------------------------QUESTION 164: The Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 3 routers are OSPF neighbors over the Ethernet 0/0 connection. E. C.

0.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .0. is added to the OSPF configuration on Certkiller 1. S* 0.OSPF external type 1 E2 . 00:28:00 D. Answer: D Explanation: .OSPF IA .OSPF inter area N1 .0.3.3.0.Explanation: The various route types used by OSPF are as follows: O .3.com.0.0 [1/0] via 6. No default routes will be propagated to neighboring routers.0.OSPF NSSA external type 1 N2 .0. If the following command.0/0 [1/0] via 6. Study the exhibits carefully. O E1 0. external type 2. 00:28:00 B. O E2 0. -------------------------------------------QUESTION 166: You work as a network technician at Certkiller .0.0. what will the neighboring routers see in their route table? A.0.0 [1/0] via 6.0. 00:28:00 C.0.OSPF external type 2 An OSPF NSSA will receive inter-area. OSPF routes. "default information-originate".

0 into the OSPF domain. certain design constraints will inevitably exist.0. In order for OSPF to generate a default route. generate a default route into the OSPF domain. up to 1000. Not only are there fewer LSPs to process. New additions to the protocol are easily implemented in OSPF but not with IS-IS. IS-IS also has a hierarchy with Level 1 and Level 2 routers. number of nodes. B. The second is to advertise 0. Based on the routing table shown in this example. E. and reduce the amount of information that is carried in the backbone and advertised across the network. The second method can be accomplished by adding the keyword always to the defaultinformation originate command. Based on the default timers. but also the mechanism by which IS-IS installs and withdraws prefixes is less intensive. For greater fine tuning there are more IS-IS timers.Default routes injected into a normal area can be originated by any OSPF router. If there are many neighbors and adjacencies to . Both OSPF and IS-IS are link-state protocols and therefore provide fast convergence. IS-IS is more efficient. Area 0. with all other areas being physically attached to Area 0. the "always" keyword would be required in order to propagate this default route. Adding Level 2 routers can extend the backbone. the area borders lie on the links. OSPF has more area types than IS-IS. provided the advertising router already has a default route. It is used to summarize addresses into the backbone. many more routers. you must use the default-information originate command. D. by default. E Explanation: The configuration of OSPF is based on a central backbone. With regard to CPU use and the processing of routing updates.0. significantly fewer link-state PDUs (LSPs) are used. Because of this. In this example. In comparison. A good. can reside in a single area. and types of routers. this will only advertise a default route to the OSPF neighbors if the router itself also contains a default route. IS-IS will detect a failure quicker than OSPF and therefore should converge more rapidly. There are two ways to advertise a default route into a normal area. This capability makes IS-IS more scalable than OSPF. consistent IP addressing structure is necessary when this type of hierarchical model is used. IS-IS allows a more flexible approach to extending the backbone.0. such as timers. Therefore.0 regardless of whether the advertising router already has a default route. The convergence time depends on a number of factors. However. C. With IS-IS.0. Which three statements are correct about the differences in IS-IS and OSPF? (Select three) A. D. Answer: C. as compared to OSPF LSAs. The OSPF router does not. However. -------------------------------------------QUESTION 167: You need to choose the best routing protocol for use in the Certkiller network. a default route does not already exist. This process is less complex than with OSPF. The first is to advertise 0. IS-IS is more CPU-intensive than is OSPF. IS-IS LSP contains TLV fields and OSPF LSU contains the LSAs.

locally administered address? A. LSPs. The NSAP address is the network layer address for CLNS packets.0004.0002.0c00.00 C.0f01.30ac. Hello PDUs. and other routing PDUs are OSI formatted PDUs. The NSAP address identifies any system in an OSI network. this speed may be at the expense of stability. IS-IS uses the OSI address in the LSPs to identify the router.0000. 49. so a compromise may have to be made.c7df. every IS-IS router requires an OSI address. Internet Protocol address C. ------------------------------------------------QUESTION 169: IS-IS uses the concept of NSAP addresses. The timers in IS-IS allow more tuning than OSPF. not for each interface. The NSAP address can be thought of as equivalent to the combination of an IP address and upper-layer protocol identifier in an IP header. build the topology table.0f01.3090. Network Service Access Point address D.0c00.1111. and build the underlying IS-IS routing tree.1111.00 . Which of the following NSAP addresses is a private. the convergence time depends on the processing power of the router. The NSAP is the location at which OSI network services are provided to the transport layer. A network engineer should understand the implications of adjusting these timers. As with DECnet Phase V. one NSAP address is used for each device. Different protocols may use different representations of the NSAP. Authority and Format Identifier address E. Media Access Control address F. 39. ----------------------------------------QUESTION 168: You need to design an addressing scheme in the Certkiller IS-IS network. There are more timers to adjust.0000. However. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: The NSAP is a conceptual point on the boundary between the network and the transport layers. and therefore finer granularity can be achieved. How is network layer addressing accomplished in the OSI protocol suite? A. Various NSAP formats are used for various systems. IS-IS is typically less CPU intensive than OSPF.0002. Each transport layer entity is assigned a single NSAP. 52. Therefore. By tuning the timers.consider. convergence time can be significantly decreased. NSAP addresses contain the OSI address of the device and provide a link to upper-layer processes.00 B. Packet Layer Protocol address B.0000.

IS-IS encapsulates PDUs directly into a data-link frame B. The system ID has a fixed length of six bytes as engineered in the Cisco IOS. The total length is between eight and 20 bytes.0000. Area 0. The role of N-selector byte is analogous to that of a port or socket in TCP/IP. IS-IS uses stubby areas to improve network scalability E. Private addresses are analogous to those specified by RFC 1918 for IP addresses. This process is less complex than with OSPF. and reduce the amount of information that is carried in the backbone and advertised across the network. C Explanation: The configuration of OSPF is based on a central backbone. consistent IP addressing structure is necessary when this type of hierarchical model is used. Adding Level 2 routers can extend the backbone. and the NSAP selector byte. IS-IS is more efficient. can reside in a single area. up to 1000. certain design constraints will inevitably exist.1111. significantly fewer link-state PDUs (LSPs) are used. However. IS-IS also has a hierarchy with Level 1 and Level 2 routers.0c00. IS-IS uses a DIS and a backup DIS to present the psuedo-node on the LAN Answer: A. In comparison. With IS-IS. IS-IS uses a default IOS metric of 10 on each interface C. Therefore. The NET is used by routers to identify themselves in the LSPs and forms the basis for OSI route calculation. such as ISDN F. IS-IS allows a more flexible approach to extending the backbone. They are the area address. the system ID. A good. However.0002. ------------------------------------------------QUESTION 170: When comparing OSPF and IS-IS. The area address is a variable length field composed of high order octets. excluding the system ID and the selector byte. which three characteristics apply to IS-IS but not to OSPF? (Select three) A. The N-selector byte is a service identifier.00 E. the area borders lie on the links. It is used to summarize addresses into the backbone. IS-IS runs PRC (Partial Route Calculations) to calculate IP reachability information D. Because of this. with all other areas being physically attached to Area 0. With regard to CPU use and the processing of routing updates. are considered as private addresses. This capability makes IS-IS more scalable than OSPF. many more routers. similar to the OSPF router ID. B. 48. IS-IS uses an on-demand circuit to reduce the hello and LSA flooding across switched WAN links. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: An NSAP address consists of three parts. .0f01. The system ID is the ES or IS identifier in an area. These addresses are routed by IS-IS.D. this group of addresses should not be advertised to other CLNS networks. Addresses starting with value 49. AFI = 49.

Although not technically a routing protocol. With IS-IS routing. because Level 1 ISs only need to know how to get to the nearest Level 2 IS. IS-IS will detect a failure quicker than OSPF and therefore should converge more rapidly. Intermediate System to Intermediate System: The OSI routing protocol that learns the location of the networks within the autonomous system so that data can be forwarded to the remote hosts. D Explanation: 1. End System-to-Intermediate System E. Level 2. What are two routing protocols defined by the OSI protocol suite that operate at the network layer? (Select two) A.Not only are there fewer LSPs to process. such as timers. as compared to OSPF LSAs. but also the mechanism by which IS-IS installs and withdraws prefixes is less intensive. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Answer: B. Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System C. Hierarchical routing simplifies backbone design. Routing Information Protocol B. Both OSPF and IS-IS are link-state protocols and therefore provide fast convergence. the convergence time depends on the processing power of the router. The convergence time depends on a number of factors. ES-IS is an analogous to Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) in IP. End System-to-End System D. Level 2 ISs route between Level 1 areas and form an intradomain routing backbone. ES-IS is included here because it is commonly used with routing . Level 1 ISs communicate with other Level 1 ISs in the same area. Based on the default timers. 2. IS-IS is typically less CPU intensive than OSPF ------------------------------------------QUESTION 171: You need to determine the best routing protocol to be used within the Certkiller network. End System-to-Intermediate System The protocol by which the OSI ES and the IS communicate to dynamically learn Layer 2 adjacencies. Level 3 routing is done between separate domains. OSI distinguishes between Level 1. and types of routers. If there are many neighbors and adjacencies to consider. and Level 3 routing to simplify router design and operation. number of nodes.

OSPF with the process ID and IS-IS with a tag after the router isis command. Routing between end systems and intermediate systems is sometimes referred to as Level 0 routing. Both allow multiple instances per device. Support for classless routing D. Support for multiple areas per router C. C Explanation: Similarities between OSPF and IS-IS * Both of them are link-state routing protocols. Which two statements identify similarities between IS-IS and OSPF? (Select two) A.protocols to provide end-to-end data movement through an internetwork. Support for address summarization between areas B. through the use of areas. * They both use Hello packets to form adjacencies with their neighbors. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 173: . 1. they both elect a designated router (DR). * Both allow the use of authentication to ensure a more secure network. * Both. * To maintain their link-state databases. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 172: IS-IS is often considered an alternative to OSPF in many networks. Support for designated intermediate systems and backup designated intermediate systems E. Support for both DIS adjacencies and neighbor adjacencies Answer: A. support a hierarchical network topology. both routing protocols use the Dijkstra SPF algorithm. * For broadcast multi-access networks. * They both support VLSM and the summarization of areas.

Level 1 and Level 2 (L1L2) Intermediate ISs. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 174: Router CK1 is configured as a level 1 router in the Certkiller IS-IS network. Level 2 (L2) ISs. are responsible for routing to ESs inside an area. Level 2 B. L1 ISs enable communication between ESs in an area. The following shows IS-IS within the domain as a two-level hierarchy: 1. In IS-IS routing. Level 1 D. closely equivalent to area border routers (ABRs) in OSPF. Level 3 E. closely equivalent to OSPF internal non-backbone routers. They participate in the L1 intra-area routing and the L2 inter-area routing. 2. route between areas only. closely equivalent to backbone routers in OSPF. which level is used to route between different areas within the same domain? A.Certkiller is using IS-IS in their network domain. Level 1 (L1) ISs. IS-IS Level 1 routers use LSPs for which purpose? A. which contains only the inter-area topology information. analogous to an autonomous system (AS) in TCP/IP. L2 routers store a separate LSPD. To build a topology database for the local and remote areas . L2 routers are also referred to as area routers because they interconnect the L1 areas. To build a topology database for areas outside the AS B. Level 0 C. 3. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: An IS-IS network is termed a domain. To establish adjacency with ES's C. route between areas and the backbone.

When routing between Level 1 areas in the same domain E.D. analogous to an autonomous system (AS) in TCP/IP. which defines the picture of the area itself and the exit points to neighboring areas. When routing between intermediate systems in different areas D. The following shows IS-IS within the domain as a two-level hierarchy: 1. L1 routers are also referred to as station routers because they enable stations to communicate with each other and the rest of the network. To establish adjacency with L1 IS's F. when would the use of Level 1 IS routing be required? A. In IS-IS routing. To build a topology database for remote areas E. The L1 routers maintain the L1 link-state PDU database (LSPD). closely equivalent to OSPF internal non-backbone routers. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 175: Certkiller uses the IS-IS routing protocol within their network. are responsible for routing to ESs inside an area. When routing between intermediate systems in the same area F. None of the above Answer: F Explanation: An IS-IS network is termed a domain. Level 1 (L1) ISs. L1 ISs enable communication between ESs in an area. To build a topology database for the local area only G. A contiguous group of L1 routers defines an area. When routing between end systems and intermediate systems B. When routing between Level 1 areas in different domains C. None of the above Answer: E .

are responsible for routing to ESs inside an area. C=IIH F. A=ISH. A=IIH. A=ESH. None of the above . B=ESH. Level 1 (L1) ISs. closely equivalent to OSPF internal non-backbone routers. C=ESH D. C=ISH E. B=ESH. analogous to an autonomous system (AS) in TCP/IP. B=IIH. B=ISH. A contiguous group of L1 routers defines an area. --------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 176: A. which defines the picture of the area itself and the exit points to neighboring areas. The L1 routers maintain the L1 link-state PDU database (LSPD). The following shows IS-IS within the domain as a two-level hierarchy: 1. B=ISH. C=IIH B. A=IIH. L1 ISs enable communication between ESs in an area. C=ESH C. A=ISH.Explanation: An IS-IS network is termed a domain. L1 routers are also referred to as station routers because they enable stations to communicate with each other and the rest of the network.

ISHs are sent from ISs to ESs. 4. Note that ESH and ISH PDUs are ES-IS PDUs. The packets are similar to an OSPF database description packet. This ensures that all routers have the same information and are synchronized. Partial SNP (PSNP) C. ESHs are sent from ESs to ISs. Link-state summary E. LSP . Complete Sequence Number PDU (CSNP) . Hello PDU (ESH. CSNPs are used to inform other routers of LSPs that may be outdated or missing from their own database. Complete SNP (CSNP) D. ISH. Hello B. IIHs are sent between ISs.Used by IS-IS to distribute link-state information. Database description packet (DDP) F. Partial Sequence Number PDU (PSNP) . IS-IS Hello [IIH]) . There are independent pseudonode and non-pseudonode LSPs for both Level 1 and Level 2.Answer: E Explanation: There are four categories of IS-IS PDUs: 1.Used to establish and maintain adjacencies.Used to acknowledge and request link-state information. None of the above Answer: C . not IS-IS PDUs. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 177: Router CK1 is a Designated Intermediate System on a Certkiller network.Used to distribute a complete link-state database on the router. 2. 3. What is periodically sent by a DIS on a LAN to ensure that all adjacent neighbors' IS-IS link-state databases are synchronized? A. Database query G.

IS-IS and OSPF are both Open Standard. Which two statements are true about IS-IS routing. 3.Used to distribute a complete link-state database on the router. 4. C. The packets are similar to an OSPF database description packet. IS-IS is more efficient than OSPF in the use of CPU resources. E. link-state routing protocols which support VLSM. OSPF detects a failure faster than IS-IS does.Used by IS-IS to distribute link-state information. Note that ESH and ISH PDUs are ES-IS PDUs. ESHs are sent from ESs to ISs. This ensures that all routers have the same information and are synchronized. ISHs are sent from ISs to ESs.Explanation: There are four categories of IS-IS PDUs: 1. CSNPs are used to inform other routers of LSPs that may be outdated or missing from their own database. when compared to OSPF? (Select two) A. ISH. IIHs are sent between ISs. stub. 2. Partial Sequence Number PDU (PSNP) . not IS-IS PDUs. LSP .Used to acknowledge and request link-state information. Answer: A. Hello PDU (ESH. Based on the default timers. D. There are independent pseudonode and non-pseudonode LSPs for both Level 1 and Level 2. D Explanation: . OSPF is more scalable than IS-IS because of its ability to identify normal. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 178: You need to determine the best routing protocol for your network. IS-IS Hello [IIH]) . B.Used to establish and maintain adjacencies. and NSSA areas. Complete Sequence Number PDU (CSNP) . OSPF default timers permit more tuning than IS-IS does.

* * In OSPF. where OSPF does not. --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 179: Router CK1 is an IS-IS device that needs to route within the same area. L1 IS D. When IS-IS is used strictly for the ISO CLNS environment.IS-IS is the dynamic link-state routing protocol for the OSI protocol stack. * IS-IS allows for the preempting of DRs. * OSPF DROthers do not form adjacencies with other DROthers on broadcast multi-access networks. the boundaries of areas are set in the router. Differences between IS-IS and OSPF Although IS-IS and OSPF share many common features. Which two provide intraarea routing services? (Select two) A. IS-IS distributes routing information for routing CLNP data for the ISO CLNS environment. The boundaries of areas are on the network connections between routers for IS-IS. * The backbone of an IS-IS network is designated by the type of routers in it instead of being designated by an area number (0. an IS-IS router belongs to only one area per routing process. L2 ES B. they do have quite a few differences: * Whereas OSPF routers can be part of multiple areas. * IS-IS utilizes CLNS protocol data units (PDUs) to send information between routers instead of using IP packets. L2 IS C. like OSPF does. L1/L2 IS . reiterating that each router is in only one area per routing process. As such. while in the same environment. it is referred to as ISO IS-IS. L1 ES E. all IS-IS intermediate systems form adjacencies with one another. in the case of OSPF).

L2 IS C. analogous to an autonomous system (AS) in TCP/IP. The L1 routers maintain the L1 link-state PDU database (LSPD). weaving their way through and between the Level 1 areas. are responsible for routing to ESs inside an area. 2. route between areas and the backbone. closely equivalent to backbone routers in OSPF. 3. closely equivalent to area border routers (ABRs) in OSPF. The following shows IS-IS within the domain as a two-level hierarchy: 1. L1 ISs enable communication between ESs in an area. They participate in the L1 intra-area routing and the L2 inter-area routing. A contiguous group of L1 routers defines an area. L1/L2 IS B.Answer: C. IS-IS does not share the concept of an Area 0 with OSPF. Level 1 (L1) ISs. route between areas only. L1L2 routers support an L1 function to communicate with the other L1 routers in their area and maintain the L1 LSP information in an L1 LSPD. Which two provide inter-area routing services? (Select two) A. closely equivalent to OSPF internal non-backbone routers. L1 IS . Level 2 (L2) ISs. Level 1 and Level 2 (L1L2) Intermediate ISs. An IS-IS domain appears as a set of distinct areas interconnected by a chain of L2 routers. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 180: Router CK1 is an IS-IS device that needs to route traffic between different areas. L1 routers are also referred to as station routers because they enable stations to communicate with each other and the rest of the network. They also support an L2 function to communicate with the rest of the backbone and maintain an L2 topology database separately from their L1 LSPD. They inform other L1 routers that they are an exit point for the area. E Explanation: An IS-IS network is termed a domain. which defines the picture of the area itself and the exit points to neighboring areas.

L1 ES F.D. weaving their way through and between the Level 1 areas. IS-IS does not require Hello packets to establish neighbor relationships E. An IS-IS domain appears as a set of distinct areas interconnected by a chain of L2 routers. L2 ES E. IS-IS supports route tags D. * Level 2 (L2) ISs. IS-IS does not share the concept of an Area 0 with OSPF. Which three are benefits of IS-IS over OSPF? (Select three) A. L2 routers store a separate LSPD. They inform other L1 routers that they are an exit point for the area. IS-IS supports network layer protocols other than IP . B Explanation: * Level 1 and Level 2 (L1L2) Intermediate ISs. route between areas only. -----------------------------------------------QUESTION 181: A network administrator has decided to use IS-IS instead of OSPF in the Certkiller network. closely equivalent to backbone routers in OSPF. They participate in the L1 intra-area routing and the L2 inter-area routing. closely equivalent to area border routers (ABRs) in OSPF. IS-IS requires fewer neighbor relationships in a broadcast multiaccess network B. IS-IS supports more routers in an area C. IS-IS produces fewer link state advertisements for a given network F. None of the above Answer: A. L1L2 routers support an L1 function to communicate with the other L1 routers in their area and maintain the L1 LSP information in an L1 LSPD. They also support an L2 function to communicate with the rest of the backbone and maintain an L2 topology database separately from their L1 LSPD. route between areas and the backbone. which contains only the inter-area topology information. L2 routers are also referred to as area routers because they interconnect the L1 areas.

39 C. which portion is interpreted by IS-IS as the area? A.0102. reiterating that each router is in only one area per routing process.0c00.1211. Although IS-IS and OSPF share many common features.0c00 . all IS-IS intermediate systems form adjacencies with one another. like OSPF does. * The backbone of an IS-IS network is designated by the type of routers in it instead of being designated by an area number (0. Given this NSAP. * IS-IS utilizes CLNS protocol data units (PDUs) to send information between routers instead of using IP packets. * OSPF DROthers do not form adjacencies with other DROthers on broadcast multi-access networks. 0001 B. it is referred to as ISO IS-IS.Answer: B. The boundaries of areas are on the network connections between routers for IS-IS.0100. 0001. E. * In OSPF. the boundaries of areas are set in the router. Differences between IS-IS and OSPF. As such.0001. -------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 182: One of the Certkiller IS-IS routers is using the NSAP 39. an IS-IS router belongs to only one area per routing process. When IS-IS is used strictly for the ISO CLNS environment. they do have quite a few differences: * Whereas OSPF routers can be part of multiple areas. in the case of OSPF).00. IS-IS distributes routing information for routing CLNP data for the ISO CLNS environment. F Explanation: IS-IS is the dynamic link-state routing protocol for the OSI protocol stack. where OSPF does not. while in the same environment. * IS-IS allows for the preempting of DRs.

0100 G. 39. The following example shows a router with area ID 47.D. All bytes preceding the system ID are the area ID.0c00.004d.1110.1110: 47.0001.0c11. The area ID field is the portion of the NSAP preceding the system ID.0004. The system ID length is a fixed size and cannot be changed. a NET can be 8 to 20 B in length. 0001.0001.0102. 39. The n-selector indicates which transport entity the packet is sent to. ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 183: Routers CK1 and CK2 have established an IS-IS neighbor relationship. On a router running IS-IS.0c00.0c11.0004.004d. The last byte is always the n-selector and must be zero. An n-selector of zero indicates no transport entity.0100.1211 E. The six bytes directly preceding the n-selector are the system ID.00 In our example.0102 F. What does IS-IS use to establish and maintain neighbor relationships between Intermediate Systems? . and means that the packet is for the routing software of the system.1211 which is the system ID. The portion preceding this.0001 and system ID 0001. 39.0100. is the area ID. the six bytes preceding the N selector is 0001. None of the above Answer: E Explanation: A NET is a NSAP where the last byte is always zero. The system ID must be unique throughout each area (Level 1) and throughout the backbone (Level 2).

IS-IS supports three layers of hierarchical routing F. and certain parameters about the interface sending the Hello PDU. IS-IS utilizes SPF algorithm C. Hello PDUs are sent out every 10 seconds by default to maintain the adjacencies. ESHs are sent from ESs to ISs. IS-IS Hello [IIH]) . IIHs are sent between ISs. The Hello PDU contains information about the router. IS-IS provides routing support for multiple network layer protocols Answer: D.Answer: A Explanation: IS-IS utilizes Hello PDUs to discover its neighbors and to form adjacencies with them. not IS-IS PDUs. ISHs are sent from ISs to ESs. Note that ESH and ISH PDUs are ES-IS PDUs. IS-IS supports demand circuit routing D. ISH. Which two are characteristics of the IS-IS protocol but not OSPF? (Select two) A.Used to establish and maintain adjacencies. F Explanation: IS-IS is the dynamic link-state routing protocol for the OSI protocol stack. IS-IS . Hello PDU (ESH. IS-IS forms adjacencies with all neighbors E. --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 184: You need to decide on the best routing protocol for the Certkiller network and have narrowed your choices to IS-IS and OSPF. After the formation of adjacencies. Once the two routers agree on their respective capabilities and the parameters set forth. the router's capabilities. the routers will form an adjacency. IS-IS provides for network scalability by allowing the network to be separated into areas B. As such.

* IS-IS utilizes CLNS protocol data units (PDUs) to send information between routers instead of using IP packets. like OSPF does. A Level-2 IS can establish an adjacency with which routers? (Select three) A. E . Any Level-1/Level-2 IS in any area Answer: A. the boundaries of areas are set in the router. they do have quite a few differences: * Whereas OSPF routers can be part of multiple areas. B. When IS-IS is used strictly for the ISO CLNS environment. Any Level-1/Level-2 IS in the same area C. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 185: Router CK1 is a Level-2 router in the Certkiller IS-IS network. in the case of OSPF). * IS-IS allows for the preempting of DRs. where OSPF does not. * In OSPF. Any Level-1 IS in the same area E. it is referred to as ISO IS-IS. Although IS-IS and OSPF share many common features. * OSPF DROthers do not form adjacencies with other DROthers on broadcast multi-access networks. The boundaries of areas are on the network connections between routers for IS-IS.distributes routing information for routing CLNP data for the ISO CLNS environment. Any Level-1 IS in any area D. all IS-IS intermediate systems form adjacencies with one another. Any Level-2 IS in any area B. while in the same environment. * The backbone of an IS-IS network is designated by the type of routers in it instead of being designated by an area number (0. Differences between IS-IS and OSPF. an IS-IS router belongs to only one area per routing process. reiterating that each router is in only one area per routing process.

0c99. 49. Private addresses are analogous to those specified by RFC 1918 for IP addresses. this group of addresses should not be advertised to other CLNS networks.0d35.0000.0004.00 D. The role of N-selector byte is analogous to that of a port or socket in TCP/IP.0001. L2 routers store a separate LSPD. Which IS-IS NET represents a locally administered private address? A. route between areas only. Addresses starting with value 49. The total length is between eight and 20 bytes.3456. similar to the OSPF router ID.0000. The system ID is the ES or IS identifier in an area.Explanation: Level 2 (L2) ISs. excluding the system ID and the selector byte.0010.00 C. which contains only the inter-area topology information. and the NSAP selector byte.0a11. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: An NSAP address consists of three parts.0040. 39. 45. AFI = 49.1112. 47. However.00 E.0c12. The NET is used by routers to identify themselves in the LSPs and forms the basis for OSI route calculation. These addresses are routed by IS-IS. closely equivalent to backbone routers in OSPF.00 B. The system ID has a fixed length of six bytes as engineered in the Cisco IOS. The area address is a variable length field composed of high order octets. are considered as private addresses. They are the area address. .4554.0000. the system ID. The N-selector byte is a service identifier. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 186: The Certkiller IS-IS network utilized locally administered addresses. L2 routers are also referred to as area routers because they interconnect the L1 areas.0010.3564.

On a LAN. The configurable range is 0 to 127. one of the routers will be elected the DIS based on interface priority. The default priority is 64. The elected backup designated router takes the place of the DIS temporarily without the necessity of a new election. what happens when the designated IS router crashes? A.3 seconds. In an IS-IS environment. establishing a new DIS until a router with a higher priority or MAC address establishes an adjacency. a virtual node. A new election process occurs immediately. including the DIS. until the original DIS comes back online. The DIS election is preemptive. is . A new election process occurs immediately.------------------------------------------- QUESTION 187: Router CK1 is the DIS in the Certkiller IS-IS network. Instead of flooding and database synchronization taking place over n x (n-1) adjacencies. and a new set of LSPs will be flooded. it becomes the DIS. The elected backup designated router takes the place of the DIS indefinitely without the necessity of a new election. form an adjacency with the pseudonode. unlike DR election with OSPF. B. purges the old pseudonode LSP. the local DLCI is the SNP A. the pseudonode enables the reduction in flooding and database synchronization to occur only over the adjacencies formed with the pseudonode. establishing a new DIS that will remain in place indefinitely. the router with the higher system ID in the NSAP address will become the DIS. If a new router boots on the LAN with a higher interface priority. the router with the highest SNPA is selected. If the SNPA is a DLCI and is the same at both sides of a link. or PSN. If all interface priorities are the same. All the routers on the LAN. The DIS Hello interval. The DIS creates and acts on behalf of a pseudonode. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The idea behind the Designated Intermediate System (DIS) is similar to the one behind the Designated Router (DR) in OSPF. D. MAC addresses are the SNPAs on LANs. E. On Frame Relay networks. C. at 3.

E. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 188: Certkiller has implemented IS-IS as their internal routing protocol. Which three statements below regarding IS-IS are true? (Select three) A.three times faster than the interval for other routers on the LAN. C. L1 routers must forward the packets to an L1/L2 router within their area. L1 routers will not receive any information from an L2 router. These routers receive link-state PDUs (LSPs) only from within the area. L1/L2 routers maintain a separate Level 1 link-state database and a Level 2 link-state database. L1 routers must forward the packets to the L2 router of the destination area. L2 routers Level 2 (L2) routers are the backbone routers. regardless of the area the L1/L2 router belongs to. E Explanation: L1 routers A Level 1 (L1) router is a router in a non-backbone area. L2 routers will send LSPs to all other L2 routers and to all L1/L2 routers. This allows for quick detection of DIS failure and immediate replacement on the LAN. . D. All they know about inter-area routes is a default route to the L1/L2 router for the area. The L2 router can be compared to a backbone router for OSPF. They will not receive LSPs from other areas. C. They handle all of the inter-area traffic. L1 routers have no knowledge about routes outside their area. they do not advertise L2 routes to L1 routers. An L2 router can belong only to the backbone area. To route packets to another area. The L1 router would be the equivalent of an internal router for OSPF. Remember that there is no concept of backup DIS in IS-IS. All routers within a Level 1 area contain the same link-state database. L1 routers know only about intra-area routes. To route packets to another area. L2 routers form adjacencies with L1 and L1/L2 neighbors. Answer: A. B.

The L1/L2 router contains two link-state databases. L1 ES C. A Level 1 router knows the topology only of its own area and has Level 1 or Level1/Level2 neighbors in this area. and information stored in the Level 2 link-state database is not shared with any L1 routers. C: L2 routers make up the backbone of the IS-IS network. Incorrect Answers: B. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 189: There are several varieties of IS-IS routers. L2 ES E. The LSPs that the L1/L2 router sends to L2 routers help it to maintain its Level 2 link-state database. L1/L2 IS Answer: A. meaning that they are used to route traffic within the same area. Which of the following two match this description? (Select two) A. Two types of IS-IS provide intra-area routing services. It uses the closest Level 2-capable router in its own area to send packets out of the area. such as PCs or servers. L2 IS D. The LSPs that the L1/L2 router sends to L1 routers help it to maintain its Level 1 link-state database. L1/L2 routers will send LSPs to both L1 and L2 routers. It has a Level 1 link-state database with all the information for intra-area routing. E Explanation: L1 IS and L1/L2 IS routers provide intra-area routing services. L1 IS B.L1/L2 routersLevel 1/Level 2 (L1/L2) routers are similar in function to an OSPF ABR. and they are used to provide for . D: End systems are OSI terms used for end hosts. a scenario that may result in suboptimal routing. They do not provide for any type of routing functionality.

B. A contiguous collection of L1 and L2 routers. D. the backbone area is area 0.inter-area routing. A contiguous collection of L1 and L1/L2 routers. How could you describe the backbone area of an IS-IS domain? A. B. Answer: D Explanation: IS-IS does not have a backbone area like the OSPF area 0. None of the above. C. each of which can be in a different area. and a L1 router can only route traffic to other areas via an L2 or and L1/L2 IS-IS router. A contiguous collection of L1 routers. C. the backbone area is area 0. L2 routers are used for inter-area routing. ---------------------------------------QUESTION 190: In OSPF. D. A contiguous collection of L1 and L2 routers. How could you describe the backbone area of an IS-IS domain? A. . A contiguous collection of L1 and L1/L2 routers. A contiguous collection of L1 routers. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 190: In OSPF. E. The IS-IS backbone is a contiguous collection of Level 2-capable routers. A contiguous collection of L2 and L1/L2 routers. A contiguous collection of L2 and L1/L2 routers.

D. C. The IS-IS backbone is a contiguous collection of Level 2-capable routers. A chain of L2 and L1/L2 IS-IS routers. --------------------------------------QUESTION 191: Which one of the following statements correctly describes a characteristic of an IS-IS backbone? A. Answer: D Explanation: IS-IS does not have a backbone area like the OSPF area 0. F.E. What must an administrator connect each IS-IS area to? A. An unbroken string of L1 and LS IS-IS routers. L2 routers are used for inter-area routing. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: IS-IS does not have a backbone area like the OSPF area 0. A router in all areas. Area 0 . None of the above. ------------------------------------QUESTION 192: The routing protocol IS-IS uses areas. E. each of which can be in a different area. each of which can be in a different areaL1 routers are used for internal routing within the area and so only L2 and L1/L2 routers form the backbone in IS-IS. B. and a L1 router can only route traffic to other areas via an L2 or and L1/L2 IS-IS router. All routers in one area. The IS-IS backbone is a contiguous collection of Level 2-capable routers. A central area to which all other areas are attached.

Incorrect Answers: A. Database description packet (DDP) F. External IS-IS areas Answer: D Explanation: Small IS-IS networks are built as a single area that includes all the routers in the network. it is usually reorganized into a backbone area made up of the connected set of all Level 2 routers from all areas. Level-1 backbone D. Partial SNP (PSNP) C. ------------------------------------QUESTION 193: Which packet type is used on the Certkiller IS-IS network to acknowledge LSPs on point-to-point links and to request missing pieces of information in the IS-IS link-state database? A. In IS-IS. E: This is not a requirement. not Level 1. which are in turn connected to local areas. B: Area 0 or Area 1 has no special significance in IS-IS. similar to area 0 in OSPF networks. Database query E. areas are broken down into levels and are not numbered like OSPF areas. None of the above . As the network grows larger.B. C: Level 2. Routers that are solely used as L1 routers must route all traffic that is destined outside of the area to a L1/L2 or a L2 router. Area 1 C. The contiguous set of L2 routers make up the OSPF backbone. Complete SNP (CSNP) B. Level-2 backbone E. Hello D.

Answer: B Explanation: The different IS-IS packet types are described below: CSNP-Complete Sequence Number PDUs are used to tell other routers about all the LSPs in one router database. Routers establish Level1 adjacencies to perform routing within a local area (intra-area routing). Another router can ask the DIS for a missing LSP using a partial sequence number packet (PSNP). As the network grows larger. similar to an OSPF database descriptor packet PSNP-Partial Sequence Number PDUs are used to request an LSP and acknowledge receipt of an LSP PDUs (PSNP's) every 3 seconds and complete sequence number PDUs (CSNPs) every 10 seconds that describe the full database of the DIS. routers know how to reach the backbone. Within a local area. Routers establish Level2 adjacencies to perform routing between different areas (inter-area routing). which is in turn connected to local areas. which level is used to route between different areas within the same domain? A. it is usually reorganized into a backbone area made up of the connected set of all Level2 routers from all areas. Level 3 Answer: C Explanation: Small IS-IS networks are built as a single area that includes all the routers in the network.361 --------------------------------QUESTION 194: In IS-IS routing. Level 2 D. and the backbone routers know how to reach other areas. routers know how to reach all system IDs. Level 0 B. or in turn give the DIS a new LSP. Reference: CCNP Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam Certification Guide p. Level 1 C. Between areas. .

Level-2 only C. WAN links do not support IS-IS adjacencies Answer: C Explanation: IS-IS routers that are configured as L1/L2. Level-1 only B. Within an Area Level 1 routing is used. which is the default. will run two separate SPF algorithms. Level 1-The two routers sharing a common network segment must have their interfaces configured to be in the same area if they are to have a Level 1 adjacency. Two routers will become neighbors if the following parameters are agreed upon: 1. Routing between areas is referred to as Level 2 routing. one for each level. A Level 1/Level 2 router runs two SPFs and may require more memory and processing as a result.------------------------------------QUESTION 195: In your network you have two Level-1/ Level-2 IS-IS routers named CK1 and CK2 . the DIS (Designated Intermediate System) will become adjacent with its neighbors. It has two link-state databases: a Level 1 link-state database for intra-area routing and a Level 2 link-state database for inter-area routing. A Level 1/Level 2 router may have neighbors in any area. 2. On broadcast networks and nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) networks. Level 2-The two routers sharing a common network segment must be configured as Level 2 if they are in different areas and want to become neighbors. What kind of an adjacency can you expect them to establish? A. ---------------------------------------- . None unless statically configured E. The two routers are connected together via a WAN link. Neighbors on point-to-point networks always become adjacent unless they do not see themselves in their neighbors' hello PDU and match on certain parameters. and they both belong to the same area. Both Level-1 and Level-2 D.

30 D. One IS-IS process 5. One BGP routing process Up to 30 EGP routing processes ------------------------------------QUESTION 197: Which of the following types of routers can a Level-2 IS establish adjacencies with? (Select three) A. Answer: A Explanation: The Cisco IOS software can handle simultaneous operation of up to 30 dynamic IP routing processes. limited only by the router's resources F. 40 E. One RIP routing process 4. and you're thinking of upgrading your network. Depends on the total number of IDB blocks. Up to 30 IGRP routing processes 2. Up to 30 OSPF routing processes 3. 2 C. Any Level-2 IS in any area C. What is the maximum number of Level-2 routing processes that this router can belong to? A. 1 B. Any Level-1 IS in the same area .QUESTION 196: You have a network segment with an IS-IS level 1-2 router. Any Level-1 IS in any area B. The combination of routing processes on a router or access server consists of the following protocols (with the limits noted): 1.

Between areas.shtml ----------------------------------QUESTION 199: .D. regardless of what the destination area is. A Level 2 Intermediate System (IS) keeps track of the paths to destination areas.cisco. Routing between areas is referred to as Level 2 routing. where it may travel via Level 1 routing to the destination. a Level 1 IS sends the packet to the nearest Level 2 IS in its own area. Between end systems and intermediate systems in the same area. Where in an IS-IS network does this happen? A. D. A Level 1 IS keeps track of the routing within its own area.1 Routing within an area is referred to as Level 1 routing. Each system resides in exactly one area. Answer: C Explanation: A two-level hierarchy is used to support large routing domains. Then the packet travels via Level 2 routing to the destination area. It should be noted that selecting an exit from an area based on Level 1 routing to the closest Level 2 IS might result in suboptimal routing. Any Level-1/Level-2 IS in the same area Answer: B. Any Level-1/Level-2 IS in any area E.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK3 81/technologies_white_paper09186a00800a3e6f. E --------------------------------QUESTION 198: One of the characteristics of the routing protocol IS-IS is its ability to use level-1 routing. B. For a packet destined for another area. A large domain may be administratively divided into areas. Between domains. D. C.2 Reference: http://www. Between intermediate systems in the same area.

Integrated IS-IS sometimes is called Dual IS-IS. To route packets to another area. no other service types are available. L1 routers must forward the packets to an L1/L2 router within their area. L2 routers form adjacencies with L1 and L1/L2 neighbors. -----------------------------------------QUESTION 200: Which of the following three statements correctly describe the characteristics of IS-IS? (Select three) A. Cisco routers cannot route CLNS data that use the ISO/IEC 10589 standard of NSAP addressing. The lack of a Domain portion of the NSAP only accommodates for 2 levels of routing hierarchy. ISO CLNS only or IP only. C. Since the NSAP service identifier (N-SEL) must always be set to 00. L1 routers must forward the packets to the L2 router of the destination area. E. The system ID on a Cisco router is limited to 6 bytes. they do not advertise L2 routes to L1 routers. L1 routers have no knowledge about routes outside their area. B. Answer: C Explanation: Integrated IS-IS is a version of the OSI IS-IS routing protocol that uses a single routing algorithm to support more network layer protocols than just CLNP. D. B. L1/L2 routers maintain a separate Level 1 link-state database and a Level 2 link-state database. . What will your reply be? A. E. C.Your newly appointed Certkiller trainee wants to know why Level-3 area routing is not a supported feature of integrated IS-IS on Cisco routers. Only one IS-IS process is allowed whether you run it in integrated mode. named after a version designed for IP and CLNP networks. D. The NET on a Cisco router is restricted to a maximum of 8 bytes. To route packets to another area.

connect a single pair of routers. form an adjacency with the pseudonode instead of forming n*(n-1) order adjacencies with each other in a full mesh. IS-IS distinguishes between Level 1 and Level 2 ISs. IS-IS is configured on all Ethernet interfaces. Delay B. non-broadcast E.htm Incorrect Answers: B: Point-to-point networks. Level 2 ISs route between Level 1 areas and form an intradomain routing backbone. consistent picture of network topology. B.com/warp/public/cc/pd/iosw/prodlit/insys_wp. D Explanation: Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) is an OSI link-state hierarchical routing protocol that floods the network with link-state information to build a complete. point-to-multipoint Answer: A Explanation: The types of networks that IS-IS defines include Point-to-point networks and Broadcast networks. ------------------------------QUESTION 202: The Certkiller network is utilizing IS-IS for the routing protocol. broadcast B. what network type identifies a LAN interface? A. Hierarchical routing simplifies backbone design because Level 1 ISs need to know only how to get to the nearest Level 2 IS. and all the routers on a LAN. point-to-point C.htm ----------------------------------------QUESTION 201: On router CK1 .cisco. E: Point-to-multipoint is not used by IS-IS. Error . DISs are not used by default however. C: A Designated Intermediate System (DIS) creates a pseudonode (a virtual node).Answer: A.cisco. such as serial lines. D: Non-broadcast is not used by IS-IS. including the DIS. The backbone routing protocol also can change without impacting the intra-area routing protocol. what is the metric used by the Certkiller routers on IS-IS interfaces? A. To simplify router design and operation. Reference: http://www. Reference:http://www. pseudo-node D.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/osi_rout. Level 1 ISs communicate with other Level 1 ISs in the same area. Broadcast networks are used on all LAN interfaces. In IS-IS. By default.

what metric is supported exclusively by the Cisco IOS? A. If the optional metrics were implemented. Expense D. the expense metric measures the monetary cost of link utilization.C. The delay metric measures transit delay. The metric is arbitrary and typically is assigned by a network administrator. Bandwidth F. IS-IS also defines three optional metrics (costs): delay. Delay C. The Cisco implementation uses cost only. and error are optional metrics. Delay. Hops G.shtml -------------------------------------- . IS-IS uses a single required default metric with a maximum path value of 1024.cisco. Cost. and the error metric measures the residual error probability associated with a link. Cost Answer: G Explanation: Explanation: The original IS-IS specification defines four different types of metrics. there would be a link-state database for each metric and SPF would be run for each link-state database. there would be a link-state database for each metric and SPF would be run for each link-state database. All routers support the default metric of cost. the expense metric measures the monetary cost of link utilization. Default D. expense. The Cisco implementation uses cost only. Cost B. Reference: http://www. and the error metric measures the residual error probability associated with a link. and error. being the default metric. Error E. expense. and error are optional metrics. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The original IS-IS specification defines four different types of metrics. ------------------------------------QUESTION 203: In the IS-IS routing protocol. Any single link can have a maximum value of 64.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK3 81/technologies_white_paper09186a00800a3e6f. expense. and path links are calculated by summing link values. is supported by all routers. If the optional metrics were implemented. The delay metric measures transit delay. Expense E. Delay. Maximum metric values were set at these levels to provide the granularity to support various link types while at the same time ensuring that the shortest-path algorithm used for route computation will be reasonably efficient.