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CCNP 642-901 QUESTION 01-10

QUESTION 1:

Certkiller uses EIGRP as the primary routing protocol in their network. How does EIGRP advertise subnet masks for each destination network?

A. EIGRP advertises a fixed length subnet mask for each destination network. B. EIGRP advertises only a classful subnet mask for each destination network. C. EIGRP, like IGRP and RIP, does not advertise a subnet mask for each destination network. D. EIGRP advertises a prefix length for each destination network. E. None of the above

Answer: D

Explanation: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco-proprietary routing protocol based on IGRP. Unlike IGRP, which is a classful routing protocol, EIGRP supports CIDR, allowing network designers to maximize address space by using CIDR and VLSM. Compared to IGRP, EIGRP boasts faster convergence times, improved scalability, and superior handling of routing loops. The prefix length field signifies the subnet mask to be associated with the network number specified in the destination field. Thus, if an EIGRP router is configured as follows: 1. ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0 it will advertise 172.16.1.0 with a prefix length of 24. Likewise, if the router is configured as follows:

1. ip address 172.16.250.1 255.255.255.252 it will advertise 172.16.250.0 with a prefix length of 30.

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QUESTION 2:

The Certkiller network uses EIGRP. Identify three characteristics of EIGRP feasible successors? (Select three)

A. Traffic will be load balanced between feasible successors with the same advertised distance. B. If the advertised distance of the non-successor route is less than the feasible distance of best route, then that route is identified as a feasible successor. C. If the successor becomes unavailable, then the feasible successor can be used immediately without recalculating for a lost route. D. The feasible successor can be found in the routing table. E. A feasible successor is selected by comparing the advertised distance of a non-successor route to the feasible distance of the best route.

Answer: B, C, E Explanation: Once a neighbor relationship has been formed, called an Adjacency, the routers exchange routing update information and each router builds its own topology table. The Updates contain all the routes known by the sender. For each route, the receiving router calculates a distance for that route based on the distance that is conveyed and the cost to that neighbor that advertised the particular route. If the receiving router sees several routes to a particular network with different metrics, then the route with the lowest metric becomes the Feasible Distance (FD) to

that network. The Feasible Distance is the metric of a network advertised by the connected neighbor plus the cost of reaching that neighbor. This path with the best metric is entered into the routing table because this is the quickest way to get to that network. With the other possible routes to a particular network with larger metrics, the receiving router also receives the Reported Distance (RD) to this network via other routers. The Reported Distance being the total metric along a path to a destination network as advertised by an upstream neighbor. The Reported Distance for a particular route is compared with the Feasible Distance that it already has for that route. If the Reported Distance is larger than the Feasible Distance then this route is not entered into the Topology Table as a Feasible Successor. This prevents loops from occurring. If the Reported Distance is smaller than the Feasible Distance, then this path is considered to be a Feasible Successor and is entered into the Topology table. The Successor for a particular route is the neighbor/peer with the lowest metric/distance to that network. If the receiving router has a Feasible Distance to a particular network and it receives an update from a neighbor with a lower advertised distance (Reported Distance) to that network, then there is a Feasibility Condition. In this instance, the neighbor becomes a Feasible Successor for that route because it is one hop closer to the destination network. There may be a number of Feasible Successors in a meshed network environment, up to 6 of them are entered into the Topology table thereby giving a number of next hop choices for the local router should the neighbor with the lowest metric fail. What you should note here, is that the metric for a neighbor to reach a particular network (i.e. the Reported Distance) must always be less than the metric (Feasible Distance) for the local router to reach that same network. This way routing loops are avoided. This is why routes that have Reported Distances larger than the Feasible Distance are not entered into the Topology table, so that they can never be considered as successors, since the route is likely to loop back through that local router. Incorrect Answers:

D: The feasible successors are found in the topology table, but not the active routing table. E: With EIGRP, traffic is load balanced across equal cost links in the routing table, but not between feasible successors. Reference: http://www.rhyshaden.com/eigrp.htm

------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 3:

Two Certkiller EIGRP routers are attempting to establish themselves as neighbors. Which EIGRP multicast packet type is responsible for neighbor discovery?

A. Update B. Query C. Acknowledgment D. Reply E. Hello F. None of the above

Answer: E

Explanation: Remember that simple distance vector routers do not establish any relationship with their neighbors. RIP and IGRP routers merely broadcast or multicast updates on configured interfaces. In contrast, EIGRP routers actively establish relationships with their neighbors, much the same way that OSPF routers do. EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. Hellos are sent by default every five seconds. An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is

receiving hello packets from known neighbors. Hellos are sent by default every five seconds. By forming adjacencies. C. EIGRP routers do the following: 1. D Explanation: EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. EIGRP attempts to maintain a successor and feasible successor path for each destination. Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network 2. those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable. D. Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable 3. EIGRP performs auto-summarization across classful network boundaries. . By default. B. Answer: B. Rediscover routers that had previously been unreachable --------------------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 4: Certkiller has chosen to use EIGRP for their network routing protocol. EIGRP uses the Dijkstra algorithm to determine the best path to a destination network based on bandwidth and delay. those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable. C. EIGRP uses an area hierarchy to increase network scalability. An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is receiving hello packets from known neighbors. EIGRP uses hellos to establish neighbor relationships. By default. To speed convergence. Which three statements are true regarding EIGRP? (Select three) A. E.

Multiple successors for a destination can be retained in the routing table. Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network 2. but are kept in the topology table. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. In most cases. Rediscover routers that had previously been unreachable EIGRP routers keep route and topology information readily available in RAM so they can react quickly to changes. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. EIGRP keeps this information in several tables. Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained in the topology table. Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified. EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary.A feasible successor is a backup route. * Feasible successor . use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary --------------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 5: You need to configure EIGRP on all routers within the Certkiller network. auto summarization is a good thing.By forming adjacencies. EIGRP routers do the following: 1. * Successor . Like OSPF. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing.A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination. or databases. To turn off auto-summarization. Which two statements are characteristics of the routing protocol EIGRP? (Select two) . Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable 3.

B. those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable. Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network 2. Updates are sent as broadcast.The Power ------------------------------------------------------------- . LSAs are sent to adjacent neighbors. C. D. Answer: B. Metric values are represented in a 32-bit format for granularity. D Explanation: EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. Updates are sent as multicast.A. Hellos are sent by default every five seconds. Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable Actualtests. By forming adjacencies. An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is receiving hello packets from known neighbors. EIGRP routers do the following: 1.com .

E. E Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. The summary address is assigned an administrative distance of 10 by default. C. B. To turn off auto-summarization. The summary address is entered into the routing table and is shown to be sourced from the Null0 interface. auto-summarization is automatically disabled by default. Manual summaries can be configured with the classful mask only. In most cases. Which two statements are true about EIGRP manual summarization? (Select two) A. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks.QUESTION 6: You have been tasked with setting up summarization in the Certkiller EIGRP network. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. When manual summarization is configured. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. auto summarization is a good thing. Answer: A. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary . Manual summarization is configured on a per interface basis. D.

. Only remote routers are configured as stubs. C. F. Null0 Notice that the summary route is sourced from Null0. 00:00:22. A hub router prevents routes from being advertised to the remote router.EIGRP also enables manual configuration of a prefix to use as a summary address. The interface that will propagate the route summary must first be selected and then defined with the ip summary-address eigrp command. ------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 7: Router CK1 4 is configured as an EIGRP stub router. E. and not an actual interface. which has the following syntax: Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance D 2. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis.0/16 is a summary. Spoke routers connected to hub routers answer the route queries for the stub router.1. D.0. A stub router should have only EIGRP hub routers as neighbors. EIGRP stub routing should be used on hub routers only. What are three key concepts that apply when configuring the EIGRP stub routing feature in a hub and spoke network? (Select three) A. Stub routers are not queried for routes. B.

Answer: A. so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios120/120newft/120limit/120s/120 s15/eigrpstb. The router responds to queries for summaries. reduces resource utilization. and simplifies stub router configuration. In a hub and spoke network. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. redistributed static routes. the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). and to configure only the remote router as a stub. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. C. Often. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. Generally. F Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability. connected routes. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. More on: http://www. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. In a hub and spoke topology. . and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. external routes.cisco.

Configuring route filters C. Establishing separate autonomous systems D. Route summarization E. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme B.------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 8: You want to reduce the amount of EIGRP traffic across low speed links in the Certkiller network. In most cases. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work . auto summarization is a good thing. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. Which is the most effective technique to contain EIGRP queries? A.

use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary EIGRP also enables manual configuration of a prefix to use as a summary address.properly. Hold time F. which has the following syntax: Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance ------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 9: Routers CK1 and CK2 have formed an EIGRP neighbor relationship. K values B. Autonomous system D. C . Bandwidth Answer: A. To turn off auto-summarization. which two values must match? (Select two) A. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis. Hello time E. The interface that will propagate the route summary must first be selected and then defined with the ip summary-address eigrp command. Delay C. In order for two routers to become EIGRP neighbors.

EIGRP scales the IGRP metric by a factor of 256. which is slightly less than the 255 limit for IGRP. By multiplying or dividing by 256. and IGRP uses a 24-bit metric. this is more than enough to support most of the largest internetworks. EIGRP uses a different metric calculation and hop-count limitation. Which three statements are true about EIGRP operation? (Select three) . That is because EIGRP uses a metric that is 32-bits long.Explanation: Despite being compatible with IGRP. However. EIGRP also imposes a maximum hop limit of 224. To become the neighbor K value should be matched and should belongs to same AS. EIGRP can easily exchange information with IGRP. --------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 10: Certkiller uses EIGRP as their internal routing protocol.

D. D. E. even if there are no more specific routes to the network. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. C. which has the following syntax: Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance . In most cases. B. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. auto summarization is a good thing.A. The summary route remains in the route table. The maximum metric for the specific routes is used as the metric for the summary route. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary EIGRP also enables manual configuration of a prefix to use as a summary address. the router will also create a route to null 0. E Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. Summarization is configured on a per-interface level. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. The interface that will propagate the route summary must first be selected and then defined with the ip summary-address eigrp command. When summarization is configured. Answer: B. Automatic summarization across major network boundaries is enabled by default. To turn off auto-summarization.

Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained in the topology table. What action does an EIGRP router take when it cannot find a feasible successor for a network? A. It examines the topology table for a next best path. It transitions from passive to active state for that network and queries its neighbors.CCNP 642-901 QUESTION 11-20 QUESTION 11: A link failure in the Certkiller network has caused the EIGRP routers to update their routing tables. but are kept in the topology table. What administrative distance is given to EIGRP summary routes? A. D. It transitions from active to passive state for that network and queries its neighbors. E. 1 . None of the above Answer: B Explanation: * Successor . C. It examines the routing and neighbor tables for the next best path. B. * Feasible successor . Successors are the entries kept in the routing table.A feasible successor is a backup route. ------------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 12: EIGRP performs automatic summarization at network boundaries. Multiple successors for a destination can be retained in the routing table. These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified.A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination.

auto summarization is a good thing. To turn off auto-summarization. 0 E. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary .B. 90 C. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. In most cases. 95 D. None of the above Answer: E Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. 255 H. 5 F. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. 170 G.

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QUESTION 13:

You need to alter the metrics of certain EIGRP routes in the Certkiller network. Which two parameters are used by default to compute the EIGRP metric? (Select two)

A. MTU B. bandwidth C. delay D. reliability E. load F. Interface up time

Answer: B, C

Explanation:

Metrics are the mathematics used to select a route. The higher the metric associated with a route, the less desirable it is. For EIGRP, the Bellman-Ford algorithm uses the following equation and creates the overall 24-bit metric assigned to a route: * metric = [(K1 bandwidth) + [(K2 bandwidth) ÷ (256 - load)] + (K3 delay)] [K5 ÷ (reliability + K4)] The elements in this equation are as follows: * By default, K1 = K3 = 1, K2 = K4 = K5 = 0. Therefore, by default, the metric formula reduces to: metric = (1 bandwidth) + (1 delay) metric = bandwidth + delay

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QUESTION 14:

The Certkiller network is using EIGRP as the network routing protocol. Which of the following statements correctly describe features and characteristics of routing using EIGRP? (Select three)

A. It sends periodic updates every 60 seconds. B. EIGRP uses DUAL to achieve rapid convergence. C. Adjacencies exist between master routers (MRs) in each domain. D. It uses multicast to discover other EIGRP routers on an internetwork. E. EIGRP provides support for multiple network layer protocols: IPX, AppleTalk, and IP.

Answer: B, D, E

Explanation: B: Enhanced IGRP uses the Diffusing Update based algorithm (DUAL).

D: EIGRP use hello multicast packets for neighbor discovery/recovery. E: EIGRP supports IPX, Appletalk, and IP. Separate EIGRP instances can be created for each routed protocol. Incorrect Answers: A: EIGRP use triggered updates, not periodic updates. C: Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. However, there is no concept of master routers in EIGRP. Reference: "Introduction to Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP)" http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/459/7.html

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QUESTION 15:

While comparing the tables associated with EIGRP and OSPF, you notice some similarities. Which EIGRP table is similar to OSPF's Link State Adjacency table?

A. Neighbor table B. Routing table C. Topology table D. Successor table E. None of the above

Answer: A

Explanation: Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. This table is comparable to the neighbors (adjacency) database used by OSPF.

Incorrect Answers: B: The routing table of EIGRP would compare to the routing table of OSPF C: Both EIGRP and OSPF contain topology tables, which would compare to each other. D: EIGRP does not have a successor table. Successors are maintained in the routing and topology tables of EIGRP. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 250

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QUESTION 16:

DRAG DROP

Explanation: .lists adjacent routers Topology Table . Successor .primary route used to reach a destination Routing table .route entries for all destinations.best routes to a destination Feasible successor .Explanation: Neighbor table .backup route to the destination.

Successors are kept in the routing table. In other words.* Neighbor Table .This is the primary route used to reach a destination.Each EIGRP router maintains a neighbor table that lists adjacent routers. * Routing Table . Hello . All learned routes to a destination are maintained in the topology table. Which three of the following terms are known as 'reliable packets' in EIGRP? (Select three) A. but are kept in the topology table.This is a neighbor that is downstream with respect to the destination. this is a backup route to the destination.EIGRP choose the best routes to a destination from the topology table and places these routes in the routing table. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 250 ---------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 17: Different types of EIGRP transmissions are sent between neighboring routers. but it is not the least-cost path and thus is not used for forwarding data. IPX. * Topology Table . This table is comparable to the neighbors (adjacency) database used by OSPF. These routes are selected at the same time as successors.An EIGRP router maintains a topology table for each network protocol configured: IP. * Successor . and AppleTalk. The router maintains one routing table for each network protocol. * Feasible Successor .

updates are multicast. Queries are always multicast unless they are sent in response to a received query. D. ACK C. B: Hellos are multicast for neighbor discovery/recovery. Replies are always sent in response to queries to indicate to the originator that it does not need to go into Active state because it has feasible successors. Both queries and replies are transmitted reliably. Updates are always transmitted reliably. In this case. Update Answer: C. Queries and replies are sent when destinations go into Active state. Query E. EIGRP unreliable packets are: Hello and Ack. A hello with no data is also used as an acknowledgment (ack). Incorrect Answers: A. it is unicast back to the successor that originated the query. E Explanation: Updates are used to convey the reachability of destinations. pages 6-18.0 study guide. Replies are unicast to the originator of the query. Query and Reply. In other cases. In this case. They do not require acknowledgment.B. When a new neighbor is discovered. Reference: Cisco BSCN version 1. ---------------------------------------------------- . Acks are always sent using a unicast address and contain a non-zero acknowledgment number. EIGRP reliable packets are: Update. update packets are sent so the neighbor can build up its topology table. update packets are unicast. such as a link cost change. Reply D.

not classful. C.QUESTION 18: Which one of the following statements best describes the way EIGRP advertises subnet mask information to its destination networks? A. Incorrect Answers: B: This is incorrect because EIGRP supports Variable Length subnet masks. EIGRP. D. -------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 19: EIGRP was designed specifically not to use excessive bandwidth for routing updates and . D: EIGRP is more sophisticated then IGRP and RIP and actually does advertise a subnet mask to each destination network. EIGRP advertises a fixed length subnet mask for each destination network. and EIGRP can also be configured to summarize on any bit boundary at any interface. does not advertise a subnet mask for each destination network. C: This is incorrect because EIGRP is considered to be a classless protocol. Answer: A Explanation: EIGRP advertises a prefix length to each destination network. like IGRP and RIP. EIGRP advertises a prefix length for each destination network. B. It supports VLSM which allows subnet masks to be automatically summarized at the network boundary. EIGRP advertises only a classful subnet mask for each destination network.

EIGRP will limit itself to using no more than 50% of the available bandwidth. The maximum bandwidth that can be used is a configurable parameter.com/warp/public/103/12.functions across WAN links. http://www. If EIGRP is configured on an interface. by default? Answer: C Explanation: By default. Configuration Notes for the Enhanced Implementation of EIGRP. what is the maximum percent of its bandwidth EIGRP would use.html -----------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 20: .cisco. Reference: Cisco.

In backbone area routers.EIGRP supports Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM). It advertises a routing mask B. C Explanation: EIGRP includes the routing mask when it advertises routes. Incorrect Answers B: Classful routing protocols do not support VLSM. Where in an EIGRP network is it most appropriate to implement route summarization? A. D: The subnet mask must be included in the route to support VLSM. Answer: A. It does not advertise a routing mask. Manually at any interface of any EIGRP router within the network E. EIGRP is a classless protocol. . It is a classful routing protocol C. meaning that is does not solely rely on the network class in order to find the subnet mask. Subnet mask information must be included in all routing updates for classless protocols. At area border routers B. summarization is being configured on all routers. It is done automatically by the DR router in each area D. These two features enable EIGRP to support VLSM. Which two features of EGIRP are true regarding EIGRP support for VLSM? (Select two) A. -------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 21: In an effort to decrease the size of the routing tables in the Certkiller network. At autonomous system boundary routers C. It is a classless routing protocol D.

Dynamically at discontiguous interfaces. B. Dynamically at major network boundaries. but not in EIGRP. However. done properly this is an acceptable practice. Backbone area routers are also concepts used in OSPF. which of the following describes the best method for implementing summarization? A. C. but this is not the preferred solution. If the question calls for more than one answer then the best choice would be B and D. At WAN interfaces. E: Area Border Router and DR are used in OSPF. Automatic route summarization occurs at major network boundaries. In an EIGRP network. Answer: D Explanation: . Summarizing manually at each router can result in black hole routing. Incorrect Answers A. D. -------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 22: The Certkiller network is using route summarization to decrease the size of the routing tables. but not in EIGRP. Manually at major network boundaries. C. ASBRs (autonomous system boundary routers) are used at the major network boundaries. D: Manual summarization can be done in any interface at any router within network.Answer: B Explanation: Enhanced IGRP performs route summarization at classful network boundaries by default.

If the routers belong to the same major network boundary then summarization should not be configured. making many networks unreachable. Incorrect Answers A: Manually configuring summarization at WAN boundaries is not necessarily recommended in all situations. 60 seconds C. --------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 23: The Certkiller network is running EIGRP on the T1 links within their NBMA frame relay network. Incorrect Answers: . 30 seconds B. C: Route summarization should only be applied at contiguous interfaces. and it is recommended to keep the defaults.EIGRP supports arbitrary route summarization. In this scenario. Route summarization takes place automatically at major network boundaries (where network are supernetted). B: Route summarization is automatic in EIGRP. hold time will be 180 seconds. 180 seconds E. Choosing this option would most likely lead to black hole routing. 90 seconds D. The hold time is typically three times the hello interval. on slow NBMA media. Note: Route summarization is the consolidation of advertised addresses. 5 Seconds Answer: D Explanation: EIGRP sends hello packets every 5 seconds on high bandwidth links and every 60 seconds on low bandwidth multipoint links. By default what would the hold time be for hello packets across these WAN links? A.

This is a classless routing protocol feature. periodic update announcements E. unequal path-cost load balancing Answer: B. such as Ethernet networks. E: This is the default for high bandwidth links. C Explanation: B: Discontiguous subnets are supported by EIGRP. This is a classless routing protocol feature. Update packets are sent so the neighbor can build up its. variable length subnet masks D. Reference: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol http://www.A. they are not the default time. not update announcements. When a new neighbor is discovered. however. B. Which two of the following features allow EIGRP to support classless routing? (Select two) A. D: EIGRP use periodic hello messages. . not the Djikstra's algorithm. discontiguous subnets C.com/warp/public/103/eigrp1. C: EIGRP support variable length subnet masks (VLSM).html ------------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 24: EIGRP is being used as the routing protocol within the Certkiller network. Djikstra's algorithm B. EIGRP use update packets to convey reachability of destinations. These are not periodic.cisco. EIGRP is considered to be a hybrid routing protocol. Incorrect Answers A: EIGRP use the DUAL algorithm. C: Although the hello timers can be manually configured for these values. The Djikstra algorithm is used by distance vector protocols.

E: IGRP and EIGRP support unequal cost path load balancing, which is known as variance. However, this is not a classless feature of EIGRP. Note: Classless routing protocols include the routing mask with the route advertisement. This enables discontiguous subnets and variable length subnet masks. Reference: Introduction to Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/1.html How Does Unequal Cost Path Load Balancing (Variance) Work in IGRP and EIGRP? http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/19.html

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QUESTION 25:

EIGRP is being used as the routing protocol on the Certkiller network. While troubleshooting some network connectivity issues, you notice a large number of EIGRP SIA (Stuck In Active) messages. What causes these SIA routes? (Select two)

A. The neighboring router stops receiving ACK packets from this router. B. The neighboring router starts receiving route updates from this router. C. The neighboring router is too busy to answer the query (generally caused by high CPU utilization). D. The neighboring router is having memory problems and cannot allocate the memory to process the query or build the reply packet.

Answer: C, D

Explanation: SIA routes are due to the fact that reply packets are not received. This could be caused by a router which is unable to send reply packets. The router could have reached the limit of its capacity, or it could be malfunctioning. Incorrect Answers

A: Missing replies, not missing ACKs, cause SIA. B: Routes updates do not cause SIA. Notes: If a router does not receive a reply to all outstanding queries within 3 minutes, the route goes to the stuck in active (SIA) state. The router then resets the neighbors that fail to reply by going active on all routes known through that neighbor, and it re-advertises all routes to that neighbor. Reference: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/eigrp3.html

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QUESTION 26:

EIGRP is being configured on the Certkiller network. After the initial configuration, the EIGRP routers form relationships with its peer routers. Which three of the following statements correctly describe these peer relationships? (Select three)

A. EIGRP will form neighbors if the routers are not adjacent B. EIGRP will not form neighbors if the metric K-values do not match. C. EIGRP will not form neighbors if the router AS numbers do not match. D. EIGRP will form neighbors over primary and secondary interface addressing. E. EIGRP will form neighbors even though hello and hold timers do not match on the peering interfaces.

Answer: B, C, E

Explanation: B: To become neighbors the routers metric must be comparable. C: EIGRP neighbors must have the same AS number. E: It is possible for two routers to become EIGRP neighbors even though the hello and hold timers don't match.

Incorrect Answers: A: Neighbor discovery/recovery is the process that routers use to dynamically learn of other routers on their directly attached networks. D: EIGRP doesn't build peer relationships over secondary addresses. Reference: Cisco White Paper, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/eigrp1.html

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QUESTION 27:

The Certkiller network is an EIGRP network consisting of four links (Link A, Link B, Link C, & Link D). The costs associated with each link is A=1, B=3, C=2, D=4. According to the variables below, which link is going to be the feasible successor?

A. Link A B. Link B C. Link C D. Link D

Answer: C

Explanation: Link A is the best link and it therefore the successor. Link C is the next best link, and it is therefore the feasible successor. Incorrect Answers A: Link A is the successor, not the feasible successor. B: Both Link A and Link C are better than Link B. D: The feasible successor must have Advertised Destination that is less than the Feasible Distance. Note: Feasible distance is the best metric along a path to a destination network, including the

metric to the neighbor advertising that path. Reported distance, or advertised distance, is the total metric along a path to a destination network as advertised by an upstream neighbor. A feasible successor is a path whose reported distance is less than the feasible distance. Reference: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/103/eigrp1.html

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QUESTION 28:

Part of the routing table of router CK1 is displayed below: S 62.99.153.0/24 [1/0] via 209.177.64.130 172.209.12.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets D EX 172.209.1 [170/2590720] via 209.179.2.114, 06:47:28, Serial0/0/0.1239 62.113.17.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks D EX 99.3.215.0/24 [170/27316] via 209.180.96.45, 09:52:10, FastEthernet11/0/0 [170/27316] via 209.180.96.44, 09:52:10, FastEthernet11/0/0 25.248.17.0/24 [90/1512111] via 209.179.66.25, 10:33:13, Serial0/0/0.1400001 [90/1512111] via 209.179.66.41, 10:33:13, Serial0/0/0.1402001 62.113.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 12 subnets, 2 masks D 62.113.1.227/32 [90/2611727] via 209.180.96.45, 10:33:13, FastEthernet1/0/0 [90/2611727] via 209.180.96.44, 10:33:13, FastEthernet1/0/0 S* 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 209.180.96.14 From analyzing the above command output, what is the administrative distance of the external EIGRP routes?

A. 24 B. 32 C. 90 D. 170 E. 27316

com/warp/public/105/admin_distance. B: This is the subnet mask used for some of the routes in the table. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: By default an external EIGRP route has a value of 170.html -------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 29: . so with a value of [170/27316] the AD is 170 and the metric of the route is 27316. By examining the exhibit we see that this default value of the external EIGRP routes (see D-EX in exhibit) indeed is set to 170. The first value within the brackets display the AD. Incorrect Answers: A. Reference: What Is Administrative Distance? http://www.cisco. C: This is the AD of the internal EIGRP routes.F. which is the default E: This is the EIGRP metric of the external EIGRP routes.

1 255.0 network 172.255. It will show up in the routing table as D EX 10.29.255.19. what will the CK1 loopback 0 be in the CK3 routing table? A. Answer: B Explanation: Because router CK1 is configured with route redistribution. it would be redistributed because it is a connected route. C: It will be external because of redistribution.3 255.255.29.0 auto-summary no eigrp log-neighbor-changes ! ip classless ip http server With the topology found in the graphic. choice B is correct.2 255.0.0.0/8 in the routing table of the other routers.1.0. It will show up in the routing table as D 10.0. it will redistribute the connected loopback network into EIGRP.255.0. B.29. It will not show up in CK3 routing table because there is no network command on CK1 .255.CK1 # show run interface Loopback0 ip address 10.1.1 255./24.2.0/8. .2 255. Although the loopback interface is using a /24 subnet mask.19. D: Although it was not configured under the EIGRP network command.0.0.0.29. D. and it will also be summarized since that is the default behavior of EIGRP.10. Because redistributed routes will show up as external EIGRP routes in the routing table. Incorrect Answers: A: The route will be external.10.0 auto-summary no eigrp logneighgbor-changes ! ip classless no ip http server CK2 # show run interface Ethernet0 ip address 172.0.0 ! router eigrp 100 network 172.255.255.0/8. EIGRP summarizes at network boundaries by default so the network will appear as the class A network of 10.2.0. C. It will show up in the routing table as D 10.19.0. since it was redistributed into EIGRP.0 media-type 10BaseT !! router eigrp 100 redistribute connected network 172.255.19.0 ! ip classless no ip http server CK3 # show run interface Ethernet1/0 ip address 172.0 media-type 10BaseT ! router eigrp 100 network 172.255.0 media-type 10BaseT ! interface Ethernet1 ip address 172.255.0 ! interface Ethernet0 ip address 172.

as each router is perceived as a peer to every other EIGRP router. -------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 31: . IS-IS and OSPF utilize hierarchical network topologies. triggered updates are sent to update the network regarding the topology change. Answer: A.--------------------------------------------- QUESTION 30: EIGRP has been configured as the routing protocol on the Certkiller network. B. By default. E. D. EIGRP attempts to maintain a successor and feasible successor path for each destination. E: The Dijkstra algorithm is used by link state routing protocols. This information is useful in the convergence time whenever any of the links fail. Incorrect Answers: B: EIGRP networks are inherently flat. EIGRP uses the Dijkstra algorithm to determine the best path to destination network based on bandwidth and delay. EIGRP is considered to be a hybrid routing protocol. EIGRP neighbors periodically use hellos to establish the relationship. C. EIGRP uses hellos to establish neighbor relationships. EIGRP uses an area hierarchy to increase network scalability C. Should any of the neighbors fail. EIGRP routers maintain information regarding the successors and the feasible successors to each network destination. EIGRP performs auto-summarization across classful network boundaries. To speed convergence. By default. D Explanation: The default behavior of EIGRP routers is to automatically summarize routes at the network boundary. Which statements are true regarding EIGRP? (Choose three) A.

128 kbps C. 5 D. 1. 64 kbps B. 1.536 Mbps Answer: A Explanation: By default in point-to-multipoint Frame Relay EIGRP network all subinterfaces share the bandwidth and each one receives (throughput of the channel)/(number of subinterfaces) throughput. In this case. 1 C. What is the bandwidth of each Frame Relay connection perceived by the EIGRP process? A. --------------------------------------- QUESTION 32: What administrative distance is given to EIGRP summary routes? A.Router Certkiller 1 is the headquarters router in a hub and spoke topology supporting 24 remote offices. There is no bandwidth command configured under either the major serial interface or the subinterface on router Certkiller 1.544 Mbps D. 0 B. 90 . Point-to-multipoint Frame Relay EIGRP network is deployed between the headquarters and the remote offices. the formula is 1544kbps/24 =64kbps.

The summary route remains in the route table. the router will add a route to null 0 B. 95 F. When summarization is configured. Automatic summarization across major network boundaries is enabled by default. The maximum metric for the specific routes is used as the metric for the summary route. C. D. . E. even if there are no more specific routes to the network.E. Summarization is configured on a per-interface level. 170 Answer: C --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 33: Which of the following statements are true about EIGRP operation? (Choose three) A.

the summary route will also be deleted. instead. Cisco routers will automatically summarize EIGRP routes across major network boundaries. this traffic will be sent to the null0 interface where it is dropped. C. Incorrect Answers: B: When all of the specific routes used within a summary route are deleted from the routing table. Caution should be taken when using this as a default route. By default. You can configure a summary aggregate address for a specified interface.Answer: A. ---------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 34: What action does an EIGRP router take when it cannot find a feasible successor for a network? . E Explanation: Using the ip summary-address eigrp summarization command will causes the creation of an EIGRP summary default route to the null0 interface with an administrative distance of 5. all traffic destined for the default route will not leave the router. If there are any more specific routes in the routing table. or if the summary route is the only default route present. With EIGRP. D: The metric used in a summary route is the best metric from among the summarized routes. The low administrative distance of this default route can cause this route to displace default routes learned from other neighbors from the routing table. If the default route learned from the neighbors is displaced by the summary default route. not the maximum (worst). EIGRP will advertise the summary address out the interface with a metric equal to the minimum of all more specific routes.

If there are always feasible successors. a route goes into Active state and a route recomputation occurs.A. Answer: B Explanation: With EIGRP. The route is in Active state when a router is undergoing a route recomputation. A topology table entry for a destination can have one of two states. A route recomputation commences with a router sending a query packet to all neighbors. Neighboring routers can either reply if they have feasible successors for the destination or optionally return a query indicating that they are performing a route recomputation. Once all replies are received for a given query. When there are no feasible successors. While in Active state. --------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 35: The Certkiller EIGRP network is displayed in the following topology diagram: . a router cannot change the next-hop neighbor it is using to forward packets. It examines the routing and neighbor tables for the next best path. It examines the topology for a next best path. A route is considered in the Passive state when a router is not performing a route recomputation. C. It transitions from active to passive state for the next network and queries its neighbors. It transitions from passive to active state for that network and queries its neighbors. a route never has to go into Active state and avoids a route recomputation. the destination can transition to Passive state and a new successor can be selected. B. D.

Certkiller 1.Certkiller 3. Certkiller 5. which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic from Certkiller 5 to network X? A. Answer: B Explanation: In this question the variance 3 command is used. not answer C. Certkiller 5. 10*3 = 30 meaning we can use all routes with a metric of 30 and under which is answer B(5-2-1 and 5-31).Certkiller 1. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 3. C. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1.Certkiller 2. and Certkiller 5Certkiller 4. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1.Certkiller 3. ---------------------------------------------------- .Certkiller 4. D.Certkiller 1.Certkiller 2. Study the exhibits carefully. Since the lowest metric is 10.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 2.com.Certkiller 1 B. If the command "variance 3" was added to the EIGRP configuration of Certkiller 5.You work as a network technician at Certkiller .

The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router.QUESTION 36: What is the purpose of the "eigrp stub" configuration command? A. To reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to also perform query requests to the EIGRP hub router. B. and simplifies stub router configuration. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability. To increase scalability by limiting the EIGRP query range. Answer: A Explanation: Complex. C. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. D. To reduce the size of the routing table by blocking the D EX (External EIGRP) routes in the EIGRP stub router. The best solution to this is to provide a means within the context of the EIGRP protocol itself to control traffic flows and limit query depth. The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. reduces resource utilization.0(7)T can achieve this solution. In a hub and spoke network. redundant EIGRP networks can cause scalability problems. TheEIGRP Stub Router functionality in Cisco IOS Software Release 12. The distribution router can be . To reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to propagate the EIGRP queries from the EIGRP hub router. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology.

Generally. and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer. the remote router must forward all non local traffic to a distribution router. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes. and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. Often. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. and to configure only the remote router as a stub. to increase scalability by limiting the EIGRP query range. Reference: http://www. . the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087026.html --------------------------------------------------QUESTION 37: The Certkiller network administrator has issued the "EIGRP stub" command on router CK8 . The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers. to reduce the size of the routing table by blocking the D EX (External EIGRP) routes into the EIGRP stub router.connected to many more remote routers. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. redistributed static routes. external routes. to reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to propagate the EIGRP queries from the EIGRP hub router.cisco. connected routes. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. B." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. The router responds to queries for summaries. In a hub and spoke topology. C. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. What is the purpose of the "EIGRP stub" configuration command? A.

Often. connected routes. redistributed static routes. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. In a hub and spoke topology. E. and simplifies stub router configuration. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router . external routes. Answer: B Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability. the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. to reduce the convergence time by enabling the EIGRP stub router to also perform query requests to the EIGRP hub router. so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. and to configure only the remote router as a stub.D. the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). The router responds to queries for summaries. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. Generally. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. In a hub and spoke network. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. reduces resource utilization. The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. None of the above.

-------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 38: Router CK1 is an EIGRP router terminating a low speed circuit. . Router(config-router)# eigrp stub [receive-only connected static summary] :Configures a remote router as an EIGRP stub router. indicates the intended bandwidth in kilobits per second. If the bandwidth setting is not changed for these interfaces EIGRP assumes the default bandwidth on the link instead of the true bandwidth. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers. Router(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits The value. or suboptimal path selection may result. bandwidth 56000 B. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: When configuring serial links using EIGRP it is important to configure the bandwidth setting on the interface. and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer. the router may not be able to converge. set the bandwidth to the line speed. If the link is slower. When configuring EIGRP to run across a 56 Kbps serial PPP link. what command do you need to put under the serial interface to ensure proper convergence of EIGRP routes? A. kilobits. bandwidth 56 C. ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 56 D. routing updates might become lost. For generic serial interfaces.for any routes. such as PPP or HDLC. ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 56000 E.

and simplifies stub router configuration. Stub C. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. In a hub and spoke topology. Often. Connected F. The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers.0.-------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 39: Router CK1 is configured as shown below: router eigrp 100 network 10. which two types of routes will be advertised? (Select two) A.0. the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. Receive-only B. Dynamic Answer: D. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router.0 eigrp stub Based on the information shown above. In a hub and spoke network. Summary E. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. reduces resource utilization. so it . E Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability. Static D. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology.

ip eigrp routing D. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. connected routes. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. Generally. external routes. and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer. Which command should you issue first to configure EIGRP for IP? A. and to configure only the remote router as a stub. router eigrp process-id E. redistributed static routes. router eigrp autonomous-system-number B. and internal routes with the message "inaccessible.becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. Router(config-router)# eigrp stub [receive-only connected static summary] :Configures a remote router as an EIGRP stub router. --------------------------------------------------QUESTION 40: You need to configure EIGRP on a new Certkiller router. The router responds to queries for summaries." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. ip eigrp autonomous-system-number C. None of the above Answer: A . When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature.

What must the administrator do to ensure all of the Certkiller routers have the correct routing information? A. E. The administrator must specify a default network with the command "ip defaultnetwork" D. The administrator must disable automatic summarization with the command "no autosummary" C. ----------------------------------------------------QUESTION 41: A Certkiller network administrator is troubleshooting an EIGRP configuration across a discontiguous network. configuring EIGRP can be relatively simple. The administrator must enable manual summarization with the command "ip summary- . This section covers configuration commands for each of these routed protocols. Router(config-router)#network network-number The network-number determines which interfaces of the router are participating in EIGRP and which networks are advertised by the router. This value must match all routers within the internetwork.Explanation: Despite the complexity of DUAL. Indicate which networks belong to the EIGRP autonomous system on the local router. Nothing. 2. or AppleTalk. It is used to indicate all routers that belong within the internetwork. Use the following to enable EIGRP and define the autonomous system. Perform the following steps to configure EIGRP for IP: 1. The administrator must enable classless routing with the command "ip classless" B. Router(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system-number The autonomous-system-number is the number that identifies the autonomous system. in addition to special controls for IPX SAP. EIGRP supports discontiguous networks by default. IPX. EIGRP configuration commands vary depending on the protocol that is to be routed. An example is IP.

In most cases. which resides on the Certkiller 1 LAN? . To turn off auto-summarization. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary.address" F. which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic to network X. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. auto summarization is a good thing. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary ------------------------------------------ QUESTION 42: The Certkiller EIGRP network is shown below: If the command "variance 3" were added to Certkiller 5.

Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing.Certkiller 2. Certkiller 5. In addition.Certkiller 4. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 1. ip auto-summary eigrp as-number address mask .Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 2. ip summary-address as-number address mask C. proportionately. ip auto-summary as-number address mask D. -------------------------------------------QUESTION 43: You need to configure route summarization on a Certkiller EIGRP router.Certkiller 1 D.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 3. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 2.Certkiller 1 E.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5Certkiller 4.A. with respect to the metric.Certkiller 1 B. ip summary-route eigrp as-number address mask B. Certkiller 5.Certkiller 3. The default is 1. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. which means equal cost load balancing. Use the variance n command in order to instruct the router to include routes with a metric of less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs. Which is the correct command format to configure EIGRP summary route? A.Certkiller 1 C.

None of the above Answer: E Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. The interface that will propagate the route summary must first be selected and then defined with the ip summary-address eigrp command. auto summarization is a good thing. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. To turn off auto-summarization. which has the following syntax: Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number ip-address mask administrative-distance ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 44: .E. ip summary-address eigrp as-number address mask F. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. In most cases. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary EIGRP also enables manual configuration of a prefix to use as a summary address. Manual summary routes are configured on a per-interface basis.

To turn off auto-summarization. F. In most cases.0/24 and 10.0/24 subnet respectively.A. B. auto summarization is a good thing. automatic summarization must be disabled for routing to work properly. Use the "passive interface" command between the Certkiller 3 and Certkiller 1 connection and between the Certkiller 3 and Certkiller 2 connection.2. Answer: A Explanation: EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at the classful boundary. D.1. use the following command: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary . Use the "variance" command on Certkiller 3.1. C. E. Use the EIGRP "no auto-summary" command on Certkiller 3 and Certkiller 4. keeping the routing tables as compact as possible In the presence of discontiguous subnetworks. Use the EIGRP "no auto-summary" command on Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2.1. the boundary where the network address ends as defined by class-based addressing. None of the above. Use the "passive interface" on the Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 interface that connects to the 10.

Certkiller 2.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 3. Interior Gateway . Only Certkiller 5. Both Certkiller 5. What path will Router Certkiller 5 take to reach Router Certkiller 1? A.Certkiller 4. Both Certkiller 5.Certkiller 2.Certkiller 1 G.Certkiller 2.Certkiller 1 D.Certkiller 4. None of the above Answer: F Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. E. Only Certkiller 5. router Certkiller 5 is configured with the EIGRP "variance 2" command.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1 B.Certkiller 1 F. In addition.CertK in1 and Certkiller 5.--------------------------------------- QUESTION 45: In this network. All available paths.Certkiller 1 C. Only Certkiller 5.

Use the variance n command in order to instruct the router to include routes with a metric of less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. Use the variance n command in order to instruct the router to include routes with a metric of less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. proportionately. Maximum-paths D. Variance B. The variable n can take a value between 1 . None of the above Answer: A Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. which means equal cost load balancing. Default-metric E.Routing Protocol (IGRP) and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 46: You want to enable load sharing across the Certkiller WAN using EIGRP. with respect to the metric. The default is 1. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs. Metric F. Distance C. Which configuration command is used to enable EIGRP unequal-cost path load balancing? A. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128. In addition.

proportionately. ip summary-address as-number address mask C. Which of the following commands below would you enter to configure the summary route you need? A. The default is 1. ip auto-summary eigrp as-number address mask D. You want to aggregate some of the routes. ip summary-address eigrp as-number address mask Answer: E Explanation: The ip summary-address eigrp command is used to configure a summary aggregate address for a specified interface. ip auto-summary as-number address mask B. Syntax: ip summary-address eigrp autonomous-system-number address mask Incorrect Answers: A. C. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 47: You are a network administrator on a Cisco router that's running EIGRP. which means equal cost load balancing. . ip summary-route eigrp as-number address mask E. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs.and 128. with respect to the metric. D: No such command exists using this syntax. B: We must specify the appropriate protocol with the eigrp keyword.

so 200 percent of this value is 112 kbps. The default is 50 percent. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: The bandwidth-percent command tells EIGRP what percentage of the configured bandwidth it may use. how many kbps of bandwidth is allocated for EIGRP traffic? A. it is set to 56 kbps even though the actual link is 256 kbps. 56 kbps B. 128 kbps D. Reference: . Since the bandwidth command is also used to set the routing protocol metric.------------------------------------------ QUESTION 48: Router CK1 has a 256kbps serial interface link to another Certkiller location. 112 kbps C. it may be set to a particular value for policy reasons. The bandwidth-percent command can have values greater than 100 if the bandwidth is configured artificially low due to such policy reasons. In this specific case. 256 kbps E. The configuration file of this interface is shown below: interface serial 0/0 bandwidth 56 ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 200 From the command output above. In this case. the bandwidth configured on the interface is 56kbps.

C. D. B. Certkiller 1 will place the route via Certkiller 4 into the hold down state. Certkiller 1 will go into the active state for all routers. how would Certkiller 1 react? A. Certkiller 1 will go into the active state for the route to Certkiller Main Office Network. E. Certkiller 1 will automatically route packets via Certkiller 4 to the Certkiller Main Office Network.shtml ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 49: routers Certkiller 2 and Certkiller 3 were to fail. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: .com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK2 07/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094063.cisco.http://www.

path 1. The Certkiller network has five paths from Router CK1 to a given destination. path 1. 2.Path 1: 1500 Path 2: 1500 Path 3: 2000 Path 4: 4000 Path 5: 4000 Variance 3 is configured on Router CK1 . Certkiller 1 must go into the active state first before routing around the failure via Certkiller 4. --------------------------------------------------QUESTION 50: You are the network engineer at Certkiller . path 1. 2. Certkiller 1 it checks the topology table for an alternate route then it sends a query to neighboring routers for other routes to the destination. 4. path 1. and 4 B. None of the above Answer: E . 2. 2. 3. The local EIGRP metric on Router CK1 for these paths are as follows: CK1 ----------------------------. In this case. Which paths would be included in Router CK1 's routing table? A. and 3 C. path 1. since both the optimal route and the feasible successor failed. The re-route will happen only after Certkiller 1 transitions into the active state and learns about the route through Certkiller 4. and 5 D. 2. 4 and 5 E.First. and 5 F.

Explanation: If the variance number is higher than the default 1.485. -------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 51: Which one of the following commands would configure EIGRP for IP on your Cisco router? A. routerCK(config-router)#network network-number Step 3 Define bandwidth of a link for the purposes of sending routing update traffic on the link. router eigrp autonomous-system-number E. Per the question this means: 1500*3=4500. . This step is optional. Topic: Load Balancing in EIGRP. the EIGRP process multiples the best (lowest) cost or metric value for a path by the number stated as the variance multiplier. routerCK(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system-number Step 2 Indicate which networks are part of the EIGRP autonomous system. routerCK(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits. All paths to the same destination that have metrics within this new range are now included in load balancing. router eigrp process-id C. ip eigrp routing B. ip eigrp autonomous-system-number D. Reference: Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam Certification Guide Third Edition P. All available options are within 1500-4500. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Perform the following steps to configure EIGRP for IP: Step1 Enable EIGRP and define the autonomous system.

Incorrect Answers: B: Number does not directly define a limit. The variance number command instructs the router to include routes with a metric less than or equal to number times the minimum metric route for that destination. It defines the limit for how far the metrics can be separated. It acts as a multiplier. C. Reference: http://www.cisco. It indicates how many paths can be used for unequal load balancing. It indicates how many paths can be used for load balancing. D. E. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. even though it defines a limit for the metrics. which is known as variance. D: Number does not directly indicate the number of paths that can be used. IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. C. This limit is used for unequal load balancing. Thus number is used as multiplier. what is the function of the number variable? A.html .--------------------------------------- QUESTION 52: The syntax for configuring variance on an EIGRP router is: variance number In the EIGRP command sequence above.com/warp/public/103/19. B.

B B. It checks the topology table for a successor.no feasible successor. D C. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Router H will be the successor. It finds that H is the successor since the advertised distance for H (30) is less than the feasible distance for B (31). there is no next best route . Router A detects the link failure between Router B and network 7. H D. and that route will be placed in the Routing table. However. The candidate route through D has .------------------------------------QUESTION 53: A. There is no feasible successor E.

Note: Successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination. Incorrect Answers: A: The FDDI interface of B is down. It cannot be used as a feasible successor. These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified. You also want to ensure the proper convergence of EIGRP routes. bandwidth 56000 C. B: The candidate route through D has an advertised distance (220) that is higher than the feasible distance of the successor route (40). C: Router H is the successor. None of the above Answer: A . You want to configure EIGRP to run across a 56 Kbps serial PPP link on the Certkiller network. What command should you issue on the serial interface? A. ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 56 D. bandwidth 56 B. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 54: You are the network engineer at Certkiller . A feasible successor is a backup route. Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 56000 E.an advertised distance (220) that is higher than the feasible distance of the successor route (40). not the feasible successor. but they are kept in a topology table.

For serial interfaces. this value defaults to a full T1. This is with the understanding that. where the speed of the link will vary considerably. the upper limit that EIGRP uses can be stated as a percentage of the bandwidth command. the interface defaults.Explanation: The bandwidth is a logical construct whose value can have wide-reaching implications on the function of your network. In fact. You would use this command primarily because in your network. so it my appear to be a better link than what is actually being used. Router (config) # interface S0 Router (config-if) # bandwidth speed-of-line The bandwidth command is always specified in kbps. such as IGRP or OSPF. the link is in fact 256 kbps. the bandwidth command does not reflect the true speed of the link. It does not affect the actual speed of the link. The following shows the structure of the ip bandwidth-percent eigrp command: Router (config) #interface S0 Router (config-if) #ip bandwidth-percent eigrp autonomous-system-number percent . The ip bandwidth-percent-eigrp command interacts with the bandwidth command on the interface. If you need to limit this percentage further. it is practical to configure the bandwidth command only on serial lines. or if the bandwidth command is not set. It is possible to set a bandwidth percent that is larger than the stated bandwidth. Otherwise. The bandwidth command might have been altered to manipulate the routing metric and path selection of a routing protocol. This command is useful for routing protocols that use bandwidth as part of the metric. It might be better to use other methods of controlling the routing metric and return the bandwidth to a true value. the ip bandwidth-percent eigrp command is available. EIGRP limits itself to 50 percent of the value specified in the bandwidth command. although the bandwidth might be stated to be 56 kbps.

F.----------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 55: A.1. Use the passive interface on the CK1 and CK2 interface that connects to the 10. D.1. you can turn this off per AS by using the following command in router configuration mode: Router(config-router)#no auto-summary . Use the passive interface command between the CK3 and CK1 connection and between the CK3 and CK2 connection. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: A useful feature of EIGRP is automatic route summarization. B. Use the variance command on CK3 .0/24 subnet respectively.2. This is enabled by default.1. E. C. this summarizes subnets to the classful network boundary. Use the EIGRP no auto-summary command on CK1 and CK2 . Use the EIGRP no auto-summary command on CK3 and CK4 .0/24 and 10.

In the example above.0. ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 56: You are the network engineer at Certkiller . otherwise both CK1 and CK2 will advertise the summarized network 10. bandwidth 56 B. this is needed.0. making their networks unreachable. bandwidth 224 .0/8 to router CK3 . The Certkiller network is shown in the following graphic: Which command should you issue? A.

bandwidth 768 E. -------------------------------------------QUESTION 57: The Certkiller multipoint frame relay network is using EIGRP for the routing protocol. In the case of the question 4*56=224 . remember that all neighbors . The configured CIR per subinterface. C. D. Non of the above Answer: B Explanation: If the multipoint network has different speeds allocated to the VCs.bandwidth 224 Reference: Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam Certification Guide Third Edition P. B. how is the bandwidth determined for each multipoint neighbor? A. bandwidth 256 D. Bandwidth command per neighbor. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: When configuring multipoint interfaces. 490. This is applied to the physical interface. take the lowest CIR and simply multiply it by the number of circuits. Bandwidth of the main interface divided by the number of neighbors on that interface. E. In this network. The configured CIR divided by the number of neighbors on that interface. especially for Frame Relay.C.

EIGRP by default assumes the bandwidth of a serial interface is a full T1 (1. For multipoint frame relay interfaces. What is the perceived bandwidth (as seen by the EIGRP process) of each Frame Relay connection? A. which is 64kbps. 1. supporting 24 remote office via a point-to-multipoint Frame Relay EIGRP network deployment. 128 kbps C. regardless of the actual CIR of each individual PVC. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The default bandwidth for all serial WAN interfaces is 1. . Since there are 24 remote offices. 64 kbps B. This includes sub-interfaces. the bandwidth used by the IOS is taken from the configured bandwidth of the main interface. the perceived bandwidth used by the IOS is taken from the configured bandwidth.536 Mbps E. 1. --------------------------------------------QUESTION 58: Your network consists of a router named R1 that's configured in a hub and spoke topology. so the bandwidth used by the IOS is the full T1 divided by 24.544 Mbps) if not specified. divided by the number of configured neighbors.share the bandwidth equally. divided by the total number or neighbors on that interface.544 Mbps D.544 Mbps. there are 24 configured frame relay neighbors. The bandwidth command was not manually entered on the frame relay main interface or the sub-interfaces. For multipoint interfaces.

None of the above Answer: B Explanation: The default EIGRP link speed is 1. not 256 Kbps. how will the EIGRP process perceive this T1 link? A. Incorrect Answers: A: The default speed is 1. On one of the serial T1 interfaces. By default.----------------------------------------QUESTION 59: EIGRP has been configured on the WAN links of router CK1 .544 Mbps C.544 Mbps.544 Mbps for non-high speed WAN links Note: The enhanced code uses the "bandwidth" subcommand on interfaces and sub-interfaces in order to determine the rate at which to generate EIGRP packets. but defaults to T1 (1544 Kbps) for all serial media. ----------------------------------------------QUESTION 60: You are in the midst of configuring an NBMA network with EIGRP as the routing protocol. C. It depends as it is set by the PVC D. 256 Kbps B. D: The default speed is not set by the PVC or the DLCI. It is set by the DLCI E. Which . This parameter is automatically set on fixed-bandwidth interfaces (such as LANs). the bandwidth statement was not specified. 1.

of the options below would you use to configure the interface bandwidth for a point-to-point interface?

A. The DLCI assigns the bandwidth for the interface. B. The sliding window size determines interface bandwidth. C. You should use the default bandwidth assigned to the interface. D. You should manually configure bandwidth as the CIR of the PVC. E. None of the above.

Answer: D

Explanation: The bandwidth can be configured separately on each subinterface. Since this is NBMA we can assume that Frame Relay is used. For Frame Relay on point-to-point the bandwidth should be set it to the CIR of the PVC. Note 1: NBMA (Non-broadcast Multi-access) supports many (more than two) routers, but have no broadcast capability. Frame Relay and X.25 are example of NBMA. Note 2: The CIR (Committed Information Rate) is the committed rate (in bits per second) at which the ingress access interface trunk interfaces, and egress access interface of a Frame Relay network transfer information to the destination Frame Relay end system under normal conditions. Incorrect Answers: A: Does not apply. B: Sliding windows does not apply. C: The bandwidth can and should be configured separately on each subinterface. -------------------------------------------

QUESTION 61:

Router CK2 is configured for EIGRP as shown below: router eigrp 100 network 10.0.0.0 eigrp stub Based on this configuration, which types of routes will be advertised with the EIGRP configuration as shown? (Choose two)

A. Static B. Receive only C. Summary D. Stub E. Connected F. Dynamic

Answer: C, E

Explanation: A router that is configured as a stub with the eigrp stub command shares connected and summary routing information with all neighbor routers by default. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087026.html

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QUESTION 62:

The Certkiller EIGRP network is utilizing the EIGRP stub routing feature. Which of the following are key concepts that apply when configuring the EIGRP stub routing feature in a hub and spoke network? (Select three)

A. A hub router prevents routes from being advertised to the remote router. B. Only remote routers are configured as stubs. C. Stub routers are not queried for routes. D. Spoke routers connected to hub routers answer the route queries for the stub router. E. A stub router should have only EIGRP hub routers as neighbors. F. EIGRP stub routing should be used on hub routers only.

Answer: B, C, E

Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability, reduces resource utilization, and simplifies stub router configuration. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology. In a hub and spoke network, one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub). The remote router is adjacent only to one or more distribution routers. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. Often, the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. In a hub and spoke topology, the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router, so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. Generally, the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature, you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP, and to configure only the remote router as a stub. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. The router responds to queries for summaries, connected routes, redistributed static routes, external routes, and internal routes with the

message "inaccessible." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. This feature should only be used on stub routers. A stub router is defined as a router connected to the network core or distribution layer through which core transit traffic should not flow. A stub router should not have any EIGRP neighbors other than distribution routers. Ignoring this restriction will cause undesirable behavior. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087026.html

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QUESTION 63:

A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5 F. 6

485 ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 64: Which configuration command is used to enable EIGRP unequal-cost path load balancing? A. None of the above . variance E. The command structure follows: Router(config-router)#variance multiplier The multiplier argument is the metric value used for load balancing. distance C. The variance command allows the administrator to identify the metric scope for including additional paths by the use of a multiplier parameter. maximum-paths B. The default is 1. It can be a value from 1 to 128.Answer: B Explanation: EIGRP automatically load balances across links of equal cost. Whether the traffic is sent on a predestination or round-robin basis depends on the internal switching within the router. Reference: CCNP Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam certification guide p. default-metric F. which means equal-cost load balancing. metric D. It is possible to configure EIGRP to load balance across unequal-cost paths using the variance command.

Reference: CCNP Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam certification guide p. The default is 1. It is possible to configure EIGRP to load balance across unequal-cost paths using the variance command. The variance command allows the administrator to identify the metric scope for including additional paths by the use of a multiplier parameter. The command structure follows: Router(config-router)#variance multiplier The multiplier argument is the metric value used for load balancing.485 ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 65: . It can be a value from 1 to 128.Answer: D Explanation: EIGRP automatically load balances across links of equal cost. which means equal-cost load balancing. Whether the traffic is sent on a predestination or round-robin basis depends on the internal switching within the router.

Use the variance command to instruct the router to include routes with a metric less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. In this example. 2. In addition to that. 1 B. IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. 5 F. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 66: . The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs. 3 E.5 for the variance (the value must be an integer) we must specify a minimum value of 3. which means equal cost load balancing. with respect to the metric. with the default being 1.A. proportionately. Since we can not use 2. 6 G. 2 C.5 times worse than the best route.5 D. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. the worst route is 2. where n is the number specified by the variance command.

com. variance 2.Certkiller 2. If the following command.Certkiller 1 E. All available paths. G.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 1 C.Certkiller 1 D. Study the exhibits carefully.Certkiller 2. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Variance is 2 so 2 *(10+10) = 40 ----------------------------------------------- .Certkiller 1 F.Certkiller 1 B. Both Certkiller 5. Both Certkiller 5. Only Certkiller 5. Only Certkiller 5. Only Certkiller 5.Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5.Certkiller 4.Certkiller 3.Certkiller 2.Certkiller 4.You work as a network technician at Certkiller .Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 5. which path or paths would be chosen to route traffic from Certkiller 5 to network X? A. were added to Certkiller 5.

60 kbps C. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 68: . 80 kbps D. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: By default. 200 Mbps I. This default value can be overridden via the bandwidth configuration statement as shown above. which is equal to a full T1. 200 kbps E. serial 0 is configured as a 40kbps (the bandwidth statement is used in terms of kbps) and EIGRP is configured to use up to twice this amount (200 percent) so up to 80 kbps will be consumed via the EIGRP process. 40 Mbps F. 80 Mbps H. 40 kbps B.QUESTION 67: Part of the configuration for a Certkiller router is shown below: interface serial0 bandwidth 40 ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 1 200 In the configuration in the exhibit. how much bandwidth will be used by the EIGRP updates? A. 60 Mbps G. From the file shown in this example. a serial interface will assume a bandwidth value of 1544.

Refer to the exhibit. Certkiller 4.0/8 from being SIA on router Certkiller 1 or Certkiller 2? (Select two) A. Configure Certkiller 3. B. C.0.0/8 network and advertising it to all routers. and Certkiller 5 Answer: A.0. D Explanation: A dual-homed remote will have two or more distribution (hub) routers. . and Certkiller 5 as EIGRP stub routers.0. Configure summary routes on Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 E. Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 are summarizing the 10.0. Configure an ACL on the interface of Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2. the principles of stub routing are the same as they are with a hub and spoke topology. Configure Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2 as EIGRP stub routers. However. Configure static routing on Certkiller 3. D. Which two EIGRP configurations will prevent unnecessary EIGRP updates from being sent and possibly causing 10. Certkiller 4.

A typical connection from a distribution router to a remote router would have much less bandwidth than a connection at the network core.1.0/24. Attempting to use a remote router with a limited bandwidth connection as a transit path would generally produce excessive congestion to the remote router. It is typically undesirable for traffic from a distribution router to use a remote router as a transit path. If the links are sized to handle the load.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1829/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087026. Reference: http://www.It is not desirable for traffic from distribution router 2 to travel through any remote router in order to reach network 10.html -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 69: . However. Since the remote router will not advertise core routes to distribution router 2.3. This problem can be prevented if proper summarization is configured on the distribution router and remote router. Routes learned by the remote router from distribution router 1 will not be advertised to distribution router 2. The EIGRP Stub Routing feature can prevent this problem by preventing the remote router from advertising core routes back to distribution routers.cisco. most networks of this type have remote routers located at remote offices with relatively slow links. the distribution router will not use the remote router as a transit for traffic destined for the network core. it would be acceptable to use one of the backup routes.

com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1828/products_command_reference_chapt er09186a00800 c -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 70: EIGRP is being used as the routing protocol within the Certkiller network.Which command is used to change the administrative distance for EIGRP? A. use the no form of this command. Which two . Router(config-router)# distance weight eigrp internal-distance external-distance Answer: C Explanation: To allow the use of two administrative distances-internal and external-that could be a better route to a node.cisco. Router(config-router)# distance eigrp internal-distance external-distance D. There is an issue with EIGRP in this network and you suspect the problem lies with the DUAL process. Router(config-if)# distance weight eigrp internal-distance external-distance C. Router(config-if)# distance eigrp internal-distance external-distance B. use the distance eigrp command in router configuration mode. To reset these values to their defaults. internal-distance: 90 external-distance: 170 Reference: http://www.

statements about the EIGRP DUAL process are correct? (Select two) A. not a mechanical device with moving parts. what events cause those states. An EIGRP route will go passive if there are no successors in the EIGRP topology table. B. E. A feasible successor in the EIGRP topology table can become the successor only after all the query requests have been replied to. Answer: D. EIGRP queries are sent during the loading state in the EIGRP neighbor establishment process. DUAL will trigger an EIGRP query process while placing the flapping routes in the holddown state. Designers use FSMs to describe how a device. or routing algorithm will react to a set of input events. F Explanation: The focal point of EIGRP is the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL). The DUAL FSM contains all the logic used to calculate and compare routes in an EIGRP network. . DUAL also guarantees that each path is loop-free. computer program. An FSM is an abstract machine. D. F. The full name of this technology is DUAL finite-state machine (FSM). This is the route-calculation engine of EIGRP. Lowest-cost paths are then inserted by DUAL into the routing table. and what events result from those states. An EIGRP route will go active if there are no successors or feasible successors in the EIGRP topology table. DUAL tracks all the routes advertised by neighbors in addition to using the composite metric of each route to compare them. FSMs define a set of possible states that something can go through. The stuck in active state is caused when the wait for the query replies have timed out. C.

EIGRP keeps important route and topology information readily available. DUAL selects alternate routes quickly by using the information in these tables. These tables supply DUAL with comprehensive route information in case of network disruption. B.168. If a link goes down. C. This information is stored in a neighbor table and a topology table.0 is equal path load balancing with 172. The router is then promoted to the status of successor -------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 71: A.168. DUAL looks for a feasible successor in its neighbor and topology tables.0 is a redistributed route into EIGRP. A successor is a neighboring router that is currently being used for packet forwarding.1.168.1. Feasible successor routes can be used in case the existing route fails.168.1. 192.1.16. E.1.0 is a summarized route.As noted earlier in the module. A successor also provides the least-cost route to the destination and is not part of a routing loop. D. 192. None of the above Answer: A . 192. 192.0 is a static route. Packets to the destination network are immediately forwarded to the feasible successor.0. Feasible successors provide the next lowest-cost path without introducing routing loops.

including the use of administrative distance. and issues with redistribution configuration. Two-way routes are where both protocols receive routes from each other. Routers that perform redistribution are called boundary routers because they border two or more autonomous systems or routing domains. routing information must be shared among the different routing protocols. Such redistribution can be one-way or two-way. Using multiple routing protocols typically results in increased administrative complexity and overhead.Explanation: To support multiple routing protocols within the same internetwork efficiently. Why would this be done in the first place? Actually. especially in medium and large sized networks. The syntax of the redistribute command is as follows: Router(config-router)#redistribute protocol [process-id] {level-1 level-1-2 level-2} [metric metric-value][metric-type type-value] [match {internal external 1 external 2}][tag tag-value] [route-map map-tag][weight weight] [subnets] Example: routerospf 1 redistribute eigrp 1 metric 66 metric-type 1 subnets When EIGRP learns the routing information from the different routing protocol it uses D EX symbol to indicate that this routing information has learned from other routing protocol. One-way routes are where one protocol receives the routes from another. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 72: . guidelines for redistribution implementation. This section examines route redistribution in detail. This process of exchanging routing information between routing protocols is called route redistribution. For example. routes learned from a RIP process may need to be imported into an IGRP process. there are several scenarios in which using multiple routing protocols solves more problems than it creates.

C.1 and Certkiller 2 with IP address 10. the Bellman-Ford algorithm uses the following equation and creates the overall 24-bit metric assigned to a route: * metric = [(K1 bandwidth) + [(K2 bandwidth) ÷ (256 . Certkiller 1 received a hello packet with mismatched autonomous system numbers. which two statements are true? A. by default. Certkiller 1 will form an adjacency with Certkiller 2. D. Certkiller 1 received a hello packet with mismatched hello timers. Certkiller 1 will not form an adjacency with Certkiller 2. Therefore. The higher the metric associated with a route. the metric formula reduces to: metric = (1 bandwidth) + (1 delay) metric = bandwidth + delay K Values should be same to become the EIGRP neighbors. Answer: C. For EIGRP.1. the less desirable it is. K1 = K3 = 1.2. F.A network administrator is troubleshooting an EIGRP connection between router Certkiller 1 with IP address 10. E. B.load)] + (K3 delay)] [K5 ÷ (reliability + K4)] The elements in this equation are as follows: * By default. Certkiller 1 received a hello packet with mismatched authentication parameters.2. F Explanation: Metrics are the mathematics used to select a route. Certkiller 1 received a hello packet with mismatched metric-calculation mechanisms. Given the debug output on Certkiller 1 shown below.1. . K2 = K4 = K5 = 0.2.

0/24 E.168.1. 10.3. 10.0/24 B. 192.0.1. D.2.0/8 Answer: C. 10. Stub routing is commonly used in a hub and spoke network topology.------------------------------------------ QUESTION 73: If the configuration shown below is added to Certkiller 1.0. 10. E Explanation: The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Stub Routing feature improves network stability.1.0 eigrp stub A. reduces resource utilization.0.0/24 C.0/24 D. which three route entries will EIGRP advertise to neighboring routers? (Select three) router eigrp 10 network 10.20. and simplifies stub router configuration. The remote router is adjacent only to .1. one or more end (stub) networks are connected to a remote router (the spoke) that is connected to one or more distribution routers (the hub).0. In a hub and spoke network.

and a router that has a stub peer will not query that peer. so it becomes unnecessary for the remote router to hold a complete routing table. This type of configuration is commonly used in WAN topologies where the distribution router is directly connected to a WAN. The distribution router can be connected to many more remote routers. the distribution router will be connected to 100 or more remote routers. connected routes. Generally." A router that is configured as a stub will send a special peer information packet to all neighboring routers to report its status as a stub router. Router(config-router)# eigrp stub [receive-only connected static summary] :Configures a remote router as an EIGRP stub router.one or more distribution routers. the remote router must forward all nonlocal traffic to a distribution router. Often. and internal routes with the message "inaccessible. When using the EIGRP Stub Routing feature. ----------------------------------------------QUESTION 74: . and to configure only the remote router as a stub. you need to configure the distribution and remote routers to use EIGRP. The router responds to queries for summaries. Only specified routes are propagated from the remote (stub) router. the distribution router need not send anything more than a default route to the remote router. In a hub and spoke topology. The stub router will depend on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers. The only route for IP traffic to follow into the remote router is through a distribution router. redistributed static routes. external routes. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status will not query the stub router for any routes.

What could be the cause of the problem? A. B. However.Study the exhibits carefully. much the same .2. Certkiller 1 does not show Certkiller 2 as a neighbor and does not accept routing updates from Certkiller 2. Interface E0 on router Certkiller 1 has not been configured with a secondary IP address of 10. EIGRP has been configured on routers Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 2. EIGRP routers actively establish relationships with their neighbors. C. The "no auto-summary command" has not been issued under the EIGRP process on both routers. E.1/24. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: Remember that simple distance vector routers do not establish any relationship with their neighbors. D. EIGRP cannot exchange routing updates with a neighbor's router interface that is configured with two IP addresses. RIP and IGRP routers merely broadcast or multicast updates on configured interfaces.1. EIGRP cannot form neighbor relationship and exchange routing updates with a secondary address. In contrast.

B. An EIGRP router assumes that as long as it is receiving hello packets from known neighbors. Some query or reply packets are lost between the routers. The neighboring router stops receiving ACK packets from this router. EIGRP routers do the following: 1. those neighbors (and their routes) remain viable. D. The neighboring router starts receiving route updates from this router. Rediscover routers that had previously been unreachable -------------------------------------- QUESTION 75: While troubleshooting an EIGRP routing problem you notice that one of the Certkiller routers have generated a large number of SIA messages. Dynamically learn of new routes that join their network 2. C Explanation: The SIA state means that an EIGRP router has not received a reply to a query from one or more . Answer: A. What are two possible causes for EIGRP Stuck-In-Active routes? (Select two) A. C. A failure causes traffic on a link between two neighboring routers to flow in only one direction (unidirectional link). By forming adjacencies. Identify routers that become either unreachable or inoperable 3.way that OSPF routers do. EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by using small hello packets. Hellos are sent by default every five seconds.

Certkiller 1 will automatically route packets via Certkiller 4 to the HQ network. When this happens.neighbors within the time allotted (approximately 3 minutes).cisco.com/warp/public/103/18. If Certkiller 2 and Certkiller 3 fail. B. Certkiller 1 will go into the active state for the route to HQ network. D. which action will Certkiller 1 take with respect to the HQ network? A. None of the above . Certkiller 1 will place the route via Certkiller 4 into the hold down state. EIGRP clears the neighbors that did not send a reply and logs a DUAL-3-SIAerror message for the route that went active Details: http://www. Certkiller 1 will go into the active state for all routes.html#topic1 ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 76: All routers in the diagram are configured with EIGRP. C. E.

queries. debug eigrp packets B. acknowledgements). replies. Example: The following is sample output from the show ip eigrp traffic command: Router# show ip eigrp traffic IP-EIGRP Traffic Statistics for process 77 Hellos sent/received: 218/205 Updates sent/received: 7/23 Queries sent/received: 2/0 Replies sent/received: 0/2 . which IOS command should you use? A. show ip eigrp traffic C. If you wished to view the statistics for these packets. show ip eigrp neighbors Answer: B Explanation: The show ip eigrp traffic command displays the number of Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) packets sent and received. show ip eigrp topology D. updates.Answer: B --------------------------------------- QUESTION 77: EIGRP uses five generic packet types (hello.

Answer: A. What is a likely cause of this problem between neighbors? (Select two) A. The K-values do not match. C: It is possible for two routers to become EIGRP neighbors even though the hello and hold . B. The hello times do not match. C.Acks sent/received: 21/14 Reference :http://www. The AS numbers do not match. The hold times do not match.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1828/products_command_reference_chap ter09186a0080 0 --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 78: While troubleshooting a routing problem on the Certkiller EIGRP network you discover that one of the routers is failing to establish adjacencies with its neighbor. Incorrect Answers: B. D.cisco. D Explanation: Peer relationships and adjacencies between routers will not be formed between EIGRP routers if the neighbor resides in a different autonomous system or if the metric-calculation mechanism (K values) is misaligned for that link.

D. The neighboring router starts receiving route updates from this router. Note: In some circumstances. D Explanation: The acknowledgement does not reach the destination or they are too delayed. Answer: A. So long. it takes a very long time for a query to be answered. you are seeing a high number of SIA (stuck in active) routes. The neighboring router stops receiving ACK packets from this router. ------------------------------------- QUESTION 79: While troubleshooting an EIGRP routing issue. Some query or reply packets are lost between the routers.timers do not match. Incorrect Answers: B: Ack packets don't reply to Query. only Reply do. in fact. or a router with insufficient memory. that the router that issued the query gives up and clears its connection to the router that isn't answering. A failure causes traffic on a link between two neighboring routers to flow in only one direction (unidirectional link). This is normally due to too many routing topology changes. C. The most basic SIA routes occur when it simply takes too long for a query to reach the other end of the network and for a reply to travel back. This is known as a stuck in active (SIA) route. . effectively restarting the neighbor session. B. Which of the following are causes of a route becoming SIA? (Select two) A.

and that route will be placed in the Routing table.C: Does not apply to SIA. B B. It finds that H is the successor since the advertised distance for H (30) is less . D only C.com/warp/public/103/eigrp3. This is the normal operation of EIGRP. Router A detects the link failure between Router B and network 7. H only D. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: Router H will be the successor. Reference:http://www.html ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 80: The Certkiller network is displayed in the diagram below: A. It checks the topology table for a successor. D and H E.cisco.

The candidate route through D has an advertised distance (220) that is higher than the feasible distance of the successor route (40). and the bandwidth command IS NOT configured on any of the interfaces or subinterfaces. Incorrect Answers: A: This is not a Cisco recommended solution. the only way to ensure that EIGRP properly considers the actual bandwidth to use in the routing decision. How should you configure the network? A. Manually configure the bandwidth of the major interface to the highest CIR x 24 D.no feasible successor. However. there is no next best route . Manually configure the bandwidth of the major interface to the lowest CIR x 24 C. each link should be set to the CIR. . ------------------------------------------QUESTION 81: The Certkiller network consists of a hub and spoke topology with a main router supporting about 20 regional offices. A point-to-point Frame Relay WAN connects the regional offices to the main office. The committed information rate (CIR) for each of the Frame Relay PVC's is different.than the feasible distance for B (31). and EIGRP is deployed as the routing protocol. You want to ensure that EIGRP routes everything properly. Convert each Frame Relay PVC to point-to-multipoint connection B. Manually configure the bandwidth of each of these PVCs to equal to their respective Answer: D Explanation: Although this will require some administrative effort.

B. It elects a new designated router. It checks its topology table for an alternate route. Answer: C. Router CK3 detects the link failure between CK1 and CK3 . ------------------------------------ QUESTION 82: A. It checks the topology table for a feasible successor. D. but it doesn't find a qualifying alternate route and enters in an active convergence state. CK3 sends a Query out all interfaces for other routes to the failed link (E). It re-broadcasts its routing table to all other neighboring routers. It sends a flash update with poison reverse. E. It sends a query to neighboring routers for other routes to the failed link. (C) 2. The neighboring routers acknowledge the query. C. . E Explanation: The steps of convergence in an EIGRP network are as follows: 1. C: This would give too high a bandwidth.B: This will force all PVC to run at a low speed.

3. The reply from CK4 indicates no other route to the failed link. 4. CK2 's reply contains a route to the failed link, although it has a higher feasible distance. 5. Router CK3 accepts the new path and metric information, places it in the topology table, and creates an entry for the routing table. 6. CK3 sends an update about the new route out all interfaces.

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QUESTION 83:

The EIGRP topology table for router Certkiller 1 is displayed below:

Regarding the command output on Certkiller 1 in the exhibit, which statements are true? (Select three)

A. Certkiller 1 is in AS 200 B. Certkiller 1 will load balance between three paths to reach the 192.168.1.48/28 prefix, because all three paths have the same AD of 40512000. C. The best path for Certkiller 1 to reach the 192.168.1.48/28 prefix is via 192.168.1.66.

D. 40512000 is the advertised metric via 192.168.1.66 to reach the 192.168.1.48/28 prefix. E. All the routes are in the passive mode because these routes are in the hold-down state. F. All the routes are in the passive mode, because Certkiller 1 is in the query process for those routes.

Answer: A, C, D

Explanation: The Certkiller 1 router resides in AS 200, as displayed by the "IP EIGRP topology for process 200" output. Regarding the numbers specified in the parenthesis, the first number is the EIGRP metric that represents the cost to the destination. The second number is the EIGRP metric that this peer advertised. Based on this, the best path to the 192.168.1.48/28 destination is via 192.168.1.66, because the metric is less than the alternatives.

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QUESTION 84:

The following show command was issued on router CK1 :

Based on the exhibited command output, which two statements are true? (Choose two)

A. The EIGRP network is stable. B. The router at 10.1.1.3 has not replied to the CK1 query packet. C. The route to 172.19.0.0/16 is undergoing recomputation. D. The route to 172.19.0.0/16 is stuck-in-active. E. CK1 has sent a query packet to 10.1.1.2.

Answer: B, C

Explanation: The output shown above is a snapshot from an EIGRP router re-computing the route to d 172.19.0.0/16. As can be seen above, a query was originated by CK1 to the neighbor at 10.1.1.3, but the query has not yet been replied to by this router.

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QUESTION 85:

The Certkiller OSPF network has been segmented into numerous different areas. Which three choices below are advantages to creating multiple areas in OSPF? (Select three)

A. Fewer hello packets B. Fewer adjacencies needed C. Less frequent SPF calculations D. Smaller routing tables E. Reduced Link State Update (LSU) overhead

Answer: C, D, E

Explanation: Three issues can overwhelm an OSPF router in a heavily populated OSPF network: 1. high demand for router processing and memory resources 2. large routing tables 3. large topology tables In a very large internetwork, changes are inevitable. OSPF routers are likely to run SPF calculations frequently, which deprive the router of precious CPU cycles and memory resources. Not only is the routing table frequently recalculated in a large OSPF network, but it also risks being overstuffed with multiple paths and hundreds of routes. Full routing tables make routers less efficient. Finally, the link-state database, which must contain a complete topology of the

advertise a single route or a few summarized routes between areas to reduce the overhead associated with LSUs that cross multiple areas. D. including link-state information and summary information. Reduced link-state update (LSU) overhead . The neighbor command is required to build adjacencies.Because detailed route information is kept within each area. Given those facts. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 86: The Certkiller network administrator has enabled OSPF across an NBMA network and has issued the command "ip ospf network nonbroadcast" on router CK1 . Rather than advertise these explicit routes outside the area. DR and BDR elections will occur. it is not necessary to flood all link-state changes to all other areas. detailed route entries for specific networks within an area are kept inside the area. Rather than send an LSU about each network to every area. Advertising these summaries reduces the amount of LSAs propagated between areas but allows all networks to remain reachable.When using multiple areas. Reduced frequency of SPF calculations . only those routers affected by a change need to run the SPF calculation. 1. B.LSUs can contain a variety of LSA types. will also threaten to consume resources and slow down the router. the routes can be summarized into one or more summary routes. Interfaces will automatically detect and build adjacencies with neighbor routers. All routers must be configured in a fully meshed topology with all other routers. Therefore. DR and BDR elections will not occur. which two statements are true? (Select two) A. C. .network. Smaller routing tables . 2. 3. E.

Another type of OSPF network. In contrast. This is the default setting for physical interfaces with Frame Relay encapsulation. By manually configuring each neighbor.If you would like to set the priority of this router to become the DR. Nonbroadcast Multiaccess (NBMA). In order to set which router you want as the DR.Answer: C. can include more than two nodes. This configuration also requires a full mesh and has the same weakness as the broadcast environment. A non-broadcast environment requires that all OSPF neighbors be manually configured. NBMA will try to elect a DR and a BDR. Common NBMA implementations include Frame Relay. the following command must be entered in router configuration mode for the selected OSPF process: neighbor ip_addressip_address = the ip address of the neighbor. X. D Explanation: Even if there is only one router. Non-broadcast multi-access networks do elect a DR and BDR. broadcast multiaccess networks elect a DR and a BDR to serve as focal points for routing information.25. point-to-point OSPF networks do not elect a DR because they can never include more than two nodes. communication between neighbors is done via unicast instead of multicast. and SMDS. NBMA networks follow rules at Layer 2 that prevent the delivery of broadcasts and multicasts. For non-broadcast networks the default Hello interval is 30 seconds and the Dead interval is four times the Hello interval. Also. In order to manually configure who your neighbors are. 120 seconds. as well as for their point-to-multipoint subinterfaces. OSPF knows exactly which neighbors need to participate and which neighbor is identified as the DR. Therefore. you will need to append the priority of the neighbor: neighbor ip_address priority value ----------------------------------------- . due to their multi-access nature. you must set the priority in the neighbor statement to elect the neighbor as the DR.

each OSPF router independently calculates its best paths to all destinations in the network.QUESTION 87: The Certkiller network has just completed migrating to the OSPF routing protocol. This means that Cisco based its version of OSPF on the open standards. C. OSPF has become one of the most widely used routing protocols in existence today because of the ability to implement it across multi- . B. OSPF sends summaries of individual link-state entries every 30 minutes to ensure LSDB synchronization. Using the Bellman-Ford algorithm. each OSPF router independently calculates its best paths to all destinations in the network. Using the DUAL algorithm.0. It is important to recognize that Cisco's implementation of OSPF is a standards-based version.0. Cisco has also added features to its version of OSPF that may not be found in other implementations of OSPF. When a link changes state. OSPF sends updates every 10 seconds. F. This becomes important when interoperability is needed. OSPF sends triggered updates when a network change occurs. E. the router that detected the change creates a link-state advertisement (LSA) and propagates it to all OSPF devices using the 224. Answer: B. F Explanation: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)is an open standards routing protocol. While doing so. D.6 multicast address. Which two statements are true of the OSPF link-state routing protocol? (Select two) A.

the only routing protocols MPLS traffic engineering has extensions for are OSPF and IS-IS. * Full support of classless routing behavior. * Utilization of multicast packets decreases the impact on routers not running OSPF and end stations. Currently. which allows for faster network convergence. OSPF utilizes Dijkstra's Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm. Two RFCs define OSPF: Version 1 is defined by RFC 1131. The next section covers the terminology necessary to enable you to understand the many operations and procedures performed by the OSPF process. * Support of authentication. decreasing the use of network bandwidth for routing updates. OSPF is a robust protocol. * The use of link-state databases reduces the chances of routing loops. you must learn many terms in order to understand the operation of OSPF. OSPF is known as a link-state routing protocol. Automatic route summarization is not supported by OSPF. John Moy heads up the working group of OSPF.vendor platforms. and Version 2 is defined by RFC 2328. which allows the user to implement more secure networks. Version 2 is the only version to make it to an operational status. links become synonymous with interfaces. many vendors modify OSPF. and due to its robustness. However. * Routing updates are sent only when the information is needed. Within OSPF. Some of the advantages of OSPF are as follows: * Support of hierarchical network design through the use of areas. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 88: . The Dijkstra algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path through the network. The popularity of OSPF is continuing to grow with the advent of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). * Decreased size in routing tables through the use of manual route summarization.

the backbone area is the central entity to which all other areas connect. Backbone area (transit area) . Totally stubby area . The following are several area types that are possible: 1.0. the size of routing tables may need to be minimized in an OSPF area.0/0. E Explanation: OSPF Area Types: The characteristics that are assigned to an area control the type of route information that it can receive. such as routes from non-OSPF sources. Stub area -A stub area is an area that does not accept information about routes external to the autonomous system. 3. Remote D. Backbone E. Stub B. If routers need to reach networks outside the autonomous system. The backbone area is always Area 0. 4. A default route is noted as 0. 2. All other areas must connect to this area to exchange route information.0.A totally stubby area is an area that does not accept external .When interconnecting multiple areas. Standard area . the OSPF internetwork. Ordinary or standard Answer: A. For example. The OSPF backbone has all the properties of a standard OSPF area. D.A standard area can accept link updates and route summaries.Which of the three areas below are valid OSPF area types? (Select three) A. Type 5 LSAs. Active C. In this case configure the routers to operate in an area that does not accept external routing information. they use a default route.

D. Router link. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 89: OSPF networks create Link State Advertisements (LSAs). type 3. type 8. Totally stubby areas are a Cisco proprietary feature. Not-so-stubby area (NSSA) . Router link.0.autonomous system (AS) routes and summary routes from other areas internal to the autonomous system. C.0. It describes .An NSSA is an area that is similar to a stub area but allows for importing external routes as Type 7 LSAs and translation of specific Type 7 LSA routes into Type 5 LSAs. These entries are flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. Network summary link. 5. it sends it using a 0. LSA type 1 is generated by each router for each area it belongs to. if the router needs to send a packet to a network external to the area. What kind of LSA is conceived by an Area Border Router (ABR) containing route summarization of area subnets? A.0/0 default route. type 4. type 1. B. Incorrect Answers A: Router link. AS external summary link. It describes the links between the ABR and the internal routers of a local area. Instead. Answer: C Explanation: The network summary link entry is a LSA type 3 that is originated by ABRs.

What kind of router is CK1 ? A. Internal router D. . D. ASBR C.the states of the router's link to the area. D: A backbone router has at least one interface in the backbone. also known as Area 0. External link LSA is type 5. B: Router LSA is type 1. C: An internal router is only connected to routers in the internal area. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 90: Router CK1 has an interface in one OSPF area and another interface in a different OSPF area. Incorrect Answers: B: An ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router) have at least one interface in a non-OSPF network. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: An ABR (Area Border Router) shares an interface with at least one other OSPF area. ABR B. Backbone router E.

flooded throughout the whole network Other LSA type exist for multicast information (type 6) and other extensions. Type 4 LSA E. originated by the ABRs External LSA (type 5) . The OSPF Router LSA types are described here: Router LSA (type 1) . including NSSA area (type 7).information about the router and its directly connected links. Type 3 LSA D. originated by Actualtests. Type 2 LSA C.reachability information to the Autonomous System Border Routers outside the area. flooded only w/in the area Network LSA (type 2) .The Power of Knowing the area border routers (ABR) ASBR Summary LSA (type 4) . what kind of LSA type does it use? A.information about a LAN and the routers connected to it.describe networks reachable outside the area. originated by the ASBRs.information about destinations outside the OSPF domain. flooded only w/in the area Summary LSA (type 3) . Type 5 LSA is used to announce external networks. ------------------------------------------ .--------------------------------------- QUESTION 91: When an OSPF ASBR announces external networks. Type 5 LSA Answer: E Explanation: In OSPF. originated by the DR. Type 1 LSA B.com .

Stub Areas: These areas do not accept routes belonging to external autonomous systems (AS). . Backbone area B. Normal Areas: These areas can either be standard areas or transit (backbone) areas. the routers in the stub area use a default route which is injected into the area by the Area Border Router (ABR).QUESTION 92: A. however. Not-so-stubby area Answer: E Explanation: NSSA use type 7 LSAs. 1. Totally stubby area E. In order to reach the outside networks. 2. The different OSPF area types are described below. Stubby area D. these areas have inter-area and intra-area routes. Transit area C.

C. 3. D. Totally Stub Areas: These areas do not allow routes other than intra-area and the default routes to be propagated within the area. Assume that one of the routers in the stub area is connected to an external AS running a different routing protocol.shtml ------------------------------------- QUESTION 93: What kind of information can you find in a type 3 OSPF network summary link LSA? A. Summary of link states in an OSPF area. 5. 4. . then the ASBR generates a NSSA external link-state advertisement (LSA) (Type-7) which can be flooded throughout the NSSA area.Standard areas are defined as areas that can accept intra-area.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK4 80/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094a74. None of the above. These Type-7 LSAs are converted into Type-5 LSAs at the NSSA ABR and flooded throughout the OSPF domain Reference: http://www. Backbone area is the central area to which all other areas in OSPF connect. However. E. NSSA: This type of area allows the flexibility of importing a few external routes into the area while still trying to retain the stub characteristic. Summary of metric coast from ABR to ASBR. inter-area and external routes. Summary of routes in the AS. it now becomes the ASBR.cisco. B. and hence the area can no more be called a stub area. Summary of IP subnets in an OSPF area. if the area is configured as a NSSA. The ABR injects a default route into the area and all the routers belonging to this area use the default route to send any traffic outside the area.

cisco. The default route is expressed as a prefix with length 0. Only ABRs generate summary LSAs. In OSPF for IPv6. h ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 94: DRAG DROP . addresses for these LSAs are expressed as prefix. Type 3 LSAs may represent a single network or a set of networks summarized into one advertisement. mask. Reference: http://www.Answer: C Explanation: A type 3 area LSA is Inter-area prefix LSA for ABR It advertises internal networks to routers in other areas (interarea routes).com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1839/products_feature_guide_chapter091 86a0080145c56. prefix length instead of address.

these areas have inter-area and intra-area routes. 3. Standard areas are defined as areas that can accept intra-area. the routers in the stub area use a default route which is injected into the area by the Area Border Router (ABR). however. 5.shtml ---------------------------------------- . Assume that one of the routers in the stub area is connected to an external AS running a different routing protocol.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK4 80/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094a74. Totally Stub Areas: These areas do not allow routes other than intra-area and the default routes to be propagated within the area. The Backbone area is the central area to which all other areas in OSPF connect.cisco. In order to reach the outside networks. However. Stub Areas: These areas do not accept routes belonging to external autonomous systems (AS). it now becomes the ASBR. The ABR injects a default route into the area and all the routers belonging to this area use the default route to send any traffic outside the area. and hence the area can no more be called a stub area. Normal Areas: These areas can either be standard areas or transit (backbone) areas. if the area is configured as a NSSA. then the ASBR generates a NSSA external link-state advertisement (LSA) (Type-7) which can be flooded throughout the NSSA area. These Type-7 LSAs are converted into Type-5 LSAs at the NSSA ABR and flooded throughout the OSPF domain Reference: http://www. 2. inter-area and external routes.1. 4. NSSA: This type of area allows the flexibility of importing a few external routes into the area while still trying to retain the stub characteristic.

They describe the links between the ABR and the internal routers of a local area. At the ASBR. . LSA type 5. D. They describe routes to destinations external to the autonomous system. They describe the states of the router's link to the area. Answer: A Explanation: Network summary link entries. Type-4 describes reachability to ASBRs. At the backbone DR. C: Backbone DRs does not generate these LSAs. These link entries are not flooded through totally stubby areas. These entries are flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. B. At the ABR. C. LSA type 1.QUESTION 95: In a multi-area OSPF network inter-area summarization produces type's 3 & 4 Link State Advertisements (LSAs). None of the above. At which router are these LSA types produced? A. LSA type 3 or LSA type 4 are originated by ABRs. E. D: Internal routers produce router link entries. are originated by ASBRs. Each internal router calculates and sends network updates. Note: Type-3 describes routes to networks within the local area and are sent to the backbone area. Incorrect Answers: B: Autonomous system external link entries.

You should not run more than one instance of the OSPF process on an ABR. -------------------------------------- QUESTION 97: . D Explanation: C: A router can be a DR or BDR for more than one LAN. Area 0 must be larger than any subsequent OSPF area. The hierarchical structure could be larger. There should not be more than three areas per route. B: There is no requirement that Area 0 must be the largest OSPF area. this ID is used for all LAN segments. D. B.----------------------------------------- QUESTION 96: What does Cisco recommend for those who set up networks with multiple OSPF areas? (Select two) A. Answer: C. A router can be a DR or BDR for more than one LAN. C. Since the loopback address is normally used as the router ID. Incorrect Answers: A: There is no such limit. D: Running multiple OSPF processes on the same router is not recommended because it creates multiple database instances that add extra overhead.

all areas must be connected to a backbone area. Traffic between two areas must travel across the backbone area. B. type 1. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 98: In OSPF. D. what should be taken in consideration? (Select two) A. D Explanation: In OSPF. Over what kind of link does this happen and what kind of LSA type is sent? A. Each area must connect to area 0. Incorrect Answers B: OSPF routers within the same Autonomous System should be configured with the same AS number. a Designated Router (DR) floods LSAs to all the routers on the segment that it has a neighbor relationships with. which is area 0. . C: Remote areas are not required to be either stub or not so stubby areas. since all areas must connect to area 0. It is also required that traffic from one area to another non-backbone area must traverse area 0. Router link. Remote areas must be configured as stub or NSSA areas. The AS number is also called the OSPF process ID. Answer: A.When designing and implementing OSPF in multiple areas. Each area must have a unique AS number. C.

Network link. Incorrect Answers: A: Router link. It is flooded throughout an OSPF autonomous system except for stub and totally stubby areas. They describe the set of routers attached to a particular network. External link. It describes the states of the router's link to the area. These entries are flooded throughout the backbone area to the other ABRs. D: Network summary link entry. type 5. It describes the links between the ABR and the internal routers of a local area. LSA type 1 is generated by each router for each area it belongs to. C: External link. Flooding occurs within the area that contains the network only. type 2. Network summary link. LSA type 5 is originated by the ASBR. type 3. neighbor relationships allow the topology of the network to scale. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: A network Link LSA type 2 is generated by DRs in multi-access networks. What are two reasons as to why this can help a network topology scale? (Select two) . D. C. LSA type 3 is originated by ABRs. E. It describes routes to destinations external to the autonomous system. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 99: In an OSPF network.B.

A. Answer: A. The hello protocol is also efficient because rather then focusing on knowing what all the routers know. Topological database is maintained with incremental updates. 224.5 B. Routing table information does not flood the network until holddown timers have expired. which IP address multicasts all OSPF Designated Routers and Backup Designated Routers? A. The hello protocol is a more efficient means of sending routing updates than table exchanges used in RIPv1. B. 224. therefore available for routing. D.0. C Explanation: When a network topology changes and becomes more sophisticated.0.0.0. with full exchange occurring only every 30 minutes. 224. the routers only focus on who is still around.0. ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 100: In an OSPF network. fewer routers are burdened with the responsibility of having to relearn the entire network. C.9 . Neighbor adjacencies control distribution of routing protocol updates.6 C.0.

0. 224.11 E. D: This multicast address is used by mobile agents.0.0. 224. E: This multicast IP address is used by all routers on the subnet. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 114 -----------------------------------------QUESTION 101: What kind of OSPF Link State Advertisement (LSA) is found in a type 3 network summary link? A. C. Summary of link states in an OSPF area.0. C: This address is used by RIP version 2 routers. Summary of metric costs from ABR to ASBR. B. Incorrect Answers: A: This is the multicast address used by all OSPF routers. D. Summary of IP subnets in an OSPF area.0. Summary of routes in the AS.D.06 is the IP address used by all OSPF DRs and BDRs. The various LSA types used in OSPF are described below: .2 Answer: B Explanation: 224. Answer: C Explanation: Type 3 LSAs are INTER-AREA advertisements and they are not used within the local area.

D. Incorrect Answers: A: A DR and BDR for each area would still be required. D Explanation: C: Link State update (LSU) traffic is reduced. .LS Type Link State ID _______________________________________________ 1 The originating router's Router ID. There are no security advantages in using more than one area in an OSPF network. you can advertise a single or fewer summarized routes between areas to reduce the overhead associated with linkstate updates when they are crossing Note: All LSA types. 4 The Router ID of the described AS boundary router. 2 The IP interface address of the network's Designated Router. C. except the AS-external-LSAs (LS type = 5). reducing routing overhead. requiring less CPU to derive routes. D: Topological database size would decrease and fewer CPU cycles would be required to calculate routes. What are two advantages of configuring multiple OSPF areas? (Select two) A. 5 The destination network's IP address. are flooded throughout a single area only. 3 The destination network's IP address. Type 1 and 2 LSAs are confined to a single area. B. Rather than send an LSU about each network within an area. It eliminates security concerns by segregating portions of the network. B: Security concerns would not be eliminated. Answer: C. It eliminates the need for a DR or BDR in the OSPF network. Area members have smaller topological databases than if the network was one large area. ---------------------------------- QUESTION 102: You are the administrator of the large Certkiller OSPF and are considering dividing it to multiple areas.

The DR sends each router's link-state information to all other routers in the network. what type of router floods type 2 Link State Advertisements (LSAs) into an OSPF area? A. DR B. ASBR E. C: BDRs are just used for backup. This flooding process significantly reduces the router-related traffic on a segment. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 104: . should the DR fail. On this multiaccess network. each router sends the link-state information to the DR and Backup Designated Router (BDR). Note: Instead of routers exchanging link-state information with every other router on the segment. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: Type 2 LSAs are generated by Designated Routers (DRs) in multi-access networks. D: Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBRs) generate Type 5 LSAs. BDR D. They describe the set of routers attached to a particular network and are flooded within the area that contains the network only. ABR C. Incorrect Answers: B: Area Border Routers generate Type 3 and Type 4 LSAs.--------------------------------------- QUESTION 103: OSPF has been configured on router CK1 . which lies on a multi point network.

these LSAs are created by the ASBR residing in a not so stubby area (NSSA). A backbone area E. If the information is to be propagated throughout the AS. which it will not propagate into the backbone area and thus the rest of the OSPF domain. it is translated into an LSA Type 5 at the NSSA ABR. What kind of area should be configured to accomplish this? A. including Area 0. A totally stubby area D. A not-so stubby area B. but not type 5 external routes. but it will not be propagated into other areas. Type 7. except that this LSA is contained within the NSSA area and is not propagated into other areas. A stubby area C. Another LSA. An on-demand area Answer: A Explanation: The NSSA external LSA -Identified as Type 7. This LSA can be originated and communicated throughout the area. An NSSA is an area that is seen as a stub area but can receive external routes. ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 105: DRAG DROP . is created specifically for the NSSA. but it is converted into a Type 5 LSA by the ABR.You want router one of the OSPF areas on your network to be able to accept type 7 external routers. This LSA is similar to an autonomous system external LSA.

Example routing table of a totally stubby router: CK1 #show ip route Codes: C .OSPF external type 2. Serial0 131. 00:31:27.candidate default Gateway of last resort is not set 203.EIGRP.240 is subnetted. S .IGRP. E2 .1. 1 subnets C 203. E .79. O . * .108. 1 subnets O 131.15.0 255.BGP D . M .250.250.connected.0.15.IS-IS.15. O B. O* IA Answer: A. R .0 is directly connected.------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 106: Which of the following OSPF routes are supported by the Totally Stubby type? (Select two) A.255.208 [110/74] via 203. E Explanation: The only routes that are seen in a totally stubby area are intra-area routes (O) and the default Intra area route (O*IA). O IA C.OSPF.255.250. B . IA .mobile. O* N2 E.EIGRP external.OSPF external type 1.EGP i .RIP. I . L2 IS-IS level-2.108.252 is subnetted. EX .0 255.255. Serial0 . L1 . O N2 D.IS-IS level-1.static.OSPF inter area E1 .255.

The external and inter-area routes have been blocked. as found in frame-relay and ATM. Note: On the physical interface of an NBMA network. and the no-summary command does not affect the Hello packet at all as the stub command does. The cost of the default route is now 74 (64 for a T1 line + 10 advertised by RTC). nonbroadcast multi-access C. the command "ip ospf network-type point-to-multipoint" command can be used instead of specifying the neighbors individually.250.0. the neighbor commands do not need to be configured.0.1.15. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 108: . The area is already stub.0. Serial0 Note that the only routes that show up are the intra-area routes (O) and the default-route 0. When sub-interfaces are used.0 [110/74] via 203.0 0. broadcast multi-access B.0. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 107: Which type of OSPF network requires manual configuration of OSPF neighbors? A. point-to-multipoint Answer: B Explanation: Non-broadcast multi-access networks.0. require the neighbors to be explicitly specified. This is the case where the PVCs are configured on the physical interface using frame map commands. 00:00:00.O*IA 0.0.0. No configuration is needed on RTE in this case. point-to-point D.

Serial0 O IA 203.static. O IA C.OSPF inter area E1 .250.15.250.IS-IS level-1.15.candidate default Gateway of last resort is 203.0. I .252 is subnetted.255.1. IA .0.0.RIP.EIGRP external.15.213.255. 1 subnets O IA 128. E Explanation: When an area is configured as a stub area.0 0. 00:26:59.0 255. O N2 D.15. E . 00:26:59.0 is directly connected.0.1 to network 0.15.1.0.250.0. L2 IS-IS level-2.0 [110/84] via 203. * .14.0 [110/74] via 203.108.0 203. 00:26:58.250. E2 . 00:26:59. it will learn about all routes. M . 1 subnets O 131.255.connected.63.208 [110/74] via 203.Which of the following OSPF routes are supported by the Stub Area type? (Select three) A.0.15. 1 subnets C 203.250. L1 . Example routing table of a stub router: CK2 #show ip route Codes: C . O* IA Answer: A.EIGRP. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 109: .79.250. Serial0 128.0 255.1.240 is subnetted.mobile.0.255. O* N2 E.0 255.255.250.OSPF.15.213. Serial0 Note that all the routes show up except the external routes which were replaced by a default route of 0.OSPF external type 2.108. Serial0 131.EGP i . B.IS-IS. S . B . O B. R .IGRP.252 is subnetted. O .OSPF external type 1.0.BGP D . Serial0 O*IA 0.250.0 [110/65] via 203.255. except for the external routes.1.0. EX .0.

O* IA Answer: B. C.OSPF inter area N1 . D Explanation: The various route types used by OSPF are as follows: O . O N2 D. O N1 B.OSPF IA . and default external type 2 routes.OSPF external type 2 An OSPF NSSA will receive inter-area.Which of the following OSPF routes are supported by the Not-So-Stubby-Area (NSSA) type? (Select three) A.OSPF external type 1 E2 .OSPF NSSA external type 1 N2 .OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . O IA C. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 110: . external type 2. O* N2 E.

and that CK2 takes the place of the DR while CK3 becomes the new BDR. router CK1 was elected the DR and CK2 was elected the BDR.243 ------------------------------------------- . What will happen when CK1 comes back online? A. Assume that CK1 fails. The only time a DR and BDR changes is if one of them is out of service. the BDR becomes the DR. D. C. CK1 will take the place of DR only if both CK2 and CK3 fail. CK1 will take the place of DR immediately upon establishing its adjacencies. the router that is powered on first will generally become the DR. it does not preempt the DR and BDR. since the DR/BDR process is not pre-emptive. B. If the BDR is out of service. In a multi-access network. Reference:: CCNP Self-Study Second Edition P. Answer: C Explanation: If a router with a higher priority value gets added to the network. and a new BDR is selected. If the DR is out of service.In the Certkiller network shown above. a new BDR is elected. A new election will take place establishing an all new DR and BDR based on configured priority levels an MAC addresses. CK1 will take the place of DR only if CK2 fails.

originates type 3 link-state advertisements which can be summarized E. ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 112: The Certkiller OSPF network is shown in the diagram below: . has at least one interface in an external internetwork. routes traffic to and from other areas C. maintains a separate link-state database for each area D. If the ABR has multiple links in the same area. C. D Explanation: ABR forwards summary LSAs. F. ABR also forwards Type 3 LSAs from other areas into its own area. it also forwards Type 1 and Type 2 LSAs in its capacity as an internal router.QUESTION 111: Which of the following are features are characteristics of an OSPF ABR? (Choose three) A. It forwards both Type 3 LSAs and Type 4 LSAs. Type 3 LSAs are forwarded to the other ABRs. Answer: B. and Type 4 LSAs are forwarded to the ASBRs. maintains one link-state database for all areas B. has at least one physical interface in area 0.

Default routes for the AS can also be described by AS external advertisements. Type 2 LSA C. Type 1 LSA B. Type 3 LSA D. Type 4 LSA E. This is identified as a Type 5 LSA.Which type of Link State Announcement will Certkiller E use to announce changes in network 22 to Area 1? A. ------------------------------------------ QUESTION 113: . Each external advertisement describes a router to a destination in another autonomous system. Type 5 LSA Answer: E Explanation: The external link LSA is originated by AS boundary routers and is flooded throughout the AS.

100 Answer: A Explanation: By default. 10 E. the formula is 100M/100M = 1. or 100. O N2 C.What is the OSPF cost for the 100 Mbps Ethernet media type? A. --------------------------------------- QUESTION 114: Which of the following OSPF routes are supported by the Not-So-Stubby-Area (NSSA) type? (Select three) (801) A.000 (100M) divided by bandwidth. OSPF uses the formula of 100. O* N2 D. 2 C. C Explanation: The various route types used by OSPF are as follows: O . For a 100M fast Ethernet connection. 1 B.000.000. O E1 E. O E2 Answer: A.000/BW. O B.OSPF . 6 D. B.

Less frequent SPF calculations B.IA . Reduced LSU overhead E.OSPF inter area N1 . smaller routing tables occur with area summarizations. ---------------------------------- . external type 2. OSPF areas are logical subdivisions of OSPF autonomous systems whose internal topology is hidden to routers outside the area. which is a grouping of contiguous OSPF networks and hosts.OSPF external type 2 An OSPF NSSA will receive inter-area. Fewer adjacencies needed Answer: A.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . D Explanation: OSPF employs the concept of an area. These features make OSPF particularly scalable to large networks.OSPF external type 1 E2 . -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 115: Which three are advantages to creating multiple areas in OSPF? (Select three) A. and they can be used to aggregate routing information and mask the details of a network. When using areas. OSPF routers need to maintain information only within their own area so less frequent SPF calculations are required.OSPF NSSA external type 1 N2 . Areas allow an additional level of hierarchy different from that provided by IP network classes. Smaller routing tables D. and the link state update overhead is reduced. C. OSPF routes. Fewer hello packets C.

such as stub or NSSA flag 3. Stub area flag F. Authentication password Answer: B. C. Authentication values/passwords ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 117: . Address of DR/BDR E. E. F Explanation: The following hello parameters must match in order for two OSPF routers to become adjacent neighbors: 1. OSPF area number 2. Neighbors B.QUESTION 116: Which of the following items must match in an OSPF hello packet in order for two routers to become OSPF neighbors? (Choose four) A. Hello/dead intervals C. OSPF area type. Subnet and subnet mask 4. Area ID D. OSPF HELLO and Dead timer values 5.

* The S0/0 interface of Certkiller 2 is in Area 0. and Certkiller 3.com.com Tokyo office. As a final advice Certkiller tells you to make sure that you use the appropriate . with the exception of the default route. Certkiller 2.SIMULATION Refer to the following network topology exhibit: You work as a network technician at Certkiller . You are administering three routers Certkiller 1.com is a large international company with offices in USA. Europe. The current situation is such as Area 0 and Area 2 have been configured correctly as follows: * the S0/1 interface of Certkiller 3 is in Area 0. and Japan. should be receive by Area 1. Miss Certkiller. Your boss at the Certkiller . Certkiller 2 and Certkiller 3 have been configured for OSPF. Certkiller . You work at the Tokyo office. has asked you to Area 1 as follows: * the S0/0 interface of Certkiller 1 should be in Area 1 * the S0/1 interface of Certkiller 2 should be in Area 1 * no other interfaces should be in Area 1 * no external routes or inter-area. * The loopback address of Certkiller 3 is in Area2.

A default route is noted as 0. the OSPF internetwork. Instead. If routers need to reach networks outside the autonomous system. To configure an area as a stub or totally stubby area. it sends it using a 0.0.5.0. if the router needs to send a packet to a network external to the area.0.168. 2.0/0 default route. such as routes from non-OSPF sources.5.0.4 0. The area stub command is configured .0. they use a default route. Totally stubby area .0/0.A totally stubby area is an area that does not accept external autonomous system (AS) routes and summary routes from other areas internal to the autonomous system. Totally stubby areas are a Cisco proprietary feature.3 area 1 Certkiller 1(config-router)# area 1 stub Certkiller 1(config-router)# end Certkiller 1# copy run start Certkiller 2# conf t Certkiller 2(config)# router ospf 1 Certkiller 2(config-router)# network 192. Stub area -A stub area is an area that does not accept information about routes external to the autonomous system.168. Answer: Explanation: Certkiller 1# conf t Certkiller 1(config)# router ospf 1 Certkiller 1(config-router)# network 192.OSPF mask. use the following syntax on all router interfaces that are configured to belong to that area: Router(config-router)#area area-id stub The no-summary keyword creates a totally stubby area.0.0.4 0.3 area 1 Certkiller 2(config-router)# area 1 stub no-summary Certkiller 2(config-router)# end Certkiller 2# copy run start 1.0.

It indicates that the area is a stub area. When this command is configured. router ospf 1 area 1 nssa default-information originate F.on each router in the stub location. what commands should be configured on the NSSA ABR? A. the stub routers exchange Hello packets with the E bit set to 0. router ospf 1 area 1 nssa B. The E bit is in the Options field of the Hello packet. router ospf 1 area 1 nssa default-information originate metric-type 2 E. --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 118: Router CK1 is an OSPF router connected to area 1. which is essential for the routers to become neighbors and exchange routing information. The state of this bit must be agreed upon otherwise the routers will not become neighbors. To create an NSSA totally stubby area in Area 1. None of the above Answer: B . router ospf 1 area 1 nssa no-redistribution D. router ospf 1 area 1 nssa no-summary C.

A. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 119: OSPF enabled.Explanation: Not-so-stubby area (NSSA) . What should be configured on the routers in area 1 to ensure that all default summary routes and redistributed EIGRP routes will be forwarded from Certkiller 6 to area 1. This prevents Type 3 and Type 4 summary routes from flooding the NSSA area and minimizes the routing tables within the area. use the optional keyword no-summary when configuring NSSA on an ABR. configure all OSPF router interfaces that belong to the area using the following command syntax: Router(config-router)#area area-id nssa [nosummary] Typically. Certkiller 5(config-router)# area 1 nssa no-summary Certkiller 6(config-router)# area 1 nssa . In effect. the no-summary keyword makes the NSSA totally stubby. and only a default route for all other OSPF routes will be forwarded from Certkiller 5 to area 1.An NSSA is an area that is similar to a stub area but allows for importing external routes as Type 7 LSAs and translation of specific Type 7 LSA routes into Type 5 LSAs To configure an OSPF area as a NSSA.

This prevents Type 3 and Type 4 summary routes from flooding the NSSA area and minimizes the routing tables within the area. the no-summary keyword makes the NSSA totally stubby.An NSSA is an area that is similar to a stub area but allows for importing external routes as Type 7 LSAs and translation of specific Type 7 LSA routes into Type 5 LSAs To configure an OSPF area as a NSSA. In effect. which IOS command would you execute if your goal was to summarize the networks advertised out of the area? . configure all OSPF router interfaces that belong to the area using the following command syntax: Router(config-router)#area area-id nssa [no-summary] Typically. Certkiller 5(config-router)# area 1 stub no-summary Certkiller 6(config-router)# area 1 stub C. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 120: Assuming that you are configuring an ABR in an OSPF area. use the optional keyword no-summary when configuring NSSA on an ABR. Certkiller 5(config-router)# area 1 stub Certkiller 6(config-router)# area 1 stub Answer: A Explanation: Not-so-stubby area (NSSA) . Certkiller 5(config-router)# area 1 nssa Certkiller 6(config-router)# area 1 nssa D.B.

Which interface belongs to which OSPF area . Incorrect Answers: A: The summary-address address mask command consolidates external routes (inter-area) on an ASBR C: Auto-summarization is not useful here. network network-number wildcard mask area area-id E. D: The network command cannot be used for this purpose. The OSPF area ID B. None of the above Answer: B Explanation: The area area-id range address mask command consolidates IA (intra-area) routes on an ABR. The OSPF router ID C. The OSPF process ID D. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 121: Which two of the following characteristics are defined by the network command? (Select two) A.A. summary-address address mask B. This command is simply used to add a network to the OSPF routing process. This command instructs the ABR to summarize routes for a specific area before injecting them into a different area. auto-summary address mask area area-id D. area area-id range address mask C.

0.0.23. E Explanation: An interface may belong to only one area.255. The OSPF router ID is 76. C.0 255. E.x are in area 0.255 area 0 area 0 range 172. This router connects area 1 to the backbone area. Any router interfaces with an address of 172. D.255.18.0 0.0.18. the router is considered as an area border router.0 255.18. The designated router priority is 76.0.0 area 1 network 172.0 area 1 range 172. Syntax: network address wildcard-mask area area-id --------------------------------- QUESTION 122: Router CK1 is configured for OSPF as shown below: router ospf 76 network 172.23. the command "network 172.Answer: A.0 Which of the following statements are true regarding the above configuration? (Select three) A.0 0. The networks that follow the network command are connected to each other and Area O is always the backbone area.22.18.0.0.255. D Explanation: The network command designates the OSPF area for an interface with the specified IP address.22.0. Incorrect Answers: A.18.255 area 0" identifies that all interfaces with IP address of 172.0 area within area 0. C: The command router ospf 76 identifies the process ID as 76 and not the router ID nor the . Finally. D.0.x. This is an area border router.255.0 0. Answer: B. If a router has multiple interfaces and if any of those interfaces belong to different areas.255. B.0.

None of the above Answer: D Explanation: Using this command for OSPF causes an OSPF autonomous system boundary router (ASBR) to advertise one external route as an aggregate for all redistributed routes that are covered by the address. this command summarizes only routes from other routing protocols that are being redistributed into OSPF.router priority. summary-address command E. area range command B. Incorrect Answers: A: The area range command is used only with area border routers (ABRs). Catherine Paquet and Daine Teare. ospf summarize command C. The result is that a single summary route is advertised to other areas by the ABR. pp 178-181. It is used to consolidate or summarize routes for an area. For OSPF. aggregate-route command D. what additional command is required by ASBR's that is not needed by ABR's? A. -------------------------------------- QUESTION 123: When configuring a multi-area OSPF network to summarize routes. C: There are no such commands for OSPF. "Building Scalable Cisco Networks" (Cisco Press 2001). B. Reference: OSPF Commands -------------------------------------------- .

B.255 area 7 network 203. D Explanation: An extension to stub areas is what is called "totally stubby areas". Syntax: area area-id stub [no-summary] The no-summary optional parameter prevents an ABR from sending summary link advertisements into the stub area.0. C. Note: The area stub command is used to define an area as a stub area. Redistribution of other routing protocols takes place at the area designated router. Answer: A. D.255 area 0 area 7 stub no-summary area 7 default-cost 30 Which of the following statements are true regarding this configuration? (Select two) A. .com/warp/public/104/3.0.0. OSPF summarization command.0 0. A virtual link to area 0. but not on an internal router? A. Area 7 non-ABR routers contain only intra-area routing information and a default route.QUESTION 124: A Certkiller OSPF router is configured in the following manner: router ospf 200 network 203.68. If the backbone becomes discontiguous. traffic can be routed through area 7.42.html ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 125: Which of the following is an OSPF configuration parameter that is used on an ABR.42.0. B. A totally stubby area is one that blocks external routes and summary routes (inter-area routes) from going into the area. Area 7 is a totally stubby area.0 0.67.cisco. Reference: OSPF Design Guide http://www. Cisco indicates this by adding a "no-summary" keyword to the stub area configuration.

20. This option is used for creating a totally stubby area. area 3 range 172.20. area 3 range 172.0.20.0.20. no-summary extension to the area stub command.16. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 126: Router CK1 is an OSPF ABR that connects area 3 to the network.16.255. network 172.192 172.16. . default-cost extension to the area command. B.192 255.20.223 C.255. Which two of the following IOS commands would you execute to accomplish this? (Select two) A.255.223. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: The no-summary extension of the area stub command is used only for ABRs connected to totally stubby areas. D.224 area 3 Answer: A. E.20. It prevents an ABR from sending summary link advertisements into the stub area. network 172.192 0.16.16.172.20.192 255. You wish to configure area 3 to summarize the IP address range 172. make sure to associate the correct network addresses with the desired area ID.192 . Incorrect Answers: A: For a virtual link to work both ends need to be configured.16.255.C.31 area 3 B.224 D. C: These commands are not specific to an ABR only.16. Syntax: network address wildcard-mask area area-id. C Explanation: A: When configuring multiple OSPF areas.

---------------------------------------- QUESTION 128: .255. Syntax: [no] area area-id range address mask [do-not-advertise] Description: Address ranges are used to aggregate address ranges from within the area into one single advertisement sent into the adjacent areas. It provides a summary of networks to be advertised outside the area. D: We should use a wildcard mask. Area range entries are used to aggregate network information before the advertisements are flooded into the backbone.224) C: We must instruct the ABR to summarize routes for a specific area before injecting them into a different area. not a network mask with the network command. Answer: C Explanation: The area range command creates/deletes an area address range entry and optionally specifies whether to advertise the addresses. C.255.0. What does this command provide? A. An OSPF area is defined as a list of address ranges. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 127: Router CK1 is an ABR that is part of the Certkiller OSPF network.31) and not a network mask (255. It is used for summarizing routes into an area. It provides a summary of networks outside the area and inside the AS. We should use a network mask to specify the address range. or to prevent the advertisement of networks. It provides the range of areas in the OSPF internetwork. B. CK1 has been configured with the "area range" command.We must use a wildcard mask (0. It provides the range of areas in which this ABR participates. Syntax: area area-id range address mask Incorrect Answers: B: This is the wrong syntax. D. Each address range consists of an address and mask pair.0. A single summary LSA is originated for each range.

10.24. The S0/0 interface will not sending out routing updates. Certkiller 3 will hear about the 171. ------------------------------------------ QUESTION 129: . E. F. C.A. The interfaces S0/1 and Fa0/0 will not process any routing update that the router receives.0 networks through OSPF update. F Explanation: This is a bit of a trick question.0 network through OSPF update. Answer: E. which will result in normal OSPF operation. D.101.0 and 172.69. The S0/0 interface will not process any routing update that it receives. since the statement "no passive interface default" command will effectively cancel out the previous command. The interfaces S0/1 and Fa0/0 are configured as passive interfaces.232. Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 4 will hear about the 140. Due to this. all networks will be advertised normally via the OSFP process.0. B.

on all routers in area 15 in the OSPF config-router mode: area 15 range 10. Only Choice C specifies the correct syntax and route summarization network mask. on the ABR S0/0 interface: summary-address 10. on the ABR S0/0 interface: area 15 range 10.255.0 255.255. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 130: .255.0 255.0 255. on the ABR E0/0 interface: area 15 range 10.10. External to the area.0 255. Routing information is condensed at area boundaries.10.8.252.0 Answer: C Explanation: To consolidate and summarize routes at an area boundary.255.10.248. The area range command is used only with Area Border Routers (ABRs).12. use the area range command in router configuration mode.252.0 255.0 F.8.10.248.0 D.0 C. The result is that a single summary route is advertised to other areas by the ABR. on the ABR in the OSPF config-router mode: area 15 range 10. It is used to consolidate or summarize routes for an area.10.12.8.12. on the ABR in the OSPF config-router mode: summary-address 10.248.255. a single route is advertised for each address range.252.0 B.A.0 E.255.0 255.10.

252.16.0/22 supernet before injecting them into Area 0? A.255. ip summary-address area 0 192.168.You work as a network technician at Certkiller .252. Study the exhibit above carefully.255.168. area 0 range 192. area 10 range 192. a single route is advertised for each address range.0 255.192.168.com.16.16.0 255. Only Choice A specifies the correct syntax and route summarization network mask.252. summary-address 192.255.0 255.0 Answer: A Explanation: The area range command is used only with Area Border Routers (ABRs) which is router Certkiller 2 in this example.168.0 B.255.255.16. ip summary-address ospf 101.0 255.16.168. --------------------------------------- QUESTION 131: .0 D.252. It is used to consolidate or summarize routes for an area.16. The result is that a single summary route is advertised to other areas by the ABR. Routing information is condensed at area boundaries.252. External to the area.168.0 E.0 255. Which command will Certkiller 2 use to summarize routes for the 192.0 C.

E.1. frame-relay map ip 10.1.1. F Explanation: The ip ospf network command.1 200 broadcast F. is used to specify .1. ip ospf network point-to-multipoint C. frame-relay map ip 10.3 300 broadcast Answer: B.OSPF is being configured over the Certkiller frame relay network as displayed in the diagram below: Which three of the following commands would you enter on the Certkiller 1 serial 0 interface.1. ip ospf network point-to-point B. if you wanted to implement OSPF on this network? (Select three) A. typed under the interface configuration mode. frame-relay map ip 10.1. frame-relay map ip 10.3 300 E.1.1 200 D.1.

The neighbor command became somewhat obsolete with the introduction of the capability to configure other network modes for the interface. Answer: A. The OSPF hello timers need to be adjusted manually.255. C.0. B. E.1.0 0.255.Datalink connection identifier (DLCI) number. The area 0 NBMA cloud is configured as more than one subnet.0255 area 0 Based on the information above.1.html ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 132: Router CK1 is configured as shown below: interface serial0 ip address 110. The router is restricted to a hub and spoke topology.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1830/products_feature_guide09186a0080 087b42. D.0 encapsulation frame-relay ip ospf network point-tomultipoint router ospf 51 network 110. This keyword is needed on the frame relay mappings in order to transmit the OSPF information across the frame relay network. DB/BDR elections do not take place.1 255. Broadcast .Forwards broadcasts to the specified IP address. DB/BDR elections do not take place.1.1. regardless of the underlying physical topology.the OSPF network configuration and sets the network mode to point-to-multipoint DLCI. OSPF neighbor statements are not necessary. Reference: http://www. D Explanation: In an OSPF Point-to-Multipoint environment. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 130 and 181 Point-to-Multipoint Network: .cisco. which two of the following statements are true? (Select two) A.

Point-to-multipoint forms an adjacency automatically along any PVC. Answer: A Explanation: Using point to point subinterfaces will eliminate the issues surrounding split horizons over NBMA networks. Point-to-multipoint does not try to reduce adjacencies using a DR. the network is considered to be a series of point-to-point interfaces. OSPF traffic is sent as multicast. By default. because the neighbors will see each other and simply become adjacent. There is no need to specify neighbors. There is no DR or BDR election. Guidelines for Running OSPF over Frame Relay Network. it accepts the extra overhead of having a full set of adjacencies for the sake of stability. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 133: You have been assigned the task of connecting two office networks together via a frame relay network. Point-to-point over sub-interfaces. D. which causes more overhead but is more resilient than NBMA. What kind of configuration structure would you use to accomplish this? A. The underlying network treats the network as a series of point-to-point circuits. Point-to-multipoint nonbroadcast using a single subnet. This technology uses one IP subnet for all endpoints on the network. None of the above. C. Instead. with no need for the election of a DR or a BDR. Configuring the network in this way is the Cisco recommended solution. B.Point-to-multipoint is a single interface that connects to multiple destinations. It replicates LSA packets for each circuit. Point-to-multipoint using a single subnet. Point-to-multipoint star configuration. -------------------------------------------- . and running OSPF across this network. E. Reference: RFC1586.

In addition.31 area 0 neighbor 164.36. With this setup you are required to specify neighbors so that a DR and BDR can be elected. -------------------------------------- QUESTION 135: Refer to the Certkiller network exhibits shown below.0 0. The DR and BDR need a static list of neighbors due to non-broadcast.0. This is a point-to-point configuration over Frame Relay. D Explanation: The configuration printout shows an OSPF configuration across a frame relay network that is not configured for subinterfaces.255.36.255.36. Note: Had subinterfaces been used. all locations are part of the same IP subnet so the OSPF neighbors need to be explicitly assigned at the host location of an NBMA network.1 255.67. the network would be seen as a series of logical point to point links.QUESTION 134: A Certkiller router is configured as shown below: interface serial 0 ip address 164. Network topology exhibit: .3 Based on this configuration. Answer: C.67. There can be no DR or BDR in this configuration.67. The network mode is nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA).36. which of the following statements are true? (Select two) A.67.0. C. B.224 encapsulation frame-relay ip ospf network non-broadcast ! router ospf 1 network 164.2 neighbor 164. so the OSPF neighbors would not need to be specified. D.

2WAY/DROTHER E. The Cisco default is 1. set the router priority to 0 using the ip ospf priority command in interface configuration mode. 2WAY/DR C. Based on this information. The eligible neighbors are those with which . which state is Certkiller 3 in? A. and the DR election has concluded as expected. None of the above Answer: F Explanation: Each OSPF interface (multi-access networks only) possesses a configurable router priority. 2WAY/BDR B. FULL/DR D. If you don't want a router interface to participate in the DR/BDR election.Study the exhibits shown above carefully. The local router creates a list of eligible neighbors. FULL/BDR G. FULL/DROTHER F. Let's go through the steps that occur in any given router when the DR and BDR are elected for a specific multi-access network of which it is a member: 1. All routers have simultaneously been reloaded.

* If all router priorities are equal. because both may be declared by default. The local router will select the BDR from the list in step 4. meaning that no router has declared itself the DR. then the router with the highest router priority is selected to be the BDR. * If the resulting list from step 6 is empty. then the BDR that was selected in step 5 becomes the DR. If selected to be the DR. then the one of these with the highest priority is selected to be the BDR. 7. A list of all routers claiming to be the DR (their own Hello packets list them as the DR) is compiled from the list resulting from step 2. 8. * If all router priorities are equal. all routers whose participating interfaces have a router priority of 0 are removed. the router with the highest router ID becomes the BDR. These routers will be among the DROthers on this network.the local router has entered at least a 2Way state. 2. the router with the highest router ID is selected to be the DR. based on a comparison to the results of step 3. based on the following criteria in order: * If one or more of the routers in the list have declared themselves the BDR. if dethroned as the DR. then it will repeat steps 4 through 7. The local router makes note of the current DR and BDR values for later comparison. From this list. by making the list in step 4. based on the following criteria in order: * The router with the highest router priority is selected to be the DR. If the local router's DR status has been altered by the preceding steps. The local router will select the DR from the list in step 6. 4. the local router can become eligible to be the BDR the next time around. or cease to be. This serves to make sure that the local router does not declare itself both the DR and the BDR. for which it qualifies. the local router will definitely not make the BDR list the next time around in step 4. the DR. * If no router in the resulting list from step 4 has declared itself the BDR. The local router adds itself to this list and to all lists that are formed from this list in subsequent steps. * If all routers have the same router priority. 3. then the router with the highest router ID is selected to be the BDR. ---------------------------------------- . 6. 5. A list of all routers not claiming to be the DR (their own Hello packets do not list them as the DR) is compiled from the list resulting from step 2. Conversely. either causing it to become.

0. which of the following statements is true? A. E. C. Network 6.0. The default route is learned from an OSPF neighbor.0.QUESTION 136: Based on the output shown above.0. OSPF router 5. D. A default route is configured on the local router. None of the above.2 is an ABR. Answer: D Explanation: ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 137: . B.0/8 was learned from an OSPF neighbor within the area.

all routers whose participating interfaces have a router priority of 0 are . The local router creates a list of eligible neighbors. for which it qualifies. 10.A. The eligible neighbors are those with which the local router has entered at least a 2Way state. FULL/DROTHER F. 2WAY/DROTHER D. FULL/DR G. set the router priority to 0 using the ip ospf priority command in interface configuration mode. 2WAY/BDR B. The local router adds itself to this list and to all lists that are formed from this list in subsequent steps. If you don't want a router interface to participate in the DR/BDR election. From this list. FULL/BDR C. The Cisco default is 1. None of the above Answer: E Explanation: Each OSPF interface (multi-access networks only) possesses a configurable router priority. 2WAY/DR E. Let's go through the steps that occur in any given router when the DR and BDR are elected for a specific multi-access network of which it is a member: 9.

meaning that no router has declared itself the DR. * If all routers have the same router priority. The local router makes note of the current DR and BDR values for later comparison. 16. The local router will select the DR from the list in step 6. 13. if dethroned as the DR. * If all router priorities are equal. 11. A list of all routers claiming to be the DR (their own Hello packets list them as the DR) is compiled from the list resulting from step 2. then the one of these with the highest priority is selected to be the BDR. then the BDR that was selected in step 5 becomes the DR. the local router will definitely not make the BDR list the next time around in step 4. 15. Conversely. or cease to be. ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 138: . This serves to make sure that the local router does not declare itself both the DR and the BDR. the router with the highest router ID is selected to be the DR. based on a comparison to the results of step 3.removed. based on the following criteria in order: * The router with the highest router priority is selected to be the DR. 12. If the local router's DR status has been altered by the preceding steps. then it will repeat steps 4 through 7. because both may be declared by default. by making the list in step 4. * If no router in the resulting list from step 4 has declared itself the BDR. either causing it to become. 14. * If the resulting list from step 6 is empty. then the router with the highest router priority is selected to be the BDR. then the router with the highest router ID is selected to be the BDR. the local router can become eligible to be the BDR the next time around. the DR. A list of all routers not claiming to be the DR (their own Hello packets do not list them as the DR) is compiled from the list resulting from step 2. * If all router priorities are equal. The local router will select the BDR from the list in step 4. If selected to be the DR. based on the following criteria in order: * If one or more of the routers in the list have declared themselves the BDR. the router with the highest router ID becomes the BDR. These routers will be among the DROthers on this network.

shtml --------------------------------------------- . the default interface type of NON_BROADCAST is assigned. the physical serial 0 interface is used.cisco. Point-to-multipoint nonbroadcast Answer: A Explanation: Based on the information above.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/technologies_configuration_example09186a0080094054. When OSPF is configured on point-to-point subinterfaces. Reference: http://www.A. interface S0) of a nonbroadcast multiaccess technology such as Frame Relay. When OSPF is configured on multipoint subinterfaces. Nonbroadcast B. When OSPF is configured on a physical interface (for example. the default interface type of POINT_TO_POINT is assigned. Point-to-multipoint D. the default network type of NON_BROADCAST is assigned. Point-to-point E. Broadcast C. with no subinterfaces.

It also gives the timer intervals.QUESTION 139: Router CK1 has been configured for OSPF on all of the interfaces. A logical loopback interface has not been created in CK1 . The name set by the hostname command. The lowest IP address configured in the router. meaning that if a loopback address is configured or another interface is configured with a higher IP address. By default. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 134 ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 140: While troubleshooting some connectivity issues. the router ID will not change until it is restarted. The highest IP address configured in the router. B. Each router has an identical link state database. E. Note: the router ID used is not pre-emptive. Which three of the statements below are true regarding the OSPF link state database? (Select three) A. It defaults to 255. The priority number of the router set by the priority command. D. Answer: C Explanation: The show ip ospf interface command verifies that interfaces have been configured in the intended areas. including the hello interval. B. the interface with the highest address is the taken router ID. If no loopback address is specified. what will determine the OSPF router ID of router CK1 ? A. External routes are imported into a separate link state database. . C. you issue the "show ip ospf database" in order to examine the link state database. and shows the neighbor adjacencies.

C. . D. B. OSPF also uses the SPF algorithm to build the database B. Information in the link state database is used to build a routing table by calculating a shortest-path tree. Each router in the OSPF network maintains an identical database. Excessive LSA traffic.C. Frequent adjacencies table recalculation. E. The default refresh time is 30 minutes. C. By default. LSA flooding occurs whenever there is a change in the OSPF topology. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 178. D Explanation: The Link state database is a collection of link state advertisement for all routers and networks. ------------------------------------------QUESTION 141: When designing OSPF networks. Frequent routing table recalculation. Answer: A. Synchronization of link state databases is maintained via flooding of LSAs. Which two of the following statements describe the consequences of having too many routers in an area? (Select two) A. E. Only one link state database is maintained. and it is used for all OSPF routes. link state databases are refreshed every 10 minutes in the absence of topology changes. ensuring that the databases are synchronized. D. it is not recommended to have an excessive number of routers in any single area. Unacceptable number of reachability errors.

1 B. D. The formula used to calculate the . because anytime a topology change in any single route occurs. ------------------------------------ QUESTION 142: Router CK1 has OSPF configured on its fast Ethernet interface. What is the OSPF cost associated with this 100Mbps Ethernet connection? A. 6 C. Incorrect Answers: C: The number of routers in an area has little or no impact with the number of neighbor adjacencies that must remain established for any given router. LSAs are flooded to all other routers within the area. B Explanation: In OSPF. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The OSPF cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface. Too many routers can cause an overwhelming amount of LSA and OSPF database calculations. if too many routers are in the same area they spend too much time communicating with each other. 10 D.Answer: A. There is a higher cost and time delay involved in crossing a 56k serial line than crossing a 10M ethernet line. A higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. An excessive number of routers in any single area will not alone increase the number of errors within the network. In OSPF the amount of overhead used increases exponentially with the number of routers in an area. 100 E.

html ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 143: Refer to the exhibit.000 bps we have: 10000 0000 / 10000 0000 = 1 Reference:http://www. All routers have converged and neighbor relationships have been established.com/warp/public/104/2. FULL/DROTHER E.000. 2WAY/DR D.000/bandwith in bps. 2WAY/BDR C. Which state is Certkiller 4 in? A.cisco. 2WAY/DROTHER B.000. Since a 100M Ethernet link is 100.cost is of any single OSPF network is: Cost= 100. FULL/BDR F. FULL/DR Answer: F Explanation: .

only link changes. D. Incorrect Answers: B: OSPF does not use hold down timers. the dead timer shows that the neighbor relationships have already been established. the router with the highest router ID will be the DR. so routing loops can occur.The router with the highest OSPF priority on a segment will become the DR for that segment. Based on the output above. Instability causes more LSAs to be sent. The default for the interface OSPF priority is one. Holddown timers are used by distance vector protocols. requiring more CPU to recalculate routes. Flooding the area topological database instances consumes excessive bandwidth. so the state will be Full for all neighbors. Summary link LSAs cannot be sent until all routers in the OSPF area have the same topological database. Convergence cannot happen until holddown timers expire. Each summary-LSA describes a route to a destination outside the area but within the AS. and since the OSPF priorities are all set to 1. C: The topological database is not distributed. maintaining stability in an area is important. such as RIP. E. B. . D: Summary-link LSAs are not sent to all routers. Summary-link LSAs originate from area border routers. The same process is repeated for the BDR. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: Instability of routes (links) would force sending of LSAs (Link State Advertisements). In case of a tie. Which of the following describes a reason for this? A. the router with the highest RID will win. C. ------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 144: When designing OSPF networks. and CPU time would be required to recalculate the routes. and flood throughout the LSA's associated area.

------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 146: You are a systems administrator of a large multi-area OSPF network. What does an ABR connect to? A. A router that contains network/area statements for two or more different areas is an ABR.org/rfcs/rfc2328.faqs. OSPF and RIP networks C. Answer: A Explanation: An ABR (Area Border Router) shares an interface with at least one other OSPF area. However. and you've just created a new area for an upcoming remote network. Multiple OSPF areas B.Reference:http://www. circumstances dictate you to connect it to the existing area 2 at this . area 0. Ordinarily OSPF areas are be connected to the backbone.html --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 145: Router CK1 is an ABR in the Certkiller OSPF network. Multiple redistributed networks. Multiple designated routers D. Multiple OSPF autonomous systems E.

D: The transit area. must attach directly to area 0. Answer: A.html Incorrect Answers: B: The transit area. C: The area through which you configure the virtual link. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 147: A new location is being added to the Certkiller network and a new OSPF area is being created for . area 2. D Explanation: A: There must be a virtual link from the new area to the backbone.time. E. Network summary link LSAs must be disabled. C.cisco. Area 2 must be a stub area. It cannot be a stub area. Reference: OSPF Virtual Link http://www. Area 2 must attach directly to area 0. cannot be a stub area. D.com/warp/public/104/ospfdb7. Which conditions have to be met in order to make this configuration work? (Select three) A. Area 2 cannot be a stub area. The virtual link provides the disconnected area a logical path to the backbone. C. E: This is not a requirement. must have full routing information. known as a transit area (here area 2). B. There must be a virtual link. area 2. area 0.

Stub router C. but not every ABR is configured as a stub. They have at least one interface connected to area 0. However. Backbone router E.it. not a router and not stub routers are typically a type of ABR. ------------------------------------------------ QUESTION 148: . Internal router D. Incorrect Answers: B: Stub routers do not apply. What kind of OSPF router would you use to connect this new OSPF area to the backbone area? A. An area is stub. D: Backbone routers sit on the perimeter of the backbone area. C: Internal routers are only uses within an area. backbone routers do not necessarily connect to other areas. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: ABRs are used to connect non-backbone areas to the backbone area (area 0). ABR B.

Routers that are wholly contained within an area are called internal routers. Backbone router D. Incorrect Answers: . None of the above. Designated router B. Internal router C.A. We recommend that you configure an area as a collection of contiguous IP subnetted networks. Area border router E. All interfaces on internal routers are directly connected to networks within the area. Answer: B Explanation: An area is a set of networks and hosts within an AS that have been administratively grouped together. Autonomous system boundary router F.

None of the above Answer: C Explanation: The information displayed by the show ip protocols command is useful in debugging routing operations. show ip ospf B.A: Designated routers are defined on multi-access networks. show ip protocol D. the DR/BDR election process does not take place. . For OSPF routers. --------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 149: Which command should you use to verify what networks are being routed by a given OSPF process? A. this command will display the routed networks. In a network consisting of point to point circuits. D: Routers that belong to more than one area are called area border routers. show ip route C. C: Backbone routers are routers that are contained within area 0. Information in the Routing Information Sources field of the show ip protocols output can help you identify a router suspected of delivering bad routing information. show ip ospf database E. E: Routers that exchange routing information with routers in other ASs are called AS boundary routers.

This command will display the areas assigned and other useful information.110. use the show ip ospf command in EXEC mode. B) has a path to its ASBR.42. D: The OSPF database does not display the networks being routed. but not the networks that are being routed.200 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) route It is an area border and autonomous system boundary router Redistributing External Routes from. Which IOS privileged mode command would you enter to confirm that your network: A) has a path to its ABR. includes subnets in redistribution rip with metric mapped to 2 igrp 2 with metric mapped to 100 igrp 32 with metric mapped to 1 Number of areas in this router is 3 Area 192.Incorrect Answers: A: To display general information about Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing processes. but not the networks being routed.110. and C) the SPF calculation is functional? .42. igrp 200 with metric mapped to 2. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 150: You have a multi-area OSPF network and you're concerned because one of the sites is having connectivity problem to resources in a different area.0 Number of interfaces in this area is 1 Area has simple password authentication SPF algorithm executed 6 times B: This will display the active routing table. Example: CK1 # show ip ospf Routing Process "ospf 201" with ID 192.

0.0.0. C: The show ip ospf neighbor command displays OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis.0.1.97.103.3 3 160.3 3 Incorrect Answers: A: The show ip protocols command only displays routing protocol parameters and current timer values.3 3 160.89. B: The show running-config command displays the currently used configuration mode.0.103.103.53 10 ABR INTRA 0.53 22 ASBR INTER 0. show ip ospf border-routers Answer: D Explanation: The show ip ospf border-routers command displays the internal OSPF routing table entries to an area border router (ABR) and autonomous system boundary router (ASBR).89.96. show ip protocols B. The SPF No in the output is the internal number of SPF calculation that installs this route. The required information will not be displayed.0.144.89.89.3 3 160.0.51 10 ABR INTRA 0. .0. It does not include ABR. Example: Router Certkiller # show ip ospf border-routers OSPF Process 109 internal Routing Table Destination Next Hop Cost Type Rte Type Area SPF No 160.89.1.96.A. ASBR or SPF information.144. show running-config C.51 160.53 144. show ip ospf neighbor D.51 20 ASBR INTER 0.52 160.52 144.89.

M .BGP D - . show ip ospf E.mobile. metrics. Show ip routing Answer: A Explanation: The show ip protocols command. show ip protocol B. maximum paths.static. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 133 ----------------------------------------------QUESTION 152: Which IOS command tells you how many times the OSPF shortest path first algorithm was executed? A. show ip ospf database E. S . show ip route C. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: The following table describes the output of the "show ip ospf" command and their meanings: -----------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 161: The routing table of router CK is shown below: CK#show ip routeCodes: C . R . show ip protocol B. I . default metric.connected. show ip ospf interface C. show ip ospf interface D. filters. displays parameters about timers. show ip ospf D. B . and the number of areas configured. and other information for the entire router. Which of the IOS commands below should you use? A.RIP.IGRP.--------------------------------------------QUESTION 151: You have logged onto the console of a router running OSPF. network. and for your analysis log you need information on: the filters.

Ethernet0C 30. not totally stubby. which of the following statements are true regarding the routing table? (Select two) A. O .0 30. B. C.0. Router ID B.2. Serial0O IA 30.1. C Explanation: The show ip ospf interface command verifies that interfaces have been configured in the intended areas.3.0. Serial1 Based on the output above. The area is totally stubby. the interface with the highest address is the taken router ID.EIGRP.0. The area is a stub area.0. E2 OSPF external type 2. ----------------------------------------QUESTION 162: While troubleshooting an OSPF routing issue you issue the "show ip ospf interface" command.0.0. E . D: This is not an ABR (Area border router) since there are no external routes. C: The exhibits states that the 30. so VLSM is used Incorrect Answers: B: The area is stub. C Explanation: Incorrect Answers: A: This is a stub area. The routing table is for an ABR Answer: A. 2 masksO IA 30. Link-state update interval Answer: A. Which of the following parameters are provided from this? (Select two) A. Reference: Building Scalable Cisco Networks (Cisco Press) page 134.EGP i .0.OSPF external type 1.0. ----------------------------------------- . only internal and directly connected. It also gives the timer intervals.IS-IS level-1.64. If no loopback address is specified.0/16 [110/74] via 30.0/24 is directly connected.IS-IS. L2 .64.0. IA .2.OSPF inter area E1 . 00:09:13.0. Neighbor adjacencies D. Network 30 is using VLSM D.0.0/8 subnet is variably subnetted and the networks used are /16 and /24. L1 . EX .2 to network 0. 00:05:22.0/8 is variably subnetted.IS-IS level-2.2. 9 subnets. Summary link counts C.2. Ethernet0C 30.candidate default Gateway of last resort is 30.OSPF.64.3.EIGRP external. and shows the neighbor adjacencies. * .0/24 is directly connected.1. including the hello interval.0/16 [110/148] via 30.

broadcast address.0. D: The show ip ospf interface command is used to display OSPF-related interface information.14 Ethernet0 C: There is no such command. show ip ospf interfaces E.168.14 1 FULL/BDR 00:00:38 192.0.0.13 192.13 816 0x80000003 0xF953 1 192. show ip ospf protocols D.168.168.168.0.168.0.168.168. database for a specific router.0.0.14 192.13 Ethernet0 192. Sample output: Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 192. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) settings. which LSA's have been received. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The show ip ospf database command is used to display lists of information related to the OSPF topological.10 817 0x80000003 0xFF56 1 192.13 1 2WAY/DROTHER 00:00:31 192.0 Broadcast Address: 172.255.200 Network Mask: 255.168.12) (Process ID 1) Router Link States (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum Link count 192.255 Redundancy: disabled ICMP Redirect: enabled ICMP Unreachable: enabled RIP: enabled .0. show ip ospf database B.168.12 816 0x80000003 0xFB54 1 192.14 817 0x80000003 0xD990 1 Net Link States (Area 0) Link ID ADV Router Age Seq# Checksum 192.168. it does not display LSAs.0.0.1680.168. and RIP settings. and the time when the last LSA was received? A.0.1.0.0.0.168.16.168.14 812 0x80000002 0x4AC8 Incorrect Answers: B: The show ip ospf neighbor is used to display OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis.0. Sample output: RouterCK# show ip interfaces IP Interface Summary: Circuit Name: VLAN2 State: active IP Address: 172. IP address. However. network mask.10 192. show ip ospf neighbors C.12 192.1680. redundancy.11 817 0x80000003 0xFD55 1 192.16.11 192.QUESTION 163: Which command should you use to obtain information on OSPF link state advertisements? In particular: which LSA's have been sent. It displays the circuit name and state. It does show the required information though. the link state.14 192.168.168. Sample output: R_ Certkiller #show ip ospf database OSPF Router with ID (192.0.255.

B. so from Certkiller 3 we see that the priority of Certkiller 1 is 2. which statement is true? A. Certkiller 3 is the DR because it has a lower OSPF router ID. Certkiller 1 is the DR because it has a lower OSPF router ID. From Certkiller 1 we can see that its neighbor ( Certkiller 3) is the BDR and has an OSPF priority of 1. B. Certkiller 1 is the DR because it has a higher OSPF router priority. C. F . E. ----------------------------------QUESTION 165: Which three types of OSPF route entries can be found in the routing table of an internal OSPF router within an OSPF not so stubby area? (Select three) Answer: A. Both Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 3 are using the default OSPF router priority. Certkiller 3 is the DR because it has a higher OSPF router priority. D. and that Certkiller 1 is the DR. Answer: A Explanation: The output shown above displays information about the neighbors. Based on the show ip ospf neighbor output from the Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 3 routers.------------------------------------QUESTION 164: The Certkiller 1 and Certkiller 3 routers are OSPF neighbors over the Ethernet 0/0 connection.

O E2 0. "default information-originate".0.3. If the following command. 00:28:00 D. is added to the OSPF configuration on Certkiller 1.com.0.Explanation: The various route types used by OSPF are as follows: O .OSPF IA . OSPF routes. No default routes will be propagated to neighboring routers. Study the exhibits carefully.0 [1/0] via 6.0 [1/0] via 6.0.0.OSPF external type 2 An OSPF NSSA will receive inter-area.0.OSPF inter area N1 . -------------------------------------------QUESTION 166: You work as a network technician at Certkiller .3.0.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .0.0. Answer: D Explanation: .OSPF external type 1 E2 . O E1 0. what will the neighboring routers see in their route table? A.0. 00:28:00 B.OSPF NSSA external type 1 N2 .3. 00:28:00 C.0/0 [1/0] via 6.0.0. S* 0.0. external type 2.

generate a default route into the OSPF domain. In this example. For greater fine tuning there are more IS-IS timers. this will only advertise a default route to the OSPF neighbors if the router itself also contains a default route.0. IS-IS LSP contains TLV fields and OSPF LSU contains the LSAs. OSPF has more area types than IS-IS. Based on the default timers. and reduce the amount of information that is carried in the backbone and advertised across the network. Area 0. With IS-IS. Which three statements are correct about the differences in IS-IS and OSPF? (Select three) A. New additions to the protocol are easily implemented in OSPF but not with IS-IS. a default route does not already exist.0. It is used to summarize addresses into the backbone. Because of this. C. the "always" keyword would be required in order to propagate this default route. However. certain design constraints will inevitably exist. up to 1000. This capability makes IS-IS more scalable than OSPF. with all other areas being physically attached to Area 0. The second method can be accomplished by adding the keyword always to the defaultinformation originate command. IS-IS will detect a failure quicker than OSPF and therefore should converge more rapidly. Not only are there fewer LSPs to process. -------------------------------------------QUESTION 167: You need to choose the best routing protocol for use in the Certkiller network.0 regardless of whether the advertising router already has a default route. consistent IP addressing structure is necessary when this type of hierarchical model is used. but also the mechanism by which IS-IS installs and withdraws prefixes is less intensive. IS-IS is more efficient.0. Both OSPF and IS-IS are link-state protocols and therefore provide fast convergence. The OSPF router does not. D. The second is to advertise 0. number of nodes.Default routes injected into a normal area can be originated by any OSPF router.0. However. In comparison. The first is to advertise 0. Therefore. Answer: C. as compared to OSPF LSAs. E. If there are many neighbors and adjacencies to . B. IS-IS allows a more flexible approach to extending the backbone. D. you must use the default-information originate command. many more routers. This process is less complex than with OSPF. can reside in a single area. The convergence time depends on a number of factors. Based on the routing table shown in this example. the area borders lie on the links. IS-IS also has a hierarchy with Level 1 and Level 2 routers. such as timers. Adding Level 2 routers can extend the backbone. E Explanation: The configuration of OSPF is based on a central backbone.0 into the OSPF domain. and types of routers. There are two ways to advertise a default route into a normal area. A good. provided the advertising router already has a default route. significantly fewer link-state PDUs (LSPs) are used. by default. IS-IS is more CPU-intensive than is OSPF. In order for OSPF to generate a default route. With regard to CPU use and the processing of routing updates.

There are more timers to adjust. Hello PDUs.30ac. Authority and Format Identifier address E.c7df. Internet Protocol address C. The NSAP is the location at which OSI network services are provided to the transport layer.0f01. Network Service Access Point address D.00 C.consider. LSPs. ------------------------------------------------QUESTION 169: IS-IS uses the concept of NSAP addresses. The NSAP address is the network layer address for CLNS packets.1111. By tuning the timers. However. The NSAP address can be thought of as equivalent to the combination of an IP address and upper-layer protocol identifier in an IP header. Various NSAP formats are used for various systems. and therefore finer granularity can be achieved. not for each interface. build the topology table. convergence time can be significantly decreased. A network engineer should understand the implications of adjusting these timers. and other routing PDUs are OSI formatted PDUs. so a compromise may have to be made.0000.0004. The timers in IS-IS allow more tuning than OSPF. this speed may be at the expense of stability. NSAP addresses contain the OSI address of the device and provide a link to upper-layer processes. 49. Packet Layer Protocol address B. and build the underlying IS-IS routing tree. The NSAP address identifies any system in an OSI network. 52. the convergence time depends on the processing power of the router. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: The NSAP is a conceptual point on the boundary between the network and the transport layers. 39. IS-IS is typically less CPU intensive than OSPF.0f01. one NSAP address is used for each device.0c00. As with DECnet Phase V. Each transport layer entity is assigned a single NSAP. Therefore.0000. Different protocols may use different representations of the NSAP.0002.0c00.1111. How is network layer addressing accomplished in the OSI protocol suite? A. IS-IS uses the OSI address in the LSPs to identify the router.3090.0000. locally administered address? A. Media Access Control address F. Which of the following NSAP addresses is a private.0002.00 . ----------------------------------------QUESTION 168: You need to design an addressing scheme in the Certkiller IS-IS network.00 B. every IS-IS router requires an OSI address.

These addresses are routed by IS-IS. IS-IS encapsulates PDUs directly into a data-link frame B. They are the area address. IS-IS uses stubby areas to improve network scalability E. However.00 E. AFI = 49.D. However. this group of addresses should not be advertised to other CLNS networks. many more routers. Because of this. The role of N-selector byte is analogous to that of a port or socket in TCP/IP.1111. Addresses starting with value 49. C Explanation: The configuration of OSPF is based on a central backbone. IS-IS also has a hierarchy with Level 1 and Level 2 routers. IS-IS uses a DIS and a backup DIS to present the psuedo-node on the LAN Answer: A. This process is less complex than with OSPF. significantly fewer link-state PDUs (LSPs) are used. can reside in a single area. The system ID is the ES or IS identifier in an area. certain design constraints will inevitably exist. A good. The area address is a variable length field composed of high order octets. IS-IS allows a more flexible approach to extending the backbone. With regard to CPU use and the processing of routing updates. with all other areas being physically attached to Area 0. B. excluding the system ID and the selector byte. ------------------------------------------------QUESTION 170: When comparing OSPF and IS-IS. In comparison.0c00. . the area borders lie on the links. This capability makes IS-IS more scalable than OSPF. similar to the OSPF router ID. It is used to summarize addresses into the backbone. Private addresses are analogous to those specified by RFC 1918 for IP addresses. With IS-IS. the system ID. are considered as private addresses. The NET is used by routers to identify themselves in the LSPs and forms the basis for OSI route calculation. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: An NSAP address consists of three parts. consistent IP addressing structure is necessary when this type of hierarchical model is used.0f01. IS-IS uses an on-demand circuit to reduce the hello and LSA flooding across switched WAN links. Area 0. The N-selector byte is a service identifier.0002. such as ISDN F. The system ID has a fixed length of six bytes as engineered in the Cisco IOS. IS-IS is more efficient. Therefore.0000. and the NSAP selector byte. up to 1000. 48. IS-IS uses a default IOS metric of 10 on each interface C. Adding Level 2 routers can extend the backbone. which three characteristics apply to IS-IS but not to OSPF? (Select three) A. IS-IS runs PRC (Partial Route Calculations) to calculate IP reachability information D. The total length is between eight and 20 bytes. and reduce the amount of information that is carried in the backbone and advertised across the network.

End System-to-Intermediate System E. as compared to OSPF LSAs. Level 2 ISs route between Level 1 areas and form an intradomain routing backbone. D Explanation: 1. Intermediate System to Intermediate System: The OSI routing protocol that learns the location of the networks within the autonomous system so that data can be forwarded to the remote hosts. Based on the default timers. but also the mechanism by which IS-IS installs and withdraws prefixes is less intensive. The convergence time depends on a number of factors. Hierarchical routing simplifies backbone design. Both OSPF and IS-IS are link-state protocols and therefore provide fast convergence. IS-IS is typically less CPU intensive than OSPF ------------------------------------------QUESTION 171: You need to determine the best routing protocol to be used within the Certkiller network. End System-to-Intermediate System The protocol by which the OSI ES and the IS communicate to dynamically learn Layer 2 adjacencies. such as timers. Level 3 routing is done between separate domains. Level 2. ES-IS is included here because it is commonly used with routing . number of nodes. With IS-IS routing. and types of routers. OSI distinguishes between Level 1. If there are many neighbors and adjacencies to consider. Routing Information Protocol B. End System-to-End System D. IS-IS will detect a failure quicker than OSPF and therefore should converge more rapidly. What are two routing protocols defined by the OSI protocol suite that operate at the network layer? (Select two) A. Level 1 ISs communicate with other Level 1 ISs in the same area. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Answer: B. the convergence time depends on the processing power of the router. Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System C. and Level 3 routing to simplify router design and operation. ES-IS is an analogous to Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) in IP.Not only are there fewer LSPs to process. because Level 1 ISs only need to know how to get to the nearest Level 2 IS. 2. Although not technically a routing protocol.

OSPF with the process ID and IS-IS with a tag after the router isis command. * Both allow the use of authentication to ensure a more secure network. 1. support a hierarchical network topology. * Both. * They both support VLSM and the summarization of areas. Support for multiple areas per router C. Which two statements identify similarities between IS-IS and OSPF? (Select two) A. * To maintain their link-state databases. Both allow multiple instances per device. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 173: . * For broadcast multi-access networks. Routing between end systems and intermediate systems is sometimes referred to as Level 0 routing. Support for classless routing D.protocols to provide end-to-end data movement through an internetwork. both routing protocols use the Dijkstra SPF algorithm. C Explanation: Similarities between OSPF and IS-IS * Both of them are link-state routing protocols. Support for both DIS adjacencies and neighbor adjacencies Answer: A. Support for designated intermediate systems and backup designated intermediate systems E. they both elect a designated router (DR). * They both use Hello packets to form adjacencies with their neighbors. Support for address summarization between areas B. through the use of areas. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 172: IS-IS is often considered an alternative to OSPF in many networks.

----------------------------------------- QUESTION 174: Router CK1 is configured as a level 1 router in the Certkiller IS-IS network. To establish adjacency with ES's C. L1 ISs enable communication between ESs in an area. Level 0 C. which level is used to route between different areas within the same domain? A. analogous to an autonomous system (AS) in TCP/IP. Level 2 B. which contains only the inter-area topology information. route between areas and the backbone. Level 2 (L2) ISs. To build a topology database for the local and remote areas . Level 1 D. L2 routers are also referred to as area routers because they interconnect the L1 areas. 3. are responsible for routing to ESs inside an area. IS-IS Level 1 routers use LSPs for which purpose? A. Level 3 E. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: An IS-IS network is termed a domain. Level 1 and Level 2 (L1L2) Intermediate ISs. closely equivalent to backbone routers in OSPF. Level 1 (L1) ISs. 2. To build a topology database for areas outside the AS B. The following shows IS-IS within the domain as a two-level hierarchy: 1. closely equivalent to OSPF internal non-backbone routers.Certkiller is using IS-IS in their network domain. They participate in the L1 intra-area routing and the L2 inter-area routing. closely equivalent to area border routers (ABRs) in OSPF. L2 routers store a separate LSPD. route between areas only. In IS-IS routing.

The following shows IS-IS within the domain as a two-level hierarchy: 1. The L1 routers maintain the L1 link-state PDU database (LSPD). L1 ISs enable communication between ESs in an area. None of the above Answer: F Explanation: An IS-IS network is termed a domain. To build a topology database for the local area only G. When routing between Level 1 areas in different domains C. When routing between end systems and intermediate systems B. Level 1 (L1) ISs. which defines the picture of the area itself and the exit points to neighboring areas. are responsible for routing to ESs inside an area. When routing between intermediate systems in the same area F. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 175: Certkiller uses the IS-IS routing protocol within their network. In IS-IS routing. When routing between Level 1 areas in the same domain E. when would the use of Level 1 IS routing be required? A. None of the above Answer: E . A contiguous group of L1 routers defines an area. To establish adjacency with L1 IS's F. closely equivalent to OSPF internal non-backbone routers. When routing between intermediate systems in different areas D. analogous to an autonomous system (AS) in TCP/IP. To build a topology database for remote areas E.D. L1 routers are also referred to as station routers because they enable stations to communicate with each other and the rest of the network.

B=ISH. A=ESH. analogous to an autonomous system (AS) in TCP/IP. B=IIH.Explanation: An IS-IS network is termed a domain. Level 1 (L1) ISs. L1 routers are also referred to as station routers because they enable stations to communicate with each other and the rest of the network. C=ISH E. C=ESH D. B=ISH. --------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 176: A. A contiguous group of L1 routers defines an area. The following shows IS-IS within the domain as a two-level hierarchy: 1. A=IIH. C=IIH B. A=ISH. A=ISH. B=ESH. L1 ISs enable communication between ESs in an area. The L1 routers maintain the L1 link-state PDU database (LSPD). which defines the picture of the area itself and the exit points to neighboring areas. closely equivalent to OSPF internal non-backbone routers. A=IIH. B=ESH. C=ESH C. None of the above . are responsible for routing to ESs inside an area. C=IIH F.

Used by IS-IS to distribute link-state information. None of the above Answer: C . not IS-IS PDUs. Hello PDU (ESH. Note that ESH and ISH PDUs are ES-IS PDUs. Link-state summary E. Partial Sequence Number PDU (PSNP) . Database description packet (DDP) F.Answer: E Explanation: There are four categories of IS-IS PDUs: 1. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 177: Router CK1 is a Designated Intermediate System on a Certkiller network. ESHs are sent from ESs to ISs. Complete SNP (CSNP) D. The packets are similar to an OSPF database description packet.Used to establish and maintain adjacencies. What is periodically sent by a DIS on a LAN to ensure that all adjacent neighbors' IS-IS link-state databases are synchronized? A.Used to distribute a complete link-state database on the router. CSNPs are used to inform other routers of LSPs that may be outdated or missing from their own database. LSP . ISH. Hello B. IIHs are sent between ISs. This ensures that all routers have the same information and are synchronized. ISHs are sent from ISs to ESs. There are independent pseudonode and non-pseudonode LSPs for both Level 1 and Level 2. Partial SNP (PSNP) C. 3. 2. Complete Sequence Number PDU (CSNP) . 4. Database query G. IS-IS Hello [IIH]) .Used to acknowledge and request link-state information.

Which two statements are true about IS-IS routing.Used by IS-IS to distribute link-state information.Used to distribute a complete link-state database on the router. when compared to OSPF? (Select two) A. 4. IIHs are sent between ISs. OSPF detects a failure faster than IS-IS does. B. There are independent pseudonode and non-pseudonode LSPs for both Level 1 and Level 2. ISHs are sent from ISs to ESs. IS-IS Hello [IIH]) . not IS-IS PDUs.Used to establish and maintain adjacencies. D Explanation: . Partial Sequence Number PDU (PSNP) . OSPF default timers permit more tuning than IS-IS does. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 178: You need to determine the best routing protocol for your network. E. stub. 3. This ensures that all routers have the same information and are synchronized.Used to acknowledge and request link-state information. Based on the default timers. 2. The packets are similar to an OSPF database description packet. IS-IS is more efficient than OSPF in the use of CPU resources. Complete Sequence Number PDU (CSNP) . ESHs are sent from ESs to ISs. link-state routing protocols which support VLSM. Answer: A. ISH. CSNPs are used to inform other routers of LSPs that may be outdated or missing from their own database. and NSSA areas. D. C. OSPF is more scalable than IS-IS because of its ability to identify normal. Note that ESH and ISH PDUs are ES-IS PDUs. IS-IS and OSPF are both Open Standard. Hello PDU (ESH. LSP .Explanation: There are four categories of IS-IS PDUs: 1.

like OSPF does. * IS-IS allows for the preempting of DRs. reiterating that each router is in only one area per routing process.IS-IS is the dynamic link-state routing protocol for the OSI protocol stack. L1 IS D. it is referred to as ISO IS-IS. they do have quite a few differences: * Whereas OSPF routers can be part of multiple areas. L1/L2 IS . --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 179: Router CK1 is an IS-IS device that needs to route within the same area. The boundaries of areas are on the network connections between routers for IS-IS. When IS-IS is used strictly for the ISO CLNS environment. L2 ES B. * OSPF DROthers do not form adjacencies with other DROthers on broadcast multi-access networks. * * In OSPF. in the case of OSPF). IS-IS distributes routing information for routing CLNP data for the ISO CLNS environment. Differences between IS-IS and OSPF Although IS-IS and OSPF share many common features. * The backbone of an IS-IS network is designated by the type of routers in it instead of being designated by an area number (0. all IS-IS intermediate systems form adjacencies with one another. an IS-IS router belongs to only one area per routing process. L2 IS C. Which two provide intraarea routing services? (Select two) A. As such. L1 ES E. the boundaries of areas are set in the router. while in the same environment. where OSPF does not. * IS-IS utilizes CLNS protocol data units (PDUs) to send information between routers instead of using IP packets.

weaving their way through and between the Level 1 areas. closely equivalent to area border routers (ABRs) in OSPF. IS-IS does not share the concept of an Area 0 with OSPF. L1/L2 IS B. 2. L2 IS C. E Explanation: An IS-IS network is termed a domain. route between areas only. route between areas and the backbone. closely equivalent to OSPF internal non-backbone routers. are responsible for routing to ESs inside an area. L1L2 routers support an L1 function to communicate with the other L1 routers in their area and maintain the L1 LSP information in an L1 LSPD. closely equivalent to backbone routers in OSPF. Which two provide inter-area routing services? (Select two) A. Level 1 and Level 2 (L1L2) Intermediate ISs. An IS-IS domain appears as a set of distinct areas interconnected by a chain of L2 routers. Level 1 (L1) ISs. They inform other L1 routers that they are an exit point for the area.Answer: C. The following shows IS-IS within the domain as a two-level hierarchy: 1. A contiguous group of L1 routers defines an area. analogous to an autonomous system (AS) in TCP/IP. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 180: Router CK1 is an IS-IS device that needs to route traffic between different areas. They participate in the L1 intra-area routing and the L2 inter-area routing. L1 IS . L1 ISs enable communication between ESs in an area. They also support an L2 function to communicate with the rest of the backbone and maintain an L2 topology database separately from their L1 LSPD. Level 2 (L2) ISs. The L1 routers maintain the L1 link-state PDU database (LSPD). 3. which defines the picture of the area itself and the exit points to neighboring areas. L1 routers are also referred to as station routers because they enable stations to communicate with each other and the rest of the network.

IS-IS requires fewer neighbor relationships in a broadcast multiaccess network B. closely equivalent to backbone routers in OSPF. None of the above Answer: A. IS-IS supports more routers in an area C. They participate in the L1 intra-area routing and the L2 inter-area routing. They also support an L2 function to communicate with the rest of the backbone and maintain an L2 topology database separately from their L1 LSPD. which contains only the inter-area topology information. IS-IS supports route tags D.D. They inform other L1 routers that they are an exit point for the area. IS-IS does not require Hello packets to establish neighbor relationships E. L1L2 routers support an L1 function to communicate with the other L1 routers in their area and maintain the L1 LSP information in an L1 LSPD. weaving their way through and between the Level 1 areas. B Explanation: * Level 1 and Level 2 (L1L2) Intermediate ISs. L2 routers store a separate LSPD. IS-IS produces fewer link state advertisements for a given network F. -----------------------------------------------QUESTION 181: A network administrator has decided to use IS-IS instead of OSPF in the Certkiller network. IS-IS does not share the concept of an Area 0 with OSPF. IS-IS supports network layer protocols other than IP . closely equivalent to area border routers (ABRs) in OSPF. Which three are benefits of IS-IS over OSPF? (Select three) A. * Level 2 (L2) ISs. route between areas only. L1 ES F. An IS-IS domain appears as a set of distinct areas interconnected by a chain of L2 routers. L2 routers are also referred to as area routers because they interconnect the L1 areas. L2 ES E. route between areas and the backbone.

it is referred to as ISO IS-IS.0102. Given this NSAP. IS-IS distributes routing information for routing CLNP data for the ISO CLNS environment. 39 C. * IS-IS utilizes CLNS protocol data units (PDUs) to send information between routers instead of using IP packets. * IS-IS allows for the preempting of DRs.1211.0c00. * OSPF DROthers do not form adjacencies with other DROthers on broadcast multi-access networks. reiterating that each router is in only one area per routing process. the boundaries of areas are set in the router. Differences between IS-IS and OSPF.0001. 0001. As such. * In OSPF.0c00 . in the case of OSPF). while in the same environment. they do have quite a few differences: * Whereas OSPF routers can be part of multiple areas. F Explanation: IS-IS is the dynamic link-state routing protocol for the OSI protocol stack. 0001 B. all IS-IS intermediate systems form adjacencies with one another. E. When IS-IS is used strictly for the ISO CLNS environment. * The backbone of an IS-IS network is designated by the type of routers in it instead of being designated by an area number (0. where OSPF does not. which portion is interpreted by IS-IS as the area? A. -------------------------------------------------- QUESTION 182: One of the Certkiller IS-IS routers is using the NSAP 39.0100.00. Although IS-IS and OSPF share many common features. like OSPF does. The boundaries of areas are on the network connections between routers for IS-IS. an IS-IS router belongs to only one area per routing process.Answer: B.

004d. 39. The n-selector indicates which transport entity the packet is sent to. 0001. is the area ID.004d. ---------------------------------------------- QUESTION 183: Routers CK1 and CK2 have established an IS-IS neighbor relationship.0001.0004.0001.0c11.1110: 47.D. What does IS-IS use to establish and maintain neighbor relationships between Intermediate Systems? . and means that the packet is for the routing software of the system. The six bytes directly preceding the n-selector are the system ID.0100.0001 and system ID 0001. None of the above Answer: E Explanation: A NET is a NSAP where the last byte is always zero. a NET can be 8 to 20 B in length.0100 G. The last byte is always the n-selector and must be zero.0102.0100. 39.0004.0c00. 39. On a router running IS-IS. The area ID field is the portion of the NSAP preceding the system ID. All bytes preceding the system ID are the area ID.1211 which is the system ID.0c00. An n-selector of zero indicates no transport entity.0102 F. The system ID must be unique throughout each area (Level 1) and throughout the backbone (Level 2).1110. The system ID length is a fixed size and cannot be changed.00 In our example.0c11. the six bytes preceding the N selector is 0001. The following example shows a router with area ID 47. The portion preceding this.1211 E.

the router's capabilities. Hello PDUs are sent out every 10 seconds by default to maintain the adjacencies. the routers will form an adjacency. F Explanation: IS-IS is the dynamic link-state routing protocol for the OSI protocol stack. ISH. and certain parameters about the interface sending the Hello PDU. IS-IS Hello [IIH]) . IS-IS supports three layers of hierarchical routing F. --------------------------------------------- QUESTION 184: You need to decide on the best routing protocol for the Certkiller network and have narrowed your choices to IS-IS and OSPF. Hello PDU (ESH.Used to establish and maintain adjacencies. The Hello PDU contains information about the router. not IS-IS PDUs. Once the two routers agree on their respective capabilities and the parameters set forth. After the formation of adjacencies. ISHs are sent from ISs to ESs. IS-IS . IS-IS utilizes SPF algorithm C. Note that ESH and ISH PDUs are ES-IS PDUs. IS-IS provides routing support for multiple network layer protocols Answer: D. As such. IS-IS supports demand circuit routing D. IS-IS provides for network scalability by allowing the network to be separated into areas B. ESHs are sent from ESs to ISs. Which two are characteristics of the IS-IS protocol but not OSPF? (Select two) A.Answer: A Explanation: IS-IS utilizes Hello PDUs to discover its neighbors and to form adjacencies with them. IIHs are sent between ISs. IS-IS forms adjacencies with all neighbors E.

they do have quite a few differences: * Whereas OSPF routers can be part of multiple areas. B. in the case of OSPF). * OSPF DROthers do not form adjacencies with other DROthers on broadcast multi-access networks. ---------------------------------------- QUESTION 185: Router CK1 is a Level-2 router in the Certkiller IS-IS network. Any Level-1 IS in the same area E. Any Level-1/Level-2 IS in any area Answer: A. * IS-IS utilizes CLNS protocol data units (PDUs) to send information between routers instead of using IP packets. Any Level-1/Level-2 IS in the same area C. all IS-IS intermediate systems form adjacencies with one another. it is referred to as ISO IS-IS. reiterating that each router is in only one area per routing process. Differences between IS-IS and OSPF.distributes routing information for routing CLNP data for the ISO CLNS environment. When IS-IS is used strictly for the ISO CLNS environment. where OSPF does not. while in the same environment. Any Level-1 IS in any area D. the boundaries of areas are set in the router. * The backbone of an IS-IS network is designated by the type of routers in it instead of being designated by an area number (0. Any Level-2 IS in any area B. * IS-IS allows for the preempting of DRs. A Level-2 IS can establish an adjacency with which routers? (Select three) A. * In OSPF. Although IS-IS and OSPF share many common features. an IS-IS router belongs to only one area per routing process. The boundaries of areas are on the network connections between routers for IS-IS. E . like OSPF does.

0010. similar to the OSPF router ID.4554. The system ID is the ES or IS identifier in an area.00 C.3456. which contains only the inter-area topology information. L2 routers store a separate LSPD. route between areas only. and the NSAP selector byte. The area address is a variable length field composed of high order octets.0a11. the system ID. 47.3564. . are considered as private addresses.00 D. However. ----------------------------------------- QUESTION 186: The Certkiller IS-IS network utilized locally administered addresses.0000. Private addresses are analogous to those specified by RFC 1918 for IP addresses. 45. They are the area address. 49. L2 routers are also referred to as area routers because they interconnect the L1 areas. These addresses are routed by IS-IS. Addresses starting with value 49. The total length is between eight and 20 bytes. closely equivalent to backbone routers in OSPF.0c12. The role of N-selector byte is analogous to that of a port or socket in TCP/IP.1112.0d35. The N-selector byte is a service identifier.0c99.00 B.0000.Explanation: Level 2 (L2) ISs.0001. this group of addresses should not be advertised to other CLNS networks. The system ID has a fixed length of six bytes as engineered in the Cisco IOS. Which IS-IS NET represents a locally administered private address? A.0010.0040. excluding the system ID and the selector byte. None of the above Answer: D Explanation: An NSAP address consists of three parts. 39.0000.0004. The NET is used by routers to identify themselves in the LSPs and forms the basis for OSI route calculation. AFI = 49.00 E.

form an adjacency with the pseudonode. A new election process occurs immediately. what happens when the designated IS router crashes? A. establishing a new DIS that will remain in place indefinitely. C. The default priority is 64. Instead of flooding and database synchronization taking place over n x (n-1) adjacencies. In an IS-IS environment. The elected backup designated router takes the place of the DIS indefinitely without the necessity of a new election. On Frame Relay networks. B. the router with the higher system ID in the NSAP address will become the DIS. a virtual node. unlike DR election with OSPF. If all interface priorities are the same. D. the router with the highest SNPA is selected.3 seconds. The elected backup designated router takes the place of the DIS temporarily without the necessity of a new election. If a new router boots on the LAN with a higher interface priority. until the original DIS comes back online. If the SNPA is a DLCI and is the same at both sides of a link. The DIS Hello interval. All the routers on the LAN. On a LAN. and a new set of LSPs will be flooded. including the DIS. The DIS creates and acts on behalf of a pseudonode. one of the routers will be elected the DIS based on interface priority. E.------------------------------------------- QUESTION 187: Router CK1 is the DIS in the Certkiller IS-IS network. or PSN. A new election process occurs immediately. at 3. it becomes the DIS. the pseudonode enables the reduction in flooding and database synchronization to occur only over the adjacencies formed with the pseudonode. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The idea behind the Designated Intermediate System (DIS) is similar to the one behind the Designated Router (DR) in OSPF. MAC addresses are the SNPAs on LANs. the local DLCI is the SNP A. purges the old pseudonode LSP. is . The configurable range is 0 to 127. The DIS election is preemptive. establishing a new DIS until a router with a higher priority or MAC address establishes an adjacency.

The L2 router can be compared to a backbone router for OSPF. Answer: A. they do not advertise L2 routes to L1 routers. L1/L2 routers maintain a separate Level 1 link-state database and a Level 2 link-state database. L2 routers Level 2 (L2) routers are the backbone routers. D. E.three times faster than the interval for other routers on the LAN. These routers receive link-state PDUs (LSPs) only from within the area. regardless of the area the L1/L2 router belongs to. They will not receive LSPs from other areas. L2 routers will send LSPs to all other L2 routers and to all L1/L2 routers. To route packets to another area. L1 routers will not receive any information from an L2 router. -------------------------------------------- QUESTION 188: Certkiller has implemented IS-IS as their internal routing protocol. Remember that there is no concept of backup DIS in IS-IS. This allows for quick detection of DIS failure and immediate replacement on the LAN. An L2 router can belong only to the backbone area. C. E Explanation: L1 routers A Level 1 (L1) router is a router in a non-backbone area. All they know about inter-area routes is a default route to the L1/L2 router for the area. B. Which three statements below regarding IS-IS are true? (Select three) A. C. L1 routers must forward the packets to an L1/L2 router within their area. They handle all of the inter-area traffic. L2 routers form adjacencies with L1 and L1/L2 neighbors. All routers within a Level 1 area contain the same link-state database. L1 routers must forward the packets to the L2 router of the destination area. To route packets to another area. . L1 routers know only about intra-area routes. The L1 router would be the equivalent of an internal router for OSPF. L1 routers have no knowledge about routes outside their area.

and information stored in the Level 2 link-state database is not shared with any L1 routers. L1 IS B. L1 ES C. It has a Level 1 link-state database with all the information for intra-area routing. They do not provide for any type of routing functionality. a scenario that may result in suboptimal routing. Incorrect Answers: B. A Level 1 router knows the topology only of its own area and has Level 1 or Level1/Level2 neighbors in this area. L2 ES E. The LSPs that the L1/L2 router sends to L2 routers help it to maintain its Level 2 link-state database. such as PCs or servers. meaning that they are used to route traffic within the same area. Two types of IS-IS provide intra-area routing services. E Explanation: L1 IS and L1/L2 IS routers provide intra-area routing services. and they are used to provide for . L2 IS D. L1/L2 routers will send LSPs to both L1 and L2 routers. The L1/L2 router contains two link-state databases. D: End systems are OSI terms used for end hosts. C: L2 routers make up the backbone of the IS-IS network. Which of the following two match this description? (Select two) A.L1/L2 routersLevel 1/Level 2 (L1/L2) routers are similar in function to an OSPF ABR. ----------------------------------------------- QUESTION 189: There are several varieties of IS-IS routers. It uses the closest Level 2-capable router in its own area to send packets out of the area. The LSPs that the L1/L2 router sends to L1 routers help it to maintain its Level 1 link-state database. L1/L2 IS Answer: A.

A contiguous collection of L1 and L2 routers. the backbone area is area 0.inter-area routing. each of which can be in a different area. L2 routers are used for inter-area routing. D. ---------------------------------------QUESTION 190: In OSPF. C. . A contiguous collection of L1 routers. A contiguous collection of L1 and L1/L2 routers. None of the above. How could you describe the backbone area of an IS-IS domain? A. How could you describe the backbone area of an IS-IS domain? A. Answer: D Explanation: IS-IS does not have a backbone area like the OSPF area 0. D. A contiguous collection of L1 routers. E. B. ------------------------------------------- QUESTION 190: In OSPF. A contiguous collection of L1 and L2 routers. C. B. A contiguous collection of L2 and L1/L2 routers. The IS-IS backbone is a contiguous collection of Level 2-capable routers. the backbone area is area 0. and a L1 router can only route traffic to other areas via an L2 or and L1/L2 IS-IS router. A contiguous collection of L1 and L1/L2 routers. A contiguous collection of L2 and L1/L2 routers.

E. None of the above Answer: C Explanation: IS-IS does not have a backbone area like the OSPF area 0. and a L1 router can only route traffic to other areas via an L2 or and L1/L2 IS-IS router. F. B. --------------------------------------QUESTION 191: Which one of the following statements correctly describes a characteristic of an IS-IS backbone? A. The IS-IS backbone is a contiguous collection of Level 2-capable routers. The IS-IS backbone is a contiguous collection of Level 2-capable routers. L2 routers are used for inter-area routing. A central area to which all other areas are attached. Area 0 . An unbroken string of L1 and LS IS-IS routers. D. C. A router in all areas. each of which can be in a different areaL1 routers are used for internal routing within the area and so only L2 and L1/L2 routers form the backbone in IS-IS. ------------------------------------QUESTION 192: The routing protocol IS-IS uses areas. each of which can be in a different area. None of the above. Answer: D Explanation: IS-IS does not have a backbone area like the OSPF area 0. All routers in one area.E. A chain of L2 and L1/L2 IS-IS routers. What must an administrator connect each IS-IS area to? A.

The contiguous set of L2 routers make up the OSPF backbone. Level-1 backbone D. E: This is not a requirement. Hello D. Routers that are solely used as L1 routers must route all traffic that is destined outside of the area to a L1/L2 or a L2 router. External IS-IS areas Answer: D Explanation: Small IS-IS networks are built as a single area that includes all the routers in the network. Incorrect Answers: A. Area 1 C. C: Level 2. areas are broken down into levels and are not numbered like OSPF areas. In IS-IS. Partial SNP (PSNP) C. similar to area 0 in OSPF networks. None of the above . ------------------------------------QUESTION 193: Which packet type is used on the Certkiller IS-IS network to acknowledge LSPs on point-to-point links and to request missing pieces of information in the IS-IS link-state database? A. it is usually reorganized into a backbone area made up of the connected set of all Level 2 routers from all areas. Database description packet (DDP) F. Complete SNP (CSNP) B. which are in turn connected to local areas.B. Database query E. B: Area 0 or Area 1 has no special significance in IS-IS. As the network grows larger. Level-2 backbone E. not Level 1.

and the backbone routers know how to reach other areas. Between areas. which is in turn connected to local areas. Another router can ask the DIS for a missing LSP using a partial sequence number packet (PSNP). Reference: CCNP Self-Study CCNP BSCI Exam Certification Guide p. routers know how to reach all system IDs. Level 2 D. which level is used to route between different areas within the same domain? A. Level 0 B.361 --------------------------------QUESTION 194: In IS-IS routing. Within a local area. similar to an OSPF database descriptor packet PSNP-Partial Sequence Number PDUs are used to request an LSP and acknowledge receipt of an LSP PDUs (PSNP's) every 3 seconds and complete sequence number PDUs (CSNPs) every 10 seconds that describe the full database of the DIS. Routers establish Level1 adjacencies to perform routing within a local area (intra-area routing).Answer: B Explanation: The different IS-IS packet types are described below: CSNP-Complete Sequence Number PDUs are used to tell other routers about all the LSPs in one router database. it is usually reorganized into a backbone area made up of the connected set of all Level2 routers from all areas. Level 1 C. Level 3 Answer: C Explanation: Small IS-IS networks are built as a single area that includes all the routers in the network. routers know how to reach the backbone. As the network grows larger. or in turn give the DIS a new LSP. . Routers establish Level2 adjacencies to perform routing between different areas (inter-area routing).

Routing between areas is referred to as Level 2 routing. None unless statically configured E. It has two link-state databases: a Level 1 link-state database for intra-area routing and a Level 2 link-state database for inter-area routing. the DIS (Designated Intermediate System) will become adjacent with its neighbors. 2. WAN links do not support IS-IS adjacencies Answer: C Explanation: IS-IS routers that are configured as L1/L2. will run two separate SPF algorithms. On broadcast networks and nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) networks. Both Level-1 and Level-2 D. which is the default. Level-1 only B.------------------------------------QUESTION 195: In your network you have two Level-1/ Level-2 IS-IS routers named CK1 and CK2 . Within an Area Level 1 routing is used. one for each level. Level-2 only C. Level 2-The two routers sharing a common network segment must be configured as Level 2 if they are in different areas and want to become neighbors. A Level 1/Level 2 router runs two SPFs and may require more memory and processing as a result. ---------------------------------------- . The two routers are connected together via a WAN link. A Level 1/Level 2 router may have neighbors in any area. What kind of an adjacency can you expect them to establish? A. Neighbors on point-to-point networks always become adjacent unless they do not see themselves in their neighbors' hello PDU and match on certain parameters. Level 1-The two routers sharing a common network segment must have their interfaces configured to be in the same area if they are to have a Level 1 adjacency. and they both belong to the same area. Two routers will become neighbors if the following parameters are agreed upon: 1.

One RIP routing process 4. Up to 30 IGRP routing processes 2. Depends on the total number of IDB blocks. and you're thinking of upgrading your network. Any Level-1 IS in the same area . 2 C.QUESTION 196: You have a network segment with an IS-IS level 1-2 router. Up to 30 OSPF routing processes 3. 1 B. 30 D. limited only by the router's resources F. Any Level-1 IS in any area B. One BGP routing process Up to 30 EGP routing processes ------------------------------------QUESTION 197: Which of the following types of routers can a Level-2 IS establish adjacencies with? (Select three) A. Answer: A Explanation: The Cisco IOS software can handle simultaneous operation of up to 30 dynamic IP routing processes. 40 E. What is the maximum number of Level-2 routing processes that this router can belong to? A. One IS-IS process 5. Any Level-2 IS in any area C. The combination of routing processes on a router or access server consists of the following protocols (with the limits noted): 1.

D.1 Routing within an area is referred to as Level 1 routing. where it may travel via Level 1 routing to the destination. A Level 2 Intermediate System (IS) keeps track of the paths to destination areas. regardless of what the destination area is. Routing between areas is referred to as Level 2 routing. It should be noted that selecting an exit from an area based on Level 1 routing to the closest Level 2 IS might result in suboptimal routing. D.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK3 81/technologies_white_paper09186a00800a3e6f. Each system resides in exactly one area. A large domain may be administratively divided into areas. Any Level-1/Level-2 IS in any area E. Any Level-1/Level-2 IS in the same area Answer: B. Where in an IS-IS network does this happen? A. Between areas.2 Reference: http://www.shtml ----------------------------------QUESTION 199: .D. Between intermediate systems in the same area. A Level 1 IS keeps track of the routing within its own area. Answer: C Explanation: A two-level hierarchy is used to support large routing domains. B. Then the packet travels via Level 2 routing to the destination area. Between end systems and intermediate systems in the same area. a Level 1 IS sends the packet to the nearest Level 2 IS in its own area. C. Between domains. E --------------------------------QUESTION 198: One of the characteristics of the routing protocol IS-IS is its ability to use level-1 routing. For a packet destined for another area.cisco.

named after a version designed for IP and CLNP networks.Your newly appointed Certkiller trainee wants to know why Level-3 area routing is not a supported feature of integrated IS-IS on Cisco routers. E. C. C. Since the NSAP service identifier (N-SEL) must always be set to 00. Integrated IS-IS sometimes is called Dual IS-IS. To route packets to another area. What will your reply be? A. -----------------------------------------QUESTION 200: Which of the following three statements correctly describe the characteristics of IS-IS? (Select three) A. they do not advertise L2 routes to L1 routers. Answer: C Explanation: Integrated IS-IS is a version of the OSI IS-IS routing protocol that uses a single routing algorithm to support more network layer protocols than just CLNP. no other service types are available. To route packets to another area. D. E. L1 routers have no knowledge about routes outside their area. The lack of a Domain portion of the NSAP only accommodates for 2 levels of routing hierarchy. ISO CLNS only or IP only. L2 routers form adjacencies with L1 and L1/L2 neighbors. L1 routers must forward the packets to an L1/L2 router within their area. B. Cisco routers cannot route CLNS data that use the ISO/IEC 10589 standard of NSAP addressing. The system ID on a Cisco router is limited to 6 bytes. The NET on a Cisco router is restricted to a maximum of 8 bytes. D. L1 routers must forward the packets to the L2 router of the destination area. L1/L2 routers maintain a separate Level 1 link-state database and a Level 2 link-state database. . B. Only one IS-IS process is allowed whether you run it in integrated mode.

The backbone routing protocol also can change without impacting the intra-area routing protocol. connect a single pair of routers. point-to-point C. Level 1 ISs communicate with other Level 1 ISs in the same area. E: Point-to-multipoint is not used by IS-IS. In IS-IS.Answer: A.htm Incorrect Answers: B: Point-to-point networks. Reference: http://www. broadcast B. IS-IS is configured on all Ethernet interfaces. non-broadcast E. Hierarchical routing simplifies backbone design because Level 1 ISs need to know only how to get to the nearest Level 2 IS. Level 2 ISs route between Level 1 areas and form an intradomain routing backbone. C: A Designated Intermediate System (DIS) creates a pseudonode (a virtual node). such as serial lines.cisco. including the DIS. To simplify router design and operation. Delay B. what network type identifies a LAN interface? A. Error . Broadcast networks are used on all LAN interfaces. D: Non-broadcast is not used by IS-IS. ------------------------------QUESTION 202: The Certkiller network is utilizing IS-IS for the routing protocol. D Explanation: Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) is an OSI link-state hierarchical routing protocol that floods the network with link-state information to build a complete. Reference:http://www. what is the metric used by the Certkiller routers on IS-IS interfaces? A. point-to-multipoint Answer: A Explanation: The types of networks that IS-IS defines include Point-to-point networks and Broadcast networks. pseudo-node D. DISs are not used by default however. IS-IS distinguishes between Level 1 and Level 2 ISs.cisco. form an adjacency with the pseudonode instead of forming n*(n-1) order adjacencies with each other in a full mesh.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/osi_rout. B. consistent picture of network topology.com/warp/public/cc/pd/iosw/prodlit/insys_wp. By default. and all the routers on a LAN.htm ----------------------------------------QUESTION 201: On router CK1 .

IS-IS uses a single required default metric with a maximum path value of 1024. The delay metric measures transit delay. expense. is supported by all routers. Cost B.cisco. the expense metric measures the monetary cost of link utilization. Delay C. Reference: http://www. The Cisco implementation uses cost only. All routers support the default metric of cost. and path links are calculated by summing link values. Cost Answer: G Explanation: Explanation: The original IS-IS specification defines four different types of metrics. Maximum metric values were set at these levels to provide the granularity to support various link types while at the same time ensuring that the shortest-path algorithm used for route computation will be reasonably efficient. Error E. If the optional metrics were implemented. The metric is arbitrary and typically is assigned by a network administrator. what metric is supported exclusively by the Cisco IOS? A. there would be a link-state database for each metric and SPF would be run for each link-state database. the expense metric measures the monetary cost of link utilization. expense. Hops G. Delay. ------------------------------------QUESTION 203: In the IS-IS routing protocol.com/en/US/tech/ CK3 65/ CK3 81/technologies_white_paper09186a00800a3e6f. Default D. Delay. Bandwidth F. None of the above Answer: A Explanation: The original IS-IS specification defines four different types of metrics. The Cisco implementation uses cost only. Expense D.shtml -------------------------------------- . there would be a link-state database for each metric and SPF would be run for each link-state database. Cost. The delay metric measures transit delay. being the default metric. Expense E. and the error metric measures the residual error probability associated with a link.C. and error. and the error metric measures the residual error probability associated with a link. If the optional metrics were implemented. and error are optional metrics. Any single link can have a maximum value of 64. IS-IS also defines three optional metrics (costs): delay. and error are optional metrics. expense.