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Wolfgang Riedel

wriedel@cisco.com
MPLS overview Systems Engineer
ECSO Enterprise Manufacturing
Cisco Systems GmbH

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1

Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 2

Evolution of MPLS

• From tag switching
• Proposed in IETF—Later combined with other
proposals from IBM (ARIS), Toshiba (CSR)

Cisco Calls a MPLS Croup Cisco Ships Traffic Engineering
BOF at IETF to Formally Chartered MPLS TE Deployed
Standardize by IETF
Tag Switching
Cisco Ships MPLS VPN Large Scale
MPLS (Tag Deployed Deployment
Switching)

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Time

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 3

The Challenges

Service Providers Enterprise

Generate new services Lower cost of WAN
connectivity

Protect existing Migration path
Infrastructure—ATM/FR

Combine private data Lower cost of managing
services with Internet separate Data and Voice
services networks
Move into rapid deployment Campus Service Provider
“multiple customers”
Cost saving Replacement of campus
wide vlan´s

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 4

Inc. FR. 12:24 5 . All rights reserved. MPLS advanced services Carrier Multicast L2 IPv6 supporting over VPN 6PE Carrier VPN ATOM BGP Virtual Private Networks LDP Any Transport over MPLS IP DiffServ Multicast OSPF IP Traffic Fast CoS aware Routing IS-IS switching Engineering Rerouting (DiffServ) TE (PIM v2) v2 PIM LDP Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) RSVP Per-Label Forwarding. Queuing. Restoration CEF Mechanisms L2 protocols (PPP.) © 2001. Cisco Systems. Multicast.. Enet. POS. . ATM.. GRE.

. PHBPOS. . Inc.. All rights reserved.) Switching * 2697 A Single Rate Three Color Marker 3036 LDP Specification * 2698 ©A2001. MPLS Innovation & Standards Carrier Multicast L2 IPv6 supporting over VPN 2547 BGP/MPLS VPNs * 6PE Carrier VPN ATOM BGP 2702 Requirements for Virtual Private Networks LDP Any Transport over MPLS Traffic Engineering Over MPLS IP DiffServ Multicast OSPF IP Traffic Fast CoS aware Routing IS-IS switching Engineering Rerouting (DiffServ) TE (PIM v2) v2 PIM LDP Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) 3031 Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture * RSVP 2474 Definition of the Differentiated Services 3032 MPLS Label Stack Encoding * PerField -Label Forwarding. Restoration 3034 Label Switching on Frame CEF 2475 An Architecture for Differentiated Mechanisms Relay Networks Services 3035 MPLS using LDP and ATM VC 2597 Assured Forwarding PHB Group * 2598 AnL2Expedited protocols Forwarding (PPP. Enet. Two Rate Three Color Marker 3037 LDP Applicability * Cisco Systems. * ATM. GRE. 12:24 6 . Multicast. in IP Headers * Queuing. FR.

mpls-02. 12:24 7 .. for Queuing. All rights reserved.txt .) draft-ietf-mpls-diff-ext-09. Differentiated Services * L2 protocols (PPP. Restoration CEF Transport of Layer 2 Frames Mechanisms Over MPLS * • MPLS Support of draft-martini-l2circuit-encap. Cisco Systems. POS.txt Per-LabelMethods • Encapsulation Forwarding. Multicast. FR. Inc. MPLS Innovation-in-Progress [Draft Rosen] • An Architecture for L2VPNs * draft-rosen-ppvpn-l2vpn-00. ATM. RSVP mpls-06.txt © 2001. Enet.txt Carrier Multicast L2 IPv6 supporting over VPN 6PE Carrier VPN ATOM BGP Virtual Private Networks LDP Any Transport over MPLS IP DiffServ Multicast OSPF IP Traffic Fast CoS aware Routing IS-IS switching Engineering Rerouting (DiffServ) TE (PIM v2) v2 PIM [Martini Drafts] • Transport of Layer 2 Frames LDP Label Over MPLS * Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) draft-martini-l2circuit-trans.. GRE.

All rights reserved.7 Fast Reroute 4. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. 12:24 8 . Summary © 2001.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.9 QoS 5. Evolution of MPLS 2. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Cisco Systems.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. Inc.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.

12:24 9 . Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.MPLS Concept At Edge: In Core: Classify packets Forward using labels Label them (as opposed to IP addr) Label indicates service class and destination Edge Label Switch Router Label Switch Router (LSR) Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) © 2001.

LSR switches packets using services. Existing routing protocols (e. Ingress Edge LSR receives packet. and “labels” packets label swapping © 2001. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishes label to destination network mappings 2. Edge LSR at egress establish reachability to destination networks removes label and delivers packet 1b. IS-IS) 4. 12:24 10 . performs Layer 3 value-added 3. OSPF.MPLS Operation 1a. Inc. All rights reserved.g. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. Encapsulations ATM Cell Header GFC VPI VCI PTI CLP HEC DATA Label PPP Header PPP Header Label Header Layer 3 Header (Packet over SONET/SDH) LAN MAC Label Header MAC Header Label Header Layer 3 Header © 2001. All rights reserved. 12:24 11 . Inc.

Label Header for Packet Media 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Tag COS S TTL Label = 20 bits COS/EXP = Class of Service. 8 bits • Can be used over Ethernet. 1 bit TTL = Time to Live. 3 bits S = Bottom of Stack. 12:24 12 . 802. All rights reserved.3. or PPP links • Uses two new Ethertypes/PPP PIDs • Contains everything needed at forwarding time © 2001. Cisco Systems. Inc.

3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. Technology Basics 3.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Summary © 2001.9 QoS 5. Inc. 12:24 13 .1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Cisco Systems.7 Fast Reroute 4. Evolution of MPLS 2. All rights reserved.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.

All rights reserved.b. 12:24 14 . Inc.Label Distribution Protocol • Defined in RFC 3036 and 3037 • Used to distribute labels in a MPLS network • Forwarding equivalence class How packets are mapped to LSPs (Label Switched Paths) • Advertise labels per FEC Reach destination a.c.d with label x • Neighbor discovery Basic and extended discovery © 2001. Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. 12:24 15 .TDP and LDP • Tag Distribution Protocol Pre-cursor to LDP Used for Cisco tag switching • TDP and LDP supported on the same box Per neighbor/link basis Per target basis © 2001. Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc.RSVP and Label Distribution • Used in MPLS traffic engineering • Additions to RSVP signaling protocol • Leverage the admission control mechanism of RSVP • Label requests are sent in PATH messages and binding is done with RESV messages • EXPLICT-ROUTE object defines the path over which setup messages should be routed • Using RSVP has several advantages © 2001. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 12:24 16 .

12:24 17 . Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.BGP-Based Label Distribution • Used in the context of MPLS VPNs • Need multi-protocol extensions to BGP • Routers need to be BGP peers Works in both RR and non-RR environment • Label mapping info carried as part of NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information) © 2001.

69 through me 1 171.69 Routing Updates You can reach 171.. .. Inc..69 171.89 and through me 171.69 (OSPF..89 11 128... …) through me © 2001. All rights reserved. ...69 171... . .89 00 128. MPLS Example: Routing Information In In Address Address Out Out Out Out In In Address Address Out Out Out Out In In Address Address Out Out Out Out Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face Lbl Lbl Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face Lbl Lbl Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face Lbl Lbl 128.89 128.. . . . 0 128. 18 . .69 11 ... .. . Cisco Systems.89 128..69 11 171.. ... EIGRP....89 1 0 You can reach 128.89 00 171...89 128..89 You can reach 128.

. . . MPLS Example: Assigning Labels In In Address Address Out Out Out Out In In Address Address Out Out Out Out In In Address Address Out Out Out Out Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face Lbl Lbl Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face Lbl Lbl Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face Lbl Lbl -...69 Label Distribution Use Lbl 7 for 171..69 1 171.69 171.. .. . 128. . ..89 128. 171... . . Cisco Systems. .....89 00 -- -..89 128.89 128. Inc..89 00 99 99 128..69 11 55 55 171. .. 0 128. ... All rights reserved. 19 .69 11 77 ..89 1 0 Use Lbl 9 for 128..89 Use Lbl 4 for 128...89 and Use Lbl 5 for 171..69 171.89 11 44 44 128.69 Protocol (LDP) (Downstream Allocation) © 2001.

69 11 77 .... ...89.89 128. ......69 11 55 55 171..89 0 1 0 128. . . MPLS Example: Forwarding Packets In In Address Address Out Out Out Out In In Address Address Out Out Out Out In In Address Address Out Out Out Out Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face TLbl TLbl Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face Lbl Lbl Lbl Lbl Prefix Prefix I’face I’face Lbl Lbl -. .69 Label Switch Forwards Based on Label © 2001.89 00 99 99 128. 171. .... ..4Data 128.89 128.89.4 Data 9 128.89 128. . Cisco Systems.89.25.69 171.25.4 Data 4 128.69 171... 128. 20 .25..89 00 -- -.. ..25. All rights reserved.89..4 Data 1 171. . 128. Inc....89 11 44 44 128. .

etc.Label Stacking • Arrange labels in a stack • Inner labels can be used to designate services/FECs. All rights reserved.g. VPNs. Cisco Systems. fast re-route • Outer label used to route/switch the MPLS packets in the network Outer Label • Allows building services such as MPLS VPNs TE Label Traffic engineering and fast re-route IGP Label VPNs over traffic engineered core VPN Label Any transport over MPLS Inner Label IP Header © 2001. E. Inc. 12:24 21 .

All rights reserved.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Summary © 2001. Technology Basics 3. 12:24 22 .7 Fast Reroute 4. Evolution of MPLS 2. Cisco Systems.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.9 QoS 5. Inc.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.

.MPLS Features . That’s all nice but .. Cisco Systems.. All rights reserved. How can you make money with it? © 2001. Inc. 12:24 23 ..

All rights reserved. 12:24 24 . Inc. Metro Solutions – Architectural flexibility. Cisco Systems. service transparency Storage TDM PL Residential Data/Voice/Video GigE PL Wavelength Enterprise VoIP Internet Access L3 VPN L2 VPN L2 VPN L3 VPN Internet Access © 2001.

All rights reserved. 12:24 25 . Inc. Cisco Systems.with enough fiber you could do anything? In what room do you want me to put it? © 2001.

12:24 26 . Inc. Cisco Systems. MPLS IP-VPN The L3 generation of core backbone Regional Site TDM Remote Sites MUX LL INTERNET Frame-Relay ATM MPLS Branch INTERNET IP-VPN Home IPSec Central Travel Site PSTN Branch ISDN Services Home ADSL/Cable Travel Home Branch © 2001. All rights reserved.

Summary © 2001. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 12:24 28 .2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Inc.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.7 Fast Reroute 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS 5. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Technology Basics 3.5 Traffic Engineering 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.

MPLS L2-VPN The L3 generation of core backbone Regional Sites Regional Site Remote Sites Ethernet Frame-Relay ATM MPLS IP-VPN Ethernet Remote Sites L2 VPN Central Site Frame-Relay ATM Ethernet Frame-Relay ATM Ethernet Central Site Regional © 2001. Site 12:24 29 . Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems.What Is a VPN? • VPN is a set of sites which are allowed to communicate with each other • VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies Policies determine both connectivity and QoS among sites Policies established by VPN customers Policies could be implemented completely by VPN service providers Using BGP/MPLS VPN mechanisms © 2001. Inc. 12:24 30 . All rights reserved.

MPLS-based IP-VPN Architecture • Scalable VPNs VPN Membership- • IP QoS and traffic Based on Logical Port engineering VPN A • Easy to manage and No VPN A Site 3 VC provisioning required Site 2 MPLS • Provides a level of Network Security equivalent to Corp A Corp B MPLS VPN Renault Frame-relay and ATM Site 1 Site 2 MPLS VPN Bankcorp • Supports the deployment of new value-added applications Corp B Site 1 • Customer IP address Corp B Site 3 Traffic Separation at Layer 3 freedom Each VPN Has Unique RD © 2001. All rights reserved. 12:24 31 . Inc. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cust A B ---- Cust B ---- --- ---- MPLS Network Cust B • The network distributes labels to each VPN Only labels for other VPN members are distributed Each VPN is provisioned automatically by IP routing • Privacy and QoS of ATM without tunnels or encryption Each network is as secure as a Frame Relay connection • One mechanism (labels) for QoS and VPNs—no tradeoffs © 2001. Inc.Using Labels to Build an IP VPN Cust A A A Cust A ---- --- ---- ---- --- ---- B ---- --. 12:24 32 .

Inc. Cisco Systems. 12:24 33 . All rights reserved.Service Provider Benefits of MPLS-Based VPNs VPN B VPN A VPN C VPN C VPN B Multicast Hosting Intranet VPN A VoIP Extranet VPN A VPN B VPN C VPN C VPN A VPN B • Overlay VPN • MPLS-based VPNs Pushes content outside the network Enables content hosting inside the Costs scale exponentially network Transport dependent “Flat” cost curve Groups endpoints. not groups Transport independent Complex overlay with QoS. tunnels. IP Easy grouping of users and services Enables QoS inside the VPNs © 2001.

pdf © 2001. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. 2001 http://www. March 30. MPLS Based IP-VPN Security Cisco MPLS based VPNs: Equivalent to the Security of Frame Relay and ATM Security Miercom.com/reports/cisco/MPLS-VPNs.mier. 12:24 35 .

106.102.4.200.200.105 RED-Glascow 100.200.200.103.1 Si 7505 Si 100.200.2 Si ATM2/0/0 OSPF 9 Customers can maintain own SER 1/0:0 100. Inc.200.2 10.200.104 1750 BLUE-Dover 3.2 SER 1/0/0:0 Ser 0/0 100.200.2 eBGP AS71 ATM1/0 100.200.4 BLUE-Glascow 3640 Static Ser 0 100.2 100.1 DOVER 100.4 Ser 1/0 to use either public or private 100.109.1 POS 1/1 100.109.105.5 dlci 110 addressing plans and the freedom 3.5.112 POS 2/1/0 revealed to the outside world T1 FR dlci 104 pvc 1/1 OS PF ATM1/0 SER 1/0/1:0 100.200.Validating Cisco MPLS Based IP-VPN as a Secure Network Miercom independent testing POS 2/0 LONDON GSR12008 confirmed Cisco MPLS VPN is OC3 POS 100.1 100.200.103.200.112.200.104.4.106.101 10.200.200.200.104.3.200.110.200.102 9 Attackers cannot gain access into Test Network Topology VPNs or Service Provider’s network Security 9 Impossible for attacker to insert “spoofed” label into a Cisco MPLS network and thus gain access to a VPN or the MPLS core © 2001. Cisco Systems.3.5.1 100. All rights reserved.200.3 RED-Dover 1750 100.1 OC3 POS secure: POS 1/0 100.200.103 POS 2/0 9 Customers network topology is not 100.200. 12:24 36 .5 100.200.2 OC3 POS SER 5/0:0 ATM 1/0 Ser 5/0:0 Ser 3/0 100.200.111.200.1 Ser 0 100.200.105.106 POS 1/0 100.200.1 100.200.200.200.3.5.200.101.200.5.112.2 T1 FR dlci 109 T1 FR RIP v2 pvc 0/11 10.4 100.110.1 100.200.1 OXFORD 7206 100.200.4.2 2611 BLUE-Oxford 10.200.101.200.102.110.200.200.4.200.200.200.3 2611 address space 100.200.200.109 YELLOW-Dover 3640 100.111 YELLOW-Oxford 3640 100.107 POS 1/0 100.2 T1 FR dlci 101 T1 FR dlci 102 eBGP AS72 RIP v2 100.110 10.4.2 GLASCOW 7206 100.111.3.200.4.1 100.

All rights reserved.) • Connectivity to the Internet: VPN service providers may also provide connectivity to the Internet to its VPN customers Common infrastructure is used for both VPN and the Internet connectivity services • Simplifies operations and management for VPN service providers: No need for VPN service providers to set up and manage a separate backbone or “virtual backbone” for each VPN © 2001. Cisco Systems. 12:24 38 .Key Features (Cont. Inc.

Inc. 12:24 39 .BGP/MPLS VPN—Summary • Supports large scale VPN service • Increases value add by the VPN service provider • Decreases service provider cost of providing VPN services • Mechanisms are general enough to enable VPN service provider to support a wide range of VPN customers © 2001. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

8 Multicast VPN´s 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Summary © 2001. Evolution of MPLS 2. 12:24 40 .3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. Technology Basics 3.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.9 QoS 5.7 Fast Reroute 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Inc.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.

Inc.Ethernet Virtual Circuit – EoMPLS Access (L2) Core Access (L2) Ethernet MPLS Ethernet MPLS PE MPLS PE Cisco 7600 Cisco 7600 MPLS 10/100/Gigabit 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet Circuit Enterprise EoMPLS Tunnel in Core Enterprise Campus Campus A Ethernet Mapped Circuit B To the Enterprise this network is a pair of Pt to Pt 10/100/Gbit Bridged Ethernet Links A B © 2001. Cisco Systems. 12:24 41 . All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems.7 Fast Reroute 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. 12:24 42 .4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Summary © 2001.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS 5.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3.5 Traffic Engineering 4.

VPLS ( Transparent LAN Services) • Point to Multipoint Service • Multipoint to Multipoint Service • The network will simulate a L2 switch © 2001. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems. 12:24 43 .

12:24 44 .7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Summary © 2001. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.9 QoS 5. All rights reserved. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Inc.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Cisco Systems.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.

FR -->| |<-----. 12:24 45 . L2 Transport: AToM |<---------.PW:Emulated VC ------>| |<--FR -->| Ethernet Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC ATM/PPP/HDLC PSN Tunnel: MPLS Tunnel Attachment VC / Site1A L2 circuit Attachment VC / MPLS (LSP or RSVP- RSVP-TE) L2 circuit PE1 PE2 Site1B CE 1A MPLS CE 1B Core Site 2B Site 2A Attachment VC / Attachment VC / IP Network L2 circuit CE 2B CE 2A L2 circuit AToM Reference Model ES Æ Emulated Services: FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC Attachment VC (AVC): FR DLCI/Ethernet VLAN/ATM PVC/PPP/HDLC PW Æ Pseudo-Wire: Emulated VC (EVC): MPLS LSP PSN Æ Packet Switched Network (Tunnel): MPLS LSP or RSVP-TE © 2001. Inc.ES:FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC ---------->| |<-. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

12:24 46 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Any Transport over MPLS AToM FR Cust DLCI 101 IPoFR cust Edge-LSR LSR DLCI 202 Service Provider Example: Frame Relay over MPLS © 2001.

txt • Ethernet • 802. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.txt draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls-01. Transports over MPLS AToM draft-martini-l2circuit-trans-mpls-05. 12:24 47 .1Q (Ethernet VLAN) • Frame Relay PDU • ATM AAL5 PDU • ATM cells (non AAL5 mode) • Cisco HDLC • PPP © 2001. Inc.

12:24 48 . Summary © 2001.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. All rights reserved.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Cisco Systems.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Inc.9 QoS 5. Technology Basics 3. Evolution of MPLS 2.5 Traffic Engineering 4.

Cisco Systems. Inc. major sports events • Better utilization of available bandwidth Route on the non-shortest path • Route around failed links/nodes Fast rerouting around failures. online trading.Why Traffic Engineering? • Congestion in the network due to changing traffic patterns Election news. transparently to users Like SONET APS (Automatic Protection Switching) • Build new services—Virtual leased line services VoIP toll-bypass applications. All rights reserved. 12:24 49 . point-to-point bandwidth guarantees • Capacity planning TE improves aggregate availability of the network © 2001.

R5 Use Upper Route Alternate Path Under-Utilized © 2001. Inc. All rights reserved. Traffic to R3. Cisco Systems. 50 . R4.IP Routing and the Fish R3 R4 R8 R5 R2 R1 R6 R7 IP (Mostly) Uses Destination-Based Least-Cost Routing Flows from R8 and R1 Merge at R2 and Become Indistinguishable From R2.

All rights reserved. Inc.Solution: Toll Bypass with Voice/Data Converged Network Class 5 PBX with PSTN – legacy Circuit Traditional TDM switches Emulation Network Interface CE CE Fast Reroute in the core Enterprise Toll Bypass Enterprise LAN LAN PE GB Tunnel PE ⇒ Mapping QoS on Solution QoS on CE QoS on PE DiffServ-Aware Requirements Router + Router + Traffic to Tunnels + Core Routers = Traffic Engineering © 2001. 12:24 52 . Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Inc. DiffServ Aware TE Virtual Leased Line Class 5 Legacy PSTN— switches Traditional TDM Traditional Central Network Central Traditional Telephony Office Office Telephony MPLS Network VoIP Toll Bypass VoIP Voice Trunking Gateway Gateway PE GB Tunnel PE PE PE CE Regular TE CE Enterprise Tunnel Enterprise LAN LAN PE PE GB-TE Tunnel VPN Service Regular TE Tunnel Physical Link Internet Service Enterprise Internet Internet Enterprise LAN Access Router Access Router LAN © 2001. 12:24 53 . Cisco Systems.

4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. 12:24 55 .Agenda MPLS Overview 1.9 QoS 5. Inc. Technology Basics 3.7 Fast Reroute 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Summary © 2001. All rights reserved.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Cisco Systems.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.

56 .What Is Fast Reroute? Definition Fast ReRoute (FRR) is a link or node protection feature. Cisco Systems. allowing for temporary bypassing of the failed link or node over a preestablished tunnel. Inc. All rights reserved. while the head-end is rerouting the failed LSP © 2001.

What is Fast Re-route? (cont.)
Head-end Router

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 57

Link Resilience (Next-hop Backup
Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 58

Node Resilience (Next-next Hop
Backup Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 59

Agenda MPLS Overview

1. Evolution of MPLS
2. Technology Basics
3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks
4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs
4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS)
4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services)
4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS)
4.5 Traffic Engineering
4.7 Fast Reroute
4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier
4.8 Multicast VPN´s
4.9 QoS
5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12:24 60

Carrier Supporting Carrier & Inter-Provider Access Carrier Supporting Carrier Inter-Provider Access • Hierarchical relationship • Peer relationship • Opportunity: Offer • Opportunity: Provide backbone services to peer carrier services on behalf or smaller carriers of other carriers Backbone Carrier A Carrier Customer Carriers Carrier B © 2001. Inc. 12:24 61 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.) VRF-to-VRF Connections Between AS Border Routers ASBRs collect the client VPN routes through configured VRFs. © 2001. Inc. Adjacent ASBR is seen as a CE through separate logical interface. Cisco Systems. 12:24 62 . All rights reserved. Dedicated IPv4 routing session per VRF – usually eBGP.

Cisco Systems. Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont. 12:24 63 . Inc.) VPN Routing Distribution Between MPLS VPN Backbones •VPN routing information distributed across inter-AS network © 2001. All rights reserved.

Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont. Inc.) Data Flow – Label Switching and IP Forwarding Data flow: Label switching within AS and IP forwarding on Inter- AS link © 2001. Cisco Systems. 12:24 64 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.) © 2001. 65 .MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont.) Customer Carrier is Not Running MPLS (Cont. Inc. Cisco Systems.

66 . Cisco Systems.) Customer Carrier is Running MPLS (Cont. Inc.MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont.) IBGP © 2001. All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems. Evolution of MPLS 2. 12:24 67 .5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.9 QoS 5. Inc.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. All rights reserved.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Summary © 2001. Technology Basics 3.

Multicast VPN (MVPN) Receiver 4 Join high • Customer CE devices joins bandwidth source CE the MPLS Core through A CE Receiver 1 provider’s PE devices CE B2 New New York York CE B1 A PE E • A Default MDT is created San San Francisco PE connecting all the PE’s Francisco MPLS VPN within a VPN for signaling PE B E Core and low bandwidth flows Default CE • A High-bandwidth source MDT F for that customer starts For low Bandwidth & sending traffic control Data traffic only. 12:24 68 . Inc. source CE C Dallas • Data-MDT is formed for PE Dallas this High-Bandwidth D CE source C Receiver 3 High bandwidth Join high bandwidth source Receiver 2 multicast source © 2001. Cisco Systems. MDT • Interested receivers 1 & 2 PE For High join that High Bandwidth Los Los Angeles Angeles D Bandwidth traffic only. All rights reserved.

8 Multicast VPN´s 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.9 QoS 5.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Cisco Systems. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.7 Fast Reroute 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. 12:24 69 . Technology Basics 3. All rights reserved.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Summary © 2001. Inc.

Backbone and Edge QoS Design Scope • Loss rate • Loss rate Availability • Latency • Latency • Subsecond Interior Gateway • Jitter • Jitter Protocol (IGP) convergence • Throughput • Sub-100 ms Fast Reroute (FRR) © 2001. Inc. • High availability12:24 70 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

• Modes are only relevant when a label is popped/pushed. Cisco Systems.) QoS Transparency • An MPLS packet carries two (or more) DiffServ markings. Inc. • Three modes of interaction are defined between markings: Uniform. Pipe. and Short Pipe. © 2001. All rights reserved. 71 . Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.

Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont. All rights reserved. 12:24 72 . Cisco Systems.) QoS Transparency: Uniform Mode © 2001. Inc.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.) QoS Transparency: Pipe Mode © 2001. Inc. 12:24 75 . Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.

Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont. Cisco Systems.) QoS Transparency: Short Pipe Mode © 2001. All rights reserved. Inc. 12:24 78 .

MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Inc. Technology Basics 3.7 Fast Reroute 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Cisco Systems.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.9 QoS 5. All rights reserved. Summary © 2001.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. 12:24 81 .5 Traffic Engineering 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.

and transport IP+ATM Switch • Network-based VPNs with MPLS: a foundation for value-added service delivery Flexible user and service grouping (biz-to-biz) Flexibility of IP and the QoS and privacy of ATM Enables application and content hosting inside each VPN Transport independent Low provisioning costs enable affordable managed services © 2001. Business IP VPNs. 12:24 82 .MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery ATM IP Services Services • IP+ATM: MPLS brings IP and ATM together IP Eliminates IP “over” ATM overhead and complexity PNNI MPLS One network for Internet. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 12:24 83 .MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery • MPLS traffic engineering Provides routing on diverse paths to avoid congestion Better utilization of the network Better availability using protection solution (FRR) • Guaranteed bandwidth services Combine MPLS traffic engineering and QoS Deliver point-to-point bandwidth guaranteed pipes Leverage the capability of traffic engineering Build solution like virtual leased line and toll trunking © 2001. Inc.

PPP over MPLS Provide services to existing installed base Protect Investment in the installed gear Leverage capabilities of the packet core ATM Combine with other packet-based services such as MPLS VPNs © 2001. business IP VPNs. 12:24 84 . Inc. FR. Ethernet. All rights reserved. IP+Optical Switch and Optical transport Frame • Any transport over MPLS Frame Relay Relay Transport ATM. MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery Optical IP Services Services • IP+Optical: MPLS brings IP and Optical together Eliminates IP “over” optical complexity IP Uses MPLS as a control plane for setting up lightpaths (wavelengths) O-UNI MPLS One control plane for Internet (GMPLS). Cisco Systems.

12:24 85 . Inc.Literature MPLS and VPN Architectures Ivan Pepelnjak Jim Guichard ISBN 1-58705-002-1 © 2001. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

12:24 86 .© 2001. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.

.. All rights reserved. 12:24 87 .MPLS Features . Inc. Cisco Systems. How does this help me for my datacenter ? © 2001.. That’s all nice but ..

Application and DC Security consolidation Application/Server • Migration to Web Apps Optimization • Comprehensive Security Highly • Services Model Availability Infrastructure • Storage Consolidation • Business Continuance & Storage Disaster Recovery Network Inter-Data Center Connectivity © 2001. 12:24 88 . Inc. Customer Strategies Mapping Customer Problems to Cisco Solutions Data Center Data Center Networking Solution Set Distributed Data Centers Strategies Data Center Data • Server. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. Data Center Networking Internet ISP A ISP B Primary Data Distributed Data Center Center Internet SP A SP B IP Network Intranet Campus Core External protection IP Network Internal Primary Distributed protection Data Center Data Center Server farm Data Center protection Distributed Server & Storage Infrastructure Data Center Data Centers Application Networking Optimization Security © 2001. All rights reserved. 12:24 89 . Inc.

Cisco Systems.© 2001. 12:24 101 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 12:24 187 .© 2001.