MPLS overview

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wolfgang Riedel wriedel@cisco.com Systems Engineer ECSO Enterprise Manufacturing Cisco Systems GmbH

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Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Evolution of MPLS
• From tag switching • Proposed in IETF—Later combined with other proposals from IBM (ARIS), Toshiba (CSR)
Cisco Calls a BOF at IETF to Standardize Tag Switching MPLS Croup Formally Chartered by IETF Cisco Ships MPLS (Tag Switching) Cisco Ships Traffic Engineering Deployed MPLS TE MPLS VPN Deployed Large Scale Deployment

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© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Challenges
Service Providers Generate new services Protect existing Infrastructure—ATM/FR Combine private data services with Internet services Move into rapid deployment Cost saving Enterprise Lower cost of WAN connectivity Migration path Lower cost of managing separate Data and Voice networks Campus Service Provider “multiple customers” Replacement of campus wide vlan´s
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© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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. Cisco Systems. GRE. . ATM. Enet. FR. All rights reserved.. 12:24 5 . Restoration Mechanisms L2 protocols (PPP. Inc.) © 2001. Queuing.MPLS advanced services L2 VPN IPv6 6PE Carrier supporting Carrier Multicast over VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP CEF ATOM Any Transport over MPLS IP switching Virtual Private Networks DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ) Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) Per-Label Forwarding. Multicast. POS.

Color Marker A Two Rate Three All rights reserved. Inc. 6 12:24 . Cisco Systems.MPLS Innovation & Standards L2 VPN IPv6 6PE Carrier supporting Carrier Multicast over 2547 BGP/MPLS VPNs * VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM ATOM 2702 Requirements for Virtual Private Networks Any Transport over MPLSMPLS Traffic Engineering Over IP switching DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ) LDP 3031 Label Forwarding Information Base (LFIB) Multiprotocol Label Switching RSVP Architecture * 3032 MPLS Label Stack Encoding * 2474 Definition of the Differentiated Services Per-LabelHeaders * Forwarding. RestorationSwitching on Frame 3034 Label Field in IP CEF 2475 An Architecture for Differentiated Mechanisms Relay Networks Services 3035 MPLS using LDP and ATM VC 2597 Assured Forwarding PHB Group * Switching * L2 protocols (PPP.. ATM. GRE. Enet. Multicast.) 2598 An Expedited Forwarding PHB * 3036 LDP Specification * 2697 A Single Rate Three Color Marker 3037 LDP Applicability * 2698 © 2001. . Queuing. FR. POS..

txt 7 . FR.txt Information Base (LFIB) Per-Label Forwarding. Restoration • Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Layer 2 Frames Mechanisms • MPLS Support of Over MPLS * Differentiated Services * draft-martini-l2circuit-encapmpls-02. Cisco Systems. .txt L2 VPN IPv6 6PE Carrier supporting Carrier Multicast over VPN BGP LDP OSPF IS-IS PIM LDP RSVP CEF ATOM Any Transport over MPLS IP switching Virtual Private Networks DiffServ Multicast IP Traffic Fast aware Routing CoS Engineering Rerouting TE (PIM v2) v2 (DiffServ) [Martini Drafts] • Transport of Layer 2 Frames Over MPLS * Label Forwarding draft-martini-l2circuit-transmpls-06. Queuing. 12:24 L2 protocols (PPP. GRE. Enet. Multicast.. Inc.) draft-ietf-mpls-diff-ext-09.txt © 2001. ATM.MPLS Innovation-in-Progress [Draft Rosen] • An Architecture for L2VPNs * draft-rosen-ppvpn-l2vpn-00. POS.. All rights reserved.

9 QoS 5.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Inc. Summary © 2001. Evolution of MPLS 2.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Technology Basics 3.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. 12:24 8 .7 Fast Reroute 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.

MPLS Concept At Edge: Classify packets Label them In Core: Forward using labels (as opposed to IP addr) Label indicates service class and destination Edge Label Switch Router Label Switch Router (LSR) Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) © 2001. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. 12:24 9 .

OSPF. Existing routing protocols (e. Cisco Systems. performs Layer 3 value-added services. All rights reserved. Ingress Edge LSR receives packet. IS-IS) establish reachability to destination networks 1b. Edge LSR at egress removes label and delivers packet 2. 3. LSR switches packets using label swapping 12:24 10 . and “labels” packets © 2001. Inc. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) establishes label to destination network mappings 4.MPLS Operation 1a.g.

Inc. 12:24 11 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Encapsulations ATM Cell Header GFC VPI VCI PTI CLP HEC DATA Label PPP Header (Packet over SONET/SDH) PPP Header Label Header Layer 3 Header LAN MAC Label Header MAC Header Label Header Layer 3 Header © 2001.

12:24 12 . 3 bits TTL = Time to Live.3. or PPP links • Uses two new Ethertypes/PPP PIDs • Contains everything needed at forwarding time © 2001. 802. Inc. Cisco Systems. 1 bit COS/EXP = Class of Service. All rights reserved.Label Header for Packet Media 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Tag COS S TTL Label = 20 bits S = Bottom of Stack. 8 bits • Can be used over Ethernet.

Cisco Systems. 12:24 13 . Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.9 QoS 5. Technology Basics 3. All rights reserved.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Inc.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Evolution of MPLS 2. Summary © 2001.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.7 Fast Reroute 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.

Cisco Systems.Label Distribution Protocol • Defined in RFC 3036 and 3037 • Used to distribute labels in a MPLS network • Forwarding equivalence class How packets are mapped to LSPs (Label Switched Paths) • Advertise labels per FEC Reach destination a.b. 12:24 14 . Inc.d with label x • Neighbor discovery Basic and extended discovery © 2001. All rights reserved.c.

Cisco Systems. 12:24 15 . Inc. All rights reserved.TDP and LDP • Tag Distribution Protocol Pre-cursor to LDP Used for Cisco tag switching • TDP and LDP supported on the same box Per neighbor/link basis Per target basis © 2001.

Cisco Systems. 12:24 16 . All rights reserved.RSVP and Label Distribution • Used in MPLS traffic engineering • Additions to RSVP signaling protocol • Leverage the admission control mechanism of RSVP • Label requests are sent in PATH messages and binding is done with RESV messages • EXPLICT-ROUTE object defines the path over which setup messages should be routed • Using RSVP has several advantages © 2001. Inc.

Inc.BGP-Based Label Distribution • Used in the context of MPLS VPNs • Need multi-protocol extensions to BGP • Routers need to be BGP peers Works in both RR and non-RR environment • Label mapping info carried as part of NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information) © 2001. 12:24 17 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

. You can reach 171..89 128. 0 128.69 171.. .69 171.89 171.. . All rights reserved.....89 171.. 0 0 1 1 .69 .89 and 171. EIGRP. 0 0 ..MPLS Example: Routing Information In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl 128.69 through me 0 You can reach 128. Cisco Systems.... …) © 2001. . 128... 1 1 1 1 .69 Routing Updates (OSPF.. .89 .89 through me 1 171. .89 128. . 128.69 through me 18 ..69 ...89 1 You can reach 128...89 128.... Inc.

. .. - 0 128. 0 0 . 1 1 1 1 .. 9 9 7 7 9 9 128.. Cisco Systems. . Use Lbl 7 for 171. ..89 171.... All rights reserved.69 171. 0 0 1 1 ...69 0 Use Lbl 9 for 128.69 19 .MPLS Example: Assigning Labels In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl - 128.. .69 ..69 171.89 .. ... Inc...89 128.89 1 171..69 . 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 128..89 1 Use Lbl 4 for 128..89 128.89 171.89 128.89 and Use Lbl 5 for 171..69 Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) (Downstream Allocation) © 2001... ..

4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 128.89 . . 0 0 1 1 ..25.69 .... .89.4Data 4 128.89 171.. . 9 9 7 7 9 9 128.69 .25. Inc. 0 - 128. 0 0 ..4 Data 1 171.. 20 ..69 171.89.MPLS Example: Forwarding Packets In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out I’face I’face Out Out TLbl TLbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl In In Lbl Lbl Address Address Prefix Prefix Out Out Out Out I’face Lbl I’face Lbl - 128.89. Cisco Systems.69 128.....25. 1 1 1 1 .89 128...69 171... All rights reserved.89 128.4 Data Label Switch Forwards Based on Label © 2001..89 1 0 128.25.89 171... .. ... ..89 128..4 Data 9 128.89.

12:24 21 .Label Stacking • Arrange labels in a stack • Inner labels can be used to designate services/FECs. E. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. etc. VPNs. fast re-route • Outer label used to route/switch the MPLS packets in the network • Allows building services such as MPLS VPNs Traffic engineering and fast re-route VPNs over traffic engineered core Any transport over MPLS Inner Label IP Header Outer Label TE Label IGP Label VPN Label © 2001.g.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Inc.5 Traffic Engineering 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. 12:24 22 . Technology Basics 3.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Summary © 2001. Evolution of MPLS 2. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.9 QoS 5.

Cisco Systems. Inc.. That’s all nice but . How can you make money with it? © 2001. 12:24 23 .... All rights reserved.MPLS Features .

All rights reserved. Inc.Metro Solutions – Architectural flexibility. Residential Data/Voice/Video L2 VPN Internet Access L3 VPN 12:24 24 . Cisco Systems. service transparency Storage TDM PL GigE PL Wavelength Enterprise VoIP Internet Access L3 VPN L2 VPN © 2001.

with enough fiber you could do anything? In what room do you want me to put it? © 2001. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. 12:24 25 .

Inc.MPLS IP-VPN The L3 generation of core backbone Regional Site TDM MUX Frame-Relay ATM Branch Remote Sites LL INTERNET INTERNET Home MPLS IP-VPN Central Site PSTN ISDN ADSL/Cable IPSec Travel Branch Home Travel Services © 2001. Cisco Systems. Branch Home 12:24 26 . All rights reserved.

Evolution of MPLS 2.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. 12:24 28 .8 Multicast VPN´s 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Inc. Summary © 2001.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. Cisco Systems.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Technology Basics 3.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.9 QoS 5. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.MPLS L2-VPN The L3 generation of core backbone Regional Sites Regional Site Remote Sites Frame-Relay ATM Ethernet Remote Sites Frame-Relay ATM MPLS IP-VPN L2 VPN Ethernet Ethernet Central Site Central Site © 2001. Ethernet Frame-Relay ATM Regional Site 12:24 29 . Inc.

12:24 30 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.What Is a VPN? • VPN is a set of sites which are allowed to communicate with each other • VPN is defined by a set of administrative policies Policies determine both connectivity and QoS among sites Policies established by VPN customers Policies could be implemented completely by VPN service providers Using BGP/MPLS VPN mechanisms © 2001.

12:24 31 . Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.MPLS-based IP-VPN Architecture • Scalable VPNs • IP QoS and traffic engineering • Easy to manage and No VC provisioning required • Provides a level of Security equivalent to Frame-relay and ATM • Supports the deployment of new value-added applications • Customer IP address freedom Corp B Site 3 VPN A Site 2 MPLS Network Corp A Site 1 MPLS VPN Renault MPLS VPN Bankcorp Corp B Site 1 Traffic Separation at Layer 3 Each VPN Has Unique RD Corp B Site 2 VPN MembershipBased on Logical Port VPN A Site 3 © 2001.

12:24 32 . Inc. Cisco Systems.Using Labels to Build an IP VPN Cust A A --------- A --------- Cust A B B --------- Cust A Cust B --------- MPLS Network Cust B • The network distributes labels to each VPN Only labels for other VPN members are distributed Each VPN is provisioned automatically by IP routing • Privacy and QoS of ATM without tunnels or encryption Each network is as secure as a Frame Relay connection • One mechanism (labels) for QoS and VPNs—no tradeoffs © 2001. All rights reserved.

tunnels. not groups Complex overlay with QoS. Inc. IP • MPLS-based VPNs Enables content hosting inside the network “Flat” cost curve Transport independent Easy grouping of users and services Enables QoS inside the VPNs © 2001.Service Provider Benefits of MPLS-Based VPNs VPN B VPN A VPN C VPN C VPN B Multicast Hosting Intranet VPN A VPN A VPN B VPN C VPN A VPN B VPN C VoIP Extranet • Overlay VPN Pushes content outside the network Costs scale exponentially Transport dependent Groups endpoints. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 12:24 33 .

March 30.MPLS Based IP-VPN Security Cisco MPLS based VPNs: Equivalent to the Security of Frame Relay and ATM Miercom.mier. 12:24 35 . Cisco Systems. Inc. 2001 http://www.pdf Security © 2001.com/reports/cisco/MPLS-VPNs. All rights reserved.

200.200.200.200.109.3.200.1 LONDON GSR12008 100.111 YELLOW-Oxford 3640 100.112.200.2 10.1 SER 1/0/0:0 100.107 POS 1/0 100.2 Ser 3/0 100.2 pvc 1/1 OS PF ATM1/0 100.4.4.104.5.200.109 YELLOW-Dover 3640 100.200.2 T1 FR dlci 102 eBGP AS72 ATM2/0/0 100.200.200.200.200.1 GLASCOW 7206 100.3.1 OC3 POS OXFORD 7206 100.200.200.200.200.103.5.200.1 OC3 POS OC3 POS POS 1/0 100.5 10.106.111.2 Ser 0/0 100.105.5.106 ATM 1/0 100.4 BLUE-Glascow 3640 100.1 POS 2/0 100.4.103 Ser 5/0:0 100.200.200.200.200.109.102 Test Network Topology Security 36 .200. 12:24 POS 2/0 100.200.1 Si DOVER 7505 100.200.200.200.200.103.105.110.1 T1 FR dlci 109 RIP v2 Ser 0 100.4.2 T1 FR dlci 101 OSPF Ser 0 100.200.3 1750 100.200.104.200.200.110.112.4.1 POS 1/1 100.200.102.102.105 RED-Glascow 2611 100.1 POS 1/0 100.2 10.5.200.Validating Cisco MPLS Based IP-VPN as a Secure Network Miercom independent testing confirmed Cisco MPLS VPN is secure: Customers network topology is not revealed to the outside world Customers can maintain own addressing plans and the freedom to use either public or private address space Attackers cannot gain access into VPNs or Service Provider’s network Impossible for attacker to insert “spoofed” label into a Cisco MPLS network and thus gain access to a VPN or the MPLS core © 2001. Inc.2 SER 5/0:0 100.106.200.110 10.200.200.200.101.110. Cisco Systems.4 3.200.200. All rights reserved.101.4.104 BLUE-Oxford BLUE-Dover 2611 100.2 Ser 1/0 100.111.4 RED-Dover 1750 100.200.101 10.200.3 3.2 POS 2/1/0 100.3.200.3.1 Si Si T1 FR dlci 104 RIP v2 SER 1/0:0 100.5 T1 FR dlci 110 Static pvc 0/11 eBGP AS71 ATM1/0 100.112 SER 1/0/1:0 100.200.

Key Features (Cont. All rights reserved. Inc. 12:24 38 . Cisco Systems.) • Connectivity to the Internet: VPN service providers may also provide connectivity to the Internet to its VPN customers Common infrastructure is used for both VPN and the Internet connectivity services • Simplifies operations and management for VPN service providers: No need for VPN service providers to set up and manage a separate backbone or “virtual backbone” for each VPN © 2001.

BGP/MPLS VPN—Summary • Supports large scale VPN service • Increases value add by the VPN service provider • Decreases service provider cost of providing VPN services • Mechanisms are general enough to enable VPN service provider to support a wide range of VPN customers © 2001. 12:24 39 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. All rights reserved. 12:24 40 . Cisco Systems. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.9 QoS 5. Summary © 2001.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.

All rights reserved.Ethernet Virtual Circuit – EoMPLS Access (L2) Ethernet Core MPLS Access (L2) Ethernet MPLS PE Cisco 7600 MPLS PE Cisco 7600 MPLS 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet Enterprise Campus A Ethernet Circuit EoMPLS Tunnel in Core Ethernet Mapped Circuit To the Enterprise this network is a pair of Pt to Pt 10/100/Gbit Bridged Ethernet Links Enterprise Campus B A © 2001. Inc. B 12:24 41 . Cisco Systems.

8 Multicast VPN´s 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.5 Traffic Engineering 4. 12:24 42 .1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. All rights reserved. Inc. Technology Basics 3.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.9 QoS 5. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Summary © 2001.7 Fast Reroute 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. Cisco Systems.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.

All rights reserved. 12:24 43 . Cisco Systems. Inc.VPLS ( Transparent LAN Services) • Point to Multipoint Service • Multipoint to Multipoint Service • The network will simulate a L2 switch © 2001.

Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Technology Basics 3.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. 12:24 44 .Agenda MPLS Overview 1.5 Traffic Engineering 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. All rights reserved.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Summary © 2001. Inc. Cisco Systems.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.9 QoS 5.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.7 Fast Reroute 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.

Inc.L2 Transport: AToM |<---------. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 12:24 Attachment VC (AVC): FR DLCI/Ethernet VLAN/ATM PVC/PPP/HDLC 45 .PW:Emulated VC ------>| Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC PSN Tunnel: MPLS Tunnel Site1A CE 1A Attachment VC / L2 circuit Attachment VC / L2 circuit |<--FR -->| Ethernet ATM/PPP/HDLC PE1 MPLS (LSP or RSVP-TE) RSVP- PE2 Site1B CE 1B MPLS Core Site 2B Site 2A CE 2A Attachment VC / L2 circuit IP Network Attachment VC / CE 2B L2 circuit AToM Reference Model ES PW PSN Emulated Services: FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC Pseudo-Wire: Emulated VC (EVC): MPLS LSP Packet Switched Network (Tunnel): MPLS LSP or RSVP-TE © 2001.ES:FR/Ether/ATM/PPP/HDLC ---------->| |<-.FR -->| |<-----.

Any Transport over MPLS AToM FR Cust DLCI 101 IPoFR cust Edge-LSR LSR DLCI 202 Service Provider Example: Frame Relay over MPLS © 2001. Cisco Systems. 12:24 46 . All rights reserved. Inc.

txt draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls-01. Inc.Transports over MPLS AToM draft-martini-l2circuit-trans-mpls-05.1Q (Ethernet VLAN) • Frame Relay PDU • ATM AAL5 PDU • ATM cells (non AAL5 mode) • Cisco HDLC • PPP © 2001.txt • Ethernet • 802. 12:24 47 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

12:24 48 .5 Traffic Engineering 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. All rights reserved.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Inc.7 Fast Reroute 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. Cisco Systems.9 QoS 5. Summary © 2001. Technology Basics 3.

All rights reserved. transparently to users Like SONET APS (Automatic Protection Switching) • Build new services—Virtual leased line services VoIP toll-bypass applications. 12:24 49 .Why Traffic Engineering? • Congestion in the network due to changing traffic patterns Election news. Inc. Cisco Systems. online trading. point-to-point bandwidth guarantees • Capacity planning TE improves aggregate availability of the network © 2001. major sports events • Better utilization of available bandwidth Route on the non-shortest path • Route around failed links/nodes Fast rerouting around failures.

50 . R5 Use Upper Route Alternate Path Under-Utilized © 2001.IP Routing and the Fish R3 R4 R8 R2 R5 R1 R6 R7 IP (Mostly) Uses Destination-Based Least-Cost Routing Flows from R8 and R1 Merge at R2 and Become Indistinguishable From R2. Cisco Systems. R4. All rights reserved. Traffic to R3. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved. 52 . Cisco Systems.Solution: Toll Bypass with Voice/Data Converged Network PBX with Circuit Emulation Interface PSTN – Traditional TDM Network Class 5 legacy switches CE Fast Reroute in the core CE Enterprise LAN PE Toll Bypass Enterprise LAN PE GB Tunnel Solution Requirements ⇒ QoS on CE Router + QoS on PE Router + Mapping Traffic to Tunnels + QoS on Core Routers = DiffServ-Aware Traffic Engineering 12:24 © 2001.

All rights reserved.DiffServ Aware TE Virtual Leased Line Traditional Central Telephony Office PSTN— Traditional TDM Network MPLS Network Voice Trunking VoIP Gateway PE PE CE Enterprise LAN VPN Service Regular TE Tunnel PE PE GB-TE Tunnel Regular TE Tunnel Physical Link Class 5 Legacy switches Central Office Traditional Telephony Toll Bypass GB Tunnel PE PE VoIP Gateway CE Enterprise LAN Internet Service Enterprise LAN Internet Access Router Internet Access Router Enterprise LAN 12:24 © 2001. 53 . Cisco Systems. Inc.

Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Summary © 2001.7 Fast Reroute 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Technology Basics 3.5 Traffic Engineering 4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.9 QoS 5.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. 12:24 55 . Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. allowing for temporary bypassing of the failed link or node over a preestablished tunnel. Cisco Systems. while the head-end is rerouting the failed LSP © 2001. Inc. 56 .What Is Fast Reroute? Definition Fast ReRoute (FRR) is a link or node protection feature.

What is Fast Re-route? (cont.)
Head-end Router

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Link Resilience (Next-hop Backup Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Node Resilience (Next-next Hop Backup Tunnel)

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Agenda MPLS Overview
1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities)
4.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.7 Fast Reroute 4.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.9 QoS

5. Summary

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Carrier Supporting Carrier & Inter-Provider Access Carrier Supporting Carrier • Hierarchical relationship • Opportunity: Offer backbone services to peer or smaller carriers Inter-Provider Access • Peer relationship • Opportunity: Provide carrier services on behalf of other carriers Backbone Carrier Carrier A Customer Carriers Carrier B © 2001. 12:24 61 .

Adjacent ASBR is seen as a CE through separate logical interface. Cisco Systems.Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont. 12:24 62 . All rights reserved.) VRF-to-VRF Connections Between AS Border Routers ASBRs collect the client VPN routes through configured VRFs. Inc. © 2001. Dedicated IPv4 routing session per VRF – usually eBGP.

Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 12:24 63 .) VPN Routing Distribution Between MPLS VPN Backbones •VPN routing information distributed across inter-AS network © 2001.

Inter-AS VPN Using VRF-to-VRF Design (Cont.) Data Flow – Label Switching and IP Forwarding Data flow: Label switching within AS and IP forwarding on InterAS link © 2001. 12:24 64 . All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. Inc.) Customer Carrier is Not Running MPLS (Cont. All rights reserved.MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont.) © 2001. 65 .

66 .) IBGP © 2001.) Customer Carrier is Running MPLS (Cont. Inc.MPLS VPN Enabled ISP Connected Across Standard Carrier (Cont. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Technology Basics 3.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Cisco Systems.9 QoS 5. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4. 12:24 67 .7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. Evolution of MPLS 2.8 Multicast VPN´s 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Inc. All rights reserved.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Summary © 2001.7 Fast Reroute 4.

Inc. PE PE Receiver 3 CE D Dallas Dallas C CE for that customer starts sending traffic • Interested receivers 1 & 2 join that High Bandwidth source • Data-MDT is formed for this High-Bandwidth source High bandwidth multicast source Join high bandwidth source Receiver 2 12:24 © 2001.Multicast VPN (MVPN) Receiver 4 Join high bandwidth source CE A New York New York CE B1 San San Francisco Francisco CE B2 Receiver 1 • Customer CE devices joins the MPLS Core through provider’s PE devices CE E A B PE PE E PE Default MDT For low Bandwidth & control traffic only. 68 . Los Los Angeles Angeles MPLS VPN Core • A Default MDT is created connecting all the PE’s within a VPN for signaling and low bandwidth flows CE • A High-bandwidth source F Data MDT D C For High Bandwidth traffic only. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1.5 Traffic Engineering 4. Summary © 2001.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4. Cisco Systems.9 QoS 5.7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. All rights reserved. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4. 12:24 69 .8 Multicast VPN´s 4. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Inc.7 Fast Reroute 4.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Backbone and Edge QoS Design Scope • • • • Loss rate Latency Jitter Throughput • Loss rate • Latency • Jitter © 2001. Inc. Availability • Subsecond Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) convergence • Sub-100 ms Fast Reroute (FRR) • High availability12:24 70 .

) QoS Transparency • An MPLS packet carries two (or more) DiffServ markings. Inc.Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont. • Modes are only relevant when a label is popped/pushed. © 2001. Cisco Systems. Pipe. 71 . • Three modes of interaction are defined between markings: Uniform. and Short Pipe. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.) QoS Transparency: Uniform Mode © 2001. Inc. 12:24 72 .

Cisco Systems. 12:24 75 . All rights reserved. Inc.) QoS Transparency: Pipe Mode © 2001.Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont.

Backbone and Edge QoS Design (Cont. 12:24 78 . Cisco Systems. Inc.) QoS Transparency: Short Pipe Mode © 2001. All rights reserved.

7 Carrier Supporting Carrier 4. Cisco Systems.2 EoMPLS (Ethernet over MPLS) 4.Agenda MPLS Overview 1. Evolution of MPLS 2. Technology Basics 3. Summary © 2001. 12:24 81 . All rights reserved.1 BGP MPLS VPNs 4.8 Multicast VPN´s 4. MPLS-Based Services (Business Opportunities) 4. Label Distribution in MPLS Networks 4.4 ATOM (any transport over MPLS) 4.5 Traffic Engineering 4.9 QoS 5. Inc.7 Fast Reroute 4.3 VPLS (virtual private lan services) 4.

MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery IP ATM Services Services • IP+ATM: MPLS brings IP and ATM together IP PNNI MPLS Eliminates IP “over” ATM overhead and complexity One network for Internet. Inc. 12:24 82 . All rights reserved. Business IP VPNs. and transport IP+ATM Switch • Network-based VPNs with MPLS: a foundation for value-added service delivery Flexible user and service grouping (biz-to-biz) Flexibility of IP and the QoS and privacy of ATM Enables application and content hosting inside each VPN Transport independent Low provisioning costs enable affordable managed services © 2001. Cisco Systems.

MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery • MPLS traffic engineering Provides routing on diverse paths to avoid congestion Better utilization of the network Better availability using protection solution (FRR) • Guaranteed bandwidth services Combine MPLS traffic engineering and QoS Deliver point-to-point bandwidth guaranteed pipes Leverage the capability of traffic engineering Build solution like virtual leased line and toll trunking © 2001. 12:24 83 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.

MPLS: The Key Technology for IP Service Delivery IP Optical Services Services IP O-UNI MPLS • IP+Optical: MPLS brings IP and Optical together Eliminates IP “over” optical complexity Uses MPLS as a control plane for setting up lightpaths (wavelengths) One control plane for Internet (GMPLS). FR. 12:24 84 . All rights reserved. Ethernet. business IP VPNs. PPP over MPLS Provide services to existing installed base Protect Investment in the installed gear Leverage capabilities of the packet core Combine with other packet-based services such as MPLS VPNs ATM © 2001. Cisco Systems. Inc. and Optical transport IP+Optical Switch Frame Relay Frame Relay • Any transport over MPLS Transport ATM.

12:24 85 . All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.Literature MPLS and VPN Architectures Ivan Pepelnjak Jim Guichard ISBN 1-58705-002-1 © 2001.

© 2001. 12:24 86 . Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

How does this help me for my datacenter ? © 2001.. That’s all nice but .MPLS Features . 12:24 87 .. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.. Inc..

Customer Strategies Mapping Customer Problems to Cisco Solutions Data Center Solution Set Data Center Networking Distributed Data Centers Data Center Data Security Application/Server Optimization Highly Availability Infrastructure Strategies • Server. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 12:24 88 . Application and DC consolidation • Migration to Web Apps • Comprehensive Security • Services Model • Storage Consolidation • Business Continuance & Disaster Recovery Storage Network Inter-Data Center Connectivity © 2001.

Cisco Systems. Inc.Data Center Networking Internet ISP A ISP B Primary Data Center IP Network Distributed Data Center Internet SP A SP B Intranet Campus Core External protection Internal protection Primary Data Center Distributed Data Center IP Network Data Center Infrastructure Server & Application Optimization Server farm protection Data Center Security Storage Networking Distributed Data Centers © 2001. 12:24 89 . All rights reserved.

© 2001. 12:24 101 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.

12:24 187 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.© 2001.